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Sample records for monomorium pharaonis electronic

  1. Functional morphology of the postpharyngeal gland of queens and workers of the ant Monomorium pharaonis (L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eelen, Dieter; Børgesen, Lisbeth W.; Billen, Johan

    2006-01-01

    nurses and foragers. We suggest the PPG serves different purposes in pharaoh's ants: it is likely that the PPG of workers and virgin queens is used to feed larvae. In mated queens the gland probably plays a role in providing the queen with nutritious oils for egg production. The PPG may also function......The postpharyngeal gland (PPG) is unique to ants and is the largest exocrine gland in their head. In queens of the pharaoh's ant, Monomorium pharaonis, the gland contains approximately 15 finger-like epithelial extensions on each side and opens dorsolaterally in the posterior pharynx. In these ants...

  2. Queen-worker caste ratio depends on colony size in the pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anna Mosegaard; Linksvayer, Timothy Arnold; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2011-01-01

    The success of an ant colony depends on the simultaneous presence of reproducing queens and nonreproducing workers in a ratio that will maximize colony growth and reproduction. Despite its presumably crucial role, queen–worker caste ratios (the ratio of adult queens to workers) and the factors...... affecting this variable remain scarcely studied. Maintaining polygynous pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis) colonies in the laboratory has provided us with the opportunity to experimentally manipulate colony size, one of the key factors that can be expected to affect colony level queen–worker caste ratios...... and body size of eclosing workers, gynes and males. We found that smaller colonies produced more new queens relative to workers, and that these queens and workers both tended to be larger. However, colony size had no effect on the size of males or on the sex ratio of the individuals reared. Furthermore...

  3. Application of Bathurin and borax in the biological control of Monomorium pharaonis in housing estates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vobrázková, E; Vanková, J; Samsinák, K

    1976-05-01

    Of two apartment houses infested with ants of the species Monomorium pharaonis, one was treated with a biological, the other with a chemical substance. In the first case we used Bathurin in combination with borax at a concentration of 1.3% for both substances. In the first week, borax was added to the bait (minced beef), within the next three weeks, the bait was mixed with Bathurin. The procedure was repeated 5 times. After this period, we achieved complete control of the ants on the infested premises.--Our results obtained with the chemical substance (the insecticide Anthrix) were less successful. This indicates that the first method, although time-consuming and requiring a perfect collaboration with all inhabitants, is safer, because it leads to the complete eradication of ants in the infested premises.

  4. Morphology of a novel glandular epithelium lining the infrabuccal cavity in the ant Monomorium pharaonis (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eelen, Dieter; Børgesen, Lisbeth W; Billen, Johan

    2004-10-01

    A novel glandular epithelium lining the infrabuccal cavity and anterior pharynx is described in both workers and queens of the pharaoh's ant Monomorium pharaonis. The infrabuccal cavity, connected with the buccal tube, forms a ventral outgrowth of the anterior pharynx, and as such displays the tegumental lining with a cuticle and an epithelial layer. In its dorsal region, the cavity's epithelium reaches a thickness of approx. 11-12mum in both workers and queens, which is considerably thicker than the epithelium lining the rest of the infrabuccal cavity. Also the possible role of the infrabuccal gland is discussed.

  5. Update on the defensive chemicals of the Little Black Ant, Monomorium minimum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaloids, including 2,5-dialkylpyrrolidines and 2,5-dialkylpyrrolines, have been reported to be components in the venom of little black ants, Monomorium minimum (Buckley). Two fatty amines were recently reported as minor compounds. By analyzing the discharge collected from the stinger apparatus (...

  6. Photochemistry and photoinduced proton-transfer by pharaonis phoborhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, N; Shimono, K; Iwamoto, M; Sudo, Y

    2001-11-01

    Phoborhodopsin (pR or sensory rhodopsin II, sRII) is a photoreceptor of the negative phototaxis of Halobacterium salinarum, and pharaonis phoborhodopsin (ppR or pharaonis sensory rhodopsin II, psRII) is a corresponding protein of Natronobacterium pharaonis. The photocycle of ppR is essentially as follows: ppR(498) --> ppRK(approximately 540) --> ppRKL(512) --> ppRL(488) --> ppRM(390) --> ppRO(560) --> ppR (numbers in parenthesis denote the maximum absorbance). The photocycle is very similar to that of bacteriorhodopsin, but the rate of initial pigment recovery is about two-orders of magnitude slower. By low-temperature spectroscopy, two K-intermediates were found but the L intermediate was not detected. The lack of L indicates extraordinary stability of K at low temperature. ppRM is photoactive similar to M of bR. The ground state ppR contains only all-trans retinal whereas ppRM and ppRO contain 13-cis and all-trans, respectively. ppR has the ability of light-induced proton transport from the inside to the outside. Proton uptake occurs at the formation of ppRO and the release at its decay. ppR associates with its transducer and this complex transmits a signal to the cytoplasm. The proton transport ability is lost when the complex forms, but the proton uptake and release still occur, suggesting that the proton movement is non-electrogenic (release and uptake occur from the same side). The stoichiometry of the complex between ppR and the transducer is 1 : 1. ppR or pR has absorption maximum at approximately 500 nm, which is blue-shifted from those of other archaeal rhodopsins. The molecular mechanism of this color regulation is not yet solved.

  7. Selective reaction of hydroxylamine with chromophore during the photocycle of pharaonis phoborhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, M; Sudo, Y; Shimono, K; Kamo, N

    2001-09-03

    Phoborhodopsin (pR; also called sensory rhodopsin II, sRII) is a receptor of negative phototaxis of Halobacterium salinarum, and pharaonis phoborhodopsin (ppR; also pharaonis sensory rhodopsin II, psRII) is a corresponding protein of Natronobacterium pharaonis. These receptors contain retinal as a chromophore which binds to a lysine residue via Schiff base. This Schiff base can be cleaved with hydroxylamine to loose their color (bleaching). In dark, the bleaching rate of ppR was very slow whereas illumination accelerated considerably the bleaching rate. Addition of azide accelerated the decay of the M-intermediate while its formation (decay of the L-intermediate) is not affected. The bleaching rate of ppR under illumination was decreased by addition of azide. Essentially no reactivity with hydroxylamine under illumination was observed in the case of D75N mutant which lacks the M-intermediate in its photocycle. Moreover, we provided illumination by flashes to ppR in the presence of varying concentrations of azide to measure the bleaching rate per one flash. A good correlation was obtained between the rate and the mean residence time, MRT, which was calculated from flash photolysis data of the M-decay. These findings reveal that water-soluble hydroxylamine reacts selectively with the M-intermediate and its implication was discussed.

  8. Fatty Amines from Little Black Ants, Monomorium minimum, and Their Biological Activities Against Red Imported Fire Ants, Solenopsis invicta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, are significant invasive pests. Certain native ant species can compete with S. invicta, such as the little black ant, Monomorium minimum. Defensive secretions may contribute to the competition capacity of native ants. The chemistry of ant defensive secretions in the genus Monomorium has been subjected to extensive research. The insecticidal alkaloids, 2,5-dialkyl-pyrrolidines and 2,5-dialkyl-pyrrolines have been reported to dominate the venom of M. minimum. In this study, analysis of defensive secretions of workers and queens of M. minimum revealed two primary amines, decylamine and dodecylamine. Neither amine has been reported previously from natural sources. Toxicity and digging suppression by these two amines against S. invicta were examined. Decylamine had higher toxicity to S. invicta workers than dodecylamine, a quicker knockdown effect, and suppressed the digging behavior of S. invicta workers at lower concentration. However, the amount of fatty amines in an individual ant was not enough to knockdown a fire ant or suppress its digging behavior. These amines most likely work in concert with other components in the chemical defense of M. minimum.

  9. Tyr-199 and charged residues of pharaonis Phoborhodopsin are important for the interaction with its transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Yuki; Iwamoto, Masayuki; Shimono, Kazumi; Kamo, Naoki

    2002-01-01

    pharaonis Phoborhodopsin (ppR; also pharaonis sensory rhodopsin II, psRII) is a retinal protein in Natronobacterium pharaonis and is a receptor of negative phototaxis. It forms a complex with its transducer, pHtrII, in membranes and transmits light signals by protein-protein interaction. Tyr-199 is conserved completely in phoborhodopsins among a variety of archaea, but it is replaced by Val (for bacteriorhodopsin) and Phe (for sensory rhodopsin I). Previously, we (Sudo, Y., M. Iwamoto, K. Shimono, and N. Kamo, submitted for publication) showed that analysis of flash-photolysis data of a complex between D75N and the truncated pHtrII (t-Htr) give a good estimate of the dissociation constant K(D) in the dark. To investigate the importance of Tyr-199, K(D) of double mutants of D75N/Y199F or D75N/Y199V with t-Htr was estimated by flash-photolysis and was approximately 10-fold larger than that of D75N, showing the significant contribution of Tyr-199 to binding. The K(D) of the D75N/t-Htr complex increased with decreasing pH, and the data fitted well with the Henderson-Hasselbach equation with a single pK(a) of 3.86 +/- 0.02. This suggests that certain deprotonated carboxyls at the surface of the transducer (possibly Asp-102, Asp-104, and Asp-106) are needed for the binding. PMID:12080131

  10. Isolation, purification, and characterization of avian antimicrobial glycopeptide from the posterior salivary gland of Sepia pharaonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, R; Saravanan, R; Ebenezar, K Kumar; Sivamalai, T

    2015-02-01

    A proteinaceous glycopeptide was isolated from the posterior salivary gland (PSG) of Sepia pharaonis by gel (Sephadex G-100) filtration chromatography and purified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Among the collected fractions, fraction 12 showed a retention time (RT) of 31 min. The total protein and neutral sugar contents of the purified glycopeptide were recorded as 68.14 and 2.95 mg, respectively. The molecular weight of the purified glycopeptide was found to be ~50 kDa. The infrared (IR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of peptide and secondary structure in the purified glycopeptide. The antibacterial activity of the purified glycopeptide against avian bacterial strains was also determined. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the purified glycopeptide revealed the likely compounds for the antibacterial activity such as 22, 23-dibromostigmasterol acetate, 3-methyl 2-(2-oxypropyl) furan, and 2,4,4-trimethyl-3-hydroxymethyl-5A-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-cyclohexene. These three compounds found in the purified glycopeptide could be responsible for the antibacterial activity against the avian pathogens. The results of this study suggest that the purified glycopeptide from the PSG of S. pharaonis could be an antibacterial agent against avian bacterial pathogens.

  11. Silver Nanoparticles Affect Functional Bioenergetic Traits in the Invasive Red Sea Mussel Brachidontes pharaonis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggese, Ilenia; Sarà, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the functional trait responses to 5 nm metallic silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) exposure in the Lessepsian-entry bivalve B. pharaonis. Respiration rate (oxygen consumption), heartbeat rate, and absorption efficiency were evaluated across an 8-day exposure period in mesocosmal conditions. Basal reference values from not-exposed specimens were statistically compared with those obtained from animals treated with three sublethal nanoparticle concentrations (2 μg L−1, 20 μg L−1, and 40 μg L−1). Our data showed statistically significant effects on the average respiration rate of B. pharaonis. Moreover, complex nonlinear dynamics were observed as a function of the concentration level and time. Heartbeat rates largely increased with no acclimation in animals exposed to the two highest levels with similar temporal dynamics. Eventually, a decreasing trend for absorption efficiency might indicate energetic constraints. In general, these data support the possible impact of engineered nanomaterials in marine environments and support the relevance of functional trait assessment in present and future ecotoxicological studies.

  12. Inter-cohort growth patterns of pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (Sepioidea: Sepiidae in Eastern Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Sasikumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepia pharaonis is an important commercial species endemic to the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Despite its commercial significance, only few information on natural populations is available. This study was aimed to describe the aspects of size-composition, length-weight relationship, catch rates, seasonal recruitment and inter-cohort growth patterns of S. pharaonis population (Clade C, distributed along the Eastern Arabian Sea (South-West coast of India. For this, the Dorsal Mantle Length (DML and weight of cuttlefishes was obtained from commercial trawl catches, from April 2002 to October 2006. Data was analyzed by normal length-weight methods such as von Bertalanffy. A total of 12 454 cuttlefishes, ranging in length from four to 41cm were analyzed. Size-composition patterns discriminated two pulses in recruitment to the fishery, discernible by a decrease in the monthly mean size of the population. The DMLs of the two seasonal cohorts were subjected to modalprogression analysis using the Bhattacharya’s method for the estimation of growth. The estimated parameters L∞ and K in von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF were used to model growth curves in length for the cohorts. The first cohort, (post-monsoon cohort which supports the major fishery, was composed of mediumsized, fast growing individuals, whereas the second cohort (pre-monsoon cohort, comprised of slow growing and large-sized individuals. There were differential growth characteristics between the sexes and the life span was estimated at less than 2.3years for males and 2.1years for females. Negative allometric growth in weight (W with length (L was observed for males (W=0.33069.L2.5389 and females (W=0.32542.L2.6057. The females were heavier compared to males at any given mantle length, and the males were found to attain larger ultimate lengths. The major fishing season for cuttlefish was from May to November, when higher monthly catch rates of 1.67-13.02kg/h were observed in

  13. THE REPRODUCTION ETHOGRAM OF CUTTLEFISH SEPIA PHARAONIS%虎斑乌贼(Sepia pharaonis)繁殖行为谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈道海; 郑亚龙

    2013-01-01

    利用现场观察和数码摄像机记录的方法对虎斑乌贼(Sepia pharaonis)繁殖行为学进行研究.结果表明,虎斑乌贼的繁殖行为谱包括游泳、休息、捕食、求偶、争斗、交配、产卵等行为,虎斑乌贼早晚常离底游动觅食,白天下沉水底,捕食甲壳类和幼鱼等.在隐蔽阴暗处休息,在交配行为上不是“一夫一妻”制,存在一雌多雄交配现象,交配前有较复杂求偶行为,包括雄性争斗与对峙、雌性配偶的选择等,交配为头对头的方式,雌性受精不久便在产卵区轮流产卵,卵呈白色,半透明,卵群葡萄状,卵径约14-16mm,长径约27-34mm.

  14. Effects of interspecific competition between two urban ant species, Linepithema humile and Monomorium minimum, on toxic bait performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, Patricia; Silverman, Jules

    2005-04-01

    We evaluated the effects of interspecific competition on ant bait performance with two urban pest ants, the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), and the little black ant, Monomorium minimum (Buckley). In a laboratory study, the impact of a solid sulfluramid bait on M. minimum was diminished when L. humile were present, whereas the presence of M. minimum reduced the performance of a liquid fipronil bait against L. humile. Argentine ants were not adversely affected by sulfluramid bait at any time, whereas M. minimum was unaffected by fipronil bait until 14 d of exposure. In field studies measuring diel foraging activity, M. minimum seemed to delay L. humile foraging to food stations by approximately 30 min during summer 2001. However, L. humile subsequently recruited to food stations in very high numbers, thereby displacing M. minimum. L. humile visited food stations over an entire 24-h period, whereas M. minimum was only observed visiting food stations during daylight hours. Adjusting the timing of bait placement in the field may minimize any negative effects of interspecific competition between these two species on toxic bait performance.

  15. Occurrence of the lessepsian species Portunus pelagicus (Crustacea and Apogon pharaonis (Pisces in the marine area of Rhodes Island

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    M. CORSINI-FOKA

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A large number of Red Sea species are colonizing the eastern Mediterranean Sea via the Suez Canal, mainly following the Anatolian coasts and spreading westwards. Portunus pelagicus is one of the most common Red Sea swimming crabs, first recorded in the Levantine Basin in 1898. Four specimens of P. pelagicus were collected in different marine areas of Rhodes Island from 1991 to 2000, while three specimens of the lessepsian fish Apogon pharaonis, first recorded in the Mediterranean in 1947, were caught during 2002 in the NW coast of Rhodes. The sub-tropical character of the marine area around Rhodes seems to facilitate the propagation of lessepsian species. These migrants have reached the island at different velocity and degree of establishment of their populations. The occurrence of the blue swimmer crab P. pelagicus and of the bullseye cardinal fish A. pharaonis increases the number of the decapod Crustacea and fish species of Red Sea origin observed in Greek waters.

  16. Occurrence of the lessepsian species Portunus pelagicus (Crustacea and Apogon pharaonis (Pisces in the marine area of Rhodes Island

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    M. CORSINI-FOKA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A large number of Red Sea species are colonizing the eastern Mediterranean Sea via the Suez Canal, mainly following the Anatolian coasts and spreading westwards. Portunus pelagicus is one of the most common Red Sea swimming crabs, first recorded in the Levantine Basin in 1898. Four specimens of P. pelagicus were collected in different marine areas of Rhodes Island from 1991 to 2000, while three specimens of the lessepsian fish Apogon pharaonis, first recorded in the Mediterranean in 1947, were caught during 2002 in the NW coast of Rhodes. The sub-tropical character of the marine area around Rhodes seems to facilitate the propagation of lessepsian species. These migrants have reached the island at different velocity and degree of establishment of their populations. The occurrence of the blue swimmer crab P. pelagicus and of the bullseye cardinal fish A. pharaonis increases the number of the decapod Crustacea and fish species of Red Sea origin observed in Greek waters.

  17. Signaling and Adaptation Modulate the Dynamics of the Photosensoric Complex of Natronomonas pharaonis.

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    Philipp S Orekhov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Motile bacteria and archaea respond to chemical and physical stimuli seeking optimal conditions for survival. To this end transmembrane chemo- and photoreceptors organized in large arrays initiate signaling cascades and ultimately regulate the rotation of flagellar motors. To unravel the molecular mechanism of signaling in an archaeal phototaxis complex we performed coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of a trimer of receptor/transducer dimers, namely NpSRII/NpHtrII from Natronomonas pharaonis. Signaling is regulated by a reversible methylation mechanism called adaptation, which also influences the level of basal receptor activation. Mimicking two extreme methylation states in our simulations we found conformational changes for the transmembrane region of NpSRII/NpHtrII which resemble experimentally observed light-induced changes. Further downstream in the cytoplasmic domain of the transducer the signal propagates via distinct changes in the dynamics of HAMP1, HAMP2, the adaptation domain and the binding region for the kinase CheA, where conformational rearrangements were found to be subtle. Overall these observations suggest a signaling mechanism based on dynamic allostery resembling models previously proposed for E. coli chemoreceptors, indicating similar properties of signal transduction for archaeal photoreceptors and bacterial chemoreceptors.

  18. Flexibility of the Cytoplasmic Domain of the Phototaxis Transducer II from Natronomonas pharaonis

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    Ivan L. Budyak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemo- and phototaxis systems in bacteria and archaea serve as models for more complex signal transduction mechanisms in higher eukaryotes. Previous studies of the cytoplasmic fragment of the phototaxis transducer (pHtrII-cyt from the halophilic archaeon Natronomonas pharaonis showed that it takes the shape of a monomeric or dimeric rod under low or high salt conditions, respectively. CD spectra revealed only approximately 24% helical structure, even in 4 M KCl, leaving it an open question how the rod-like shape is achieved. Here, we conducted CD, FTIR, and NMR spectroscopic studies under different conditions to address this question. We provide evidence that pHtrII-cyt is highly dynamic with strong helical propensity, which allows it to change from monomeric to dimeric helical coiled-coil states without undergoing dramatic shape changes. A statistical analysis of predicted disorder for homologous sequences suggests that structural flexibility is evolutionarily conserved within the methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein family.

  19. Inter-cohort growth patterns of pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (Sepioidea: Sepiidae in Eastern Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Sasikumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepia pharaonis is an important commercial species endemic to the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Despite its commercial significance, only few information on natural populations is available. This study was aimed to describe the aspects of size-composition, length-weight relationship, catch rates, seasonal recruitment and inter-cohort growth patterns of S. pharaonis population (Clade C, distributed along the Eastern Arabian Sea (South-West coast of India. For this, the Dorsal Mantle Length (DML and weight of cuttlefishes was obtained from commercial trawl catches, from April 2002 to October 2006. Data was analyzed by normal length-weight methods such as von Bertalanffy. A total of 12 454 cuttlefishes, ranging in length from four to 41cm were analyzed. Size-composition patterns discriminated two pulses in recruitment to the fishery, discernible by a decrease in the monthly mean size of the population. The DMLs of the two seasonal cohorts were subjected to modalprogression analysis using the Bhattacharya’s method for the estimation of growth. The estimated parameters L∞ and K in von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF were used to model growth curves in length for the cohorts. The first cohort, (post-monsoon cohort which supports the major fishery, was composed of mediumsized, fast growing individuals, whereas the second cohort (pre-monsoon cohort, comprised of slow growing and large-sized individuals. There were differential growth characteristics between the sexes and the life span was estimated at less than 2.3years for males and 2.1years for females. Negative allometric growth in weight (W with length (L was observed for males (W=0.33069.L2.5389 and females (W=0.32542.L2.6057. The females were heavier compared to males at any given mantle length, and the males were found to attain larger ultimate lengths. The major fishing season for cuttlefish was from May to November, when higher monthly catch rates of 1.67-13.02kg/h were observed in

  20. Crystal Structures of the L1, L2, N, and O States of pharaonis Halorhodopsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyama, Tsutomu; Kawaguchi, Haruki; Nakanishi, Taichi; Kubo, Hiroki; Murakami, Midori

    2015-01-01

    Halorhodopsin from Natronomonas pharaonis (pHR) functions as a light-driven halide ion pump. In the presence of halide ions, the photochemical reaction of pHR is described by the scheme: K→ L1 → L2 → N → O → pHR′ → pHR. Here, we report light-induced structural changes of the pHR-bromide complex observed in the C2 crystal. In the L1-to-L2 transition, the bromide ion that initially exists in the extracellular vicinity of retinal moves across the retinal Schiff base. Upon the formation of the N state with a bromide ion bound to the cytoplasmic vicinity of the retinal Schiff base, the cytoplasmic half of helix F moves outward to create a water channel in the cytoplasmic interhelical space, whereas the extracellular half of helix C moves inward. During the transition from N to an N-like reaction state with retinal assuming the 13-cis/15-syn configuration, the translocated bromide ion is released into the cytoplasmic medium. Subsequently, helix F relaxes into its original conformation, generating the O state. Anion uptake from the extracellular side occurs when helix C relaxes into its original conformation. These structural data provide insight into the structural basis of unidirectional anion transport. PMID:26039169

  1. Comparison in nutritional quality between wild and cultured cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis

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    Wen, Jing; Chen, Daohai; Zeng, Ling

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the proximate composition and the amino and fatty acid profiles of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (prey) and wild and cultured cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (the latter fed the prey) were determined and compared with FAO/WHO recommendations. The resulting scores for isoleucine, phenylalanine+tyrosine, histidine, lysine, threonine, and tryptophan in cultured cuttlefish were ≥150. The ratio of EAA (essential amino acids)/nonessential amino acids in cultured cuttlefish (0.82) was higher than in the wild form (0.80). All EAA amino acid scores for cultured cuttlefish were higher than their wild counterparts, except for histidine and tryptophan. Both groups of cuttlefish possessed similar saturated fatty acid content, with the cultured containing much more total (Σ) monounsaturated fatty acids, Σ n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3) but less Σ n-3 PUFA, arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3) than their wild counterparts. Therefore, the present results suggest that these cultured cuttlefish were better than the wild form for human health. Notably, these results also indicate that the nutritional composition of these cuttlefish might have been significantly affected by diet.

  2. Biological aspects and ecological effects of a bed of the invasive non-indigenous mussel Brachidontes pharaonis (Fischer P., 1870 in Malta

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    L. BONNICI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available No mussel beds were known to occur in the Maltese Islands previous to 2009, when a single bed of the Lessepsian immigrant Brachidontes pharaonis, first recorded from the islands in 1970, was discovered in Birzebbugia Bay. The population structure of B. pharaonis was investigated to assess its potential to spread and colonise new shores, while the biotic community at the mussel bed was compared to that present on uncolonised substratum to determine the effects of mussel bed establishment on the associated biota. Results indicate a lower species richness and slightly different community structure with greater small-scale heterogeneity at the mussel bed site compared to the adjacent rocky shore where mussels are present but where there is no bed formation. The B. pharaonis population had a peak density of 16550 ± 2051 ind.m-2 within the mussel bed and included recent recruits. These data suggest that the B. pharaonis population has the potential to expand. Establishment of extensive beds by this invasive mussel could change the structure of native rocky shore assemblages around the Maltese Islands and elsewhere in the Mediterranean.

  3. Biological aspects and ecological effects of a bed of the invasive non-indigenous mussel Brachidontes pharaonis (Fischer P., 1870 in Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. BONNICI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available No mussel beds were known to occur in the Maltese Islands previous to 2009, when a single bed of the Lessepsian immigrant Brachidontes pharaonis, first recorded from the islands in 1970, was discovered in Birzebbugia Bay. The population structure of B. pharaonis was investigated to assess its potential to spread and colonise new shores, while the biotic community at the mussel bed was compared to that present on uncolonised substratum to determine the effects of mussel bed establishment on the associated biota. Results indicate a lower species richness and slightly different community structure with greater small-scale heterogeneity at the mussel bed site compared to the adjacent rocky shore where mussels are present but where there is no bed formation. The B. pharaonis population had a peak density of 16550 ± 2051 ind.m-2 within the mussel bed and included recent recruits. These data suggest that the B. pharaonis population has the potential to expand. Establishment of extensive beds by this invasive mussel could change the structure of native rocky shore assemblages around the Maltese Islands and elsewhere in the Mediterranean.

  4. The lifetimes of Pharaonis phoborhodopsin signaling states depend on the rates of proton transfers--effects of hydrostatic pressure and stopped flow experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikukawa, Takashi; Saha, Chabita K; Balashov, Sergei P; Imasheva, Eleonora S; Zaslavsky, Dmitry; Gennis, Robert B; Abe, Takayuki; Kamo, Naoki

    2008-01-01

    Pharaonis phoborhodopsin (ppR), a negative phototaxis receptor of Natronomonas pharaonis, undergoes photocycle similar to the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin (BR), but the turnover rate is much slower due to much longer lifetimes of the M and O intermediates. The M decay was shown to become as fast as it is in BR in the L40T/F86D mutant. We examined the effects of hydrostatic pressure on the decay of these intermediates. For BR, pressure decelerated M decay but slightly affected O decay. In contrast, with ppR and with its L40T/F86D mutant, pressure slightly affected M decay but accelerated O decay. Clearly, the pressure-dependent factors for M and O decay are different in BR and ppR. In order to examine the deprotonation of Asp75 in unphotolyzed ppR we performed stopped flow experiments. The pH jump-induced deprotonation of Asp75 occurred with 60 ms, which is at least 20 times slower than deprotonation of the equivalent Asp85 in BR and about 10-fold faster than the O decay of ppR. These data suggest that proton transfer is slowed not only in the cytoplasmic channel but also in the extracellular channel of ppR and that the light-induced structural changes in the O intermediate of ppR additionally decrease this rate.

  5. Identification, cloning and environmental factors modulation of a αβ defensin from the Lessepsian invasive mussel Brachidontes pharaonis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Parisi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Immunological effectors of invasive species playing a role in addressing new colonization are still poorly studied. In the present study the cDNA sequence of the defensin from a Lessepsian invasive species, the Red Sea mussel Brachidontes pharaonis, was cloned using RACE method. Defensins are a class of widely known antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, oligopeptides with a broad spectrum of targeted organisms ranging from viruses to parasites. Analysis of BpDef sequence (262 bp revealed the presence of an ORF coding for 81 amino acids. The full-length amino acid sequence showed the highest similarity to antimicrobial peptides MGD1 and MGD2 sequence from Mytilus galloprovincialis. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that BpDef belongs to the αβ defensin AMPs with a typical domain structurally characterized by a α helix and two β sheets. BpDef mRNA is located in circulating hemocytes with small intra-cytoplasmic granules and with large granules. The transcription of defensin gene was modulated by the stress from temperatures and oxygenation condition. Temperatures of 20 °C did not stimulate a BpDef transcription over a short time. At 30 °C the kinetics of BpDef gene transcription showed up regulation after one day, while it was down regulated after six days, both under normoxia and hypoxia conditions.

  6. 水泥池养殖条件下虎斑乌贼的生长特性%Growth Characteristics of Sepia pharaonis under Pond-culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋霞敏; 罗江; 彭瑞冰; 唐锋; 高晓兰; 乐可鑫; 孙志鹏

    2014-01-01

    以体重、胴长、墨囊重和壳重4个指标变化情况,研究了水泥池养殖条件下虎斑乌贼(Sepia pharaonis)的生长特性.结果表明:体重呈指数增长,日均增重量(0.09~2.78 g)不断增加,瞬时增重率(11.86%~1.03%)呈下降趋势;胴长呈直线增长,日均增长量(0.03~0.13 cm)不断波动,瞬时增长率(4.99%~0.35%)呈下降趋势;墨囊重呈指数增长,日均增重量(0.01~0.09 g)呈上升趋势,瞬时增重率(11.95%~1.68%)呈下降趋势,墨囊指数3.06%~4.25%;壳重呈指数增长,日均增重量(0.01~0.13 g)呈上升趋势,瞬时增重率(10.73%~1.02%)呈下降趋势,壳指数为5.06%~7.65%.成活率在日龄0~45 d (90.69%~95.25%)和60~150 d (95.73%~98.89%)时平稳上升,而在日龄45~60 d(饵料转变过程中)下降至最低(50.01%).体重和胴长、墨囊重、壳重之间均具有显著相关性.%The growth characteristics of Sepia pharaonis under pond-culture are studied by observing the change of weight (W), mantle length (ML), weight of the Ink-sac (WIS), and weight of the Cuttle-bone (WCB). The results show that the W grows exponentially, the average daily weight gain (0.09-2.78 g) follows an upward trend, and the instantaneous growth rate (11.86%-1.03%) shows a downward trend. The ML grows linearly, the average daily length gain (0.03-0.13 cm) fluctuate constantly, and the instantaneous growth rate (4.99%-0.35%) is found with a downward trend. In comparison, the WIS also increases exponentially, the average daily weight gain (0.01-0.09 g) presents an upward trend, the instantaneous growth rate (11.95%-1.68%) indicates a downward trend, and the ink-sac index is 3.06%-4.25%. Finally, the WCB grows sharply, the average daily weight gain (0.01-0.13 g) also manifests an upward trend, the instantaneous growth rate (10.73%-1.02%) also follows a downward trend, the cuttle-bone index is 5.06%-7.65%. It is found that the survival rate increases steadily ranging 90.69%-95.25%within the age

  7. Analysis and Evaluation of Nutritional Components of the Nidamental Gland in Female Sepia pharaonis%雌性虎斑乌贼缠卵腺营养成分分析与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴宏杰; 孙玉林; 冯梓欣; 文菁; 陈道海

    2016-01-01

    The general nutrients, amino acids, fatty acids, cholesterol and inorganic elements in the nidamental gland of female Sepia pharaonis (S. pharaonis) were analyzed to evaluate its nutritional value and developmental prospects. The results showed that the contents of moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash in the nidamental gland of female S. pharaonis on fresh weight basis were 73.27%, 18.40%, 0.16%and 1.70%, respectively. Eighteen amino acids were detected in the nidamental gland of female S. pharaonis and the content of essential amino acids (EAA) was 5.54 g/100 g, which accounted for 41.47% of the total amino acids. The composition of EAAs met the FAO/WHO pattern. According to nutritional evaluation by amino acids score (AAS), the first limiting amino acid was Val, while the first limiting amino acid was Trp based on chemical score (CS). The total unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) in the nidamental gland of female S. pharaonis accounted for 63.21% of the total amount of fatty acids, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accounted for 12.55%and 33.19%of the total fatty acids, respectively. The content of cholesterol in the sample was 2.24 mg/g, which was evidently lower than that of egg yolk. Macroelements (K, Ca, Na, and Mg) and trace elements (Se, Cu, and Mn) were abundant in the nidamental gland of female S. pharaonis, but the content of As was 35.90 mg/kg, which highly exceeded the limit standard of 0.5 mg/kg. These results indicated that the nidamental gland of female S. pharaonis possesses high nutritional value, but there is a necessity for appropriate consumption and processing methods to ensure food safety.%为评估雌性虎斑乌贼缠卵腺的营养水平,确定其开发利用价值,对其一般营养成分、氨基酸组成、脂肪酸组成、胆固醇含量和无机元素进行分析。结果表明,雌性虎斑乌贼缠卵腺(鲜质量)中水分、粗蛋白、粗脂肪和灰分含量分别为73.27%、18.40%、0

  8. A statistical approach to identify candidate cues for nestmate recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zweden, Jelle; Pontieri, Luigi; Pedersen, Jes Søe

    2014-01-01

    on its cuticle. In this study we use previous results of this species to searchfor nestmate recognition cues (NMR cues) in two other species of ants, Camponotusaethiops, and Monomorium pharaonis. Employing chemical distances and observedaggression between colonies, we first ask which type of data...

  9. The complete mitochondrial genomes of deep-sea squid (Bathyteuthis abyssicola), bob-tail squid (Semirossia patagonica) and four giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama, S. latimanus, S. lycidas and S. pharaonis), and their application to the phylogenetic analysis of Decapodiformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Yuumi; Nishihara, Hidenori; Akasaki, Tetsuya; Nikaido, Masato; Tsuchiya, Kotaro; Segawa, Susumu; Okada, Norihiro

    2013-12-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the deep-sea squid (Bathyteuthis abyssicola; supperfamily Bathyteuthoidea), the bob-tail squid (Semirossia patagonica; order Sepiolida) and four giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama, S. latimanus, S. lycidas and S. pharaonis; order Sepiida). The unique structures of the mt genomes of Bathyteuthis and Semirossia provide new information about the evolution of decapodiform mt genomes. We show that the mt genome of B. abyssicola, like those of other oegopsids studied so far, has two long duplicated regions that include seven genes (COX1-3, ATP6 and ATP8, tRNA(Asn), and either ND2 or ND3) and that one of the duplicated COX3 genes has lost its function. The mt genome of S. patagonica is unlike any other decapodiforms and, like Nautilus, its ATP6 and ATP8 genes are not adjacent to each other. The four giant cuttlefish have identical mt gene order to other cuttlefish determined to date. Molecular phylogenetic analyses using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods suggest that traditional order Sepioidea (Sepiolida+Sepiida) is paraphyletic and Sepia (cuttlefish) has the sister-relationship with all other decapodiforms. Taking both the phylogenetic analyses and the mt gene order analyses into account, it is likely that the octopus-type mt genome is an ancestral state and that it had maintained from at least the Cephalopoda ancestor to the common ancestor of Oegopsida, Myopsida and Sepiolida.

