WorldWideScience

Sample records for monomeric unsolvated lithium

  1. Computability and unsolvability

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Martin

    1985-01-01

    ""A clearly written, well-presented survey of an intriguing subject."" - Scientific American. Classic text considers general theory of computability, computable functions, operations on computable functions, Turing machines self-applied, unsolvable decision problems, applications of general theory, mathematical logic, Kleene hierarchy, computable functionals, classification of unsolvable decision problems and more.

  2. Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Munk, LeeAnn; McCauley, Andrew D.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Lithium, the lightest of all metals, is used in air treatment, batteries, ceramics, glass, metallurgy, pharmaceuticals, and polymers. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are particularly important in efforts to reduce global warming because they make it possible to power cars and trucks from renewable sources of energy (for example, hydroelectric, solar, or wind) instead of by burning fossil fuels. Today, lithium is extracted from brines that are pumped from beneath arid sedimentary basins and extracted from granitic pegmatite ores. The leading producer of lithium from brine is Chile, and the leading producer of lithium from pegmatites is Australia. Other potential sources of lithium include clays, geothermal brines, oilfield brines, and zeolites. Worldwide resources of lithium are estimated to be more than 39 million metric tons, which is enough to meet projected demand to the year 2100. The United States is not a major producer at present but has significant lithium resources.

  3. Unsolved problems in number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Guy, Richard K

    1994-01-01

    Unsolved Problems in Number Theory contains discussions of hundreds of open questions, organized into 185 different topics. They represent numerous aspects of number theory and are organized into six categories: prime numbers, divisibility, additive number theory, Diophantine equations, sequences of integers, and miscellaneous. To prevent repetition of earlier efforts or duplication of previously known results, an extensive and up-to-date collection of references follows each problem. In the second edition, not only extensive new material has been added, but corrections and additions have been included throughout the book.

  4. UNSOLVED AND LATENT CRIME: DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Kleymenov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343Purpose of the article is to study the specific legal and informational nature of the unsolved crime in comparison with the phenomenon of delinquency, special study and analysis to improve the efficiency of law enforcement.Methods of research are abstract-logical, systematic, statistical, study of documents. The main results of research. Unsolved crime has specific legal, statistical and informational na-ture as the crime phenomenon, which is expressed in cumulative statistical population of unsolved crimes. An array of unsolved crimes is the sum of the number of acts, things of which is suspended and not terminated. The fault of the perpetrator in these cases is not proven, they are not considered by the court, it is not a conviction. Unsolved crime must be registered. Latent crime has a different informational nature. The main symptom of latent crimes is the uncertainty for the subjects of law enforcement, which delegated functions of identification, registration and accounting. Latent crime is not recorded. At the same time, there is a "border" area between the latent and unsolved crimes, which includes covered from the account of the crime. In modern Russia the majority of crimes covered from accounting by passing the decision about refusal in excitation of criminal case. Unsolved crime on their criminogenic consequences represents a significant danger to the public is higher compared to latent crime.It is conducted in the article a special analysis of the differences and similarities in the unsolved latent crime for the first time in criminological literature.The analysis proves the need for radical changes in the current Russian assessment of the state of crime and law enforcement to solve crimes. The article argues that an unsolved crime is a separate and, in contrast to latent crime, poorly understood phenomenon. However unsolved latent crime and have common features and areas of interaction.

  5. The Somerton man : an unsolved history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balint, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of the unknown man who died mysteriously at Somerton Beach in South Australia in 1948 remains an open police investigation, although the trail today has grown fairly cold. Revisiting the case, and the responses the mystery of his person have elicited, enables a special historical insight into Australia’s postwar society, and the ways in which the past is continually reshaped by the subjectivities of the present. Further, an unsolved case such as this provides for a unique kind of historical project. The limitations of a history without a coherent centre are myriad, yet so are the possibilities. In this article, I explore the possibilities of an ‘unsolved history’, a history of dead ends, and argue that it is the very unknowable-ness of the Somerton Man that allows for a perception of history as multi-dimensional and complex.

  6. The Somerton Man: An Unsolved History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Balint

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The case of the unknown man who died mysteriously at Somerton Beach in South Australia in 1948 remains an open police investigation, although the trail today has grown fairly cold. Revisiting the case, and the responses the mystery of his person have elicited, enables a special historical insight into Australia’s postwar society, and the ways in which the past is continually reshaped by the subjectivities of the present. Further, an unsolved case such as this provides for a unique kind of historical project. The limitations of a history without a coherent centre are myriad, yet so are the possibilities.  In this article, I explore the possibilities of an ‘unsolved history’, a history of dead ends, and argue that it is the very unknowable-ness of the Somerton Man that allows for a perception of history as multi-dimensional and complex.

  7. The Somerton Man: An Unsolved History

    OpenAIRE

    Balint, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    The case of the unknown man who died mysteriously at Somerton Beach in South Australia in 1948 remains an open police investigation, although the trail today has grown fairly cold. Revisiting the case, and the responses the mystery of his person have elicited, enables a special historical insight into Australia’s postwar society, and the ways in which the past is continually reshaped by the subjectivities of the present. Further, an unsolved case such as this provides for a unique kind ...

  8. Isolated thoughts and feelings and unsolved concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensøe-Seidenfaden, Pernille; Teilmann, Grete Katrine; Kensing, Finn

    2017-01-01

    often experience deteriorating glycaemic control and distress. Parents are important in adolescents' ability to self-manage type 1 diabetes, but they report anxiety and frustrations. A better understanding of the challenges adolescents and parents face, in relation to the daily self-management of type 1...... diabetes, is important to improve clinical practice. DESIGN: A qualitative explorative study using visual storytelling as part of individual interviews. METHODS: A purposive sample of nine adolescents and their parents (seven mothers, six fathers) took photographs illustrating their experiences living...... and challenges unsolved. CONCLUSIONS: The concerns and challenges adolescents and their parents face in the transition from child- to adulthood are still present despite new treatment modalities. Parents are fundamental in supporting the adolescents' self-management-work; however, the parties have unspoken...

  9. Some unsolved problems concerning copepods associated with marine invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gotto, R.V.

    1990-01-01

    Three unsolved problems relating to symbiotic copepods of marine invertebrates are discussed: 1. The whereabouts of the unknown male of the gill parasite of lobsters, Nicothoe astaci. 2. The occurrence of very large and apparently post-reproductive females in the annelidicolous Cyclorhiza megalova.

  10. A Successful Senior Seminar: Unsolved Problems in Number Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The "Unsolved Problems in Number Theory" book by Richard Guy provides nice problems suitable for a typical math major. We give examples of problems that have worked well in our senior seminar course and some nice results that senior math majors can obtain.

  11. Some unsolved problems in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korshunov, Aleksei D [S.L. Sobolev Institute for Mathematics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-31

    There are many unsolved problems in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Writing a comprehensive survey of such problems involves great difficulties. First, such problems are rather numerous and varied. Second, they greatly differ from each other in degree of completeness of their solution. Therefore, even a comprehensive survey should not attempt to cover the whole variety of such problems; only the most important and significant problems should be reviewed. An impersonal choice of problems to include is quite hard. This paper includes 13 unsolved problems related to combinatorial mathematics and computational complexity theory. The problems selected give an indication of the author's studies for 50 years; for this reason, the choice of the problems reviewed here is, to some extent, subjective. At the same time, these problems are very difficult and quite important for discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Bibliography: 74 items.

  12. Some unsolved problems in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, Aleksei D.

    2009-10-01

    There are many unsolved problems in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Writing a comprehensive survey of such problems involves great difficulties. First, such problems are rather numerous and varied. Second, they greatly differ from each other in degree of completeness of their solution. Therefore, even a comprehensive survey should not attempt to cover the whole variety of such problems; only the most important and significant problems should be reviewed. An impersonal choice of problems to include is quite hard. This paper includes 13 unsolved problems related to combinatorial mathematics and computational complexity theory. The problems selected give an indication of the author's studies for 50 years; for this reason, the choice of the problems reviewed here is, to some extent, subjective. At the same time, these problems are very difficult and quite important for discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Bibliography: 74 items.

  13. Some unsolved problems in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, Aleksei D

    2009-01-01

    There are many unsolved problems in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Writing a comprehensive survey of such problems involves great difficulties. First, such problems are rather numerous and varied. Second, they greatly differ from each other in degree of completeness of their solution. Therefore, even a comprehensive survey should not attempt to cover the whole variety of such problems; only the most important and significant problems should be reviewed. An impersonal choice of problems to include is quite hard. This paper includes 13 unsolved problems related to combinatorial mathematics and computational complexity theory. The problems selected give an indication of the author's studies for 50 years; for this reason, the choice of the problems reviewed here is, to some extent, subjective. At the same time, these problems are very difficult and quite important for discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Bibliography: 74 items.

  14. The puzzling unsolved mysteries of liquid water: Some recent progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. E.; Kumar, P.; Xu, L.; Yan, Z.; Mazza, M. G.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Chen, S.-H.; Mallamace, F.

    2007-12-01

    Water is perhaps the most ubiquitous, and the most essential, of any molecule on earth. Indeed, it defies the imagination of even the most creative science fiction writer to picture what life would be like without water. Despite decades of research, however, water's puzzling properties are not understood and 63 anomalies that distinguish water from other liquids remain unsolved. We introduce some of these unsolved mysteries, and demonstrate recent progress in solving them. We present evidence from experiments and computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water displays a special transition point (which is not unlike the “tipping point” immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell). The general idea is that when the liquid is near this “tipping point,” it suddenly separates into two distinct liquid phases. This concept of a new critical point is finding application to other liquids as well as water, such as silicon and silica. We also discuss related puzzles, such as the mysterious behavior of water near a protein.

  15. Fermion bag solutions to some unsolved sign problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anyi; Chandrasekharan, Shailesh

    2012-03-01

    Some interesting lattice four-fermion models containing N flavors of staggered fermions with Z2 and U(1) chiral symmetries suffer from sign problems in the auxiliary field approach. Earlier calculations have either ignored these sign problems or have circumvented them by adding conjugate fermion fields which changes the model. In this talk we show that the recently proposed fermion bag approach solves these sign problems. The basic idea of the new approach is to collect unpaired fermionic degrees of freedom inside a fermion bag. A resummation of all fermion world lines inside the bag is then sufficient to solve the sign problems. The fermion bag approach provides new opportunities to solve in these ``unsolved'' four-fermion models in the chiral limit efficiently.

  16. Neural tube defects – recent advances, unsolved questions and controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Andrew J.; Stanier, Philip; Greene, Nicholas D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe congenital malformations affecting around 1 in every 1000 pregnancies. Here we review recent advances and currently unsolved issues in the NTD field. An innovation in clinical management has come from the demonstration that closure of open spina bifida lesions in utero can diminish neurological dysfunction in children. Primary prevention by folic acid has been enhanced through introduction of mandatory food fortification in some countries, although not yet in UK. Genetic predisposition comprises the majority of NTD risk, and genes that regulate folate one-carbon metabolism and planar cell polarity have been strongly implicated. The sequence of human neural tube closure events remains controversial, but study of mouse NTD models shows that anencephaly, open spina bifida and craniorachischisis result from failure of primary neurulation, while skin-covered spinal dysraphism results from defective secondary neurulation. Other ‘NTD’ malformations, such as encephalocele, are likely to be post-neurulation disorders. PMID:23790957

  17. Unsolved problems in biology--The state of current thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Sukhendu B

    2015-03-01

    Many outstanding problems have been solved in biology and medicine for which scientists have been awarded prestigious prizes including the Nobel Prize, Lasker Award and Breakthrough Prizes in life sciences. These have been the fruits of years of basic research. From time to time, publications have appeared listing "unsolved" problems in biology. In this article, I ask the question whether it is possible to have such a list, if not a unique one, at least one that is analogous to the Millennium Prize in mathematics. My approach to finding an answer to this question was to gather views of leading biologists. I have also included my own views. Analysis of all the responses received over several years has convinced me that it is difficult, but not impossible, to have such a prize. Biology is complex and very interdisciplinary these days at times involving large numbers of teams, unlike mathematics, where Andrew Wiles spent seven years in complete isolation and secrecy solving Fermat's last theorem. Such an approach is simply not possible in biology. Still I would like to suggest that a similar prize can be established by a panel of distinguished scientists. It would be awarded to those who solved one of the listed problems in biology that warrant a verifiable solution. Despite many different opinions, I found that there is some commonality in the responses I received - I go on to discuss what these are and how they may impact future thinking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Solved and unsolved problems associated with the Bauschinger-effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbach, J.

    1979-01-01

    The generic term 'Bauschinger effect' describes the laws of the elasto-plastic material behaviour on cyclic load. From the engineering point of view, the Bauschinger-effect is significant for the quasi-static component behaviour at reversed stress directions: A reversal of the stress direction can lead to a drastic decrease of stretch resistance and herewith to an excessive buckling danger; with proper predeformation stiffness can be increased however. On the other side the Bauschinger effect is tightly connected with material fatigue: The irreversible energy supplied by cyclic-plastic deformation is consumed by a small part for crack initiation and - spreading. Though a number of laws of the Bauschinger-effect are phenomenologically validated, there arise totally unsolved problems in the mist simple applications, above all in the relation between Bauschinger-effect and material fatigue. On the one hand there is not, for instance, a correct physical theory of the known laws of the Bauschinger-effect. On the other side, there are material properties, which are manifested in the fatigue behaviour of materials but not in a measurable cyclic stress-strain relationship. (orig./RW) 891 RW/orig.- 892 RKD [de

  19. Management of functional dyspepsia: Unsolved problems and new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madisch, Ahmed; Miehlke, Stephan; Labenz, Joachim

    2005-11-14

    The common characteristic criteria of all functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders are the persistence and recurrence of variable gastrointestinal symptoms that cannot be explained by any structural or biochemical abnormalities. Functional dyspepsia (FD) represents one of the important GI disorders in Western countries because of its remarkably high prevalence in general population and its impact on quality of life. Due to its dependence on both subjective determinants and diverse country-specific circumstances, the definition and management strategies of FD are still variably stated. Clinical trials with several drug classes (e.g., proton pump inhibitors, H2-blockers, prokinetic drugs) have been performed frequently without validated disease-specific test instruments for the outcome measurements. Therefore, the interpretation of such trials remains difficult and controversial with respect to comparability and evaluation of drug efficacy, and definite conclusions can be drawn neither for diagnostic management nor for efficacious drug therapy so far. In view of these unsolved problems, guidelines both on the clinical management of FD and on the performance of clinical trials are needed. In recent years, increasing research work has been done in this area. Clinical trials conducted in adequately diagnosed patients that provided validated outcome measurements may result in better insights leading to more effective treatment strategies. Encouraging perspectives have been recently performed by methodologically well-designed treatment studies with herbal drug preparations. Herbal drugs, given their proven efficacy in clinical trials, offer a safe therapeutic alternative in the treatment of FD which is often favored by both patients and physicians. A fixed combination of peppermint oil and caraway oil in patients suffering from FD could be proven effective by well-designed clinical trials.

  20. Management of functional dyspepsia: Unsolved problems and new perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Madisch; Stephan Miehlke; Joachim Labenz

    2005-01-01

    The common characteristic criteria of all functional gastrointestinal(GI)disorders are the persistence and recurrence of variable gastrointestinal symptoms that cannot be explained by any structural or biochemical abnormalities. Functional dyspepsia (FD) represents one of the important GI disorders in Western countries because of its remarkably high prevalence in general population and its impact on quality of life. Due to its dependence on both subjective determinants and diverse country-specific circumstances, the definition and management strategies of FD are still variably stated.Clinical trials with several drug classes (e.g., proton pump inhibitors, H2-blockers, prokinetic drugs) have been performed frequently without validated diseasespecific test instruments for the outcome measurements.Therefore, the interpretation of such trials remains difficult and controversial with respect to comparability and evaluation of drug efficacy, and definite conclusions can be drawn neither for diagnostic management nor for efficacious drug therapy so far. In view of these unsolved problems, guidelines both on the clinical management of FD and on the performance of clinical trials are needed. In recent years, increasing research work has been done in this area. Clinical trials conducted in adequately diagnosed patients that provided validated outcome measurements may result in better insights leading to more effective treatment strategies.Encouraging perspectives have been recently performed by methodologically well-designed treatment studies with herbal drug preparations. Herbal drugs, given their proven efficacy in clinical trials, offer a safe therapeutic alternative in the treatment of FD which is often favored by both patients and physicians. A fixed combination of peppermint oil and caraway oil in patients suffering from FD could be proven effective by well-designed clinical trials.

  1. Precious Metals in Automotive Technology: An Unsolvable Depletion Problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Bardi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the second half of the 20th century, various devices have been developed in order to reduce the emissions of harmful substances at the exhaust pipe of combustion engines. In the automotive field, the most diffuse and best known device of this kind is the “three way” catalytic converter for engines using the Otto cycle designed to abate the emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and unburnt hydrocarbons. These catalytic converters can function only by means of precious metals (mainly platinum, rhodium and palladium which exist in a limited supply in economically exploitable ores. The recent increase in prices of all mineral commodities is already making these converters significantly expensive and it is not impossible that the progressive depletion of precious metals will make them too expensive for the market of private cars. The present paper examines how this potential scarcity could affect the technology of road transportation worldwide. We argue that the supply of precious metals for automotive converters is not at risk in the short term, but that in the future it will not be possible to continue using this technology as a result of increasing prices generated by progressive depletion. Mitigation methods such as reducing the amounts of precious metals in catalysts, or recycling them can help but cannot be considered as a definitive solution. We argue that precious metal scarcity is a critical factor that may determine the future development of road transportation in the world. As the problem is basically unsolvable in the long run, we must explore new technologies for road transportation and we conclude that it is likely that the clean engine of the future will be electric and powered by batteries.

  2. Exposure to Unsolvable Anagrams Impairs Performance on the Iowa Gambling Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Starcke

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that external manipulations, such as stress or mood induction, can affect decision-making abilities. In the current study, we investigated whether the exposure to an unsolvable task affected subsequent performance on the Iowa Gambling Task. Participants were randomly assigned to a condition in which they were exposed to unsolvable anagrams (n = 20, or a condition in which they worked on solvable anagrams (n = 22. Afterwards, all participants played the Iowa Gambling Task, a prominent task that measures decision making under uncertain conditions with no explicit rules for gains and losses. In this task, it is essential to process feedback from previous decisions. The results demonstrated that participants who worked on unsolvable anagrams made more disadvantageous decisions on the Iowa Gambling Task than the other participants. In addition, a significant gender effect was observed: Males who worked on unsolvable anagrams made a more disadvantageous decisions than the other male participants. Females who worked on unsolvable anagrams also made more disadvantageous decision than the other female participants, but differences were small and not significant. We conclude that the exposure to unsolvable anagrams induced the experience of uncontrollability which can elicit stress and learned helplessness. Stress and learned helplessness might have reduced the ability to learn from the given feedback, particularly in male participants. We assume that in real life, uncontrollable challenges that last longer than a single experimental manipulation can affect decision making severely, at least in males.

  3. Monomeric tartrate resistant acid phosphatase induces insulin sensitive obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Lång

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue, which may link adipose inflammation to insulin resistance. However, the impact of inflammatory cells in the pathophysiology of obesity remains unclear. Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP is an enzyme expressed by subsets of macrophages and osteoclasts that exists either as an enzymatically inactive monomer or as an active, proteolytically processed dimer.Using mice over expressing TRAP, we show that over-expression of monomeric, but not the dimeric form in adipose tissue leads to early onset spontaneous hyperplastic obesity i.e. many small fat cells. In vitro, recombinant monomeric, but not proteolytically processed TRAP induced proliferation and differentiation of mouse and human adipocyte precursor cells. In humans, monomeric TRAP was highly expressed in the adipose tissue of obese individuals. In both the mouse model and in the obese humans the source of TRAP in adipose tissue was macrophages. In addition, the obese TRAP over expressing mice exhibited signs of a low-grade inflammatory reaction in adipose tissue without evidence of abnormal adipocyte lipolysis, lipogenesis or insulin sensitivity.Monomeric TRAP, most likely secreted from adipose tissue macrophages, induces hyperplastic obesity with normal adipocyte lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity.

  4. Lithium Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has been commonly used for the treatment of several mood disorders particularly bipolar disorder in the last 60 years. Increased intake and decreased excretion of lithium are the main causes for the development of lithium intoxication. The influence of lithium intoxication on body is evaluated as two different groups; reversible or irreversible. Irreversible damage is usually related with the length of time passed as intoxicated. Acute lithium intoxication could occur when an overdose of lithium is received mistakenly or for the purpose of suicide. Patients may sometimes take an overdose of lithium for self-medication resulting in acute intoxication during chronic, while others could develop chronic lithium intoxication during a steady dose treatment due to a problem in excretion of drug. In such situations, it is crucial to be aware of risk factors, to recognize early clinical symptoms and to conduct a proper medical monitoring. In order to justify or exclude the diagnosis, quantitative evaluation of lithium in blood and toxicologic screening is necessary. Following the monitoring schedules strictly and urgent intervention in case of intoxication would definitely reduce mortality and sequela related with lithium intoxication. In this article, the etiology, frequency, definition, clinical features and treatment approaches to the lithium intoxication have been briefly reviewed.

  5. Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird-Gunning, Jonathan; Lea-Henry, Tom; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is a commonly prescribed treatment for bipolar affective disorder. However, treatment is complicated by lithium's narrow therapeutic index and the influence of kidney function, both of which increase the risk of toxicity. Therefore, careful attention to dosing, monitoring, and titration...... is required. The cause of lithium poisoning influences treatment and 3 patterns are described: acute, acute-on-chronic, and chronic. Chronic poisoning is the most common etiology, is usually unintentional, and results from lithium intake exceeding elimination. This is most commonly due to impaired kidney...... function caused by volume depletion from lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus or intercurrent illnesses and is also drug-induced. Lithium poisoning can affect multiple organs; however, the primary site of toxicity is the central nervous system and clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic...

  6. Monomeric Yeast Frataxin is an Iron-Binding Protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.; Bencze, K.; Jankovic, A.; Crater, A.; Busch, C.; Bradley, P.; Stemmler, A.; Spaller, M.; Stemmler, T.

    2006-01-01

    Friedreich's ataxia, an autosomal cardio- and neurodegenerative disorder that affects 1 in 50 000 humans, is caused by decreased levels of the protein frataxin. Although frataxin is nuclear-encoded, it is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix and necessary for proper regulation of cellular iron homeostasis. Frataxin is required for the cellular production of both heme and iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters. Monomeric frataxin binds with high affinity to ferrochelatase, the enzyme involved in iron insertion into porphyrin during heme production. Monomeric frataxin also binds to Isu, the scaffold protein required for assembly of Fe-S cluster intermediates. These processes (heme and Fe-S cluster assembly) share requirements for iron, suggesting that monomeric frataxin might function as the common iron donor. To provide a molecular basis to better understand frataxin's function, we have characterized the binding properties and metal-site structure of ferrous iron bound to monomeric yeast frataxin. Yeast frataxin is stable as an iron-loaded monomer, and the protein can bind two ferrous iron atoms with micromolar binding affinity. Frataxin amino acids affected by the presence of iron are localized within conserved acidic patches located on the surfaces of both helix-1 and strand-1. Under anaerobic conditions, bound metal is stable in the high-spin ferrous state. The metal-ligand coordination geometry of both metal-binding sites is consistent with a six-coordinate iron-(oxygen/nitrogen) based ligand geometry, surely constructed in part from carboxylate and possibly imidazole side chains coming from residues within these conserved acidic patches on the protein. On the basis of our results, we have developed a model for how we believe yeast frataxin interacts with iron

  7. Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional thin-film lithium batteries for a variety of technological applications. These batteries have high essentially any size and shape. Recently, Teledyne licensed this technology from ORNL to make batteries for

  8. SYNTHESIS AND STRUCTURE OF BIS(PHENYLTETRAMETHYLCYCLOPENTADIENYL)TITANIUM(III) HYDRIDE - THE FIRST MONOMERIC BIS(CYCLOPENTADIENYL)TITANIUM(III) HYDRIDE : The First Monomeric Bis(cyclopentadienyl)titanium(III) Hydride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wolf, J.M.; Meetsma, A.; Teuben, J.H

    1995-01-01

    The first structurally characterized monomeric bis(cyclopentadienyl)titanium(III) hydride, (C(5)PhMe(4))(2)TiH (4), was synthesized by hydrogenolysis of (C(5)PhMe(4))(2)TiMe (5). Hydride 4 was found to be a monomeric bent sandwich by X-ray diffraction methods, and the pentamethylcyclopentadienyl

  9. Monomeric insulins and their experimental and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brange, J; Owens, D R; Kang, S; Vølund, A

    1990-09-01

    Due to the inherent pharmacokinetic properties of available insulins, normoglycemia is rarely, if ever, achieved in insulin-dependent diabetic patients without compromising their quality of life. Subcutaneous insulin absorption is influenced by many factors, among which the associated state of insulin (hexameric) in pharmaceutical formulation may be of importance. This review describes the development of a series of human insulin analogues with reduced tendency to self-association that, because of more rapid absorption, are better suited to meal-related therapy. DNA technology has made it possible to prepare insulins that remain dimeric or even monomeric at high concentration by introducing one or a few amino acid substitutions into human insulin. These analogues were characterized and used for elucidating the mechanisms involved in subcutaneous absorption and were investigated in preliminary clinical studies. Their relative receptor binding and in vitro potency (free-fat cell assay), ranging from 0.05 to 600% relative to human insulin, were strongly correlated (r = 0.97). In vivo, most of the analogues exhibited approximately 100% activity, explainable by a dominating receptor-mediated clearance. This was confirmed by clamp studies in which correlation between receptor binding and clearance was observed. Thus, an analogue with reduced binding and clearance gives higher circulating concentrations, counterbalancing the reduced potency at the cellular level. Absorption studies in pigs revealed a strong inverse correlation (r = 0.96) between the rate of subcutaneous absorption and the mean association state of the insulin analogues. These studies also demonstrated that monomeric insulins were absorbed three times faster than human insulin. In healthy subjects, rates of disappearance from subcutis were two to three times faster for dimeric and monomeric analogues than for human insulin. Concomitantly, a more rapid rise in plasma insulin concentration and an earlier

  10. Lithium neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraya, Y; Yoong, K Y

    2001-09-01

    Inspite of the advent of newer antimanic drugs, lithium carbonate remains widely used in the treatment and prevention of manic-depressive illness. However care has to be exercised due to its low therapeutic index. The central nervous system and renal system are predominantly affected in acute lithium intoxication and is potentially lethal. The more common side effect involves the central nervous system. It occurs early and is preventable. We describe three cases of lithium toxicity admitted to Johor Bahru Hospital, with emphasis on its neurological preponderance.

  11. Characterization of monomeric intermediates during VSV glycoprotein structural transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie A Albertini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Entry of enveloped viruses requires fusion of viral and cellular membranes, driven by conformational changes of viral glycoproteins. Crystal structures provide static pictures of pre- and post-fusion conformations of these proteins but the transition pathway remains elusive. Here, using several biophysical techniques, including analytical ultracentrifugation, circular dichroïsm, electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering, we have characterized the low-pH-induced fusogenic structural transition of a soluble form of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV glycoprotein G ectodomain (G(th, aa residues 1-422, the fragment that was previously crystallized. While the post-fusion trimer is the major species detected at low pH, the pre-fusion trimer is not detected in solution. Rather, at high pH, G(th is a flexible monomer that explores a large conformational space. The monomeric population exhibits a marked pH-dependence and adopts more elongated conformations when pH decreases. Furthermore, large relative movements of domains are detected in absence of significant secondary structure modification. Solution studies are complemented by electron micrographs of negatively stained viral particles in which monomeric ectodomains of G are observed at the viral surface at both pH 7.5 and pH 6.7. We propose that the monomers are intermediates during the conformational change and thus that VSV G trimers dissociate at the viral surface during the structural transition.

  12. Monomeric insulins obtained by protein engineering and their medical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brange, J; Ribel, U; Hansen, J F; Dodson, G; Hansen, M T; Havelund, S; Melberg, S G; Norris, F; Norris, K; Snel, L

    1988-06-16

    The use of insulin as an injected therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes has been one of the outstanding successes of modern medicine. The therapy has, however, had its associated problems, not least because injection of insulin does not lead to normal diurnal concentrations of insulin in the blood. This is especially true at meal times when absorption from subcutaneous tissue is too slow to mimic the normal rapid increments of insulin in the blood. In the neutral solutions used for therapy, insulin is mostly assembled as zinc-containing hexamers and this self-association, which under normal physiological circumstances functions to facilitate proinsulin transport, conversion and intracellular storage, may limit the rate of absorption. We now report that it is possible, by single amino-acid substitutions, to make insulins which are essentially monomeric at pharmaceutical concentrations (0.6 mM) and which have largely preserved their biological activity. These monomeric insulins are absorbed two to three times faster after subcutaneous injection than the present rapid-acting insulins. They are therefore capable of giving diabetic patients a more physiological plasma insulin profile at the time of meal consumption.

  13. Unsolved issues related to thermal-hydraulics in the suppression chamber during Fukushima Daiichi accident progressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizokami, Shinya; Yamada, Daichi; Honda, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Daisuke; Yamanaka, Yasunori

    2016-01-01

    On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami hit the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The Fukushima Daiichi Units 1-3 lost all DC and AC power supplies, which set in motion a chain of events that led to releases of radioactivity to the environment. Since then, TEPCO has made many efforts to investigate the accident progressions and the status of the reactors and containment vessels. However, there still exist several tens of unsolved issues to be investigated for the fully understanding of the accident. In this paper, we introduce the unsolved issues related to thermal-hydraulics in the suppression chamber during the Fukushima Daiichi accident progressions. Especially, in Units 2 and 3, there are possibilities that thermal stratification inside their suppression chambers played an important role. It is important that these phenomena are addressed following both theoretical and experimental approaches as support to severe accident simulations. (author)

  14. Structure and reactivity of lithium amides. /sup 6/Li, /sup 13/C, and /sup 15/N NMR spectroscopic studies and colligative measurements of lithium diphenylamide and lithium diphenylamide-lithium bromide complex solvated by tetrahydrofuran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePue, J.S.; Collum, D.B.

    1988-08-03

    /sup 6/Li, /sup 13/C, and /sup 15/N NMR spectroscopic studies of lithium diphenylamide in THF/hydrocarbon solutions (THF = tetrahydrofuran) detected two different species. /sup 6/Li and /sup 15/N NMR spectroscopic studies of (/sup 6/Li, /sup 15/N)lithium diphenylamide showed the species observed at low THF concentrations to be a cyclic oligomer. Structural analogies provided strong support for a dimer while colligative measurements at 0/degrees/C indicated the dimer to be di- or trisolvated. On the basis of the observed mass action effects, the species appearing at intermediate THF concentrations is assigned as a contact or solvent-separated ion-paired monomer. Lithium diphenylamide forms a 1:1 adduct with lithium bromide at low THF concentrations. A combination of /sup 6/Li-/sup 15/N double labeling studies and colligative measurements supports a trisolvated cyclic mixed dimer structure. Although detailed spectroscopic studies at elevated THF concentrations were precluded by high fluctionality, the similarity of the /sup 13/C chemical shifts of lithium diphenylamide in the presence and absence of lithium bromide provide indirect evidence that the mixed dimer undergoes a THF concentration dependent dissociation to the monomeric amide and free lithium bromide. 24 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Formation of amyloid fibers by monomeric light chain variable domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumshtein, Boris; Esswein, Shannon R; Landau, Meytal; Ryan, Christopher M; Whitelegge, Julian P; Phillips, Martin L; Cascio, Duilio; Sawaya, Michael R; Eisenberg, David S

    2014-10-03

    Systemic light chain amyloidosis is a lethal disease characterized by excess immunoglobulin light chains and light chain fragments composed of variable domains, which aggregate into amyloid fibers. These fibers accumulate and damage organs. Some light chains induce formation of amyloid fibers, whereas others do not, making it unclear what distinguishes amyloid formers from non-formers. One mechanism by which sequence variation may reduce propensity to form amyloid fibers is by shifting the equilibrium toward an amyloid-resistant quaternary structure. Here we identify the monomeric form of the Mcg immunoglobulin light chain variable domain as the quaternary unit required for amyloid fiber assembly. Dimers of Mcg variable domains remain stable and soluble, yet become prone to assemble into amyloid fibers upon disassociation into monomers. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. mKikGR, a monomeric photoswitchable fluorescent protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Habuchi

    Full Text Available The recent demonstration and utilization of fluorescent proteins whose fluorescence can be switched on and off has greatly expanded the toolkit of molecular and cell biology. These photoswitchable proteins have facilitated the characterization of specifically tagged molecular species in the cell and have enabled fluorescence imaging of intracellular structures with a resolution far below the classical diffraction limit of light. Applications are limited, however, by the fast photobleaching, slow photoswitching, and oligomerization typical for photoswitchable proteins currently available. Here, we report the molecular cloning and spectroscopic characterization of mKikGR, a monomeric version of the previously reported KikGR that displays high photostability and switching rates. Furthermore, we present single-molecule imaging experiments that demonstrate that individual mKikGR proteins can be localized with a precision of better than 10 nanometers, suggesting their suitability for super-resolution imaging.

  17. Polyimide resin composites via in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavano, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Thermo-oxidatively stable polyimide/graphite-fiber composites were prepared using a unique in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants directly on reinforcing fibers. This was accomplished by using an aromatic diamine and two ester-acids in a methyl alcohol solvent, rather than a previously synthesized prepolymer varnish, as with other A-type polyimides. A die molding procedure was developed and a composite property characterization conducted with high modulus graphite fiber tow. Flexure, tensile, compressive, and shear tests were conducted at temperatures from 72 to 650 F on laminates before and after exposures at the given temperatures in an air environment for times up to 1000 hours. The composite material was determined to be oxidatively, thermally, and hydrolytically stable.

  18. Conjecture of twin primes (Still unsolved problem in Number Theory. An expository essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Rezgui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to gather as much results of advances, recent and previous works as possible concerning the oldest outstanding still unsolved problem in Number Theory (and the most elusive open problem in prime numbers called "Twin primes conjecture" (8th problem of David Hilbert, stated in 1900 which has eluded many gifted mathematicians. This conjecture has been circulating for decades, even with the progress of contemporary technology that puts the whole world within our reach. So, simple to state, yet so hard to prove. Basic Concepts, many and varied topics regarding the Twin prime conjecture will be cover.

  19. Mapping monomeric threading to protein-protein structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerler, Aysam; Govindarajoo, Brandon; Zhang, Yang

    2013-03-25

    The key step of template-based protein-protein structure prediction is the recognition of complexes from experimental structure libraries that have similar quaternary fold. Maintaining two monomer and dimer structure libraries is however laborious, and inappropriate library construction can degrade template recognition coverage. We propose a novel strategy SPRING to identify complexes by mapping monomeric threading alignments to protein-protein interactions based on the original oligomer entries in the PDB, which does not rely on library construction and increases the efficiency and quality of complex template recognitions. SPRING is tested on 1838 nonhomologous protein complexes which can recognize correct quaternary template structures with a TM score >0.5 in 1115 cases after excluding homologous proteins. The average TM score of the first model is 60% and 17% higher than that by HHsearch and COTH, respectively, while the number of targets with an interface RMSD benchmark proteins. Although the relative performance of SPRING and ZDOCK depends on the level of homology filters, a combination of the two methods can result in a significantly higher model quality than ZDOCK at all homology thresholds. These data demonstrate a new efficient approach to quaternary structure recognition that is ready to use for genome-scale modeling of protein-protein interactions due to the high speed and accuracy.

  20. Substrate-Induced Dimerization of Engineered Monomeric Variants of Triosephosphate Isomerase from Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Lara-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available The dimeric nature of triosephosphate isomerases (TIMs is maintained by an extensive surface area interface of more than 1600 Å2. TIMs from Trichomonas vaginalis (TvTIM are held in their dimeric state by two mechanisms: a ball and socket interaction of residue 45 of one subunit that fits into the hydrophobic pocket of the complementary subunit and by swapping of loop 3 between subunits. TvTIMs differ from other TIMs in their unfolding energetics. In TvTIMs the energy necessary to unfold a monomer is greater than the energy necessary to dissociate the dimer. Herein we found that the character of residue I45 controls the dimer-monomer equilibrium in TvTIMs. Unfolding experiments employing monomeric and dimeric mutants led us to conclude that dimeric TvTIMs unfold following a four state model denaturation process whereas monomeric TvTIMs follow a three state model. In contrast to other monomeric TIMs, monomeric variants of TvTIM1 are stable and unexpectedly one of them (I45A is only 29-fold less active than wild-type TvTIM1. The high enzymatic activity of monomeric TvTIMs contrast with the marginal catalytic activity of diverse monomeric TIMs variants. The stability of the monomeric variants of TvTIM1 and the use of cross-linking and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments permit us to understand the differences between the catalytic activities of TvTIMs and other marginally active monomeric TIMs. As TvTIMs do not unfold upon dimer dissociation, herein we found that the high enzymatic activity of monomeric TvTIM variants is explained by the formation of catalytic dimeric competent species assisted by substrate binding.

  1. Anthocyanins and Their Variation in Red Wines I. Monomeric Anthocyanins and Their Color Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Qing Duan; Malcolm J. Reeves; Qiu-Hong Pan; Lin Mu; Na-Na Liang; Fei He; Jun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Originating in the grapes, monomeric anthocyanins in young red wines contribute the majority of color and the supposed beneficial health effects related to their consumption, and as such they are recognized as one of the most important groups of phenolic metabolites in red wines. In recent years, our increasing knowledge of the chemical complexity of the monomeric anthocyanins, their stability, together with the phenomena such as self-association and copigmentation that can stabilize and enha...