  10. Occurrence of antennal glands in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renthal, Robert; Velasquez, Daniel; Olmos, David; Vinson, S Bradleigh

    2008-11-01

    A previous report of the discovery of exocrine glands in the antennal club of queens and workers of Solenopsis invicta Buren, 1972 left open the question of the extent to which similar glands occur in the Formicidae family. We wanted to know if these antennal glands are unique to Solenopsis, or they are found in a wider taxonomic group. Using scanning electron microscopy, we examined the antennae of 41 ant species. Presence of the antennal glands was indicated by a characteristic circumferential ring of pores in a distal antennal segment of workers. Pores were found in the 9th antennal segment of all 26 species of Solenopsis examined. Pores were absent in the following: Monomorium minimum, M. pharaonis, Pheidole sp., Crematogaster sp., Linepithema humile, Forelius sp., Dorymyrmex sp., Paratrechina sp., Oecophylla smaragdina, Campanotus sp., Ectatomma ruidum, E. tuberlatum, and Pseudomyrmex ferruginea. However, pores were found in the antennal club of Tetramorium bicarinatum workers and queens. After KOH digestion of T. bicarinatum antennae, internal canals were observed in both workers and queens, and the canals are connected to spherical reservoirs in queens. T. bicarinatum was the only non-Solenopsis species examined, which showed evidence for antennal glands in the distal funiculus.

  11. Occurrence of Antennal Glands in Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renthal, Robert; Velasquez, Daniel; Olmos, David; Vinson, S. Bradleigh

    2010-01-01

    A previous report of the discovery of exocrine glands in the antennal club of queens and workers of Solenopsis invicta Buren, 1972 (Isidoro et al., Insectes Sociaux 47: 236-240, 2000) left open the question of the extent to which similar glands occur in the Formicidae family. We wanted to know if these antennal glands are unique to Solenopsis, or if they are found in a wider taxonomic group. Using scanning electron microscopy, we examined the antennae of 41 ant species. Presence of the antennal glands was indicated by a characteristic circumferential ring of pores in a distal antennal segment of workers. Pores were found in the 9th antennal segment of all 26 species of Solenopsis examined. Pores were absent in the following: Monomorium minimum, M. pharaonis, Pheidole sp., Crematogaster sp., Linepithema humile, Forelius sp., Dorymyrmex sp., Paratrechina sp., Oecophylla smaragdina, Campanotus sp., Ectatomma ruidum, E. tuberlatum, and Pseudomyrmex ferruginea. However, pores were found in the antennal club of Tetramorium bicarinatum workers and queens. After KOH digestion of T. bicarinatum antennae, internal canals were observed in both workers and queens, and the canals connected to spherical reservoirs in queens. T. bicarinatum was only non-Solenopsis species examined which showed evidence for antennal glands in the distal funiculus. PMID:18655135

  12. Ant colonies prefer infected over uninfected nest sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontieri, Luigi; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Graham, Riley;

    2014-01-01

    During colony relocation, the selection of a new nest involves exploration and assessment of potential sites followed by colony movement on the basis of a collective decision making process. Hygiene and pathogen load of the potential nest sites are factors worker scouts might evaluate, given...... and low genetic diversity, likely making these species particularly vulnerable to parasites and diseases. We investigated the nest site preference of the invasive pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis, through binary choice tests between three nest types: nests containing dead nestmates overgrown...

  13. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  14. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics ...

  16. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  17. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Ambient Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2012-10-01

    We report the recent research progress and future prospects of flexible and printed electronics, focusing on molecular electronic material-based thin-film transistors, which are expected to usher in a new era of electronics.

  19. Electron cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.

    2004-10-01

    The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities-storage rings and traps being in operation or under development-is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler-recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

  20. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  1. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  2. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  3. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  4. Electronic Prescribing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do you prescribe electronically?” For more information about electronic prescribing, call 1-800-MEDICARE (1-800-633- ... TTY users should call 1-877-486-2048 . Electronic eRx Prescribing I went to the pharmacy, and ...

  5. Discrimination Behavior in the Supercolonial Pharaoh Ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontieri, Luigi

    an increasing need to understand which factors promote the ecological dominance of these species, and particularly how the discrimination of both conspecifics and heterospecifics (including parasites) might influence structure and ecological success of invasive populations. In this PhD thesis I investigated...... the discrimination behavior of the invasive pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis) as a model for other invasive and supercolonial ant species. The pharaoh ant is one of the few ant species that can be reared in the laboratory for many generations. Furthermore, the possibility to do controlled crosses of colonies...... provides the unique opportunity to establish colonies of different genetic composition. These traits make this species a suitable study subject to set up behavioral experiments that aim to investigate which factors, and to which extent, might influence the inter- and intraspecific discrimination abilities...

  6. No benefit in diversity? The effect of genetic variation on survival and disease resistance in a polygynous social insect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anna Mosegaard; Linksvayer, Timothy Arnold; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2011-01-01

    numbers of queens also benefit from increased genetic diversity.2. We used one of the very few ant species that can be reared across generations, the pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis Linnaeus, to create experimental colonies with two types of enhanced genetic diversity: (i) mixed workers from three......1. Multiple mating by queens has been shown to enhance disease resistance in insect societies, because higher genetic diversity among nestmates improves collective immune defences or offers a certain level of herd immunity. However, it has remained ambiguous whether polygynous societies with large...... within-worker variation).3. We found significant differences in worker survival among the three inbred lineages, with exposure to conidiospores of the fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana causing significant mortality to the workers independently of their diversity type. Increased diversity did not improve...

  7. Nonindigenous Ants at High Elevations on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterer, James K.; Banko, Paul C.; Laniawe, Leona P.; Slotterback, John W.; Brenner, Gregory J.

    1998-01-01

    Ant surveys were conducted at high elevations (1680-3140 m) on the western slope of Mauna Kea Volcano on the island of Hawai'i to detennine the extent of ant infestation in those highland communities and particularly to evaluate the potential threat of ants in the highlands to native Hawaiian species. Ants were surveyed at 10 long-tenn sampling sites. Ants were common on Mauna Kea up to 2000 m elevation, but densities quickly dropped off above that. Five species of ants were collected: Linepithema humile (Mayr), Cardiocondyla venustula Wheeler, Pheidole megacephala (Fabricius), Tetramorium bicarinatum (Nylander), and Monomorium pharaonis (Linnaeus). Other than L. humile, these collections on Mauna Kea are the highest recorded locales in the Hawaiian Islands.

  8. Discrimination Behavior in the Supercolonial Pharaoh Ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontieri, Luigi

    an increasing need to understand which factors promote the ecological dominance of these species, and particularly how the discrimination of both conspecifics and heterospecifics (including parasites) might influence structure and ecological success of invasive populations. In this PhD thesis I investigated...... the discrimination behavior of the invasive pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis) as a model for other invasive and supercolonial ant species. The pharaoh ant is one of the few ant species that can be reared in the laboratory for many generations. Furthermore, the possibility to do controlled crosses of colonies...... provides the unique opportunity to establish colonies of different genetic composition. These traits make this species a suitable study subject to set up behavioral experiments that aim to investigate which factors, and to which extent, might influence the inter- and intraspecific discrimination abilities...

  9. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  10. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information P

  11. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  12. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  13. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  14. Micropower electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Keonjian, Edward

    1964-01-01

    Micropower Electronics deals with the operation of modern electronic equipment at micropower levels and the problems associated with micropower electronics. Topics covered include the relations between minimum required power density and frequency response for semiconductor triode amplifiers; physical realization of digital logic circuits; micropower microelectronic subsystems; and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect devices for micropower logic circuitry. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with an analysis of fundamental relationships and basic requirements pertinent to the ph

  15. Microfluidic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  16. Paper electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-03

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed.

  17. Electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Tonomura, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Holography was devised for breaking through the resolution limit of electron microscopes The advent of a "coherent" field emission electron beam has enabled the use of Electron Holography in various areas of magnetic domain structures observation, fluxon observation in superconductors, and fundamental experiments in physics which have been inaccessible using other techniques After examining the fundamentals of electron holography and its applications to the afore mentioned fields, a detailed discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the related experiments is presented Many photographs and illustrations are included to elucidate the text

  18. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  19. Electronic Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Meredith Lindsay

    1995-01-01

    The main objective was to assist in the production of electronic images in the Electronic Photography Lab (EPL). The EPL is a new facility serving the electronic photographic needs of the Langley community. The purpose of the Electronic Photography lab is to provide Langley with access to digital imaging technology. Although the EPL has been in operation for less than one year, almost 1,000 images have been produced. The decision to establish the lab was made after careful determination of the centers needs for electronic photography. The LaRC community requires electronic photography for the production of electronic printing, Web sites, desktop publications, and its increased enhancement capabilities. In addition to general use, other considerations went into the planning of the EPL. For example, electronic photography is much less of a burden on the environment compared to conventional photography. Also, the possibilities of an on-line database and retrieval system could make locating past work more efficient. Finally, information in an electronic image is quantified, making measurements and calculations easier for the researcher.

  20. Electron Bifurcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John W.; Miller, Anne-Frances; Jones, Anne K.; King, Paul W.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2016-04-01

    Electron bifurcation is the recently recognized third mechanism of biological energy conservation. It simultaneously couples exergonic and endergonic oxidation-reduction reactions to circumvent thermodynamic barriers and minimize free energy loss. Little is known about the details of how electron bifurcating enzymes function, but specifics are beginning to emerge for several bifurcating enzymes. To date, those characterized contain a collection of redox cofactors including flavins and iron-sulfur clusters. Here we discuss the current understanding of bifurcating enzymes and the mechanistic features required to reversibly partition multiple electrons from a single redox site into exergonic and endergonic electron transfer paths.

  1. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  2. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  3. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  4. Digital electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, John

    2013-01-01

    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th

  5. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  6. Stretchable electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Someya, Takao

    2012-01-01

    With its comprehensive coverage this handbook and ready reference brings together some of the most outstanding scientists in the field to lay down the undisputed knowledge on how to make electronics stretchable.As such, it focuses on gathering and evaluating the materials, designs, models and technologies that enable the fabrication of fully elastic electronic devices which can sustain high strain. Furthermore, it provides a review of those specific applications that directly benefit from highly compliant electronics, including transistors, photonic devices and sensors. In addition to stre

  7. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  8. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  9. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  10. Electronic Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Electronic voting technology is a two edged sword. It comes with many risks but brings also many benefits. Instead of flat out rejecting the technology as uncontrollably dangerous, we advocate in this paper a different technological angle that renders electronic elections trustworthy beyond...... the usual levels of doubt. We exploit the trust that voters currently have into the democratic process and model our techniques around that observation accordingly. In particular, we propose a technique of trace emitting computations to record the individual steps of an electronic voting machine...... for a posteriori validation on an acceptably small trusted computing base. Our technology enables us to prove that an electronic elections preserves the voter’s intent, assuming that the voting machine and the trace verifier are independent....

  11. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  12. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    'electronic signature' means data attached to, incorporated in, or logically ... See Cwele v S 2012 4 All SA 497 (SCA); Mohlabeng v Minister of Safety and Security ... ZAKZPHC 51 (2 September 2010); Delta Finance, a Division of Wesbank, ...

  13. Electron Microprobe

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The JEOL JXA-8600 is a conventional hairpin filament thermal emission electron microprobe that is more than 20 years old. It is capable of performing qualitative and...

  14. Electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Veselková, Zdeňka

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with a description of electronic commerce from its beginning up to present situation in this area. It explains basic terms connected with electronic commerce and it summarizes the relevant legislation. Moreover it describes e-contracts and rights and duties of both contractual parties. The main view is the view of Internet retailer, which is reflected in the practical part focused on concrete problems of retailers.

  15. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  16. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources will be high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One...... is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...

  17. Electron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegbahn, Kai

    Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen's discovery of X radiation in 1895 in Wörzburg resulted in an immediate break-through not only in physics but also in Society, the latter mainly because of its sensational radiological applications. Within a short time it furthermore indirectly led to the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel. The discovery of X radiation opened the gate to modern atomic physics, and radioactivity to nuclear physics. Later on, the discovery of X-ray diffraction by Laue, Friedrich and Knipping in 1912 initiated the field of X-ray spectroscopy with its fundamental contributions to atomic and crystal structures. Secondary electrons were early observed in the scattered radiation when X-rays were hitting a sample. The development of the corresponding electron spectroscopy had to wait a much longer time for its maturity. A survey of electron spectroscopy is presented.

  18. Electronic Commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, N. [NRG Information Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The concept of electronic commerce in the gas industry was discussed. It was defined as the integration of communication technology, advanced information processing capability and business standards, to improve effectiveness of the business process. Examples of electronic data interchange from the automotive, airline, and banking industry were given. The objective of using this technology in the gas industry was described as the provision of one electronic facility to make seamless contractual and operational arrangements for moving natural gas across participating pipelines. The benefit of seamless integration - one readily available standard system used by several companies - was highlighted. A list of value-added services such as the free movement of bulletins, directories, nominations,and other documents was provided.

  19. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  20. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    ) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  1. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due...

  2. Superconducting electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogalla, Horst

    1994-01-01

    During the last decades superconducting electronics has been the most prominent area of research for small scale applications of superconductivity. It has experienced quite a stormy development, from individual low frequency devices to devices with high integration density and pico second switching

  3. Electronic Portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines three forms of electronic portfolio based on a student's work, a class project about a specific topic, and a class seminar on a broad topic. Discusses logistical problems of management, access, and cross-referencing; technical problems of input, access, and copying; and theoretical issues of the lack of realia, of ownership and copyright,…

  4. Electronic Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tim

    Thirty years ago a cashless society was predicted for the near future; paper currency and checks would be an antiquated symbol of the past. Consumers would embrace a new alternative for making payments: electronic money. But currency is still used for 87% of payments, mainly for "nickel and dime" purchases. And checks are the payment…

  5. Electronic spectroscopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared region is a versatile spectroscopic technique, as both d-d and charge transfer transitions of supported TMI can be probed. One of the advantages of electronic spectroscopy is that the obtained information is

  6. Electronic Homework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fong-lok; Heyworth, Rex M.

    The Electronic Homework assistant system is composed of two components: the Computer Tutor and the Homework Administrator. The Computer Tutor is an intelligent tutoring system that can provide personal assistance like supplying hints, checking errors, providing remediation and prioritizing problems. The Homework Administrator is a teacher's…

  7. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due to po...

  8. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e...

  9. Electronic detectors for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, A R; McMullan, G

    2011-08-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) is an important tool for high-resolution structure determination in applications ranging from condensed matter to biology. Electronic detectors are now used in most applications in EM as they offer convenience and immediate feedback that is not possible with film or image plates. The earliest forms of electronic detector used routinely in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were charge coupled devices (CCDs) and for many applications these remain perfectly adequate. There are however applications, such as the study of radiation-sensitive biological samples, where film is still used and improved detectors would be of great value. The emphasis in this review is therefore on detectors for use in such applications. Two of the most promising candidates for improved detection are: monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) and hybrid pixel detectors (of which Medipix2 was chosen for this study). From the studies described in this review, a back-thinned MAPS detector appears well suited to replace film in for the study of radiation-sensitive samples at 300 keV, while Medipix2 is suited to use at lower energies and especially in situations with very low count rates. The performance of a detector depends on the energy of electrons to be recorded, which in turn is dependent on the application it is being used for; results are described for a wide range of electron energies ranging from 40 to 300 keV. The basic properties of detectors are discussed in terms of their modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of spatial frequency.

  10. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  11. Interacting Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard M.; Reining, Lucia; Ceperley, David M.

    2016-06-01

    Preface; Part I. Interacting Electrons: Beyond the Independent-Particle Picture: 1. The many electron problem: introduction; 2. Signatures of electron correlation; 3. Concepts and models for interacting electrons; Part II. Foundations of Theory for Many-Body Systems: 4. Mean fields and auxiliary systems; 5. Correlation functions; 6. Many-body wavefunctions; 7. Particles and quasi-particles; 8. Functionals in many-particle physics; Part III. Many-Body Green's Function Methods: 9. Many-body perturbation theory: expansion in the interaction; 10. Many-body perturbation theory via functional derivatives; 11. The RPA and the GW approximation for the self-energy; 12. GWA calculations in practice; 13. GWA calculations: illustrative results; 14. RPA and beyond: the Bethe-Salpeter equation; 15. Beyond the GW approximation; 16. Dynamical mean field theory; 17. Beyond the single-site approximation in DMFT; 18. Solvers for embedded systems; 19. Characteristic hamiltonians for solids with d and f states; 20. Examples of calculations for solids with d and f states; 21. Combining Green's functions approaches: an outlook; Part IV. Stochastic Methods: 22. Introduction to stochastic methods; 23. Variational Monte Carlo; 24. Projector quantum Monte Carlo; 25. Path integral Monte Carlo; 26. Concluding remarks; Part V. Appendices: A. Second quantization; B. Pictures; C. Green's functions: general properties; D. Matsubara formulation for Green's functions for T ̸= 0; E. Time-ordering, contours, and non-equilibrium; F. Hedin's equations in a basis; G. Unique solutions in Green's function theory; H. Properties of functionals; I. Auxiliary systems and constrained search; J. Derivation of the Luttinger theorem; K. Gutzwiller and Hubbard approaches; References; Index.

  12. ELECTRON GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  13. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  14. Electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, H L

    2010-01-01

    The electronic properties of solids have become of increasing importance in the age of information technology. The study of solids and materials, while having originated from the disciplines of physics and chemistry, has evolved independently over the past few decades. The classical treatment of solid-state physics, which emphasized classifications, theories and fundamental physical principles, is no longer able to bridge the gap between materials advances and applications. In particular, the more recent developments in device physics and technology have not necessarily been driven by new conc

  15. Electronic Router

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusan, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Electronic Router (E-Router) is an application program for routing documents among the cognizant individuals in a government agency or other organization. E-Router supplants a prior 14 NASA Tech Briefs, May 2005 system in which paper documents were routed physically in packages by use of paper slips, packages could be lost, routing times were unacceptably long, tracking of packages was difficult, and there was a need for much photocopying. E-Router enables a user to create a digital package to be routed. Input accepted by E-Router includes the title of the package, the person(s) to whom the package is to be routed, attached files, and comments to reviewers. Electronic mail is used to notify reviewers of needed actions. The creator of the package can, at any time, see the status of the package in the routing structure. At the end of the routing process, E-Router keeps a record of the package and of approvals and/or concurrences of the reviewers. There are commercial programs that perform the general functions of E-Router, but they are more complicated. E-Router is Web-based, easy to use, and does not require the installation or use of client software.

  16. Practical electronics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Ian R

    2013-01-01

    Practical Electronics Handbook, Third Edition provides the frequently used and highly applicable principles of electronics and electronic circuits.The book contains relevant information in electronics. The topics discussed in the text include passive and active discrete components; linear and digital I.C.s; microprocessors and microprocessor systems; digital-analogue conversions; computer aids in electronics design; and electronic hardware components.Electronic circuit constructors, service engineers, electronic design engineers, and anyone with an interest in electronics will find the book ve

  17. Electronic Preprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, R.

    1999-12-01

    Despite the tremendous advances in electronic publications and the increasing rapidity with which papers are now moving from acceptance into ``print,'' preprints continue to be an important mode of communication within the astronomy community. The Los Alamos e-preprint service, astro-ph, provides for rapid and cost-free (to authors and readers) dissemination of manuscripts. As the use of astro-ph has increased the number of paper preprints in circulation to libraries has decreased, and institutional preprint series appear to be waning. It is unfortunate, however, that astro-ph does not function in collaboration with the refereed publications. For example, there is no systematic tracking of manuscripts from preprint to their final, published form, and as a centralized archive it is difficult to distribute the tracking and maintenance functions. It retains documents that have been superseded or have become obsolete. We are currently developing a distributed preprint and document management system which can support both distributed collections of preprints (e.g., traditional institutional preprint series), can link to the LANL collections, can index other documents in the ``grey'' literature (observatory reports, telescope and instrument user's manuals, calls for proposals, etc.), and can function as a manuscript submission tool for the refereed journals. This system is being developed to work cooperatively with the refereed literature so that, for example, links to preprints are updated to links to the final published papers.

  18. Sustainable Management of Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information on EPAs strategy for electronics stewardship, certified electronics recyclers and the Challenge; as well as where to donate unwanted electronics, how to calculate benefits, and what's going on with electronics mgmt in their states.

  19. EDITORIAL: Synaptic electronics Synaptic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Gimzewski, James K.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Conventional computers excel in logic and accurate scientific calculations but make hard work of open ended problems that human brains handle easily. Even von Neumann—the mathematician and polymath who first developed the programming architecture that forms the basis of today's computers—was already looking to the brain for future developments before his death in 1957 [1]. Neuromorphic computing uses approaches that better mimic the working of the human brain. Recent developments in nanotechnology are now providing structures with very accommodating properties for neuromorphic approaches. This special issue, with guest editors James K Gimzewski and Dominique Vuillaume, is devoted to research at the serendipitous interface between the two disciplines. 'Synaptic electronics', looks at artificial devices with connections that demonstrate behaviour similar to synapses in the nervous system allowing a new and more powerful approach to computing. Synapses and connecting neurons respond differently to incident signals depending on the history of signals previously experienced, ultimately leading to short term and long term memory behaviour. The basic characteristics of a synapse can be replicated with around ten simple transistors. However with the human brain having around 1011 neurons and 1015 synapses, artificial neurons and synapses from basic transistors are unlikely to accommodate the scalability required. The discovery of nanoscale elements that function as 'memristors' has provided a key tool for the implementation of synaptic connections [2]. Leon Chua first developed the concept of the 'The memristor—the missing circuit element' in 1971 [3]. In this special issue he presents a tutorial describing how memristor research has fed into our understanding of synaptic behaviour and how they can be applied in information processing [4]. He also describes, 'The new principle of local activity, which uncovers a minuscule life-enabling "Goldilocks zone", dubbed the

  20. Electronic Mimosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay; Datta, Meera S.; Rana, Vivek; Grover, Shailesh

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the design of a low-cost, 2D, electromagnetic tracking device for personal computers. This interface makes use of the well-known principle of electromagnetic induction to locate the position of a transmitter in an x-y plane. This device has a ring which is worn by the user on the index finger. The computer monitor is overlaid with a transparent screen equipped with tuned electromagnetic sensors. These sensors pick up the signals transmitted by the transmitter coil on the finger. The receiver circuit extracts the envelope of the received signal and digitizes it. These digitized values of x and y axis signals are read by the computer through the standard parallel port. The system software running on the computer calculates the x and y co-ordinates of the transmitter coil and displays a cursor at that location. The transmitter also has a button which can be used like a mouse button. This keypress information is also transmitted by the electromagnetic means. The device driver for this tracker replaces the standard mouse driver. Hence most applications which use a mouse can also use this tracker. Its name `Mimosa' indicates that the user need not touch the screen (Mimosa Pudica is the Latin name of a plant whose leaves wilt when touched). Presently work is on to achieve uniform sensitivity over the entire screen and reducing transmitter power consumption. In order to demonstrate its working, a small, 3D game was written. The player has to reach a pre-defined location after traversing through a maze. The paper describes the interface electronics, system software, mechanical design and the sample application.

  1. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  2. Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Viewgraph presentation on Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics is discussed. Topics discussed include: NASA Ames nanotechnology program, Potential Carbon Nanotube (CNT) application, CNT synthesis,Computational Nanotechnology, and protein nanotubes.

  3. Electronics for LHC Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document gathers the abstracts of most presentations made at this workshop on electronics for the large hadron collider (LHC) experiments. The presentations were arranged into 6 sessions: 1) electronics for tracker, 2) trigger electronics, 3) detector control systems, 4) data acquisition, 5) electronics for calorimeters and electronics for muons, and 6) links, power systems, grounding and shielding, testing and quality assurance.

  4. Interface Electronic Circuitry for an Electronic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keymeulen, Didier; Buehler, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Electronic circuitry has been developed to serve as an interface between an electronic tongue and digital input/output boards in a laptop computer that is used to control the tongue and process its readings. Electronic tongues can be used for a variety of purposes, including evaluating water quality, analyzing biochemicals, analyzing biofilms, and measuring electrical conductivities of soils.

  5. Electron beam focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  6. Electronics and Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Previously founded as CCPITMachinery and Electronics Sub-council and CCOIC Machinery and Electronics Chamber of Corn-merce in June, 1988, CCPIT Electronics Sub-Council and CCOIC Electronics Chamber of Commerce were established in May, 1993, and then renamed as CCPIT Electronics and Information Industry Sub-council and CCOIC Electronics and Infor-mation Industry Chamber of Commerce (CCPITECC) in September 1999.

  7. Electronic Correlations in Electron Transfer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Ralf; Tornow, Sabine; Anders, Frithjof

    Electron transfer processes play a central role in many chemical and biological systems. Already the transfer of a single electron from the donor to the acceptor can be viewed as a complicated many-body problem, due to the coupling of the electron to the infinitely many environmental degrees of freedom, realized by density fluctuations of the solvent or molecular vibrations of the protein matrix. We focus on the quantum mechanical modelling of two-electron transfer processes whose dynamics is governed by the Coulomb interaction between the electrons as well as the environmental degrees of freedoms represented by a bosonic bath. We identify the regime of parameters in which concerted transfer of the two electrons occurs and discuss the influence of the Coulomb repulsion and the coupling strength to the environment on the electron transfer rate. Calculations are performed using the non-perturbative numerical renormalization group approach for both equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties.

  8. Electron Microscopy Center (EMC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) at Argonne National Laboratory develops and maintains unique capabilities for electron beam characterization and applies those...

  9. Investigations on Electronic Materials

    OpenAIRE

    E. Pugnor; T. Kormány

    1982-01-01

    Electronics has been described as a materials oriented technology. In this sense a short review is given concerning: the connection of materials characterization to the design and processing of electronic components; the most important materials characterization methods used for electronic materials; the strategy of organizing a complete material characterization system for selected electronic components.

  10. Electron-attachment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophorou, L. G.; McCorkle, D. L.; Christodoulides, A. A.

    Topics covered include: modes of production of negative ions, techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, dissociative electron attachment to ground state molecules, dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects of temperature on dissociative electron attachment), molecular parent negative ions, and negative ions formed by ion pair processes and by collisions of molecules with ground state and Rydberg atoms.

  11. Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Electronic Health Records KidsHealth > For Teens > Electronic Health Records Print A A A What's in ... t happen overnight, they are coming. Understanding EHRs Electronic health records (EHR) — also called electronic medical records ( ...

  12. Introduction to electronics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  13. Introduction to Electronics course

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  14. Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Electronic Health Records KidsHealth > For Teens > Electronic Health Records A A A What's in this ... t happen overnight, they are coming. Understanding EHRs Electronic health records (EHR) — also called electronic medical records ( ...

  15. Introduction to Electronic Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilbeck, Lettie

    These materials for a five-unit course were developed to introduce secondary and postsecondary students to the use of electronic equipment in marketing. The units cover the following topics: electronic marketing as a valid marketing approach; telemarketing; radio electronic media marketing; television electronic media marketing; and cable TV…

  16. Hybrid printed electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.; Smits, E.; Rubingh, E.; Teunissen, P.; Kusters, R.; Abbel, R.; Brand, J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Although many electronic functionalities can be realized by printed or organic electronics, short-term marketable products often require robust, reproducible, and nondisturbing technologies. In this chapter we show how hybrid electronics, a combination of printed circuitry, thin-film electronics,

  17. Electron transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, R D

    2013-01-01

    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  18. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1989-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  19. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  20. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  1. Evaluation of the possible role of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae as mechanical vectors of nematodes and protists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Villani

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes and protists can be transmitted to humans in many ways and little concern has been given to the mechanical transmission by ants. This study aimed at analysing how the eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and cysts of Entamoeba coli could be mechanically transmitted to the man by Formicidae. Through the experiments using nests of Tapinoma melanocephalum, Linepithema humile and Monomorium pharaonis reared in the laboratory allied to observations of some 17 ant species in an urban park area in Mogi das Cruzes (SP, it was found that L. humile was capable of carrying eggs of A. lumbricoides both in the field and laboratory conditions (1 worker, as well as was Camponotus rufipes (2, Solenopsis saevissima (1 and Acromyrmex niger (1. The cysts of Escherichia coli were found over three workers of C. rufipes. Although the frequency of the workers found transporting pathogens was low, the capacity of common household species in carrying pathogens like nematodes and protists was demonstrated.Os Nematoda e Protista podem ser transmitidos ao homem de diversas maneiras, mas pouca ênfase é dada para a transmissão mecânica por intermédio de formigas. Assim, esse trabalho procurou investigar a transmissão mecânica de ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides e cistos de Entamoeba coli pelos Formicidae. Através de experimentos com espécies mantidas em ninhos no laboratório (Tapinoma melanocephalum, Linepithema humile e Monomorium pharaonis e com 17 espécies de formigas de uma área antropizada na região de Mogi as Cruzes (SP, foi possível constar que os ovos A. lumbricoides foram transportados por L. humile, tanto no campo (1 operária como no laboratório (1 operária, por Camponotus rufipes (2, por Solenopsis saevissima (1 e por Acromyrmrex niger (1. Em três operárias de C. rufipes foram encontrados cistos de E. coli. Apesar da baixa incidência de transporte, as três primeiras espécies pelo fato de viverem muito próximas ao ser humano, podem levar para

  2. Single electron-ics with carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, G.T.J.

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally investigate Quantum Dots, formed in Carbon Nanotubes. The first part of this thesis deals with charge sensing on such quantum dots. The charge sensor is a metallic Single-electron-transistor, sensitive to the charge of a single electron on the quantum dot. We use this technique for

  3. Electron-electron interactions in disordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Efros, AL

    1985-01-01

    ``Electron-Electron Interactions in Disordered Systems'' deals with the interplay of disorder and the Coulomb interaction. Prominent experts give state-of-the-art reviews of the theoretical and experimental work in this field and make it clear that the interplay of the two effects is essential, especially in low-dimensional systems.

  4. VIRTUAL ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS OF THE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lazarevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is present new idea of the creation, developments and improvements of the electronic equipment of complex systems by means of the virtual electronic components. The idea of the virtual electronic components is a presentation and perception of the creation and developments of the equipment on two forming: real – in the manner of standard marketed block of the intellectual property and image – in the manner of virtual component. The real component in most cases slows the development of the electronic equipment. The imaginary component is the «locomotive» of development of the electronic equipment. The Imaginary component contains the scientific has brushed against developer. The scientific has brushed against developer reveals of itself in the manner of virtual component on the modern level of the design rates of microelectronics.

  5. Electron transporting semiconducting polymers in organic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingang; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2011-07-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the preparation of semiconducting polymers over the past two decades, and successful commercial devices based on them are slowly beginning to enter the market. However, most of the conjugated polymers are hole transporting, or p-type, semiconductors that have seen a dramatic rise in performance over the last decade. Much less attention has been devoted to electron transporting, or n-type, materials that have lagged behind their p-type counterparts. Organic electron transporting materials are essential for the fabrication of organic p-n junctions, organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), n-channel organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and complementary logic circuits. In this critical review we focus upon recent developments in several classes of electron transporting semiconducting polymers used in OLEDs, OFETs and OPVs, and survey and analyze what is currently known concerning electron transporting semiconductor architecture, electronic structure, and device performance relationships (87 references).

  6. Electronics for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Shamieh

    2015-01-01

    Explore the basic concepts of electronics, build your electronics workbench, and begin creating fun electronics projects right away! Electronics For Dummies, 3rd Edition is your guide to the world of electronics. Spanning circuitry, wiring, robotics, transmitters, amplifiers, and more, this book demystifies electricity basics and beyond. The third edition offers new content revised to reflect the latest advancements in the electronics field, and it offers full color project examples to spark your creativity and inspire you to put your new skills to use! Packed with projects that can be comple

  7. High energy electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhomchuk, V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    High energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. The questions of using electron cooling with and without a magnetic field are presented for discussion at this workshop. The electron cooling method was suggested by G. Budker in the middle sixties. The original idea of the electron cooling was published in 1966. The design activities for the NAP-M project was started in November 1971 and the first run using a proton beam occurred in September 1973. The first experiment with both electron and proton beams was started in May 1974. In this experiment good result was achieved very close to theoretical prediction for a usual two component plasma heat exchange.

  8. RHIC electron lenses upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Altinbas, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Binello, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Costanzo, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Drees, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Gassner, D. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Harvey, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Michnoff, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Miller, T. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Pikin, A. I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Samms, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Shrey, T. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Tan, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Than, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; White, S. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 100 GeV polarized proton run in 2015, two electron lenses were used to partially compensate for the head-on beam-beam effect for the first time. Here, we describe the design of the current electron lens, detailing the hardware modifications made after the 2014 commissioning run with heavy ions. A new electron gun with 15-mm diameter cathode is characterized. The electron beam transverse profile was measured using a YAG screen and fitted with a Gaussian distribution. During operation, the overlap of the electron and proton beams was achieved using the electron backscattering detector in conjunction with an automated orbit control program.

  9. Electronic Commerce and Competitive Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Explains the application of electronic commerce techniques (electronic data interchange (EDI), electronic mail (E-mail), electronic bulletin boards...purchase procedures of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR). Changes to the FAR to recognize electronic commerce are recommended. Also discussed...are opportunities to use electronic commerce and small business and legal considerations of electronic commerce . This report describes how electronic

  10. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  11. Chapter 9: Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Spieler, Helmuth G

    2008-01-01

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  12. Chapter 9: Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-12-19

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  13. Presidential Electronic Records Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — PERL (Presidential Electronic Records Library) used to ingest and provide internal access to the Presidential electronic Records of the Reagan, Bush, and Clinton...

  14. THE ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voiculescu Madalina Irena

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Article refers to significance and the digital signature in electronic commerce. Internet and electronic commerce open up many new opportunities for the consumer, yet, the security (or perceived lack of security of exchanging personal and financial data

  15. Electronic Submission of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  16. Chapter 9: Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-12-19

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  17. Laboratory Handbook Electronics

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    Laboratory manual 1966 format A3 with the list of equipment cables, electronic tubes, chassis, diodes transistors etc. One of CERN's first material catalogue for construction components for mechanical and electronic chassis.

  18. Electron shuttles in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Manefield, Mike; Lee, Matthew; Kouzuma, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    Electron-shuttling compounds (electron shuttles [ESs], or redox mediators) are essential components in intracellular electron transfer, while microbes also utilize self-produced and naturally present ESs for extracellular electron transfer. These compounds assist in microbial energy metabolism by facilitating electron transfer between microbes, from electron-donating substances to microbes, and/or from microbes to electron-accepting substances. Artificially supplemented ESs can create new routes of electron flow in the microbial energy metabolism, thereby opening up new possibilities for the application of microbes to biotechnology processes. Typical examples of such processes include halogenated-organics bioremediation, azo-dye decolorization, and microbial fuel cells. Herein we suggest that ESs can be applied widely to create new microbial biotechnology processes.

  19. Electronics materials research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The electronic materials and is aimed at the establishment of quantitative relationships underlying crystal growth parameters, materials properties, electronic characteristics and device applications. The overall program evolves about the following main thrust areas: (1) crystal growth novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor materials; (2) investigation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro and microscale; (3) surface properties and surface interactions with the bulk and ambients; (4) electronic properties controlling device applications and device performance.

  20. Thermography of electronic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Panfilova S. P.; Vlasov A. I.; Gridnev V. N.; Chervinsky A. S.

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of application of thermography to diagnose the electronic devices is analyzed in the article. Typical faults of electronic devices which can be found by means of thermography are given. Advantages of noncontact thermal inspection in comparison with the contact one are described. Some features of thermography of electronic devices are considered. Thermography apparatus is viewed and some pieces of advice about choosing it for electronic devices diagnosis are given. An example o...

  1. Electronics and computer acronyms

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Phil

    1988-01-01

    Electronics and Computer Acronyms presents a list of almost 2,500 acronyms related to electronics and computers. The material for this book is drawn from a number of subject areas, including electrical, electronics, computers, telecommunications, fiber optics, microcomputers/microprocessors, audio, video, and information technology. The acronyms also encompass avionics, military, data processing, instrumentation, units, measurement, standards, services, organizations, associations, and companies. This dictionary offers a comprehensive and broad view of electronics and all that is associated wi

  2. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  3. Mechanical Engineering for Electronics.

    OpenAIRE

    Was, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    Schlumberger drilling tools are exposed to very hard loading conditions (shocks, vibrations, thermal cycling) while performing a job. As these tools are full of electronics, issues can quickly come from electronics failure. Mechanisms of failure occurring in electronics are very complex but can be predicted in some cases. The first part of the thesis describes in which context mechanical engineering applied to electronics is used in Schlumberger. The different kinds of failure which will be i...

  4. Handbook on electronic commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology; Blanning, R. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Owen Graduate School of Management; Strader, T. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Management Information Systems; Whinston, A. [eds.] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Management Science and Information Systems

    2000-07-01

    The world is undergoing a revolution to a digital economy, with pronounced implications for corporate strategy, marketing, operations, information systems, customer services, global supply-chain management, and product distribution. This handbook examines the aspects of electronic commerce, including electronic storefront, on-line business, consumer interface, business-to-business networking, digital payment, legal issues, information product development, and electronic business models. Indispensable for academics, students and professionals who are interested in Electronic Commerce and Internet Business. (orig.)

  5. Atomicity in Electronic Commerce,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    tremendous demand for the ability to electronically buy and sell goods over networks. Electronic commerce has inspired a large variety of work... commerce . It then briefly surveys some major types of electronic commerce pointing out flaws in atomicity. We pay special attention to the atomicity...problems of proposals for digital cash. The paper presents two examples of highly atomic electronic commerce systems: NetBill and Cryptographic Postage Indicia.

  6. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  7. Technology of Electronic Signatur

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    An electronic signature uses a hash of message and an asymetrical algorithm of encryption for its generation. During verification of message on receiver side the hash of original message must be identical with the hash of received message. Electronic message is secured autentization of author and integrity of transmission date. By electronic signature it is possible to sign everything what is in digital form.

  8. ELECTRONS IN NONPOLAR LIQUIDS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLROYD,R.A.

    2002-10-22

    Excess electrons can be introduced into liquids by absorption of high energy radiation, by photoionization, or by photoinjection from metal surfaces. The electron's chemical and physical properties can then be measured, but this requires that the electrons remain free. That is, the liquid must be sufficiently free of electron attaching impurities for these studies. The drift mobility as well as other transport properties of the electron are discussed here as well as electron reactions, free-ion yields and energy levels, Ionization processes typically produce electrons with excess kinetic energy. In liquids during thermalization, where this excess energy is lost to bath molecules, the electrons travel some distance from their geminate positive ions. In general the electrons at this point are still within the coulombic field of their geminate ions and a large fraction of the electrons recombine. However, some electrons escape recombination and the yield that escapes to become free electrons and ions is termed G{sub fi}. Reported values of G{sub fi} for molecular liquids range from 0.05 to 1.1 per 100 eV of energy absorbed. The reasons for this 20-fold range of yields are discussed here.

  9. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  10. Arduino electronics blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcher, Don

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who want to learn about electronics and coding by building amazing devices and gadgets with Arduino. If you are an experienced developer who understands the basics of electronics, then you can quickly learn how to build smart devices using Arduino. The only experience needed is a desire to learn about electronics, circuit breadboarding, and coding.

  11. Electron measurement in PHENIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiba, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo, Tanashi (Japan)

    1995-07-15

    Electron Measurement in PHENIX detector at RHIC is discussed. The yield and S/N ratio at vector meson peaks ({phi}, {omega}, {rho}{sup o}, and J/{psi}) are evaluated. The electrons from open charm decay, and its consequence to the di-electron measurements is discussed.

  12. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  13. Polarized Electron Source Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles K. Sinclair

    1990-02-23

    Presently, only two methods of producing beams of polarized electrons for injection into linear accelerators are in use. Each of these methods uses optical pumping by circularly polarized light to produce electron polarization. In one case, electron polarization is established in metastable helium atoms, while in the other case, the polarized electrons are produced in the conduction band of appropriate semiconductors. The polarized electrons are liberated from the helium metastable by chemi-ionization, and from the semiconductors by lowering the work function at the surface of the material. Developments with each of these sources since the 1988 Spin Physics Conference are reviewed, and the prospects for further improvements discussed.

  14. Soldering in electronics assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Soldering in Electronics Assembly discusses several concerns in soldering of electronic assemblies. The book is comprised of nine chapters that tackle different areas in electronic assembly soldering. Chapter 1 discusses the soldering process itself, while Chapter 2 covers the electronic assemblies. Chapter 3 talks about solders and Chapter 4 deals with flux. The text also tackles the CS and SC soldering process. The cleaning of soldered assemblies, solder quality, and standards and specifications are also discussed. The book will be of great use to professionals who deal with electronic assem

  15. Ultracold Ordered Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, D.; Kramp, J.; Krause, P.; Matl, K.; Neumann, R.; Schwalm, D.

    1988-01-01

    We have started an experimental program to develop an ultracold electron beam, which can be used together with a standard electron cooling device in the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring TSR. In contrast to the standard-type design using electron beam extraction from a heated cathode, the ultracold beam is produced by photoemission of electrons from a cooled semiconductor crystal irradiated with an intense near-infrared laser light beam. Adiabatic acceleration is expected to provide ordering of the electron beam itself. Besides the cooling of ion beams to extremely low temperatures, with the aim of obtaining crystallization, the ultracold beam will constitute an excellent target for atomic physics experiments.

  16. Ultracold ordered electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habs, D.; Kramp, J.; Krause, P.; Matl, K.; Neumann, R.; Schwalm, D.

    1988-01-01

    We have started an experimental program to develop an ultracold electron beam, which can be used together with a standard electron cooling device in the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring TSR. In contrast to the standard-type design using electron beam extraction beam extraction from a heated cathode, the ultracold beam is produced by photoemission of electrons from a cooled semiconductor crystal irradiated with an intense near-infrared laser light beam. Adiabatic acceleration is expected to provide ordering of the electron beam itself. Besides the cooling of ion beams to extremely low temperatures, with the aim of obtaining crystallization, the ultracold beam will constitute an excellent target for atomic physics experiments.

  17. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  18. Advanced adhesives in electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, C

    2011-01-01

    Adhesives are widely used in the manufacture of electronic devices to act as passive and active components. Recently there has been considerable interest in the use of conductive adhesives. This book reviews key types of conductive adhesives, processing methods, properties and the way they can be modelled as well as potential applications.$bAdhesives for electronic applications serve important functional and structural purposes in electronic components and packaging, and have developed significantly over the last few decades. Advanced adhesives in electronics reviews recent developments in adhesive joining technology, processing and properties. The book opens with an introduction to adhesive joining technology for electronics. Part one goes on to cover different types of adhesive used in electronic systems, including thermally conductive adhesives, isotropic and anisotropic conductive adhesives and underfill adhesives for flip-chip applications. Part two focuses on the properties and processing of electronic ...

  19. Electron crystallography and aquaporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Andreas D; Hite, Richard K; Engel, Andreas; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Walz, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Electron crystallography of two-dimensional (2D) crystals can provide information on the structure of membrane proteins at near-atomic resolution. Originally developed and used to determine the structure of bacteriorhodopsin (bR), electron crystallography has recently been applied to elucidate the structure of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of membrane proteins that form pores mostly for water but also other solutes. While electron crystallography has made major contributions to our understanding of the structure and function of AQPs, structural studies on AQPs, in turn, have fostered a number of technical developments in electron crystallography. In this contribution, we summarize the insights electron crystallography has provided into the biology of AQPs, and describe technical advancements in electron crystallography that were driven by structural studies on AQP 2D crystals. In addition, we discuss some of the lessons that were learned from electron crystallographic work on AQPs.

  20. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  1. Medan Electronic Mall Arsitektur Ikonik

    OpenAIRE

    David,, A.

    2014-01-01

    With present the Medan Electronic Mall is intended to meet the needs of electronic goods from electronic of communication, Office Electronics, Household Electronics, Hobbies or electronic game, Medan Electronic Mall also hosts for the people of North Sumatra Province especially for people of Medan City to get particular information will be the development of electronic goods and also enjoy all kinds of things related to electronics such as Game Center, Cyber/Virtual Game, Internet...

  2. Engineered phages for electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2016-11-15

    Phages are traditionally widely studied in biology and chemistry. In recent years, engineered phages have attracted significant attentions for functionalization or construction of electronic devices, due to their specific binding, catalytic, nucleating or electronic properties. To apply the engineered phages in electronics, these are a number of interesting questions: how to engineer phages for electronics? How are the engineered phages characterized? How to assemble materials with engineered phages? How are the engineered phages micro or nanopatterned? What are the strategies to construct electronics devices with engineered phages? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions and explore the fundamental and practical aspects of engineered phages in electronics, including the approaches for selection or expression of specific peptides on phage coat proteins, characterization of engineered phages in electronics, assembly of electronic materials, patterning of engineered phages, and construction of electronic devices. It provides the methodologies and opens up ex-cit-ing op-por-tu-ni-ties for the development of a variety of new electronic materials and devices based on engineered phages for future applications.

  3. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2010-08-24

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability.

  4. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability. PMID:20696933

  5. Metamaterials for Ballistic Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Dragoman, D; Dragoman, Daniela; Dragoman, Mircea

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a metamaterial for ballistic electrons, which consists of a quantum barrier formed in a semiconductor with negative effective electron mass. This barrier is the analogue of a metamaterial for electromagnetic waves in media with negative electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability. Besides applications similar to those of optical metamaterials, a nanosized slab of a metamaterial for ballistic electrons, sandwiched between quantum wells of positive effective mass materials, reveals unexpected conduction properties, e.g. single or multiple room temperature negative differential conductance regions at very low voltages and with considerable peak-to-valley ratios, while the traversal time of ballistic electrons can be tuned to larger or smaller values than in the absence of the metamaterial slab. Thus, slow and fast electrons, analogous to slow and fast light, occur in metamaterials for ballistic electrons.

  6. Electrons in Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Christian

    2007-01-01

    or a few electrons. Such few-electron devices are expected to form the building blocks of future electrical circuits and it is thus necessary to develop a thorough theoretical understanding of the physics of electrons in nanostructures. Re- garding applications there is a particular interest......-based communication. The statistical description of electron transport through nanostructures is based on rate equations, and the primary contribution of the thesis in that respect is the development of a method that allows for the calculation of the distribution of electrons passing through a device. The method......This thesis concerns theoretical aspects of electrons in man-made nanostruc- tures. Advances in nanofabrication technology during recent decades have made it possible to produce electrical devices on the nano-scale, whose func- tionality is determined by the quantum mechanical nature of a single...

  7. Single electron spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Kari J; Ciudad, David; Marrows, Christopher H

    2011-08-13

    Single electron electronics is now well developed, and allows the manipulation of electrons one-by-one as they tunnel on and off a nanoscale conducting island. In the past decade or so, there have been concerted efforts in several laboratories to construct single electron devices incorporating ferromagnetic components in order to introduce spin functionality. The use of ferromagnetic electrodes with a non-magnetic island can lead to spin accumulation on the island. On the other hand, making the dot also ferromagnetic introduces new physics such as tunnelling magnetoresistance enhancement in the cotunnelling regime and manifestations of the Kondo effect. Such nanoscale islands are also found to have long spin lifetimes. Conventional spintronics makes use of the average spin-polarization of a large ensemble of electrons: this new approach offers the prospect of accessing the quantum properties of the electron, and is a candidate approach to the construction of solid-state spin-based qubits.

  8. Electron transfer in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1991-01-01

    Electron migration between and within proteins is one of the most prevalent forms of biological energy conversion processes. Electron transfer reactions take place between active centers such as transition metal ions or organic cofactors over considerable distances at fast rates and with remarkable...... specificity. The electron transfer is attained through weak electronic interaction between the active sites, so that considerable research efforts are centered on resolving the factors that control the rates of long-distance electron transfer reactions in proteins. These factors include (in addition......-containing proteins. These proteins serve almost exclusively in electron transfer reactions, and as it turns out, their metal coordination sites are endowed with properties uniquely optimized for their function....

  9. Nanocrystals for electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthani, Matthew G; Korgel, Brian A

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals are promising materials for low-cost large-area electronic device fabrication. They can be synthesized with a wide variety of chemical compositions and size-tunable optical and electronic properties as well as dispersed in solvents for room-temperature deposition using various types of printing processes. This review addresses research progress in large-area electronic device applications using nanocrystal-based electrically active thin films, including thin-film transistors, light-emitting diodes, photovoltaics, and thermoelectrics.

  10. Technology of Electronic Signatur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Sadovsky

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An electronic signature uses a hash of message and an asymetrical algorithm of encryption for its generation. During verification of message on receiver side the hash of original message must be identical with the hash of received message. Electronic message is secured autentization of author and integrity of transmission date. By electronic signature it is possible to sign everything what is in digital form.

  11. Modern electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, John B

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Materials focuses on the development of electronic components. The book first discusses the history of electronic components, including early developments up to 1900, developments up to World War II, post-war developments, and a comparison of present microelectric techniques. The text takes a look at resistive materials. Topics include resistor requirements, basic properties, evaporated film resistors, thick film resistors, and special resistors. The text examines dielectric materials. Considerations include basic properties, evaporated dielectric materials, ceramic dielectri

  12. Field emission electron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter; Cohen, Marvin Lou

    2000-01-01

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  13. Introduction to electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Korneff, Theodore

    1966-01-01

    Introduction to Electronics focuses on the study of electronics and electronic devices. Composed of 14 chapters, the book starts with discussions on dc circuits, including resistance, voltmeter, ammeter, galvanometer, internal resistance, and positive and negative currents. This topic is followed by discussions on ac circuits, particularly addressing voltage and current, average power, resistive load, complex plane, and parallel circuits. Discussions also focus on filters and tuned circuits, diodes, and power supplies. Particularly given attention are the processes, diagrams, and analyses

  14. ETHICS AND ELECTRONIC VOTING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    13 pages; International audience; In the first part, we will define the main properties of a democratic election, providing a typology of electronic devices and give a view on some legal documents pertaining to the matter. In the second part, the ethics of voting will be evaluated: our methodology is detailed, followed by an examination of pure paper-based elections, paperless electronic voting and verifiable electronic voting. The new concept of legally operative transparency is defined and ...

  15. Electronic collection management

    CERN Document Server

    Mcginnis, Suzan D

    2013-01-01

    Build and manage your collection of digital resources with these successful strategies! This comprehensive volume is a practical guide to the art and science of acquiring and organizing electronic resources. The collections discussed here range in size from small college libraries to large research libraries, but all are facing similar problems: shrinking budgets, increasing demands, and rapidly shifting formats. Electronic Collection Management offers new ideas for coping with these issues. Bringing together diverse aspects of collection development, Electronic Collection

  16. Introduction to printed electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2014-01-01

    This book describes in detail modern technologies for printed electronics, explaining how nanotechnology and modern printing technology are merging to revolutionize electronics fabrication of thin, lightweight, large, and inexpensive products. Readers will benefit from the explanations of materials, devices and circuits used to design and implement the latest applications of printed electronics, such as thin flexible OLED displays, organic solar cells, OLED lighting, smart wallpaper, sensors, logic, memory and more.

  17. Electronic signal conditioning

    CERN Document Server

    NEWBY, BRUCE

    1994-01-01

    At technician level, brief references to signal conditioning crop up in a fragmented way in various textbooks, but there has been no single textbook, until now!More advanced texts do exist but they are more mathematical and presuppose a higher level of understanding of electronics and statistics. Electronic Signal Conditioning is designed for HNC/D students and City & Guilds Electronics Servicing 2240 Parts 2 & 3. It will also be useful for BTEC National, Advanced GNVQ, A-level electronics and introductory courses at degree level.

  18. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  19. Smart Electronic Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wei; Chen, Peining; He, Sisi; Sun, Xuemei; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-05-17

    This Review describes the state-of-the-art of wearable electronics (smart textiles). The unique and promising advantages of smart electronic textiles are highlighted by comparing them with the conventional planar counterparts. The main kinds of smart electronic textiles based on different functionalities, namely the generation, storage, and utilization of electricity, are then discussed with an emphasis on the use of functional materials. The remaining challenges are summarized together with important new directions to provide some useful clues for the future development of smart electronic textiles.

  20. Electronic Wallets in Danger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Sahut

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The erratic development of electronic wallets (EW illustrates thedifficulties of their adoption by the general public and shopkeepersalike. With exceptions, such as Proton in Europe and Octopus in Asia,a lot of electronic wallets are likely to disappear in the next fewyears. Yet the key factors of success are known by banks which oftenchoose to ignore them. However, the strategic change taken by some inorder to bring a fresh start to electronic wallets like Moneo couldreverse the tendency. Nevertheless, it will still be necessary to waitseveral years before seeing electronic wallets really imposethemselves as a credible alternative to payments in cash.

  1. Analytical Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Titan 80-300 is a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with spectroscopic detectors to allow chemical, elemental, and other analytical measurements to...

  2. Fundamentals of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    This book, Electronic Devices and Circuit Application, is the first of four books of a larger work, Fundamentals of Electronics. It is comprised of four chapters describing the basic operation of each of the four fundamental building blocks of modern electronics: operational amplifiers, semiconductor diodes, bipolar junction transistors, and field effect transistors. Attention is focused on the reader obtaining a clear understanding of each of the devices when it is operated in equilibrium. Ideas fundamental to the study of electronic circuits are also developed in the book at a basic level to

  3. High-power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitsa, Petr Leonidovich

    1966-01-01

    High-Power Electronics, Volume 2 presents the electronic processes in devices of the magnetron type and electromagnetic oscillations in different systems. This book explores the problems of electronic energetics.Organized into 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the motion of electrons in a flat model of the magnetron, taking into account the in-phase wave and the reverse wave. This text then examines the processes of transmission of electromagnetic waves of various polarization and the wave reflection from grids made of periodically distributed infinite metal conductors. Other

  4. Electron correlation in molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, S

    2007-01-01

    Electron correlation effects are of vital significance to the calculation of potential energy curves and surfaces, the study of molecular excitation processes, and in the theory of electron-molecule scattering. This text describes methods for addressing one of theoretical chemistry's central problems, the study of electron correlation effects in molecules.Although the energy associated with electron correlation is a small fraction of the total energy of an atom or molecule, it is of the same order of magnitude as most energies of chemical interest. If the solution of quantum mechanical equatio

  5. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  6. Electronics pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Parr, E A

    1981-01-01

    Electronics Pocket Book, Fourth Edition is a nonmathematical presentation of the many varied topics covered by electronics. The book tackles electron physics, electronic components (i.e. resistors, capacitors, and conductors), integrated circuits, and the principles of a.c. and d.c. amplifiers. The text also discusses oscillators, digital circuits, digital computers, and optoelectronics (i.e., sensors, emitters, and devices that utilize light). Communications (such as line and radio communications, transmitters, receivers, and digital techniques); the principles and examples of servosystems; a

  7. Flexible Electronics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Flexible Electronics Research Facility designs, synthesizes, tests, and fabricates materials and devices compatible with flexible substrates for Army information...

  8. Electron Transfer Chain Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Electron-transfer chain (ETC) catalysis belongs to the family of chain reactions where the electron is the catalyst. The ETC mechanism could be initiated by chemical activation, electrochemistry, or photolysis. If this pathway is applied to the preparation of organometallic complexes, it utilizes the greatly enhanced reactivity of organometallic 17e and 19e radicals. The chemical propagation is followed by the cross electron-transfer while the electron-transfer step is also followed by the chemical propagation, creating a loop in which reactants are facilely transformed into products. Interestingly the overall reaction is without any net redox change.

  9. Electron Transfer Chain Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; LingKang

    2001-01-01

    Electron-transfer chain (ETC) catalysis belongs to the family of chain reactions where the electron is the catalyst. The ETC mechanism could be initiated by chemical activation, electrochemistry, or photolysis. If this pathway is applied to the preparation of organometallic complexes, it utilizes the greatly enhanced reactivity of organometallic 17e and 19e radicals. The chemical propagation is followed by the cross electron-transfer while the electron-transfer step is also followed by the chemical propagation, creating a loop in which reactants are facilely transformed into products. Interestingly the overall reaction is without any net redox change.  ……

  10. Nanosecond electron microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanjoglo; Elschner; Mao; Nink; Weingartner

    2000-04-01

    Combining electron optics, fast electronics and pulsed lasers, a transmission and a photoelectron emission microscope were built, which visualize events in thin films and on surfaces with a time resolution of several nanoseconds. The high-speed electron microscopy is capable to track fast laser-induced processes in metals below the ablation threshold, which are difficult to detect by other imaging techniques. The material response to nano- and femtosecond laser pulses was found to be very different. It was dominated by thermo/chemocapillary flow and chemical reactions in the case of nanosecond pulses, and by mechanical deformations and non-thermal electron emission after a femtosecond pulse.

  11. Electron caustic lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kennedy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A maskless method of electron beam lithography is described which uses the reflection of an electron beam from an electrostatic mirror to produce caustics in the demagnified image projected onto a resist–coated wafer. By varying the electron optics, e.g. via objective lens defocus, both the morphology and dimensions of the caustic features may be controlled, producing a range of bright and tightly focused projected features. The method is illustrated for line and fold caustics and is complementary to other methods of reflective electron beam lithography.

  12. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2011-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Ea

  13. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2007-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Each chapter ends with a set

  14. (Pulsed electron beam precharger)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, W.C. (ed.); Shelton, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on electron beam guns: Precharger Modification; Installation of Charge vs. Radius Apparatus; High Concentration Aerosol Generation; and Data Acquisition and Analysis System.

  15. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  16. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  17. Electronic Service Statistics - Quarterly Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This is a quarterly report that compares electronic data vs non-electronic data for electronic services. Report contains six main sections namely, electronic access,...

  18. Optical Electronics. Electronics Module 9. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Bill

    This module is the ninth of 10 modules in the competency-based electronics series. Introductory materials include a listing of competencies addressed in the module, a parts/equipment list, and a cross reference table of instructional materials. Five instructional units cover: fiber optic cable; optical coupler; lasers and masers; optical displays;…

  19. Notes on Electronic Lexicography

    CERN Document Server

    Parvanov, Yavor

    2011-01-01

    These notes are a continuation of topics covered by V. Selegej in his article "Electronic Dictionaries and Computational lexicography". How can an electronic dictionary have as its object the description of closely related languages? Obviously, such a question allows multiple answers.

  20. Managing electronic records

    CERN Document Server

    McLeod, Julie

    2005-01-01

    For records management courses, this book covers the theory and practice of managing electronic records as business and information assets. It focuses on the strategies, systems and procedures necessary to ensure that electronic records are appropriately created, captured, organized and retained over time to meet business and legal requirements.

  1. STEP electronic system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, R. H.; Johnson, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The STEP electronic system design is discussed. The purpose of the design is outlined. The electronic system design is summarized and it is found that: an effective conceptual system design is developed; the design represents a unique set of capabilities; makes efficient use of available orbiter resources; the system capabilities exceed identified potential experiment needs.

  2. Electron tunnel sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltman, S. B.; Kaiser, W. J.

    1989-01-01

    The recent development of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy technology allows the application of electron tunneling to position detectors for the first time. The vacuum tunnel junction is one of the most sensitive position detection mechanisms available. It is also compact, simple, and requires little power. A prototype accelerometer based on electron tunneling, and other sensor applications of this promising new technology are described.

  3. Electron scattering violates parity

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Parity violation has been observed in collisions between electrons at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in the US. The resuls, which are in agreement with the Stanford Model of particle physics, also provide a new measurement of the weak charge of the electron (½ page)

  4. Pulsed Plasma Electron Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasik, Yakov

    2008-11-01

    Pulsed (˜10-7 s) electron beams with high current density (>10^2 A/cm^2) are generated in diodes with electric field of E > 10^6 V/cm. The source of electrons in these diodes is explosive emission plasma, which limits pulse duration; in the case E Hadas and Ya. E. Krasik, Europhysics Lett. 82, 55001 (2008).

  5. Electron transfer in peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Afzal; Adhikari, Bimalendu; Martic, Sanela; Munir, Azeema; Shahzad, Suniya; Ahmad, Khurshid; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2015-02-21

    In this review, we discuss the factors that influence electron transfer in peptides. We summarize experimental results from solution and surface studies and highlight the ongoing debate on the mechanistic aspects of this fundamental reaction. Here, we provide a balanced approach that remains unbiased and does not favor one mechanistic view over another. Support for a putative hopping mechanism in which an electron transfers in a stepwise manner is contrasted with experimental results that support electron tunneling or even some form of ballistic transfer or a pathway transfer for an electron between donor and acceptor sites. In some cases, experimental evidence suggests that a change in the electron transfer mechanism occurs as a result of donor-acceptor separation. However, this common understanding of the switch between tunneling and hopping as a function of chain length is not sufficient for explaining electron transfer in peptides. Apart from chain length, several other factors such as the extent of the secondary structure, backbone conformation, dipole orientation, the presence of special amino acids, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamic properties of a peptide also influence the rate and mode of electron transfer in peptides. Electron transfer plays a key role in physical, chemical and biological systems, so its control is a fundamental task in bioelectrochemical systems, the design of peptide based sensors and molecular junctions. Therefore, this topic is at the heart of a number of biological and technological processes and thus remains of vital interest.

  6. Single particle electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, Egbert J.; Folea, Mihaela; Kouril, Roman; Kouřil, Roman

    2009-01-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) in combination with image analysis is a powerful technique to study protein structures at low, medium, and high resolution. Since electron micrographs of biological objects are very noisy, improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio by image processing is an integral part of EM

  7. Electronic Mail Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Susan A.

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview of new developments in electronic mail, including the interconnection of online networks, some on an international level; and news on system upgrades of specific information services. The growth of the electronic mail industry and possible future trends are discussed and a glossary of technical terms is included. (CLB)

  8. Electronically Controlled Resistor Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Walter L.

    1987-01-01

    Resistance quickly varied in small steps over wide range. Device with no moving parts provides variable electrical resistance. Used with analog or digital circuity to provide electronic selection of large number of resistance values for testing, simulation, control, or other purposes. Nearest electromechanical equivalent of all-electronic device is potentiometer driven by servomotor.

  9. Electronics and Lithuanian Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasys Zajankauskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is found that the vacuum triode, transistor, monolithic circuit and microprocessor were the most important inventions of traditional electronics. Thus, the origins of the traditional electronics should be associated with the invention of the vacuum triode, but not with the invention of vacuum diode. It is shown that the science of electronics is not as young as computer science or up-to-date information technologies: electronics, including active electronics, had already celebrated the centenary, and the period of 2004–2008 is the period of numerous already solid jubilees. Thus, the terminology of electronics is not at initial stage of evolution as well – general terms should be already systematized and normalized. However, Lithuanian terms for electronic devices invented before tens of years and terms for old-defined notions associated with these devices are still varying, some are worsened. Especially, the incorrectly motivated terms used for variations of transistors and microcircuits are analyzed in the article. It is motivated which terms are preferable, systematic and exact. The paper is dedicated to the 50th anniversary of monolithic circuit, as well as the 60th anniversary of transistor, the 40th jubilee of microprocessor and centenary of electronics.

  10. Electronically Induced Phase Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    ries (w hen the Slater free-electron exchange is used). A systematic the active researcher. study of relativistic electron densities and isomer...comp:wrees aux mesures actuelles d’effet dHvA d’Arko et Schirber. Le calu; du facteur de forme neutronique en presence d’un champ magnetique est en bon

  11. Green and biodegradable electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Irimia-Vladu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We live in a world where the lifetime of electronics is becoming shorter, now approaching an average of several months. This poses a growing ecological problem. This brief review will present some of the initial steps taken to address the issue of electronic waste with biodegradable organic electronic materials. Many organic materials have been shown to be biodegradable, safe, and nontoxic, including compounds of natural origin. Additionally, the unique features of such organic materials suggest they will be useful in biofunctional electronics; demonstrating functions that would be inaccessible for traditional inorganic compounds. Such materials may lead to fully biodegradable and even biocompatible/biometabolizable electronics for many low-cost applications. This review highlights recent progress in these classes of material, covering substrates and insulators, semiconductors, and finally conductors.

  12. LEIR electron cooler status

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquille, G; Parkhomchuk, V; Prieto, V; Sautier, R

    2006-01-01

    The electron cooler for LEIR is the first of a new generation of coolers being commissioned for fast phase space cooling of ion beams in storage rings. It is a stateof- the-art cooler incorporating all the recent developments in electron cooling technology (adiabatic expansion, electrostatic bend, variable density electron beam) and is designed to deliver up to 600 mA of electron current for the cooling and stacking of Pb54+ ions in the frame of the ions for LHC project. In this paper we present our experience with the commissioning of the new device as well as the first results of ion beam cooling with a high-intensity variable-density electron beam.

  13. Electron Cyclotron Emission Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Cristina

    2009-11-01

    There is much interest in studying plasmas that generate hot electrons. The goal of this project is to develop a wide band electron cyclotron radiometer to measure the non-Maxwellian rapid rises in electron temperature. These rapid increases in temperature will then be correlated to instabilities in the plasma. This project explores a type of noncontact temperature measurement. We will attempt to show the feasibility of electron cyclotron emissions to measure the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment's electron plasma temperature. The radiometer has been designed to have 100dB of gain and a sensitivity of 24mV/dB given by its logarithmic amplifier. If successful, this radiometer will be used as a diagnostic tool in later projects such as the proposed experiment studying magnetic reconnection using solar flux loops.

  14. Practical electronics for inventors

    CERN Document Server

    Scherz, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Spark your creativity and gain the electronics skills required to transform your innovative ideas into functioning gadgets. This hands-on, updated guide outlines electrical principles and provides thorough, easy-to-follow instructions, schematics, and illustrations. Findout how to select components, safely assemble circuits, perform error tests, and build plug-and-play prototypes. Practical Electronics for Inventors, Third Edition, features all-new chapters on sensors, microcontrollers, modular electronics, and the latest software tools. Coverage includes: Resistors, capacitors, inductors, and transformers Diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits Optoelectronics, solar cells, and phototransistors Sensors, GPS modules, and touch screens Op amps, regulators, and power supplies Digital electronics, LCD displays, and logic gates Microcontrollers and prototyping platforms, including Arduino DC motors, RC servos, and stepper motors Microphones, audio amps, and speakers Modular electronics and prototyping.

  15. Simulations of Gaussian electron guns for RHIC electron lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikin, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-02-28

    Simulations of two versions of the electron gun for RHIC electron lens are presented. The electron guns have to generate an electron beam with Gaussian radial profile of the electron beam density. To achieve the Gaussian electron emission profile on the cathode we used a combination of the gun electrodes and shaping of the cathode surface. Dependence of electron gun performance parameters on the geometry of electrodes and the margins for electrodes positioning are presented.

  16. Electronic Collection Management and Electronic Information Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    TITLE: Electronic Information Management for PfP Nations [La gestion electronique des informations pour les pays du PfP] To order the complete...banking and securities trading. E- commerce has moved into many other areas and it is now possible to purchase a wide variety of goods and services on line...include interactive e- commerce and e-governance services as well as various organizational database management needs (including registrations, membership

  17. Ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in an urban ecosystem near the Atlantic Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM. Kamura

    Full Text Available The relationships between an urban ecosystem located near the Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil and ant communities were studied with the objective of quantifying the ant richness and abundance in the household environment and its surroundings. Eighty residences were sampled, where 58 species and 28 genera pertaining to 7 sub-families were found to be present. Inside the residences, the species richness was found to be lower (26, although the abundance was greater (10,670, with the wash area and kitchen being the locales that contributed with the greatest number of hits. The opposite was true in the areas outside the residences, where 54 species and 3,747 ants were observed. Inside houses, the species known as Tramp ants were found, in the following order of importance: Solenopsis -saevissima, Tapinoma melanocephalum, Linepithema humile, Paratrechina fulva, Wasmannia -auropunctata, P. -longicornis, Pheidole megacephala, Monomorium pharaonis and M. floricola. Externally, mainly in the yards and gardens, species such as Octostruma rugifera, Heteroponera dolo, Hypoponera sp.1 and sp.6, Gnamptogenys sp. 4, G. striatula, Odontomachus meinerti, Pachycondyla constricta and P. striata were found. In general, a greater number of species and lower abundance of individuals were observed in the neighborhoods nearer the mountains than in those closer to the urban center.