  2. Application of Radiotracer Technology on Solving the Unsolved Leak in Lift Pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fitri Abdul Rahman; Jaafar Abdullah; Hearie Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Radiotracers have been used in many fields to optimize processes, solve problems, improve product quality, save energy and reduce pollution. The radiotracer technology is a proven reliable technique and recognized by many sectors such as medical, industrial and environmental. In this work, an unsolved leak problem was present in lift pit within a building in Malaysia. Many techniques have applied such as dye techniques, chemical analyses and engineering plaster to overcome the problem. Unfortunately, none of the techniques solve the problem. Radiotracer was used to find the unidentified source of leak. Basically, Technetium (Tc-99m) has been injected to the several injection points and flow of the tracer was monitored with radiation detectors that have been placed at various locations. The results were successful and pinpoint the problems. (author)

  3. The rising tide of ocean diseases: Unsolved problems and research priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvell, Drew; Aronson, Richard; Baron, Nancy; Connell, Joseph; Dobson, Andrew P.; Ellner, Steve; Gerber, Leah R.; Kim, Kiho; Kuris, Armand M.; McCallum, Hamish; Lafferty, Kevin D.; McKay, Bruce; Porter, James; Pascual, Mercedes; Smith, Garriett; Sutherland, Katherine; Ward, Jessica

    2004-01-01

    New studies have detected a rising number of reports of diseases in marine organisms such as corals, molluscs, turtles, mammals, and echinoderms over the past three decades. Despite the increasing disease load, microbiological, molecular, and theoretical tools for managing disease in the world's oceans are under-developed. Review of the new developments in the study of these diseases identifies five major unsolved problems and priorities for future research: (1) detecting origins and reservoirs for marine diseases and tracing the flow of some new pathogens from land to sea; (2) documenting the longevity and host range of infectious stages; (3) evaluating the effect of greater taxonomic diversity of marine relative to terrestrial hosts and pathogens; (4) pinpointing the facilitating role of anthropogenic agents as incubators and conveyors of marine pathogens; (5) adapting epidemiological models to analysis of marine disease.

  4. Topological Galois theory solvability and unsolvability of equations in finite terms

    CERN Document Server

    Khovanskii, Askold

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a detailed and largely self-contained description of various classical and new results on solvability and unsolvability of equations in explicit form. In particular, it offers a complete exposition of the relatively new area of topological Galois theory, initiated by the author. Applications of Galois theory to solvability of algebraic equations by radicals, basics of Picard–Vessiot theory, and Liouville's results on the class of functions representable by quadratures are also discussed. A unique feature of this book is that recent results are presented in the same elementary manner as classical Galois theory, which will make the book useful and interesting to readers with varied backgrounds in mathematics, from undergraduate students to researchers. In this English-language edition, extra material has been added (Appendices A–D), the last two of which were written jointly with Yura Burda.

  5. Studies of the atmosphere of Venus by means of spacecraft: Solved and unsolved problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V. I.

    Many spacecraft were used for exploration of the atmosphere of Venus. Their list consists of 25 items, including fly-by missions, orbiters, descent and landing probes and even balloons. VENERA-4 (1967) was near the beginning of this list, providing the first time in situ experiments on other planet. It started a long sequence of successful Soviet Venera missions. However after the year 1985 there were no missions to Venus in Russia. It probably was a strategic error. Now several groups of scientists in other countries work on proposals for new missions to Venus. The goal of this paper is to present a brief review of already solved and still unsolved problems in the studies of the Venus' atmosphere and to possible future aims in this field.

  6. Design Function and Structure of a Monomeric CLC Transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L Robertson; L Kolmakova-Partensky; C Miller

    2011-12-31

    Channels and transporters of the ClC family cause the transmembrane movement of inorganic anions in service of a variety of biological tasks, from the unusual - the generation of the kilowatt pulses with which electric fish stun their prey - to the quotidian - the acidification of endosomes, vacuoles and lysosomes. The homodimeric architecture of ClC proteins, initially inferred from single-molecule studies of an elasmobranch Cl{sup -} channel and later confirmed by crystal structures of bacterial Cl{sup -}/H{sup +} antiporters, is apparently universal. Moreover, the basic machinery that enables ion movement through these proteins - the aqueous pores for anion diffusion in the channels and the ion-coupling chambers that coordinate Cl{sup -} and H{sup +} antiport in the transporters - are contained wholly within each subunit of the homodimer. The near-normal function of a bacterial ClC transporter straitjacketed by covalent crosslinks across the dimer interface and the behaviour of a concatemeric human homologue argue that the transport cycle resides within each subunit and does not require rigid-body rearrangements between subunits. However, this evidence is only inferential, and because examples are known in which quaternary rearrangements of extramembrane ClC domains that contribute to dimerization modulate transport activity, we cannot declare as definitive a 'parallel-pathways picture in which the homodimer consists of two single-subunit transporters operating independently. A strong prediction of such a view is that it should in principle be possible to obtain a monomeric ClC. Here we exploit the known structure of a ClC Cl{sup -}/H{sup +} exchanger, ClC-ec1 from Escherichia coli, to design mutants that destabilize the dimer interface while preserving both the structure and the transport function of individual subunits. The results demonstrate that the ClC subunit alone is the basic functional unit for transport and that cross-subunit interaction is not

  7. A monomeric variant of insulin degrading enzyme (IDE loses its regulatory properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Suk Song

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Insulin degrading enzyme (IDE is a key enzyme in the metabolism of both insulin and amyloid beta peptides. IDE is unique in that it is subject to allosteric activation which is hypothesized to occur through an oligomeric structure.IDE is known to exist as an equilibrium mixture of monomers, dimers, and higher oligomers, with the dimer being the predominant form. Based on the crystal structure of IDE we deleted the putative dimer interface in the C-terminal region, which resulted in a monomeric variant. Monomeric IDE retained enzymatic activity, however instead of the allosteric behavior seen with wild type enzyme it displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetic behavior. With the substrate Abz-GGFLRKHGQ-EDDnp, monomeric IDE retained approximately 25% of the wild type activity. In contrast with the larger peptide substrates beta-endorphin and amyloid beta peptide 1-40, monomeric IDE retained only 1 to 0.25% of wild type activity. Unlike wild type IDE neither bradykinin nor dynorphin B-9 activated the monomeric variant of the enzyme. Similarly, monomeric IDE was not activated by polyphosphates under conditions in which the activity of wild type enzyme was increased more than 50 fold.These findings serve to establish the dimer interface in IDE and demonstrate the requirement for an oligomeric form of the enzyme for its regulatory properties. The data support a mechanism where the binding of activators to oligomeric IDE induces a conformational change that cannot occur in the monomeric variant. Since a conformational change from a closed to a more open structure is likely the rate-determining step in the IDE reaction, the subunit induced conformational change likely shifts the structure of the oligomeric enzyme to a more open conformation.

  8. Anthocyanins and Their Variation in Red Wines I. Monomeric Anthocyanins and Their Color Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Qing Duan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Originating in the grapes, monomeric anthocyanins in young red wines contribute the majority of color and the supposed beneficial health effects related to their consumption, and as such they are recognized as one of the most important groups of phenolic metabolites in red wines. In recent years, our increasing knowledge of the chemical complexity of the monomeric anthocyanins, their stability, together with the phenomena such as self-association and copigmentation that can stabilize and enhance their color has helped to explain their color representation in red wine making and aging. A series of new enological practices were developed to improve the anthocyanin extraction, as well as their color expression and maintenance. This paper summarizes the most recent advances in the studies of the monomeric anthocyanins in red wines, emphasizing their origin, occurrence, color enhancing effects, their degradation and the effect of various enological practices on them.

  9. Looking back at 'looking back': operationalising referential gaze for dingoes in an unsolvable task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bradley Philip; Litchfield, Carla Anita

    2013-11-01

    This paper examined the performance of dingoes (Canis dingo) on the rope-pulling task, previously used by Miklósi et al. (Curr Biol 13:763-766, 2003) to highlight a key distinction in the problem-solving behaviour of wolves compared to dogs when in the company of humans. That is, when dogs were confronted with an unsolvable task, following a solvable version of the task they looked back or gazed at the human, whereas, wolves did not. We replicated the rope-pulling task using 12 sanctuary-housed dingoes and used the Miklósi et al. (Curr Biol 13:763-766, 2003) definition of looking back behaviour to analyse the data. However, at least three different types of look backs were observed in our study. We, then developed a more accurate operational definition of looking back behaviour that was task specific and reanalysed the data. We found that the operational definition employed greatly influences the results, with vague definitions potentially overestimating the prevalence of looking back behaviour. Thus, caution must be taken when interpreting the results of studies utilising looking back as behaviour linked to assistance seeking during problem solving. We present a more stringent definition and make suggestions for future research.

  10. Direct labelling of monomeric antibody fragments Fab' with 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun; Wang Shizhen; Yang Ziyi

    1994-01-01

    Direct labelling method and conditions of monomeric antibody Fab' with 99m Tc were investigated. Polyclonal antibody IgG was digested with ficin to produce dimeric fragments F(ab') 2 , which was subsequently reduced to monomeric fragments Fab' with 2-mercaptoethylamine. Finally, Fab' was incubated with sodium gluconate (Sn(II)) kit solution and 99m TcO 4 - eluted at room temperature to form 99m Tc-Fab'. The labelling efficiency was 85%-95%. The stability of labelled products was satisfactory and the elimination rate was faster than 99m Tc-IgG

  11. Lithium batteries; Les accumulateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This workshop on lithium batteries is divided into 4 sections dealing with: the design and safety aspects, the cycling, the lithium intercalation and its modeling, and the electrolytes. These 4 sections represent 19 papers and are completed by a poster session which corresponds to 17 additional papers. (J.S.)

  12. Lithium batteries; Les accumulateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This workshop on lithium batteries is divided into 4 sections dealing with: the design and safety aspects, the cycling, the lithium intercalation and its modeling, and the electrolytes. These 4 sections represent 19 papers and are completed by a poster session which corresponds to 17 additional papers. (J.S.)

  13. Lithium use in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Somatic APC mosaicism and oligogenic inheritance in genetically unsolved colorectal adenomatous polyposis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavarella, Michele; Miccoli, Sara; Prossomariti, Anna; Pippucci, Tommaso; Bonora, Elena; Buscherini, Francesco; Palombo, Flavia; Zuntini, Roberta; Balbi, Tiziana; Ceccarelli, Claudio; Bazzoli, Franco; Ricciardiello, Luigi; Turchetti, Daniela; Piazzi, Giulia

    2018-03-01

    Germline variants in the APC gene cause familial adenomatous polyposis. Inherited variants in MutYH, POLE, POLD1, NTHL1, and MSH3 genes and somatic APC mosaicism have been reported as alternative causes of polyposis. However, ~30-50% of cases of polyposis remain genetically unsolved. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the genetic causes of unexplained adenomatous polyposis. Eight sporadic cases with >20 adenomatous polyps by 35 years of age or >50 adenomatous polyps by 55 years of age, and no causative germline variants in APC and/or MutYH, were enrolled from a cohort of 56 subjects with adenomatous colorectal polyposis. APC gene mosaicism was investigated on DNA from colonic adenomas by Sanger sequencing or Whole Exome Sequencing (WES). Mosaicism extension to other tissues (peripheral blood, saliva, hair follicles) was evaluated using Sanger sequencing and/or digital PCR. APC second hit was investigated in adenomas from mosaic patients. WES was performed on DNA from peripheral blood to identify additional polyposis candidate variants. We identified APC mosaicism in 50% of patients. In three cases mosaicism was restricted to the colon, while in one it also extended to the duodenum and saliva. One patient without APC mosaicism, carrying an APC in-frame deletion of uncertain significance, was found to harbor rare germline variants in OGG1, POLQ, and EXO1 genes. In conclusion, our restrictive selection criteria improved the detection of mosaic APC patients. In addition, we showed for the first time that an oligogenic inheritance of rare variants might have a cooperative role in sporadic colorectal polyposis onset.

  15. Generation and Characterization of an IgG4 Monomeric Fc Platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Shan

    Full Text Available The immunoglobulin Fc region is a homodimer consisted of two sets of CH2 and CH3 domains and has been exploited to generate two-arm protein fusions with high expression yields, simplified purification processes and extended serum half-life. However, attempts to generate one-arm fusion proteins with monomeric Fc, with one set of CH2 and CH3 domains, are often plagued with challenges such as weakened binding to FcRn or partial monomer formation. Here, we demonstrate the generation of a stable IgG4 Fc monomer with a unique combination of mutations at the CH3-CH3 interface using rational design combined with in vitro evolution methodologies. In addition to size-exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation, we used multi-angle light scattering (MALS to show that the engineered Fc monomer exhibits excellent monodispersity. Furthermore, crystal structure analysis (PDB ID: 5HVW reveals monomeric properties supported by disrupted interactions at the CH3-CH3 interface. Monomeric Fc fusions with Fab or scFv achieved FcRn binding and serum half-life comparable to wildtype IgG. These results demonstrate that this monomeric IgG4 Fc is a promising therapeutic platform to extend the serum half-life of proteins in a monovalent format.

  16. Iontophoresis of monomeric insulin analogues in vitro: effects of insulin charge and skin pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkjaer, L; Brange, J; Grodsky, G M; Guy, R H

    1998-01-23

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of association state and net charge of human insulin analogues on the rate of iontophoretic transport across hairless mouse skin, and the effect of different skin pretreatments on said transport. No insulin flux was observed with anodal delivery probably because of degradation at the Ag/AgCl anode. The flux during cathodal iontophoresis through intact skin was insignificant for human hexameric insulin, and only low and variable fluxes were observed for monomeric insulins. Using stripped skin on the other hand, the fluxes of monomeric insulins with two extra negative charges were 50-100 times higher than that of hexameric human insulin. Introducing three additional charges led to a further 2-3-fold increase in flux. Wiping the skin gently with absolute alcohol prior to iontophoresis resulted in a 1000-fold increase in transdermal transport of insulin relative to that across untreated skin, i.e. to almost the same level as stripping the skin. The alcohol pretreatment reduced the electrical resistance of the skin, presumably by lipid extraction. In conclusion, monomeric insulin analogues with at least two extra negative charges can be iontophoretically delivered across hairless mouse skin, whereas insignificant flux is observed with human, hexameric insulin. Wiping the skin with absolute alcohol prior to iontophoresis gave substantially improved transdermal transport of monomeric insulins resulting in clinically relevant delivery rates for basal treatment.

  17. Even-parity resonances with synchrotron radiation from Laser Excited Lithium at 1s^22p State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Tie; Wehlitz, Ralf

    2010-03-01

    Correlated many-body dynamics is still one of the unsolved fundamental problems in physics. Such correlation effects can be most clearly studied in processes involving single atoms for their simplicity.Lithium, being the simplest open shell atom, has been under a lot of study. Most of the studies focused on ground state lithium. However, only odd parity resonances can be populated through single photon (synchrotron radiation) absorption from ground state lithium (1s^22s). Lithium atoms, after being laser excited to the 1s^22p state, allow the study of even parity resonances. We have measured some of the even parity resonances of lithium for resonant energies below 64 eV. A single-mode diode laser is used to excite lithium from 1s^22s ground state to 1s^22p (^2P3/2) state. Photoions resulting from the interaction between the excited lithium and synchrotron radiation were analyzed and collected by an ion time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer with a Z- stack channel plate detector. The Li^+ ion yield was recorded while scanning the undulator along with the monochromator. The energy scans have been analyzed regarding resonance energies and parameters of the Fano profiles. Our results for the observed resonances will be presented.

  18. Enriched lithium collection from lithium plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karchevsky, A.I.; Laz'ko, V.S.; Muromkin, Y.A.; Pashkovsky, V.G.; Ustinov, A.L.; Dolgolenko, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    In order to understand the physical processes concerned with the selective heating by ion cyclotron resonance and with the subsequent collection of heated particles, experiments were carried out with the extraction of lithium samples, enriched with 6 Li isotopes. Probe and integral extractors allow to collect enriched Li at the end of the selective heating region. Surface density distribution on the collector and local isotopic content of lithium are measured, as a function of the screen height and the retarding potential. Dependence of the collected amount of lithium and of its isotopic content on the value of the magnetic field is also measured. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 5 refs

  19. Experimental lithium system experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, J.M.; Berg, J.D.; Kolowith, R.; Miller, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Experimental Lithium System is a test loop built to support design and operation of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility. ELS has achieved over 15,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program has demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including an electromagnetic pump, lithium jet target, and vacuum system. Data on materials corrosion and behavior of lithium impurities are also presented. (author)

  20. Development of liquid lithium divertor for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evtihkin, V. A.; Lyublinskij, I. E.; Vertkov, A.V.; Chumanov, A.V.; Shpolyanskij, V.N.

    2000-01-01

    Development of divertor is one of the most acute problems of the tokamak fusion reactor. The use of such materials as tungsten, beryllium, graphite and CFC's enabled to solve the problem to a certain extent fulfilling the need of the ITER project. The problem still rests unsolved for the DEMO-type reactors. Lithium if used as a material for high heat flux components may provide a successful solution of the problem. A concept of Li divertor based on the use of capillary-pore structures (CPS) is proposed and is being validated by a complex of experimental research and engineering developments. An optional concept of Li divertor for power removal at 400 MW in steady-state (DEMO-S project) is presented. The complex of experimental research is under way to prove the serviceability of the Li CPS in different conditions that would be realized in divertor

  1. Preparation of a highly concentrated, completely monomeric, active sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdi, H; Hasselbach, W

    1985-11-21

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles from fast skeletal muscle were partially delipidated with sodium cholate at high ionic strength and sedimented in a discontinuous sucrose gradient. Phospholipid content was reduced from 0.777 mumol/mg protein to 0.242 mumol/mg protein. As judged from gel electrophoresis and high pressure liquid gel chromatography, accessory proteins were removed during centrifugation and the Ca2+-ATPase was obtained in an almost pure form. Addition of myristoylglycerophosphocholine (1 mg/mg protein) reactivates ATPase and dinitrophenylphosphatase activity to the same degree obtained with native vesicles. Using the analytical ultracentrifuge it could be demonstrated that the reactivated Ca2+-ATPase was present exclusively in a monomeric state. These results were obtained at high and low ionic strength and up to a protein concentration of 10 mg/ml. Therefore this preparation should be very useful to investigate differences between oligomeric and monomeric Ca2+-ATPase.

  2. Unsolved Problems of Iran's Nuclear Program And Prospects in the light of Role of Parties to an Entente

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Soo; Kim, Jae San

    2009-01-01

    From past to present, Iran have been focused by international society and still have continued their enrichment activity despite of many sanctions. It is barely easy to solve this situation and to negotiate between related countries. Because there are many factors to influence this. New president of U.S. Barack Obama could be a great deal of factor for solving Iran's nuclear issue as well. From this point of view, following Iran's unsolved problems of nuclear program could be helpful to understand the situation and what the key point to solve it, and forecast the future with surrounding political and regional factors

  3. Multistage modeling of protein dynamics with monomeric Myc oncoprotein as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaojiao; Dai, Jin; He, Jianfeng; Niemi, Antti J; Ilieva, Nevena

    2017-03-01

    We propose to combine a mean-field approach with all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) into a multistage algorithm that can model protein folding and dynamics over very long time periods yet with atomic-level precision. As an example, we investigate an isolated monomeric Myc oncoprotein that has been implicated in carcinomas including those in colon, breast, and lungs. Under physiological conditions a monomeric Myc is presumed to be an example of intrinsically disordered proteins that pose a serious challenge to existing modeling techniques. We argue that a room-temperature monomeric Myc is in a dynamical state, it oscillates between different conformations that we identify. For this we adopt the Cα backbone of Myc in a crystallographic heteromer as an initial ansatz for the monomeric structure. We construct a multisoliton of the pertinent Landau free energy to describe the Cα profile with ultrahigh precision. We use Glauber dynamics to resolve how the multisoliton responds to repeated increases and decreases in ambient temperature. We confirm that the initial structure is unstable in isolation. We reveal a highly degenerate ground-state landscape, an attractive set towards which Glauber dynamics converges in the limit of vanishing ambient temperature. We analyze the thermal stability of this Glauber attractor using room-temperature molecular dynamics. We identify and scrutinize a particularly stable subset in which the two helical segments of the original multisoliton align in parallel next to each other. During the MD time evolution of a representative structure from this subset, we observe intermittent quasiparticle oscillations along the C-terminal α helix, some of which resemble a translating Davydov's Amide-I soliton. We propose that the presence of oscillatory motion is in line with the expected intrinsically disordered character of Myc.

  4. Structural Characterization of Monomeric/Dimeric State of p59fyn SH2 Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huculeci, Radu; Kieken, Fabien; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Buts, Lieven; van Nuland, Nico; Lenaerts, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Src homology 2 (SH2) domains are key modulators in various signaling pathways allowing the recognition of phosphotyrosine sites of different proteins. Despite the fact that SH2 domains acquire their biological functions in a monomeric state, a multitude of reports have shown their tendency to dimerize. Here, we provide a technical description on how to isolate and characterize by gel filtration, circular dichroism (CD), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) each conformational state of p59 fyn SH2 domain.

  5. Improved detection of a staphylococcal infection by monomeric and protein A-purified polyclonal human immunoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calame, W.

    1993-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the technetium-99m labelled non-specific polyclonal human immunoglobulin (Ig) with 99m Tc-labelled monomeric human immunoglobulin (m-Ig), 99m Tc-labelled, protein A-purified, human immunoglobulin (A-IG) and 99m Tc-labelled monomeric, protein A-purified, human immunoglobulin (mA-Ig) as tracer agents for the detection of a thigh infection with Staphylococcus aureus. In vitro the binding of the various tracer agents to bacteria at various intervals was determined. For the in vivo evaluation, mice were infected and received one of the various labelled proteins. Scintigrams were made 0.25, 1, 4 and 24 h later. All 99m Tc-labelled Igs bound to bacteria in vitro: The percentages of binding for the m-Ig (from 1 h onwards) and A-Ig and mA-Ig (from 3 h onwards) were significantly higher than that for Ig. The in vivo target-to-non-target (T/NT) ratios were significantly higher from 4 h onwards for all purified Igs than for Ig. Protein A-purified Ig yielded higher T/NT ratios than m-Ig. Furthermore, the amount of activity in the liver was significantly lower 24 h after administration of m-Ig, A-Ig and mA-Ig than after administration of Ig. It is concluded that in this experimental infection 99m Tc-labelled monomeric Ig localizes a staphylococcal thigh infection better and faster than 99m Tc-labelled unpurified Ig. However, the accumulation obtained with protein A-purified Ig or protein A-purified monomeric Ig was the highest of all tracer agents tested. (orig.)

  6. Two mechanisms for dissipation of excess light in monomeric and trimeric light-harvesting complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Osto, Luca [Univ. di Verona, Verona (Italy). Dipartimento di Biotecnologie; Cazzaniga, Stefano [Univ. di Verona, Verona (Italy). Dipartimento di Biotecnologie; Bressan, Mauro [Univ. di Verona, Verona (Italy). Dipartimento di Biotecnologie; Paleček, David [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Physics; Židek, Karel [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Physics; Niyogi, Krishna K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Howard Hughes Medical Inst., Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division; Fleming, Graham R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry, Graduate Group in Applied Science and Technology; Zigmantas, Donatas [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Physics; Bassi, Roberto [Univ. di Verona, Verona (Italy). Dipartimento di Biotecnologie; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Firenze (Italy). Istituto per la Protezione delle Piante (IPP)

    2017-04-10

    Oxygenic photoautotrophs require mechanisms for rapidly matching the level of chlorophyll excited states from light harvesting with the rate of electron transport from water to carbon dioxide. These photoprotective reactions prevent formation of reactive excited states and photoinhibition. The fastest response to excess illumination is the so-called non-photochemical quenching which, in higher plants, requires the luminal pH sensor PsbS and other yet unidentified components of the photosystem II antenna. Both trimeric light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) and monomeric LHC proteins have been indicated as site(s) of the heat-dissipative reactions. Different mechanisms have been proposed: Energy transfer to a lutein quencher in trimers, formation of a zeaxanthin radical cation in monomers. Here, we report on the construction of a mutant lacking all monomeric LHC proteins but retaining LHCII trimers. Its non-photochemical quenching induction rate was substantially slower with respect to the wild type. A carotenoid radical cation signal was detected in the wild type, although it was lost in the mutant. Here, we conclude that non-photochemical quenching is catalysed by two independent mechanisms, with the fastest activated response catalysed within monomeric LHC proteins depending on both zeaxanthin and lutein and on the formation of a radical cation. Trimeric LHCII was responsible for the slowly activated quenching component whereas inclusion in supercomplexes was not required. Finally, this latter activity does not depend on lutein nor on charge transfer events, whereas zeaxanthin was essential.

  7. Peracetic Acid Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignin for Production of Selective Monomeric Phenolic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ruoshui [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Guo, Mond [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Lin, Kuan-ting [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Hebert, Vincent R. [Food and Environmental Laboratory, Washington State, University-TriCities, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Zhang, Jinwen [Wood Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164 USA; Wolcott, Michael P. [Wood Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164 USA; Quintero, Melissa [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K. [Chemical and Biological Process Development Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Chen, Xiaowen [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Lab, 1617 Cole Blvd Golden CO 80127 USA; Zhang, Xiao [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA

    2016-07-04

    Lignin is the largest source of renewable material with an aromatic skeleton. However, due to the recalcitrant and heterogeneous nature of the lignin polymer, it has been a challenge to effectively depolymerize lignin and produce high-value chemicals with high selectivity. In this study, a highly efficient lignin-to-monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC) conversion method based on peracetic acid (PAA) treatment was reported. PAA treatment of two biorefinery lignin samples, diluted acid pretreated corn stover lignin (DACSL) and steam exploded spruce lignin (SESPL), led to complete solubilization and production of selective hydroxylated monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC-H) and monomeric phenolic acid compounds (MPC-A) including 4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The maximized MPC yields obtained were 18 and 22 % based on the initial weight of the lignin in SESPL and DACSL, respectively. However, we found that the addition of niobium pentoxide catalyst to PAA treatment of lignin can significantly improve the MPC yields up to 47 %. The key reaction steps and main mechanisms involved in this new lignin-to-MPC valorization pathway were investigated and elucidated.

  8. Peracetic Acid Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignin for Production of Selective Monomeric Phenolic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ruoshui [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Guo, Mond [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Lin, Kuan-ting [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Hebert, Vincent R. [Food and Environmental Laboratory, Washington State, University-TriCities, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Zhang, Jinwen [Wood Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164 USA; Wolcott, Michael P. [Wood Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164 USA; Quintero, Melissa [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K. [Chemical and Biological Process Development Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Chen, Xiaowen [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Lab, 1617 Cole Blvd Golden CO 80127 USA; Zhang, Xiao [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA

    2016-07-04

    Lignin is the largest source of renewable material with an aromatic skeleton. However, due to the recalcitrant and heterogeneous nature of the lignin polymer as well as its complex side chain structures, it has been a challenge to effectively depolymerize lignin and produce high value chemicals with high selectivity. In this study, a highly efficient lignin-to-monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC) conversion method based on peracetic acid (PAA) treatment was reported. PAA treatment of two biorefinery lignin samples, diluted acid pretreated corn stover lignin (DACSL) and steam exploded spruce lignin (SESPL), led to complete solubilization and production of selective hydroxylated monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC-H) and monomeric phenolic acid compounds (MPC-A) inclduing 4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The maximized MPCs yields obtained were 18% and 22% based on the initial weight of the lignin in SESPL and DACSL respectively. However, we found that the addition of niobium pentoxide catalyst to PAA treatment of lignin can significantly improve the MPC yields up to 47%. The key reaction steps and main mechanisms involved in this new lignin-to-MPC valorization pathway were investigated and elucidated.

  9. Peracetic Acid Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignin for Production of Selective Monomeric Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruoshui; Guo, Mond; Lin, Kuan-Ting; Hebert, Vincent R; Zhang, Jinwen; Wolcott, Michael P; Quintero, Melissa; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K; Chen, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-07-25

    Lignin is the largest source of renewable material with an aromatic skeleton. However, due to the recalcitrant and heterogeneous nature of the lignin polymer, it has been a challenge to effectively depolymerize lignin and produce high-value chemicals with high selectivity. In this study, a highly efficient lignin-to-monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC) conversion method based on peracetic acid (PAA) treatment was reported. PAA treatment of two biorefinery lignin samples, diluted acid pretreated corn stover lignin (DACSL) and steam exploded spruce lignin (SESPL), led to complete solubilization and production of selective hydroxylated monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC-H) and monomeric phenolic acid compounds (MPC-A) including 4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The maximized MPC yields obtained were 18 and 22 % based on the initial weight of the lignin in SESPL and DACSL, respectively. However, we found that the addition of niobium pentoxide catalyst to PAA treatment of lignin can significantly improve the MPC yields up to 47 %. The key reaction steps and main mechanisms involved in this new lignin-to-MPC valorization pathway were investigated and elucidated. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  12. Startup of Experimental Lithium System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, D.L.

    1980-06-01

    The Experimental Lithium System (ELS) is designed for full-scale testing of targets and other lithium system components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. The system also serves as a test bed for development of lithium purification and characterization equipment, provides experience in operation of large lithium systems, and helps guide FMIT design

  13. Lithium purity and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, G.E.; Keough, R.F.

    1981-02-01

    The accurate measurement of impurities in lithium is basic to the study of lithium compatibility with fusion reactor materials. In the last year the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) has had the opportunity to develop sampling and analytical techniques and to apply them in support of the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) as a part of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Project. In this paper we present the analytical results from the fill, start-up and operation of the ELS. In addition, the analysis and purification of navy surplus ingot lithium which is being considered for use in a larger system will be discussed. Finally, the analytical techniques used in our laboratory will be summarized and the results of a recent round robin lithium analysis will be presented

  14. Lithium and Renal Impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Nolen, Willem A

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lithium is established as an effective treatment of mania, of depression in bipolar and unipolar disorder, and in maintenance treatment of these disorders. However, due to the necessity of monitoring and concerns about irreversible adverse effects, in particular renal impairment......, after long-term use, lithium might be underutilized. METHODS: This study reviewed 6 large observational studies addressing the risk of impaired renal function associated with lithium treatment and methodological issues impacting interpretation of results. RESULTS: An increased risk of renal impairment...... associated with lithium treatment is suggested. This increased risk may, at least partly, be a result of surveillance bias. Additionally, the earliest studies pointed toward an increased risk of end-stage renal disease associated with lithium treatment, whereas the later and methodologically most sound...

  15. Tumour localization and pharmacokinetics of iodine-125 human monoclonal IgM antibody (COU-1) and its monomeric and half-monomeric fragments analysed in nude mice grafted with human tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditzel, H.; Erb, K.; Rasmussen, J.W.; Jensenius, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Human monoclonal IgM antibodies reactive with cancer-associated antigens may not have the optimal imaging capability due to their large size. Fragmentation of human IgM is less than straight-forward due to the loss of immunoreactivity. From the human monoclonal IgM antibody COU-1 we have prepared monomeric and half-monomeric fragments, which retain the ability to bind to colon cancer cells in vitro. The pharmacokinetics and tumour localization were evaluated in nude mice bearing human colon adenocarcinoma and human melanoma grafts. Faster clearance from the circulation was seen for the smaller half-monomeric fragment with a half-life (rapid phase/slow phase) of 2 h/16 h compared with the intact antibody, 4 h/25 h, and the monomeric fragment, 3 h/27 h. Intact COU-1 as well as the fragments accumulated in the colon tumour graft. Higher amounts of radioactivity were found in the colon tumour as compared to normal organs for intact COU-1 at days 4 and 6, for the monomeric fragment at day 4, and for the half-monomeric fragment at day 2 after injection. This investigation demonstrates the favourable biodistribution of the half monomeric COU-1 fragment. The fast clearance of this fragment resulted in a tumour-to-muscle ratio as high as 22 on day 2 after injection. Also, only this fragment gave a positive tumour-to-blood ratio. Normal IgM and its fragments were used as controls. Radioimmunoscintigraphy demonstrated the colon tumour discriminatory properties of each of the three iodine-labelled antibody preparations. The results compare favourably with previously reported investigations of the localization of human monoclonal antibodies and suggest that fragments of human monoclonal IgM antibodies may be useful tools for the immunodetection of cancer in patients. (orig.)

  16. Low pressure lithium condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadkins, R.P.; Oh, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    A low pressure experiment to evaluate the laminar film condensation coefficients of lithium was conducted. Some thirty-six different heat transfer tests were made at system pressures ranging from 1.3 to 26 Pa. Boiled lithium was condensed on the inside of a 7.6-cm (ID), 409 stainless-steel pipe. Condensed lithium was allowed to reflux back to the pool boiling region below the condensing section. Fourteen chromel/alumel thermocouples were attached in various regions of the condensing section. The thermocouples were initially calibrated with errors of less than one degree Celsius

  17. Natural monomeric form of fetal bovine serum acetylcholinesterase lacks the C-terminal tetramerization domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Ashima; Hur, Regina S; Luo, Chunyuan; Doctor, Bhupendra P

    2003-12-30

    Acetylcholinesterase isolated from fetal bovine serum (FBS AChE) was previously characterized as a globular tetrameric form. Analysis of purified preparations of FBS AChE by gel permeation chromatography revealed the presence of a stable, catalytically active, monomeric form of this enzyme. The two forms could be distinguished from each other based on their molecular weight, hydrodynamic properties, kinetic properties, thermal stability, and the type of glycans they carry. No differences between the two forms were observed for the binding of classical inhibitors such as edrophonium and propidium or inhibitors that are current or potential drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease such as (-) huperzine A and E2020; tacrine inhibited the monomeric form 2-3-fold more potently than the tetrameric form. Sequencing of peptides obtained from an in-gel tryptic digest of the monomer and tetramer by tandem mass spectrometry indicated that the tetramer consists of 583 amino acid residues corresponding to the mature form of the enzyme, whereas the monomer consists of 543-547 amino acid residues. The subunit molecular weight of the protein component of the monomer (major species) was determined to be 59 414 Da and that of the tetramer as 64 239 Da. The N-terminal of the monomer and the tetramer was Glu, suggesting that the monomer is not a result of truncation at the N-terminal. The only differences detected were at the C-terminus. The tetramer yielded the expected C-terminus, CSDL, whereas the C-terminus of the monomer yielded a mixture of peptides, of which LLSATDTLD was the most abundant. These results suggest that monomeric FBS AChE is trimmed at the C-terminus, and the results are consistent with the involvement of C-terminal amino acids in the assembly of monomers into tetramers.

  18. Monomeric banana lectin at acidic pH overrules conformational stability of its native dimeric form.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed M Khan

    Full Text Available Banana lectin (BL is a homodimeric protein categorized among jacalin-related family of lectins. The effect of acidic pH was examined on conformational stability of BL by using circular dichroism, intrinsic fluorescence, 1-anilino-8-napthalene sulfonate (ANS binding, size exclusion chromatography (SEC and dynamic light scattering (DLS. During acid denaturation of BL, the monomerization of native dimeric protein was found at pH 2.0. The elution profile from SEC showed two different peaks (59.65 ml & 87.98 ml at pH 2.0 while single peak (61.45 ml at pH 7.4. The hydrodynamic radii (R h of native BL was 2.9 nm while at pH 2.0 two species were found with R h of 1.7 and 3.7 nm. Furthermore at, pH 2.0 the secondary structures of BL remained unaltered while tertiary structure was significantly disrupted with the exposure of hydrophobic clusters confirming the existence of molten globule like state. The unfolding of BL with different subunit status was further evaluated by urea and temperature mediated denaturation to check their stability. As inferred from high Cm and ΔG values, the monomeric form of BL offers more resistance towards chemical denaturation than the native dimeric form. Besides, dimeric BL exhibited a Tm of 77°C while no loss in secondary structures was observed in monomers even up to 95°C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on monomeric subunit of lectins showing more stability against denaturants than its native dimeric state.

  19. A de novo designed monomeric, compact three helix bundle protein on a carbohydrate template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malik, Leila; Nygård, Jesper; Christensen, Niels Johan

    2015-01-01

    De novo design and chemical synthesis of proteins and of other artificial structures, which mimic them, is a central strategy for understanding protein folding and for accessing proteins with novel functions. We have previously described carbohydrates as templates for the assembly of artificial...... the template could facilitate protein folding. Here we report the design and synthesis of 3-helix bundle carboproteins on deoxy-hexopyranosides. The carboproteins were analyzed by CD, AUC, SAXS, and NMR, which revealed the formation of the first compact, and folded monomeric carboprotein distinctly different...

  20. The Beckman DxI 800 prolactin assay demonstrates superior specificity for monomeric prolactin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Brendan

    2010-02-01

    Commercially available prolactin immunoassays detect macroprolactin to variable degrees. Best practice requires laboratories to assess the cross-reactivity of their prolactin assay with macroprolactin, and where appropriate, introduce a screen for the presence of macroprolactin. Our policy has been to reanalyse hyperprolactinaemic samples following polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and to report the resultant value as the monomeric prolactin content of the sample. The goal of this study was to determine the need to continue PEG precipitation when prolactin measurements with the Wallac AutoDELFIA were replaced by the Beckman DxI 800.

  1. Monomeric adiponectin modulates nitric oxide release and calcium movements in porcine aortic endothelial cells in normal/high glucose conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossini, Elena; Farruggio, Serena; Qoqaiche, Fatima; Raina, Giulia; Camillo, Lara; Sigaudo, Lorenzo; Mary, David; Surico, Nicola; Surico, Daniela

    2016-09-15

    Perivascular adipose tissue can be involved in the process of cardiovascular pathology through the release of adipokines, namely adiponectins. Monomeric adiponectin has been shown to increase coronary blood flow in anesthetized pigs through increased nitric oxide (NO) release and the involvement of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1). The present study was therefore planned to examine the effects of monomeric adiponectin on NO release and Ca(2+) transients in porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAEs) in normal/high glucose conditions and the related mechanisms. PAEs were treated with monomeric adiponectin alone or in the presence of intracellular kinases blocker, AdipoR1 and Ca(2+)-ATPase pump inhibitors. The role of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger was examined in experiments performed in zero Na(+) medium. NO release and intracellular Ca(2+) were measured through specific probes. In PAE cultured in normal glucose conditions, monomeric adiponectin elevated NO production and [Ca(2+)]c. Similar effects were observed in high glucose conditions, although the response was lower and not transient. The Ca(2+) mobilized by monomeric adiponectin originated from an intracellular pool thapsigargin- and ATP-sensitive and from the extracellular space. Moreover, the effects of monomeric adiponectin were prevented by kinase blockers and AdipoR1 inhibitor. Finally, in normal glucose condition, a role for Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger and Ca(2+)-ATPase pump in restoring Ca(2+) was found. Our results add new information about the control of endothelial function elicited by monomeric adiponectin, which would be achieved by modulation of NO release and Ca(2+) transients. A signalling related to Akt, ERK1/2 and p38MAPK downstream AdipoR1 would be involved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF LITHIUM METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P.S.; Duncan, F.R.; Greene, H.B.