  18. Electron Cooling of RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Barton, Donald; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruhwiler, David L; Burger, Al; Burov, Alexey; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Derbenev, Yaroslav S; Eidelman, Yury I; Favale, Anthony; Fedotov, Alexei V; Fischer, Wolfram; Funk, L W; Gassner, David M; Hahn, Harald; Harrison, Michael; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Koop, Ivan; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Mahler, George; Malitsky, Nikolay; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Merminga, Lia; Meshkov, Igor; Mirabella, Kerry; Montag, Christoph; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Parzen, George; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Shatunov, Yuri; Sidorin, Anatoly O; Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich; Smirnov, Alexander V; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Trbojevic, Dejan; Troubnikov, Grigory; Wang, Gang; Wei, Jie; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang; ain, Animesh K

    2005-01-01

    We report progress on the R&D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R&D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV. A Zeroth Order Design Report is in an advanced draft state, and can be found on the web at http://www.ags...

  19. Dissociative Electron Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola, Esmeralda; Esmeralda Arreola Collaboration; Leigh Hargreaves Collaboration

    Since the pioneering work of Boudiaffa et al., it has been understood that electrons, even with energies near or below the ionization threshold, are capable of initiating strand-breaks in human DNA. This discovery raised important questions for cancer treatments, since sub-ionizing electrons are known to be the most copiously produced secondary product of radiation therapy. But even to date these factors are largely excluded from dosimetry calculations. This lack of inclusion is, at least in part, certainly due to the dearth of fundamental data describing low-energy electron interactions with nucleotide molecules that form the basis of DNA. Understanding of how such slow electrons are able to damage DNA remains incomplete, but the strongly peaked nature of Boudiaffa et al.'s data gives strong hints at resonantly driven collision processes. DNA damage is therefore most likely driven by ``dissociative electron attachment'' (DEA). DEA is a rather complicated process to model due to the coupling of electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom in the molecule. At the California State University Fullerton, we are currently commissioning a new spectrometer to study dissociation channels, reaction rates and orientation effects in DEA collisions between slow electrons and nucleotide molecules. At the meeting we will present design parameters and commissioning data for this new apparatus.

  20. Electron heat flux instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sundas; Sarfraz, M.; Yoon, P. H.; Lazar, M.; Qureshi, M. N. S.

    2017-02-01

    The heat flux instability is an electromagnetic mode excited by a relative drift between the protons and two-component core-halo electrons. The most prominent application may be in association with the solar wind where drifting electron velocity distributions are observed. The heat flux instability is somewhat analogous to the electrostatic Buneman or ion-acoustic instability driven by the net drift between the protons and bulk electrons, except that the heat flux instability operates in magnetized plasmas and possesses transverse electromagnetic polarization. The heat flux instability is also distinct from the electrostatic counterpart in that it requires two electron species with relative drifts with each other. In the literature, the heat flux instability is often called the 'whistler' heat flux instability, but it is actually polarized in the opposite sense to the whistler wave. This paper elucidates all of these fundamental plasma physical properties associated with the heat flux instability starting from a simple model, and gradually building up more complexity towards a solar wind-like distribution functions. It is found that the essential properties of the instability are already present in the cold counter-streaming electron model, and that the instability is absent if the protons are ignored. These instability characteristics are highly reminiscent of the electron firehose instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy, propagating in parallel direction with respect to the ambient magnetic field, except that the free energy source for the heat flux instability resides in the effective parallel pressure provided by the counter-streaming electrons.

  1. Aerogels for electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrubesh, L.W.

    1994-10-01

    In addition to their other exceptional properties, aerogels also exhibit unusual dielectric and electronic properties due to their nano-sized structures and high porosities. For example, aerogels have the lowest dielectric constants measured for a solid material (having values approaching 1.0); they have exceptionally high dielectric resistivities and strengths (i.e., ability to insulate very high voltages); they exhibit low dielectric loss at microwave frequencies; and some aerogels are electrically conductive and photoconductive. These properties are being exploited to provide the next generation of materials for energy storage, low power consumption, and ultra-fast electronics. We are working toward adapting these unusual materials for microelectronic applications, particularly, making thin aerogel films for dielectric substrates and for energy storage devices such as supercapacitors. Measurements are presented in this paper for the dielectric and electronic properties of aerogels, including the dielectric constant, loss factor, dielectric and electrical conductivity, volume resistivity, and dielectric strength. We also describe methods to form and characterize thin aerogel films which are being developed for numerous electronic applications. Finally, some of the electronic applications proposed for aerogels are presented. Commercialization of aerogels for electronics must await further feasibility, prototype development, and cost studies, but they are one of the key materials and are sure to have a major impact on future electronics.

  2. Coherent electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko,V.

    2009-05-04

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is still too feeble, while the efficiency of two other cooling methods, stochastic and electron, falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i.e. stochastic of protons) or at high energies (e-cooling). In this talk a specific scheme of a unique cooling technique, Coherent Electron Cooling, will be discussed. The idea of coherent electron cooling using electron beam instabilities was suggested by Derbenev in the early 1980s, but the scheme presented in this talk, with cooling times under an hour for 7 TeV protons in the LHC, would be possible only with present-day accelerator technology. This talk will discuss the principles and the main limitations of the Coherent Electron Cooling process. The talk will describe the main system components, based on a high-gain free electron laser driven by an energy recovery linac, and will present some numerical examples for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC and for electron-hadron options for these colliders. BNL plans a demonstration of the idea in the near future.

  3. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1968-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th

  4. Power Electronics for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    A microgrid (MG) is a stand-alone or grid-connected hybrid renewable system that uses distributed renewable and nonrenewable energy sources and energy storage systems (ESSs) to supply power to local loads. The system is ordinarily based on power electronics, with interface converters allowing...... a continuous supply of power in the presence of variable RES production. This chapter describes some specific features of DC MGs in terms of power architecture, control, and protection. It also reviews several uncommon power electronic interfaces. Regarding control, operation without critical communication...... are explained in this chapter. The chapter concludes with a review of power electronic intensive protection solutions for DC MGs....

  5. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  6. Electronic components and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, W H

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Components and Systems focuses on the principles and processes in the field of electronics and the integrated circuit. Covered in the book are basic aspects and physical fundamentals; different types of materials involved in the field; and passive and active electronic components such as capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. Also covered in the book are topics such as the fabrication of semiconductors and integrated circuits; analog circuitry; digital logic technology; and microprocessors. The monograph is recommended for beginning electrical engineers who would like to kn

  7. Consulting in Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Loredana Tache

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic development of electronic services provide advice and many agents of existingreferral systems to recommend and provide products, information and customized views of thecommunity through a personalized interaction in real time. Distributed systems of autonomous agentsare becoming increasingly important in electronic comet because the basic decisions of agents adviceon trust and reputation are taken in a similar way human society. If these decisions will be as a realconsumer protection, when new aspects of online consumer legislation will become usefulinformation in advice and consulting of electronic commerce.

  8. Electron Beam Materials Irradiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Marshall R.

    2012-06-01

    Radiation processing is a well established method for enhancing the properties of materials and commercial products by treating them with ionizing energy in the form of high-energy electrons, X-rays, and gamma rays. Beneficial effects include polymerizing, cross-linking, grafting and degrading plastics, sterilizing single-use medical devices, disinfecting and disinfesting fresh foods, purifying drinking water, treating wastewater and other toxic waste materials that harm the environment, and many other applications that are still being evaluated. Industrial electron accelerators of several types have been developed and are being used for these applications. More than 1800 electron accelerators are presently installed in facilities worldwide for these purposes.

  9. Field emission electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Egorov, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    This book is dedicated to field emission electronics, a promising field at the interface between “classic” vacuum electronics and nanotechnology. In addition to theoretical models, it includes detailed descriptions of experimental and research techniques and production technologies for different types of field emitters based on various construction principles. It particularly focuses on research into and production of field cathodes and electron guns using recently developed nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes. Further, it discusses the applications of field emission cathodes in new technologies such as light sources, flat screens, microwave and X-ray devices.

  10. Semiconductor opto-electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, TS; Ellis, B

    1972-01-01

    Semiconductor Opto-Electronics focuses on opto-electronics, covering the basic physical phenomena and device behavior that arise from the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and electrons in a solid. The first nine chapters of this book are devoted to theoretical topics, discussing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with solids, dispersion theory and absorption processes, magneto-optical effects, and non-linear phenomena. Theories of photo-effects and photo-detectors are treated in detail, including the theories of radiation generation and the behavior of semiconductor lasers a

  11. Principles of quantum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Marcuse, Dietrich

    1980-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Electronics focuses on the concept of quantum electronics as the application of quantum theory to engineering problems. It examines the principles that govern specific quantum electronics devices and presents their theoretical applications to typical problems. Comprised of 10 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the Dirac formulation of quantum mechanics. This text then considers the derivation of the formalism of field quantization and discusses the properties of photons and phonons. Other chapters examine the interaction between the electromagnetic field and c

  12. VLSI electronics microstructure science

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 4 reviews trends for the future of very large scale integration (VLSI) electronics and the scientific base that supports its development.This book discusses the silicon-on-insulator for VLSI and VHSIC, X-ray lithography, and transient response of electron transport in GaAs using the Monte Carlo method. The technology and manufacturing of high-density magnetic-bubble memories, metallic superlattices, challenge of education for VLSI, and impact of VLSI on medical signal processing are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the impact of VLSI t

  13. Coding for Electronic Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  14. TIS - Beyond Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    AD-AI06 764 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH F/G 17/2 TIS - BEYOND ELECTRONIC MAIL .(U) 1979 D L OLSON, N T FLYNN, M I DARWISH...79-22§1_ 4~~~~~~~ SIXi.m.aihl -- . TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD covERED TIS -SBeyond Electronic Mail . TlSS~cnA~r 6 PEFRI4 O11G. REPORT NUMBER Duane L.A:o...single-service provisions of so-called " electronic mail ." Approaches to be used in implementing a TIS are considered, and a time-frame scenario is

  15. Electron paramagnetic resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Al'tshuler, S A

    2013-01-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance is a comprehensive text on the field of electron paramagnetic resonance, covering both the theoretical background and the results of experiment. This book is composed of eight chapters that cover theoretical materials and experimental data on ionic crystals, since these are the materials that have been most extensively studied by the methods of paramagnetic resonance. The opening chapters provide an introduction to the basic principles of electron paramagnetic resonance and the methods of its measurement. The next chapters are devoted to the theory of spectra an

  16. Reliable Electronic Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Nayak

    1960-05-01

    Full Text Available The reliability aspect of electronic equipment's is discussed. To obtain optimum results, close cooperation between the components engineer, the design engineer and the production engineer is suggested.

  17. The art of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, Paul

    2015-01-01

    At long last, here is the thoroughly revised and updated third edition of the hugely successful Art of Electronics. It is widely accepted as the best single authoritative book on electronic circuit design. In addition to new or enhanced coverage of many topics, the Third Edition includes: 90 oscilloscope screenshots illustrating the behavior of working circuits; dozens of graphs giving highly useful measured data of the sort that's often buried or omitted in datasheets but which you need when designing circuits; 80 tables (listing some 1650 active components), enabling intelligent choice of circuit components by listing essential characteristics (both specified and measured) of available parts. The new Art of Electronics ​​retains the feeling of informality and easy access that helped make the earlier editions so successful and popular. It is an indispensable reference and the gold standard​​ for anyone, student or researcher, professional or amateur, who works with electronic circuits.

  18. Electronic Universal Vote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian USCATU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the days of informational society everything is going online. Most aspects of our lives have online components. Since democracy is a big issue, it could not escape this trend. Governments themselves are moving to the online environment for the purpose of improving their internal efficiency and their availability to the citizens, businesses and other parties interested. Since governments are the result of elections, elections have also been touched by the electronic fever. New electronic voting solutions arise and each one brings new debates with many arguments in their favor and against them. Accessibility and ease of use leads the arguments in favor of electronic voting over the internet, while fear of fraud is the main reason people are avoiding electronics and clinging on classic paper ballots.

  19. Electron gun for SSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A 100 kV triode-electron-gun has been designed and manufactured for the Linac of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). In this paper the performance of the gun and some key components are described.

  20. Pulsed plasma electron sourcesa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasik, Ya. E.; Yarmolich, D.; Gleizer, J. Z.; Vekselman, V.; Hadas, Y.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Felsteiner, J.

    2009-05-01

    There is a continuous interest in research of electron sources which can be used for generation of uniform electron beams produced at E ≤105 V/cm and duration ≤10-5 s. In this review, several types of plasma electron sources will be considered, namely, passive (metal ceramic, velvet and carbon fiber with and without CsI coating, and multicapillary and multislot cathodes) and active (ferroelectric and hollow anodes) plasma sources. The operation of passive sources is governed by the formation of flashover plasma whose parameters depend on the amplitude and rise time of the accelerating electric field. In the case of ferroelectric and hollow-anode plasma sources the plasma parameters are controlled by the driving pulse and discharge current, respectively. Using different time- and space-resolved electrical, optical, spectroscopical, Thomson scattering and x-ray diagnostics, the parameters of the plasma and generated electron beam were characterized.

  1. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope. Specifications / Capabilities: Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  2. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope.Specifications / Capabilities:Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  3. Telecommunications--Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Luke E.; Zuckerman, B. Michael

    1989-01-01

    This article identifies resources needed in order for physical education, recreation, and dance professionals to use computer-based telecommunications; discusses electronic mail; and explains how telecommunications can enhance communication in the field, both within and across professions. (IAH)

  4. Introduction to electron crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühlbrandt, Werner

    2013-01-01

    From the earliest work on regular arrays in negative stain, electron crystallography has contributed greatly to our understanding of the structure and function of biological macromolecules. The development of electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) then lead to the first groundbreaking atomic models of the membrane proteins bacteriorhodopsin and light harvesting complex II within lipid bilayers. Key contributions towards cryo-EM and electron crystallography methods included specimen preparation and vitrification, liquid-helium cooling, data collection, and image processing. These methods are now applied almost routinely to both membrane and soluble proteins. Here we outline the advances and the breakthroughs that paved the way towards high-resolution structures by electron crystallography, both in terms of methods development and biological milestones.

  5. Electron and Photon ID

    CERN Document Server

    Hryn'ova, Tetiana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The identification of prompt photons and the rejection of background coming mostly from photons from hadron decays relies on the high granularity of the ATLAS calorimeter. The electron identification used in ATLAS for run 2 is based on a likelihood discrimination to separate isolated electron candidates from candidates originating from photon conversions, hadron misidentification and heavy flavor decays. In addition, isolation variables are used as further handles to separate signal and background. Several methods are used to measure with data the efficiency of the photon identification requirements, to cover a broad energy spectrum. At low energy, photons from radiative Z decays are used. In the medium energy range, similarities between electrons and photon showers are exploited using Z->ee decays. At high energy, inclusive photon samples are used. The measurement of the efficiencies of the electron identification and isolation cuts are performed with the data using tag and probe techniques with large statis...

  6. Electronics Modernization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current electronic packaging designs used in our most recent spacecraft are comprised of technologies from the 1980’s and 1990’s. The current approach...

  7. Electronics for guitarists

    CERN Document Server

    Dailey, Denton J

    2014-01-01

    Electronics for Guitarists focuses on analog circuitry, and is written for the guitarist interested in transistor and vacuum tube-based amplifiers. Topics include discrete transistors and diodes, classical filter circuits, and vacuum tube-based amplifiers.

  8. ELECTRONIC BANKING AND ELECTRONIC COMMERCE IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana B. Petrevska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, we may witness to dramatic and visible changes in our life environment. Business ambient for companies is different every day, and it is very hard to predict a direction of future changes. There is an environment characterized by sharp competition and increasing number of competitors, fast technological improvements and highly sophisticated and informed costumers. Technological process influences the humanity strongly, changing the way that people live, work and spend. Electronic commerce and electronic banking has become incontinent, and makes a great part of today's total transactions. There are an increasing number of companies that perform their business that way and make profit. Social networks are proven to be the least expensive way of information exchange, and they are present in almost every part of the world. The globalization has reached the most distant parts of the Earth. Every resistance to new technologies is dangerous and may lead to bankruptcy. Due to the EU expansion, Internet users are to be expected, and prosperity of the e-commerce business models at the same time. In Serbia, electronic commerce is present, but not as developed as in EU countries. E-commerce, however it might be successful throughout the world, it is somewhat slow in its growth in Serbia. The reasons are numerous, and main obstacles are the lack of trust, still limited usage of banking cards, avoiding of e-payments by older population etc. Also, the recent scandals over the misuse of personal data, and e-crime are discouraging factors for the growth of e-trade and ebanking. The younger generations are ever more ready to use e-commerce, since they are open to new technologies and do not have the defensive attitude towards it. E-commerce and e-banking has growing potential even among older population, if the society prevents them from fear and mistrust.

  9. Cooling of electronic equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...... is considered as extruded profiles are inadequate for compact designs. An optimal pin fin shape and configuration is sought also taking manufacturing costs into consideration. Standard methods for geometrical modeling and thermal analysis are applied....

  10. Electronic states of myricetin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojta, Danijela; Karlsen, Eva; Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Myricetin (3,3',4',5,5',7'-hexahydroxyflavone) was investigated by linear dichroism spectroscopy on molecular samples partially aligned in stretched poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). At least five electronic transitions in the range 40000 – 20000 cm–1 were characterized with respect to their wavenumbers......, relative intensities, and transition moment directions. The observed bands were assigned to electronic transitions predicted with TD-B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)....

  11. Newnes electronics assembly handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Electronics Assembly Handbook: Techniques, Standards and Quality Assurance focuses on the aspects of electronic assembling. The handbook first looks at the printed circuit board (PCB). Base materials, basic mechanical properties, cleaning of assemblies, design, and PCB manufacturing processes are then explained. The text also discusses surface mounted assemblies and packaging of electromechanical assemblies, as well as the soldering process. Requirements for the soldering process; solderability and protective coatings; cleaning of PCBs; and mass solder/component reflow soldering are des

  12. Electron Beam Ion Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Zschornacka, G.; Schmidt, M.; Thorn, A.

    2014-01-01

    Electron beam ion sources (EBISs) are ion sources that work based on the principle of electron impact ionization, allowing the production of very highly charged ions. The ions produced can be extracted as a DC ion beam as well as ion pulses of different time structures. In comparison to most of the other known ion sources, EBISs feature ion beams with very good beam emittances and a low energy spread. Furthermore, EBISs are excellent sources of photons (X-rays, ultraviolet, extreme ultraviole...

  13. 4D Electron Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Oh-Hoon; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    Electron tomography provides three-dimensional (3D) imaging of noncrystalline and crystalline equilibrium structures, as well as elemental volume composition, of materials and biological specimens, including those of viruses and cells. We report the development of 4D electron tomography by integrating the fourth dimension (time resolution) with the 3D spatial resolution obtained from a complete tilt series of 2D projections of an object. The different time frames of tomograms constitute a mov...

  14. Mathematics for electronic technology

    CERN Document Server

    Howson, D P

    1975-01-01

    Mathematics for Electronic Technology is a nine-chapter book that begins with the elucidation of the introductory concepts related to use of mathematics in electronic engineering, including differentiation, integration, partial differentiation, infinite series, vectors, vector algebra, and surface, volume and line integrals. Subsequent chapters explore the determinants, differential equations, matrix analysis, complex variable, topography, graph theory, and numerical analysis used in this field. The use of Fourier method for harmonic analysis and the Laplace transform is also described. The ma

  15. Electron scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisenberg, J.

    1984-11-01

    Because of the elementary structure of the electron, it is considered a precise probe of the constituent nature of hadronic matter. Use of the electron as a probe of subnucleonic degrees of freedom in nuclei is discussed in this presentation. Experimentally determined charge distributions for a wide variety of nuclei are presented and compared with shell model calculations which include single particle modes, core polarization, corrections due to delta-hole components, and corrections due to inclusion of meson exchange currents. (AIP)

  16. Electronic Portfolios for Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Dahn, I.; Christmann, A.

    2007-01-01

    Electronic portfolios (ePortfolios) are electronic versions of paper based portfolios. They are increasingly applied in education. Software for building and maintaining ePortfolios is emerging; open specifications for the exchange of ePortfolios exist. They show the potential to serve as a standard tool for documenting achievements in lifelong learning. In this paper we explore the potential of ePortfolios for scientists.

  17. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, SA

    1988-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin

  18. The Recycler Electron Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Prost, L. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-03-19

    The Recycler Electron cooler was the first (and so far, the only) cooler working at a relativistic energy (γ = 9.5). It was successfully developed in 1995-2004 and was in operation at Fermilab in 2005-2011, providing cooling of antiprotons in the Recycler ring. This paper describes the cooler, difficulties in achieving the required electron beam parameters and the ways to overcome them, cooling measurements, and details of operation.

  19. Trust in Consumer Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursawe, Klaus; Katzenbeisser, Stefan

    While Trusted Computing is getting increasing attention in the PC world, consumer electronics devices have limited benefit from the Trusted Computing solutions currently under development. In this paper we outline the different requirements of consumer electronics devices, when compared to the PC world, and point out the technical consequences for standards like the Trusted Computing Group. In addition, we will touch on economic aspects that may inhibit or support Trusted Computing in this domain.

  20. Electron spectroscopy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, John C.

    1992-01-01

    The Surface Science Laboratories at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) are equipped with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) facilities. These techniques provide information from the uppermost atomic layers of a sample, and are thus truly surface sensitive. XPS provides both elemental and chemical state information without restriction on the type of material that can be analyzed. The sample is placed into an ultra high vacuum (UHV) chamber and irradiated with x-rays which cause the ejection of photoelectrons from the sample surface. Since x-rays do not normally cause charging problems or beam damage, XPS is applicable to a wide range of samples including metals, polymers, catalysts, and fibers. AES uses a beam of high energy electrons as a surface probe. Following electronic rearrangements within excited atoms by this probe, Auger electrons characteristic of each element present are emitted from the sample. The main advantage of electron induced AES is that the electron beam can be focused down to a small diameter and localized analysis can be carried out. On the rastering of this beam synchronously with a video display using established scanning electron microscopy techniques, physical images and chemical distribution maps of the surface can be produced. Thus very small features, such as electronic circuit elements or corrosion pits in metals, can be investigated. Facilities are available on both XPS and AES instruments for depth-profiling of materials, using a beam of argon ions to sputter away consecutive layers of material to reveal sub-surface (and even semi-bulk) analyses.

  1. Newnes electronics toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Electronics Toolkit brings together fundamental facts, concepts, and applications of electronic components and circuits, and presents them in a clear, concise, and unambiguous format, to provide a reference book for engineers. The book contains 10 chapters that discuss the following concepts: resistors, capacitors, inductors, semiconductors, circuit concepts, electromagnetic compatibility, sound, light, heat, and connections. The engineer's job does not end when the circuit diagram is completed; the design for the manufacturing process is just as important if volume production is to be

  2. Electronic states of myricetin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojta, Danijela; Karlsen, Eva; Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Myricetin (3,3',4',5,5',7'-hexahydroxyflavone) was investigated by linear dichroism spectroscopy on molecular samples partially aligned in stretched poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). At least five electronic transitions in the range 40000 – 20000 cm–1 were characterized with respect to their wavenumbers......, relative intensities, and transition moment directions. The observed bands were assigned to electronic transitions predicted with TD-B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)....

  3. Electronics 3 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A; May, A J C

    2013-01-01

    Electronics 3 Checkbook provides a concise coverage of the theories and definitions of concepts in electronics. The book provides problems and worked examples to supplement fuller textbooks of the same subject. The coverage of the text includes decibel measurement, operational amplifiers, DA and AD converters, controlled rectifiers, triggering devices, optoelectronic devices, fiber optics, and power amplifiers. The text will be of great use to electrical engineering students who wish to enhance their understanding of the basics of mechanical and electrical science.

  4. Electron Transfer Pathways in Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the electron salvation process data indicates that the electron transfer between the electron donor and acceptor is hindered by the electron salvation process. It is proposed that the electron transfer in the cell environment must be assisted by intermediate messenger called the “transport protein”.

  5. Thermionics basic principles of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J; Ashhurst, W

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I : Thermionics serves as a textbook for students in physics. It focuses on thermionic devices. The book covers topics on electron dynamics, electron emission, and the themionic vacuum diode and triode. Power amplifiers, oscillators, and electronic measuring equipment are studied as well. The text will be of great use to physics and electronics students, and inventors.

  6. Netiquette in Electronic Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Kozík

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic mail and electronic communications systems are considered significant and effective tools of communication. One of the most widespread electronic communication tools is e - mail communication. In order to avoid misinterpretation of the report on the side of the recipient, it is need to pay attention to the writing of e - mail messages as well as to their content. With the continuous expansion of the use of electronic communication there have gradually developed certain rules of etiquette in electronic communications. The existing rules of the propriety ones are expressed in the term " etiqutte " and are not automatically applied in the new communications environment - media. For electronic communication, the new rules of etiquette have been stabilised into a term NETIQUETTE. The word netiquette was created by combining words NET (net and ETIKETA (a set of rules of social behavior and habits. Netiquette constitutes the rules of the behavior of users on a network. Although the netiquette is merely "an unwritten set of rules", their not using can be understood as a type of disrespect. Analysis of knowledge of domestic and foreign sources as well as results of a survey confirmed the justification of paying attention to the education of individuals in NETIQUETTE, irrespective of the degree of education.

  7. BOK-Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2013-01-01

    The use of printed electronics technologies (PETs), 2D or 3D printing approaches either by conventional electronic fabrication or by rapid graphic printing of organic or nonorganic electronic devices on various small or large rigid or flexible substrates, is projected to grow exponentially in commercial industry. This has provided an opportunity to determine whether or not PETs could be applicable for low volume and high-reliability applications. This report presents a summary of literature surveyed and provides a body of knowledge (BOK) gathered on the current status of organic and printed electronics technologies. It reviews three key industry roadmaps- on this subject-OE-A, ITRS, and iNEMI-each with a different name identification for this emerging technology. This followed by a brief review of the status of the industry on standard development for this technology, including IEEE and IPC specifications. The report concludes with key technologies and applications and provides a technology hierarchy similar to those of conventional microelectronics for electronics packaging. Understanding key technology roadmaps, parameters, and applications is important when judicially selecting and narrowing the follow-up of new and emerging applicable technologies for evaluation, as well as the low risk insertion of organic, large area, and printed electronics.

  8. Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce, Including Electronic Data Interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    FROM - TO) xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange...Report 12/1/1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...Maximum 200 Words) Electronic commerce (EC) is the use of documents in electronic form, rather than paper, for carrying out functions of business or

  9. Electron holes in inhomogeneous magnetic field: electron heating and electron hole evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, Ivan; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mozer, Forrest; Artemyev, Anton; Drake, James

    2016-04-01

    Electron holes are electrostatic non-linear structures widely observed in the space plasma, e.g., in reconnecting current sheets, collisionless bow shocks, Earth auroral region and outer radiation belt etc. In the present paper we analyze the process of energy exchange between trapped electrons, untrapped electrons and electron hole propagating in weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field. We show that as electron hole propagates into the region with stronger magnetic field, trapped electrons are heated due to conservation of the first adiabatic invariant. At the same time electron hole may grow or dissipate in dependence on peculiarities of distribution functions of trapped and resonant untrapped electrons. The energy gain of trapped electrons is due to energy losses of resonant electrons and/or decrease of electron hole energy (electrostatic energy and kinetic energy of non-resonant electrons). We stress that taking into account the energy exchange with resonant untrapped electrons increases the heating factor of trapped electrons that is proportional to the magnetic field magnitude in the region up to what electron holes survive. We illustrate the suggested mechanism for H. Schamel's electron holes and show that during propagation along a positive magnetic field gradient their amplitude should grow. Neglect of energy exchange with resonant untrapped electrons would result electron hole dissipation with only modest heating factor of trapped electrons. We argue that the suggested mechanism may be responsible for generation of energetic electrons in the space plasma.

  10. Runaway electrons and ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2017-05-01

    The potential for damage, the magnitude of the extrapolation, and the importance of the atypical—incidents that occur once in a thousand shots—make theory and simulation essential for ensuring that relativistic runaway electrons will not prevent ITER from achieving its mission. Most of the theoretical literature on electron runaway assumes magnetic surfaces exist. ITER planning for the avoidance of halo and runaway currents is focused on massive-gas or shattered-pellet injection of impurities. In simulations of experiments, such injections lead to a rapid large-scale magnetic-surface breakup. Surface breakup, which is a magnetic reconnection, can occur on a quasi-ideal Alfvénic time scale when the resistance is sufficiently small. Nevertheless, the removal of the bulk of the poloidal flux, as in halo-current mitigation, is on a resistive time scale. The acceleration of electrons to relativistic energies requires the confinement of some tubes of magnetic flux within the plasma and a resistive time scale. The interpretation of experiments on existing tokamaks and their extrapolation to ITER should carefully distinguish confined versus unconfined magnetic field lines and quasi-ideal versus resistive evolution. The separation of quasi-ideal from resistive evolution is extremely challenging numerically, but is greatly simplified by constraints of Maxwell’s equations, and in particular those associated with magnetic helicity. The physics of electron runaway along confined magnetic field lines is clarified by relations among the poloidal flux change required for an e-fold in the number of electrons, the energy distribution of the relativistic electrons, and the number of relativistic electron strikes that can be expected in a single disruption event.

  11. Beginning analog electronics through projects

    CERN Document Server

    Singmin, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Analog electronics is the simplest way to start a fun, informative, learning program. Beginning Analog Electronics Through Projects, Second Edition was written with the needs of beginning hobbyists and students in mind. This revision of Andrew Singmin's popular Beginning Electronics Through Projects provides practical exercises, building techniques, and ideas for useful electronics projects. Additionally, it features new material on analog and digital electronics, and new projects for troubleshooting test equipment.Published in the tradition of Beginning Electronics Through Projects an

  12. Cooling system for electronic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, William James; Colgan, Evan George; Gerken, James Dorance; Marroquin, Christopher Michael; Tian, Shurong

    2016-05-17

    Embodiments of the present invention provide for non interruptive fluid cooling of an electronic enclosure. One or more electronic component packages may be removable from a circuit card having a fluid flow system. When installed, the electronic component packages are coincident to and in a thermal relationship with the fluid flow system. If a particular electronic component package becomes non-functional, it may be removed from the electronic enclosure without affecting either the fluid flow system or other neighboring electronic component packages.

  13. Cooling system for electronic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, William James; Colgan, Evan George; Gerken, James Dorance; Marroquin, Christopher Michael; Tian, Shurong

    2015-12-15

    Embodiments of the present invention provide for non interruptive fluid cooling of an electronic enclosure. One or more electronic component packages may be removable from a circuit card having a fluid flow system. When installed, the electronic component packages are coincident to and in a thermal relationship with the fluid flow system. If a particular electronic component package becomes non-functional, it may be removed from the electronic enclosure without affecting either the fluid flow system or other neighboring electronic component packages.

  14. Microfluidic stretchable RF electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2010-12-07

    Stretchable electronics is a revolutionary technology that will potentially create a world of radically different electronic devices and systems that open up an entirely new spectrum of possibilities. This article proposes a microfluidic based solution for stretchable radio frequency (RF) electronics, using hybrid integration of active circuits assembled on flex foils and liquid alloy passive structures embedded in elastic substrates, e.g. polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This concept was employed to implement a 900 MHz stretchable RF radiation sensor, consisting of a large area elastic antenna and a cluster of conventional rigid components for RF power detection. The integrated radiation sensor except the power supply was fully embedded in a thin elastomeric substrate. Good electrical performance of the standalone stretchable antenna as well as the RF power detection sub-module was verified by experiments. The sensor successfully detected the RF radiation over 5 m distance in the system demonstration. Experiments on two-dimensional (2D) stretching up to 15%, folding and twisting of the demonstrated sensor were also carried out. Despite the integrated device was severely deformed, no failure in RF radiation sensing was observed in the tests. This technique illuminates a promising route of realizing stretchable and foldable large area integrated RF electronics that are of great interest to a variety of applications like wearable computing, health monitoring, medical diagnostics, and curvilinear electronics.

  15. Electron microscope phase enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2010-06-15

    A microfabricated electron phase shift element is used for modifying the phase characteristics of an electron beam passing though its center aperture, while not affecting the more divergent portion of an incident beam to selectively provide a ninety-degree phase shift to the unscattered beam in the back focal plan of the objective lens, in order to realize Zernike-type, in-focus phase contrast in an electron microscope. One application of the element is to increase the contrast of an electron microscope for viewing weakly scattering samples while in focus. Typical weakly scattering samples include biological samples such as macromolecules, or perhaps cells. Preliminary experimental images demonstrate that these devices do apply a ninety degree phase shift as expected. Electrostatic calculations have been used to determine that fringing fields in the region of the scattered electron beams will cause a negligible phase shift as long as the ratio of electrode length to the transverse feature-size aperture is about 5:1. Calculations are underway to determine the feasibility of aspect smaller aspect ratios of about 3:1 and about 2:1.

  16. Electronic Spectroscopy & Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Maroncelli, Nancy Ryan Gray

    2010-06-08

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electronic Spectroscopy and Dynamics was held at Colby College, Waterville, NH from 07/19/2009 thru 07/24/2009. The Conference was well-attended with participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. The GRC on Electronic Spectroscopy & Dynamics showcases some of the most recent experimental and theoretical developments in electronic spectroscopy that probes the structure and dynamics of isolated molecules, molecules embedded in clusters and condensed phases, and bulk materials. Electronic spectroscopy is an important tool in many fields of research, and this GRC brings together experts having diverse backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biophysics, and materials science, making the meeting an excellent opportunity for the interdisciplinary exchange of ideas and techniques. Topics covered in this GRC include high-resolution spectroscopy, biological molecules in the gas phase, electronic structure theory for excited states, multi-chromophore and single-molecule spectroscopies, and excited state dynamics in chemical and biological systems.

  17. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-05-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent. While maintaining large-scale production and prototyping rapidity, this flexible and translucent scheme demonstrates the potential to transform conventionally stiff electronic devices into thin and foldable ones without compromising long-term performance and reliability. In this work, we report on the fabrication and characterization of reversibly bistable flexible electronic switches that utilize flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The transistors are fabricated initially on rigid (100) silicon substrates before they are peeled off. They can be used to control flexible batches of light-emitting diodes, demonstrating both the relative ease of scaling at minimum cost and maximum reliability and the feasibility of integration. The peeled-off silicon fabric is about 25 µm thick. The fabricated devices are transferred to a reversibly bistable flexible platform through which, for example, a flexible smartphone can be wrapped around a user’s wrist and can also be set back to its original mechanical position. Buckling and cyclic bending of such host platforms brings a completely new dimension to the development of flexible electronics, especially rollable displays.

  18. Electronic Commerce user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD`s Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases & Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  19. Electronic Commerce user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD's Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  20. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, W.C. (ed.); Shelton, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    Electrostatic collection of a high resistivity aerosol using the Electron Beam Precipitator (EBP) collecting section was demonstrated during this reporting period (Quarter Five). Collection efficiency experiments were designed to confirm and extend some of the work performed under the previous contract. The reason for doing this was to attempt to improve upon the collection efficiency of the precipitator alone when testing with a very high resistivity, moderate-to-high concentration dust load. From the collector shakedown runs, a set of suitable operational parameters were determined for the downstream electrostatic collecting sections of the Electron Beam Precipitator wind tunnel. These parameters, along with those for the MINACC electron beam, will generally be held constant while the numerous precharging parameters are varied to produce an optimum particle charge. The electrostatic collector experiments were part of a larger, comprehensive investigation on electron beam precharging of high resistivity aerosol particles performed during the period covered by Quarters Five, Six, and Seven. This body of work used the same experimental apparatus and procedures and the experimental run period lasted nearly continuously for six months. A summary of the Quarter Five work is presented in the following paragraphs. Section II-A of TPR 5 contains a report on the continuing effort which was expended on the modification and upgrade of the pulsed power supply and the monitoring systems prior to the initiation of the electron beam precharging experimental work.

  1. Electron correlation in beryllium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omiste, Juan J.; Li, Wenliang; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2017-01-01

    We apply a three-dimensional implementation of the time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field (TD-RASSCF) method to investigate effects of electron correlation in the ground state of Be as well as in its photoionization dynamics by short XUV pulses, including time delay in photo......We apply a three-dimensional implementation of the time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field (TD-RASSCF) method to investigate effects of electron correlation in the ground state of Be as well as in its photoionization dynamics by short XUV pulses, including time delay...... schemes, and in this way we identify the orbital spaces that are relevant for an accurate description of the photoelectron spectra. Finally, we investigate the effects of electron correlation on the magnitude of the relative Eisenbud-Wigner-Smith (EWS) time delay in the photoionization process into two...... different ionic channels. One channel, the ground-state channel in the ion, is accessible without electron correlation. The other channel is only accessible when including electron correlation. For theory beyond the mean-field time-dependent Hartree-Fock, the EWS time delay for the photon energy analyzed...

  2. Electronic Submissions of Pesticide Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applications for pesticide registration can be submitted electronically, including forms, studies, and draft product labeling. Applicants need not submit multiple electronic copies of any pieces of their applications.

  3. Phasor power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Rim, Chun T

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles of power electronics, focusing on the switched transformer concept and phasor transformation techniques as employed in the analysis and design of power electronic circuits. Phasor transformations, as introduced in this book, make the time-varying nature of a switching converter simple and easy to handle, transforming it into an equivalent time-invariant circuit. The book starts with an introduction to the philosophy and fundamental principles of power electronics. The switched transformer concept, which is applicable to any switching converter, is introduced, and it is shown how DC-DC converters analyses are then so straightforward that very little equational manipulation is needed. Then the phasor transformation techniques are comprehensively explained over three parts. Single phase and multi-phase AC systems are dealt with through the single phase phasor transformation and circuit DQ transformation, respectively. A general unified phasor tran...

  4. Understanding the Electron

    CERN Document Server

    Knuth, Kevin H

    2015-01-01

    Well over a century after the discovery of the electron, we are still faced with serious conceptual issues regarding precisely what an electron is. Since the development of particle physics and the Standard Model, we have accumulated a great deal of knowledge about the relationships among various subatomic particles. However, this knowledge has not significantly aided in our understanding of the fundamental nature of any particular elementary subatomic particle. The fact that many particle properties, such as position, time, speed, energy, momentum, and component of spin, are observer-dependent suggests that these relevant variables do not represent properties per se, but rather the relationship between the observer and the observed. That is, they reflect details about how the electron influences the observer, and vice versa. Here we attempt to understand this by considering a simple model where particles influence one another in a discrete and direct fashion. The resulting framework, referred to as Influence...

  5. On Zitterbewegung of Electron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-yong; XIONG Cai-dong; ZHOU Ping

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, all the discussions on zitterbewegung (zbw) of electron are based on relativistic quantum mechanics. In this article, from the viewpoint of quantum field theory and in terms of the creation and annihilation operators as well as the polarization vectors of spin-1 field, a more detailed description and some new perspectives for zbw are obtained. Especially, it is shown that zbw arises from a to-and-fro vacuum polarization that occurring in the neighborhood of electron; the zbw vectors form a vector triplet with total spin projections 0 and ±1 in the direction of the momentum of electron, respectively; the macroscopic velocity of the vacuum medium vanishes in all inertial systems.

  6. Electronic apex locators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, M P J; Chandler, N P

    2004-07-01

    Prior to root canal treatment at least one undistorted radiograph is required to assess canal morphology. The apical extent of instrumentation and the final root filling have a role in treatment success, and are primarily determined radiographically. Electronic apex locators reduce the number of radiographs required and assist where radiographic methods create difficulty. They may also indicate cases where the apical foramen is some distance from the radiographic apex. Other roles include the detection of root canal perforation. A review of the literature focussed first on the subject of electronic apex location. A second review used the names of apex location devices. From the combined searches, 113 pertinent articles in English were found. This paper reviews the development, action, use and types of electronic apex locators.

  7. Electron Technology: ELTE 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarkiewicz, Tadeusz; Kucewicz, Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we present a review of research results and technical accomplishments presented by researchers from technical universities, governmental institutes and research companies during the XIIth Scientific Conference Electron Technology, ELTE 2016. This review is based on materials presented at four topical conference sessions: Microelectronics and Nanoelectronics, Photonics, Materials and Technologies, and Microsystems and also on materials presented by invited speakers at two dedicated sessions. Oral sessions were accompanied by the poster sessions. In effect about 50 papers gathered in this volume reflect the topics discussed at the Conference. A short description of technological and measurement possibilities in the laboratories of Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology and also in the Department of Electronics of the Faculty of Computer Science, Electronics and Telecommunications AGH UST are given.

  8. Microelectronics improves power electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, R.

    1982-07-01

    The share of electric energy consumed by electric drives - called power current - can be used more efficiently by using power electronic regulating processes. Lower cost for power electronic components and progress in circuit technology are the decisive factors for the widespread use of regulating units. Microelectronics permit a cost-beneficial control of power regulating units, are made them more attractive for the user. Technical and economic attractivity of power electronic regulating processes have increased. These processes are mainly used for adjusting engine speed to the other process engineering parameters like pressure, output or speed. Optimization of power-current consuming processes are expected to achieve an energy saving potential of 15 TWh by the year 1995.

  9. 4D Electron Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh-Hoon; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-06-01

    Electron tomography provides three-dimensional (3D) imaging of noncrystalline and crystalline equilibrium structures, as well as elemental volume composition, of materials and biological specimens, including those of viruses and cells. We report the development of 4D electron tomography by integrating the fourth dimension (time resolution) with the 3D spatial resolution obtained from a complete tilt series of 2D projections of an object. The different time frames of tomograms constitute a movie of the object in motion, thus enabling studies of nonequilibrium structures and transient processes. The method was demonstrated using carbon nanotubes of a bracelet-like ring structure for which 4D tomograms display different modes of motion, such as breathing and wiggling, with resonance frequencies up to 30 megahertz. Applications can now make use of the full space-time range with the nanometer-femtosecond resolution of ultrafast electron tomography.

  10. Electronic network links physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Now that AGU is a member of the American Institute of Physics (AIP) (see item on page 150), AGU members may access Pi-NET, the Physics Information Network developed by AIP on behalf of its member societies. The electronic network will be available after March 31, 1986, to members of AIP member and affiliate societies for the cost of a local telephone call.This electronic database service provides listings of job opportunities in physics, calendars of meetings, advance abstracts of more than 40 journals published by AIP and member societies, brief announcements and news items, titles of journal articles from AIP's Searchable Physics Information Notices (SPIN) database, and an electronic catalog and on-line ordering of publications from AIP and member societies. AGU journals will be included in the database shortly.

  11. Laser assisted electron dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bray, Alexander William

    2016-01-01

    We apply the convergent close-coupling (CCC) formalism to analyse the processes of laser assisted electron impact ionisation of He, and the attosecond time delay in the photodetachment of the H^{-} ion and the photoionisation of He. Such time dependent atomic collision processes are of considerable interest as experimental measurements on the relevant timescale (attoseconds 10^{-18} s) are now possible utilising ultrafast and intense laser pulses. These processes in particular are furthermore of interest as they are strongly influenced by many-electron correlations. In such cases their theoretical description requires a more comprehensive treatment than that offered by first order perturbation theory. We apply such a treatment through the use of the CCC formalism which involves the complete numeric solution of the integral Lippmann-Schwinger equations pertaining to a particular scattering event. For laser assisted electron impact ionisation of He such a treatment is of a considerably greater accuracy than the...

  12. Occupancy of two primary chloride-binding sites in Natronobacterium pharaonis halorhodopsin is a necessary condition for active anion transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaidzidis, I V; Kalaidzidis, Ya L

    2003-03-01

    The existence of two primary chloride-binding sites was found on the basis of the study of halorhodopsin spectra at different chloride concentrations. SVD analysis of the spectra revealed two chloride-dependent components at low chloride concentration (0.1-10 mM). Global fitting of SVD components found K(D) values of 0.47 and 5.2 mM with unitity Hill coefficients. The second K(D) coincides with the apparent K(D) of the photovoltage response of halorhodopsin.

  13. 虎斑乌贼的胚胎耗氧率%Oxygen consumption rate of Sepia pharaonis embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏帅; 蒋霞敏; 阮鹏; 彭瑞冰; 江茂旺; 韩庆喜

    2016-01-01

    为了探究虎斑乌贼胚胎不同发育时期的耗氧率变化和几种生态因子对胚胎发育过程耗氧率的影响,试验采用封闭静水装置,对不同发育时期(12期)的耗氧率进行测定,并研究不同盐度(21、24、27、30、33)、温度(18、21、24、27、30℃)和pH(7.0、7.5、8.0、8.5、9.0)对胚胎4个主要发育时期(受精卵期、原肠胚期、器官形成期和内骨骼形成期)耗氧率的影响.结果表明:胚胎各个发育时期耗氧率不同,随着发育的进程而增大,受精卵期为0.082mg·(100 eggs)-1·h-1,而到原肠胚期的耗氧率显著升高,为0.279 mg·(100 eggs)-1·h-1,到孵化期时,耗氧率达到1.367 mg·(100 eggs)-1·h-1;盐度对器官形成期和内骨骼形成期的耗氧率均有显著影响(P<0.05),对受精卵期和原肠胚期影响不显著(P>0.05),当盐度为30时,4个发育时期耗氧率均达到最大值,分别为0.082、0.200、0.768和1.301 mg· (100 eggs)-1·h-1;温度对原肠胚期、器官形成期和内骨骼形成期的耗氧率有显著影响(P<0.05),对受精卵期无显著性影响(P>0.05),在27℃时,胚胎4个发育时期均达到最大值,分别为0.082、0.286、0.806和1.338 mg·(100 eggs)-1·h-1;而pH对4个发育时期的耗氧率均无显著性影响(P>0.05),受精卵期在pH 8.0时达到最大值,为0.116 mg·(100 eggs)-1h-1,原肠胚期、器官形成期、内骨骼形成期在pH 8.5时达到最大值,分别为0.281、0.799和1.130mg·(100 eggs)-1·h-1.

  14. Relativistic Runaway Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breizman, Boris

    2014-10-01

    This talk covers recent developments in the theory of runaway electrons in a tokamak with an emphasis on highly relativistic electrons produced via the avalanche mechanism. The rapidly growing population of runaway electrons can quickly replace a large part of the initial current carried by the bulk plasma electrons. The magnetic energy associated with this current is typically much greater than the particle kinetic energy. The current of a highly relativistic runaway beam is insensitive to the particle energy, which separates the description of the runaway current evolution from the description of the runaway energy spectrum. A strongly anisotropic distribution of fast electrons is generally prone to high-frequency kinetic instabilities that may cause beneficial enhancement of runaway energy losses. The relevant instabilities are in the frequency range of whistler waves and electron plasma waves. The instability thresholds reported in earlier work have been revised considerably to reflect strong dependence of collisional damping on the wave frequency and the role of plasma non-uniformity, including radial trapping of the excited waves in the plasma. The talk also includes a discussion of enhanced scattering of the runaways as well as the combined effect of enhanced scattering and synchrotron radiation. A noteworthy feature of the avalanche-produced runaway current is a self-sustained regime of marginal criticality: the inductive electric field has to be close to its critical value (representing avalanche threshold) at every location where the runaway current density is finite, and the current density should vanish at any point where the electric field drops below its critical value. This nonlinear Ohm's law enables complete description of the evolving current profile. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DEFG02-04ER54742 and by ITER contract ITER-CT-12-4300000273. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of

  15. Electron-electron correlations in liquid s-p metals

    CERN Document Server

    Leys, F E

    2003-01-01

    We present calculations for the valence electron-electron structure factor in liquid Mg near freezing, assuming knowledge of the jellium result. On the basis of this, we predict significant corrections to jellium short-range correlations in liquid s-p metals and in particular an increase in the electron-electron contact probability.

  16. Electron kinetics in capacitively coupled plasmas modulated by electron injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya; Peng, Yanli; Innocenti, Maria Elena; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Hong-yu; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2017-09-01

    The controlling effect of an electron injection on the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and on the energetic electron flux, in a capacitive radio-frequency argon plasma, is studied using a one-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collisions model. The input power of the electron beam is as small as several tens of Watts with laboratory achievable emission currents and energies. With the electron injection, the electron temperature decreases but with a significant high energy tail. The electron density, electron temperature in the sheath, and electron heating rate increase with the increasing emission energy. This is attributed to the extra heating of the energetic electrons in the EEDF tail. The non-equilibrium EEDF is obtained for strong non-local distributions of the electric field, electron heating rate, excitation, and ionization rate, indicating the discharge has transited from a volume heating (α-mode dominated) into a sheath heating (γ-mode dominated) type. In addition, the electron injection not only modifies the self-bias voltage, but also enhances the electron flux that can reach the electrodes. Moreover, the relative population of energetic electrons significantly increases with the electron injection compared to that without the electron injection, relevant for modifying the gas and surface chemistry reactions.

  17. Advances in quantum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, D W

    1974-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Electronics, Volume 2 deals with the effects of quantum mechanics on the behavior of electrons in matter. This book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 reviews the statistical properties of optical fields and spectral processing techniques, including the use of photon correlation techniques to measure scattering effects in a number of different media. The use of optical E.P.R. and excitation spectroscopic techniques and techniques for establishing the location of impurity ions in the chalcogenides are describe in Chapter 2. The last chapter surveys the field of mode l

  18. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...... in the metals producing industry is presented and tested on two printed circuit board scrap cases. The underlying idea for the method is that complex scrap should be introduced in the matrix of man-made material flows at recipient points where the scrap constitutes the least environmental problem and where...

  19. Advances in electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kasper, Erich; Grimmeiss, Hermann G

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic volume, Advances in Electronic Materials, covers various fields of materials research such as silicon, silicon-germanium hetero-structures, high-k materials, III-V semiconductor alloys and organic materials, as well as nano-structures for spintronics and photovoltaics. It begins with a brief summary of the formative years of microelectronics; now the keystone of information technology. The latter remains one of the most important global technologies, and is an extremely complex subject-area. Although electronic materials are primarily associated with computers, the internet

  20. Electronically configured battery pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, D.

    1997-03-01

    Battery packs for portable equipment must sometimes accommodate conflicting requirements to meet application needs. An electronically configurable battery pack was developed to support two highly different operating modes, one requiring very low power consumption at a low voltage and the other requiring high power consumption at a higher voltage. The configurable battery pack optimizes the lifetime and performance of the system by making the best use of all available energy thus enabling the system to meet its goals of operation, volume, and lifetime. This paper describes the cell chemistry chosen, the battery pack electronics, and tradeoffs made during the evolution of its design.

  1. Conventional transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winey, Mark; Meehl, Janet B; O'Toole, Eileen T; Giddings, Thomas H

    2014-02-01

    Researchers have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to make contributions to cell biology for well over 50 years, and TEM continues to be an important technology in our field. We briefly present for the neophyte the components of a TEM-based study, beginning with sample preparation through imaging of the samples. We point out the limitations of TEM and issues to be considered during experimental design. Advanced electron microscopy techniques are listed as well. Finally, we point potential new users of TEM to resources to help launch their project.

  2. Electronics for technicians

    CERN Document Server

    Crane, P W

    2013-01-01

    Electronics for Technicians covers the basic fundamentals of electronics, including the operation of devices and circuits. The book is meant to help the technician to obtain numerical answers to actual circuit problems. This volume consists of seven chapters, the first of which introduces the reader to the basic rules for circuits containing resistive and reactive elements. Charge and discharge of a capacitor through a resistor is discussed, along with charge and discharge of an inductance through a resistance, application of sinusoidal voltages to simple networks, and series and parallel LCR

  3. Precision electron polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudakov, E. [Jefferson Lab 12000 Jefferson Ave, STE 16, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. Mo/ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at 300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100%-polarized electron target for Mo/ller polarimetry.

  4. Pulsed Electron Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Germann, Matthias; Escher, Conrad; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2013-01-01

    A technique of pulsed low-energy electron holography is introduced that allows for recording highly resolved holograms within reduced exposure times. Therefore, stacks of holograms are accumulated in a pulsed mode with individual acquisition times as short as 50 {\\mu}s. Subsequently, these holograms are aligned and finally superimposed. The resulting holographic record reveals previously latent high-order interference fringes and thereby pushing interference resolution into the sub-nanometer regime. In view of the non-damaging character of low-energy electrons, the method is of particular interest for structural analysis of fragile biomolecules.

  5. Electronics 2 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    2013-01-01

    Electronics 2 Checkbook is an 11-chapter text that presents problems and worked examples to establish and exemplify the theory contained in technical syllabuses, with a particular emphasis on electronics.The introductory chapters review the elementary theory of semiconductors and the p-n junction diode. The subsequent chapters deal with the applications of diode, the characteristics of bipolar transistors, and the mode of operation of small signal amplifiers. These topics are followed by discussions of the function of the field-effect transistor and power supplies. The concluding chapters expl

  6. VLSI electronics microstructure science

    CERN Document Server

    1981-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 3 evaluates trends for the future of very large scale integration (VLSI) electronics and the scientific base that supports its development.This book discusses the impact of VLSI on computer architectures; VLSI design and design aid requirements; and design, fabrication, and performance of CCD imagers. The approaches, potential, and progress of ultra-high-speed GaAs VLSI; computer modeling of MOSFETs; and numerical physics of micron-length and submicron-length semiconductor devices are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the optical linewi

  7. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine

    It is widely recognized that the transition from Word-of-mouth (WOM) to electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) allows for a wider and faster spread of information. However, little attention has been given to how digital channels expand the types of information consumers share. In this paper, we argue...... of the concepts do not capture this new kind of consumer-to-consumer information transfer about products and services. Consequently, we suggest an extension of those concepts: Electronic Word of Behavior....

  8. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  9. Practical electronics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Ian R

    1988-01-01

    Practical Electronics Handbook, Second Edition covers information useful in electronics, with focus on mathematical conventions. The handbook discusses the passive (resistors, capacitors, band coding, and inductors) and active discrete (diodes, transistors and negative feedback) components; discrete component circuits; and transferring digital data. Linear I.C.s, which are the single-chip arrangements of amplifier circuits that are intended to be biased and operated in a linear way, and digital I.C.s, which process signals and consist of two significant voltage levels, are also considered. T

  10. Gallium nitride electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Siddharth; Jena, Debdeep

    2013-07-01

    In the past two decades, there has been increasing research and industrial activity in the area of gallium nitride (GaN) electronics, stimulated first by the successful demonstration of GaN LEDs. While the promise of wide band gap semiconductors for power electronics was recognized many years before this by one of the contributors to this issue (J Baliga), the success in the area of LEDs acted as a catalyst. It set the field of GaN electronics in motion, and today the technology is improving the performance of several applications including RF cell phone base stations and military radar. GaN could also play a very important role in reducing worldwide energy consumption by enabling high efficiency compact power converters operating at high voltages and lower frequencies. While GaN electronics is a rapidly evolving area with active research worldwide, this special issue provides an opportunity to capture some of the great advances that have been made in the last 15 years. The issue begins with a section on epitaxy and processing, followed by an overview of high-frequency HEMTs, which have been the most commercially successful application of III-nitride electronics to date. This is followed by review and research articles on power-switching transistors, which are currently of great interest to the III-nitride community. A section of this issue is devoted to the reliability of III-nitride devices, an area that is of increasing significance as the research focus has moved from not just high performance but also production-worthiness and long-term usage of these devices. Finally, a group of papers on new and relatively less studied ideas for III-nitride electronics, such as interband tunneling, heterojunction bipolar transistors, and high-temperature electronics is included. These areas point to new areas of research and technological innovation going beyond the state of the art into the future. We hope that the breadth and quality of articles in this issue will make it

  11. Electronics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics: Made Simple covers the fundamental principles, basic devices, characteristics, and application of electronic equipment.This book is divided into 15 chapters and begins with reviews of the properties and behavior of resistors, capacitors, inductors, and semiconductor devices. Considerable chapters deal with how these devices can be assembled into useful fundamental circuits such as amplifiers, oscillators and power supplies. These topics are followed by discussions of the importance of integrated circuits and the use of digital equipment and photocells in control and computing appa

  12. Electronic components and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sangwine, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Most introductory textbooks in electronics focus on the theory while leaving the practical aspects to be covered in laboratory courses. However, the sooner such matters are introduced, the better able students will be to include such important concerns as parasitic effects and reliability at the very earliest stages of design. This philosophy has kept Electronic Components and Technology thriving for two decades, and this completely updated third edition continues the approach with a more international outlook.Not only does this textbook introduce the properties, behavior, fabrication, and use

  13. Nanotube electronics and optoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaedon Avouris

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the many materials that have been proposed to supplement and, in the long run, possibly succeed Si as a basis for nanoelectronics, carbon nanotubes (CNTs have attracted the most attention. CNTs are quasi-one-dimensional materials with unique properties ideally suited for electronics. We briefly discuss the electrical and optical properties of CNTs and how they can be employed in electronics and optoelectronics. We focus on single CNT transistors, their fabrication, assembly, doping, electrical characteristics, and integration. We also address the possible use of CNTs in optoelectronic devices such as electroluminescent light emitters and photodetectors.

  14. Relativistic electronic dressing

    CERN Document Server

    Attaourti, Y

    2002-01-01

    We study the effects of the relativistic electronic dressing in laser-assisted electron-hydrogen atom elastic collisions. We begin by considering the case when no radiation is present. This is necessary in order to check the consistency of our calculations and we then carry out the calculations using the relativistic Dirac-Volkov states. It turns out that a simple formal analogy links the analytical expressions of the differential cross section without laser and the differential cross section in presence of a laser field.

  15. Diagnostic electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickersin, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    In this book the author presents a comprehensive reference text on diagnostic electron microscopy. Throughout the book he illustrates how ultrastructural identification can be helpful for the recognition of cell type and the identification of mechanisms of pathogenesis in various diseases. In addition to electron microscopy photographs, there are also numerous light microscopy photographs for comparison. This text presents the classification of neoplasms in the order and arrangement most familiar to the pathologist. Contents: Introduction; Diagram of a Normal Cell; Normal Cell Function; Embryology; Neoplasms; Infectious Agents; Metabolic Diseases; Renal Diseases; Skeletal Muscle and Peripheral Nerve Diseases; Index.

  16. Electronic logic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, J

    2013-01-01

    Most branches of organizing utilize digital electronic systems. This book introduces the design of such systems using basic logic elements as the components. The material is presented in a straightforward manner suitable for students of electronic engineering and computer science. The book is also of use to engineers in related disciplines who require a clear introduction to logic circuits. This third edition has been revised to encompass the most recent advances in technology as well as the latest trends in components and notation. It includes a wide coverage of application specific integrate

  17. Precision electron polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudakov, Eugene A. [JLAB

    2013-11-01

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. M{\\o}ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at ~300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100\\%-polarized electron target for M{\\o}ller polarimetry.

  18. Improved electron transport layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides: a method of preparing a coating ink for forming a zinc oxide electron transport layer, comprising mixing zinc acetate and a wetting agent in water or methanol; a coating ink comprising zinc acetate and a wetting agent in aqueous solution or methanolic solution...

  19. Using Electronic Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Deb

    2012-01-01

    The digitized collections of artifacts known as electronic portfolios are creating solutions to a variety of performance improvement needs in ways that are cost-effective and improve both individual and group learning and performance. When social media functionality is embedded in e-portfolios, the tools support collaboration, social learning,…

  20. Quantitative Electron Nanodiffraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, John [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2015-01-30

    This Final report summarizes progress under this award for the final reporting period 2002 - 2013 in our development of quantitive electron nanodiffraction to materials problems, especially devoted to atomistic processes in semiconductors and electronic oxides such as the new artificial oxide multilayers, where our microdiffraction is complemented with energy-loss spectroscopy (ELNES) and aberration-corrected STEM imaging (9). The method has also been used to map out the chemical bonds in the important GaN semiconductor (1) used for solid state lighting, and to understand the effects of stacking sequence variations and interfaces in digital oxide superlattices (8). Other projects include the development of a laser-beam Zernike phase plate for cryo-electron microscopy (5) (based on the Kapitza-Dirac effect), work on reconstruction of molecular images using the scattering from many identical molecules lying in random orientations (4), a review article on space-group determination for the International Tables on Crystallography (10), the observation of energy-loss spectra with millivolt energy resolution and sub-nanometer spatial resolution from individual point defects in an alkali halide, a review article for the Centenary of X-ray Diffration (17) and the development of a new method of electron-beam lithography (12). We briefly summarize here the work on GaN, on oxide superlattice ELNES, and on lithography by STEM.

  1. Inventing the Electronic University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is confronting a fundamental change. The transition from print on paper to digital and electronic technologies is transforming instruction, scholarly communication, and the storage and preservation of knowledge. What is required is not the automation of old systems, but the restructuring of institutions. The drive for autonomy,…

  2. Power Electronics Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Gilberto [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Thermal modeling was conducted to evaluate and develop thermal management strategies for high-temperature wide-bandgap (WBG)-based power electronics systems. WBG device temperatures of 175 degrees C to 250 degrees C were modeled under various under-hood temperature environments. Modeling result were used to identify the most effective capacitor cooling strategies under high device temperature conditions.

  3. Polymer Electronics, Quo Vadis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiechi, Ryan C.; Hummelen, Jan C.

    2012-01-01

    At the heart of polymer electronics lies more than three decades of research into conjugated polymers. The future of these materials is intimately tied to the development of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices that can compete with traditional, inorganic devices in efficiency and cost. In addition to

  4. Polymer Electronics, Quo Vadis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiechi, Ryan C.; Hummelen, Jan C.

    2012-01-01

    At the heart of polymer electronics lies more than three decades of research into conjugated polymers. The future of these materials is intimately tied to the development of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices that can compete with traditional, inorganic devices in efficiency and cost. In addition to

  5. Electronic Inspection of Beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, Victor J.; Gammell, Paul M.; Clark, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    Two proposed methods for grading beef quality based on inspection by electronic equipment: one method uses television camera to generate image of a cut of beef as customer sees it; other uses ultrasonics to inspect live animal or unsliced carcasses. Both methods show promise for automated meat inspection.

  6. The electronic stethoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Shuang; Tan, Ru San; Chai, Kevin Tshun Chuan; Wang, Chao; Ghista, Dhanjoo; Zhong, Liang

    2015-07-10

    Most heart diseases are associated with and reflected by the sounds that the heart produces. Heart auscultation, defined as listening to the heart sound, has been a very important method for the early diagnosis of cardiac dysfunction. Traditional auscultation requires substantial clinical experience and good listening skills. The emergence of the electronic stethoscope has paved the way for a new field of computer-aided auscultation. This article provides an in-depth study of (1) the electronic stethoscope technology, and (2) the methodology for diagnosis of cardiac disorders based on computer-aided auscultation. The paper is based on a comprehensive review of (1) literature articles, (2) market (state-of-the-art) products, and (3) smartphone stethoscope apps. It covers in depth every key component of the computer-aided system with electronic stethoscope, from sensor design, front-end circuitry, denoising algorithm, heart sound segmentation, to the final machine learning techniques. Our intent is to provide an informative and illustrative presentation of the electronic stethoscope, which is valuable and beneficial to academics, researchers and engineers in the technical field, as well as to medical professionals to facilitate its use clinically. The paper provides the technological and medical basis for the development and commercialization of a real-time integrated heart sound detection, acquisition and quantification system.

  7. The Art of Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Paul; Hill, Winfield

    2015-04-01

    1. Foundations; 2. Bipolar transistors; 3. Field effect transistors; 4. Operational amplifiers; 5. Precision circuits; 6. Filters; 7. Oscillators and timers; 8. Low noise techniques and transimpedance; 9. Power regulation; 10. Digital electronics; 11. Programmable logic devices; 12. Logical interfacing; 13. Digital meets analog; 14. Computers, controllers, and data links; 15. Microcontrollers.

  8. Unconditionally Secure Electronic Voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Akira; Imai, Hideki

    In this chapter, we will show how to achieve unconditional or information-theoretic security in electronic voting with the following property: 1 Even all voters and tallying authorities have unbounded computing power, the distorted integrity of the voting results can be detected and proved incorrect by every honest voter,

  9. Electronic waste recycling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardes, Andréa

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the characterization of electronic waste. In addition, processing techniques for the recovery of metals, polymers and ceramics are described. This book serves as a source of information and as an educational technical reference for practicing scientists and engineers, as well as for students.

  10. Using Electronic Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Deb

    2012-01-01

    The digitized collections of artifacts known as electronic portfolios are creating solutions to a variety of performance improvement needs in ways that are cost-effective and improve both individual and group learning and performance. When social media functionality is embedded in e-portfolios, the tools support collaboration, social learning,…

  11. Electron microscope studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1990-08-01

    Our laboratory has made significant progress this year in devising improved electron-optical systems, in studying invertebrate hemoglobins with the STEM, and in achieving a workable sub-angstrom STEM. Our goal in electron optics is to improve resolution by producing spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients with signs opposite those of magnetic lenses. We have progressed toward this goal through calculations that explore the addition of electrodes to electron mirrors to reduce these two geometric aberrations and by devising a beam separation system that won't introduce asymmetrical aberrations. Some promising new designs of magnetic lenses for SEM applications have also been investigated. We have continued our exploration of the quaternary structure of the invertebrate hemoglobins and are now among the top laboratories in this area of expertise. In addition, we have overcome many of our electronic difficulties on the sub-angstrom STEM and have made significant progress toward achieving an operational system. The addition of an IBM RISC-6000 workstation to our lab has significantly increased our image processing capabilities.

  12. The Electronic Student Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasick, Emily; McLaren, Clemence

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of electronic portfolios in one Hawaiian secondary literature class. Students went through their journals, picked two entries that best represented their growth in reading during the course, and explained why. Next they created a presentation about their growth and enjoyment of literature using multimedia technology. (SM)

  13. Electronic and Microelectronic Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    22 3.9 Aztec Products Custom Wet-Chemistry Line ........................................... 22 3.10 KotIrnorgen...Cofight Vertical Rotary Etcher............*....................................................... 22 11. Aztec Products Custom Wet-Chemistry Line...state of the art in thick film hybrid fabrication methods, microelectronic fabrication and assembly, PC board fabrication, and electronic board assembly

  14. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  15. Selection of Electronic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the impact of electronic resources on collection development; selection of CD-ROMs, (platform, speed, video and sound, networking capability, installation and maintenance); selection of laser disks; and Internet evaluation (accuracy of content, authority, objectivity, currency, technical characteristics). Lists Web sites for evaluating…

  16. Electron-Cyclotron Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    1994-01-01

    The essential elements of the theory of electron cyclotron waves are reviewed, The two main electro-magnetic modes of propagation are identified and their dispersion and absorption properties are discussed. The importance of the use of the relativistic resonance condition is stressed.

  17. Advanced Electronic Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-15

    Silicon De- D.,I. Silversmith Solid State Technol. 23, 88 vices Formed by Ion Iniplanta- 1. W. Mountain (1980) tion and Laser Annealing S.C. Munroe M...J. Silversmith Photodeposition R. M. Osgood, Jr. 5075 Picosecond Optical Sampling H. A. Haus* Accepted by IEEE J. Quantum S.T. Kirsch Electron. K

  18. Cold electronics: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschman, R. K.

    Low-temperature operation is being applied and contemplated for electronic systems ranging from single-transistor circuits for basic research to VLSI integrated circuits for ultra-fast computers. It is seen as both a means of extracting better performance from present technology and as an important ingredient of the next generation of devices and circuits. This overview is concerned with electronics based on semiconductors; for low temperatures the primary material is Si, although GaAs also has considerable potential, and the primary device is the field-effect transistor in various forms. Reduced temperature operation offers improvements in performance through improvement of materials-related properties such as electronic carrier mobility, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity. Substantial improvements in reliability are also expected since degradation mechanisms are thermally activated; however, this could be negated unless problems of thermal expansion mismatch and cycling are overcome. Refrigeration continues to be a central concern; mechanical cycles are still the mainstay and progress is being made in systems applicable to electronics, although further development is needed.