    1961-08-22

    Methods and apparatus for the production of high-purity lithium from lithium halides are described. The apparatus is provided for continuously contacting a molten lithium halide with molten barium, thereby forming lithium metal and a barium halide, establishing separate layers of these reaction products and unreacted barium and lithium halide, and continuously withdrawing lithium and barium halide from the reaction zone. (AEC)

  3. Lithium niobate packaging challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.J.; Holmes, R.J.; Jander, R.B.; Schelling, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The use of lithium niobate integrated optic devices outside of the research laboratory is predicated on the development of a sound packaging method. The authors present a discussion of the many issues that face the development of a viable, robust packaging technology. The authors emphasize the interaction of lithium niobate's physical properties with available packaging materials and technologies. The broad range of properties (i.e. electro-optic, piezo-electric, pyro-electric, photorefractive...) that make lithium niobate an interesting material in many device applications also make it a packaging challenge. The package design, materials and packaging technologies must isolate the device from the environment so that lithium niobate's properties do not adversely affect the device performance

  4. Raman spectra of lithium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Bi, Dongxue; Voinov, Y. P.; Vodchits, A. I.; Gorshunov, B. P.; Yurasov, N. I.; Yurasova, I. I.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to the results of investigating the spontaneous Raman scattering spectra in the lithium compounds crystals in a wide spectral range by the fibre-optic spectroscopy method. We also present the stimulated Raman scattering spectra in the lithium hydroxide and lithium deuteride crystals obtained with the use of powerful laser source. The symmetry properties of the lithium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide monohydrate and lithium deuteride crystals optical modes were analyzed by means of the irreducible representations of the point symmetry groups. We have established the selection rules in the Raman and infrared absorption spectra of LiOH, LiOH·H2O and LiD crystals.

  5. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  6. Characterization lithium mineralized pegmatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.F.S.; Luz Ferreira, O. da; Cancado, R.Z.L.

    1986-01-01

    Lithium economic importance has increased in the last years. In Brazil its reserves, generally pegmatites bodies, are found in Itinga-Aracuai-MG. This study of characterization belongs to a global plan of lithium mineralized bodies research of 'Arqueana de Minerios e Metais Ltda', which purpose is to give subsidies for implementation of pegmatite unit, in order to make better use of them. (F.E.) [pt

  7. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  8. Solid Lithium Ion Conductors (SLIC) for Lithium Solid State Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To identify the most lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes for lithium solid state batteries from the emerging types of solid electrolytes, based on a...

  9. Lithium isotope effect accompanying electrochemical intercalation of lithium into graphite

    CERN Document Server

    Yanase, S; Oi, T

    2003-01-01

    Lithium has been electrochemically intercalated from a 1:2 (v/v) mixed solution of ethylene carbonate (EC) and methylethyl carbonate (MEC) containing 1 M LiClO sub 4 into graphite, and the lithium isotope fractionation accompanying the intercalation was observed. The lighter isotope was preferentially fractionated into graphite. The single-stage lithium isotope separation factor ranged from 1.007 to 1.025 at 25 C and depended little on the mole ratio of lithium to carbon of the lithium-graphite intercalation compounds (Li-GIC) formed. The separation factor increased with the relative content of lithium. This dependence seems consistent with the existence of an equilibrium isotope effect between the solvated lithium ion in the EC/MEC electrolyte solution and the lithium in graphite, and with the formation of a solid electrolyte interfaces on graphite at the early stage of intercalation. (orig.)

  10. Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

    2006-04-20

    Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

  11. Monomeric, Oligomeric and Polymeric Proteins in Huntington Disease and Other Diseases of Polyglutamine Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guylaine Hoffner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease and other diseases of polyglutamine expansion are each caused by a different protein bearing an excessively long polyglutamine sequence and are associated with neuronal death. Although these diseases affect largely different brain regions, they all share a number of characteristics, and, therefore, are likely to possess a common mechanism. In all of the diseases, the causative protein is proteolyzed, becomes abnormally folded and accumulates in oligomers and larger aggregates. The aggregated and possibly the monomeric expanded polyglutamine are likely to play a critical role in the pathogenesis and there is increasing evidence that the secondary structure of the protein influences its toxicity. We describe here, with special attention to huntingtin, the mechanisms of polyglutamine aggregation and the modulation of aggregation by the sequences flanking the polyglutamine. We give a comprehensive picture of the characteristics of monomeric and aggregated polyglutamine, including morphology, composition, seeding ability, secondary structure, and toxicity. The structural heterogeneity of aggregated polyglutamine may explain why polyglutamine-containing aggregates could paradoxically be either toxic or neuroprotective.

  12. Selective defunctionalization by TiO2 of monomeric phenolics from lignin pyrolysis into simple phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mante, Ofei D; Rodriguez, Jose A; Babu, Suresh P

    2013-11-01

    This study is focused on defunctionalizing monomeric phenolics from lignin into simple phenols for applications such as phenol/formaldehyde resins, epoxidized novolacs, adhesives and binders. Towards this goal, Titanium dioxide (TiO2) was used to selectively remove hydroxyl, methoxy, carbonyl and carboxyl functionalities from the monomeric phenolic compounds from lignin to produce mainly phenol, cresols and xylenols. The results showed that anatase TiO2 was more selective and active compared to rutile TiO2. Catechols were found to be the most reactive phenolics and 4-ethylguaiacol the least reactive with anatase TiO2. An overall conversion of about 87% of the phenolics was achieved at 550°C with a catalyst-to-feed ratio of 5 w/w. Over 97% conversion of phenolics is achievable at moderate temperatures (550°C or ≤ 600°C) and a moderate catalyst-to-feed ratio of 6.5:1. The reactivity of catechols on TiO2 suggests that titania is a promising catalyst in the removal of hydroxyl moiety. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Extracellular Monomeric and Aggregated Tau Efficiently Enter Human Neurons through Overlapping but Distinct Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis D. Evans

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: In Alzheimer’s disease, neurofibrillary tangle pathology appears to spread along neuronal connections, proposed to be mediated by the release and uptake of abnormal, disease-specific forms of microtubule-binding protein tau MAPT. It is currently unclear whether transfer of tau between neurons is a toxic gain-of-function process in dementia or reflects a constitutive biological process. We report two entry mechanisms for monomeric tau to human neurons: a rapid dynamin-dependent phase typical of endocytosis and a second, slower actin-dependent phase of macropinocytosis. Aggregated tau entry is independent of actin polymerization and largely dynamin dependent, consistent with endocytosis and distinct from macropinocytosis, the major route for aggregated tau entry reported for non-neuronal cells. Anti-tau antibodies abrogate monomeric tau entry into neurons, but less efficiently in the case of aggregated tau, where internalized tau carries antibody with it into neurons. These data suggest that tau entry to human neurons is a physiological process and not a disease-specific phenomenon. : In contrast with predictions that transfer of the microtubule-associated protein tau between neurons is a toxic gain-of-function process in dementia, Evans et al. show that healthy human neurons efficiently take up both normal and aggregated tau, by distinct but overlapping uptake mechanisms. Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, frontotemporal dementia, Tau, MAPT, iPSC, endocytosis, human neurons, intracellular transport

  14. Lithium: for harnessing renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight; Jaskula, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium, which has the chemical symbol Li and an atomic number of 3, is the first metal in the periodic table. Lithium has many uses, the most prominent being in batteries for cell phones, laptops, and electric and hybrid vehicles. Worldwide sources of lithium are broken down by ore-deposit type as follows: closed-basin brines, 58%; pegmatites and related granites, 26%; lithium-enriched clays, 7%; oilfield brines, 3%; geothermal brines, 3%; and lithium-enriched zeolites, 3% (2013 statistics). There are over 39 million tons of lithium resources worldwide. Of this resource, the USGS estimates there to be approximately 13 million tons of current economically recoverable lithium reserves. To help predict where future lithium supplies might be located, USGS scientists study how and where identified resources are concentrated in the Earth’s crust, and they use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered resources also exist.

  15. Unsolvable Problems of Biology: It Is Impossible to Create Two Identical Organisms, to Defeat Cancer, or to Map Organisms onto Their Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdlov, E D

    2018-04-01

    The review is devoted to unsolvable problems of biology. 1) Problems unsolvable due to stochastic mutations occurring during DNA replication that make it impossible to create two identical organisms or even two identical complex cells (Sverdlov, E. D. (2009) Biochemistry (Moscow), 74, 939-944) and to "defeat" cancer. 2) Problems unsolvable due to multiple interactions in complex systems leading to the appearance of unpredictable emergent properties that prevent establishment of unambiguous relationships between the genetic architecture and phenotypic manifestation of the genome and make impossible to predict with certainty responses of the organism, its parts, or pathological processes to external factors. 3) Problems unsolvable because of the uncertainty principle and observer effect in biology, due to which it is impossible to obtain adequate information about cells in their tissue microenvironment by isolating and analyzing individual cells. In particular, we cannot draw conclusions on the properties of stem cells in their niches based on the properties of stem cell cultures. A strategy is proposed for constructing the pattern most closely approximated to the relationship of genotypes with their phenotypes by designing networks of intermediate phenotypes (endophenotypes).

  16. Lithium-induced downbeat nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Flora; Manoli, Pierre; Cathébras, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    We report the case of a 76-year old lady under lithium carbonate for a bipolar disorder who presented with a suspected optic neuritis. A typical lithium-induced downbeat nystagmus was observed. Discontinuation of lithium therapy resulted in frank improvement in visual acuity and disappearance of the nystagmus.

  17. α-SNAP prevents docking of the acrosome during sperm exocytosis because it sequesters monomeric syntaxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facundo Rodríguez

    Full Text Available α-SNAP has an essential role in membrane fusion that consists of bridging cis SNARE complexes to NSF. α-SNAP stimulates NSF, which releases itself, α-SNAP, and individual SNAREs that subsequently re-engage in the trans arrays indispensable for fusion. α-SNAP also binds monomeric syntaxin and NSF disengages the α-SNAP/syntaxin dimer. Here, we examine why recombinant α-SNAP blocks secretion in permeabilized human sperm despite the fact that the endogenous protein is essential for membrane fusion. The only mammalian organism with a genetically modified α-SNAP is the hyh mouse strain, which bears a M105I point mutation; males are subfertile due to defective sperm exocytosis. We report here that recombinant α-SNAP-M105I has greater affinity for the cytosolic portion of immunoprecipitated syntaxin than the wild type protein and in consequence NSF is less efficient in releasing the mutant. α-SNAP-M105I is a more potent sperm exocytosis blocker than the wild type and requires higher concentrations of NSF to rescue its effect. Unlike other fusion scenarios where SNAREs are subjected to an assembly/disassembly cycle, the fusion machinery in sperm is tuned so that SNAREs progress uni-directionally from a cis configuration in resting cells to monomeric and subsequently trans arrays in cells challenged with exocytosis inducers. By means of functional and indirect immunofluorescense assays, we show that recombinant α-SNAPs--wild type and M105I--inhibit exocytosis because they bind monomeric syntaxin and prevent this SNARE from assembling with its cognates in trans. Sequestration of free syntaxin impedes docking of the acrosome to the plasma membrane assessed by transmission electron microscopy. The N-terminal deletion mutant α-SNAP-(160-295, unable to bind syntaxin, affects neither docking nor secretion. The implications of this study are twofold: our findings explain the fertility defect of hyh mice and indicate that assembly of SNAREs in trans

  18. Induction of antibodies against epitopes inaccessible on the HIV type 1 envelope oligomer by immunization with recombinant monomeric glycoprotein 120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Bolmstedt, A; Novotny, J

    1998-01-01

    An N-glycan (N306) at the base of the V3 loop of HIV-BRU gp120 is shielding a linear neutralization epitope at the tip of the V3 loop on oligomeric Env. In contrast, this epitope is readily antigenic on monomeric gp120. Immunization with recombinant monomeric HIV-BRU gp120 may thus be expected...... immunogenic structures inaccessible on the envelope oligomer. The limited ability of recombinant gp120 vaccines to induce neutralizing antibodies against primary isolates may thus not exclusively reflect genetic variation....

  19. Lithium extractive metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa, J.M.; Merino, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Fusion National Program depends on lithium supplies. Extractive metallurgy development is subordinate to the localization and evaluation of ore resources. Nowadays lithium raw materials usable with present technology consist of pegmatite ore and brine. The Instituto Geologico y Minero Espanol (IGME) found lepidolite, ambligonite and spodrimene in pegmatite ores in different areas of Spain. However, an evaluation of resources has not been made. Different Spanish surface and underground brines are to be sampled and analyzed. If none of these contain significant levels of lithium, the Junta de Energia Nuclear (JEN) will try an agreement with IGME for ENUSA (Empresa Nacional del Uranio, S.A.) to explore pegmatite-ore bodies from different locations. Different work stages, laboratory tests, pilots plants tests and commercial plant, are foreseen, if the deposits are found. (author)

  20. Method for the isolation of biologically active monomeric immunoglobulin A from a plasma fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibl, H; Tomasits, R; Wolf, H M; Eibl, M M; Mannhalter, J W

    1996-04-12

    A purification method for immunoglobulin A (IgA) yielding monomeric IgA with a purity of over 97% has been developed. This procedure uses ethanol-precipitated plasma (Cohn fraction III precipitate) as the starting material and includes heparin-Sepharose adsorption, dextran sulfate and ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydroxyapatite chromatography, batch adsorption by an anion-exchange matrix and gel permeation. Additional protein G Sepharose treatment leads to an IgA preparation of greater than 99% purity. The isolated IgA presented with an IgA subclass distribution, equivalent to IgA in unfractionated plasma, and was biologically active, as was shown by its ability to down-modulate Haemophilus influenzae-b-induced IL-6 secretion of human monocytes.

  1. 11 Efficacy and Tolerability of HDM Injective Immunotherapy With Monomeric Allergoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compalati, Enrico; Atzeni, Isabella; Cabras, Sergio; Fancello, Paolo; Gaspardini, Giulio; Longo, Rocco; Patella, Vincenzo; Tore, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Background Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) is an effective treatment of respiratory allergy and carbamylated monomeric allergoids (monoids), by virtue of their reduced IgE-binding activity, resulted clinically safe by sublingual administration. Purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of immunotherapy with house dust mites (HDM) monoid administered by injective route in patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR). Methods A preparation of 0.70 mL of 10 BU/mL containing modified extract with 50% Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and 50% Dermatophagoides farinae (amount of major allergen: 4 μg of group 1 per milliliter) was delivered monthly for 12 months, following a 5-week build-up induction phase (0.10–0.20–0.30–0.50–0.70 mL), to 58 patients (60% males, mean age 25.1 ± 12.7) suffering from AR due to mites for at least 2 years, whereas 60 patients with similar baseline characteristics were observed as controls. All patients were allowed to assume traditional drug therapy for their condition. At the end of the study changes from baseline in symptoms scores, in number of days with drug assumption, in severity of AR (according to ARIA classification) were compared between the 2 groups; moreover an overall assessment of clinical efficacy and tolerability was based on patients' and physicians' judgements (unsatisfactory, mild, good, optimal). Results In respect to baseline both groups showed, after 1 year, an improvement in symptoms score (P allergoid was associated with a significant clinical benefit observed through objective and subjective outcomes; the traditional safety of monomeric allergoids was confirmed by the subjective judgements of tolerability.

  2. Preparation and properties of a monomeric Mn(IV)-oxo complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsell, Trenton H; Behan, Rachel K; Green, Michael T; Hendrich, Michael P; Borovik, A S

    2006-07-12

    Manganese-oxo complexes have long been investigated because of their proposed roles in biological and chemical catalysis. However, there are few examples of monomeric complexes with terminal oxo ligands, especially those with oxomanganese(IV) units. A oxomanganese(IV) complex has been prepared from [MnIIIH3buea(O)]2- ([H3buea]3-, tris[(N'-tert-butylureaylato)-N-ethylene]aminato), a monomeric MnIII-O complex in which the oxo ligand arises from cleavage of dioxygen. Treating [MnIIIH3buea(O)]2- with [Cp2Fe]BF4 in either DMF at -45 degrees C or DMSO at room temperature produces [MnIVH3buea(O)]-: lambdamax = 635 nm; nu(Mn-16O) = 737 cm-1; nu(Mn-18O) = 709 cm-1; g = 5.15, 2.44, 1.63, D = 3.0 cm-1, E/D = 0.26, aMn = 66 G (A = 190 MHz). These spectroscopic properties support the assignment of a mononuclear MnIV-oxo complex with an S = 3/2 ground state. Density functional theory supports this assignment and the Jahn-Teller distortion around the high-spin MnIV center that would alter the molecular structure of [MnIVH3buea(O)]- from trigonal symmetry (as indicated by the highly rhombic EPR signal). [MnIVH3buea(O)]- is relatively unstable in DMSO, converting to [MnIIIH3buea(OH)]- via a proposed X-H bond cleavage. [MnIVH3buea(O)]- reacts with 1,2-diphenylhydrazine to from azobenzene (95% yield) and [MnIIIH3buea(OH)]-. The MnIV-oxo does not react with triphenyl- or tricyclohexylphosphine. However, O-atom transfer is observed with methyldiphenylphosphine and dimethylphenylphosphine, producing the corresponding phosphine oxides. These results illustrate the diverse reactivity of the MnIV-oxo unit.

  3. Hda monomerization by ADP binding promotes replicase clamp-mediated DnaA-ATP hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su'etsugu, Masayuki; Nakamura, Kenta; Keyamura, Kenji; Kudo, Yuka; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2008-12-26

    ATP-DnaA is the initiator of chromosomal replication in Escherichia coli, and the activity of DnaA is regulated by the regulatory inactivation of the DnaA (RIDA) system. In this system, the Hda protein promotes DnaA-ATP hydrolysis to produce inactive ADP-DnaA in a mechanism that is mediated by the DNA-loaded form of the replicase sliding clamp. In this study, we first revealed that hda translation uses an unusual initiation codon, CUG, located downstream of the annotated initiation codon. The CUG initiation codon could be used for restricting the Hda level, as this initiation codon has a low translation efficiency, and the cellular Hda level is only approximately 100 molecules per cell. Hda translated using the correct reading frame was purified and found to have a high RIDA activity in vitro. Moreover, we found that Hda has a high affinity for ADP but not for other nucleotides, including ATP. ADP-Hda was active in the RIDA system in vitro and stable in a monomeric state, whereas apo-Hda formed inactive homomultimers. Both ADP-Hda and apo-Hda could form complexes with the DNA-loaded clamp; however, only ADP-Hda-DNA-clamp complexes were highly functional in the following interaction with DnaA. Formation of ADP-Hda was also observed in vivo, and mutant analysis suggested that ADP binding is crucial for cellular Hda activity. Thus, we propose that ADP is a crucial Hda ligand that promotes the activated conformation of the protein. ADP-dependent monomerization might enable the arginine finger of the Hda AAA+ domain to be accessible to ATP bound to the DnaA AAA+ domain.

  4. LRP1 Modulates APP Intraneuronal Transport and Processing in Its Monomeric and Dimeric State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus U. Pietrzik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, LRP1, interacts with APP and affects its processing. This is assumed to be mostly caused by the impact of LRP1 on APP endocytosis. More recently, also an interaction of APP and LRP1 early in the secretory pathway was reported whereat retention of LRP1 in the ER leads to decreased APP cell surface levels and in turn, to reduced Aβ secretion. Here, we extended the biochemical and immunocytochemical analyses by showing via live cell imaging analyses in primary neurons that LRP1 and APP are transported only partly in common (one third but to a higher degree in distinct fast axonal transport vesicles. Interestingly, co-expression of LRP1 and APP caused a change of APP transport velocities, indicating that LRP1 recruits APP to a specific type of fast axonal transport vesicles. In contrast lowered levels of LRP1 facilitated APP transport. We further show that monomeric and dimeric APP exhibit similar transport characteristics and that both are affected by LRP1 in a similar way, by slowing down APP anterograde transport and increasing its endocytosis rate. In line with this, a knockout of LRP1 in CHO cells and in primary neurons caused an increase of monomeric and dimeric APP surface localization and in turn accelerated shedding by meprin β and ADAM10. Notably, a choroid plexus specific LRP1 knockout caused a much higher secretion of sAPP dimers into the cerebrospinal fluid compared to sAPP monomers. Together, our data show that LRP1 functions as a sorting receptor for APP, regulating its cell surface localization and thereby its processing by ADAM10 and meprin β, with the latter exhibiting a preference for APP in its dimeric state.

  5. Large lithium loop experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolowith, R.; Owen, T.J.; Berg, J.D.; Atwood, J.M.

    1981-10-01

    An engineering design and operating experience of a large, isothermal, lithium-coolant test loop are presented. This liquid metal coolant loop is called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) and has operated safely and reliably for over 6500 hours through September 1981. The loop is used for full-scale testing of components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Main system parameters include coolant temperatures to 430 0 C and flow to 0.038 m 3 /s (600 gal/min). Performance of the main pump, vacuum system, and control system is discussed. Unique test capabilities of the ELS are also discussed

  6. Lithium Combustion: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Rev. 2-89) Precribed by ANSI Std 239.18 298-102 UNCLASSIFIED SECURIT CLASSIRCTIO OF THIS PAGE (Whun Data Entered) Lade Form 296 ledk (Row. 2-49...did not burn spontaneously in water, and the hydrogen formed did not ignite in air. When a pea-sized piece of lithium was dropped into a container of...Lithium metal flowed through the cracks in the coating and started to burn brilliantly. The LiOH coating was initially protective; but, as it became

  7. Dissolution behavior of lithium compounds in ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Furukawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to exchange the components which received irradiation damage during the operation at the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility, the adhered lithium, which is partially converted to lithium compounds such as lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide, should be removed from the components. In this study, the dissolution experiments of lithium compounds (lithium nitride, lithium hydroxide, and lithium oxide were performed in a candidate solvent, allowing the clarification of time and temperature dependence. Based on the results, a cleaning procedure for adhered lithium on the inner surface of the components was proposed.

  8. Quantification of the predominant monomeric catechins in baking chocolate standard reference material by LC/APCI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bryant C; Sharpless, Katherine E

    2003-01-29

    Catechins are polyphenolic plant compounds (flavonoids) that may offer significant health benefits to humans. These benefits stem largely from their anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, and antimutagenic properties. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that the consumption of flavonoid-containing foods is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Chocolate is a natural cocoa bean-based product that reportedly contains high levels of monomeric, oligomeric, and polymeric catechins. We have applied solid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry to the identification and determination of the predominant monomeric catechins, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, in a baking chocolate Standard Reference Material (NIST Standard Reference Material 2384). (+)-Catechin and (-)-epicatechin are detected and quantified in chocolate extracts on the basis of selected-ion monitoring of their protonated [M + H](+) molecular ions. Tryptophan methyl ester is used as an internal standard. The developed method has the capacity to accurately quantify as little as 0.1 microg/mL (0.01 mg of catechin/g of chocolate) of either catechin in chocolate extracts, and the method has additionally been used to certify (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin levels in the baking chocolate Standard Reference Material. This is the first reported use of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for the quantitative determination of monomeric catechins in chocolate and the only report certifying monomeric catechin levels in a food-based Standard Reference Material.

  9. Principal Component Regression Analysis of the Relation Between CIELAB Color and Monomeric Anthocyanins in Young Cabernet Sauvignon Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Qing Duan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Color is one of the key characteristics used to evaluate the sensory quality of red wine, and anthocyanins are the main contributors to color. Monomeric anthocyanins and CIELAB color values were investigated by HPLC-MS and spectrophotometry during fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon red wine, and principal component regression (PCR, a statistical tool, was used to establish a linkage between the detected anthocyanins and wine coloring. The results showed that 14 monomeric anthocyanins could be identified in wine samples, and all of these anthocyanins were negatively correlated with the L*, b* and H*ab values, but positively correlated with a* and C*ab values. On an equal concentration basis for each detected anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy3-glu had the most influence on CIELAB color value, while malvidin 3-O-glucoside (Mv3-glu had the least. The color values of various monomeric anthocyanins were influenced by their structures, substituents on the B-ring, acyl groups on the glucoside and the molecular steric structure. This work develops a statistical method for evaluating correlation between wine color and monomeric anthocyanins, and also provides a basis for elucidating the effect of intramolecular copigmentation on wine coloring.

  10. Distinct subcellular trafficking resulting from monomeric vs multimeric targeting to endothelial ICAM-1: implications for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarian, Rasa; Muro, Silvia

    2014-12-01

    Ligand-targeted, receptor-mediated endocytosis is commonly exploited for intracellular drug delivery. However, cells-surface receptors may follow distinct endocytic fates when bound by monomeric vs multimeric ligands. Our purpose was to study this paradigm using ICAM-1, an endothelial receptor involved in inflammation, to better understand its regulation and potential for drug delivery. Our procedure involved fluorescence microscopy of human endothelial cells to determine the endocytic behavior of unbound ICAM-1 vs ICAM-1 bound by model ligands: monomeric (anti-ICAM) vs multimeric (anti-ICAM biotin-streptavidin conjugates or anti-ICAM coated onto 100 nm nanocarriers). Our findings suggest that both monomeric and multimeric ligands undergo a similar endocytic pathway sensitive to amiloride (∼50% inhibition), but not inhibitors of clathrin-pits or caveoli. After 30 min, ∼60-70% of both ligands colocalized with Rab11a-compartments. By 3-5 h, ∼65-80% of multimeric anti-ICAM colocalized with perinuclear lysosomes with ∼60-80% degradation, while 70% of monomeric anti-ICAM remained associated with Rab11a at the cell periphery and recycled to and from the cell-surface with minimal (drug delivery.

  11. Stability of human interferon-beta 1: oligomeric human interferon-beta 1 is inactive but is reactivated by monomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, J; Yamazaki, S; Kawaguchi, K; Kimura, S; Shimizu, H

    1989-10-05

    Human interferon-beta 1 is extremely stable is a low ionic strength solution of pH 2 such as 10 mM HCl at 37 degrees C. However, the presence of 0.15 M NaCl led to a remarkable loss of antiviral activity. The molecular-sieve high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that, whereas completely active human interferon-beta 1 eluted as a 25 kDa species (monomeric form), the inactivated preparation eluted primarily as a 90 kDa species (oligomeric form). The specific activity (units per mg protein) of the oligomeric form was approx. 10% of that of the monomeric form. This observation shows that oligomeric human interferon-beta 1 is apparently in an inactive form. When the oligomeric eluate was resolved by polyacrylamide gel containing sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), it appeared to be monomeric under non-reducing conditions. Monomerization of the oligomeric human interferon-beta 1 by treatment with 1% SDS, fully regenerated its antiviral activity. These results suggest that the inactivation of the human interferon-beta 1 preparation was caused by its oligomerization via hydrophobic interactions without the formation of intermolecular disulphide bonds. These oligomers can be dissociated by SDS to restore biological activity.

  12. Lithium alloy negative electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Robert A.

    The 1996 announcement by Fuji Photo Film of the development of lithium batteries containing convertible metal oxides has caused a great deal of renewed interest in lithium alloys as alternative materials for use in the negative electrode of rechargeable lithium cells. The earlier work on lithium alloys, both at elevated and ambient temperatures is briefly reviewed. Basic principles relating thermodynamics, phase diagrams and electrochemical properties under near-equilibrium conditions are discussed, with the Li-Sn system as an example. Second-phase nucleation, and its hindrance under dynamic conditions plays an important role in determining deviations from equilibrium behavior. Two general types of composite microstructure electrodes, those with a mixed-conducting matrix, and those with a solid electrolyte matrix, are discussed. The Li-Sn-Si system at elevated temperatures, and the Li-Sn-Cd at ambient temperatures are shown to be examples of mixed-conducting matrix microstructures. The convertible oxides are an example of the solid electrolyte matrix type. Although the reversible capacity can be very large in this case, the first cycle irreversible capacity required to convert the oxides to alloys may be a significant handicap.

  13. Lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

    1982-10-19

    The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

  14. Synthesis of lithium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz G, D.; Bulbulian, S.

    2001-01-01

    In this work, lithium silicates were synthesised by the combustion technique, the mixtures were prepared with different molar ratios and using urea as fuel. Its characterization was realized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the percentages of its sizes were determined measuring the area under curve of the peaks in the diffractogram. (Author)

  15. Solubility of lithium deuteride in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleckis, E.; Yonco, R.M.; Maroni, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    The solubility of LiD in liquid lithium between the eutectic and monotectic temperatures was measured using a direct sampling method. Solubilities were found to range from 0.0154 mol.% LiD at 199 0 C to 3.32 mol.% LiD at 498 0 C. The data were used in the derivation of an expression for the activity coefficient of LiD as a function of temperature and composition and an equation relating deuteride solubility and temperature, thus defining the liquidus curve. Similar equations were also derived for the Li-LiH system using the existing solubility data. Extrapolation of the liquidus curves yielded the eutectic concentrations (0.040 mol.% LiH and 0.035 mol.% LiD) and the freezing point depressions (0.23 0 C for Li-LiH and 0.20 0 C for Li-LiD) at the eutectic point. The results are compared with the literature data for hydrogen and deuterium. The implications of the relatively high solubility of hydrogen isotopes in lithium just above the melting point are discussed with respect to the cold trapping of tritium in fusion reactor blankets. (Auth.)

  16. Approach to lithium burn-up effect in lithium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasneur, B.

    1994-01-01

    The lithium burn-up in Li 2 ZrO 3 is simulated by removing lithium under Li 2 O form and trapping it in high specific surface area powder while heating during 15 days or 1 month at moderate temperature so that lithium mobility be large enough without causing any sintering neither of the specimens nor of the powder. In a first treatment at 775 deg C during 1 month. 30% of the lithium content could be removed inducing a lithium concentration gradient in the specimen and the formation of a lithium-free monoclinic ZrO 2 skin. Improvements led to similar results at 650 deg C and 600 deg C, the latter temperatures are closer to the operating temperature of the ceramic breeder blanket of a fusion reactor. (author) 4 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  17. Growth and decomposition of Lithium and Lithium hydride on Nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engbæk, Jakob; Nielsen, Gunver; Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we have investigated the deposition, structure and decomposition of lithium and lithium-hydride films on a nickel substrate. Using surface sensitive techniques it was possible to quantify the deposited Li amount, and to optimize the deposition procedure for synthesizing lithium......-hydride films. By only making thin films of LiH it is possible to study the stability of these hydride layers and compare it directly with the stability of pure Li without having any transport phenomena or adsorbed oxygen to obscure the results. The desorption of metallic lithium takes place at a lower...... temperature than the decomposition of the lithium-hydride, confirming the high stability and sintering problems of lithium-hydride making the storage potential a challenge. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. Anomalous Lithium Adsorption Propensity of Monolayer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    longer life cycle, thus an ideal candidate to replace the conventional ... tion in the development of lithium ion batteries as they ... interaction of graphene with lithium based on density ... aromatic hydrocarbons.30 Lithium doping increases.

  19. Application of evolutionary algorithm methods to polypeptide folding: comparison with experimental results for unsolvated Ac-(Ala-Gly-Gly)5-LysH+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsbo, Martin; Kinnear, Brian S; Hartings, Matthew R

    2004-01-01

    We present an evolutionary method for finding the low-energy conformations of polypeptides. The application, called FOLDAWAY,is based on a generic framework and uses several evolutionary operators as well as local optimization to navigate the complex energy landscape of polypeptides. It maintains...... mobility measurements. It has a flat energy landscape where helical and globular conformations have similar energies. FOLDAWAY locates several large groups of structures not found in previous molecular dynamics simulations for this peptide, including compact globular conformations, which are probably...... two complementary representations of the structures and uses the CHARMM force field for evaluating the energies. The method is applied to unsolvated Met-enkephalin and Ac-(Ala-Gly-Gly)(5)-Lys(+)H(+). Unsolvated Ac-(Ala-Gly-Gly)(5)-Lys(+)H(+) has been the object of recent experimental studies using ion...

  20. Method of producing spherical lithium aluminate particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Medico, R.R.; Baugh, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Spherical particles of lithium aluminate are formed by initially producing aluminium hydroxide spheroids, and immersing the spheroids in a lithium ion-containing solution to infuse lithium ions into the spheroids. The lithium-infused spheroids are rinsed to remove excess lithium ion from the surface, and the rinsed spheroids are soaked for a period of time in a liquid medium, dried and sintered to form lithium aluminate spherical particles. (author)

  1. Process for recovery of lithium from spent lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunugita, Eiichi; Jonghwa, Kim; Komasawa, Isao [Osaka Univ., Faculty of Engineering Science, Osaka, (Japan)

    1989-07-10

    An experimental study of the recovery and purification of lithium from spent lithium batteries was carried out, taking advantage of the characterisitics of lithium ion and its carbonate. More than 75% of the lithium contained in the whole battery or its anode component can be leached with sulfuric acid where the pH of the final pregnant liquor is 7.7 or higher, the other metals being left in the residue is their hydroxides. The extracted liquor is evaporated/concentrated, added with saturated sodium carbonate solution at around 100{sup 0}C to precipitate lithium as a carbonate. The coprecipitated sodium carbonate is washed/removed with a hotwater to give 99% pure lithium carbonate. Separation of lithium and sodium in the barren liquor is conducted with LIX 51, a chelating/extracting agent, and TOPO, a neutral organic phosphate, which have a synergic effect, to selectively extract lithium; the organic phase is reverse-extracted with a dilute hydrochloric acid to obtain lithium of 99% purity. 9 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Domestic Violence against Women – An Unsolved Issue: A Community Based Study in an Urban Slum of Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayita Pal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Domestic Violence against women is still an unsolved issue in India, though, it is an important public health problem contributing to physical, mental illness and low quality of life. Aim: The study was undertaken with the aim to estimate the prevalence of domestic violence against ever married women in an urban slum and the associated factors contributing to it. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study had been conducted among 430 ever married women of reproductive age group, selected using a systematic random sampling technique in an urban slum of Kolkata. Interviews were conducted using pre-designed, pre-tested semi structured schedule regarding their socio-demographic characteristics, violence experienced by the subjects in their lifetime, type of violence (physical, emotional and sexual violence and the person responsible for the same. Data were entered and analysed using SPSS 20.0 version. Results: The overall prevalence of any form of violence in the study population as a whole was (59.3%. The prevalence of physical, emotional, sexual violence was 61.6%, 84.3%and 58.8%, respectively. The occurrence of the event was reported by only 33.1% of the victims. Multivariate analysis revealed violence was higher among women belonging to families with low per capita income (6 years, low educational background of husband, not able to bear a male child, unemployment amongst both the spouses, leave the household on any pretext without prior permission from husband and where the wives did not attend household activities properly. Conclusion: The prevalence of domestic violence in urban slum of Kolkata was high which is an alarming public health problem which needs to be addressed at the earliest through awareness programmes and empowerment of women.

  3. Holistic versus monomeric strategies for hydrological modelling of human-modified hydrosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Nalbantis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The modelling of human-modified basins that are inadequately measured constitutes a challenge for hydrological science. Often, models for such systems are detailed and hydraulics-based for only one part of the system while for other parts oversimplified models or rough assumptions are used. This is typically a bottom-up approach, which seeks to exploit knowledge of hydrological processes at the micro-scale at some components of the system. Also, it is a monomeric approach in two ways: first, essential interactions among system components may be poorly represented or even omitted; second, differences in the level of detail of process representation can lead to uncontrolled errors. Additionally, the calibration procedure merely accounts for the reproduction of the observed responses using typical fitting criteria. The paper aims to raise some critical issues, regarding the entire modelling approach for such hydrosystems. For this, two alternative modelling strategies are examined that reflect two modelling approaches or philosophies: a dominant bottom-up approach, which is also monomeric and, very often, based on output information, and a top-down and holistic approach based on generalized information. Critical options are examined, which codify the differences between the two strategies: the representation of surface, groundwater and water management processes, the schematization and parameterization concepts and the parameter estimation methodology. The first strategy is based on stand-alone models for surface and groundwater processes and for water management, which are employed sequentially. For each model, a different (detailed or coarse parameterization is used, which is dictated by the hydrosystem schematization. The second strategy involves model integration for all processes, parsimonious parameterization and hybrid manual-automatic parameter optimization based on multiple objectives. A test case is examined in a hydrosystem in Greece

  4. Recombinant DNA derived monomeric insulin analogue: comparison with soluble human insulin in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, J P; Owens, D R; Dolben, J; Atiea, J A; Dean, J D; Kang, S; Burch, A; Brange, J

    1988-11-12

    To compare the rate of absorption from subcutaneous tissue and the resulting hypoglycaemic effect of iodine-125 labelled soluble human insulin and a monomeric insulin analogue derived by recombinant DNA technology. Single blind randomised comparison of equimolar doses of 125I labelled soluble human insulin and insulin analogue. Study in normal people at a diabetes research unit and a university department of medical physics. Seven healthy male volunteers aged 20-39 not receiving any other drugs. After an overnight fast and a basal period of one hour two doses (0.05 and 0.1 U/kg) of 125I labelled soluble human insulin and insulin analogue were injected subcutaneously into the anterior abdominal wall on four separate days. To find a fast acting insulin for meal related requirements in insulin dependent diabetics. MEASUREMENTS and main results--Residual radioactivity at the injection site was measured continuously for the first two hours after injection of the 125I labelled preparations and thereafter for five minutes simultaneously with blood sampling. Frequent venous blood samples were obtained over six hours for determination of plasma immunoreactive insulin, insulin analogue, glucose, and glucagon values. Time to 50% of initial radioactivity at the injection site for the insulin analogue compared with soluble insulin was 61 v 135 minutes (p less than 0.05) with 0.05 U/kg and 67 v 145 minutes (p less than 0.001) with 0.1 U/kg. Concentrations in plasma increased faster after the insulin analogue compared with soluble insulin, resulting in higher plasma concentrations between 10 and 150 minutes (0.001 less than p less than 0.05) after 0.05 U/kg and between 40 and 360 minutes (0.001 less than p less than 0.05) after 0.1 U/kg. The hypoglycaemic response to insulin analogue was a plasma glucose nadir at 60 minutes with both doses compared with 90 and 120 minutes with soluble insulin at 0.5 and 0.1 U/kg respectively. The response of glucagon substantiated the earlier and

  5. Leukaemia: some unsolved problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, Richard; Darby, Sarah

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this session of the Human Radiation Research workshop were to review knowledge of radiation-induced leukaemia and identify major uncertainties and areas for future research. It is concluded that some of the most outstanding problems are to determine the risk of childhood leukaemia produced by parental gonad exposure, the relative risks produced by exposure of the embryo and fetus at different stages of intra-uterine life, how long the effect of intra-uterine radiation persists, and the leukaemogenic effects of radon. (UK)

  6. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m 3 lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion

  7. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption...... of lithium or influence of osmotic diuresis. 3. Fractional reabsorption of lithium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 25 ml/min. 4. Calculated fractional distal reabsorption of sodium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 50 ml/min. 5. Lithium...... that lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  8. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  9. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  10. Recovery of lithium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, Kenta; Miyai, Yoshitaka; Katoh, Shunsaku; Abe, Mitsuo.

    1989-01-01

    Lithium has been used for air conditioners, aluminum refining, ceramics, organic metal compounds, batteries and many other uses. Besides, attention is paid as the aluminum-lithium alloys as aircraft materials, and the raw materials for large capacity batteries and nuclear fusion reactors for the future. The amount of lithium resources has been estimated as 14 million tons, and is relatively abundant, but when the future increase of demand is considered, it is not necessarily sufficient. Japan lacks lithium resources, and the stable ensuring of the resources has become an important problem. Seawater contains lithium by 170 μg/l, and its total amount reaches 230 billion tons. The process of recovering lithium from seawater, geothermal water and natural gas brine has been actively researched since 10 years ago centering around Japan. At present, the search for the adsorbent that effectively collects lithium is the main subject. Also the recovery by coprecipitation has been investigated basically. The inorganic adsorbent for lithium is classified into aluminum type, compound antimonic acid type, layered compound type, ion sieve oxide type and others. Their lithium adsorption performance and adsorption mechanism are different remarkably, therefore, these of each group are described. (K.I.) 70 refs

  11. Hydrogen production from the monomeric sugars hydrolyzed from hemicellulose by Enterobacter aerogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yunli; Wang, Jianji; Liu, Zhen; Ren, Yunlai; Li, Guozhi [School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmaceutics, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471039, Henan (China)

    2009-12-15

    Relatively large percentages of xylose with glucose, arabinose, mannose, galactose and rhamnose constitute the hydrolysis products of hemicellulose. In this paper, hydrogen production performance of facultative anaerobe (Enterobacter aerogenes) has been investigated from these different monomeric sugars except glucose. It was shown that the stereoisomers of mannose and galactose were more effective for hydrogen production than those of xylose and arabinose. The substrate of 5 g/l xylose resulted in a relative high level of hydrogen yield (73.8 mmol/l), hydrogen production efficiency (2.2 mol/mol) and a maximum hydrogen production rate (249 ml/l/h). The hydrogen yield, hydrogen production efficiency and the maximum hydrogen production rate reached 104 mmol/l, 2.35 mol/mol and 290 ml/l/h, respectively, on a substrate of 10 g/l galactose. The hydrogen yields and the maximum hydrogen production rates increased with an increase of mannose concentrations and reached 119 mmol/l and 518 ml/l/h on the culture of 25 g/l mannose. However, rhamnose was a relative poor carbon resource for E. aerogenes to produce hydrogen, from which the hydrogen yield and hydrogen production efficiency were about one half of that from the mannose substrate. E. aerogenes was found to be a promising strain for hydrogen production from hydrolysis products of hemicellulose. (author)

  12. Action of Monomeric/Gemini Surfactants on Free Cells and Biofilm of Asaia lannensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Koziróg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biological activity of surfactants based on quaternary ammonium compounds: gemini surfactant hexamethylene-1,6-bis-(N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecylammonium bromide (C6, synthesized by the reaction of N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecylamine with 1,6-dibromohexane, and its monomeric analogue dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB. The experiments were performed with bacteria Asaia lannensis, a common spoilage in the beverage industry. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values were determined using the tube standard two-fold dilution method. The growth and adhesive properties of bacterial cells were studied in different culture media, and the cell viability was evaluated using plate count method. Both of the surfactants were effective against the bacterial strain, but the MIC of gemini compound was significantly lower. Both C6 and DTAB exhibited anti-adhesive abilities. Treatment with surfactants at or below MIC value decreased the number of bacterial cells that were able to form biofilm, however, the gemini surfactant was more effective. The used surfactants were also found to be able to eradicate mature biofilms. After 4 h of treatment with C6 surfactant at concentration 10 MIC, the number of bacterial cells was reduced by 91.8%. The results of this study suggest that the antibacterial activity of the gemini compound could make it an effective microbiocide against the spoilage bacteria Asaia sp. in both planktonic and biofilm stages.

  13. Action of Monomeric/Gemini Surfactants on Free Cells and Biofilm of Asaia lannensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziróg, Anna; Kręgiel, Dorota; Brycki, Bogumił

    2017-11-22

    We investigated the biological activity of surfactants based on quaternary ammonium compounds: gemini surfactant hexamethylene-1,6-bis-( N,N -dimethyl- N -dodecylammonium bromide) (C6), synthesized by the reaction of N,N -dimethyl- N- dodecylamine with 1,6-dibromohexane, and its monomeric analogue dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB). The experiments were performed with bacteria Asaia lannensis , a common spoilage in the beverage industry. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined using the tube standard two-fold dilution method. The growth and adhesive properties of bacterial cells were studied in different culture media, and the cell viability was evaluated using plate count method. Both of the surfactants were effective against the bacterial strain, but the MIC of gemini compound was significantly lower. Both C6 and DTAB exhibited anti-adhesive abilities. Treatment with surfactants at or below MIC value decreased the number of bacterial cells that were able to form biofilm, however, the gemini surfactant was more effective. The used surfactants were also found to be able to eradicate mature biofilms. After 4 h of treatment with C6 surfactant at concentration 10 MIC, the number of bacterial cells was reduced by 91.8%. The results of this study suggest that the antibacterial activity of the gemini compound could make it an effective microbiocide against the spoilage bacteria Asaia sp. in both planktonic and biofilm stages.

  14. Model of a DNA-protein complex of the architectural monomeric protein MC1 from Euryarchaea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Paquet

    Full Text Available In Archaea the two major modes of DNA packaging are wrapping by histone proteins or bending by architectural non-histone proteins. To supplement our knowledge about the binding mode of the different DNA-bending proteins observed across the three domains of life, we present here the first model of a complex in which the monomeric Methanogen Chromosomal protein 1 (MC1 from Euryarchaea binds to the concave side of a strongly bent DNA. In laboratory growth conditions MC1 is the most abundant architectural protein present in Methanosarcina thermophila CHTI55. Like most proteins that strongly bend DNA, MC1 is known to bind in the minor groove. Interaction areas for MC1 and DNA were mapped by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR data. The polarity of protein binding was determined using paramagnetic probes attached to the DNA. The first structural model of the DNA-MC1 complex we propose here was obtained by two complementary docking approaches and is in good agreement with the experimental data previously provided by electron microscopy and biochemistry. Residues essential to DNA-binding and -bending were highlighted and confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. It was found that the Arg25 side-chain was essential to neutralize the negative charge of two phosphates that come very close in response to a dramatic curvature of the DNA.

  15. Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy with Monomeric Allergoid in a Mouse Model of Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakhin, Alexander; Andreev, Sergey; Nikonova, Alexandra; Shilovsky, Igor; Buzuk, Andrey; Elisyutina, Olga; Fedenko, Elena; Khaitov, Musa

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a widespread and difficult to treat allergic skin disease and is a tough challenge for healthcare. In this study, we investigated whether allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) with a monomeric allergoid obtained by succinylation of ovalbumin (sOVA) is effective in a mouse model of atopic dermatitis. An experimental model of AD was reproduced by epicutaneous sensitization with ovalbumin (OVA). ASIT was performed with subcutaneous (SC) administration of increasing doses of OVA or sOVA. The levels of anti-OVA antibodies, as well as cytokines, were detected by ELISA. Skin samples from patch areas were taken for histologic examination. ASIT with either OVA or sOVA resulted in a reduction of both the anti-OVA IgE level and the IgG1/IgG2a ratio. Moreover, ASIT with sOVA increased the IFN-γ level in supernatants after splenocyte stimulation with OVA. Histologic analysis of skin samples from the sites of allergen application showed that ASIT improved the histologic picture by decreasing allergic inflammation in comparison with untreated mice. These data suggest that ASIT with a succinylated allergen represents promising approach for the treatment of AD. PMID:26275152

  16. Dose-finding study of carbamylated monomeric allergoid tablets in grass-allergic rhinoconjunctivitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mösges, Ralph; Rohdenburg, Christina; Eichel, Andrea; Zadoyan, Gregor; Kasche, Elena-Manja; Shah-Hosseini, Kija; Lehmacher, Walter; Schmalz, Petra; Compalati, Enrico

    2017-11-01

    To determine the optimal effective and safe dose of sublingual immunotherapy tablets containing carbamylated monomeric allergoids in patients with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, multicenter, Phase II study, four different daily doses were applied preseasonally for 12 weeks. Of 158 randomized adults, 155 subjects (safety population) received 300 units of allergy (UA)/day (n = 36), 600 UA/day (n = 43), 1000 UA/day (n = 39), or 2000 UA/day (n = 37). After treatment, 54.3, 47.6, 59.0 and 51.4% of patients, respectively, ceased to react to the highest allergen concentration in a conjunctival provocation test. Furthermore, the response threshold improved in 70.4, 62.9, 76.7 and 66.7% of patients, respectively. No serious adverse events occurred. This study found 1000 UA/day to be the optimal effective and safe dose.

  17. Early cytokine modulation after the rapid induction phase of sublingual immunotherapy with mite monomeric allergoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gioacchino, M; Perrone, A; Petrarca, C; Di Claudio, F; Mistrello, G; Falagiani, P; Dadorante, V; Verna, N; Braga, M; Ballone, E; Cavallucci, E

    2008-01-01

    The influence of different treatment schedules of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in activating IL-10-producing T-cells, crucial in inducing allergen-specific tolerance, is not completely understood. The present work was designed to evaluate allergen driven interleukin release by mononuclear cells in the early phase of SLIT, after application of different induction schemes. Twenty mite-allergic patients were enrolled, 10 (group A) treated with a traditional 98 day induction scheme and 10 (group B) with a 16 day scheme with monomeric allergoid vaccine. At the end of the induction phase, the cumulative doses taken by group A and group B patients were equivalent to 50.5 and 50.3 microg of mite group 1 allergens, respectively. The release of Th1-, Th2- and Treg-related interleukins was assessed in culture supernatants of 5 microg/ml Der-p1-stimulated mononuclear cells, isolated before and after the induction phases. No relevant treatment-related side effects were observed. Interleukin release was similar in the two groups at the enrolment. Non-stimulated and Der p 1 stimulated release of studied cytokines was similar in the two groups at enrolment. Der p 1 stimulation significantly increased IL-10 release (pallergoids are utilized.

  18. Modulation of basophils' degranulation and allergy-related enzymes by monomeric and dimeric naphthoquinones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brígida R Pinho

    Full Text Available Allergic disorders are characterized by an abnormal immune response towards non-infectious substances, being associated with life quality reduction and potential life-threatening reactions. The increasing prevalence of allergic disorders demands for new and effective anti-allergic treatments. Here we test the anti-allergic potential of monomeric (juglone, menadione, naphthazarin, plumbagin and dimeric (diospyrin and diosquinone naphthoquinones. Inhibition of RBL-2H3 rat basophils' degranulation by naphthoquinones was assessed using two complementary stimuli: IgE/antigen and calcium ionophore A23187. Additionally, we tested for the inhibition of leukotrienes production in IgE/antigen-stimulated cells, and studied hyaluronidase and lipoxidase inhibition by naphthoquinones in cell-free assays. Naphthazarin (0.1 µM decreased degranulation induced by IgE/antigen but not A23187, suggesting a mechanism upstream of the calcium increase, unlike diospyrin (10 µM that reduced degranulation in A23187-stimulated cells. Naphthoquinones were weak hyaluronidase inhibitors, but all inhibited soybean lipoxidase with the most lipophilic diospyrin, diosquinone and menadione being the most potent, thus suggesting a mechanism of competition with natural lipophilic substrates. Menadione was the only naphthoquinone reducing leukotriene C4 production, with a maximal effect at 5 µM. This work expands the current knowledge on the biological properties of naphthoquinones, highlighting naphthazarin, diospyrin and menadione as potential lead compounds for structural modification in the process of improving and developing novel anti-allergic drugs.

  19. Characterization of monomeric DNA-binding protein Histone H1 in Leishmania braziliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmelo, Emma; González, Gloria; Cruz, Teresa; Osuna, Antonio; Hernández, Mariano; Valladares, Basilio

    2011-08-01

    Histone H1 in Leishmania presents relevant differences compared to higher eukaryote counterparts, such as the lack of a DNA-binding central globular domain. Despite that, it is apparently fully functional since its differential expression levels have been related to changes in chromatin condensation and infectivity, among other features. The localization and the aggregation state of L. braziliensis H1 has been determined by immunolocalization, mass spectrometry, cross-linking and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Analysis of H1 sequences from the Leishmania Genome Database revealed that our protein is included in a very divergent group of histones H1 that is present only in L. braziliensis. An antibody raised against recombinant L. braziliensis H1 recognized specifically that protein by immunoblot in L. braziliensis extracts, but not in other Leishmania species, a consequence of the sequence divergences observed among Leishmania species. Mass spectrometry analysis and in vitro DNA-binding experiments have also proven that L. braziliensis H1 is monomeric in solution, but oligomerizes upon binding to DNA. Finally, despite the lack of a globular domain, L. braziliensis H1 is able to form complexes with DNA in vitro, with higher affinity for supercoiled compared to linear DNA.

  20. Comparison of monomeric and polymeric horseradish peroxidase as labels in competitive ELISA for small molecule detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dongyang; Ying, Yibin; Wu, Jian; Niessner, Reinhard; Knopp, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a simple and sensitive competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine aflatoxin B1 (as a model small analyte) and using streptavidin-polymeric horseradish peroxidase complex (SApolyHRP) as a label for signal amplification. The performance of the assay was evaluated by comparing it with the classical indirect competitive ELISA using HRP labeled anti-mouse IgG as the tracer antibody. The results indicate that the SApolyHRP-based competitive ELISA exhibits a typically 2.4-fold steeper slope of the linear working range of the calibration curve compared to the monomeric HRP based classical ELISA, i.e., the sensitivity was increased. The SApolyHRP conjugate causes a typically 19-fold stronger signal generation in comparison to the traditional HRP labeled anti-mouse IgG at the same concentration (25 ng mL −1 ). Moreover, the SApolyHRP-based assay has a much wider linear range and a 3.8-fold better signal-to-noise ratio. Considering its simplicity, sensitivity and ease of operation, this competitive ELISA is considered to be a promising tool for small molecule immuno detection. (author)

  1. Lipoamino acid-based micelles as promising delivery vehicles for monomeric amphotericin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafim, Cláudia; Ferreira, Inês; Rijo, Patrícia; Pinheiro, Lídia; Faustino, Célia; Calado, António; Garcia-Rio, Luis

    2016-01-30

    Lipoamino acid-based micelles have been developed as delivery vehicles for the hydrophobic drug amphotericin B (AmB). The micellar solubilisation of AmB by a gemini lipoamino acid (LAA) derived from cysteine and its equimolar mixtures with the bile salts sodium cholate (NaC) and sodium deoxycholate (NaDC), as well as the aggregation sate of the drug in the micellar systems, was studied under biomimetic conditions (phosphate buffered-saline, pH 7.4) using UV-vis spectroscopy. Pure surfactant systems and equimolar mixtures were characterized by tensiometry and important parameters were determined, such as critical micelle concentration (CMC), surface tension at the CMC (γCMC), maximum surface excess concentration (Γmax), and minimum area occupied per molecule at the water/air interface (Amin). Rheological behaviour from viscosity measurements at different shear rates was also addressed. Solubilisation capacity was quantified in terms of molar solubilisation ratio (χ), micelle-water partition coefficient (KM) and Gibbs energy of solubilisation (ΔGs°). Formulations of AmB in micellar media were compared in terms of drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, aggregation state of AmB and in vitro antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The LAA-containing micellar systems solubilise AmB in its monomeric and less toxic form and exhibit in vitro antifungal activity comparable to that of the commercial formulation Fungizone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sulfatide promotes the folding of proinsulin, preserves insulin crystals, and mediates its monomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterbye, T; Jørgensen, K H; Fredman, P; Tranum-Jensen, J; Kaas, A; Brange, J; Whittingham, J L; Buschard, K

    2001-06-01

    Sulfatide is a glycolipid that has been associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. It is present in the islets of Langerhans and follows the same intracellular route as insulin. However, the role of sulfatide in the beta cell has been unclear. Here we present evidence suggesting that sulfatide promotes the folding of reduced proinsulin, indicating that sulfatide possesses molecular chaperone activity. Sulfatide associates with insulin by binding to the insulin domain A8--A10 and most likely by interacting with the hydrophobic side chains of the dimer-forming part of the insulin B-chain. Sulfatide has a dual effect on insulin. It substantially reduces deterioration of insulin hexamer crystals at pH 5.5, conferring stability comparable to those in beta cell granules. Sulfatide also mediates the conversion of insulin hexamers to the biological active monomers at neutral pH, the pH at the beta-cell surface. Finally, we report that inhibition of sulfatide synthesis with chloroquine and fumonisine B1 leads to inhibition of insulin granule formation in vivo. Our observations suggest that sulfatide plays a key role in the folding of proinsulin, in the maintenance of insulin structure, and in the monomerization process.

  3. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  4. Comparison of excretory urographic contrast effects of dimeric and monomeric non-ionic iodinated contrast media in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, M.; Yamada, K.; Watanabe, A.; Miyamoto, K.; Iwasaki, T.; Miyake, Y.

    2007-01-01

    In excretory urography, the osmolarity of contrast media has rarely been treated as important in veterinary medicine. In this study, the contrast effect of two contrast media (monomeric iohexol and dimeric iodixanol) in the renal cortex and aorta were compared using computed tomography (CT). Five beagle dogs were used and the study employed a cross-over method for each contrast media. The results showed that there was no difference between the media in the aorta, but iodixanol showed higher CT value and a longer contrast effect than iohexol in the renal cortex, in spite of having the same iodine dosage. It is believed that iodixanol, with its low osmolarity, is diluted less by osmotic diuresis than monomeric iohexol. It is important to consider the osmolarity of the contrast media when evaluating the contrast effect, and it is essential to use the same contrast media for each examination, or the renal excretory speed will be under/overestimated

  5. The testing report of the development for the lithium grains and lithium rod automatic machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Zongkui; Kong Xianghong; Huang Yong

    2008-06-01

    With the development of lithium industry, the lithium grains and lithium rod, as additive or catalyzer, having a big comparatively acreage and a strong activated feature, have a broad application. The lithium grains and lithium rod belong to the kind of final machining materials. The principle of the lithium grains and lithium rod that how to take shape through the procedures of extrusion, cutting, anti-conglutination, threshing and so on are analysed, A sort of lithium grains and lithium rod automatic machine is developed. (authors)

  6. Metal-free ALS variants of dimeric human Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase have enhanced populations of monomeric species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin E Svensson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Amino acid replacements at dozens of positions in the dimeric protein human, Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1 can cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Although it has long been hypothesized that these mutations might enhance the populations of marginally-stable aggregation-prone species responsible for cellular toxicity, there has been little quantitative evidence to support this notion. Perturbations of the folding free energy landscapes of metal-free versions of five ALS-inducing variants, A4V, L38V, G93A, L106V and S134N SOD1, were determined with a global analysis of kinetic and thermodynamic folding data for dimeric and stable monomeric versions of these variants. Utilizing this global analysis approach, the perturbations on the global stability in response to mutation can be partitioned between the monomer folding and association steps, and the effects of mutation on the populations of the folded and unfolded monomeric states can be determined. The 2- to 10-fold increase in the population of the folded monomeric state for A4V, L38V and L106V and the 80- to 480-fold increase in the population of the unfolded monomeric states for all but S134N would dramatically increase their propensity for aggregation through high-order nucleation reactions. The wild-type-like populations of these states for the metal-binding region S134N variant suggest that even wild-type SOD1 may also be prone to aggregation in the absence of metals.

  7. Neurodevelopmental Expression Profile of Dimeric and Monomeric Group 1 mGluRs: Relevance to Schizophrenia Pathogenesis and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jeremy S; Fernandez, Francesca; Matosin, Natalie; Andrews, Jessica L; Huang, Xu-Feng; Ooi, Lezanne; Newell, Kelly A

    2016-10-10

    Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1/mGluR5) play an integral role in neurodevelopment and are implicated in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. mGluR1 and mGluR5 are expressed as homodimers, which is important for their functionality and pharmacology. We examined the protein expression of dimeric and monomeric mGluR1α and mGluR5 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus throughout development (juvenile/adolescence/adulthood) and in the perinatal phencyclidine (PCP) model of schizophrenia. Under control conditions, mGluR1α dimer expression increased between juvenile and adolescence (209-328%), while monomeric levels remained consistent. Dimeric mGluR5 was steadily expressed across all time points; monomeric mGluR5 was present in juveniles, dramatically declining at adolescence and adulthood (-97-99%). The mGluR regulators, Homer 1b/c and Norbin, significantly increased with age in the PFC and hippocampus. Perinatal PCP treatment significantly increased juvenile dimeric mGluR5 levels in the PFC and hippocampus (37-50%) but decreased hippocampal mGluR1α (-50-56%). Perinatal PCP treatment also reduced mGluR1α dimer levels in the PFC at adulthood (-31%). These results suggest that Group 1 mGluRs have distinct dimeric and monomeric neurodevelopmental patterns, which may impact their pharmacological profiles at specific ages. Perinatal PCP treatment disrupted the early expression of Group 1 mGluRs which may underlie neurodevelopmental alterations observed in this model.

  8. Discovery of Radioiodinated Monomeric Anthraquinones as a Novel Class of Necrosis Avid Agents for Early Imaging of Necrotic Myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Yang, Shengwei; Jiang, Cuihua; Li, Jindian; Wang, Cong; Chen, Linwei; Jin, Qiaomei; Song, Shaoli; Feng, Yuanbo; Ni, Yicheng; Zhang, Jian; Yin, Zhiqi

    2016-02-16

    Assessment of myocardial viability is deemed necessary to aid in clinical decision making whether to recommend revascularization therapy for patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Dianthraquinones such as hypericin (Hyp) selectively accumulate in necrotic myocardium, but were unsuitable for early imaging after administration to assess myocardial viability. Since dianthraquinones can be composed by coupling two molecules of monomeric anthraquinone and the active center can be found by splitting chemical structure, we propose that monomeric anthraquinones may be effective functional groups for necrosis targetability. In this study, eight radioiodinated monomeric anthraquinones were evaluated as novel necrosis avid agents (NAAs) for imaging of necrotic myocardium. All (131)I-anthraquinones showed high affinity to necrotic tissues and (131)I-rhein emerged as the most promising compound. Infarcts were visualized on SPECT/CT images at 6 h after injection of (131)I-rhein, which was earlier than that with (131)I-Hyp. Moreover, (131)I-rhein showed satisfactory heart-to-blood, heart-to-liver and heart-to-lung ratios for obtaining images of good diagnostic quality. (131)I-rhein was a more promising "hot spot imaging" tracer for earlier visualization of necrotic myocardium than (131)I-Hyp, which supported further development of radiopharmaceuticals based on rhein for SPECT/CT ((123)I and (99m)Tc) or PET/CT imaging ((18)F and (124)I) of myocardial necrosis.

  9. MONOMERIC ß-AMYLOID INTERACTS WITH TYPE-1 INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS TO PROVIDE ENERGY SUPPLY TO NEURONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura eGiuffrida

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ß-amyloid (Aß1-42 is produced by proteolytic cleavage of the transmembrane type-1 protein, amyloid precursor protein. Under pathological conditions, Aß1-42 self-aggregates into oligomers, which cause synaptic dysfunction and neuronal loss, and are considered the culprit of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, Aß1-42 is mainly monomeric at physiological concentrations, and the precise role of monomeric Aß1-42 in neuronal function is largely unknown. We report that the monomer of Aß1-42 activates type-1 insulin-like growth factor receptors and enhances glucose uptake in neurons and peripheral cells by promoting the translocation of the Glut3 glucose transporter from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. In neurons, activity-dependent glucose uptake was blunted after blocking endogenous Aß production, and re-established in the presence of cerebrospinal fluid Aß. APP-null neurons failed to enhance depolarization-stimulated glucose uptake unless exogenous monomeric Aß1-42 was added. These data suggest that Aß1-42 monomers were critical for maintaining neuronal glucose homeostasis. Accordingly, exogenous Aß1-42 monomers were able to rescue the low levels of glucose consumption observed in brain slices from AD mutant mice.

  10. Mass spectrometric analysis of lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitambar, S.A.; Kavimandan, V.D.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Ramasubramanian, P.A.; Shah, P.M.; Almoula, A.I.; Acharya, S.N.; Parab, A.R.; Jain, H.C.; Mathews, C.K.; Ramaniah, M.V.

    1978-01-01

    The details of investigations carried out on the isotopic analysis of lithium using surface ionisation mass spectrometry are presented. Various parameters affecting the precision in isotopic analysis of lithium are discussed. A precision of 1% is achieved in the relative isotope abundance measurement. (author)

  11. Metabolic Side Effects of Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cagdas Eker

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is an alkaline ion being used since 19th century. After its widespread use in psychiatric disorders, observed side effects caused skepticism about its therapeutic efficacy. Despite several disadvantages, lithium is one of the indispensible drugs used in affective disorders, especially in bipolar disorder. It became a necessity for physicians to recognize its side effects since lithium is still accepted as a gold standard in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Adverse effects of chronic administration of lithium on several organ systems are widely known. In this article metabolic effects of lithium on thyroid and parathyroid glands, body mass index and kidneys will be discussed along with their mechanisms, clinical findings, possible risk factors and treatment. One of the most common side effect of lithium is hypothyroidism. It has the same clinical and biochemical properties as primary hypothyroidism and observed as subclinical hypothyroidism in the first place. Hypothyroidism, even its subclinical form, may be associated with non-response or inadequate response and is indicated as a risk factor for development of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Therefore, hypothyroidism should be screened no matter how severe it is and should be treated with thyroid hormone in the presence of clinical hypothyroidism. Weight gain due to lithium administration disturbs the compliance to treatment and negatively affects the course of the illness. Increased risk for diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and stroke because of weight gain constitute other centers of problem. Indeed, it is of importance to determine the risk factors before treatment, to follow up the weight, to re-organize nutritional habits and to schedule exercises. Another frequent problematic side effect of lithium treatment is renal dysfunction which clinically present as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with the common symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia. Nephrogenic diabetes

  12. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION... international mailing of lithium batteries and devices containing lithium batteries. This prohibition also extends to the mailing of lithium batteries to and from an APO, FPO, or DPO location. However, this...

  13. Lithium in the barium stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsonneault, M.H.; Sneden, C.

    1984-01-01

    New high-resolution spectra of the lithium resonance doublet have provided lithium abundances or upper limits for 26 classical and mild barium stars. The lithium lines always are present in the classical barium stars. Lithium abundances in these stars obey a trend with stellar masses consistent with that previously derived for ordinary K giants. This supports the notion that classical barium stars are post-core-He-flash or core-He-burning stars. Lithium contents in the mild barium stars, however, often are much smaller than those of the classical barium stars sometimes only upper limits may be determined. The cause for this difference is not easily understood, but may be related to more extensive mass loss by the mild barium stars. 45 references

  14. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Damkier, Per; Petersen, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serum lithium is monitored to ensure levels within the narrow therapeutic window. This study examines the interlaboratory variation and inaccuracy of lithium monitoring in Denmark. METHODS: In 16 samples consisting of (1) control materials (n = 4), (2) pooled patient serum (n = 5......), and (3) serum from individual patients (n = 7), lithium was measured in 19 laboratories using 20 different instruments. The lithium concentrations were targeted by a reference laboratory. Ion-selective electrode (n = 5), reflective spectrophotometric (RSM, n = 5), and spectrophotometric (n = 10) methods...... of >12%. Seven of these instruments had a systematic positive or negative bias and more so at lower lithium concentrations. Three poorly calibrated instruments were found in the ion-selective electrode group, 3 in the spectrophotometric group, and 2 in the RSM group. The instruments using reflectance...

  15. Structural Analysis of Monomeric RNA-Dependent Polymerases: Evolutionary and Therapeutic Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Jácome

    Full Text Available The crystal structures of monomeric RNA-dependent RNA polymerases and reverse transcriptases of more than 20 different viruses are available in the Protein Data Bank. They all share the characteristic right-hand shape of DNA- and RNA polymerases formed by the fingers, palm and thumb subdomains, and, in many cases, "fingertips" that extend from the fingers towards the thumb subdomain, giving the viral enzyme a closed right-hand appearance. Six conserved structural motifs that contain key residues for the proper functioning of the enzyme have been identified in all these RNA-dependent polymerases. These enzymes share a two divalent metal-ion mechanism of polymerization in which two conserved aspartate residues coordinate the interactions with the metal ions to catalyze the nucleotidyl transfer reaction. The recent availability of crystal structures of polymerases of the Orthomyxoviridae and Bunyaviridae families allowed us to make pairwise comparisons of the tertiary structures of polymerases belonging to the four main RNA viral groups, which has led to a phylogenetic tree in which single-stranded negative RNA viral polymerases have been included for the first time. This has also allowed us to use a homology-based structural prediction approach to develop a general three-dimensional model of the Ebola virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Our model includes several of the conserved structural motifs and residues described in other viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases that define the catalytic and highly conserved palm subdomain, as well as portions of the fingers and thumb subdomains. The results presented here help to understand the current use and apparent success of antivirals, i.e. Brincidofovir, Lamivudine and Favipiravir, originally aimed at other types of polymerases, to counteract the Ebola virus infection.

  16. Monomeric adiponectin increases cell viability in porcine aortic endothelial cells cultured in normal and high glucose conditions: Data on kinases activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grossini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We found that monomeric adiponectin was able to increase cell viability in porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAE cultured both in normal and high glucose condition. Moreover, in normal glucose condition monomeric adiponectin increased p38MAPK, Akt, ERK1/2 and eNOS phosphorylation in a dose- and time-dependent way. Also in high glucose condition monomeric adiponectin increased eNOS and above kinases phosphorylation with similar patterns but at lower extent. For interpretation of the data presented in this article, please see the research article “Monomeric adiponectin modulates nitric oxide release and calcium movements in porcine aortic endothelial cells in normal/high glucose conditions” (Grossini et al., in press [1].

  17. Fermentation of Arabinoxylan-Oligosaccharides, Oligofructose and their Monomeric Sugars by Hindgut Bacteria from Siberian Sturgeon and African Catfish in Batch Culture in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraylou, Z.; Rurangwa, E.; Wiele, van der T.; Courtin, C.M.; Delcour, J.A.; Buyse, J.; Ollevier, F.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro fermentation of two Non-Digestible Oligosaccharide (NDO) preparations, Arabinoxylan- Oligosaccharides (AXOS) and Oligofructose (OF), and their respective monomeric sugars, xylose and fructose, were investigated by hindgut microbiota of two major aquaculture fish species, Siberian

  18. Positive electrode for a lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-07

    A method for producing a lithium alkali transition metal oxide for use as a positive electrode material for lithium secondary batteries by a precipitation method. The positive electrode material is a lithium alkali transition metal composite oxide and is prepared by mixing a solid state mixed with alkali and transition metal carbonate and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain a small amount of alkali metal residual in the lithium transition metal composite oxide cathode material.

  19. Halo Star Lithium Depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsonneault, M. H.; Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Narayanan, Vijay K.

    1999-01-01

    The depletion of lithium during the pre-main-sequence and main-sequence phases of stellar evolution plays a crucial role in the comparison of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis with the abundances observed in halo stars. Previous work has indicated a wide range of possible depletion factors, ranging from minimal in standard (nonrotating) stellar models to as much as an order of magnitude in models that include rotational mixing. Recent progress in the study of the angular momentum evolution of low-mass stars permits the construction of theoretical models capable of reproducing the angular momentum evolution of low-mass open cluster stars. The distribution of initial angular momenta can be inferred from stellar rotation data in young open clusters. In this paper we report on the application of these models to the study of lithium depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A range of initial angular momenta produces a range of lithium depletion factors on the main sequence. Using the distribution of initial conditions inferred from young open clusters leads to a well-defined halo lithium plateau with modest scatter and a small population of outliers. The mass-dependent angular momentum loss law inferred from open cluster studies produces a nearly flat plateau, unlike previous models that exhibited a downward curvature for hotter temperatures in the 7Li-Teff plane. The overall depletion factor for the plateau stars is sensitive primarily to the solar initial angular momentum used in the calibration for the mixing diffusion coefficients. Uncertainties remain in the treatment of the internal angular momentum transport in the models, and the potential impact of these uncertainties on our results is discussed. The 6Li/7Li depletion ratio is also examined. We find that the dispersion in the plateau and the 6Li/7Li depletion ratio scale with the absolute 7Li depletion in the plateau, and we use observational data to set bounds on the 7Li depletion in main-sequence halo

  20. Examination results on reaction of lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Takashi

    2000-12-01

    Before the material corrosion tests in lithium, the reactions of lithium with air and ammonia that will be used for lithium cleaning were examined, and the results were as follows. 1. When lithium put into air, surface of lithium changes to black first but soon to white, and the white layer becomes gradually thick. The first black of lithium surface is nitride (Li 3 N) and it changes to white lithium hydroxide (LiOH) by reaction with water in air, and it grows. The growth rate of the lithium hydroxide is about 1/10 in the desiccator (humidity of about 10%) compare with in air. 2. When lithium put into nitrogen, surface of lithium changes to black, and soon changes to brown and cracks at surface. At the same time with this cracking, weight of lithium piece increases and nitridation progresses respectively rapidly. This nitridation completed during 1-2 days on lithium rod of 10 mm in diameter, and increase in weight stopped. 3. Lithium melts in liquid ammonia and its melting rate is about 2-3 hour to lithium of 1 g. The liquid ammonia after lithium melting showed dark brown. (author)

  1. Unsolved Problems of Iran's Nuclear Program And Prospects in the light of Role of Parties to an Entente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Soo; Kim, Jae San [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    From past to present, Iran have been focused by international society and still have continued their enrichment activity despite of many sanctions. It is barely easy to solve this situation and to negotiate between related countries. Because there are many factors to influence this. New president of U.S. Barack Obama could be a great deal of factor for solving Iran's nuclear issue as well. From this point of view, following Iran's unsolved problems of nuclear program could be helpful to understand the situation and what the key point to solve it, and forecast the future with surrounding political and regional factors.

  2. Total allowable concentrations of monomeric inorganic aluminum and hydrated aluminum silicates in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhite, Calvin C; Ball, Gwendolyn L; McLellan, Clifton J

    2012-05-01

    Maximum contaminant levels are used to control potential health hazards posed by chemicals in drinking water, but no primary national or international limits for aluminum (Al) have been adopted. Given the differences in toxicological profiles, the present evaluation derives total allowable concentrations for certain water-soluble inorganic Al compounds (including chloride, hydroxide, oxide, phosphate and sulfate) and for the hydrated Al silicates (including attapulgite, bentonite/montmorillonite, illite, kaolinite) in drinking water. The chemistry, toxicology and clinical experience with Al materials are extensive and depend upon the particular physical and chemical form. In general, the water solubility of the monomeric Al materials depends on pH and their water solubility and gastrointestinal bioavailability are much greater than that of the hydrated Al silicates. Other than Al-containing antacids and buffered aspirin, food is the primary source of Al exposure for most healthy people. Systemic uptake of Al after ingestion of the monomeric salts is somewhat greater from drinking water (0.28%) than from food (0.1%). Once absorbed, Al accumulates in bone, brain, liver and kidney, with bone as the major site for Al deposition in humans. Oral Al hydroxide is used routinely to bind phosphate salts in the gut to control hyperphosphatemia in people with compromised renal function. Signs of chronic Al toxicity in the musculoskeletal system include a vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia (deranged membranous bone formation characterized by accumulation of the osteoid matrix and reduced mineralization, reduced numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, decreased lamellar and osteoid bands with elevated Al concentrations) presenting as bone pain and proximal myopathy. Aluminum-induced bone disease can progress to stress fractures of the ribs, femur, vertebrae, humerus and metatarsals. Serum Al ≥100 µg/L has a 75-88% positive predictive value for Al bone disease. Chronic Al

  3. Use of the quartz crystal microbalance to determine the monomeric friction coefficient of polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Mary M.