  19. The Electronic Battle Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Denis; Turcotte, Guy; Lebel, Eric; Gilbert, Annie

    2000-08-01

    The Electronic Battle Box is an integrated suite of planning and decision-aid tools specially designed to facilitate Canadian Armed Force Officers during their training and during their tasks of preparing and conducting military operations. It is the result of a collaborative effort between the Defence Research Establishment Valcartier, the Directorate of Army Doctrine (DAD), the Directorate of Land Requirements (DLR), the G4 staff of 1Cdn Div HQ and CGI Information and Management Consultants Inc. Distributed on CD-ROM, the Electronic Battle Box contains efficient and user-friendly tools that significantly reduce the planning time for military operations and ensure staff officers a better focus on significant tasks. Among the tools are an OrBat Browser and an Equipment Browser allowing to view and edit military organizations, a Task Browser providing facilities to prepare plans using Gantt charts, a Logistic Planner allowing to estimate supply requirements applying complex calculations, and Road, Air and Rail Movement Planners. EBB also provides staff officers with a large set of doctrinal documents in an electronic format. This paper provides an overview of the various tools of the Electronic Battle Box.

  20. The electronic neighbourhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rüdiger, Bjarne; Tournay, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 3-year research project. The Electronic Neighbourhood (2000-2004). Researchers have developed and tested a digital model of the urban area and other digital tools for supporting the dialogue and cooperation between professionals and citizens in an urban...... regeneration project in Copenhagen....

  1. Electronics and Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nièpce, J.-C.; Givord, D.

    Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) are the capacitors most commonly used in electronic circuits (television, radio, telephone, automobile, aeronautics, space, etc.). The main advantages are low cost, small size, a good level of chemical inertness, due to the fact that they are made from chemically very stable oxide ceramics, and hence good stability in time.

  2. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEN-ZVI,I.

    2001-05-13

    The Accelerator Collider Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is operating the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which includes the dual-ring, 3.834 km circumference superconducting collider and the venerable AGS as the last part of the RHIC injection chain. CAD is planning on a luminosity upgrade of the machine under the designation RHIC II. One important component of the RHIC II upgrade is electron cooling of RHIC gold ion beams. For this purpose, BNL and the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk entered into a collaboration aimed initially at the development of the electron cooling conceptual design, resolution of technical issues, and finally extend the collaboration towards the construction and commissioning of the cooler. Many of the results presented in this paper are derived from the Electron Cooling for RHIC Design Report [1], produced by the, BINP team within the framework of this collaboration. BNL is also collaborating with Fermi National Laboratory, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and the University of Indiana on various aspects of electron cooling.

  3. Active devices for electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Sowa, Walter A

    1971-01-01

    An introduction to semiconductors ; the p-n junction ; the junction transistor ; electrical characteristics and ratings ; basic transistor amplifiers ; the field-effect transistor ; the unijunction transistor (UJT) ; the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) ; the DIAC and TRIAC ; light operated devices ; integrated circuits (ICs) ; other solid-state devices of interest ; electron tubes.

  4. Nucleus Driven Electronic Pulsation

    CERN Document Server

    Ludwig, H; Xue, S -S

    2014-01-01

    We derive and solve by the spectral method the equations for a neutral system of ultra-relativistic electrons that are compressed to the radius of the nucleus and subject to a driving force. This driving force can be thought of as originating from a nuclear breathing mode, a possibility we discuss in detail.

  5. Electronically Enhanced Classroom Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Stephen; Cargill, Julie; Cutts, Quintin

    A design rationale for introducing electronic equipment (a group response system) for student interaction in lecture theaters is presented, linking the instructional design to theory. The effectiveness of the equipment for learning depends mostly on what pedagogic method is employed. Various alternative types are introduced, including: assessment;…

  6. Adaptive municipal electronic forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Pieter; Dijk, van Betsy; Bondarouk, Tanya; Ruël, Huub; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation of electronic forms (e-forms) seems to be a step forward to reduce the burden for people who fill in forms. Municipalities more and more offer e-forms online that can be used by citizens to request a municipal product or service or by municipal employees to place a request on behalf of a

  7. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  8. Newnes electronics assembly pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Produced in association with the Engineering Training Authority with contributions from dozens of people in the electronics industry. The material covers common skills in electrical and electronic engineering and concentrates mainly on wiring and assembly. 'Newnes Electronics Assembly Pocket Book' is for electronics technicians, students and apprentices.

  9. Electronic Library: A TERI Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Debal C.; Deb, Subrata; Kumar, Satish

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the development of Electronic Library at TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi). Highlights include: hardware and software used; the digital library/Virtual Electronic Library; directory of Internet journals; virtual reference resources; electronic collection/Physical Electronic Library; downloaded online full-length…

  10. The electronic structures of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Coles, B R

    2013-01-01

    The Electronic Structures of Solids aims to provide students of solid state physics with the essential concepts they will need in considering properties of solids that depend on their electronic structures and idea of the electronic character of particular materials and groups of materials. The book first discusses the electronic structure of atoms, including hydrogen atom and many-electron atom. The text also underscores bonding between atoms and electrons in metals. Discussions focus on bonding energies and structures in the solid elements, eigenstates of free-electron gas, and electrical co

  11. Basic principles of electronics thermionics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I: Thermionics covers topics related to thermionic devices. The book starts by providing a physical background about electronics, including structure of matter, ionic, chemical and covalent combination, crystalline structure, conductors and insulators, and thermionic emission. The text then discusses electron dynamics; the characteristics and properties of electrons in solids; electron emission; and thermionic emission in a vacuum diode or triode. The development of the vacuum triode; gas-filled valves; and power amplifiers are also considered. The book

  12. Electronic Commerce Removing Regulatory Impediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    AD-A252 691 ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Removing Regulatory Impediments ~DuiG A% ELECTE I JUL1 8 1992 0 C D Daniel J. Drake John A. Ciucci ... - ""N ST AT KE...Management Institute 6400 Goldsboro Road Bethesda, Maryland 20817-5886 92 LMI Executive Summary ELECTRONIC COMMERCE : REMOVING REGULATORY IMPEDIMENTS... Electronic Commerce techniques, such as electronic mail and electronic data interchange (EDI), enable Government agencies to conduct business without the

  13. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Toshimi Suda

    2014-11-01

    A brand-new electron scattering facility, the SCRIT Electron Scattering Facility, will soon start its operation at RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Japan. This is the world’s first electron scattering facility dedicated to the structure studies of short-lived nuclei. The goal of this facility is to determine the charge density distributions of short-lived exotic nuclei by elastic electron scattering. The first collision between electrons and exotic nuclei will be observed in the year 2014.

  14. PREFACE: Correlated Electrons (Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Kazumasa

    2007-03-01

    This issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter is dedicated to results in the field of strongly correlated electron systems under multiple-environment. The physics of strongly correlated electron systems (SCES) has attracted much attention since the discovery of superconductivity in CeCu_2 Si_2 by Steglich and his co-workers a quater-century ago. Its interest has been intensified by the discovery of high-Tc superconductivity in a series of cuprates with layered perovskite structure which are still under active debate. The present issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter present some aspects of SCES physics on the basis of activities of a late project "Centre-Of-Excellence" supported by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Sports, Science, Culture and Technology of the Japanese Government). This project has been performed by a condensed matter physics group in the faculties of science and engineering science of Osaka University. Although this project also covers correlated phenomena in optics and nano-scale systems, we focus here on the issues of SCES related to superconductivity, mainly unconventional. The present issue covers the discussions on a new mechanism of superconductivity with electronic origin (critical valence fluctuation mechanism), interplay and unification of magnetism and superconductivity in SCES based on a systematic study of NQR under pressure, varieties of Fermi surface of Ce- and U-based SCES probed by the de Haas-van Alphen effect, electronic states probed by a bulk sensitive photoemission spectroscopy with soft X-ray, pressure induced superconductivity of heavy electron materials, pressure dependence of superconducting transition temperature based on a first-principle calculation, and new superconductors under very high-pressure. Some papers offer readers' reviews of the relevant fields and/or include new developments of this intriguing research field of SCES. Altogether, the papers within this issue outline some aspects of electronic states

  15. Electronic health record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission wants to boost the digital economy by enabling all Europeans to have access to online medical records anywhere in Europe by 2020. With the newly enacted Directive 2011/24/EU on Patients’ Rights in cross border healthcare due for implementation by 2013, it is inevitable...... that a centralised European health record system will become a reality even before 2020. However, the concept of a centralised supranational central server raises concern about storing electronic medical records in a central location. The privacy threat posed by a supranational network is a key concern. Cross border...... and Interoperable electronic health record systems make confidential data more easily and rapidly accessible to a wider audience and increases the risk that personal data concerning health could be accidentally exposed or easily distributed to unauthorised parties by enabling greater access to a compilation...

  16. Electronic health records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission wants to boost the digital economy by enabling all Europeans to have access to online medical records anywhere in Europe by 2020. With the newly enacted Directive 2011/24/EU on patients’ rights in cross-border healthcare due for implementation by 2013, it is inevitable...... that a centralised European health record system will become a reality even before 2020. However, the concept of a centralised supranational central server raises concern about storing electronic medical records in a central location. The privacy threat posed by a supranational network is a key concern. Cross......-border and Interoperable electronic health record systems make confidential data more easily and rapidly accessible to a wider audience and increase the risk that personal data concerning health could be accidentally exposed or easily distributed to unauthorised parties by enabling greater access to a compilation...

  17. Uniform quantized electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høye, Johan S.; Lomba, Enrique

    2016-10-01

    In this work we study the correlation energy of the quantized electron gas of uniform density at temperature T  =  0. To do so we utilize methods from classical statistical mechanics. The basis for this is the Feynman path integral for the partition function of quantized systems. With this representation the quantum mechanical problem can be interpreted as, and is equivalent to, a classical polymer problem in four dimensions where the fourth dimension is imaginary time. Thus methods, results, and properties obtained in the statistical mechanics of classical fluids can be utilized. From this viewpoint we recover the well known RPA (random phase approximation). Then to improve it we modify the RPA by requiring the corresponding correlation function to be such that electrons with equal spins can not be on the same position. Numerical evaluations are compared with well known results of a standard parameterization of Monte Carlo correlation energies.

  18. Basics of RF electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, A

    2011-01-01

    RF electronics deals with the generation, acquisition and manipulation of high-frequency signals. In particle accelerators signals of this kind are abundant, especially in the RF and beam diagnostics systems. In modern machines the complexity of the electronics assemblies dedicated to RF manipulation, beam diagnostics, and feedbacks is continuously increasing, following the demands for improvement of accelerator performance. However, these systems, and in particular their front-ends and back-ends, still rely on well-established basic hardware components and techniques, while down-converted and acquired signals are digitally processed exploiting the rapidly growing computational capability offered by the available technology. This lecture reviews the operational principles of the basic building blocks used for the treatment of high-frequency signals. Devices such as mixers, phase and amplitude detectors, modulators, filters, switches, directional couplers, oscillators, amplifiers, attenuators, and others are d...

  19. Electron-molecule collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Takayanagi, Kazuo

    1984-01-01

    Scattering phenomena play an important role in modern physics. Many significant discoveries have been made through collision experiments. Amongst diverse kinds of collision systems, this book sheds light on the collision of an electron with a molecule. The electron-molecule collision provides a basic scattering problem. It is scattering by a nonspherical, multicentered composite particle with its centers having degrees of freedom of motion. The molecule can even disintegrate, Le., dissociate or ionize into fragments, some or all of which may also be molecules. Although it is a difficult problem, the recent theoretical, experimental, and computational progress has been so significant as to warrant publication of a book that specializes in this field. The progress owes partly to technical develop­ ments in measurements and computations. No less important has been the great and continuing stimulus from such fields of application as astrophysics, the physics of the earth's upper atmosphere, laser physics, radiat...

  20. Conversion electron surface imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, G M; Wehner, A

    1999-01-01

    A method of imaging the Moessbauer absorption over the surface of a sample based on counting conversion electrons emitted from the surface following resonant absorption of gamma radiation is described. This Conversion Electron Surface Imaging (CESI) method is somewhat analogous to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), particularly chemical shift imaging, and similar tomographic reconstruction techniques are involved in extracting the image. The theory behind the technique and a prototype device is described, as well as the results of proof-of-principle experiments which demonstrate the function of the device. Eventually this same prototype device will be part of a system to determine the spatial variation of the Moessbauer spectrum over the surface of a sample. Applications include imaging of variations of surface properties of steels and other iron containing alloys, as well as other surfaces over which sup 5 sup 7 Fe has been deposited.

  1. Semiconductor Physical Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Semiconductor Physical Electronics, Second Edition, provides comprehensive coverage of fundamental semiconductor physics that is essential to an understanding of the physical and operational principles of a wide variety of semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. This text presents a unified and balanced treatment of the physics, characterization, and applications of semiconductor materials and devices for physicists and material scientists who need further exposure to semiconductor and photonic devices, and for device engineers who need additional background on the underlying physical principles. This updated and revised second edition reflects advances in semicondutor technologies over the past decade, including many new semiconductor devices that have emerged and entered into the marketplace. It is suitable for graduate students in electrical engineering, materials science, physics, and chemical engineering, and as a general reference for processing and device engineers working in the semicondi...

  2. Keeping electronic records secure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, David

    2013-10-01

    Are electronic engineering maintenance records relating to the hospital estate or a medical device as important as electronic patient records? Computer maintenance management systems (CMMS) are increasingly being used to manage all-round maintenance activities. However, the accuracy of the data held on them, and a level of security that prevents tampering with records, or other unauthorised changes to them to 'cover' poor practice, are both essential, so that, should an individual be injured or killed on hospital grounds, and a law suit follow, the estates team can be confident that it has accurate data to prove it has fulfilled its duty of care. Here David Easton MSc CEng FIHEEM MIET, director of Zener Engineering Services, and chair of IHEEM's Medical Devices Advisory Group, discusses the issues around maintenance databases, and the security and integrity of maintenance data.

  3. Electron beam silicon purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, Anatoly [SIA ' ' KEPP EU' ' , Riga (Latvia); Kravtsov, Alexey [' ' KEPP-service' ' Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Purification of heavily doped electronic grade silicon by evaporation of N-type impurities with electron beam heating was investigated in process with a batch weight up to 50 kilos. Effective temperature of the melt, an indicative parameter suitable for purification process characterization was calculated and appeared to be stable for different load weight processes. Purified material was successfully approbated in standard CZ processes of three different companies. Each company used its standard process and obtained CZ monocrystals applicable for photovoltaic application. These facts enable process to be successfully scaled up to commercial volumes (150-300 kg) and yield solar grade silicon. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Electron Beam Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Zschornacka, G.; Thorn, A.

    2013-12-16

    Electron beam ion sources (EBISs) are ion sources that work based on the principle of electron impact ionization, allowing the production of very highly charged ions. The ions produced can be extracted as a DC ion beam as well as ion pulses of different time structures. In comparison to most of the other known ion sources, EBISs feature ion beams with very good beam emittances and a low energy spread. Furthermore, EBISs are excellent sources of photons (X-rays, ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet, visible light) from highly charged ions. This chapter gives an overview of EBIS physics, the principle of operation, and the known technical solutions. Using examples, the performance of EBISs as well as their applications in various fields of basic research, technology and medicine are discussed.

  5. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals.

  6. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, W.C. (ed.); Shelton, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    Electron beam precharging of a high resistivity aerosol was successfully demonstrated during this reporting period (Quarters Five and Six). The initial E-beam particle precharging experiments completed this term were designed to confirm and extend some of the work performed under the previous contract. There are several reasons for doing this: (1) to re-establish a baseline performance criterion for comparison to other runs, (2) to test several recently upgraded or repaired subsystems, and (3) to improve upon the collection efficiency of the electron beam precipitator when testing precharging effectiveness with a very high resistivity, moderate-to-high concentration dust load. In addition, these shakedown runs were used to determine a set of suitable operational parameters for the wind tunnel, the electrostatic collecting sections, and the MINACC E-beam accelerator. These parameters will generally be held constant while the precharging parameters are varied to produce an optimum particle charge.

  7. Power electronics reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplar, Robert James; Brock, Reinhard C.; Marinella, Matthew; King, Michael Patrick; Stanley, James K.; Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2010-10-01

    The project's goals are: (1) use experiments and modeling to investigate and characterize stress-related failure modes of post-silicon power electronic (PE) devices such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) switches; and (2) seek opportunities for condition monitoring (CM) and prognostics and health management (PHM) to further enhance the reliability of power electronics devices and equipment. CM - detect anomalies and diagnose problems that require maintenance. PHM - track damage growth, predict time to failure, and manage subsequent maintenance and operations in such a way to optimize overall system utility against cost. The benefits of CM/PHM are: (1) operate power conversion systems in ways that will preclude predicted failures; (2) reduce unscheduled downtime and thereby reduce costs; and (3) pioneering reliability in SiC and GaN.

  8. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...... in the metals producing industry is presented and tested on two printed circuit board scrap cases. The underlying idea for the method is that complex scrap should be introduced in the matrix of man-made material flows at recipient points where the scrap constitutes the least environmental problem and where...... resource recovery is largest. It is clearly shown with the two printed circuit board scrap cases that the currently used copper recycling scenario is environmentally inferior to the tin and lead primary production scenarios. The method is a novelty, since no-one has previously put forward a method...

  9. Electronics Technician 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1957-01-01

    grade of of a strong, pliable wood strip and securing sandpaper (No. 00) may be used. Sandpapering the canvas with rivets, as shown in figure is also...and use properly personnel. insulated tools; cover the deck with an approved All electronics personnel must become thor- insulating material; and make...not struction, the worker must be insulated from be broken except when absolutely necessary and accidental grounding by the use of approved authorized

  10. Runaway electrons and Bremsstrahlung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Per

    2016-09-01

    If an electric field is applied to a plasma, it causes ‘runaway’ acceleration of some electrons—a phenomenon that has been known for almost a century. A paper by Embréus et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 093023) calculates how the emission of Bremsstrahlung affects the upper end of the energy spectrum of these electrons, and finds that it is important to carefully account for finite energy of the emitted photons.

  11. Shipboard electronics thermoacoustic cooler

    OpenAIRE

    Ballister, Stephen C.; McKelvey, Dennis J.

    1995-01-01

    A thermoacoustic refrigerator that was optimized for preservation of biological samples in space, was modified for use as a cooler for the CV-2095 shipboard radar electronics rack. The thermoacoustic cooler was tested in the laboratory and demonstrated at sea aboard USS DEYO (DD-989). In the laboratory, using a calibrated heat load, the data acquisition system was able to account for the total energy balance to within 4%. At the highest operating power aboard ship, 226.6 Watts of acoustic pow...

  12. Electronic healthcare information security

    CERN Document Server

    Dube, Kudakwashe; Shoniregun, Charles A

    2010-01-01

    The ever-increasing healthcare expenditure and pressing demand for improved quality and efficiency of patient care services are driving innovation in healthcare information management. The domain of healthcare has become a challenging testing ground for information security due to the complex nature of healthcare information and individual privacy. ""Electronic Healthcare Information Security"" explores the challenges of e-healthcare information and security policy technologies. It evaluates the effectiveness of security and privacy implementation systems for anonymization methods and techniqu

  13. Electronic Braille Document Reader

    OpenAIRE

    Arif, Shahab; Holmes, Violeta

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into developing a portable Braille device which would allow visually impaired individuals to read electronic documents by actuating Braille text on a finger. Braille books tend to be bulky in size due to the minimum size requirements for each Braille cell. E-books can be read in Braille using refreshable Braille displays connected to a computer. However, the refreshable Braille displays are expensive, bulky and are not portable. These factors restrict blin...

  14. Towards Hypermedia Electronic Publishing

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantas, Dimitri; Morin, Jean-Henry

    1995-01-01

    The most important problem that decision makers face in today's ever increasing information flux is how to find efficiently and fast the useful information. Hypermedia Electronic Publishing systems, supporting active information distribution and offering hypertext browsing facilities, provide a promising solution to this problem. Nevertheless several issues, like value added services, retrieval and access mechanism, information marketing as well as financial and security aspects should be res...

  15. Xyce parallel electronic simulator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Eric R; Mei, Ting; Russo, Thomas V.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Fixel, Deborah A.; Coffey, Todd S; Pawlowski, Roger P; Santarelli, Keith R.

    2010-05-01

    This document is a reference guide to the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator, and is a companion document to the Xyce Users Guide. The focus of this document is (to the extent possible) exhaustively list device parameters, solver options, parser options, and other usage details of Xyce. This document is not intended to be a tutorial. Users who are new to circuit simulation are better served by the Xyce Users Guide.

  16. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    1991-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v

  17. Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFord, J.F.

    1993-03-01

    The Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics thrust area is a focal point for computer modeling activities in electronics and electromagnetics in the Electronics Engineering Department of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Traditionally, they have focused their efforts in technical areas of importance to existing and developing LLNL programs, and this continues to form the basis for much of their research. A relatively new and increasingly important emphasis for the thrust area is the formation of partnerships with industry and the application of their simulation technology and expertise to the solution of problems faced by industry. The activities of the thrust area fall into three broad categories: (1) the development of theoretical and computational models of electronic and electromagnetic phenomena, (2) the development of useful and robust software tools based on these models, and (3) the application of these tools to programmatic and industrial problems. In FY-92, they worked on projects in all of the areas outlined above. The object of their work on numerical electromagnetic algorithms continues to be the improvement of time-domain algorithms for electromagnetic simulation on unstructured conforming grids. The thrust area is also investigating various technologies for conforming-grid mesh generation to simplify the application of their advanced field solvers to design problems involving complicated geometries. They are developing a major code suite based on the three-dimensional (3-D), conforming-grid, time-domain code DSI3D. They continue to maintain and distribute the 3-D, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code TSAR, which is installed at several dozen university, government, and industry sites.

  18. Electronics Industry Study Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    which has reduced the use and allure of stock options . Another electronics industry official captured this problem saying, “It’s not that the talent...capital gains tax. China reduces its 17% nominal value-added tax to 3% for domestically manufactured semiconductors. China also taxes stock ... options at par value and has no capital gains tax. New fabs in Singapore receive a ten year tax exemption followed by a five year period of reduced tax

  19. Power Electronics System Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Milosavljevic, Ivana

    1999-01-01

    This work investigates communication issues in high-frequency power converters. A novel control communication network (Power Electronics System Network or PES Net) is proposed for modular, medium and high-power, converters. The network protocol, hardware and software are designed and implemented. The PES Net runs at 125 Mb/s over plastic optical fiber allowing converter switching frequencies in excess of 100 kHz. Communication control is implemented in a fie...

  20. Supernova electron capture rates

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Pinedo, G

    1999-01-01

    We have calculated the Gamow-Teller strength distributions for the ground states and low lying states of several nuclei that play an important role in the precollapse evolution of supernova. The calculations reproduce the experimental GT distributions nicely. The GT distribution are used to calculate electron capture rates for typical presupernova conditions. The computed rates are noticeably smaller than the presently adopted rates. The possible implications for the supernova evolution are discussed.

  1. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE PORTAL

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeta Soava

    2011-01-01

    Today companies are faced with the need to exploit technology changing computer environments, in order to improve customer satisfaction and reduce costs. A successful approach to electronic portals is an effective demonstration of the new ways of relating to the client. The objectives that we have considered for the realization of e-commerce portal can be summarized as follows: structured communication, effective collaboration, complet and closed circuit of orders and deliveries, inventory op...

  2. FRAUD IN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin-Stelian Badescu

    2013-01-01

    Electronic commerce is experiencing a great extent, and about the same extent fraud seeks - and sometimes is the place to impressive levels. Moreover, computer fraud and, the actors' they do not seem to suffer from the global economic recession and get as sophisticated as a legitimate business model and one of the most important dimensions of the work of modern organizations is the manipulation of information (collection, processing, storage, distribution, etc.). This component informational ...

  3. The electronic approach VSCF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladky, Mark

    The advantages of the high-power electronic approach to variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) systems are examined. It is shown, in particular, how the inherent flexibility of the VSCF approach allows it to be configured for different applications, contributing to the evolution towards the more electric aircraft. The discussion covers criteria for selection, aircraft electric power system architectures, power level, performance, reliability, and maintainability. The future trends of the VSCF converter technology are also briefly discussed.

  4. Electron cryomicroscopy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, V M

    2001-10-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy methods comprise a rapidly expanding field providing insights into the structure and function of biological macromolecules and their supramolecular assemblies. The 3.8 A resolution structure of the membrane protein aquaporin, a view of the herpesvirus capsid at 8.5 A and the 10 A resolution structure of the spliceosomal U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex are three outstanding examples emphasizing the versatility of this technique.

  5. CERN Electronics Pool presentations

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Electronics Pool has organised a series of presentations in collaboration with oscilloscope manufacturers. The last one will take place according to the schedule below.   Time will be available at the end of the presentation to discuss your personal needs. The Agilent presentation had to be postponed and will be organised later. -     Lecroy: Thursday, 24 November 2011, in 530-R-030, 14:00 to 16:30.

  6. Implantable electronic medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Implantable Electronic Medical Devices provides a thorough review of the application of implantable devices, illustrating the techniques currently being used together with overviews of the latest commercially available medical devices. This book provides an overview of the design of medical devices and is a reference on existing medical devices. The book groups devices with similar functionality into distinct chapters, looking at the latest design ideas and techniques in each area, including retinal implants, glucose biosensors, cochlear implants, pacemakers, electrical stimulation t

  7. Sculpturing the Electron Wave Function

    CERN Document Server

    Shiloh, Roy; Lilach, Yigal; Arie, Ady

    2014-01-01

    Coherent electrons such as those in electron microscopes, exhibit wave phenomena and may be described by the paraxial wave equation. In analogy to light-waves, governed by the same equation, these electrons share many of the fundamental traits and dynamics of photons. Today, spatial manipulation of electron beams is achieved mainly using electrostatic and magnetic fields. Other demonstrations include simple phase-plates and holographic masks based on binary diffraction gratings. Altering the spatial profile of the beam may be proven useful in many fields incorporating phase microscopy, electron holography, and electron-matter interactions. These methods, however, are fundamentally limited due to energy distribution to undesired diffraction orders as well as by their binary construction. Here we present a new method in electron-optics for arbitrarily shaping of electron beams, by precisely controlling an engineered pattern of thicknesses on a thin-membrane, thereby molding the spatial phase of the electron wav...

  8. The SPEDE electron spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neill, George

    This thesis presents SPEDE (SPectrometer for Electron DEtection) and documents its construction, testing and performance during commissioning at Jyvaskyla, Finland, before deployment at the HIE-ISOLDE facility at CERN coupled with the MINIBALL array to perform in-beam electron-gamma spectroscopy using post-accelerated radioactive ion beams. Commissioning experiments took place in two two-day stints during spring 2015, coupled with several JUROGAMII gamma-detectors. This spectrometer will help aid in fully understanding exotic regions of the nuclear chart such as regions with a high degree of octupole deformation, and in those nuclei exhibiting shape coexistence. For the rst time, electron spectroscopy has been performed at the target position from states populated in accelerated nuclei via Coulomb excitation. The FWHM of SPEDE is approximately 7 keV at 320 keV, and Doppler correction was possible to improve Doppler broadened peaks. The results are intended to give the reader a full understanding of the dete...

  9. Transformational silicon electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2014-02-25

    In today\\'s traditional electronics such as in computers or in mobile phones, billions of high-performance, ultra-low-power devices are neatly integrated in extremely compact areas on rigid and brittle but low-cost bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) wafers. Ninety percent of global electronics are made up of silicon. Therefore, we have developed a generic low-cost regenerative batch fabrication process to transform such wafers full of devices into thin (5 μm), mechanically flexible, optically semitransparent silicon fabric with devices, then recycling the remaining wafer to generate multiple silicon fabric with chips and devices, ensuring low-cost and optimal utilization of the whole substrate. We show monocrystalline, amorphous, and polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide fabric, all from low-cost bulk silicon (100) wafers with the semiconductor industry\\'s most advanced high-κ/metal gate stack based high-performance, ultra-low-power capacitors, field effect transistors, energy harvesters, and storage to emphasize the effectiveness and versatility of this process to transform traditional electronics into flexible and semitransparent ones for multipurpose applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  10. Electronic Recruitment at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Human Resources Department switches to electronic recruitment. From now on whenever you are involved in a recruitment action you will receive an e-mail giving you access to a Web folder. Inside you will find a shortlist of applications drawn up by the Human Resources Department. This will allow you to consult the folder, at the same time as everyone else involved in the recruitment process, for the vacancy you are interested in. This new electronic recruitment system, known as e-RT, will be introduced in a presentation given at 10 a.m. on 11 February in the Main Auditorium. Implemented by AIS (Administrative Information Services) and the Human Resources Department, e-RT will cover vacancies open in all of CERN's recruitment programmes. The electronic application system was initially made available to technical students in July 2003. By December it was extended to summer students, fellows, associates and Local Staff. Geraldine Ballet from the Recruitment Service prefers e-RT to mountains of paper! The Hu...

  11. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, W.C. (ed.); Shelton, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    During the previous reporting period (Quarter Six), the charging and removal of a fine, high resistivity aerosol using the advanced technology of electron beam precipitation was successfully accomplished. Precharging a dust stream circulating through the EBP wind tunnel produced collection efficiency figures of up to 40 times greater than with corona charging and collection alone (Table 1). The increased system collection efficiency attributed to electron beam precharging was determined to be the result of increased particle charge. It was found that as precharger electric field was raised, collection efficiency became greater. In sequence, saturation particle charge varies with the precharger electric field strength, particle migration velocity varies with the precharger and collector electric field, and collection efficiency varies with the migration velocity. Maximizing the system collection efficiency requires both a high charging electric field (provided by the E-beam precharger), and a high collecting electric field (provided by the collector wires and plates). Because increased particle collection efficiency is directly attributable to higher particle charge, the focus of research during Quarter Seven was shifted to learning more about the actual charge magnitude on the aerosol particles. Charge determinations in precipitators have traditionally been made on bulk dust samples collected from the flue gas stream, which gives an overall charge vs. mass (Q/M) ratio measurement. More recently, techniques have been developed which allow the measurement of the charge on individual particles in a rapid and repeatable fashion. One such advanced technique has been developed at FSU for use in characterizing the electron beam precharger.

  12. Electronic Health Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nabil Almunawar PhD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic health records (EHRs store health-related patient information in an electronic format, improving the quality of health care management and increasing efficiency of health care processes. However, in existing information systems, health-related records are generated, managed, and controlled by health care organizations. Patients are perceived as recipients of care and normally cannot directly interact with the system that stores their health-related records; their participation in enriching this information is not possible. Many businesses now allow customers to participate in generating information for their systems, strengthening customer relationships. This trend is supported by Web 2.0, which enables interactivity through various means, including social networks. Health care systems should be able to take advantage of this development. This article proposes a novel framework in addressing the emerging need for interactivity while preserving and extending existing electronic medical data. The framework has 3 dimensions of patient health record: personal, social, and medical dimensions. The framework is designed to empower patients, changing their roles from static recipient of health care services to dynamic and active partners in health care processes.

  13. Nanotechnology in paper electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Österbacka, Professor Ronald; Han, Jin-Woo, Dr

    2014-03-01

    The ability to put cutting edge technology on paper—not in words but in a working physical form—has been attracting an increasing number of researchers over the past decade. Paper has many advantages that make it attractive for flexible electronics: it is relatively environmentally benign; it is renewable; it can be recycled; it is light weight; production processes for paper are well advanced; and it is inexpensive. This special issue, with guest editors Ronald Österbacka from Åbo Akademi University in Finland and Jin-Woo Han from the NASA AMES Research Center, features some of the latest in paper electronics research, including developments towards applications in displays, sensing and alternative energy sources, as well as fundamental studies to further our understanding of how paper can be most effectively used in electronics. As Andrew Steckl and colleagues in the US point out, 'Cellulose-based paper substrates were implemented as an electronic substrate as early as 1969, with most advancement occurring in the past decade largely due to technology improvements in thin film deposition and organic materials' [1, 2]. They report a detailed comparison between paper, standard liquid crystal display rigid glass and flexible glass for hosting pentacene organic thin film transistors, and obtain promising results for future paper-based devices. As most meaningful electronic devices rely on transistors to function, transistors feature quite prominently in this special issue. Rodrigo Martins and colleagues in France and Portugal study the effect of fibre type, structure and dimension on paper-based transistors and reveal further insights into how paper properties affect device performance [3]. Qing Wan and colleagues in China bring the state of the art in transistor technology to paper substrates [4], fabricating indium-zinc-oxide (IZO)-based protonic/electronic hybrid thin film transistors on paper and showing that they can be used as artificial synapses. Like the

  14. Electron acoustic solitary waves with kappa-distributed electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devanandhan, S; Singh, S V; Lakhina, G S, E-mail: satyavir@iigs.iigm.res.in [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel (West), Navi Mumbai (India)

    2011-08-01

    Electron acoustic solitary waves are studied in a three-component, unmagnetized plasma composed of hot electrons, fluid cold electrons and ions having finite temperatures. Hot electrons are assumed to have kappa distribution. The Sagdeev pseudo-potential technique is used to study the arbitrary amplitude electron-acoustic solitary waves. It is found that inclusion of cold electron temperature shrinks the existence regime of the solitons, and soliton electric field amplitude decreases with an increase in cold electron temperature. A decrease in spectral index, {kappa}, i.e. an increase in the superthermal component of hot electrons, leads to a decrease in soliton electric field amplitude as well as the soliton velocity range. The soliton solutions do not exist beyond T{sub c}/T{sub h}>0.13 for {kappa}=3.0 and Mach number M=0.9 for the dayside auroral region parameters.