    1995-01-01

    When a thin film of polymer is coated on to a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), the QCM can be used to detect the rate of increase in weight of the polymer film as the volatile penetrant diffuses into the polymer. From this rate information the diffusion coefficient of the penetrant into the polymer can be computed. Calculations requiring this diffusion coefficient lead to values which approximate the monomeric friction coefficient of the polymer. This project has been concerned with the trial of crystal oscillating circuits suitable for driving polymer coated crystals in an atmosphere of penetrant. For these studies done at room temperature, natural rubber was used as an easily applied polymer that is readily penetrated by toluene vapors, qualities anticipated with polyimides when they are tested at T(g) in the presence of toluene. Three quartz crystal oscillator circuits were tested. The simplest circuit used +/- 5 volt dc and had a transistor to transistor logic (TTL) inverter chip that provides a 180 deg phase shift via a feed back loop. This oscillator circuit was stable but would not drive the crystal when the crystal was coated with polymer and subjected to toluene vapors. Removal of a variable resistor from this circuit increased stability but did not otherwise increase performance. Another driver circuit tested contained a two stage differential input, differential output, wide band video amplifier and also contain a feed back loop. The circuit voltage could not be varied and operated at +/- 5 volts dc; this circuit was also stable but failed to oscillate the polymer coated crystal in an atmosphere saturated with toluene vapors. The third oscillator circuit was of similar construction and relied on the same video amplifier but allowed operation with variable voltage. This circuit would drive the crystal when the crystal was submerged in liquid toluene and when the crystal was coated with polymer and immersed in toluene vapors. The frequency readings

  4. Lithium - no shortage in supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Over the last five years the face of the lithium industry has changed with new sources coming onto the market. The result of developments in supply is a buyers' market and, in the absence of major consumer developments, all things point to an increasing severely overcrowded market through the turn of the decade. As such lithium is likely to maintain charismatic appeal as developments unfold. This article provides an overview of the world's lithium industry and looks at the various market uses and potential. (author)

  5. Instrinsic defect energies of lithium hydride and lithium deuteride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, R.; Stoneham, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical study has been made of the defect structure of lithium hydride and lithium deuteride. A potential model is obtained describing the statics and dynamics of these crystals. Intrinsic defect energies are calculated using the Harwell HADES program which is based on a generalised Mott-Littleton method. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data, and suggest that the vacancy and interstitial migration mechanisms of anions and cations are all comparable in their contribution to ionic conduction. (author)

  6. Equilibrium dissociation pressures of lithium hydride and lithium deuteride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.M.; Webb, R.E.

    1977-12-01

    The equilibrium dissociation pressures of plateau composition lithium hydride and lithium deuteride have been measured from 450 to 750 0 C. These data were used to derive the relationship of dissociation pressure with temperature over this range and to calculate several thermodynamic properties of these materials. Thermodynamic properties determined included the enthalpy, entropy, and free energy of formation; the enthalpy and entropy of fusion; and the melting points

  7. Lithium ion behavior in lithium oxide by neutron scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshinobu; Morii, Yukio; Katano, Susumu; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Satoru; Ohno, Hideo; Nicklow, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Lithium ion behavior in lithium oxide, Li 2 O, was studied in the temperature range from 293 K to 1120 K by the High-Resolution Powder Diffractometer (HRPD) installed in the JRR-3M. The diffraction patterns were analyzed with the RIETAN program. At room temperature, the thermal parameters related to the mean square of the amplitude of vibration of the lithium and the oxygen ions were 6 x 10 -21 m 2 and 4 x 10 -21 m 2 , respectively. AT 1120 K the thermal parameter of the lithium ion was 34 x 10 -21 m 2 . On the other hand, the parameter of the oxygen ion was 16 x 10 -21 m 2 . Inelastic neutron scattering studies for the lithium oxide single crystal were also carried out on the triple-axis neutron spectrometers installed at the JRR-2 and the HFIR. Although the value of a phonon energy of a transverse acoustic mode (Σ 3 ) at zone boundary was 30.6 meV at room temperature, this value was decreased to 25.1 meV at 700 K. This large softening was caused by anharmonicity of the crystal potential of lithium oxide. (author)

  8. MxiN Differentially Regulates Monomeric and Oligomeric Species of the Shigella Type Three Secretion System ATPase Spa47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Heather B; Dickenson, Nicholas E

    2018-04-17

    Shigella rely entirely on the action of a single type three secretion system (T3SS) to support cellular invasion of colonic epithelial cells and to circumvent host immune responses. The ATPase Spa47 resides at the base of the Shigella needle-like type three secretion apparatus (T3SA), supporting protein secretion through the apparatus and providing a likely means for native virulence regulation by Shigella and a much needed target for non-antibiotic therapeutics to treat Shigella infections. Here, we show that MxiN is a differential regulator of Spa47 and that its regulatory impact is determined by the oligomeric state of the Spa47 ATPase, with which it interacts. In vitro and in vivo characterization shows that interaction of MxiN with Spa47 requires the six N-terminal residues of Spa47 that are also necessary for stable Spa47 oligomer formation and activation. This interaction with MxiN negatively influences the activity of Spa47 oligomers while upregulating the ATPase activity of monomeric Spa47. Detailed kinetic analyses of monomeric and oligomeric Spa47 in the presence and absence of MxiN uncover additional mechanistic insights into the regulation of Spa47 by MxiN, suggesting that the MxiN/Spa47 species resulting from interaction with monomeric and oligomeric Spa47 are functionally distinct and that both could be involved in Shigella T3SS regulation. Uncovering regulation of Spa47 by MxiN addresses an important gap in the current understanding of how Shigella controls T3SA activity and provides the first description of differential T3SS ATPase regulation by a native T3SS protein.

  9. Structure/function analysis of PARP-1 in oxidative and nitrosative stress-induced monomeric ADPR formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Buelow

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1 is a multifunctional enzyme that is involved in two major cellular responses to oxidative and nitrosative (O/N stress: detection and response to DNA damage via formation of protein-bound poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose (PAR, and formation of the soluble 2(nd messenger monomeric adenosine diphosphate-ribose (mADPR. Previous studies have delineated specific roles for several of PARP-1's structural domains in the context of its involvement in a DNA damage response. However, little is known about the relationship between the mechanisms through which PARP-1 participates in DNA damage detection/response and those involved in the generation of monomeric ADPR. To better understand the relationship between these events, we undertook a structure/function analysis of PARP-1 via reconstitution of PARP-1 deficient DT40 cells with PARP-1 variants deficient in catalysis, DNA binding, auto-PARylation, and PARP-1's BRCT protein interaction domain. Analysis of responses of the respective reconstituted cells to a model O/N stressor indicated that PARP-1 catalytic activity, DNA binding, and auto-PARylation are required for PARP-dependent mADPR formation, but that BRCT-mediated interactions are dispensable. As the BRCT domain is required for PARP-dependent recruitment of XRCC1 to sites of DNA damage, these results suggest that DNA repair and monomeric ADPR 2(nd messenger generation are parallel mechanisms through which PARP-1 modulates cellular responses to O/N stress.

  10. Reversible Lithium Neurotoxicity: Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Lithium neurotoxicity may be reversible or irreversible. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity has been defined as cases of lithium neurotoxicity in which patients recovered without any permanent neurologic sequelae, even after 2 months of an episode of lithium toxicity. Cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity differ in clinical presentation from those of irreversible lithium neurotoxicity and have important implications in clinical practice. This review aims to study the clinical presentation of cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity. Data Sources: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), 1950 to November 2010; PsycINFO, 1967 to November 2010; and SCOPUS (EMBASE), 1950 to November 2010. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched by using the OvidSP interface. Study Selection: A combination of the following search terms was used: lithium AND adverse effects AND central nervous system OR neurologic manifestation. Publications cited include articles concerned with reversible lithium neurotoxicity. Data Extraction: The age, sex, clinical features, diagnostic categories, lithium doses, serum lithium levels, precipitating factors, and preventive measures of 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity were extracted. Data Synthesis: Among the 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity, patients ranged in age from 10 to 80 years and a greater number were female (P = .008). Most patients had affective disorders, schizoaffective disorders, and/or depression (P lithium levels were less than or equal to 1.5 mEq/L (P lithium, underlying brain pathology, abnormal tissue levels, specific diagnostic categories, and elderly populations were some of the precipitating factors reported for reversible lithium neurotoxicity. The preventive measures were also described. Conclusions: Reversible lithium neurotoxicity presents with a certain clinical profile and precipitating factors for which there are appropriate

  11. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity: review of the literatur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, Ivan; Phutane, Vivek H

    2012-01-01

    Lithium neurotoxicity may be reversible or irreversible. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity has been defined as cases of lithium neurotoxicity in which patients recovered without any permanent neurologic sequelae, even after 2 months of an episode of lithium toxicity. Cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity differ in clinical presentation from those of irreversible lithium neurotoxicity and have important implications in clinical practice. This review aims to study the clinical presentation of cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity. A comprehensive electronic search was conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), 1950 to November 2010; PsycINFO, 1967 to November 2010; and SCOPUS (EMBASE), 1950 to November 2010. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched by using the OvidSP interface. A combination of the following search terms was used: lithium AND adverse effects AND central nervous system OR neurologic manifestation. Publications cited include articles concerned with reversible lithium neurotoxicity. The age, sex, clinical features, diagnostic categories, lithium doses, serum lithium levels, precipitating factors, and preventive measures of 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity were extracted. Among the 52 cases of reversible lithium neurotoxicity, patients ranged in age from 10 to 80 years and a greater number were female (P = .008). Most patients had affective disorders, schizoaffective disorders, and/or depression (P lithium levels were less than or equal to 1.5 mEq/L (P lithium, underlying brain pathology, abnormal tissue levels, specific diagnostic categories, and elderly populations were some of the precipitating factors reported for reversible lithium neurotoxicity. The preventive measures were also described. Reversible lithium neurotoxicity presents with a certain clinical profile and precipitating factors for which there are appropriate preventive measures. This recognition will help in early diagnosis and prompt treatment of

  12. Precipitation of lithium in germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaik, M.; Furgolle, B.

    1969-01-01

    The precipitation of Lithium in Germanium was studied. Taking account of the interactions Ga LI, LiO, we calculated the oxygen content in germanium samples from the resistivity measurements. (authors)

  13. FTU cooled liquid lithium upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iafrati, M., E-mail: matteo.iafrati@enea.it [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C. R. Frascati, C. P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Apicella, M.L.; Boncagni, L. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C. R. Frascati, C. P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Lyublinski, I. [JSC “RED STAR”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazzitelli, G. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, C. R. Frascati, C. P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Vertkov, A. [JSC “RED STAR”, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    In the framework of the liquid lithium limiter experiment in Frascati a new auxiliary system was developed in order to provide a better control of the energy fluid vector. The cooled liquid lithium system (CLL) was installed for the first time at the end of 2013, it uses overheated water to heat the lithium and to extract, at the same time, the heat from the metal surface when it gets wet by the plasma. A first version of the system, developed and presented in previous papers, has been modified to optimize the heat flux measurement on the liquid lithium surface. The changes include a new power supply logic for the heating system, new sensors and new read-out electronics compatible with the implementation of a real time control system. The prototype was updated with the aim of achieving a low cost and versatile control system.

  14. Probing quantum effects in lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deemyad, Shanti; Zhang, Rong

    2018-05-01

    In periodic table lithium is the first element immediately after helium and the lightest metal. While fascinating quantum nature of condensed helium is suppressed at high densities, lithium is expected to adapt more quantum solid behavior under compression. This is due to the presence of long range interactions in metallic systems for which an increase in the de-Boer parameter (λ/σ, where σ is the minimum interatomic distance and λ is the de-Broglie wavelength) is predicted at higher densities [1,2]. Physics of dense lithium offers a rich playground to look for new emergent quantum phenomena in condensed matter and has been subject of many theoretical and experimental investigations. In this article recent progress in studying the quantum nature of dense lithium will be discussed.

  15. Lithium isotopic separation: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, Sandra Helena Goulart de

    1998-01-01

    In order to get the separation of natural isotopes of lithium by electrolytic amalgamation, an electrolytic cell with a confined mercury cathode was used to obtain data for the design of a separation stage. The initial work was followed by the design of a moving mercury cathode electrolytic cell and three experiments with six batches stages were performed for the determination of the elementary separation factor. The value obtained, 1.053, was ill agreement: with the specialized literature. It was verified in all experiments that the lithium - 6 isotope concentrated in the amalgam phase and that the lithium - 7 isotope concentrated in the aqueous phase. A stainless-steel cathode for the decomposition of the lithium amalgam and the selective desamalgamation were also studied. In view of the results obtained, a five stages continuous scheme was proposed. (author)

  16. Does lithium protect against dementia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Forman, Julie Lyng; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether treatment with lithium in patients with mania or bipolar disorder is associated with a decreased rate of subsequent dementia. METHODS: Linkage of register data on prescribed lithium in all patients discharged from psychiatric health care service with a diagnosis...... exposed to lithium (50.4%), 1,781 to anticonvulsants (36.7%), 4,280 to antidepressants (88.1%), and 3,901 to antipsychotics (80.3%) during the study period. A total of 216 patients received a diagnosis of dementia during follow-up (103.6/10,000 person-years). During the period following the second...... prescription of lithium, the rate of dementia was decreased compared to the period following the first prescription. In contrast, the rates of dementia during multiple prescription periods with anticonvulsants, antidepressants, or antipsychotics, respectively, were not significantly decreased compared...

  17. Optimizing lithium dosing in hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, N H; Munkner, R; Kampmann, J P

    2006-01-01

    We studied a 62-year-old female hemodialysis patient during initiation and maintenance of lithium carbonate therapy. Three different methods were applied to estimate the regimen: a scenario based on volume of distribution (V(d)), a scenario based on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and a scenario...... estimates. Furthermore, the maintenance dose estimated from the central compartment (V1) led to plasma concentrations within the therapeutic range. Thus, a regimen where 12.2 mmol lithium was given after each hemodialysis session resulted in stable between-dialysis plasma lithium concentrations...... in this patient with no residual kidney function. We did not observe adverse effects related to this regimen, which was monitored from 18 days to 8 months of therapy, and the patient experienced relief from her severe depressive disorder. In conclusion, dialysis patients may be treated with lithium administrated...

  18. A model of insulin fibrils derived from the x-ray crystal structure of a monomeric insulin (despentapeptide insulin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brange, J; Dodson, G G; Edwards, D J; Holden, P H; Whittingham, J L

    1997-04-01

    The crystal structure of despentapeptide insulin, a monomeric insulin, has been refined at 1.3 A spacing and subsequently used to predict and model the organization in the insulin fibril. The model makes use of the contacts in the densely packed despentapeptide insulin crystal, and takes into account other experimental evidence, including binding studies with Congo red. The dimensions of this model fibril correspond well with those measured experimentally, and the monomer-monomer contacts within the fibril are in accordance with the known physical chemistry of insulin fibrils. Using this model, it may be possible to predict mutations in insulin that might alleviate problems associated with fibril formation during insulin therapy.

  19. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lopes Rocha

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy.

  20. The lithium air battery fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Bruce, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Lithium air rechargeable batteries are the best candidate for a power source for electric vehicles, because of their high specific energy density. In this book, the history, scientific background, status and prospects of the lithium air system are introduced by specialists in the field. This book will contain the basics, current statuses, and prospects for new technologies. This book is ideal for those interested in electrochemistry, energy storage, and materials science.

  1. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Fábio Lopes; Rocha, Maria Elizabete Guimarães

    1992-01-01

    Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy. Os ...

  2. Kleptomania, mood disorder and lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha,Fábio Lopes; Rocha,Maria Elizabete Guimarães

    1992-01-01

    Kleptomania has been found in association with major depression in a fairly large number of reports in recent years. We describe a patient with concurrent DSM-III-R Bipolar Mood Disorder and Kleptomania, whose symptoms remitted completely, apparently in response to lithium therapy, which raised the possibility that pharmacological treatment may benefit kleptomania. Further studies are needed to establish the possible relationship between kleptomania, mood disorders and lithium therapy.

  3. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  4. Lithium Oxysilicate Compounds Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apblett, Christopher A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coyle, Jaclyn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the structure and composition of lithium silicate thin films deposited by RF magnetron co-sputtering is investigated. Five compositions ranging from Li2Si2O5 to Li8SiO6 were confirmed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and structure analysis on the evolution of non-bridging oxygens in the thin films was conducted with fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It was found that non-bridging oxygens (NBOs) increased as the silicate network breaks apart with increasing lithium content which agrees with previous studies on lithium silicates. Thin film impurities were examined with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOFSIMS) and traced back to target synthesis. This study utilizes a unique synthesis technique for lithium silicate thin films and can be referred to in future studies on the ionic conductivity of lithium silicates formed on the surface of silicon anodes in lithium ion batteries.

  5. Extracorporeal Treatment for Lithium Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Brian S; Goldfarb, David S; Dargan, Paul I

    2015-01-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical and toxico......The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning Workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments in poisoning. Here, the EXTRIP workgroup presents its recommendations for lithium poisoning. After a systematic literature search, clinical...... extraction of patient-level data. The workgroup concluded that lithium is dialyzable (Level of evidence=A) and made the following recommendations: Extracorporeal treatment is recommended in severe lithium poisoning (1D). Extracorporeal treatment is recommended if kidney function is impaired and the [Li...... treatment (1D), but continuous RRT is an acceptable alternative (1D). The workgroup supported the use of extracorporeal treatment in severe lithium poisoning. Clinical decisions on when to use extracorporeal treatment should take into account the [Li(+)], kidney function, pattern of lithium toxicity...

  6. Aqueous lithium air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Steven J.; Nimon, Yevgeniy S.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Petrov, Alexei; Goncharenko, Nikolay

    2017-05-23

    Aqueous Li/Air secondary battery cells are configurable to achieve high energy density and prolonged cycle life. The cells include a protected a lithium metal or alloy anode and an aqueous catholyte in a cathode compartment. The aqueous catholyte comprises an evaporative-loss resistant and/or polyprotic active compound or active agent that partakes in the discharge reaction and effectuates cathode capacity for discharge in the acidic region. This leads to improved performance including one or more of increased specific energy, improved stability on open circuit, and prolonged cycle life, as well as various methods, including a method of operating an aqueous Li/Air cell to simultaneously achieve improved energy density and prolonged cycle life.

  7. Lithium availability and future production outlooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikström, Hanna; Davidsson, Simon; Höök, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of reserves, resources and key properties of 112 lithium deposits. • Discussions of widely diverging results from recent lithium supply estimates. • Forecasting future lithium production by resource-constrained models. • Exploring implications for future deployment of electric cars. - Abstract: Lithium is a highly interesting metal, in part due to the increasing interest in lithium-ion batteries. Several recent studies have used different methods to estimate whether the lithium production can meet an increasing demand, especially from the transport sector, where lithium-ion batteries are the most likely technology for electric cars. The reserve and resource estimates of lithium vary greatly between different studies and the question whether the annual production rates of lithium can meet a growing demand is seldom adequately explained. This study presents a review and compilation of recent estimates of quantities of lithium available for exploitation and discusses the uncertainty and differences between these estimates. Also, mathematical curve fitting models are used to estimate possible future annual production rates. This estimation of possible production rates are compared to a potential increased demand of lithium if the International Energy Agency’s Blue Map Scenarios are fulfilled regarding electrification of the car fleet. We find that the availability of lithium could in fact be a problem for fulfilling this scenario if lithium-ion batteries are to be used. This indicates that other battery technologies might have to be implemented for enabling an electrification of road transports

  8. Wetting properties of liquid lithium on lithium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krat, S.A., E-mail: stepan.krat@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Popkov, A.S. [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gasparyan, Yu. M.; Pisarev, A.A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fiflis, Peter; Szott, Matthew; Christenson, Michael; Kalathiparambil, Kishor; Ruzic, David N. [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Contact angles of liquid lithium and Li{sub 3}N, Li{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} were measured. • Liquid lithium wets lithium compounds at relatively low temperatures: Li{sub 3}N at 257 °C, Li{sub 2}O at 259 °C, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at 323 °C. • Li wets Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 3}N better than previously measured fusion-relevant materials (W, Mo, Ta, TZM, stainless steel). • Li wets Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} better than most previously measured fusion-relevant materials (W, Mo, Ta). - Abstract: Liquid metal plasma facing components (LMPFC) have shown a potential to supplant solid plasma facing components materials in the high heat flux regions of magnetic confinement fusion reactors due to the reduction or elimination of concerns over melting, wall damage, and erosion. To design a workable LMPFC, one must understand how liquid metal interacts with solid underlying structures. Wetting is an important factor in such interaction, several designs of LMPFC require liquid metal to wet the underlying solid structures. The wetting of lithium compounds (lithium nitride, oxide, and carbonate) by 200 °C liquid lithium at various surface temperature from 230 to 330 °C was studied by means of contact angle measurements. Wetting temperatures, defined as the temperature above which the contact angle is less than 90°, were measured. The wetting temperature was 257 °C for nitride, 259 °C for oxide, and 323 °C for carbonate. Surface tensions of solid lithium compounds were calculated from the contact angle measurements.

  9. Grain Boundary Engineering of Lithium-Ion-Conducting Lithium Lanthanum Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries by Victoria L Blair, Claire V Weiss Brennan, and Joseph M Marsico Approved for public...Air Batteries by Victoria L Blair and Claire V Weiss Brennan Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Joseph M Marsico Rochester...Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Victoria L Blair, Claire V

  10. Creating a monomeric endonuclease TALE-I-SceI with high specificity and low genotoxicity in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianfei; Chen, He; Luo, Ling; Lai, Yongrong; Xie, Wei; Kee, Kehkooi

    2015-01-01

    To correct a DNA mutation in the human genome for gene therapy, homology-directed repair (HDR) needs to be specific and have the lowest off-target effects to protect the human genome from deleterious mutations. Zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and CRISPR-CAS9 systems have been engineered and used extensively to recognize and modify specific DNA sequences. Although TALEN and CRISPR/CAS9 could induce high levels of HDR in human cells, their genotoxicity was significantly higher. Here, we report the creation of a monomeric endonuclease that can recognize at least 33 bp by fusing the DNA-recognizing domain of TALEN (TALE) to a re-engineered homing endonuclease I-SceI. After sequentially re-engineering I-SceI to recognize 18 bp of the human β-globin sequence, the re-engineered I-SceI induced HDR in human cells. When the re-engineered I-SceI was fused to TALE (TALE-ISVB2), the chimeric endonuclease induced the same HDR rate at the human β-globin gene locus as that induced by TALEN, but significantly reduced genotoxicity. We further demonstrated that TALE-ISVB2 specifically targeted at the β-globin sequence in human hematopoietic stem cells. Therefore, this monomeric endonuclease has the potential to be used in therapeutic gene targeting in human cells. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Interaction of Classical Platinum Agents with the Monomeric and Dimeric Atox1 Proteins: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We carried out molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations for a series of binary and ternary models of the cisplatin, transplatin and oxaliplatin agents binding to a monomeric Atox1 protein and a dimeric Atox1 protein to investigate their interaction mechanisms. All three platinum agents could respectively combine with the monomeric Atox1 protein and the dimeric Atox1 protein to form a stable binary and ternary complex due to the covalent interaction of the platinum center with the Atox1 protein. The results suggested that the extra interaction from the oxaliplatin ligand–Atox1 protein interface increases its affinity only for the OxaliPt + Atox1 model. The binding of the oxaliplatin agent to the Atox1 protein might cause larger deformation of the protein than those of the cisplatin and transplatin agents due to the larger size of the oxaliplatin ligand. However, the extra interactions to facilitate the stabilities of the ternary CisPt + 2Atox1 and OxaliPt + 2Atox1 models come from the α1 helices and α2-β4 loops of the Atox1 protein–Atox1 protein interface due to the cis conformation of the platinum agents. The combinations of two Atox1 proteins in an asymmetric way in the three ternary models were analyzed. These investigations might provide detailed information for understanding the interaction mechanism of the platinum agents binding to the Atox1 protein in the cytoplasm.

  12. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G.; Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K.; Kubota, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2015-01-01

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started

  13. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J. [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Kubota, S. [University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Beiersdorfer, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started.

  14. Predictors of excellent response to lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hellmund, Gunnar; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify sociodemographic and clinical predictors of excellent response, that is, 'cure' of future affective episodes, to lithium in monotherapy. We used nationwide registers to identify all patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings...... who were prescribed lithium from 1995 to 2006 in Denmark (N=3762). Excellent lithium responders were defined as patients who after a stabilization lithium start-up period of 6 months, continued lithium in monotherapy without getting hospitalized. The rate of excellent response to lithium...... with somatic comorbidity had increased rates of non-response to lithium compared with patients without somatic comorbidity (HR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.00-1.52).It is concluded that the prevalence of excellent response to lithium monotherapy is low and such patients are characterized by few earlier psychiatric...

  15. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  16. Lithium Ion Battery Anode Aging Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agubra, Victor; Fergus, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Degradation mechanisms such as lithium plating, growth of the passivated surface film layer on the electrodes and loss of both recyclable lithium ions and electrode material adversely affect the longevity of the lithium ion battery. The anode electrode is very vulnerable to these degradation mechanisms. In this paper, the most common aging mechanisms occurring at the anode during the operation of the lithium battery, as well as some approaches for minimizing the degradation are reviewed. PMID:28809211

  17. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Binod; Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G.

    2000-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  18. Phase transition in a rechargeable lithium battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreyer, W.; Gaberscek, M.; Guhlke, C.; Huth, R.; Jamnik, J.

    We discuss the lithium storage process within a single-particle cathode of a lithium-ion battery. The single storage particle consists of a crystal lattice whose interstitial lattice sites may be empty or reversibly filled with lithium atoms. The resulting evolution equations describe diffusion with

  19. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  20. Lithium. Effects on excitable cell membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, Egbert Johan

    1974-01-01

    LITHIUM: Effects on excitable cell membranes. Lithium salts have been used in the treatment of manic-depressive psychosis for many years but their mechanism of action is not well understood. Many workers assume that the action of lithium on catecholamine metabolism and/or on electrolyte distribution

  1. Lithium alloys and metal oxides as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Chu; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge; Liu, Yongfeng; Yan, Mi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Progress in lithium alloys and metal oxides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is reviewed. •Electrochemical characteristics and lithium storage mechanisms of lithium alloys and metal oxides are summarized. •Strategies for improving electrochemical lithium storage properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides are discussed. •Challenges in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for lithium-ion batteries are pointed out. -- Abstract: Lithium alloys and metal oxides have been widely recognized as the next-generation anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and high power density. A variety of lithium alloys and metal oxides have been explored as alternatives to the commercial carbonaceous anodes. The electrochemical characteristics of silicon, tin, tin oxide, iron oxides, cobalt oxides, copper oxides, and so on are systematically summarized. In this review, it is not the scope to retrace the overall studies, but rather to highlight the electrochemical performances, the lithium storage mechanism and the strategies in improving the electrochemical properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides. The challenges and new directions in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries are also discussed

  2. The lithium vapor box divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R J; Schwartz, J; Myers, R

    2016-01-01

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m −2 , implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. At the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma. (paper)

  3. Research, Development and Fabrication of Lithium Solar Cells, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    The development and fabrication of lithium solar cells are discussed. Several single-step, lithium diffusion schedules using lower temperatures and times are described. A comparison was made using evaporated lithium metal as the lithium source, and greatly improved consistency in lithium concentrations was obtained. It was possible to combine all processing steps to obtain lithium doped cells of high output which also contained adequate lithium to ensure good recoverability.

  4. Electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Jow, T Richard; Borodin, Oleg; Ue, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Electrolytes for Lithium and Lithium-ion Batteries provides a comprehensive overview of the scientific understanding and technological development of electrolyte materials in the last?several years. This book covers key electrolytes such as LiPF6 salt in mixed-carbonate solvents with additives for the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries as well as new electrolyte materials developed recently that lay the foundation for future advances.?This book also reviews the characterization of electrolyte materials for their transport properties, structures, phase relationships, stabilities, and impurities.

  5. A Domain of Herpes Simplex Virus pUL33 Required To Release Monomeric Viral Genomes from Cleaved Concatemeric DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kui; Dang, Xiaoqun; Baines, Joel D

    2017-10-15

    Monomeric herpesvirus DNA is cleaved from concatemers and inserted into preformed capsids through the actions of the viral terminase. The terminase of herpes simplex virus (HSV) is composed of three subunits encoded by U L 15, U L 28, and U L 33. The U L 33-encoded protein (pU L 33) interacts with pU L 28, but its precise role in the DNA cleavage and packaging reaction is unclear. To investigate the function of pU L 33, we generated a panel of recombinant viruses with either deletions or substitutions in the most conserved regions of U L 33 using a bacterial artificial chromosome system. Deletion of 11 amino acids (residues 50 to 60 or residues 110 to 120) precluded viral replication, whereas the truncation of the last 10 amino acids from the pU L 33 C terminus did not affect viral replication or the interaction of pU L 33 with pU L 28. Mutations that replaced the lysine at codon 110 and the arginine at codon 111 with alanine codons failed to replicate, and the pU L 33 mutant interacted with pU L 28 less efficiently. Interestingly, genomic termini of the large (L) and small (S) components were detected readily in cells infected with these mutants, indicating that concatemeric DNA was cleaved efficiently. However, the release of monomeric genomes as assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was greatly diminished, and DNA-containing capsids were not observed. These results suggest that pU L 33 is necessary for one of the two viral DNA cleavage events required to release individual genomes from concatemeric viral DNA. IMPORTANCE This paper shows a role for pU L 33 in one of the two DNA cleavage events required to release monomeric genomes from concatemeric viral DNA. This is the first time that such a phenotype has been observed and is the first identification of a function of this protein relevant to DNA packaging other than its interaction with other terminase components. Copyright © 2017 Yang et al.

  6. Deuterium retention in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, M.J.; Doerner, R.P.; Luckhardt, S.C.; Conn, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of deuterium retention in samples of lithium exposed in the liquid state to deuterium plasma are reported. Retention was measured as a function of plasma ion dose in the range 6x10 19 -4x10 22 D atoms and exposure temperature between 523 and 673 K using thermal desorption spectrometry. The results are consistent with the full uptake of all deuterium ions incident on the liquid metal surface and are found to be independent of the temperature of the liquid lithium over the range explored. Full uptake, consistent with very low recycling, continues until the sample is volumetrically converted to lithium deuteride. This occurs for exposure temperatures where the gas pressure during exposure was both below and slightly above the corresponding decomposition pressure for LiD in Li. (author)

  7. Nuclear spectroscopy with lithium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, C.

    1977-02-01

    A survey of the state of nuclear spectroscopy with lithium ions is given. Proceeding from the physical and nuclear properties the specific topics arising by the acceleration of these ions are discussed. The results obtained from measurements of excitation functions of different lithium reactions, particularly of compound reactions, with several target nuclei are summarized. Besides compound reactions direct reactions are important, especially transfer reactions, elastic and inelastic scattering and exchange reactions. The results on high spin states obtained by in-beam gamma-spectroscopy are discussed in detail. Finally the possibilities are considered for accelerating lithium ions in the cyclotron U-120 and in the tandem generator EGP-10 of the ZfK. (author)

  8. Lithium-based neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yursova, L.

    1977-01-01

    The problems of using scintillation lithium-based detectors (LiJ(Eu) and 6 LiJ(Eu)), as well as lithium glasses for neutron detection are described. As compared with the glasses the LiJ(Eu) monocrystal possesses substantially higher energy resolution, its luminescence yield is considerably higher (in some cases ten fold), its application makes possible gamma radiation discrimination with the energy approximately four times higher and its higher specific mass ensures better efficiency of gamma radiation counting. The only 6 LiJ(Eu) drawback is its high hydroscopicity as well as its possibility to be used only in a limited temperature range (maximum temperature +35 deg C). The lithium glass can be used (with the exception of spectrometric measurements and radiation mixed regions measurement) with more than 1 MeV gamma radiation energy in a wide temperature range, in agressive, corroding and acid media

  9. A monomeric G protein-coupled receptor isolated in a high-density lipoprotein particle efficiently activates its G protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whorton, Matthew R; Bokoch, Michael P; Rasmussen, Søren Gøgsig Faarup

    2007-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) respond to a diverse array of ligands, mediating cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters, as well as the senses of smell and taste. The structures of the GPCR rhodopsin and several G proteins have been determined by x-ray crystallography, yet...... the organization of the signaling complex between GPCRs and G proteins is poorly understood. The observations that some GPCRs are obligate heterodimers, and that many GPCRs form both homo- and heterodimers, has led to speculation that GPCR dimers may be required for efficient activation of G proteins. However......, technical limitations have precluded a definitive analysis of G protein coupling to monomeric GPCRs in a biochemically defined and membrane-bound system. Here we demonstrate that a prototypical GPCR, the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR), can be incorporated into a reconstituted high-density lipoprotein...

  10. Problem of the lithium peroxide thermal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefedov, R A; Ferapontov, Yu A; Kozlova, N P

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of lithium peroxide and lithium peroxide monohydrate samples under heating in atmospheric air was studied by the method of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). It was found that in the temperature range of 32°C to 82°C the interaction of lithium peroxides and steam with the formation of lithium peroxide monohydrate occurs, which was confirmed chemically and by X-ray Single-qualitative analysis. It was experimentally found that lithium peroxide starts to decompose into the lithium oxide and oxygen in the temperature range of 340 ÷ 348°C. It was established that the resulting thermal decomposition of lithium oxide, lithium peroxide at the temperature of 422°C melts with lithium carbonate eutecticly. The manifestation of polymorphism was not marked(seen or noticed) under the heating of studied samples of lithium peroxide and lithium peroxide monohydrate in the temperature range of 25°C ÷ 34°C. (paper)

  11. Solid solution lithium alloy cermet anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    2013-07-09

    A metal-ceramic composite ("cermet") has been produced by a chemical reaction between a lithium compound and another metal. The cermet has advantageous physical properties, high surface area relative to lithium metal or its alloys, and is easily formed into a desired shape. An example is the formation of a lithium-magnesium nitride cermet by reaction of lithium nitride with magnesium. The reaction results in magnesium nitride grains coated with a layer of lithium. The nitride is inert when used in a battery. It supports the metal in a high surface area form, while stabilizing the electrode with respect to dendrite formation. By using an excess of magnesium metal in the reaction process, a cermet of magnesium nitride is produced, coated with a lithium-magnesium alloy of any desired composition. This alloy inhibits dendrite formation by causing lithium deposited on its surface to diffuse under a chemical potential into the bulk of the alloy.

  12. Development, validation and evaluation of an analytical method for the determination of monomeric and oligomeric procyanidins in apple extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Wendy J; Voorspoels, Stefan; Jacobs, Griet; Aaby, Kjersti; Meisland, Ane; Garcia-Villalba, Rocio; Tomas-Barberan, Francisco; Piskula, Mariusz K; Mawson, Deborah; Vovk, Irena; Needs, Paul W; Kroon, Paul A

    2017-04-28

    There is a lack of data for individual oligomeric procyanidins in apples and apple extracts. Our aim was to develop, validate and evaluate an analytical method for the separation, identification and quantification of monomeric and oligomeric flavanols in apple extracts. To achieve this, we prepared two types of flavanol extracts from freeze-dried apples; one was an epicatechin-rich extract containing ∼30% (w/w) monomeric (-)-epicatechin which also contained oligomeric procyanidins (Extract A), the second was an oligomeric procyanidin-rich extract depleted of epicatechin (Extract B). The parameters considered for method optimisation were HPLC columns and conditions, sample heating, mass of extract and dilution volumes. The performance characteristics considered for method validation included standard linearity, method sensitivity, precision and trueness. Eight laboratories participated in the method evaluation. Chromatographic separation of the analytes was best achieved utilizing a Hilic column with a binary mobile phase consisting of acidic acetonitrile and acidic aqueous methanol. The final method showed linearity for epicatechin in the range 5-100μg/mL with a correlation co-efficient >0.999. Intra-day and inter-day precision of the analytes ranged from 2 to 6% and 2 to 13% respectively. Up to dp3, trueness of the method was >95% but decreased with increasing dp. Within laboratory precision showed RSD values <5 and 10% for monomers and oligomers, respectively. Between laboratory precision was 4 and 15% (Extract A) and 7 and 30% (Extract B) for monomers and oligomers, respectively. An analytical method for the separation, identification and quantification of procyanidins in an apple extract was developed, validated and assessed. The results of the inter-laboratory evaluation indicate that the method is reliable and reproducible. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Hda Monomerization by ADP Binding Promotes Replicase Clamp-mediated DnaA-ATP Hydrolysis*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su'etsugu, Masayuki; Nakamura, Kenta; Keyamura, Kenji; Kudo, Yuka; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2008-01-01

    ATP-DnaA is the initiator of chromosomal replication in Escherichia coli, and the activity of DnaA is regulated by the regulatory inactivation of the DnaA (RIDA) system. In this system, the Hda protein promotes DnaA-ATP hydrolysis to produce inactive ADP-DnaA in a mechanism that is mediated by the DNA-loaded form of the replicase sliding clamp. In this study, we first revealed that hda translation uses an unusual initiation codon, CUG, located downstream of the annotated initiation codon. The CUG initiation codon could be used for restricting the Hda level, as this initiation codon has a low translation efficiency, and the cellular Hda level is only ∼100 molecules per cell. Hda translated using the correct reading frame was purified and found to have a high RIDA activity in vitro. Moreover, we found that Hda has a high affinity for ADP but not for other nucleotides, including ATP. ADP-Hda was active in the RIDA system in vitro and stable in a monomeric state, whereas apo-Hda formed inactive homomultimers. Both ADP-Hda and apo-Hda could form complexes with the DNA-loaded clamp; however, only ADP-Hda-DNA-clamp complexes were highly functional in the following interaction with DnaA. Formation of ADP-Hda was also observed in vivo, and mutant analysis suggested that ADP binding is crucial for cellular Hda activity. Thus, we propose that ADP is a crucial Hda ligand that promotes the activated conformation of the protein. ADP-dependent monomerization might enable the arginine finger of the Hda AAA+ domain to be accessible to ATP bound to the DnaA AAA+ domain. PMID:18977760

  14. Alpha B- and βA3-crystallins containing d-aspartic acids exist in a monomeric state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, Hiroaki; Takata, Takumi; Fujii, Norihiko; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Fujii, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    Crystallin stability and subunit-subunit interaction are essential for eye lens transparency. There are three types of crystallins in lens, designated as α-, β-, and γ-crystallins. Alpha-crystallin is a hetero-polymer of about 800kDa, consisting of 35-40 subunits of two different αA- and αB-subunits, each of 20kDa. The β/γ-crystallin superfamily comprises oligomeric β-crystallin (2-6 subunits) and monomeric γ-crystallin. Since lens proteins have very long half-lives, they undergo numerous post-translational modifications including racemization, isomerization, deamidation, oxidation, glycation, and truncation, which may decrease crystallin solubility and ultimately cause cataract formation. Racemization and isomerization of aspartyl (Asp) residues have been detected only in polymeric α- and oligomeric β-crystallin, while the situation in monomeric γ-crystallin has not been studied. Here, we investigated the racemization and isomerization of Asp in the γ-crystallin fraction of elderly donors. The results show that Asp residues of γS-, γD- and γC-crystallins were not racemized and isomerized. However, strikingly, we found that a portion of αB-crystallin and βA3-crystallin moved to the lower molecular weight fraction which is the same size of γ-crystallin. In those fractions, Asp-96 of αB-crystallin and Asp-37 of βA3-crystallin were highly inverted, which do not occur in the native lens higher molecular weight fraction. Our results indicate the possibility that the inversion of Asp residues may induce dissociation of αB- and βA3-crystallins from the polymeric and oligomeric states. This is the first report that stereoinversion of amino acids disturbs lens protein assembly in aged human lens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lithium cells and batteries. 173.185 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.185 Lithium cells and batteries. (a) Cells and batteries. A lithium cell or battery, including a lithium polymer cell or battery and a lithium-ion cell or battery, must conform to all of the...

  16. A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer protected lithium metal anode for long-cycle lithium-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinhui; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Jingjing; Zhang, Tao; Li, Lei; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2017-10-01

    A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer (OIHL) is direct fabricated on lithium metal surface by the interfacial reaction of lithium metal foil with 1-chlorodecane and oxygen/carbon dioxide mixed gas. This favorable OIHL is approximately 30 μm thick and consists of lithium alkyl carbonate and lithium chloride. The lithium-oxygen batteries with OIHL protected lithium metal anode exhibit longer cycle life (340 cycles) than those with bare lithium metal anode (50 cycles). This desirable performance can be ascribed to the robust OIHL which prevents the growth of lithium dendrites and the corrosion of lithium metal.

  17. Synthesis of Lithium Fluoride from Spent Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela S. Suarez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium (Li is considered a strategic element whose use has significantly expanded. Its current high demand is due to its use in lithium ion batteries for portable electronic devices, whose manufacture and market are extensively growing every day. These days there is a great concern about the final disposal of these batteries. Therefore, the possibility of developing new methodologies to recycle their components is of great importance, both commercially and environmentally. This paper presents results regarding important operational variables for the dissolution of the lithium and cobalt mixed-oxide (LiCoO2 cathodes from spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs with hydrofluoric acid. The recovery and synthesis of Co and Li compounds were also investigated. The dissolution parameters studied were: temperature, reaction time, solid-liquid ratio, stirring speed, and concentration of HF. The investigated recovery parameters included: pH, temperature, and time with and without stirring. The final precipitation of lithium fluoride was also examined. The results indicate that an increase in the HF concentration, temperature, and reaction time favors the leaching reaction of the LiCoO2. Dissolutions were close to 60%, at 75 °C and 120 min with a HF concentration of 25% (v/v. The recovery of Co and Li were 98% and 80%, respectively, with purities higher than 94%. Co and Li compounds, such as Co3O4 and LiF, were synthesized. Furthermore, it was possible to almost completely eliminate the F− ions as CaF2.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of decameric and monomeric forms of C49S mutant thioredoxin-dependent AhpC from Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supangat; Seo, Kyung Hye; Furqoni, Ahmad; Kwon, Young-Chul; Cho, Myung-Je; Rhee, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Kon Ho

    2008-01-01

    Decameric and monomeric forms of recombinant C49S mutant AhpC from H. pylori have been crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.8 and 2.25 Å, respectively. Cys49Ser mutant Helicobacter pylori alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (C49S HpAhpC) was purified under reducing conditions in monomeric and decameric forms. The monomeric form was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 2.25 Å resolution and belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 245.8, b = 140.7, c = 189.5 Å, β = 127°, and contained 20 molecules in the asymmetric unit. A crystal of the decameric form was obtained by the microbatch crystallization method and diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution. It belonged to space group C222, with unit-cell parameters a = 257.5, b = 417.5, c = 95.6 Å. The structure of the monomeric form of C49S HpAhpC has been solved by the molecular-replacement method

  19. Antioxidant effects of phenolic rye (Secale cereale L.) extracts, monomeric hydroxycinnamates, and ferulic acid dehydrodimers on human low-density lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, M.F.; Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Christensen, L.P.

    2001-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants that protect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from oxidation may help to prevent atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The antioxidant activities of purified monomeric and dimeric hydroxycinnamates and of phenolic extracts from rye (whole grain, bran, and flour) were...

  20. Liquid lithium blanket processing studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J.B.; Clinton, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    The sorption of tritium on yttrium from flowing molten lithium and the subsequent release of tritium from yttrium for regeneration of the metal sorbent were investigated to evaluate the feasibility of such a tritium-recovery process for a fusion reactor blanket of liquid lithium. In initial experiments with the forced convection loop, yttrium samples were contacted with lithium at 300 0 C. A mass transfer coefficient of 2.5 x 10 - cm/sec, which is more than an order of magnitude less than the value measured in earlier static experiments, was determined for the flowing lithium system. Rates of tritium release from yttrium samples were measured to evaluate possible thermal regeneration of the sorbent. Values for diffusion coefficients at 505, 800, and 900 0 C were estimated to be 1.1 x 10 -13 , 4.9 x 10 -12 , and 9.3 x 10 -10 cm 2 /sec, respectively. Tritium release from yttrium was investigated at higher temperatures and with hydrogen added to the argon sweep gas to provide a reducing atmosphere

  1. Interfacial reactions in lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil; Amine, Rachid; Ma, Zi-Feng

    2017-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery was first commercially introduced by Sony Corporation in 1991 using LiCoO 2 as the cathode material and mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) as the anode material. After continuous research and development for 25 years, lithium-ion batteries have been the dominant energy storage device for modern portable electronics, as well as for emerging applications for electric vehicles and smart grids. It is clear that the success of lithium-ion technologies is rooted to the existence of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that kinetically suppresses parasitic reactions between the lithiated graphitic anodes and the carbonate-based non-aqueous electrolytes. Recently, major attention has been paid to the importance of a similar passivation/protection layer on the surface of cathode materials, aiming for a rational design of high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries with extended cycle/calendar life. In this article, the physical model of the SEI, as well as recent research efforts to understand the nature and role of the SEI are summarized, and future perspectives on this important research field will also be presented. (topical review)

  2. Interfacial reactions in lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Rachid; Ma, Zi-Feng; Amine, Khalil

    2017-08-01

    The lithium-ion battery was first commercially introduced by Sony Corporation in 1991 using LiCoO2 as the cathode material and mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) as the anode material. After continuous research and development for 25 years, lithium-ion batteries have been the dominant energy storage device for modern portable electronics, as well as for emerging applications for electric vehicles and smart grids. It is clear that the success of lithium-ion technologies is rooted to the existence of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that kinetically suppresses parasitic reactions between the lithiated graphitic anodes and the carbonate-based non-aqueous electrolytes. Recently, major attention has been paid to the importance of a similar passivation/protection layer on the surface of cathode materials, aiming for a rational design of high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries with extended cycle/calendar life. In this article, the physical model of the SEI, as well as recent research efforts to understand the nature and role of the SEI are summarized, and future perspectives on this important research field will also be presented.

  3. Lithium target simulation in TECHNOFUSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomer, C.; Arino, X.; Reig, J.; Aleman, A.

    2010-01-01

    This project aims to build a facility where testing, under neutronic irradiation, the necessary materials for the construction of future fusion reactors. The intention is produced irradiation in a controlled way by deuterons bombing on a high speed lithium surface specially designed for that.

  4. Lithium inputs to subduction zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, C.; Elliott, T.R.; Vroon, P.Z.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the sedimentary and basaltic inputs of lithium to subduction zones. Various sediments from DSDP and ODP drill cores in front of the Mariana, South Sandwich, Banda, East Sunda and Lesser Antilles island arcs have been analysed and show highly variable Li contents and δ

  5. Control of Internal and External Short Circuits in Lithium Ion and Lithium Batteries, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has identified needs for compact high-energy-density primary and secondary batteries. Lithium and Lithium Ion cells, respectively, are meeting these needs for...

  6. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin; La Mantia, Fabio; Deshazer, Heather; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries that use aqueous electrolytes offer safety and cost advantages when compared to today's commercial cells that use organic electrolytes. The equilibrium reaction potential of lithium titanium phosphate is -0.5 V with respect

  7. Extraction of lithium Carbonate from Petalite Ore (Momeik District, Myanmar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tun Tun Moe

    2011-12-01

    The methods for preparing high purity lithium carbonate which can be used for pharmaceutical applications, electronic grade crystals of lithium or to prepare battery-grade lithium metal are disclosed. Lithium carbonate as commercially produced from mineral extraction, lithium containing brines or sea water. One method for the production of pure lithium carbonate from mineral source (petalite ore) obtained from Momeik District, Myanmar is disclosed. Method for mineral processing of ore concentrate is also disclosed.

  8. Measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in metallic lithium and lithium oxide samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The LBM program requires that nanocurie quantities of tritium, bred in both lithium oxide pellets and lithium samples, be measured with an uncertainty not exceeding + or - 6%. Two methods of accurately measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in LBM lithium oxide pellets and one method of accurately measuring nanocurie quantities of tritium bred in lithium samples are described. Potential errors associated with these tritium measurement techniques are also discussed

  9. Explosion of lithium-thionyl-chloride battery due to presence of lithium nitride

    OpenAIRE

    Hennesø, E.; Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2015-01-01

    An explosion of a lithium–thionyl-chloride (Li–SOCl2) battery during production (assembly) leads to serious worker injury. The accident cell batch had been in a dry-air intermediate storage room for months before being readied with thionyl chloride electrolyte. Metallic lithium can react with atmospheric nitrogen to produce lithium nitride. Nodules of lithium nitride were found to be present on the lithium foil in other cells of the accident batch. The investigation attributed the explosion t...

  10. Lithium-aluminum-iron electrode composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1979-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary electrochemical cell. The cell also includes an electrolyte with lithium ions such as a molten salt of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides that can be used in high-temperature cells. The cell's positive electrode contains a a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent in an alloy of aluminum-iron. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, aluminum and iron are formed. The lithium within the intermetallic phase of Al.sub.5 Fe.sub.2 exhibits increased activity over that of lithium within a lithium-aluminum alloy to provide an increased cell potential of up to about 0.25 volt.

  11. Stabilized Lithium-Metal Surface in a Polysulfide-Rich Environment of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Chenxi; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2014-08-07

    Lithium-metal anode degradation is one of the major challenges of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, hindering their practical utility as next-generation rechargeable battery chemistry. The polysulfide migration and shuttling associated with Li-S batteries can induce heterogeneities of the lithium-metal surface because it causes passivation by bulk insulating Li2S particles/electrolyte decomposition products on a lithium-metal surface. This promotes lithium dendrite formation and leads to poor lithium cycling efficiency with complicated lithium surface chemistry. Here, we show copper acetate as a surface stabilizer for lithium metal in a polysulfide-rich environment of Li-S batteries. The lithium surface is protected from parasitic reactions with the organic electrolyte and the migrating polysulfides by an in situ chemical formation of a passivation film consisting of mainly Li2S/Li2S2/CuS/Cu2S and electrolyte decomposition products. This passivation film also suppresses lithium dendrite formation by controlling the lithium deposition sites, leading to a stabilized lithium surface characterized by a dendrite-free morphology and improved surface chemistry.

  12. Lithium in drinking water and suicide mortality: The interplay with lithium prescriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbich, M; Leitner, M; Kapusta, N

    Background Little is known about the effects of lithium intake through drinking water on suicide. This intake originates either from natural rock and soil elution and/or accumulation of lithium-based pharmaceuticals in ground water. Aims To examine the interplay between natural lithium in drinking

  13. Direct extraction of negative lithium ions from a lithium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Tsuda, H.; Sasao, M.

    1990-01-01

    Negative lithium ions (Li - ) were directly extracted from a lithium plasma in a multiline cusp plasma container. A pair of permanent magnets mounted near the extractor electrode created the filter magnetic field that separated the extraction region plasma from the main discharge plasma. The plasma electrode facing the extraction region plasma was biased with respect to the other parts of the chamber wall, which acted as discharge anodes. The larger filter magnetic field resulted larger Li - current. When the bias to the plasma electrode was several volts positive against the anode potential, extracted Li - current took the maximum for a fixed strength of the filter field. These dependences of Li - upon the filter magnetic field and the plasma electrode bias are similar to the ones of negative hydrogen ions

  14. Functional alteration of a dimeric insecticidal lectin to a monomeric antifungal protein correlated to its oligomeric status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilanjana Banerjee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL is a 25-kDa homodimeric, insecticidal, mannose binding lectin whose subunits are assembled by the C-terminal exchange process. An attempt was made to convert dimeric ASAL into a monomeric form to correlate the relevance of quaternary association of subunits and their functional specificity. Using SWISS-MODEL program a stable monomer was designed by altering five amino acid residues near the C-terminus of ASAL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By introduction of 5 site-specific mutations (-DNSNN-, a β turn was incorporated between the 11(th and 12(th β strands of subunits of ASAL, resulting in a stable monomeric mutant ASAL (mASAL. mASAL was cloned and subsequently purified from a pMAL-c2X system. CD spectroscopic analysis confirmed the conservation of secondary structure in mASAL. Mannose binding assay confirmed that molecular mannose binds efficiently to both mASAL and ASAL. In contrast to ASAL, the hemagglutination activity of purified mASAL against rabbit erythrocytes was lost. An artificial diet bioassay of Lipaphis erysimi with mASAL displayed an insignificant level of insecticidal activity compared to ASAL. Fascinatingly, mASAL exhibited strong antifungal activity against the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Alternaria brassicicola in a disc diffusion assay. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of mASAL might be associated with the alteration of the membrane permeability of the fungus. Furthermore, a ligand blot assay of the membrane subproteome of R. solani with mASAL detected a glycoprotein receptor having interaction with mASAL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Conversion of ASAL into a stable monomer resulted in antifungal activity. From an evolutionary aspect, these data implied that variable quaternary organization of lectins might be the outcome of defense-related adaptations to diverse situations in plants. Incorporation of m

  15. Electrode materials and lithium battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil [Downers Grove, IL; Belharouak, Ilias [Westmont, IL; Liu, Jun [Naperville, IL

    2011-06-28

    A material comprising a lithium titanate comprising a plurality of primary particles and secondary particles, wherein the average primary particle size is about 1 nm to about 500 nm and the average secondary particle size is about 1 .mu.m to about 4 .mu.m. In some embodiments the lithium titanate is carbon-coated. Also provided are methods of preparing lithium titanates, and devices using such materials.

  16. Secondary lithium solid polymer electrolyte cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, K.A.; Sammells, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    A strategy for developing morphologically invariant lithium/solid polymer electrolyte interface is being investigated via the use of lithium intercalated electrodes. Emphasis is being placed upon the rutile material Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ 0.1 < x < 1.0. An absence of shape change at this interface is expected to result in both long cycle life electrochemical cells and the simultaneous maintenance of small interelectrode spacing so that low IR losses can be maintained. During fabrication of cells investigated here both electrochemical and chemical lithium intercalation of WO/sub 2/ was pursued. In the case of larger WO/sub 2/ electrodes initially prepared for fully discharged state cells, electrochemical intercalation during cell charge was found to require significant time, and the reproducible achievement of complete uniform intercalation across the negative electrode became an issue. Emphasis was consequently placed upon cells fabricated using Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ electrodes initially chemically intercalated by lithium prior to cell assembly. Previous work has demonstrated direct lithium intercalation of metal dichalcogenides using n-BuLi. Lithium activity in n-BuLi is, however, insufficient to achieve lithium intercalation of WO/sub 2//sup 4/. However, recent work has shown that WO/sub 2/ can be directly lithium intercalated upon immersion in lithium naphthalide. Li/sub x/WO/sub 2/ electrodes prepared in this work were intercalated using lithium naphthalide (0.8M) in 2MeTHF. Lithium intercalation was found to readily occur at room temperature, being initially rapid and slowing as bulk intercalation within the electrode proceeded. For electrodes intercalated in this manner, a relationship was identified between the degree of lithium intercalation and initial open-circuit potential in liquid non-aqueous electrolyte

  17. Abundance of lithium in Pleiades F stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilachowski, C.A.; Booth, J.; Hobbs, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    The abundance of lithium has been determined for 18 stars in the Pleiades cluster with spectral types from A7V to G0V. The pronounced dip in the lithium abundance among the mid-F stars which has been reported for other, older star clusters is not present in the Pleiades. The removal of lithium from the surfaces of middle-F dwarfs therefore occurs principally after about 100 Myr on the main sequence. 25 references

  18. Spectral emission measurements of lithium on the lithium tokamak experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, T. K.; Biewer, T. M.; Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Boyle, D. P.; Granstedt, E. M.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    There has been a long-standing collaboration between ORNL and PPPL on edge and boundary layer physics. As part of this collaboration, ORNL has a large role in the instrumentation and interpretation of edge physics in the lithium tokamak experiment (LTX). In particular, a charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) diagnostic is being designed and undergoing staged testing on LTX. Here we present results of passively measured lithium emission at 5166.89 A in LTX in anticipation of active spectroscopy measurements, which will be enabled by the installation of a neutral beam in 2013. Preliminary measurements are made in transient LTX plasmas with plasma current, I{sub p} < 70 kA, ohmic heating power, P{sub oh}{approx} 0.3 MW and discharge lifetimes of 10-15 ms. Measurements are made with a short focal length spectrometer and optics similar to the CHERS diagnostics on NSTX [R. E. Bell, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(2), 1273-1280 (1997)]. These preliminary measurements suggest that even without the neutral beam for active spectroscopy, there is sufficient passive lithium emission to allow for line-of-sight profile measurements of ion temperature, T{sub i}; toroidal velocity and v{sub t}. Results show peak T{sub i} = 70 eV and peak v{sub t} = 45 km/s were reached 10 ms into the discharge.

  19. Electrode nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaroslavtsev, A B; Kulova, T L; Skundin, A M

    2015-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in the field of cathode and anode nanomaterials for lithium-ion batteries is considered. The use of these nanomaterials provides higher charge and discharge rates, reduces the adverse effect of degradation processes caused by volume variations in electrode materials upon lithium intercalation and deintercalation and enhances the power and working capacity of lithium-ion batteries. In discussing the cathode materials, attention is focused on double phosphates and silicates of lithium and transition metals and also on vanadium oxides. The anode materials based on nanodispersions of carbon, silicon, certain metals, oxides and on nanocomposites are also described. The bibliography includes 714 references

  20. Lithium-ion batteries fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph:Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteriesDescribes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separatorsDiscusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current col

  1. Lithium-Oxygen Batteries: At a Crossroads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Tejs; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Siegel, Donald Jason

    2017-01-01

    In this current opinion, we critically review and discuss some of the most important recent findings in the field of rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries. We discuss recent discoveries like the evolution of reactive singlet oxygen and the use of organic additives to bypass reactive LiO2 reaction...... intermediates, and their possible implications on the potential for commercialization of lithium-oxygen batteries. Finally, we perform a critical assessment of lithium-superoxide batteries and the reversibility of lithium-hydroxide batteries....

  2. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  3. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  4. Lithium aluminates and tritium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera G, L.M.; Palacios G, O.; Bosch G, P.

    1997-01-01

    In this work it is studied the crystalline structure of lithium aluminates prepared by three different methods, namely: solid state reaction, humid reaction and sol-gel reaction. The analysis methods are the X-ray diffractometry and the scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This study is realized as in original materials as in irradiated materials at the TRIGA Mark reactor, to correlate the synthesis method with response of these materials to the mixed irradiation of nuclear reactor. (Author)

  5. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  6. Effect of artificial accelerated aging on the optical properties and monomeric conversion of composites used after expiration date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Mundim, Fabricio Mariano; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri; Puppin Rontani, Regina Maria; Consani, Simonides

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate how artificial accelerated aging (AAA) affected color stability (ΔE), opacity (ΔOP), and degree of conversion (DOC) for 3 composite materials (Tetric Ceram, Tetric Ceram HB, and Tetric Flow) used both 180 days before and 180 days after their expiration dates. To evaluate the materials' optical properties, 10 specimens of each composite-5 prior to expiration and 5 after the materials' expiration date-were made in a teflon matrix. After polishing, the specimens were submitted to initial color and opacity readings and submitted to AAA for 384 hours; at that point, new readings were taken to determine ΔE and ΔOP. To evaluate monomeric conversion evaluation, 6 specimens from each composite and expiration date-3 prior to AAA and 3 after-were submitted to DOC analysis. Results of the 2-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's tests (P 0.05). The expired Tetric Flow had the highest DOC values (71.42% ± 4.21) before AAA, significantly different than that of the other composites (P > 0.05). It was concluded that both expiration date and AAA affected the properties of the composites tested.

  7. Gas-phase synthesis and structure of monomeric ZnOH: a model species for metalloenzymes and catalytic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Lindsay N; Sun, Ming; Bucchino, Matthew P; Clouthier, Dennis J; Ziurys, Lucy M

    2012-02-16

    Monomeric ZnOH has been studied for the first time using millimeter and microwave gas-phase spectroscopy. ZnOH is important in surface processes and at the active site of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. In the millimeter-wave direct-absorption experiments, ZnOH was synthesized by reacting zinc vapor, produced in a Broida-type oven, with water. In the Fourier-transform microwave measurements, ZnOH was produced in a supersonic jet expansion of CH(3)OH and zinc vapor, created by laser ablation. Multiple rotational transitions of six ZnOH isotopologues in their X(2)A' ground states were measured over the frequency range of 22-482 GHz, and splittings due to fine and hyperfine structure were resolved. An asymmetric top pattern was observed in the spectra, showing that ZnOH is bent, indicative of covalent bonding. From these data, spectroscopic constants and an accurate structure were determined. The Zn-O bond length was found to be similar to that in carbonic anhydrase and other model enzyme systems.

  8. Pleiotropic benefit of monomeric and oligomeric flavanols on vascular health--a randomized controlled clinical pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weseler, Antje R; Ruijters, Erik J B; Drittij-Reijnders, Marie-José; Reesink, Koen D; Haenen, Guido R M M; Bast, Aalt

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are expanding to a major social-economic burden in the Western World and undermine man's deep desire for healthy ageing. Epidemiological studies suggest that flavanol-rich foods (e.g. grapes, wine, chocolate) sustain cardiovascular health. For an evidenced-based application, however, sound clinical data on their efficacy are strongly demanded. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention study we supplemented 28 male smokers with 200 mg per day of monomeric and oligomeric flavanols (MOF) from grape seeds. At baseline, after 4 and 8 weeks we measured macro- and microvascular function and a cluster of systemic biomarkers for major pathological processes occurring in the vasculature: disturbances in lipid metabolism and cellular redox balance, and activation of inflammatory cells and platelets. In the MOF group serum total cholesterol and LDL decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) by 5% (n = 11) and 7% (n = 9), respectively in volunteers with elevated baseline levels. Additionally, after 8 weeks the ratio of glutathione to glutathione disulphide in erythrocytes rose from baseline by 22% (n = 15, Pbenefit of an 8 weeks supplementation with 200 mg/d MOF in humans. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00742287.

  9. Resonance Raman assignment and evidence for noncoupling of individual 2- and 4-vinyl vibrational modes in a monomeric cyanomethemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gersonde, K.; Yu, N.T.; Lin, S.H.; Smith, K.M.; Parish, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated the resonance Raman spectra of monomeric insect cyanomethemoglobins (CTT III and CTT IV) reconstituted with (1) protohemes IX selectively deuterated at the 4-vinyl as well as the 2,4-divinyls, (2) monovinyl-truncated hemes such as pemptoheme (2-hydrogen, 4-vinyl) and isopemptoheme (2-vinyl, 4-hydrogen), (3) symmetric hemes such as protoheme III (with 2- and 3-vinyls) and protoheme XIII (with 1- and 4-vinyls), and (4) hemes without 2- and 4-vinyls such as mesoheme IX, deuteroheme IX, 2,4-dimethyldeuteroheme IX, and 2,4-dibromodeuteroheme IX. Evidence is presented that the highly localized vinyl C = C stretching vibrations at the 2- and 4-positions of the heme in these cyanomet CTT hemoglobins are noncoupled and inequivalent; i.e., the 1631- and 1624-cm-1 lines have been assigned to 2-vinyl and 4-vinyl, respectively. The elimination of the 2-vinyl (in pemptoheme) or the 4-vinyl (in isopemptoheme) does not affect the C = C stretching frequency of the remaining vinyl. Furthermore, two low-frequency vinyl bending modes at 412 and 591 cm-1 exhibit greatly different resonance Raman intensities between 2-vinyl and 4-vinyl. The observed intensity at 412 cm-1 is primarily derived from 4-vinyl, whereas the 591-cm-1 line results exclusively from the 2-vinyl. Again, there is no significant coupling between 2-vinyl and 4-vinyl for these two bending modes

  10. A 12-week DBPC dose-finding study with sublingual monomeric allergoid tablets in house dust mite-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüser, C; Dieterich, P; Singh, J; Shah-Hosseini, K; Allekotte, S; Lehmacher, W; Compalati, E; Mösges, R

    2017-01-01

    In sublingual immunotherapy, optimal doses are a key factor for therapeutic outcomes. The aim of this study with tablets containing carbamylated monomeric house dust mite allergoids was to determine the most effective and safe dose. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-finding study, 131 patients with house dust mite-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis were randomized to 12-week treatments with 300 UA/day, 1000 UA/day, 2000 UA/day, 3000 UA/day or placebo. Conjunctival provocation tests (CPT) were performed before, during and after treatment. The change in mean allergic severity (primary endpoint), calculated from the severity of the CPT reaction, and the proportion of patients with an improved CPT threshold (secondary endpoint) determined the treatment effect. The mean allergic severity decreased in all groups, including the placebo group. It was lower in all active treatment groups (300 UA/day: 0.14, 1000 UA/day: 0.15, 2000 UA/day: 0.10, 3000 UA/day: 0.15) than in the placebo group (0.30). However, this difference was not statistically significant (P allergoid sublingual tablets is well tolerated and reduces the CPT reaction in house dust mite-allergic patients. © 2016 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Optimized labeling of membrane proteins for applications to super-resolution imaging in confined cellular environments using monomeric streptavidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamma, Ingrid; Rossier, Olivier; Giannone, Grégory; Thoumine, Olivier; Sainlos, Matthieu

    2017-04-01

    Recent progress in super-resolution imaging (SRI) has created a strong need to improve protein labeling with probes of small size that minimize the target-to-label distance, increase labeling density, and efficiently penetrate thick biological tissues. This protocol describes a method for labeling genetically modified proteins incorporating a small biotin acceptor peptide with a 3-nm fluorescent probe, monomeric streptavidin. We show how to express, purify, and conjugate the probe to organic dyes with different fluorescent properties, and how to label selectively biotinylated membrane proteins for SRI techniques (point accumulation in nanoscale topography (PAINT), stimulated emission depletion (STED), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM)). This method is complementary to the previously described anti-GFP-nanobody/SNAP-tag strategies, with the main advantage being that it requires only a short 15-amino-acid tag, and can thus be used with proteins resistant to fusion with large tags and for multicolor imaging. The protocol requires standard molecular biology/biochemistry equipment, making it easily accessible for laboratories with only basic skills in cell biology and biochemistry. The production/purification/conjugation steps take ∼5 d, and labeling takes a few minutes to an hour.

  12. Monomeric, porous type II collagen scaffolds promote chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaddon, M.; Burrows, M.; Ferreira, S. A.; Dazzi, F.; Apperley, J. F.; Bradshaw, A.; Brand, D. D.; Czernuszka, J.; Gentleman, E.

    2017-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common cause of pain and disability and is often associated with the degeneration of articular cartilage. Lesions to the articular surface, which are thought to progress to OA, have the potential to be repaired using tissue engineering strategies; however, it remains challenging to instruct cell differentiation within a scaffold to produce tissue with appropriate structural, chemical and mechanical properties. We aimed to address this by driving progenitor cells to adopt a chondrogenic phenotype through the tailoring of scaffold composition and physical properties. Monomeric type-I and type-II collagen scaffolds, which avoid potential immunogenicity associated with fibrillar collagens, were fabricated with and without chondroitin sulfate (CS) and their ability to stimulate the chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells was assessed. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that cells produced abundant collagen type-II on type-II scaffolds and collagen type-I on type-I scaffolds. Gene expression analyses indicated that the addition of CS - which was released from scaffolds quickly - significantly upregulated expression of type II collagen, compared to type-I and pure type-II scaffolds. We conclude that collagen type-II and CS can be used to promote a more chondrogenic phenotype in the absence of growth factors, potentially providing an eventual therapy to prevent OA.

  13. I222 crystal form of despentapeptide (B26-B30) insulin provides new insights into the properties of monomeric insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittingham, Jean L; Youshang, Zhang; Záková, Lenka; Dodson, Eleanor J; Turkenburg, Johan P; Brange, Jens; Dodson, G Guy

    2006-05-01

    Despentapeptide (des-B26-B30) insulin (DPI), an active modified insulin, has been crystallized in the presence of 20% acetic acid pH 2. A crystal structure analysis to 1.8 A spacing (space group I222) revealed that the DPI molecule, which is unable to make beta-strand interactions for physiological dimer formation and is apparently monomeric in solution, formed an alternative lattice-generated dimer. The formation of this dimer involved interactions between surfaces which included the B9-B19 alpha-helices (usually buried by the dimer-dimer contacts within the native hexamer). The two crystallographically independent molecules within the dimer were essentially identical and were similar in conformation to T-state insulin as seen in the T(6) insulin hexamer. An unusual feature of each molecule in the dimer was the presence of two independent conformations at the B-chain C-terminus (residues B20-B25). Both conformations were different from that of native insulin, involving a 3.5 A displacement of the B20-B23 beta-turn and a repositioning of residue PheB25 such that it made close van der Waals contact with the main body of the molecule, appearing to stabilize the B-chain C-terminus.

  14. Lithium ion storage between graphenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we investigate the storage of lithium ions between two parallel graphene sheets using the continuous approximation and the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential. The continuous approximation assumes that the carbon atoms can be replaced by a uniform distribution across the surface of the graphene sheets so that the total interaction potential can be approximated by performing surface integrations. The number of ion layers determines the major storage characteristics of the battery, and our results show three distinct ionic configurations, namely single, double, and triple ion forming layers between graphenes. The number densities of lithium ions between the two graphenes are estimated from existing semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations, and the graphene sheets giving rise to the triple ion layers admit the largest storage capacity at all temperatures, followed by a marginal decrease of storage capacity for the case of double ion layers. These two configurations exceed the maximum theoretical storage capacity of graphite. Further, on taking into account the charge-discharge property, the double ion layers are the most preferable choice for enhanced lithium storage. Although the single ion layer provides the least charge storage, it turns out to be the most stable configuration at all temperatures. One application of the present study is for the design of future high energy density alkali batteries using graphene sheets as anodes for which an analytical formulation might greatly facilitate rapid computational results.

  15. Lithium actinide recycle process demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.K.; Pierce, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Several pyrochemical processes have been developed in the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne Laboratory for recovery of actinide elements from LWR spent fuel. The lithium process was selected as the reference process from among the options. In this process the LWR oxide spent fuel is reduced by lithium at 650{degrees}C in the presence of molten LiCl. The Li{sub 2}O formed during the reduction process is soluble in the salt. The spent salt and lithium are recycled after the Li{sub 2}O is electrochemically reduced. The oxygen is liberated as CO{sub 2} at a carbon anode or oxygen at an inert anode. The reduced metal components of the LWR spent fuel are separated from the LiCL salt phase and introduced into an electrorefiner. The electrorefining step separates the uranium and transuranium (TRU) elements into two product streams. The uranium product, which comprises about 96% of the LWR spent fuel mass, may be enriched for recycle into the LWR fuel cycle, stored for future use in breeder reactors, or converted to a suitable form for disposal as waste. The TRU product can be recycled as fast reactor fuel or can be alloyed with constituents of the LWR cladding material to produce a stable waste form.

  16. Lithium Pharmacogenetics: Where Do We Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanu, Claudia; Melis, Carla; Squassina, Alessio

    2016-11-01

    Preclinical Research Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a chronic and disabling psychiatric disorder with a prevalence of 0.8-1.2% in the general population. Although lithium is considered the first-line treatment, a large percentage of patients do not respond sufficiently. Moreover, lithium can induce severe side effects and has poor tolerance and a narrow therapeutic index. The genetics of lithium response has been largely investigated, but findings have so far failed to identify reliable biomarkers to predict clinical response. This has been largely determined by the highly complex phenotipic and genetic architecture of lithium response. To this regard, collaborative initiatives hold the promise to provide robust and standardized methods to disantenagle this complexity, as well as the capacity to collect large samples of patietnts, a crucial requirement to study the genetics of complex phenotypes. The International Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen) has recently published the largest study so far on lithium response reporting significant associations for two long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). This result provides relevant insights into the pharmacogenetics of lithium supporting the involvement of the noncoding portion of the genome in modulating clinical response. Although a vast body of research is engaged in dissecting the genetic bases of response to lithium, the several drawbacks of lithium therapy have also stimulated multiple efforts to identify new safer treatments. A drug repurposing approach identified ebselen as a potential lithium mimetic, as it shares with lithium the ability to inhibit inositol monophosphatase. Ebselen, an antioxidant glutathione peroxidase mimetic, represents a valid and promising example of new potential therapeutic interventions for BD, but the paucity of data warrant further investigation to elucidate its potential efficacy and safety in the management of BPD. Nevertheless, findings provided by the growing field of pharmacogenomic

  17. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water & Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, Steven J

    2015-11-30

    The global demand for rechargeable batteries is large and growing rapidly. Assuming the adoption of electric vehicles continues to increase, the need for smaller, lighter, and less expensive batteries will become even more pressing. In this vein, PolyPlus Battery Company has developed ultra-light high performance batteries based on its proprietary protected lithium electrode (PLE) technology. The Company’s Lithium-Air and Lithium-Seawater batteries have already demonstrated world record performance (verified by third party testing), and we are developing advanced lithium-sulfur batteries which have the potential deliver high performance at low cost. In this program PolyPlus Battery Company teamed with Corning Incorporated to transition the PLE technology from bench top fabrication using manual tooling to a pre- commercial semi-automated pilot line. At the inception of this program PolyPlus worked with a Tier 1 battery manufacturing engineering firm to design and build the first-of-its-kind pilot line for PLE production. The pilot line was shipped and installed in Berkeley, California several months after the start of the program. PolyPlus spent the next two years working with and optimizing the pilot line and now produces all of its PLEs on this line. The optimization process successfully increased the yield, throughput, and quality of PLEs produced on the pilot line. The Corning team focused on fabrication and scale-up of the ceramic membranes that are key to the PLE technology. PolyPlus next demonstrated that it could take Corning membranes through the pilot line process to produce state-of-the-art protected lithium electrodes. In the latter part of the program the Corning team developed alternative membranes targeted for the large rechargeable battery market. PolyPlus is now in discussions with several potential customers for its advanced PLE-enabled batteries, and is building relationships and infrastructure for the transition into manufacturing. It is likely

  18. Antioxidant effects of phenolic rye (Secale cereale L.) extracts, monomeric hydroxycinnamates, and ferulic acid dehydrodimers on human low-density lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mette Findal; Landbo, A K; Christensen, L P

    2001-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants that protect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from oxidation may help to prevent atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The antioxidant activities of purified monomeric and dimeric hydroxycinnamates and of phenolic extracts from rye (whole grain, bran, and flour) were...... investigated using an in vitro copper-catalyzed human LDL oxidation assay. The most abundant ferulic acid dehydrodimer (diFA) found in rye, 8-O-4-diFA, was a slightly better antioxidant than ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity of the 8-5-diFA was comparable to that of ferulic acid......, but neither 5-5-diFA nor 8-5-benzofuran-diFA inhibited LDL oxidation when added at 10-40 microM. The antioxidant activity of the monomeric hydroxycinnamates decreased in the following order: caffeic acid > sinapic acid > ferulic acid > p-coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity of rye extracts...

  19. Isolated thoughts and feelings and unsolved concerns: adolescents' and parents' perspectives on living with type 1 diabetes - a qualitative study using visual storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castensøe-Seidenfaden, Pernille; Teilmann, Grete; Kensing, Finn; Hommel, Eva; Olsen, Birthe Susanne; Husted, Gitte Reventlov

    2017-10-01

    To explore and describe the experiences of adolescents and their parents living with type 1 diabetes, to identify their needs for support to improve adolescents' self-management skills in the transition from child- to adulthood. Adolescents with type 1 diabetes often experience deteriorating glycaemic control and distress. Parents are important in adolescents' ability to self-manage type 1 diabetes, but they report anxiety and frustrations. A better understanding of the challenges adolescents and parents face, in relation to the daily self-management of type 1 diabetes, is important to improve clinical practice. A qualitative explorative study using visual storytelling as part of individual interviews. A purposive sample of nine adolescents and their parents (seven mothers, six fathers) took photographs illustrating their experiences living with type 1 diabetes. Subsequently, participants were interviewed individually guided by participants' photographs and a semistructured interview guide. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Four major themes were consistent across adolescents and their parents: (1) striving for safety, (2) striving for normality, (3) striving for independence and (4) worrying about future. Although adolescents and parents had same concerns and challenges living with type 1 diabetes, they were experienced differently. Their thoughts and feelings mostly remained isolated and their concerns and challenges unsolved. The concerns and challenges adolescents and their parents face in the transition from child- to adulthood are still present despite new treatment modalities. Parents are fundamental in supporting the adolescents' self-management-work; however, the parties have unspoken concerns and challenges. Healthcare providers should address the parties' challenges and concerns living with type 1 diabetes to diminish worries about future including fear of hypoglycaemia, the burden of type 1 diabetes and the feeling of being incompetent

  20. Police close unsolved 'climategate' investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Gemma

    2012-09-01

    Police in Norfolk in the UK have closed an investigation into the hacking of e-mails at the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit (CRU) after admitting that they will not be able to find the hackers who broke into CRU computer servers.