  15. Compact electron beam focusing column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2001-07-13

    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2-D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  16. Practical analog electronics for technicians

    CERN Document Server

    Kimber, W A

    2013-01-01

    'Practical Analog Electronics for Technicians' not only provides an accessible introduction to electronics, but also supplies all the problems and practical activities needed to gain hands-on knowledge and experience. This emphasis on practice is surprisingly unusual in electronics texts, and has already gained Will Kimber popularity through the companion volume, 'Practical Digital Electronics for Technicians'. Written to cover the Advanced GNVQ optional unit in electronics, this book is also ideal for BTEC National, A-level electronics and City & Guilds courses. Together with 'Practical Digit

  17. Understand electrical and electronics maths

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    1993-01-01

    Understand Electrical and Electronics Maths covers elementary maths and the aspects of electronics. The book discusses basic maths including quotients, algebraic fractions, logarithms, types of equations and balancing of equations. The text also describes the main features and functions of graphs and the solutions to simpler types of electronics problems. The book then tackles the applications of polar coordinates in electronics, limits, differentiation and integration, and the applications of maths of rates of change in electronics. The activities of an electronic circuit; techniques of math

  18. Advances in electron transfer chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Patrick S

    1993-01-01

    Advances in Electron Transfer Chemistry, Volume 3 presents studies that discuss findings in the various aspects of electron chemistry. The book is comprised of four chapters; each chapter reviews a work that tackles an issue in electron transfer chemistry. Chapter 1 discusses the photoinduced electron transfer in flexible biaryl donor-acceptor molecules. Chapter 2 tackles light-induced electron transfer in inorganic systems in homogeneous and heterogeneous phases. The book also covers internal geometry relaxation effects on electron transfer rates of amino-centered systems. The sequential elec

  19. Ultrafast Time-Resolved Electron Diffraction with Megavolt Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, J.B.; /SLAC; Rudakov, F.M.; /Brown U.; Dowell, D.H.; Schmerge, J.F.; /SLAC; Cardoza, J.D.; /Brown U.; Castro, J.M.; Gierman, S.M.; Loos, H.; /SLAC; Weber, P.M.; /Brown U.

    2006-10-24

    An rf photocathode electron gun is used as an electron source for ultrafast time-resolved pump-probe electron diffraction. We observed single-shot diffraction patterns from a 160 nm Al foil using the 5.4 MeV electron beam from the Gun Test Facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator. Excellent agreement with simulations suggests that single-shot diffraction experiments with a time resolution approaching 100 fs are possible.

  20. Two-Electron Transfer Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiaxing; Balamurugan, D; Zhang, Peng; Skourtis, Spiros S; Beratan, David N

    2015-06-18

    The frontiers of electron-transfer chemistry demand that we develop theoretical frameworks to describe the delivery of multiple electrons, atoms, and ions in molecular systems. When electrons move over long distances through high barriers, where the probability for thermal population of oxidized or reduced bridge-localized states is very small, the electrons will tunnel from the donor (D) to acceptor (A), facilitated by bridge-mediated superexchange interactions. If the stable donor and acceptor redox states on D and A differ by two electrons, it is possible that the electrons will propagate coherently from D to A. While structure-function relations for single-electron superexchange in molecules are well established, strategies to manipulate the coherent flow of multiple electrons are largely unknown. In contrast to one-electron superexchange, two-electron superexchange involves both one- and two-electron virtual intermediate states, the number of virtual intermediates increases very rapidly with system size, and multiple classes of pathways interfere with one another. In the study described here, we developed simple superexchange models for two-electron transfer. We explored how the bridge structure and energetics influence multielectron superexchange, and we compared two-electron superexchange interactions to single-electron superexchange. Multielectron superexchange introduces interference between singly and doubly oxidized (or reduced) bridge virtual states, so that even simple linear donor-bridge-acceptor systems have pathway topologies that resemble those seen for one-electron superexchange through bridges with multiple parallel pathways. The simple model systems studied here exhibit a richness that is amenable to experimental exploration by manipulating the multiple pathways, pathway crosstalk, and changes in the number of donor and acceptor species. The features that emerge from these studies may assist in developing new strategies to deliver multiple

  1. Attainment of Electron Beam Suitable for Medium Energy Electron Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seletskiy, Sergei M. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Electron cooling of charged particle beams is a well-established technique at electron energies of up to 300 keV. However, up to the present time the advance of electron cooling to the MeV-range energies has remained a purely theoretical possibility. The electron cooling project at Fermilab has recently demonstrated the ¯rst cooling of 8.9 GeV/c antiprotons in the Recycler ring, and therefore, has proved the validity of the idea of relativistic electron cool- ing. The Recycler Electron Cooler (REC) is the key component of the Teva- tron Run II luminosity upgrade project. Its performance depends critically on the quality of electron beam. A stable electron beam of 4.3 MeV car- rying 0.5 A of DC current is required. The beam suitable for the Recycler Electron Cooler must have an angular spread not exceeding 200 ¹rad. The full-scale prototype of the REC was designed, built and tested at Fermilab in the Wideband laboratory to study the feasibility of attaining the high-quality electron beam. In this thesis I describe various aspects of development of the Fermilab electron cooling system, and the techniques used to obtain the electron beam suitable for the cooling process. In particular I emphasize those aspects of the work for which I was principally responsible.

  2. Aircraft Electronics Maintenance Training Simulator. Curriculum Outlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackhawk Technical Coll., Janesville, WI.

    Instructional materials are provided for nine courses in an aircraft electronics maintenance training program. Courses are as follows: aviation basic electricity, direct current and alternating current electronics, basic avionic installations, analog electronics, digital electronics, microcomputer electronics, radio communications, aircraft…

  3. Electronic textiles: A logical step

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rossi, Danilo

    2007-05-01

    The integration of electronics and clothing promises a variety of new technologies, but constructing electronic circuits on fabrics is complex. Coating fibres to create electrodes and forming transistors at their crossing points offers an elegant solution.

  4. Getting started with electronic projects

    CERN Document Server

    Pretty, Bill

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at hobbyists with basic knowledge of electronics circuits. Whether you are a novice electronics project builder, a ham radio enthusiast, or a BeagleBone tinkerer, you will love this book.

  5. Workflow Management in Electronic Commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Spaccapietra, S.; March, S.T.; Kambayashi, Y.

    2002-01-01

    In electronic commerce scenarios, effectiveness and efficiency of business process execution are of paramount importance for business success. Even more than in traditional commerce scenarios, they determine the chances of survival of organizations in fast moving, highly competitive electronic marke

  6. Electronic Services Monthly MI Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This electronic services monthly MI report contains monthly MI data for most public facing online online applications such as iClaim, electronic access, Mobile wage...

  7. Detectors - Electronics; Detecteurs - Electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 (France)

    1998-04-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X {yields} e{sup -} converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the {sup 3}He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  8. Inductive Electron Heating Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuszewski, M.

    1996-11-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasmas (ICPs) have been studied for over a century. Recently, ICPs have been rediscovered by the multi-billion dollar semiconductor industry as an important class of high-density, low-pressure plasma sources suitable for the manufacture of next-generation integrated circuits. Present low-pressure ICP development is among the most active areas of plasma research. However, this development remains largely empirical, a prohibitively expensive approach for upcoming 300-mm diameter wafers. Hence, there is an urgent need for basic ICP plasma physics research, including experimental characterization and predictive numerical modeling. Inductive radio frequency (rf) power absorption is fundamental to the ICP electron heating and the resulting plasma transport but remains poorly understood. For example, recent experimental measurements and supporting fluid calculationsfootnote M. Tuszewski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 in press (1996) on a commercial deposition tool prototype show that the induced rf magnetic fields in the source can cause an order of magnitude reduction in plasma conductivity and in electron heating power density. In some cases, the rf fields penetrate through the entire volume of the ICP discharges while existing models that neglect the induced rf magnetic fields predict rf absorption in a thin skin layer near the plasma surface. The rf magnetic fields also cause more subtle changes in the plasma density and in the electron temperature spatial distributions. These data will be presented and the role of basic research in the applied world of semiconductor manufacturing will be discussed. ^*This research was conducted under the auspices of the U.S. DOE, supported by funds provided by the University of California for discretionary research by Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  9. Water-cooled electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Dumont, G; Righini, B

    2000-01-01

    LHC experiments demand on cooling of electronic instrumentation will be extremely high. A large number of racks will be located in underground caverns and counting rooms, where cooling by conventional climatisation would be prohibitively expensive. A series of tests on the direct water cooling of VMEbus units and of their standard power supplies is reported. A maximum dissipation of 60 W for each module and more than 1000 W delivered by the power supply to the crate have been reached. These values comply with the VMEbus specifications. (3 refs).

  10. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal; Romenesco, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the packageùespecially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  11. GHz-THz Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    BN – insulator , 2D MoS2 – semiconductor, 2D NbSe2 – superconductor • Bandgap of MoS2 transitions from being indirect in bulk to direct in 2D • Free...Challenges exist mainly in controlling purity and stoichiometry, as well as in understanding metal- insulator transition . III. Reconfigurable Electronics...Topological effects • SWAP-C and conforming • Metal- insulator transition with high on-off ratio 10 Distribution A: Approved for public release

  12. Owl: electronic datasheet generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Evan; Tao, Jenhan; Wheatley, F Carter; Desai, Devina H; Lozanoski, Thomas M; Shah, Pooja D; Awtry, Jake A; Jin, Shawn S; Haddock, Traci L; Densmore, Douglas M

    2014-12-19

    Owl ( www.owlcad.org ) is a biodesign automation tool that generates electronic datasheets for synthetic biological parts using common formatting. Data can be retrieved automatically from existing repositories and modified in the Owl user interface (UI). Owl uses the data to generate an HTML page with standard typesetting that can be saved as a PDF file. Here we present the Owl software tool in its alpha version, its current UI, its description of input data for generating a datasheet, its example datasheets, and the vision of the tool's role in biodesign automation.

  13. The uniform electron gas

    CERN Document Server

    Loos, Pierre-François

    2016-01-01

    The uniform electron gas or UEG (also known as jellium) is one of the most fundamental models in condensed-matter physics and the cornerstone of the most popular approximation --- the local-density approximation --- within density-functional theory. In this article, we provide a detailed review on the energetics of the UEG at high, intermediate and low densities, and in one, two and three dimensions. We also report the best quantum Monte Carlo and symmetry-broken Hartree-Fock calculations available in the literature for the UEG and discuss the phase diagrams of jellium.

  14. Terahertz antenna electronic chopper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterczewski, L. A., E-mail: lukasz.sterczewski@pwr.edu.pl; Grzelczak, M. P.; Plinski, E. F. [Department of Electronics, Wroclaw University of Technology, 27 Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego St., 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2016-01-15

    In this paper, we present an electronic circuit used to bias a photoconductive antenna that generates terahertz radiation. The working principles and the design process for the device are discussed in detail. The noise and shape of the wave measurements for a built device are considered. Furthermore, their impact on a terahertz pulse and its spectra is also examined. The proposed implementation is simple to build, robust and offers a real improvement over THz instrumentation due to the frequency tuning. Additionally, it provides for galvanic isolation and ESD protection.

  15. Electron microscope studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1992-07-01

    This is a report covering the research performed in the Crewe laboratory between 1964 and 1992. Because of limitations of space we have provided relatively brief summaries of the major research directions of the facility during these years. A complete bibliography has been included and we have referenced groups of pertinent publications at the beginning of each section. This report summarizes our efforts to develop better electron microscopes and chronicles many of the experimental programs, in materials science and biology, that acted both as a stimulus to better microscope design and also as a testing ground for many instrumental innovations.

  16. Security electronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    MARSTON, R M

    1998-01-01

    Security Electronics Circuits Manual is an invaluable guide for engineers and technicians in the security industry. It will also prove to be a useful guide for students and experimenters, as well as providing experienced amateurs and DIY enthusiasts with numerous ideas to protect their homes, businesses and properties.As with all Ray Marston's Circuits Manuals, the style is easy-to-read and non-mathematical, with the emphasis firmly on practical applications, circuits and design ideas. The ICs and other devices used in the practical circuits are modestly priced and readily available ty

  17. EMC in power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tihanyi, Laszlo

    1995-01-01

    Electronics professionals will find this book invaluable when designing power equipment, because it describes in detail how to cope with the problem of electromagnetic interference. The author shows how to meet the exacting US and European EMC standards for conducted emissions.The book includes a wide range of EMI analysis techniques. An important focus is on the energy content of interference transient signals (traditional analysis concentrates on amplitude and frequency). This provides a more accurate picture of the EMI situation. For those who do not want or need detailed analysis technique

  18. Electronics I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electronics I covers fundamentals of semiconductor devices, junction diodes, bipolar junction transistors, power supplies, multitransistor circuits, small signals, low-frequency anal

  19. Introduction to quantum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Unger, Hans Georg

    1970-01-01

    Introduction to Quantum Electronics is based on a one-semester lecture of electrical engineering for German students. The book is an introduction to the fundamentals of lasers and masers and a presentation of the principles of physics, their theory, and methods of analysis that seek to analyze, explain, and quantify related important phenomena. The properties of a laser is then discussed, the author comparing it to the properties of the maser. Although masers are based on the same physical properties as that of the lasers, masers amplify microwaves by induced emission. How the laser is amplif

  20. Plasmonic-Electronic Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    resonances in two dimensional electron gases. Tunable plasmon absorption resonances were observed and studied in InP-based and GaN -based HEMTs . The...Resonant terahertz absorption by plasmons in grating-gate GaN HEMT structures,” A. V. Muravjov, D. B. Veksler, X. Hu, R. Gaska, N. Pala, H. Saxena...Nov. 2009, Singapore. 4. “Terahertz Plasmons in Grating-Gate AlGaN/ GaN HEMTs ,” A.V. Muravjov, D.B. Veksler, V.V. Popov, M.S. Shur, N. Pala, X. Hu, R

  1. Electronic phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Kopaev, YuV

    1992-01-01

    Electronic Phase Transitions deals with topics, which are presently at the forefront of scientific research in modern solid-state theory. Anderson localization, which has fundamental implications in many areas of solid-state physics as well as spin glasses, with its influence on quite different research activities such as neural networks, are two examples that are reviewed in this book. The ab initio statistical mechanics of structural phase transitions is another prime example, where the interplay and connection of two unrelated disciplines of solid-state theory - first principle ele

  2. Radar and electronic navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnenberg, G J

    2013-01-01

    Radar and Electronic Navigation, Sixth Edition discusses radar in marine navigation, underwater navigational aids, direction finding, the Decca navigator system, and the Omega system. The book also describes the Loran system for position fixing, the navy navigation satellite system, and the global positioning system (GPS). It reviews the principles, operation, presentations, specifications, and uses of radar. It also describes GPS, a real time position-fixing system in three dimensions (longitude, latitude, altitude), plus velocity information with Universal Time Coordinated (UTC). It is accur

  3. Electronics II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electronics II covers operational amplifiers, feedback and frequency compensation of OP amps, multivibrators, logic gates and families, Boolean algebra, registers, counters, arithmet

  4. High Availability Electronics Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R.S.; /SLAC

    2006-12-13

    Availability modeling of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC) predicts unacceptably low uptime with current electronics systems designs. High Availability (HA) analysis is being used as a guideline for all major machine systems including sources, utilities, cryogenics, magnets, power supplies, instrumentation and controls. R&D teams are seeking to achieve total machine high availability with nominal impact on system cost. The focus of this paper is the investigation of commercial standard HA architectures and packaging for Accelerator Controls and Instrumentation. Application of HA design principles to power systems and detector instrumentation are also discussed.

  5. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal

    2000-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the package-especially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  6. Unbalanced field RF electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofler, Alicia

    2013-11-12

    A design for an RF electron gun having a gun cavity utilizing an unbalanced electric field arrangement. Essentially, the electric field in the first (partial) cell has higher field strength than the electric field in the second (full) cell of the electron gun. The accompanying method discloses the use of the unbalanced field arrangement in the operation of an RF electron gun in order to accelerate an electron beam.

  7. Transmission electron microscope CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Kenneth H.

    1999-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of a CCD camera on a high voltage electron microscope, an electron decelerator is inserted between the microscope column and the CCD. This arrangement optimizes the interaction of the electron beam with the scintillator of the CCD camera while retaining optimization of the microscope optics and of the interaction of the beam with the specimen. Changing the electron beam energy between the specimen and camera allows both to be optimized.

  8. Freeform electronics for advanced healthcare

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-02-16

    Freeform (physically flexible, stretchable and reconfigurable) electronics can be critical enabler for advanced personalized healthcare. With increased global population and extended average lifetime of mankind, it is more important than ever to integrate advanced electronics into our daily life for advanced personalized healthcare. In this paper, we discuss some critical criteria to design such electronics with enabling applications.

  9. Career Directions--Electronics Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Electronics technicians (ETs) work with electronics engineers to set up and maintain complicated electronics equipment that many of today's businesses rely on. The field is varied. An ET might service the industrial controls on a factory floor. Or repair missile control systems for the government. Or an ET could specialize in cars and trucks,…

  10. Electronic Books for Secondary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Inman, Lynne; Horney, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the definition, purposes, and advantages and disadvantages of electronic books. Notes the types of embedded resources present in them, offers an example of an electronic book, and suggests three steps to evaluate and select electronic books for the curriculum. (SR)

  11. Electronic Portfolios for Faculty Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Marilyn; Cockerham, Steve

    This paper examines the conceptual process of creating an electronic professional portfolio for faculty development. The characteristics of electronic professional portfolios and the benefits of electronic portfolio development are discussed. Additional topics covered include: collection and selection of portfolio contents; reflection on portfolio…

  12. Social Studies by Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Hugh

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that electronic mail provides opportunities to engage students actively in cross-cultural contact with students in other nations. Discusses advantages and problems with using electronic mail in the social studies classroom. Describes electronic mail projects that link students in New Zealand, England, and the United States. (CFR)

  13. Magnetic electron lenses

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    No single volume has been entirely devoted to the properties of magnetic lenses, so far as I am aware, although of course all the numerous textbooks on electron optics devote space to them. The absence of such a volume, bringing together in­ formation about the theory and practical design of these lenses, is surprising, for their introduction some fifty years ago has created an entirely new family of commercial instruments, ranging from the now traditional transmission electron microscope, through the reflection and transmission scanning microscopes, to co­ lumns for micromachining and microlithography, not to mention the host of experi­ mental devices not available commercially. It therefore seemed useful to prepare an account of the various aspects of mag­ netic lens studies. These divide naturally into the five chapters of this book: the theoretical background, in which the optical behaviour is described and formu­ lae given for the various aberration coefficients; numerical methods for calculat­ ing...

  14. Electron spectroscopy of crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Nemoshkalenko, V V

    1979-01-01

    This book is conceived as a monograph, and represents an up-to-date collection of information concerning the use of the method of X-ray photoelectron spec­ troscopy in the study of the electron structure of crystals, as well as a personal interpretation of the subject by the authors. In a natural way, the book starts in Chapter 1 with a recapitulation of the fundamentals of the method, basic relations, principles of operation, and a com­ parative presentation of the characteristics and performances of the most com­ monly used ESCA instruments (from the classical ones-Varian, McPherson, Hewlett Packard, and IEEE-up to the latest model developed by Professor Siegbahn in Uppsala), and continues with a discussion of some of the difficult problems the experimentalist must face such as calibration of spectra, prepara­ tion of samples, and evaluation of the escape depth of electrons. The second chapter is devoted to the theory of photoemission from crystal­ line solids. A discussion of the methods of Hartree-Fo...

  15. Electronics via waveform analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Edwin C

    1993-01-01

    The author believes that a good basic understanding of electronics can be achieved by detailed visual analyses of the actual voltage waveforms present in selected circuits. The voltage waveforms included in this text were photographed using a 35-rrun camera in an attempt to make the book more attractive. This book is intended for the use of students with a variety of backgrounds. For this reason considerable material has been placed in the Appendix for those students who find it useful. The Appendix includes many basic electricity and electronic concepts as well as mathematical derivations that are not vital to the understanding of the circuit being discussed in the text at that time. Also some derivations might be so long that, if included in the text, it could affect the concentration of the student on the circuit being studied. The author has tried to make the book comprehensive enough so that a student could use it as a self-study course, providing one has access to adequate laboratory equipment.

  16. Electronic UV dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, H C; Gniadecka, M

    1996-08-01

    The pathogenic role of ultraviolet (UV) in the development of skin cancer, skin ageing and immunosuppression makes it important to monitor human exposure to UV radiation. In a previous study we constructed UVB and UVC dosimeters based on a thermoluminescent phenomenon induced by UV in CaF2 :Dy and CaF2 crystals. However, these dosimeters were insensitive to UVA radiation and readout was time-consuming. In the present study we aimed to develop an electronic dosimeter suitable for UVA, UVB and UVC. The principle of this dosimeter is a measure of accumulated electric current induced by UV on a photodetector. Electric current induced by UV on a photodetector was accumulated in a Plessey's E-cell coulometer. A special reading device was constructed to quantify total charge of the coulometer. Sensitivity for UVA, UVB and UVC was achieved by the use of appropriate filters in front of the photodetector. The sensitivity of the electronic dosimeter increased with increasing wavelength of UV radiation; therefore, in UVB and UVC dosimeters the use of amplifiers was necessary. A linear response to UVA, UVB and UVC was achieved. Dosimeters with a linear response to increasing doses of UVA, UVB and UVC have been constructed for personal monitoring of UV exposure.

  17. The ALICE Electronic Logbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altini, V [INFN, Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita and Sezione INFN Bary (Italy); Carena, F; Carena, W; Chapeland, S; Barroso, V Chibante; Costa, F; Divia, R; Fuchs, U; Makhlyueva, I; Roukoutakis, F; Schossmaier, K; Soos, C; Vyvre, P Vande; Haller, B Von, E-mail: Vasco.Chibante.Barroso@cern.c [CERN, Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2010-04-01

    All major experiments need tools that provide a way to keep a record of the events and activities, both during commissioning and operations. In ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) at CERN, this task is performed by the Alice Electronic Logbook (eLogbook), a custom-made application developed and maintained by the Data-Acquisition group (DAQ). Started as a statistics repository, the eLogbook has evolved to become not only a fully functional electronic logbook, but also a massive information repository used to store the conditions and statistics of the several online systems. It's currently used by more than 600 users in 30 different countries and it plays an important role in the daily ALICE collaboration activities. This paper will describe the LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP) based architecture of the eLogbook, the database schema and the relevance of the information stored in the eLogbook to the different ALICE actors, not only for near real time procedures but also for long term data-mining and analysis. It will also present the web interface, including the different used technologies, the implemented security measures and the current main features. Finally it will present the roadmap for the future, including a migration to the web 2.0 paradigm, the handling of the database ever-increasing data volume and the deployment of data-mining tools.

  18. Compressed sensing electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leary, Rowan, E-mail: rkl26@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Saghi, Zineb; Midgley, Paul A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Holland, Daniel J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    The recent mathematical concept of compressed sensing (CS) asserts that a small number of well-chosen measurements can suffice to reconstruct signals that are amenable to sparse or compressible representation. In addition to powerful theoretical results, the principles of CS are being exploited increasingly across a range of experiments to yield substantial performance gains relative to conventional approaches. In this work we describe the application of CS to electron tomography (ET) reconstruction and demonstrate the efficacy of CS–ET with several example studies. Artefacts present in conventional ET reconstructions such as streaking, blurring of object boundaries and elongation are markedly reduced, and robust reconstruction is shown to be possible from far fewer projections than are normally used. The CS–ET approach enables more reliable quantitative analysis of the reconstructions as well as novel 3D studies from extremely limited data. - Highlights: • Compressed sensing (CS) theory and its application to electron tomography (ET) is described. • The practical implementation of CS–ET is outlined and its efficacy demonstrated with examples. • High fidelity tomographic reconstruction is possible from a small number of images. • The CS–ET reconstructions can be more reliably segmented and analysed quantitatively. • CS–ET is applicable to different image content by choice of an appropriate sparsifying transform.

  19. The art of linear electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hood, John Linsley

    2013-01-01

    The Art of Linear Electronics presents the principal aspects of linear electronics and techniques in linear electronic circuit design. The book provides a wide range of information on the elucidation of the methods and techniques in the design of linear electronic circuits. The text discusses such topics as electronic component symbols and circuit drawing; passive and active semiconductor components; DC and low frequency amplifiers; and the basic effects of feedback. Subjects on frequency response modifying circuits and filters; audio amplifiers; low frequency oscillators and waveform generato

  20. Power electronics and motor drives

    CERN Document Server

    Wilamowski, Bogdan M

    2011-01-01

    Universities throughout the world typically provide an excellent education in the various aspects of electronics, however their focus is normally on traditional low power electronics. In contrast, in the industrial environment, there is a need for high power electronics that is used to control electromechanical systems in addition to the low power electronics typically employed for analog and digital systems. To address this need, Section 1 of this volume in The Industrial Electronics Handbook, Second Edition, is focused on special high power semiconductor devices. Section 2 not only describes

  1. Getting started with electronic mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vuren, D D; Johnson, D E

    1985-01-01

    This paper gives suggestions to librarians on how to get started with electronic mail. It discusses the cost- and time-saving advantages of using electronic mail rather than TWX, United States mail, or telephones for communicating ILL requests and messages. For instance, preliminary cost data show that electronic mail is often half as expensive as TWX and costs no more than a 22 stamp. Key management concerns that must be considered when setting up electronic mail are discussed, including the need for subscribers to agree on one system. Also covered are the types of equipment that can be used with electronic mail, including print terminals. PMID:4027444

  2. A MONTE CARLO SIMULATION OF SECONDARY ELECTRON AND BACKSCATTERED ELECTRON IMAGES IN SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.M. Li; Z.J. Ding

    2005-01-01

    A new parallel Monte Carlo simulation method of secondary electron (SE) and backscattered electron images (BSE) of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for a complex geometric structure has been developed. This paper describes briefly the simulation method and the modification to the conventional sampling method for the step length. Example simulation results have been obtained for several artificial structures.

  3. Space Electronic Test Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Rodney D.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Power and Propulsion Test Engineering Branch at NASA Glenn Research center has the important duty of controlling electronic test engineering services. These services include test planning and early assessment of Space projects, management and/or technical support required to safely and effectively prepare the article and facility for testing, operation of test facilities, and validation/delivery of data to customer. The Space Electronic Test Engineering Branch is assigned electronic test engineering responsibility for the GRC Space Simulation, Microgravity, Cryogenic, and Combustion Test Facilities. While working with the Space Power and Propulsion Test Engineering Branch I am working on several different assignments. My primary assignment deals with an electrical hardware unit known as Sunny Boy. Sunny Boy is a DC load Bank that is designed for solar arrays in which it is used to convert DC power form the solar arrays into AC power at 60 hertz to pump back into the electricity grid. However, there are some researchers who decided that they would like to use the Sunny Boy unit in a space simulation as a DC load bank for a space shuttle or even the International Space Station hardware. In order to do so I must create a communication link between a computer and the Sunny Boy unit so that I can preset a few of the limits (such power, set & constant voltage levels) that Sunny Boy will need to operate using the applied DC load. Apart from this assignment I am also working on a hi-tech circuit that I need to have built at a researcher s request. This is a high voltage analog to digital circuit that will be used to record data from space ion propulsion rocket booster tests. The problem that makes building this circuit so difficult is that it contains high voltage we must find a way to lower the voltage signal before the data is transferred into the computer to be read. The solution to this problem was to transport the signal using infrared light which will lower

  4. Nanoscale Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xiaoye

    Continuous downscaling in microelectronics has pushed conventional CMOS technology to its physical limits, while Moore's Law has correctly predicted the trend for decades, each step forward is accompanied with unprecedented technological difficulties and near-exponential increase in cost. At the same time, however, demands for low-power, low-cost and high-speed devices have never diminished, instead, even more stringent requirements have been imposed on device performances. It is therefore crucial to explore alternative materials and device architectures in order to alleviate the pressure caused by downscaling. To this end, we investigated two different approaches: (1) InSb nanowire based field effect transistors (NWFETs) and (2) single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) -- peptide nucleic acid (PNA) --SWCNT conjugate. Two types of InSb nanowires were synthesized by template-assisted electrochemistry and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) respectively. In both cases, NWFETs were fabricated by electron beam lithography (EBL) and crystallinity was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area diffraction (SAD) patterns. For electrochemistry nanowire, ambipolar conduction was observed with strong p-type conduction, the effect of thermal annealing on the conductivity was analyzed, a NWFET model that took into consideration the underlapped region in top-gated NWFET was proposed. Hole mobility in the channel was calculated to be 292.84 cm2V-1s -1 with a density of 1.5x1017/cm3. For CVD nanowire, the diameter was below 40nm with an average of 20nm. Vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process was speculated to be the mechanism responsible for nanowire growth. The efficient gate control was manifested by high ION/I OFF ratio which was on the order of 106 and a small inverse subthreshold slope (<200 mV/decade). Scale analysis was used to successfully account for disparities observed among a number of sample devices. N-type conduction was found in all NWFETs with

  5. Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Füellekrug, M.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E. M. D.;

    2011-01-01

    Non-luminous relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds have been detected by the radio signals of low frequency similar to 40-400 kHz which they radiate. The electron beams occur similar to 2-9 ms after positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges at heights between similar to 22-72 km above...... thunderclouds. Intense positive lightning discharges can also cause sprites which occur either above or prior to the electron beam. One electron beam was detected without any luminous sprite which suggests that electron beams may also occur independently of sprites. Numerical simulations show that beams...... of electrons partially discharge the lightning electric field above thunderclouds and thereby gain a mean energy of similar to 7MeV to transport a total charge of similar to-10mC upwards. The impulsive current similar to 3 x 10(-3) Am-2 associated with relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds...

  6. Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Füllekrug

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-luminous relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds are detected by radio remote sensing with low frequency radio signals from 40–400 kHz. The electron beams occur 2–9 ms after positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges at heights between 22–72 km above thunderclouds. The positive lightning discharges also cause sprites which occur either above or before the electron beam. One electron beam was detected without any luminous sprite occurrence which suggests that electron beams may also occur independently. Numerical simulations show that the beamed electrons partially discharge the lightning electric field above thunderclouds and thereby gain a mean energy of 7 MeV to transport a total charge of 10 mC upwards. The impulsive current associated with relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds is directed downwards and needs to be considered as a novel element of the global atmospheric electric circuit.

  7. Self accelerating electron Airy beams

    CERN Document Server

    Voloch-Bloch, Noa; Lilach, Yigal; Gover, Avraham; Arie, Ady

    2013-01-01

    We report the first experimental generation and observation of Airy beams of free electrons. The electron Airy beams are generated by diffraction of electrons through a nanoscale hologram, that imprints a cubic phase modulation on the beams' transverse plane. We observed the spatial evolution dynamics of an arc-shaped, self accelerating and shape preserving electron Airy beams. We directly observed the ability of electrons to self-heal, restoring their original shape after passing an obstacle. This electromagnetic method opens up new avenues for steering electrons, like their photonic counterparts, since their wave packets can be imprinted with arbitrary shapes or trajectories. Furthermore, these beams can be easily manipulated using magnetic or electric potentials. It is also possible to efficiently self mix narrow beams having opposite signs of acceleration, hence obtaining a new type of electron interferometer.

  8. Electron correlations in quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Tipton, D L J

    2001-01-01

    Quantum dot structures confine electrons in a small region of space. Some properties of semiconductor quantum dots, such as the discrete energy levels and shell filling effects visible in addition spectra, have analogies to those of atoms and indeed dots are sometimes referred to as 'artificial atoms'. However, atoms and dots show some fundamental differences due to electron correlations. For real atoms, the kinetic energy of electrons dominates over their mutual Coulomb repulsion energy and for this reason the independent electron approximation works well. For quantum dots the confining potential may be shallower than that of real atoms leading to lower electron densities and a dominance of mutual Coulomb repulsion over kinetic energy. In this strongly correlated regime the independent electron picture leads to qualitatively incorrect results. This thesis concentrates on few-electron quantum dots in the strongly correlated regime both for quasi-one-dimensional and two-dimensional dots in a square confining p...

  9. Joint services electronics program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Leon, Jr.

    1990-11-01

    The transfer of the compact range and target identification technology initiated under JSEP support for time domain studies continues to make large advances. Using other sources of support, design for a mini-chamber has now been generated and has been constructed. This range is designed to study smaller targets at higher frequencies. The research has proven to be of intense interest to DoD and the aerospace industry and our compact range consortium represents a major cross section of the aerospace and electronic industries, including additional major support from several DoD agencies. In fact, the total support in these experimental studies substantially exceeds our JSEP support. This research is truly guiding a major portion of this technology in the USA and has been extremely important for stealth technology advances.

  10. Electronic transition CN laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, C. R., Jr.; Wittig, C.; Laudenslager, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    A 20 kW electric-discharge pumped CN laser oscillating on the A(2) Pi-X(2) Sigma molecular system is presented. Excitation is by a simple longitudinal discharge struck through HCN vapor. Twenty kW peak power is generated in a 150 nsec full-width half-maximum pulse. Two lasing bands were observed in the A-X system: the (0,1) and (0,2) bands near 1.42 and 2.0 microns respectively. Both P and Q branches are active in the two bands, with Q bands stronger. Peak laser energy is 3 mJ. Products of UV photolysis of HCN, electron impact excitation of HCN, and other possible excitation mechanisms and laser efficiency are discussed.

  11. Weak Polarized Electron Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens; Mantry, Sonny; Souder, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Scattering polarized electrons provides an important probe of the weak interactions. Precisely measuring the parity-violating left-right cross section asymmetry is the goal of a number of experiments recently completed or in progress. The experiments are challenging, since A_{LR} is small, typically between 10^(-4) and 10^(-8). By carefully choosing appropriate targets and kinematics, various pieces of the weak Lagrangian can be isolated, providing a search for physics beyond the Standard Model. For other choices, unique features of the strong interaction are studied, including the radius of the neutron density in heavy nuclei, charge symmetry violation, and higher twist terms. This article reviews the theory behind the experiments, as well as the general techniques used in the experimental program.