  1. Nuclear waste - the unsolved problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, S.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear waste is identified and the problems created by reprocessing are mentioned. The disposal option for low, intermediate and high-level radioactive wastes are discussed. Sites where disposal has taken place have been found to be unsatisfactory because of contamination and radionuclide migration. The Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) is not seen as having any more credibility than the other nuclear authorities involved (BNFL, UKAEA, CEGB). Until an adequate, publically acceptable, method of disposing of the wastes already created has been found the author states that no more should be created. (U.K.)

  2. The structure of mAG, a monomeric mutant of the green fluorescent protein Azami-Green, reveals the structural basis of its stable green emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Tatsuki; Yamamura, Akihiro; Kameda, Yasuhiro; Hayakawa, Kou; Nagata, Koji; Tanokura, Masaru

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure of a monomeric mutant of Azami-Green (mAG) from G. fascicularis was determined at 2.2 Å resolution. Monomeric Azami-Green (mAG) from the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis is the first known monomeric green-emitting fluorescent protein that is not a variant of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (avGFP). These two green fluorescent proteins are only 27% identical in their amino-acid sequences. mAG is more similar in its amino-acid sequence to four fluorescent proteins: Dendra2 (a green-to-red irreversibly photoconverting fluorescent protein), Dronpa (a bright-and-dark reversibly photoswitchable fluorescent protein), KikG (a tetrameric green-emitting fluorescent protein) and Kaede (another green-to-red irreversibly photoconverting fluorescent protein). To reveal the structural basis of stable green emission by mAG, the 2.2 Å crystal structure of mAG has been determined and compared with the crystal structures of avGFP, Dronpa, Dendra2, Kaede and KikG. The structural comparison revealed that the chromophore formed by Gln62-Tyr63-Gly64 (QYG) and the fixing of the conformation of the imidazole ring of His193 by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals contacts involving His193, Arg66 and Thr69 are likely to be required for the stable green emission of mAG. The crystal structure of mAG will contribute to the design and development of new monomeric fluorescent proteins with faster maturation, brighter fluorescence, improved photostability, new colours and other preferable properties as alternatives to avGFP and its variants

  3. A consideration of lithium cell safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobishima, Shin-ichi; Yamaki, Jun-ichi

    The safety characteristics of commercial lithium ion cells are examined in relation to their use as batteries for cellular phones. This report describes a theoretical approach to an understanding of cell safety, example results of safety tests that we performed on lithium ion cells, and also presents our views regarding cell safety.

  4. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    CERN Document Server

    Olivares, I E

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the sup 6 LiD sub 2 and the sup 7 LiD sub 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  5. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, I.E.; Rojas, C.

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the 6 LiD 2 and the 7 LiD 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  6. Cationic flotation of some lithium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valadao, G.E.S.; Peres, A.E.C.; Silva, H.C. da

    1984-01-01

    The cationic flotation of some lithium ores (spodumene, amblygonite, petalite, lepidolite) is studied by the measure of zeta potential and micro-flotation tests in Hallimond tube. The effect of some modifier agents (corn starch, meta sodium silicate) on the lithium flotation is studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  7. RECOVERY OF LITHIUM FROM WASTE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JITKA JANDOVÁ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, processes based on roasting-leaching-crystallization steps and condensation-precipitation steps for Li2CO3 separation from spent Li/MnO2 batteries and lithium-containing wastewaters were developed and verified on a laboratory scale. Spent Li/MnO2 batteries were roasted under reduced pressure at 650°C, which split the castings and deactivated the batteries by reduction of LiMnO2 and MnO2 with residual lithium metal and graphite to form MnO and Li2CO3. The resultant lithium carbonate was selectively solubilised in water with manganese remaining in the leach residue. Li2CO3 of 99.5 % purity was obtained after evaporation of 95 % water. Processing of lithium-containing alkaline wastewaters from the production of liquid rubber comprises condensation up to lithium concentration of 12-13 g/l Li and a two-step precipitation of lithium carbonate using CO2 as a precipitation agent. Sparingly soluble Li2CO3 was produced in the second step at 95°C, whilst most impurities remain in the solution. Obtained lithium carbonate products contained on average more than 99.5 % Li2CO3. The lithium precipitation efficiency was about 90 %.

  8. Lithium and sodium batteries with polysulfide electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mengliu; Ming, Jun; Li, Lain-Jong

    2017-01-01

    A battery comprising: at least one cathode, at least one anode, at least one battery separator, and at least one electrolyte disposed in the separator, wherein the anode is a lithium metal or lithium alloy anode or an anode adapted for intercalation

  9. The lithium-ion accumulators in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzari, O.

    2006-07-01

    This document takes stock on the different technologies of lithium based batteries developed in Japan as the materials used to produce their different elements. The today tendencies of the japanese researches are discussed. The applications of the lithium-ion are presented. A list of the main public and private laboratories in the domain and the research programs is provided. (A.L.B.)

  10. Lithium use and the risk of fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilting, Ingeborg; de Vries, Frank; Thio, Brahm M. K. S.; Cooper, Cyrus; Heerdink, Eibert R.; Leutkens, Hubert G. M.; Nolen, Willem A.; Egberts, Antoine C. G.; van Staa, Tjeerd P.

    A recent study reported a decreased risk of fractures among lithium users. We conducted a case-control study within the UK General Practice Research Database, comparing never, ever, current, recent and past lithium use in 231,778 fracture cases to matched controls. In addition, the risk of fractures

  11. Treatment of lithium induced tremor with atenolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davé, M

    1989-03-01

    This is the first report on the successful treatment of one patient with lithium induced tremor with hydrophilic atenolol, which is a relatively selective beta 1 adrenergic receptor blocker. Atenolol's advantages over lipophilic beta blockers in the treatment of lithium induced tremor are discussed.

  12. Patterns and clinical outcomes of lithium treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilting, I.

    2008-01-01

    Patterns and consequences of lithium use’. In chapter 2.1 we studied lithium use patterns in out-patients within the last decade. In line with the increase in alternatives and the Dutch guidelines, we observed an increase in use of atypical antipsychotics and valproic acid and a decrease in use

  13. Development of bisphenol A-removing recombinant Escherichia coli by monomeric and dimeric surface display of bisphenol A-binding peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthamuthu, Murali Kannan; Hong, Jiyeon; Arulsamy, Kulandaisamy; Somasundaram, Sivachandiran; Hong, SoonHo; Choe, Woo-Seok; Yoo, Ik-Keun

    2018-04-01

    Peptide-displaying Escherichia coli cells were investigated for use in adsorptive removal of bisphenol A (BPA) both in Luria-Bertani medium including BPA or ATM thermal paper eluted wastewater. Two recombinant strains were constructed with monomeric and dimeric repeats of the 7-mer BPA-binding peptide (KSLENSY), respectively. Greater than threefold increased adsorption of BPA [230.4 µmol BPA per g dry cell weight (DCW)] was found in dimeric peptide-displaying cells compared to monomeric strains (63.4 µmol per g DCW) in 15 ppm BPA solution. The selective removal of BPA from a mixture of BPA analogs (bisphenol F and bisphenol S) was verified in both monomeric and dimeric peptide-displaying cells. The binding chemistry of BPA with the peptide was assumed, based on molecular docking analysis, to be the interaction of BPA with serine and asparagine residues within the 7-mer peptide sequence. The peptide-displaying cells also functioned efficiently in thermal paper eluted wastewater containing 14.5 ppm BPA.

  14. Sequence-specific 1H-NMR assignments for the aromatic region of several biologically active, monomeric insulins including native human insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, M; Lee, R W; Kaarsholm, N C; Thøgersen, H; Brange, J; Dunn, M F

    1990-06-12

    The aromatic region of the 1H-FT-NMR spectrum of the biologically fully-potent, monomeric human insulin mutant, B9 Ser----Asp, B27 Thr----Glu has been investigated in D2O. At 1 to 5 mM concentrations, this mutant insulin is monomeric above pH 7.5. Coupling and amino acid classification of all aromatic signals is established via a combination of homonuclear one- and two-dimensional methods, including COSY, multiple quantum filters, selective spin decoupling and pH titrations. By comparisons with other insulin mutants and with chemically modified native insulins, all resonances in the aromatic region are given sequence-specific assignments without any reliance on the various crystal structures reported for insulin. These comparisons also give the sequence-specific assignments of most of the aromatic resonances of the mutant insulins B16 Tyr----Glu, B27 Thr----Glu and B25 Phe----Asp and the chemically modified species des-(B23-B30) insulin and monoiodo-Tyr A14 insulin. Chemical dispersion of the assigned resonances, ring current perturbations and comparisons at high pH have made possible the assignment of the aromatic resonances of human insulin, and these studies indicate that the major structural features of the human insulin monomer (including those critical to biological function) are also present in the monomeric mutant.

  15. 77 FR 68069 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal... primary and secondary lithium cells or lithium batteries internationally, or to and from an APO, FPO, or... prohibited the mailing of lithium batteries and cells internationally and when sent to and from any Army Post...

  16. 76 FR 55799 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal... would incorporate new maximum limits for the outbound mailing of lithium batteries to international, or... equipment with lithium metal or lithium-ion batteries that were to be effective October 3, 2011. These...

  17. 75 FR 1302 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... transportation of lithium cells and batteries, including lithium cells and batteries packed with or contained in equipment. The proposed changes are intended to enhance safety by ensuring that all lithium batteries are...

  18. Synthesis of lithium niobate and monocrystal growth by Czochralski method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzuweit, K.

    1988-01-01

    The qualitative analysis of lithium niobate by x-ray analysis and optical microscopy is presented. The lithium niobate compound was obtained by synthesis using niobium oxides and lithium carbonates. The lithium niobate monocrystal growth was done by Czochralski method. (M.C.K.)

  19. A lithium-oxygen battery based on lithium superoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Lee, Yun Jung; Luo, Xiangyi; Lau, Kah Chun; Asadi, Mohammad; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Brombosz, Scott; Wen, Jianguo; Zhai, Dengyun; Chen, Zonghai; Miller, Dean J; Jeong, Yo Sub; Park, Jin-Bum; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Kumar, Bijandra; Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Sun, Yang-Kook; Curtiss, Larry A; Amine, Khalil

    2016-01-21

    Batteries based on sodium superoxide and on potassium superoxide have recently been reported. However, there have been no reports of a battery based on lithium superoxide (LiO2), despite much research into the lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery because of its potential high energy density. Several studies of Li-O2 batteries have found evidence of LiO2 being formed as one component of the discharge product along with lithium peroxide (Li2O2). In addition, theoretical calculations have indicated that some forms of LiO2 may have a long lifetime. These studies also suggest that it might be possible to form LiO2 alone for use in a battery. However, solid LiO2 has been difficult to synthesize in pure form because it is thermodynamically unstable with respect to disproportionation, giving Li2O2 (refs 19, 20). Here we show that crystalline LiO2 can be stabilized in a Li-O2 battery by using a suitable graphene-based cathode. Various characterization techniques reveal no evidence for the presence of Li2O2. A novel templating growth mechanism involving the use of iridium nanoparticles on the cathode surface may be responsible for the growth of crystalline LiO2. Our results demonstrate that the LiO2 formed in the Li-O2 battery is stable enough for the battery to be repeatedly charged and discharged with a very low charge potential (about 3.2 volts). We anticipate that this discovery will lead to methods of synthesizing and stabilizing LiO2, which could open the way to high-energy-density batteries based on LiO2 as well as to other possible uses of this compound, such as oxygen storage.

  20. Novel lithium iron phosphate materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, Jelena

    2011-06-15

    Conventional energy sources are diminishing and non-renewable, take million years to form and cause environmental degradation. In the 21st century, we have to aim at achieving sustainable, environmentally friendly and cheap energy supply by employing renewable energy technologies associated with portable energy storage devices. Lithium-ion batteries can repeatedly generate clean energy from stored materials and convert reversely electric into chemical energy. The performance of lithium-ion batteries depends intimately on the properties of their materials. Presently used battery electrodes are expensive to be produced; they offer limited energy storage possibility and are unsafe to be used in larger dimensions restraining the diversity of application, especially in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). This thesis presents a major progress in the development of LiFePO4 as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. Using simple procedure, a completely novel morphology has been synthesized (mesocrystals of LiFePO4) and excellent electrochemical behavior was recorded (nanostructured LiFePO4). The newly developed reactions for synthesis of LiFePO4 are single-step processes and are taking place in an autoclave at significantly lower temperature (200 deg. C) compared to the conventional solid-state method (multi-step and up to 800 deg. C). The use of inexpensive environmentally benign precursors offers a green manufacturing approach for a large scale production. These newly developed experimental procedures can also be extended to other phospho-olivine materials, such as LiCoPO4 and LiMnPO4. The material with the best electrochemical behavior (nanostructured LiFePO4 with carbon coating) was able to deliver a stable 94% of the theoretically known capacity.

  1. Size effects in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Hu-Rong; Yin Ya-Xia; Guo Yu-Gao

    2016-01-01

    Size-related properties of novel lithium battery materials, arising from kinetics, thermodynamics, and newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms, are reviewed. Complementary experimental and computational investigations of the use of the size effects to modify electrodes and electrolytes for lithium ion batteries are enumerated and discussed together. Size differences in the materials in lithium ion batteries lead to a variety of exciting phenomena. Smaller-particle materials with highly connective interfaces and reduced diffusion paths exhibit higher rate performance than the corresponding bulk materials. The thermodynamics is also changed by the higher surface energy of smaller particles, affecting, for example, secondary surface reactions, lattice parameter, voltage, and the phase transformation mechanism. Newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms that result in superior storage capacity are also briefly highlighted. (topical review)

  2. Tritium recovery from lithium oxide pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.C.; Jassby, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    The TFTR Lithium Blanket Module is an assembly containing 650 kg of lithium oxide that will be used to test the ability of neutronics codes to model the tritium breeding characteristics of limited-coverage breeding zones in a tokamak. It is required that tritium concentrations as low as 0.1 nCi/g bred in both metallic lithium samples and lithium oxide pellets be measured with an uncertainty not exceeding +- 6%. A tritium assay technique for the metallic samples which meets this criterion has been developed. Two assay techniques for the lithium oxide pellets are being investigated. In one, the pellets are heated in a flowing stream of hydrogen, while in the other, the pellets are dissolved in 12 M hydrochloric acid

  3. Operation of the lithium pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlopenkov, K.V.; Sudo, S.; Sergeev, V.Yu.

    1996-05-01

    A lithium pellet injection requires an accurate handling with lithium and special technique of loading the pellets. Thus, the technology for this has been developed based on the following conditions: 1) Because of chemical activity of lithium it is necessary to operate in a glove-box with the noble gas atmosphere (He, Ar, etc.). 2) A special procedure of replacing the glove-box atmosphere allows to achieve high purity of the noble gas. 3) When making the pellets it is better to keep the clean lithium in the liquid hexane so as to maintain lithium purity. 4) The pressure of the accelerating gas for Li pellets should be not less than 30 atm. (author)

  4. A lithium deposition system for tokamak devices*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziul, Christopher; Majeski, Richard; Kaita, Robert; Hoffman, Daniel; Timberlake, John; Card, David

    2002-11-01

    The production of a lithium deposition system using commercially available components is discussed. This system is intended to provide a fresh lithium wall coating between discharges in a tokamak. For this purpose, a film 100-200 Å thick is sufficient to ensure that the plasma interacts solely with the lithium. A test system consisting of a lithium evaporator and a deposition monitor has been designed and constructed to investigate deposition rates and coverage. A Thermionics 3kW e-gun is used to rapidly evaporate small amounts of solid lithium. An Inficon XTM/2 quartz deposition monitor then measures deposition rate at varying distances, positions and angles relative to the e-gun crucible. Initial results from the test system will be presented. *Supported by US DOE contract #DE-AC02-76CH-03073

  5. Module of lithium divertor for KTM tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyublinski, I., E-mail: yublinski@yandex.ru [FSUE ' Red Star' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Vertkov, A.; Evtikhin, V.; Balakirev, V.; Ionov, D.; Zharkov, M. [FSUE ' Red Star' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Tazhibayeva, I. [IAE NNC RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Mirnov, S. [TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Khomiakov, S.; Mitin, D. [OJSC Dollezhal Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazzitelli, G. [ENEA RC Frascati (Italy); Agostini, P. [ENEA RC Brasimone (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Problems of PFE degradation, tritium accumulation and plasma pollution can be overcome by the use of liquid lithium-metal with low Z. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Capillary-porous system (CPS) - new material in which liquid lithium fill a solid matrix from porous material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lithium divertor module for KTM tokamak is under development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lithium filled tungsten felt is offered as the base plasma facing material of divertor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of this project addresses to the progress in the field of fusion neutrons source and fusion energy source creation. - Abstract: Activity on projects of ITER and DEMO reactors has shown that solution of problems of divertor target plates and other plasma facing elements (PFEs) based on the solid plasma facing materials cause serious difficulties. Problems of PFE degradation, tritium accumulation and plasma pollution can be overcome by the use of liquid lithium-metal with low Z. Application of lithium will allow to create a self-renewal and MHD stable liquid metal surface of the in-vessel devices possessing practically unlimited service life; to reduce power flux due to intensive re-irradiation on lithium atoms in plasma periphery that will essentially facilitate a problem of heat removal from PFE; to reduce Z{sub eff} of plasma to minimally possible level close to 1; to exclude tritium accumulation, that is provided with absence of dust products and an opportunity of the active control of the tritium contents in liquid lithium. Realization of these advantages is based on use of so-called lithium capillary-porous system (CPS) - new material in which liquid lithium fill a solid matrix from porous material. The progress in development of lithium technology and also activity in lithium experiments in the tokamaks TFTR, T-11M, T-10, FTU, NSTX, HT-7 and stellarator TJ II permits of solving the problems in development of

  6. Reactivity of lithium exposed graphite surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harilal, S.S.; Allain, J.P.; Hassanein, A.; Hendricks, M.R.; Nieto-Perez, M.

    2009-01-01

    Lithium as a plasma-facing component has many attractive features in fusion devices. We investigated chemical properties of the lithiated graphite surfaces during deposition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy. In this study we try to address some of the known issues during lithium deposition, viz., the chemical state of lithium on graphite substrate, oxide layer formation mechanisms, Li passivation effects over time, and chemical change during exposure of the sample to ambient air. X-ray photoelectron studies indicate changes in the chemical composition with various thickness of lithium on graphite during deposition. An oxide layer formation is noticed during lithium deposition even though all the experiments were performed in ultrahigh vacuum. The metal oxide is immediately transformed into carbonate when the deposited sample is exposed to air.

  7. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  8. A Lithium Vapor Box Divertor Similarity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert A.; Emdee, Eric D.; Goldston, Robert J.; Jaworski, Michael A.; Schwartz, Jacob A.

    2017-10-01

    A lithium vapor box divertor offers an alternate means of managing the extreme power density of divertor plasmas by leveraging gaseous lithium to volumetrically extract power. The vapor box divertor is a baffled slot with liquid lithium coated walls held at temperatures which increase toward the divertor floor. The resulting vapor pressure differential drives gaseous lithium from hotter chambers into cooler ones, where the lithium condenses and returns. A similarity experiment was devised to investigate the advantages offered by a vapor box divertor design. We discuss the design, construction, and early findings of the vapor box divertor experiment including vapor can construction, power transfer calculations, joint integrity tests, and thermocouple data logging. Heat redistribution of an incident plasma-based heat flux from a typical linear plasma device is also presented. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and The Princeton Environmental Institute.

  9. Properties of lithium and its handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Takashi; Kano, Shigeki; Tachi, Toshiaki; Kawai, Masataka

    2000-09-01

    Lithium is one of good coolants because of high boiling point (1317degC), small specific gravity (0.47 at 600degC) and large specific heat (1 cal/g/degC). Therefore if lithium will be used in fast reactor for coolant, the heat efficiency of reactor will largely increase. Here the fundamental properties of lithium and the results of examination on chemical reaction, combustion and extinction are shown. These examinations were also carried out on sodium to compare with lithium. The differences between both are that lithium reacts more moderately with water, not explosive, and is not combustible but after ignition burns at higher temperature and longer. (author)

  10. Suicide risk in patients treated with lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Søndergård, Lars; Kvist, Kajsa

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: Prior observational studies suggest that treatment with lithium may be associated with reduced risk of suicide in bipolar disorder. However, these studies are biased toward patients with the most severe disorders, and the relation to sex and age has seldom been investigated. OBJECTIVE......: To investigate whether treatment with lithium reduces the risk of suicide in a nationwide study. DESIGN: An observational cohort study with linkage of registers of all prescribed lithium and recorded suicides in Denmark during a period from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 1999. SETTING: All patients treated...... with lithium in Denmark, ie, within community psychiatry, private specialist practice settings, and general practice. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 13 186 patients who purchased at least 1 prescription of lithium and 1.2 million subjects from the general population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All suicides identified...

  11. Determination of reduction yield of lithium metal reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Kyu; Cho, Young Hwan; Kim, Taek Jin; Jee, Kwang Young

    2004-01-01

    Metal reduction of spent oxide fuel is the first step for the effective storage of spent fuel in Korea as well as transmutation purpose of long-lived radio-nuclides. During the reduction of uranium oxide by lithium metal to uranium metal, lithium oxide is stoichiometrically produced. By determining the concentration of lithium oxide in lithium chloride, we can estimate that how much uranium oxide is converted to uranium metal. Previous method to determine the lithium oxide concentration in lithium chloride is tedious and timing consuming. This paper describe the on-line monitoring method of lithium oxide during the reduction process

  12. Tracking Lithium Ions via Widefield Fluorescence Microscopy for Battery Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Nicolas A; Rea, Morgan T; Foy, Michael; Upadhyay, Sunil P; Desrochers, Kyle A; Derus, Tyler; Knapper, Kassandra A; Hunter, Nathanael H; Wood, Sharla; Hinton, Daniel A; Cavell, Andrew C; Masias, Alvaro G; Goldsmith, Randall H

    2017-07-28

    Direct tracking of lithium ions with time and spatial resolution can provide an important diagnostic tool for understanding mechanisms in lithium ion batteries. A fluorescent indicator of lithium ions, 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)naphthoxazole, was synthesized and used for real-time tracking of lithium ions via widefield fluorescence microscopy. The fluorophore can be excited with visible light and was shown to enable quantitative determination of the lithium ion diffusion constant in a microfluidic model system for a plasticized polymer electrolyte lithium battery. The use of widefield fluorescence microscopy for in situ tracking of lithium ions in batteries is discussed.

  13. Pleiotropic benefit of monomeric and oligomeric flavanols on vascular health--a randomized controlled clinical pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje R Weseler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are expanding to a major social-economic burden in the Western World and undermine man's deep desire for healthy ageing. Epidemiological studies suggest that flavanol-rich foods (e.g. grapes, wine, chocolate sustain cardiovascular health. For an evidenced-based application, however, sound clinical data on their efficacy are strongly demanded. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention study we supplemented 28 male smokers with 200 mg per day of monomeric and oligomeric flavanols (MOF from grape seeds. At baseline, after 4 and 8 weeks we measured macro- and microvascular function and a cluster of systemic biomarkers for major pathological processes occurring in the vasculature: disturbances in lipid metabolism and cellular redox balance, and activation of inflammatory cells and platelets. RESULTS: In the MOF group serum total cholesterol and LDL decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05 by 5% (n = 11 and 7% (n = 9, respectively in volunteers with elevated baseline levels. Additionally, after 8 weeks the ratio of glutathione to glutathione disulphide in erythrocytes rose from baseline by 22% (n = 15, P<0.05 in MOF supplemented subjects. We also observed that MOF supplementation exerts anti-inflammatory effects in blood towards ex vivo added bacterial endotoxin and significantly reduces expression of inflammatory genes in leukocytes. Conversely, alterations in macro- and microvascular function, platelet aggregation, plasma levels of nitric oxide surrogates, endothelin-1, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, prostaglandin F2alpha, plasma antioxidant capacity and gene expression levels of antioxidant defense enzymes did not reach statistical significance after 8 weeks MOF supplementation. However, integrating all measured effects into a global, so-called vascular health index revealed a significant improvement of overall vascular health by MOF compared to placebo (P ≤ 0.05. CONCLUSION: Our

  14. Lithium uptake and the corrosion of zirconium alloys in aqueous lithium hydroxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasubramanian, N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on corrosion films on zirconium alloys that were analyzed for lithium by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), and Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRAS). The oxides grown in reactor in dilute lithium hydroxide solution, specimens cut from Zircaloy, and Zr-2.5Nb alloy pressure tubes removed from CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium, Registered Trademark) reactors showed low concentrations of lithium (4 to 50 ppm). The lithium was not leachable in a warm dilute acid. 6 Li undergoes transmutation by the 6 Li(n,t) 4 He reaction. However, SIMS profiles for d 7 Li were identical through the bulk oxide and the isotopic ratio was close to the natural abundance value. The lithium in the oxide, existing as adsorbed lithium on the surface, has been in dynamic equilibrium with lithium in the coolant, and, in spite of many Effective Full Power Years (EFPY) of operation, lithium added to the CANDU coolant at ∼2.5 ppm is not concentrating in the oxides. On the other hand, corrosion films grown in the laboratory in concentrated lithium hydroxide solutions were very porous and contained hundreds of ppm of lithium in the oxide

  15. Lithium treatment of manio-depressive disorder. Two examples of treatment regimes with varying serum lithium concentration curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veimer Jensen, H.

    1998-07-01

    The importance of serum lithium profile in lithium maintenance treatment of manic-depressive disorder was studied by comparing pro-phylactic efficacy, side-effects and brain lithium level in patients on daily or alternate-day lithium dosing schedules. The aim of the study was to determine firstly, whether it is only necessary for the serum lithium concentration to periodically reach a certain level in order to ensure good prophylactic efficacy, and secondly, whether periodical lowering of the serum lithium level diminishes lithium-related side-effects. This was examined by extending the interval between lithium doses from 1 to 2 days, while maintaining the 12-h serum lithium concentration unchanged so as to achieve an unchanged serum lithium profile during the first 24-h period after lithium intake. The 12-h brain lithium concentration measured by 7 Li-magnetic resonance spectroscopy seemed to be independent of lithium dosing schedule, but correlated significantly with the 12-h serum lithium concentration, suggesting that at identical 12-h serum lithium concentrations, the 12-h brain lithium concentration is similar with both treatment regimens. (EG)

  16. Process for recovering tritium from molten lithium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, Victor A.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium tritide (LiT) is extracted from molten lithium metal that has been exposed to neutron irradiation for breeding tritium within a thermonuclear or fission reactor. The extraction is performed by intimately contacting the molten lithium metal with a molten lithium salt, for instance, lithium chloride - potassium chloride eutectic to distribute LiT between the salt and metal phases. The extracted tritium is recovered in gaseous form from the molten salt phase by a subsequent electrolytic or oxidation step.

  17. Optimizing lithium dosing in hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnason, N H; Munkner, R; Kampmann, J P

    2006-01-01

    in which we developed an algorithm based on a 2-compartment distribution without elimination. The GFR estimate led to plasma concentrations 3-4 times lower than those anticipated. In contrast, the estimates based on V(d) and the algorithm derived from pharmacokinetic modeling led to comparable loading dose...... in this patient with no residual kidney function. We did not observe adverse effects related to this regimen, which was monitored from 18 days to 8 months of therapy, and the patient experienced relief from her severe depressive disorder. In conclusion, dialysis patients may be treated with lithium administrated...

  18. Lithium concentration dependence of implanted helium retention in lithium silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szocs, D.E., E-mail: szocsd@rmki.kfki.h [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Szilagyi, E.; Bogdan, Cs.; Kotai, E. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Horvath, Z.E. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary)

    2010-06-15

    Helium ions of 500 keV were implanted with a fluence of 1.4 x 10{sup 17} ion/cm{sup 2} into various lithium silicates to investigate whether a threshold level of helium retention exists in Li-containing silicate ceramics similar to that found in SiO{sub x} in previous work. The composition and phases of the as prepared lithium silicates were determined by proton backscattering spectrometry (p-BS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods with an average error of {+-}10%. Electrostatic charging of the samples was successfully eliminated by wrapping the samples in Al foil. The amounts of the retained helium within the samples were determined by subtracting the non-implanted spectra from the implanted ones. The experimental results show a threshold in helium retention depending on the Li concentration. Under 20 at.% all He is able to escape from the material; at around 30 at.% nearly half of the He, while over 65 at.% all implanted He is retained. With compositions expressed in SiO{sub 2} volume percentages, a trend similar to those reported of SiO{sub x} previously is found.

  19. Balancing surface adsorption and diffusion of lithium-polysulfides on nonconductive oxides for lithium?sulfur battery design

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Xinyong; Wang, Jianguo; Liu, Chong; Wang, Haotian; Yao, Hongbin; Zheng, Guangyuan; Seh, Zhi Wei; Cai, Qiuxia; Li, Weiyang; Zhou, Guangmin; Zu, Chenxi; Cui, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Lithium?sulfur batteries have attracted attention due to their six-fold specific energy compared with conventional lithium-ion batteries. Dissolution of lithium polysulfides, volume expansion of sulfur and uncontrollable deposition of lithium sulfide are three of the main challenges for this technology. State-of-the-art sulfur cathodes based on metal-oxide nanostructures can suppress the shuttle-effect and enable controlled lithium sulfide deposition. However, a clear mechanistic understandin...

  20. Explosion of lithium-thionyl-chloride battery due to presence of lithium nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennesø, E.; Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2015-01-01

    An explosion of a lithium–thionyl-chloride (Li–SOCl2) battery during production (assembly) leads to serious worker injury. The accident cell batch had been in a dry-air intermediate storage room for months before being readied with thionyl chloride electrolyte. Metallic lithium can react...... with atmospheric nitrogen to produce lithium nitride. Nodules of lithium nitride were found to be present on the lithium foil in other cells of the accident batch. The investigation attributed the explosion to the formation of porous lithium nitride during intermediate storage and a violent exothermal...... decomposition with the SOCl2–LiAlCl4 electrolyte triggered by welding. The literature is silent on hazards of explosion of Li–SOCl2 cells associated with the presence of lithium nitride. The silence is intriguing. Possible causes may be that such explosions are very rare, that explosions go unpublished...

  1. Lithium Azide as an Electrolyte Additive for All-Solid-State Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshetu, Gebrekidan Gebresilassie; Judez, Xabier; Li, Chunmei; Bondarchuk, Oleksandr; Rodriguez-Martinez, Lide M; Zhang, Heng; Armand, Michel

    2017-11-27

    Of the various beyond-lithium-ion battery technologies, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have an appealing theoretical energy density and are being intensely investigated as next-generation rechargeable lithium-metal batteries. However, the stability of the lithium-metal (Li°) anode is among the most urgent challenges that need to be addressed to ensure the long-term stability of Li-S batteries. Herein, we report lithium azide (LiN 3 ) as a novel electrolyte additive for all-solid-state Li-S batteries (ASSLSBs). It results in the formation of a thin, compact and highly conductive passivation layer on the Li° anode, thereby avoiding dendrite formation, and polysulfide shuttling. It greatly enhances the cycling performance, Coulombic and energy efficiencies of ASSLSBs, outperforming the state-of-the-art additive lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Lithium technologies for edge plasma control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeev, Vladimir Yu.; Kuteev, Boris V.; Bykov, Aleksey S.; Krylov, Sergey V.; Skokov, Viacheslav G.; Timokhin, Vladimir M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We have investigated two new modes of operation been in T-10 limiter tokamak experiments with a novel rotary feeder of lithium dust. ► The observed decreases of bolometer and D β signals, with increase of the electron density during the lithium dust injection, reveal the effects of the first wall conditioning. ► The lithium technology may provide inherent safety mission for major disruption mitigation in a tokamak reactor, which requires demonstration in contemporary tokamak experiments. - Abstract: We have investigated two new modes of operation been in T-10 limiter tokamak experiments with a novel rotary feeder of lithium dust. Quasi steady-state mode I and pulse mode II of dust delivery were realized in both OH and OH + ECRH disruption free plasmas at the lithium flow rate up to 2 × 10 21 atoms/s. A higher flow rate in mode II with injection rate of ∼5 × 10 21 atoms/s caused a series of minor disruptions, which was completed by discharge termination after the major disruption. The observed decreases of bolometer and D β signals, with increase of the electron density during the lithium dust injection, reveal the effects of the first wall conditioning. The lithium technology may provide inherent safety pathway for major disruption mitigation in a tokamak reactor, which requires demonstration in contemporary tokamak experiments.

  3. Lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Luo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has long been used as a mood stabilizer in the treatment of manic-depressive (bipolar disorder. Recent studies suggest that lithium has neuroprotective properties and may be useful in the treatment of acute brain injuries such as ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One of the most important neuroprotective properties of lithium is its anti-apoptotic action. Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are caused by maternal ethanol exposure during pregnancy. FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation. Ethanol exposure causes neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Ethanol-induced loss of neurons in the central nervous system underlies many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Excessive alcohol consumption is also associated with Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome and neurodegeneration in the adult brain. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that lithium is able to ameliorate ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. Lithium is an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 which has recently been identified as a mediator of ethanol neurotoxicity. Lithium’s neuroprotection may be mediated by its inhibition of GSK3. In addition, lithium also affects many other signaling proteins and pathways that regulate neuronal survival and differentiation. This review discusses the recent evidence of lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity and potential underlying mechanisms.

  4. Lithium protects ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jin; Yang Xianlin; Yao Weiguo; Lee Weihua

    2006-01-01

    Lithium is widely used for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Recent studies have demonstrated its neuroprotective effect. Ethanol is a potent neurotoxin that is particularly harmful to the developing nervous system. In this study, we evaluated lithium's neuroprotection against ethanol-induced apoptosis. Transient exposure of infant mice to ethanol caused apoptotic cell death in brain, which was prevented significantly by administering a low dose of lithium 15 min later. In cultured cerebellar granule neurons, ethanol-induced apoptosis and activation of caspase-3/9, both of which were prevented by lithium. However, lithium's protection is not mediated by its commonly known inhibition of glycogen synthase3β, because neither ethanol nor lithium has significant effects on the phosphorylation of Akt (ser473) or GSK3β (ser9). In addition, the selective GSK-3β inhibitor SB-415286 was unable to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. These data suggest lithium may be used as a potential preventive measure for ethanol-induced neurological deficits

  5. CRITIC-I: Instrumented lithium oxide irradiation: Part 1, Lithium oxide fabrication and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applegate, D.S.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1987-06-01

    Fine-grained, sinterable lithium oxide powder was prepared by high-temperature vacuum calcination of molten lithium carbonate. The product was ball milled, cold pressed, and fired in an oxygen atmosphere. The fired density, grain size, and surface roughness varied widely with firing schedule. Most variations were attributed to moisture content. Rings of high-density, sintered lithium oxide will be used in an in-reactor experiment to measure tritium release. 2 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  6. Thermochemical investigation of lithium-vanadium bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippova, S.E.; Kesler, Ya.A.; Tret'yakov, Yu.D.; Gordeev, I.V.

    1979-01-01

    A thermochemical investigation was carried out of lithium-vanadium bronzes. The enthalpies of solution and the standard enthalpies of formation of the bronzes β-Lisub(x)Vsub(2)Osub(5) were determined. Investigated was the dependence of the enthalpy of mixing bronzes on the composition; a linear character of the dependence evidences of negligibly small, as compared to the experimental error, energy variations of the matrix V 2 O 5 on introduction of lithium. The variation was calculated of the partial molar enthalpy of lithium in the formation of β-Lisub(x)Vsub(2)Osub(5)

  7. Design of liquid lithium pumps for FMIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, H.E.

    1983-01-01

    In the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility, a jet of liquid lithium is bombarded by accelerated deuterons to generate high energy neutrons for materials testing. The lithium system will include two electromagnetic pumps, a 750 gpm main pump and a 10 gpm auxiliary pump. The larger pump was designed and built in 1982, following extensive testing of a similar pump in the Experimental Lithium System. Design of the auxiliary pump has been completed, but fabrication has not started. This paper discusses the design considerations leading to selection of the Annular Linear Induction Pump (ALIP) concept for these applications. Design parameters, fabrication procedures, and results of pump testing are also reviewed

  8. Lithium-ion batteries advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pistoia, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Batteries features an in-depth description of different lithium-ion applications, including important features such as safety and reliability. This title acquaints readers with the numerous and often consumer-oriented applications of this widespread battery type. Lithium-Ion Batteries also explores the concepts of nanostructured materials, as well as the importance of battery management systems. This handbook is an invaluable resource for electrochemical engineers and battery and fuel cell experts everywhere, from research institutions and universities to a worldwi

  9. Lithium batteries advanced technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scrosati, Bruno; Schalkwijk, Walter A van; Hassoun, Jusef

    2013-01-01

    Explains the current state of the science and points the way to technological advances First developed in the late 1980s, lithium-ion batteries now power everything from tablet computers to power tools to electric cars. Despite tremendous progress in the last two decades in the engineering and manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries, they are currently unable to meet the energy and power demands of many new and emerging devices. This book sets the stage for the development of a new generation of higher-energy density, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries by advancing battery chemistry and ident

  10. Highly Stable Lithium Metal Batteries Enabled by Regulating the Solvation of Lithium Ions in Nonaqueous Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Xiang; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Li, Bo-Quan; Shen, Xin; Yan, Chong; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-05-04

    Safe and rechargeable lithium metal batteries have been difficult to achieve because of the formation of lithium dendrites. Herein an emerging electrolyte based on a simple solvation strategy is proposed for highly stable lithium metal anodes in both coin and pouch cells. Fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) and lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ) were concurrently introduced into an electrolyte, thus altering the solvation sheath of lithium ions, and forming a uniform solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), with an abundance of LiF and LiN x O y on a working lithium metal anode with dendrite-free lithium deposition. Ultrahigh Coulombic efficiency (99.96 %) and long lifespans (1000 cycles) were achieved when the FEC/LiNO 3 electrolyte was applied in working batteries. The solvation chemistry of electrolyte was further explored by molecular dynamics simulations and first-principles calculations. This work provides insight into understanding the critical role of the solvation of lithium ions in forming the SEI and delivering an effective route to optimize electrolytes for safe lithium metal batteries. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Electrolytic method for the production of lithium using a lithium-amalgam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Krikorian, Oscar H.; Homsy, Robert V.