  12. OPERA: Electronic Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Jollet, C

    2010-01-01

    OPERA is an hybrid detector for the ni-tau appearance search in a direct way, and the Electronic Detectors (ED) have the crucial role of triggerring for the neutrino events and of localizing such an interaction inside the target. Another very important task of the ED is to identify the muon since only a correct matching of such a track with a track in the emulsion connected to the vertex of the event allows to reduce the charm background to the desired level. The ED, fully working since 2006, consist of a target tracker (scintillator strips) and a spectrometer (RPC and drift tubes). The different sub-detectors are de- scribed in the poster, as well as their performance both on Monte Carlo (MC) and real data.

  13. Electronics for Guitarists

    CERN Document Server

    Dailey, Denton J

    2013-01-01

    In the second edition of Electronics for Guitarists author Denton Dailey teaches the basic theory of operation and design principles of analog guitar signal processing circuits and amplifiers. The design and operation of common effects circuits such as tone controls, preamps, phasers, flangers, envelope followers, distortion and overdrives are covered, as are both solid-state amplifiers and power supplies. Written primarily for the guitarist, this book balances coverage of theoretical analysis and design while providing many examples of practical experimental circuits. The main thrust of the material is analog circuitry, focusing on fundamental principles of transistors, integrated circuit and vacuum tube-based amplifier operation and theory, and operation of typical guitar signal processing effects circuits. Updated to the new edition include: • New coverage of tone control circuits, MOSFETS and their applications as small-signal amplifiers, rail splitters and charge pumps, amplifiers using germanium trans...

  14. de electrones localizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Hoyos Quintero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La refrigeración magnética es una de las tecnologías con mayor potencial comercial. Reduce el consumo de energía en los sistemas de refrigeración y el impacto ambiental provocado por los gases de invernadero. En este artículo se presentan los aspectos fundamentales del efecto magnetocalórico. También se analiza la aplicación real del modelo de electrones localizados a la refrigeración magnética. En la vecindad de la temperatura de transformación magnética, el modelo sólo sirve para describir el comportamiento cualitativo del efecto magnetocalórico.

  15. Superconductivity and superconductive electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, M. R.

    1990-12-01

    The Stanford Center for Research on Superconductivity and Superconductive Electronics is currently focused on developing techniques for producing increasingly improved films and multilayers of the high-temperature superconductors, studying their physical properties and using these films and multilayers in device physics studies. In general the thin film synthesis work leads the way. Once a given film or multilayer structure can be made reasonably routinely, the emphasis shifts to studying the physical properties and device physics of these structures and on to the next level of film quality or multilayer complexity. The most advanced thin films synthesis work in the past year has involved developing techniques to deposit a-axis and c-axis YBCO/PBCO superlattices and related structures. The in-situ feature is desirable because no solid state reactions with accompanying changes in volume, morphology, etc., that degrade the quality of the film involved.

  16. Automated electronic filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Amal

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a novel, efficient and powerful scheme for designing and evaluating the performance characteristics of any electronic filter designed with predefined specifications. The author explains techniques that enable readers to eliminate complicated manual, and thus error-prone and time-consuming, steps of traditional design techniques. The presentation includes demonstration of efficient automation, using an ANSI C language program, which accepts any filter design specification (e.g. Chebyschev low-pass filter, cut-off frequency, pass-band ripple etc.) as input and generates as output a SPICE(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) format netlist. Readers then can use this netlist to run simulations with any version of the popular SPICE simulator, increasing accuracy of the final results, without violating any of the key principles of the traditional design scheme.

  17. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  18. Moletronics: future electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan S. Kwok

    2002-02-01

    A major force responsible for these revolutionary developments has been the molecular electronics or ‘Moletronics’ Program organized by the US Government's Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA. Previously, DARPA gave birth to the Internet in the 1970s and 1980s, revolutionizing the way the world communicates. Now, the agency is setting its sights on a new revolution in the nature, structure, and scale of the very materials with which the world both computes and builds. Ultimately, to compute with molecular-scale structures — i.e. nanometer-scale structures — one must learn how to characterize and organize them on similar scales, one by one and in vast arrays. This is creating a whole new science and industry of ‘nanostructured materials’, such as are portrayed in Fig. 1.

  19. Robot Electronics Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Michael; Magnone, Lee; Aghazarian, Hrand; Baumgartner, Eric; Kennedy, Brett

    2008-01-01

    An electronics architecture has been developed to enable the rapid construction and testing of prototypes of robotic systems. This architecture is designed to be a research vehicle of great stability, reliability, and versatility. A system according to this architecture can easily be reconfigured (including expanded or contracted) to satisfy a variety of needs with respect to input, output, processing of data, sensing, actuation, and power. The architecture affords a variety of expandable input/output options that enable ready integration of instruments, actuators, sensors, and other devices as independent modular units. The separation of different electrical functions onto independent circuit boards facilitates the development of corresponding simple and modular software interfaces. As a result, both hardware and software can be made to expand or contract in modular fashion while expending a minimum of time and effort.

  20. Creep in electronic ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Routbort, J. L.; Goretta, K. C.; Arellano-Lopez, A. R.

    2000-04-27

    High-temperature creep measurements combined with microstructural investigations can be used to elucidate deformation mechanisms that can be related to the diffusion kinetics and defect chemistry of the minority species. This paper will review the theoretical basis for this correlation and illustrate it with examples from some important electronic ceramics having a perovskite structure. Recent results on BaTiO{sub 3}, (La{sub 1{minus}x}Sr){sub 1{minus}y}MnO{sub 3+{delta}}, YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub x}, (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} and Sr(Fe,Co){sub 1.5}O{sub x} will be presented.

  1. Power electronics reliability analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2009-12-01

    This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

  2. Electronics for embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bindal, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    This book provides semester-length coverage of electronics for embedded systems, covering most common analog and digital circuit-related issues encountered while designing embedded system hardware. It is written for students and young professionals who have basic circuit theory background and want to learn more about passive circuits, diode and bipolar transistor circuits, the state-of-the-art CMOS logic family and its interface with older logic families such as TTL, sensors and sensor physics, operational amplifier circuits to condition sensor signals, data converters and various circuits used in electro-mechanical device control in embedded systems. The book also provides numerous hardware design examples by integrating the topics learned in earlier chapters. The last chapter extensively reviews the combinational and sequential logic design principles to be able to design the digital part of embedded system hardware.

  3. From Paper to Electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kent R.

    2000-01-01

    The Internet represents a different type of technology for publishers of scientific, technical, and medical journals. It is not a technology that sustains current markets and creates new efficiencies but is, rather, a disruptive technology that could radically alter market forces, profit expectations, and business models. This paper is a translation and amplification of the research done in this area, applied to a large-circulation new science journal, Pediatrics. The findings suggest that the journal of the future will be electronic, have a less volatile cost structure, be supported more by services than by content, be less able to rely on subscription revenues, and abandon certain elements of current value networks. It also provides a possible framework for other publishers to use to evaluate their own journals relative to this disruptive technology. PMID:10833160

  4. MDT DCS Electronics System

    CERN Document Server

    Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Gazis, Evangelos; Tsipolitis, Georgios

    This note has the aim to present the Detector Control System for the Monitor- ing of the electronics values of MDT chambers in ATLAS experiment in CERN. This system is decided to be called in short ELTX. The principal task of DCS is to enable and ensure the coherent and safe oper- ation of the detector. The interaction of detector expers, users or shifters to the detector hardware is also done via DCS. This is the responsible system of moni- toring the operational parameters and the overall state of the detector, the alarm generation and handling, the connection of hardware values to databases and the interaction with the DAQ system. Through this thesis, one can see what ELTX system has to offer as a Detector Control System and in detail, what is the hardware to be controlled and monitored. Moreover it is presented the mainstream of central Atlas DCS concerning the active interfaces.ELTX is a system following these standards.

  5. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, W.C. (ed.); Shelton, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    Florida State University is investigating the concept of pulsed electron beams for fly ash precipitation. This report describes the results and data on three of the subtasks of this project and preliminary work only on the remaining five subtasks. Described are the modification of precharger for pulsed and DC energization of anode; installation of the Q/A measurement system; and modification and installation of pulsed power supply to provide both pulsed and DC energization of the anode. The other tasks include: measurement of the removal efficiency for monodisperse simulated fly ash particles; measurement of particle charge; optimization of pulse energization schedule for maximum removal efficiency; practical assessment of results; and measurement of the removal efficiency for polydisperse test particles. 15 figs., 1 tab. (CK)

  6. Impact of electron irradiation on electron holographic potentiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. B.; Niermann, T.; Lehmann, M. [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Berger, D. [Technische Universität Berlin, Zentraleinrichtung für Elektronenmikroskopie, Strae des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Knauer, A.; Weyers, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibnitz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Koslow, I.; Kneissl, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibnitz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Festkörperphysik, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-09-01

    While electron holography in the transmission electron microscope offers the possibility to measure maps of the electrostatic potential of semiconductors down to nanometer dimensions, these measurements are known to underestimate the absolute value of the potential, especially in GaN. We have varied the dose rates of electron irradiation over several orders of magnitude and observed strong variations of the holographically detected voltages. Overall, the results indicate that the electron beam generates electrical currents within the specimens primarily by the photovoltaic effect and due to secondary electron emission. These currents have to be considered for a quantitative interpretation of electron holographic measurements, as their negligence contributes to large parts in the observed discrepancy between the measured and expected potential values in GaN.

  7. Electron and ion induced electron emission from metals and insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbatz, M

    2001-01-01

    gradually exposed to oxygen as an experimental probe. The experimental data are fitted with an analytical model, that is able to describe the observed kinetics. The fit parameters give absolute values of sticking probabilities and of surface reaction rates. During oxidation of aluminum and magnesium also spontaneous emission of electrons (exoelectrons) is observed. This effect is quantitatively studied for different oxygen partial pressures. The experimental data also indicate a significant influence of the surface morphology on the exoemission process. An important consequence of atomic collisions in solids is ionization leading to electron ejection from the target atoms with subsequent migration through the solid. A certain fraction of these electrons finally reaches the surface and is ejected into vacuum. A standard measurement of this phenomenon is the observation of the particle (electron, ion) induced electron emission yield g, defined as the average number of ejected electrons per incoming projectile. ...

  8. Heavy electrons: Electron droplets generated by photogalvanic and pyroelectric effects

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnoholovets, V; Kukhtareva, T

    2009-01-01

    Electron clusters, X-rays and nanosecond radio-frequency pulses are produced by 100 mW continuous-wave laser illuminating ferroelectric crystal of LiNbO_3. A long-living stable electron droplet with the size of about 100 mcm has freely moved with the velocity 0.5 cm/s in the air near the surface of the crystal experiencing the Earth gravitational field. The microscopic model of cluster stability, which is based on submicroscopic mechanics developed in the real physical space, is suggested. The role of a restraining force plays the inerton field, a substructure of the particles' matter waves, which a solitary one can elastically withstand the Coulomb repulsion of electrons. It is shown that electrons in the droplet are heavy electrons whose mass at least 1 million of times exceeds the rest mass of free electron. Application for X-ray imaging and lithography is discussed.

  9. Nanoelectromechanical Heat Engine Based on Electron-Electron Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikström, A.; Eriksson, A. M.; Kulinich, S. I.; Gorelik, L. Y.

    2016-12-01

    We theoretically show that a nanoelectromechanical system can be mechanically actuated by a heat flow through it via an electron-electron interaction. In contrast to most known actuation mechanisms in similar systems, this new mechanism does not involve an electronic current nor external ac fields. Instead, the mechanism relies on deflection-dependent tunneling rates and a heat flow which is mediated by an electron-electron interaction while an electronic current through the device is prohibited by, for instance, a spin-valve effect. Therefore, the system resembles a nanoelectromechanical heat engine. We derive a criterion for the mechanical instability and estimate the amplitude of the resulting self-sustained oscillations. Estimations show that the suggested phenomenon can be studied using available experimental techniques.

  10. The experimental study of neutralized electron beams for electron cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Bosser, Jacques; MacCaferri, R; Molinari, G; Tranquille, G; Varenne, F; Korotaev, Yu V; Meshkov, I N; Polyakov, V A; Smirnov, A; Syresin, E M

    1996-01-01

    In this report we present the latest experimental results on electron beam neutralization. These experiments have been made at LEAR and on the JINR test bench. The main difficulty in obtaining neutralized beams resides in an instability which is dependent on the electron beam current. A number of methods have been developed in order to overcome this instability and have enabled us to further investigate the possibility of generating intense low energy electron beams for the cooling of Pb ions.

  11. Hyperfine selectivity using multiquantum electron-nuclear-electron triple resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidis, T. C.; Mchaourab, Hassane S.; Hyde, James S.

    1996-06-01

    Hyperfine selectivity is demonstrated in a continuous wave electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) experiment. A multiquantum electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) signal is monitored as a function of the nuclear radio frequency. The signs and relative intensities of the ENDOR lines permit separating the case where both ELDOR and ENDOR frequencies match hyperfine couplings from the cases where this condition is not satisfied.

  12. Superconducting electron and hole lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghchi, H.; Esmailzadeh, H.; Moghaddam, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    We show how a superconducting region (S), sandwiched between two normal leads (N), in the presence of barriers, can act as a lens for propagating electron and hole waves by virtue of the so-called crossed Andreev reflection (CAR). The CAR process, which is equivalent to Cooper pair splitting into two N electrodes, provides a unique possibility of constructing entangled electrons in solid state systems. When electrons are locally injected from an N lead, due to the CAR and normal reflection of quasiparticles by the insulating barriers at the interfaces, sequences of electron and hole focuses are established inside another N electrode. This behavior originates from the change of momentum during electron-hole conversion beside the successive normal reflections of electrons and holes due to the barriers. The focusing phenomena studied here are fundamentally different from the electron focusing in other systems, such as graphene p-n junctions. In particular, due to the electron-hole symmetry of the superconducting state, the focusing of electrons and holes is robust against thermal excitations. Furthermore, the effects of the superconducting layer width, the injection point position, and barrier strength are investigated on the focusing behavior of the junction. Very intriguingly, it is shown that by varying the barrier strength, one can separately control the density of electrons or holes at the focuses.

  13. Application of electron accelerator worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Sueo [Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Electron accelerator is an important radiation source for radiation technology, which covers broad fields such as industry, health care, food and environmental protection. There are about 1,000 electron accelerators for radiation processing worldwide. Electron accelerator has advantage over Co-60 irradiator in term of high dose rate and power, assurance of safety, and higher economic performance at larger volume of irradiation. Accelerator generating higher energy in the range of 10 MeV and high power electron beam is now commercially available. There is a trend to use high-energy electron accelerator replacing Co-60 in case of large through-put of medical products. Irradiated foods, in particular species, are on the commercial market in 35 countries. Electron accelerator is used efficiently and economically for production of new or modified polymeric materials through radiation-induced cross-linking, grafting and polymerization reaction. Another important application of electron beam is the curing of surface coatings in the manufacture of products. Electron accelerators of large capacity are used for cleaning exhaust gases in industrial scale. Economic feasibility studies of this electron beam process have shown that this technology is more cost effective than the conventional process. It should be noted that the conventional limestone process produce gypsum as a by-product, which cannot be used in some countries. By contrast, the by-product of the electron beam process is a valuable fertilizer. (Y. Tanaka)

  14. ELECTRON COOLING SIMULATION FOR ARBITRARY DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIDORIN,A.; SMIRNOV, A.; FEDOTOV, A.; BEN-ZVI, I.; KAYRAN, D.

    2007-09-10

    Typically, several approximations are being used in simulation of electron cooling process, for example, density distribution of electrons is calculated using an analytical expression and distribution in the velocity space is assumed to be Maxwellian in all degrees of freedom. However, in many applications, accurate description of the cooling process based on realistic distribution of electrons is very useful. This is especially true for a high-energy electron cooling system which requires bunched electron beam produced by an Energy Recovery Linac (Em). Such systems are proposed, for instance, for RHIC and electron - ion collider. To address unique features of the RHIC-I1 cooler, new algorithms were introduced in BETACOOL code which allow us to take into account local properties of electron distribution as well as calculate friction force for an arbitrary velocity distribution. Here, we describe these new numerical models. Results based on these numerical models are compared with typical approximations using electron distribution produced by simulations of electron bunch through ERL of RHIC-II cooler.

  15. Electron dose rate and photon contamination in electron arc therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pla, M.; Podgorsak, E.B.; Pla, C. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1989-09-01

    The electron dose rate at the depth of dose maximum dmax and the photon contamination are discussed as a function of several parameters of the rotational electron beam. A pseudoarc technique with an angular increment of 10 degrees and a constant number of monitor units per each stationary electron field was used in our experiments. The electron dose rate is defined as the electron dose at a given point in phantom divided by the number of monitor units given for any one stationary electron beam. For a given depth of isocenter di the electron dose rates at dmax are linearly dependent on the nominal field width w, while for a given w the dose rates are inversely proportional to di. The dose rates for rotational electron beams with different di are related through the inverse square law provided that the two beams have (di,w) combinations which give the same characteristic angle beta. The photon dose at the isocenter depends on the arc angle alpha, field width w, and isocenter depth di. For constant w and di the photon dose at isocenter is proportional to alpha, for constant alpha and w it is proportional to di, and for constant alpha and di it is inversely proportional to w. The w and di dependence implies that for the same alpha the photon dose at the isocenter is inversely proportional to the electron dose rate at dmax.

  16. Electron-plasmon model in the electron liquid theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.Vavrukh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we propose an accurate approach to the description of the electron liquid model in the electron and plasmon terms. Our ideas in the present paper are close to the conception of the collective variables which was developed in the papers of Bohm and Pines. However we use another body of mathematics in the transition to the expanded space of variable particles and plasmons realized by the transition operator. It is evident that in the Random Phase Approximation (RPA, the model which consists of two interactive subsystems of electrons and plasmons is equivalent to the electron liquid model with Coulomb interaction.

  17. Electron injector for Iranian Infrared Free Electron Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, A.; Jazini, J.; Fathi, M.; Khosravi, N.; Shokri, B.

    2016-12-01

    The quality of the electron beam for applications like free electron lasers (FELs) has a direct impact on the quality of the laser radiation. The electron injector considered for Iranian Infrared Free Electron Laser (IRIFEL) includes a thermionic RF electron gun plus a bunch compressor as the electron preinjector and a 50 MeV constant gradient traveling wave linac as the main accelerator of the electron injector. In the present work, a thermionic RF gun is designed and matched with an optimized linac to produce a high quality mono-energetic electron beam. The results show that the preinjector is capable of delivering an electron bunch with 1 ps bunch length and 3 mm-mrad emittance to the linac entrance which is desirable for IRIFEL operation. The results also show that by geometrical manipulation and optimization of the linac structure, the pattern of the RF fields in the linac will be more symmetric, which is important in order to produce high stable mono-energetic bunches.

  18. Electron ionization of acetylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Simon J; Price, Stephen D

    2007-11-07

    Relative partial ionization cross sections and precursor specific relative partial ionization cross sections for fragment ions formed by electron ionization of C2H2 have been measured using time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with a 2D ion-ion coincidence technique. We report data for the formation of H+, H+2, C2+, C+/C2+ 2, CH+/C2H+2, CH+2, C+2, and C2H+ relative to the formation of C2H+2, as a function of ionizing electron energy from 30-200 eV. While excellent agreement is found between our data and one set of previously published absolute partial ionization cross sections, some discrepancies exist between the results presented here and two other recent determinations of these absolute partial ionization cross sections. We attribute these differences to the loss of some translationally energetic fragment ions in these earlier studies. Our relative precursor-specific partial ionization cross sections enable us, for the first time, to quantify the contribution to the yield of each fragment ion from single, double, and triple ionization. Analysis shows that at 50 eV double ionization contributes 2% to the total ion yield, increasing to over 10% at an ionizing energy of 100 eV. From our ion-ion coincidence data, we have derived branching ratios for charge separating dissociations of the acetylene dication. Comparison of our data to recent ab initio/RRKM calculations suggest that close to the double ionization potential C2H2+2 dissociates predominantly on the ground triplet potential energy surface (3Sigma*g) with a much smaller contribution from dissociation via the lowest singlet potential energy surface (1Delta g). Measurements of the kinetic energy released in the fragmentation reactions of C2H2+2 have been used to obtain precursor state energies for the formation of product ion pairs, and are shown to be in good agreement with available experimental data and with theory.

  19. Microscale Digital Vacuum Electronic Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammed M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement microscale digital vacuum electronic gates. In one embodiment, a microscale digital vacuum electronic gate includes: a microscale field emitter that can emit electrons and that is a microscale cathode; and a microscale anode; where the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode are disposed within at least a partial vacuum; where the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode are separated by a gap; and where the potential difference between the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode is controllable such that the flow of electrons between the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode is thereby controllable; where when the microscale anode receives a flow of electrons, a first logic state is defined; and where when the microscale anode does not receive a flow of electrons, a second logic state is defined.

  20. Nanoparticle composites for printed electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männl, U.; van den Berg, C.; Magunje, B.; Härting, M.; Britton, D. T.; Jones, S.; van Staden, M. J.; Scriba, M. R.

    2014-03-01

    Printed Electronics is a rapidly developing sector in the electronics industry, in which nanostructured materials are playing an increasingly important role. In particular, inks containing dispersions of semiconducting nanoparticles, can form nanocomposite materials with unique electronic properties when cured. In this study we have extended on our previous studies of functional nanoparticle electronic inks, with the development of a solvent-based silicon ink for printed electronics which is compatible with existing silver inks, and with the investigation of other metal nanoparticle based inks. It is shown that both solvent-based and water-based inks can be used for both silver conductors and semiconducting silicon, and that qualitatively there is no difference in the electronic properties of the materials printed with a soluble polymer binder to when an acrylic binder is used.

  1. Electronic Correlation Strength of Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, A.; C. Albers, R.; E. Christensen, N.

    2013-01-01

    A new electronic quantity, the correlation strength, is defined as a necessary step for understanding the properties and trends in strongly correlated electronic materials. As a test case, this is applied to the different phases of elemental Pu. Within the GW approximation we have surprisingly...... found a "universal" scaling relationship, where the f-electron bandwidth reduction due to correlation effects is shown to depend only upon the local density approximation (LDA) bandwidth and is otherwise independent of crystal structure and lattice constant....

  2. Electron attachment to Cl 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkle, D. L.; Christodoulides, A. A.; Christophorou, L. G.

    1984-08-01

    The electron attachment rate constant for Cl 2 as a function of the mean electron energy (0.04-0.78 eV) and temperature (213-323 K) has been measured and is reported; it shows a maximum at near thermal energy and is attributed to dissociative electron attachment via the ground state 2Σ u+ of Cl 2- from the ground state 1Σ g+ of Cl 2.

  3. Wisconsin SRF Electron Gun Commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisognano, Joseph J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Bissen, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Bosch, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Efremov, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Eisert, D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Fisher, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Green, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Jacobs, K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Keil, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Kleman, K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Rogers, G. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Severson, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Yavuz, D. D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Legg, Robert A. [JLAB; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna [JLAB; Hovater, J. Curtis [JLAB; Plawski, Tomasz [JLAB; Powers, Thomas J. [JLAB

    2013-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin has completed fabrication and commissioning of a low frequency (199.6 MHz) superconducting electron gun based on a quarter wave resonator (QWR) cavity. Its concept was optimized to be the source for a CW free electron laser facility. The gun design includes active tuning and a high temperature superconducting solenoid. We will report on the status of the Wisconsin SRF electron gun program, including commissioning experience and first beam measurements.

  4. Electron turbulence at nanoscale junctions

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Electron transport through a nanostructure can be characterized in part using concepts from classical fluid dynamics. It is thus natural to ask how far the analogy can be taken, and whether the electron liquid can exhibit nonlinear dynamical effects such as turbulence. Here we present an ab-initio study of the electron dynamics in nanojunctions which reveals that the latter indeed exhibits behavior quite similar to that of a classical fluid. In particular, we find that a transition from lamin...

  5. Beam Studies with Electron Columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, V.; Valishev, A.; Kuznetsov, G.; /Fermilab; Kamerdzhiev, V.; /Julich, Forschungszentrum; Romanov, A.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2009-04-01

    We report preliminary results of experimental studies of 'electron columns' in the Tevatron and in a specialized test setup. In the Tevatron, a beam of 150 GeV protons ionizes residual gas and ionization electrons are stored in an electrostatic trap immersed into strong longitudinal magnetic field. Shifts of proton betatron frequencies are observed. In the test setup, we observe effects pointing to accumulation and escape of ionization electrons.

  6. Electronic Correlation Strength of Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, A.; C. Albers, R.; E. Christensen, N.

    2013-01-01

    A new electronic quantity, the correlation strength, is defined as a necessary step for understanding the properties and trends in strongly correlated electronic materials. As a test case, this is applied to the different phases of elemental Pu. Within the GW approximation we have surprisingly...... found a "universal" scaling relationship, where the f-electron bandwidth reduction due to correlation effects is shown to depend only upon the local density approximation (LDA) bandwidth and is otherwise independent of crystal structure and lattice constant....

  7. [Electronic poison information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  8. Electronic Commerce on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    electronic commerce , where companies transact business spontaneously over the Internet. In restructuring its procurement processes, The Federal Government has a unique opportunity to exploit this electronic marketplace, and to influence its development in ways that benefit us all. This report describes a vision of the electronic marketplace, the requirements it must satisfy, an architecture for addressing those requirements, and a graceful migration path to the marketplace from current EDI technology and practice. It identifies five key concepts for government

  9. Electronic structure of PCBM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Chun-Qi; Wang Peng; Shen Ying; Li Yan-Jun; Zhang Wen-Hua; Xu Fa-Qiang; Zhu Jun-Fa; Li Hong-Nian; Lai Guo-Qiao

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the electronic structure of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric-acid-methyl-ester (PCBM) using synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) measurements and first-principles calculations.The PES spectrum of the entire occupied valence band is reported,which exhibits abundant spectral features from the Fermi level to ~ 24 eV binding energy. All the spectral features are broadened as compared with the cases of C60. The reasons for the broadening are analysed by comparing the experimental data with the calculated energy levels and density of states.Special attention is paid to the analysis of the C60 highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-1 derived states,which can play a crucial role in the bonding at the interfaces of PCBM/polymer blenders or PCBM/electrodes.Besides the well-known energy level splitting of the C60 backbone caused by the lowered symmetry,C 2p states from the side chain mix or hybridize with the molecular orbitals of parent C60.The contribution of the O 2p states can substantially modify the PES spectrum.

  10. Polyplanar optical display electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSanto, L.; Biscardi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments. In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) circuit board is removed from the Texas Instruments DLP light engine assembly. Due to the compact architecture of the projection system within the display chassis, the DMD{trademark} chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. The authors discuss the operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with various video formats (CVBS, Y/C or S-video and RGB) including the format specific to the B-52 aircraft. A brief discussion of the electronics required to drive the laser is also presented.

  11. Towards graphyne molecular electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhihai; Smeu, Manuel; Rives, Arnaud; Maraval, Valérie; Chauvin, Remi; Ratner, Mark A; Borguet, Eric

    2015-02-20

    α-Graphyne, a carbon-expanded version of graphene ('carbo-graphene') that was recently evidenced as an alternative zero-gap semiconductor, remains a theoretical material. Nevertheless, using specific synthesis methods, molecular units of α-graphyne ('carbo-benzene' macrocycles) can be inserted between two anilinyl (4-NH2-C6H4)-anchoring groups that allow these fragments to form molecular junctions between gold electrodes. Here, electrical measurements by the scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) break junction technique and electron transport calculations are carried out on such a carbo-benzene, providing unprecedented single molecule conductance values: 106 nS through a 1.94-nm N-N distance, essentially 10 times the conductance of a shorter nanographenic hexabenzocoronene analogue. Deleting a C4 edge of the rigid C18 carbo-benzene circuit results in a flexible 'carbo-butadiene' molecule that has a conductance 40 times lower. Furthermore, carbo-benzene junctions exhibit field-effect transistor behaviour when an electrochemical gate potential is applied, opening the way for device applications. All the results are interpreted on the basis of theoretical calculations.

  12. Paper based electronics platform

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna Mohammad

    2017-07-20

    A flexible and non-functionalized low cost paper-based electronic system platform fabricated from common paper, such as paper based sensors, and methods of producing paper based sensors, and methods of sensing using the paper based sensors are provided. A method of producing a paper based sensor can include the steps of: a) providing a conventional paper product to serve as a substrate for the sensor or as an active material for the sensor or both, the paper product not further treated or functionalized; and b) applying a sensing element to the paper substrate, the sensing element selected from the group consisting of a conductive material, the conductive material providing contacts and interconnects, sensitive material film that exhibits sensitivity to pH levels, a compressible and/or porous material disposed between a pair of opposed conductive elements, or a combination of two of more said sensing elements. The method of sensing can further include measuring, using the sensing element, a change in resistance, a change in voltage, a change in current, a change in capacitance, or a combination of any two or more thereof.

  13. Advanced Power Electronics Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will give a description and status of the Advanced Power Electronics Materials and Components Technology program being conducted by the NASA Glenn Research Center for future aerospace power applications. The focus of this research program is on the following: 1) New and/or significantly improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and composite ceramic dielectrics and diamond-like carbon films; 2) New and/or significantly improved high frequency, high temperature, low loss soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers/inductors with increased power/energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and nanocomposite soft magnetic materials; 3) Packaged high temperature, high power density, high voltage, and low loss SiC diodes and switches. Development of high quality 4H- and 6H- SiC atomically smooth substrates to significantly improve device performance is a major emphasis of the SiC materials program; 4) Demonstration of high temperature (> 200 C) circuits using the components developed above.

  14. Runaway electrons and ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, Allen

    2016-10-01

    ITER planning for avoiding runaway damage depends on magnetic surface breakup in fast relaxations. These arise in thermal quenches and in the spreading of impurities from massive gas injection or shattered pellets. Surface breakup would prevent a runaway to relativistic energies were it not for non-intercepting flux tubes, which contain magnetic field lines that do not intercept the walls. Such tubes persist near the magnetic axis and in the cores of islands but must dissipate before any confining surfaces re-form. Otherwise, a highly dangerous situation arises. Electrons that were trapped and accelerated in these flux tubes can fill a large volume of stochastic field lines and serve as a seed for the transfer of the full plasma current to runaways. If the outer confining surfaces are punctured, as by a drift into the wall, then the full runaway inventory will be lost in a short pulse along a narrow flux tube. Although not part of ITER planning, currents induced in the walls by the fast magnetic relaxation could be used to passively prevent outer surfaces re-forming. If magnetic surface breakup can be avoided during impurity injection, the plasma current could be terminated in tens of milliseconds by plasma cooling with no danger of runaway. Support by DoE Office of Fusion Energy Science Grant De-FG02-03ER54696.

  15. UNSOLICITED ELECTRONIC MAIL

    CERN Multimedia

    Judy RICHARDS

    1999-01-01

    Since November 1997 we have been actively trying to reduce the amount of unsolicited electronic mail, commonly known as SPAM mail that arrives in CERN mailboxes. Unfortunately this is not an easy job since the spammers are constantly finding new ways of breaking our defences! Today spammers are 'forging' addresses in the headers and envelopes of mail in such a way that it is difficult to distinguish between legitimate mail and spams. An additional problem, that does not directly affect most CERN users but does use CERN resources and affects the reputation of CERN, is caused by the spammers who try to make mail look as if it comes from a CERN machine.They either try to route the mail via a CERN machine or simply forge the mail headers to a CERN address so it will have less chance of being blocked by the recipient's anti-spam defences.Although some anti-spam measures can be automated, for many someone has to look at the system logs and spam reports from users and make a human judgement as to what should be bloc...

  16. Solar wind thermal electron distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J.L.; Gosling, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    Solar wind thermal electron distributions exhibit distinctive trends which suggest Coulomb collisions and geometric expansion in the interplanetary magnetic field play keys roles in electron transport. We introduce a simple numerical model incorporating these mechanisms, discuss the ramifications of model results, and assess the validity of the model in terms of ISEE-3 and Ulysses observations. Although the model duplicates the shape of the electron distributions, and explains certain other observational features, observed gradients in total electron temperature indicate the importance of additional heating mechanisms. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Solar wind thermal electron distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J.L.; Gosling, J.T.

    1991-12-01

    Solar wind thermal electron distributions exhibit distinctive trends which suggest Coulomb collisions and geometric expansion in the interplanetary magnetic field play keys roles in electron transport. We introduce a simple numerical model incorporating these mechanisms, discuss the ramifications of model results, and assess the validity of the model in terms of ISEE-3 and Ulysses observations. Although the model duplicates the shape of the electron distributions, and explains certain other observational features, observed gradients in total electron temperature indicate the importance of additional heating mechanisms. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility contains specialized mobile spectral, radiometric, and imaging measurement systems to characterize ultraviolet,...

  19. Electronic Configuration of Yb Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temmerman, W.M.; Szotek, Z. [Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, WA4 4AD, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Svane, A. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Strange, P. [Physics Department, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Winter, H. [INFP, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Delin, A.; Johansson, B.; Eriksson, O.; Fast, L. [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, University of Uppsala, Box 530, 75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Wills, J.M. [Center of Materials Science and Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    1999-11-01

    The total energy differences between divalent and trivalent configurations of Yb ions in a number of Yb compounds are studied. Two different band theoretical methods, which differ in the treatment of the localized f electrons, are used. The results show that in all Yb compounds the valence energy differences are equal to the energy needed to localize an f electron. These valence energy differences correlate with the number of f electrons hybridizing with the conduction bands in the trivalent configuration. For divalent YbS, the pressure induced f -electron delocalization implies an intermediate valency, as also indicated by experiment. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society }

  20. Electron turbulence at nanoscale junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushong, Neil; Gamble, John; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2007-06-01

    Electron transport through a nanostructure can be characterized in part using concepts from classical fluid dynamics. It is thus natural to ask how far the analogy can be taken and whether the electron liquid can exhibit nonlinear dynamical effects such as turbulence. Here we present an ab initio study of the electron dynamics in nanojunctions which reveals that the latter indeed exhibits behavior quite similar to that of a classical fluid. In particular, we find that a transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurs with increasing current, corresponding to increasing Reynolds numbers. These results reveal unexpected features of electron dynamics and shed new light on our understanding of transport properties of nanoscale systems.