    1979-01-01

    A method for recovering lithium from its molten amalgam by electrolysis of the amalgam in an electrolytic cell containing as a molten electrolyte a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of two or more alkali metal halides, preferably alkali metal halides selected from lithium iodide, lithium chloride, potassium iodide and potassium chloride. A particularly suitable molten electrolyte is a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of at least three components obtained by modifying an eutectic mixture of LiI-KI by the addition of a minor amount of one or more alkali metal halides. The lithium-amalgam fused-salt cell may be used in an electrolytic system for recovering lithium from an aqueous solution of a lithium compound, wherein electrolysis of the aqueous solution in an aqueous cell in the presence of a mercury cathode produces a lithium amalgam. The present method is particularly useful for the regeneration of lithium from the aqueous reaction products of a lithium-water-air battery.

  12. Recovery of Lithium from Geothermal Brine with Lithium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Chloride Sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Li, Ling; Luo, Jiaqi; Hoke, Thomas; Ucar, Huseyin; Moyer, Bruce A; Harrison, Stephen

    2017-11-21

    We report a three-stage bench-scale column extraction process to selectively extract lithium chloride from geothermal brine. The goal of this research is to develop materials and processing technologies to improve the economics of lithium extraction and production from naturally occurring geothermal and other brines for energy storage applications. A novel sorbent, lithium aluminum layered double hydroxide chloride (LDH), is synthesized and characterized with X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and thermogravimetric analysis. Each cycle of the column extraction process consists of three steps: (1) loading the sorbent with lithium chloride from brine; (2) intermediate washing to remove unwanted ions; (3) final washing for unloading the lithium chloride ions. Our experimental analysis of eluate vs feed concentrations of Li and competing ions demonstrates that our optimized sorbents can achieve a recovery efficiency of ∼91% and possess excellent Li apparent selectivity of 47.8 compared to Na ions and 212 compared to K ions, respectively in the brine. The present work demonstrates that LDH is an effective sorbent for selective extraction of lithium from brines, thus offering the possibility of effective application of lithium salts in lithium-ion batteries leading to a fundamental shift in the lithium supply chain.

  13. Maximum Recommended Dosage of Lithium for Pregnant Women Based on a PBPK Model for Lithium Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Horton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of bipolar disorder with lithium therapy during pregnancy is a medical challenge. Bipolar disorder is more prevalent in women and its onset is often concurrent with peak reproductive age. Treatment typically involves administration of the element lithium, which has been classified as a class D drug (legal to use during pregnancy, but may cause birth defects and is one of only thirty known teratogenic drugs. There is no clear recommendation in the literature on the maximum acceptable dosage regimen for pregnant, bipolar women. We recommend a maximum dosage regimen based on a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK model. The model simulates the concentration of lithium in the organs and tissues of a pregnant woman and her fetus. First, we modeled time-dependent lithium concentration profiles resulting from lithium therapy known to have caused birth defects. Next, we identified maximum and average fetal lithium concentrations during treatment. Then, we developed a lithium therapy regimen to maximize the concentration of lithium in the mother’s brain, while maintaining the fetal concentration low enough to reduce the risk of birth defects. This maximum dosage regimen suggested by the model was 400 mg lithium three times per day.

  14. Production of Monomeric Aromatic Compounds from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Lignin by Chemical and Enzymatic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ling Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFBF was pretreated with alkali, and lignin was extracted for further degradation into lower molecular weight phenolic compounds using enzymes and chemical means. Efficiency of monomeric aromatic compounds production from OPEFBF lignin via chemical (nitrobenzene versus oxygen and enzymatic [cutinase versus manganese peroxidase (MnP] approaches was investigated. The effects of sodium hydroxide concentration (2, 5, and 10% wt. and reaction time (30, 90, and 180 minutes on the yield of aromatic compounds were studied. The results obtained indicated that nitrobenzene oxidation produced the highest yield (333.17±49.44 ppm hydroxybenzoic acid, 5.67±0.25 ppm p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 25.57±1.64 ppm vanillic acid, 168.68±23.23 ppm vanillin, 75.44±6.71 ppm syringic acid, 815.26±41.77 ppm syringaldehyde, 15.21±2.19 ppm p-coumaric acid, and 44.75±3.40 ppm ferulic acid, among the tested methods. High sodium hydroxide concentration (10% wt. was needed to promote efficient nitrobenzene oxidation. However, less severe oxidation condition was preferred to preserve the hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. Cutinase-catalyzed hydrolysis was found to be more efficient than MnP-catalyzed oxidation in the production of aromatic compounds. By hydrolyzed 8% wt. of lignin with 0.625 mL cutinase g−1 lignin at pH 8 and 55°C for 24 hours, about 642.83±14.45 ppm hydroxybenzoic acid, 70.19±3.31 ppm syringaldehyde, 22.80±1.04 ppm vanillin, 27.06±1.20 ppm p-coumaric acid, and 50.19±2.23 ppm ferulic acid were produced.

  15. Production of rhesus monkey cloned embryos expressing monomeric red fluorescent protein by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Hai-Ying; Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo; Jin, Jun-Xue; Hong, Yu; Jin, Long; Guo, Qing; Gao, Qing-Shan; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rhesus monkey cells were electroporated with a plasmid containing mRFP1, and an mRFP1-expressing cell line was generated. • For the first time, mRFP1-expressing rhesus monkey cells were used as donor cells for iSCNT. • The effect of VPA on the development of embryos cloned using iSCNT was determined. - Abstract: Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a promising method to clone endangered animals from which oocytes are difficult to obtain. Monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) is an excellent selection marker for transgenically modified cloned embryos during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In this study, mRFP-expressing rhesus monkey cells or porcine cells were transferred into enucleated porcine oocytes to generate iSCNT and SCNT embryos, respectively. The development of these embryos was studied in vitro. The percentage of embryos that underwent cleavage did not significantly differ between iSCNT and SCNT embryos (P > 0.05; 71.53% vs. 80.30%). However, significantly fewer iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reached the blastocyst stage (2.04% vs. 10.19%, P < 0.05). Valproic acid was used in an attempt to increase the percentage of iSCNT embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage. However, the percentages of embryos that underwent cleavage and reached the blastocyst stage were similar between untreated iSCNT embryos and iSCNT embryos treated with 2 mM valproic acid for 24 h (72.12% vs. 70.83% and 2.67% vs. 2.35%, respectively). These data suggest that porcine-rhesus monkey interspecies embryos can be generated that efficiently express mRFP1. However, a significantly lower proportion of iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reach the blastocyst stage. Valproic acid does not increase the percentage of porcine-rhesus monkey iSCNT embryos that reach the blastocyst stage. The mechanisms underling nuclear reprogramming and epigenetic modifications in iSCNT need to be investigated further

  16. Production of rhesus monkey cloned embryos expressing monomeric red fluorescent protein by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hai-Ying; Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo; Jin, Jun-Xue; Hong, Yu; Jin, Long; Guo, Qing; Gao, Qing-Shan; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun, E-mail: yinxj33@msn.com

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Rhesus monkey cells were electroporated with a plasmid containing mRFP1, and an mRFP1-expressing cell line was generated. • For the first time, mRFP1-expressing rhesus monkey cells were used as donor cells for iSCNT. • The effect of VPA on the development of embryos cloned using iSCNT was determined. - Abstract: Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a promising method to clone endangered animals from which oocytes are difficult to obtain. Monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) is an excellent selection marker for transgenically modified cloned embryos during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In this study, mRFP-expressing rhesus monkey cells or porcine cells were transferred into enucleated porcine oocytes to generate iSCNT and SCNT embryos, respectively. The development of these embryos was studied in vitro. The percentage of embryos that underwent cleavage did not significantly differ between iSCNT and SCNT embryos (P > 0.05; 71.53% vs. 80.30%). However, significantly fewer iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reached the blastocyst stage (2.04% vs. 10.19%, P < 0.05). Valproic acid was used in an attempt to increase the percentage of iSCNT embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage. However, the percentages of embryos that underwent cleavage and reached the blastocyst stage were similar between untreated iSCNT embryos and iSCNT embryos treated with 2 mM valproic acid for 24 h (72.12% vs. 70.83% and 2.67% vs. 2.35%, respectively). These data suggest that porcine-rhesus monkey interspecies embryos can be generated that efficiently express mRFP1. However, a significantly lower proportion of iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reach the blastocyst stage. Valproic acid does not increase the percentage of porcine-rhesus monkey iSCNT embryos that reach the blastocyst stage. The mechanisms underling nuclear reprogramming and epigenetic modifications in iSCNT need to be investigated further.

  17. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  18. Starting lithium prophylaxis early v. late in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No study has investigated when preventive treatment with lithium should be initiated in bipolar disorder. AIMS: To compare response rates among patients with bipolar disorder starting treatment with lithium early v. late. METHOD: Nationwide registers were used to identify all patients...... with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings who were prescribed lithium during the period 1995-2012 in Denmark (n = 4714). Lithium responders were defined as patients who, following a stabilisation lithium start-up period of 6 months, continued lithium monotherapy without being admitted...... to hospital. Early v. late intervention was defined in two ways: (a) start of lithium following first contact; and (b) start of lithium following a diagnosis of a single manic/mixed episode. RESULTS: Regardless of the definition used, patients who started lithium early had significantly decreased rates of non...

  19. LITHIUM TOXICITY IN ELDERLY-A CASE REPORT AND DISCUSSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana D. Arnaoudova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The therapeutic effect of Lithium as a mono therapy or as an augmenting agent in a variety of medical and psychiatric disorders is under doubt. However, lithium is associated with a number of adverse effects. Method and objective: A review of the literature on lithium use in older adults and a case report presentation. Summary of results: The literature, concerning current uses of Lithium in older patients, especially for patients with neurologic or cognitive impairments is limited due to the lack of well-designed, large clinical trials. Elderly patients are at higher risk to develop neurotoxicity in the course of lithium therapy. We present a case of 66 years old female patient, suffering bipolar disorder, who developed lithium toxicity and was admitted at the gerontopsychiatric department due to a confusional state, tremor and gait abnormality. Lithium toxicity was suspected when sufficient information about previous medical history of lithium therapy has been obtained. Lithium level found to be 1.69mmol/L. The patient has developed intoxication during maintenance therapy with a lithium dosage which had been unchanged for months. Conclusion: Elderly patients require lower doses of Lithium to achieve similar serum concentrations as those in younger adults. Neurotoxicity could be suspected at serum lithium levels which are considered therapeutic in younger adults. When prescribing lithium agents in elderly we should consider age-related changes in pharmacokinetics. The best way to prevent lithium toxicity is to control the serum concentration regularly during therapy.

  20. SELECTIVE SODIUM REMOVAL FROM LITHIUM CHLORIDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    regression coefficient value of above 0.99. ... The powdered pattern of the sample was determined by X-ray ... brines and supplied by the Qinghai Lithium Co. ... Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) (GBC-932 AAS, Australia).

  1. NSTX Plasma Response to Lithium Coated Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.W. Kugel, M.G. Bell, J.P. Allain, R.E. Bell, S. Ding, S.P. Gerhardt, M.A. Jaworski, R. Kaita, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, R. Maingi, R. Majeski, R. Maqueda, D.K. Mansfield, D. Mueller, R. Nygren, S.F. Paul, R. Raman, A.L. Roquemore, S.A. Sabbagh, H. Schneider, C.H. Skinner, V.A. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor, J.R. Timberlak, W.R. Wampler, L.E. Zakharov, S.J. Zweben, and the NSTX Research Team

    2011-01-21

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

  2. Lithium batteries: Status, prospects and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrosati, Bruno; Garche, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    Lithium batteries are characterized by high specific energy, high efficiency and long life. These unique properties have made lithium batteries the power sources of choice for the consumer electronics market with a production of the order of billions of units per year. These batteries are also expected to find a prominent role as ideal electrochemical storage systems in renewable energy plants, as well as power systems for sustainable vehicles, such as hybrid and electric vehicles. However, scaling up the lithium battery technology for these applications is still problematic since issues such as safety, costs, wide operational temperature and materials availability, are still to be resolved. This review focuses first on the present status of lithium battery technology, then on its near future development and finally it examines important new directions aimed at achieving quantum jumps in energy and power content. (author)

  3. Rechargeable Lithium Metal Cell, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PSI proposes to develop a rechargeable lithium metal cell with energy density >400Wh/kg. This represents a >70% increase as compared to similarly constructed...

  4. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  5. Lithium thionyl chloride high rate discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinedinst, K. A.

    1980-04-01

    Improvements in high rate lithium thionyl chloride power technology achieved by varying the electrolyte composition, operating temperature, cathode design, and cathode composition are discussed. Discharge capacities are plotted as a function of current density, cell voltage, and temperature.

  6. Lithium diffusion in silver vanadium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, E.S.; Thiebolt, W.C. III

    1989-01-01

    Lithium/silver vanadium oxide (SVO) batteries have been developed to power implantable devices. The voltage of Li/SVO cells decreases with discharge allowing state of charge assessment by accurate determination of the cells' open circuit voltage. The open circuit voltage recovery of Li/SVO cells was monitored during intermittent high rate discharge. It was found that the voltage does not recover at the same rate or magnitude at all depths of discharge. The authors describe lithium diffusion in SVO studied by low scan rate voltammetry where utilization of SVO at various scan rates was used to determine the diffusion rate of lithium. A pulse technique was also used where the rate of lithium diffusion was measured at various depths of discharge

  7. Lithium converter of reactor neutrinos in antineutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutostanskij, Yu.S.; Lyashuk, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    The questions of developing lithium converter of the reactor neutrons in antineutrino operating at dynamic regime in the scheme with the cycle circulation of the high-purified lithium (by 7 Li isotope) through the converter are considered. The scheme allows to localize the 8 Li β-decay (T 1/2 =0.84 s) in the reservoir near the detector and so to design the hard-spectrum lithium ν-tilde e -source (E max ≅13 MeV) at the distance from the active zone being the soft-spectrum ν-tilde e -source. The expressions for the lithium ν-tilde e flux from the converter, reservoir and conveyance channel are obtained. 9 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab

  8. NSTX plasma response to lithium coated divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Bell, M.G.; Allain, J.P.; Bell, R.E.; Ding, S.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Jaworski, M.A.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Maingi, Rajesh; Majeski, R.; Maqueda, R.J.; Mansfield, D.K.; Mueller, D.; Nygren, R.E.; Paul, S.F.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A.L.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Schneider, H.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Taylor, C.N.; Timberlake, J.; Wampler, W.R.; Zakharov, L.E.; Zweben, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma-facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Z(eff) and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, < 0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

  9. A study about lithium - the Brazilian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    A geoeconomical analysis of lithium is carried out, from its natural occurrence to its final application as a commercial product. General geological aspects such as the most important lithium mines, their minerals and their world distribution are taken into account. Also discussed is the viewpoint of enterprises regarding the various economical sectors associated with the production, consumption, marketing, installed industrial capacity, preparation of new products, development programs and installation of new plants. The applications of lithium, its several alloys and other chemical compounds are considered. Conclusions from these studies and from the data acquired are drawn, regarding the present Brazilian situation and its perspectives towards a future demand for lithium. (C.L.B.) [pt

  10. Lithium and sodium batteries with polysulfide electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mengliu

    2017-12-28

    A battery comprising: at least one cathode, at least one anode, at least one battery separator, and at least one electrolyte disposed in the separator, wherein the anode is a lithium metal or lithium alloy anode or an anode adapted for intercalation of lithium ion, wherein the cathode comprises material adapted for reversible lithium extraction from and insertion into the cathode, and wherein the separator comprises at least one porous, electronically conductive layer and at least one insulating layer, and wherein the electrolyte comprises at least one polysulfide anion. The battery provides for high energy density and capacity. A redox species is introduced into the electrolyte which creates a hybrid battery. Sodium metal and sodium-ion batteries also provided.

  11. The Lithium Battery: assessing the neurocognitive profile of lithium in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; McAulay, Claire; Gershon, Samuel; Gessler, Danielle; Fritz, Kristina; Das, Pritha; Outhred, Tim

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the neurocognitive effects of lithium in bipolar disorder to inform clinical and research approaches for further investigation. Key words pertaining to neurocognition in bipolar disorder and lithium treatment were used to search recognized databases to identify relevant literature. The authors also retrieved gray literature (e.g., book chapters) known to them and examined pertinent articles from bibliographies. A limited number of studies have examined the effects of lithium on neurocognition in bipolar disorder and, although in some domains a consistent picture emerges, in many domains the findings are mixed. Lithium administration appears to reshape key components of neurocognition - in particular, psychomotor speed, verbal memory, and verbal fluency. Notably, it has a sophisticated neurocognitive profile, such that while lithium impairs neurocognition across some domains, it seemingly preserves others - possibly those vulnerable to the effects of bipolar disorder. Furthermore, its effects are likely to be direct and indirect (via mood, for example) and cumulative with duration of treatment. Disentangling the components of neurocognition modulated by lithium in the context of a fluctuating and complex illness such as bipolar disorder is a significant challenge but one that therefore demands a stratified and systematic approach, such as that provided by the Lithium Battery. In order to delineate the effects of lithium therapy on neurocognition in bipolar disorder within both research and clinical practice, a greater understanding and measurement of the relatively stable neurocognitive components is needed to examine those that indeed change with lithium treatment. In order to achieve this, we propose a Lithium Battery-Clinical and a Lithium Battery-Research that can be applied to these respective settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Monomeric Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 Peptides in Solution Adopt Very Similar Ramachandran Map Distributions That Closely Resemble Random Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the aggregation and fibrillation of amyloid peptides Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 into amyloid plaques. Despite strong potential therapeutic interest, the structural pathways associated with the conversion of monomeric Aβ peptides into oligomeric species remain largely unknown. In particular, the higher aggregation propensity and associated toxicity of Aβ1–42 compared to that of Aβ1–40 are poorly understood. To explore in detail the structural propensity of the monomeric Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 peptides in solution, we recorded a large set of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameters, including chemical shifts, nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs), and J couplings. Systematic comparisons show that at neutral pH the Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 peptides populate almost indistinguishable coil-like conformations. Nuclear Overhauser effect spectra collected at very high resolution remove assignment ambiguities and show no long-range NOE contacts. Six sets of backbone J couplings (3JHNHα, 3JC′C′, 3JC′Hα, 1JHαCα, 2JNCα, and 1JNCα) recorded for Aβ1–40 were used as input for the recently developed MERA Ramachandran map analysis, yielding residue-specific backbone ϕ/ψ torsion angle distributions that closely resemble random coil distributions, the absence of a significantly elevated propensity for β-conformations in the C-terminal region of the peptide, and a small but distinct propensity for αL at K28. Our results suggest that the self-association of Aβ peptides into toxic oligomers is not driven by elevated propensities of the monomeric species to adopt β-strand-like conformations. Instead, the accelerated disappearance of Aβ NMR signals in D2O over H2O, particularly pronounced for Aβ1–42, suggests that intermolecular interactions between the hydrophobic regions of the peptide dominate the aggregation process. PMID:26780756

  13. Monomeric Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) Peptides in Solution Adopt Very Similar Ramachandran Map Distributions That Closely Resemble Random Coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Julien; Shen, Yang; Lee, Jung Ho; Ying, Jinfa; Bax, Ad

    2016-02-09

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the aggregation and fibrillation of amyloid peptides Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) into amyloid plaques. Despite strong potential therapeutic interest, the structural pathways associated with the conversion of monomeric Aβ peptides into oligomeric species remain largely unknown. In particular, the higher aggregation propensity and associated toxicity of Aβ(1-42) compared to that of Aβ(1-40) are poorly understood. To explore in detail the structural propensity of the monomeric Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) peptides in solution, we recorded a large set of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameters, including chemical shifts, nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs), and J couplings. Systematic comparisons show that at neutral pH the Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) peptides populate almost indistinguishable coil-like conformations. Nuclear Overhauser effect spectra collected at very high resolution remove assignment ambiguities and show no long-range NOE contacts. Six sets of backbone J couplings ((3)JHNHα, (3)JC'C', (3)JC'Hα, (1)JHαCα, (2)JNCα, and (1)JNCα) recorded for Aβ(1-40) were used as input for the recently developed MERA Ramachandran map analysis, yielding residue-specific backbone ϕ/ψ torsion angle distributions that closely resemble random coil distributions, the absence of a significantly elevated propensity for β-conformations in the C-terminal region of the peptide, and a small but distinct propensity for αL at K28. Our results suggest that the self-association of Aβ peptides into toxic oligomers is not driven by elevated propensities of the monomeric species to adopt β-strand-like conformations. Instead, the accelerated disappearance of Aβ NMR signals in D2O over H2O, particularly pronounced for Aβ(1-42), suggests that intermolecular interactions between the hydrophobic regions of the peptide dominate the aggregation process.

  14. Principles and applications of lithium secondary batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jung-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Lithium secondary batteries have been key to mobile electronics since 1990. Large-format batteries typically for electric vehicles and energystorage systems are attracting much attention due to current energy and environmental issues. Lithium batteries are expected to play a centralrole in boosting green technologies. Therefore, a large number of scientists and engineers are carrying out research and development onlithium secondary batteries.The book is written in a straightforward fashion suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as scientists, and engineer

  15. Towards Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Herstedt, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Surface film formation at the electrode/electrolyte interface in lithium-ion batteries has a crucial impact on battery performance and safety. This thesis describes the characterisation and treatment of electrode interfaces in lithium-ion batteries. The focus is on interface modification to improve battery safety, in particular to enhance the onset temperature for thermally activated reactions, which also can have a negative influence on battery performance. Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) ...

  16. Multiphoton Ionization of Laser Cooled Lithium

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmann, Jochen

    2007-01-01

    Reaction microscopes enable kinematically complete measurements of atomic and molecular fragmentation. An ultracold atomic target is usually provided by a supersonic gas jet. The apparatus developed in the course of this thesis for the first time combines the principle of the reaction microscope with a magneto-optical trap. This allows for the preparation of lithium atoms in the sub-mK range. Being a three-electron system, its simple atomic structure makes lithium a model system of great topi...

  17. Recovery of lithium from waste materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jandová, J.; Dvořák, P.; Kondás, J.; Havlák, Lubomír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2012), s. 50-54 ISSN 0862-5468 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : alkaline wastewater * laboratory scale * lithium carbonates * lithium metal s * precipitation efficiency * reduced pressure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2012 http://www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/2012/pdf/2012_01_50.pdf

  18. A Cable-Shaped Lithium Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Weng, Wei; Ren, Jing; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-01-20

    A carbon nanostructured hybrid fiber is developed by integrating mesoporous carbon and graphene oxide into aligned carbon nanotubes. This hybrid fiber is used as a 1D cathode to fabricate a new cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery. The fiber cathode exhibits a decent specific capacity and lifespan, which makes the cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery rank far ahead of other fiber-shaped batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Nam Long Doan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  20. Lithium in the treatment of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheard, M H

    1975-02-01

    Lithium has become a widely accepted treatment for manic-depressive psychosis. It is dramatically effective for many cases of mania and is useful in the prevention of manic and depressive episodes. Hyperaggressiveness and hypersexuality are frequent components of manic-depressive illness and abate under the influence of lithium. A brief review is presented of the behavioral and biochemical pharmacology of lithium. This documents the inhibitory role which lithium can play in several examples of animal aggressive behavior including pain-elicited aggression, mouse killing in rats, isolation-induced aggression in mice, p-chlorophenylalanine-induced aggression in rats, and hypothalamically induced aggression in cats. The use of lithium to control human aggressive behavior has resulted in controversial findings. In epileptic conditions, improvement has been reported in interseizure aggressivity, but other reports indicate the possibility of increased seizures. Improvement in aggressive behavior in childhood has occasionally been reported as well as in emotionally unstable character disorders in young female patients. Te was a single blind study and the other a large but uncontrolled study. Both studies reported an improvement in aggressiveness as indicated by fewer recorded reports (tickets) for fighting. The final study reported is a study of 12 male delinquents age 16 to 23. They received lithium or placebo for 4 months inside an institution and then a trial of lithium for 1 to 12 months on an outpatient basis. Analysis of results in terms of the number of aggressive antisocial acts showed fewer serious aggressive episodes when the lithium level was between 0.6 and 1 meq/liter than when it was between 0.0 and 0.6 meq/liter. These results must be viewed with caution and are only suggestive since the study was not double blind.

  1. Characterization of lithium evaporators for LTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Perez, M.; Majeski, R.; Timberlake, J.; Lundberg, D.; Kaita, R.; Arevalo-Torres, B.

    2010-11-01

    The presence of lithium on the internal components of fusion devices has proven to be beneficial for reactor performance. The Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) will be the first experimental fusion device operating with a significant portion of its internal surface coated with lithium. One of the key capabilities in the device is the reliable production of lithium films inside the reactor. This task is accomplished with the use of lithium evaporators, specially designed for LTX using resistively heated yttria crucibles. In the present work, results from the operation of one of these evaporators on a separate test stand are presented. Deposition measurements at different power levels were performed using a quartz crystal deposition monitor, and temperature distributions in the evaporator crucible and its content were obtained using an infrared camera and a dip-in thermocouple probe. Modeling of the evaporation cloud was done with the raytracing software OptiCAD, and comparisons between the computations and the temperature and flux measurements were performed, in order to accurately predict spatial lithium deposition rates in different locations of the LTX device.

  2. Applications of lithium in nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliviera, Glaucia A.C. de; Bustillos, José O.V.; Ferreira, João C.; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei S.; Moraes, Rafaeli M. de; Gimenez, Maíse P.; Miyamoto, Flavia K.; Seneda, José A., E-mail: glaucia.oliveira@ipen.br, E-mail: ovega@ipen.br, E-mail: jcferrei@ipen.br, E-mail: vsberga@ipen.br, E-mail: rafaeli.medeiros.moraes@gmail.com, E-mail: maisepastore@hotmail.com, E-mail: fla.kimiyamoto@gmail.com, E-mail: jaseneda@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Lithium is a material of great interest in the world, it is found in different minerals on Earth's crust (spodumene, lepidolite, amblygonite and petalite) also in salt pans. This element belongs to alkaline group and has two natural isotopes: Li-6 and Li-7. In the nuclear field, lithium isotopes are used for different purposes. The Li-6 is applied in the production of energy, because its section of shock is larger than the other isotope. The Li-7 regulates the pH in refrigerant material in the primary circuits of the Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor (PWR). In nuclear reactor, lithium is used as a heat transfer due its boiling temperature (1342°C), making it an excellent thermal conductor. However, to reach all these applications, lithium must have high purity (> 99%). The main processes to reach a high purity level of lithium employee a combination of solvent extraction and ion exchange process, to obtain its salts or ending with chemical electrolysis of its chlorides to obtain its pure metal. This work presents a review of new applications of Lithium in Nuclear Energy and its purification and enrichment processes. (author)

  3. Applications of lithium in nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliviera, Glaucia A.C. de; Bustillos, José O.V.; Ferreira, João C.; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei S.; Moraes, Rafaeli M. de; Gimenez, Maíse P.; Miyamoto, Flavia K.; Seneda, José A.

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is a material of great interest in the world, it is found in different minerals on Earth's crust (spodumene, lepidolite, amblygonite and petalite) also in salt pans. This element belongs to alkaline group and has two natural isotopes: Li-6 and Li-7. In the nuclear field, lithium isotopes are used for different purposes. The Li-6 is applied in the production of energy, because its section of shock is larger than the other isotope. The Li-7 regulates the pH in refrigerant material in the primary circuits of the Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor (PWR). In nuclear reactor, lithium is used as a heat transfer due its boiling temperature (1342°C), making it an excellent thermal conductor. However, to reach all these applications, lithium must have high purity (> 99%). The main processes to reach a high purity level of lithium employee a combination of solvent extraction and ion exchange process, to obtain its salts or ending with chemical electrolysis of its chlorides to obtain its pure metal. This work presents a review of new applications of Lithium in Nuclear Energy and its purification and enrichment processes. (author)

  4. Positron confinement in embedded lithium nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huis, M. A.; van Veen, A.; Schut, H.; Falub, C. V.; Eijt, S. W.; Mijnarends, P. E.; Kuriplach, J.

    2002-02-01

    Quantum confinement of positrons in nanoclusters offers the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the electronic structure of nanoclusters by application of positron annihilation spectroscopy techniques. In this work, positron confinement is investigated in lithium nanoclusters embedded in monocrystalline MgO. These nanoclusters were created by means of ion implantation and subsequent annealing. It was found from the results of Doppler broadening positron beam analysis that approximately 92% of the implanted positrons annihilate in lithium nanoclusters rather than in the embedding MgO, while the local fraction of lithium at the implantation depth is only 1.3 at. %. The results of two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation confirm the presence of crystalline bulk lithium. The confinement of positrons is ascribed to the difference in positron affinity between lithium and MgO. The nanocluster acts as a potential well for positrons, where the depth of the potential well is equal to the difference in the positron affinities of lithium and MgO. These affinities were calculated using the linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation method. This yields a positronic potential step at the MgO||Li interface of 1.8 eV using the generalized gradient approximation and 2.8 eV using the insulator model.

  5. Electrode for a lithium cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M [Naperville, IL; Vaughey, John T [Elmhurst, IL; Dees, Dennis W [Downers Grove, IL

    2008-10-14

    This invention relates to a positive electrode for an electrochemical cell or battery, and to an electrochemical cell or battery; the invention relates more specifically to a positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell or battery when the electrode is used therein. The positive electrode includes a composite metal oxide containing AgV.sub.3O.sub.8 as one component and one or more other components consisting of LiV.sub.3O.sub.8, Ag.sub.2V.sub.4O.sub.11, MnO.sub.2, CF.sub.x, AgF or Ag.sub.2O to increase the energy density of the cell, optionally in the presence of silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrode and to improve the power capability of the cell or battery.

  6. Electroplating lithium transition metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huigang; Ning, Hailong; Busbee, John; Shen, Zihan; Kiggins, Chadd; Hua, Yuyan; Eaves, Janna; Davis, Jerome; Shi, Tan; Shao, Yu-Tsun; Zuo, Jian-Min; Hong, Xuhao; Chan, Yanbin; Wang, Shuangbao; Wang, Peng; Sun, Pengcheng; Xu, Sheng; Liu, Jinyun; Braun, Paul V.

    2017-01-01

    Materials synthesis often provides opportunities for innovation. We demonstrate a general low-temperature (260°C) molten salt electrodeposition approach to directly electroplate the important lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cathode materials LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, and Al-doped LiCoO2. The crystallinities and electrochemical capacities of the electroplated oxides are comparable to those of the powders synthesized at much higher temperatures (700° to 1000°C). This new growth method significantly broadens the scope of battery form factors and functionalities, enabling a variety of highly desirable battery properties, including high energy, high power, and unprecedented electrode flexibility. PMID:28508061

  7. The cosmological lithium problem revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C. A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Shubhchintak

    2016-01-01

    After a brief review of the cosmological lithium problem, we report a few recent attempts to find theoretical solutions by our group at Texas A&M University (Commerce & College Station). We will discuss our studies on the theoretical description of electron screening, the possible existence of parallel universes of dark matter, and the use of non-extensive statistics during the Big Bang nucleosynthesis epoch. Last but not least, we discuss possible solutions within nuclear physics realm. The impact of recent measurements of relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the Big Bang nucleosynthesis based on indirect methods is also assessed. Although our attempts may not able to explain the observed discrepancies between theory and observations, they suggest theoretical developments that can be useful also for stellar nucleosynthesis.

  8. The cosmological lithium problem revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertulani, C. A., E-mail: carlos.bertulani@tamuc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX 75429 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 75429 (United States); Mukhamedzhanov, A. M., E-mail: akram@comp.tamu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 75429 (United States); Shubhchintak, E-mail: shub.shubhchintak@tamuc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX 75429 (United States)

    2016-07-07

    After a brief review of the cosmological lithium problem, we report a few recent attempts to find theoretical solutions by our group at Texas A&M University (Commerce & College Station). We will discuss our studies on the theoretical description of electron screening, the possible existence of parallel universes of dark matter, and the use of non-extensive statistics during the Big Bang nucleosynthesis epoch. Last but not least, we discuss possible solutions within nuclear physics realm. The impact of recent measurements of relevant nuclear reaction cross sections for the Big Bang nucleosynthesis based on indirect methods is also assessed. Although our attempts may not able to explain the observed discrepancies between theory and observations, they suggest theoretical developments that can be useful also for stellar nucleosynthesis.

  9. Radiation damage in lithium orthosilicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, K.; Nakazawa, T.; Ishii, Y.; Fukai, K.; Watanabe, H. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment); Matsui, H.; Vollath, D.

    1993-11-01

    Radiation damage in lithium orthosilicate (Li[sub 4]SiO[sub 4]) and Al-doped Li[sub 4]SiO[sub 4] (Li[sub 3.7]Al[sub 0.1]SiO[sub 4]) irradiated with oxygen ions was studied with ionic conductivity measurements, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared photo-acoustic spectroscopy (FT-IR PAS) and transmission electron microscopy. It was seen from the ionic conductivity measurements that lithium-ion vacancies were introduced as irradiation defects for Li-ions sites in both materials due to the irradiation. By the Raman spectroscopy, oxygen atoms in SiO[sub 4] tetrahedra were considered to be preferentially displaced due to the irradiation for Li[sub 4]SiO[sub 4], although only a decrease of the number of SiO[sub 4] tetrahedra occurred for Li[sub 3.7]Al[sub 0.1]SiO[sub 4] by displacement of both silicon and oxygen atoms. Decomposition of SiO[sub 4] tetrahedra and formation of some new phases having Si-O-Si and Si-O bonds were found to take place for both Li[sub 4]SiO[sub 4] and Li[sub 3.7]Al[sub 0.1]SiO[sub 4] by FT-IR PAS. In the electron microscopy, damage microstructure consisting of many voids or cavities and amorphization were observed for Li[sub 4]SiO[sub 4] irradiated with oxygen ions. The recovery behavior of radiation damage mentioned above was also investigated. (author).

  10. Electron-stimulated desorption of lithium ions from lithium halide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowski, Leszek

    2007-01-01

    Electron-stimulated desorption of positive lithium ions from thin layers of lithium halides deposited onto Si(1 1 1) are investigated by the time-of-flight technique. The determined values of isotope effect of the lithium ( 6 Li + / 7 Li + ) are 1.60 ± 0.04, 1.466 ± 0.007, 1.282 ± 0.004, 1.36 ± 0.01 and 1.33 ± 0.01 for LiH, LiF, LiCl, LiBr and LiI, respectively. The observed most probable kinetic energies of 7 Li + are 1.0, 1.9, 1.1, 0.9 and 0.9 eV for LiH, LiF, LiCl, LiBr and LiI, respectively, and seem to be independent of the halide component mass. The values of lithium ion emission yield, lithium kinetic energy and lithium isotope effect suggest that the lattice relaxation is only important in the lithium ion desorption process from the LiH system. In view of possible mechanisms and processes involved into lithium ion desorption the obtained results indicate that for LiH, LiCl, LiBr and LiI the ions desorb in a rather classical way. However, for LiF, ion desorption has a more quantum character and the modified wave packet squeezing model has to be taken into account

  11. The lithium-ion accumulators in Japan; Les accumulateurs lithium-ion au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzari, O

    2006-07-15

    This document takes stock on the different technologies of lithium based batteries developed in Japan as the materials used to produce their different elements. The today tendencies of the japanese researches are discussed. The applications of the lithium-ion are presented. A list of the main public and private laboratories in the domain and the research programs is provided. (A.L.B.)

  12. Interactions of liquid lithium with various atmospheres, concretes, and insulating materials; and filtration of lithium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.

    1979-06-01

    This report describes the facilities and experiments and presents test results of a program being conducted at the hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in support of the fusion reactor development effort. This experimental program is designed to characterize the interaction of liquid lithium with various atmospheres, concretes, and insulating materials. Lithium-atmosphere reaction tests were conducted in normal humidity air, pure nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. These tests are described and their results, such as maximum temperatures, aerosol generated, and reaction rates measured, are reported. Initial lithium temperatures for these tests ranged between 224 0 C and 843 0 C. A lithium-concrete reaction test, using 10 kg of lithium at 327 0 C, and lithium-insulating materials reaction tests, using a few grams of lithium at 350 0 C and 600 0 C, are also described and results are presented. In addition, a lithium-aerosol filter loading test was conducted to determine the mass loading capacity of a commercial high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. The aerosol was characterized, and the loading-capacity-versus-pressure-buildup across the filter is reported

  13. In 2015 Lithium Price Tripled,Lithium Battery is In a Draught of the Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2017-01-01

    According to'Report on Market Demand Forecast and Investment Strategy Analysis of China Power Lithium Battery Industry'of the Qianzhan Industry Institute,currently lithium demand is mainly concentrated in mobile battery and glass,lubricating oil markets,whose percentage is up to 85%,market share of electric vehicle and ESS energy backup system

  14. An improved lithium-vanadium pentoxide cell and comparison with a lithium-thionyl chloride cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorn, G.

    1985-03-01

    This paper describes a programme of experiments conducted to assess the effects of: (a) diluting the electrolyte in lithium-vanadium pentoxide cells; (b) optimizing the volume of electrolyte per unit cathode mass. This programme led to the development of an improved cell, the performance of which is compared with that of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell of similar configuration.

  15. Improved lithium-vanadium pentoxide cell and comparison with a lithium-thionyl chloride cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorn, G.

    1985-01-15

    This paper describes a programme of experiments conducted to assess the effects of: (a) diluting the electrolyte in lithium-vanadium pentoxide cells; (b) optimizing the volume of electrolyte per unit cathode mass. This programme led to the development of an improved cell, the performance of which is compared with that of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell of similar configuration.

  16. Novel iron-cobalt derivatised lithium iron phosphate nanocomposite for lithium ion battery cathode

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ikpo, CO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Described herein is the electrochemical study conducted on lithium ion battery cathode material consisting of composite of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO(sub4), iron-cobalt derivatised carbon nanotubes (FeCo-CNT) and polyaniline (PA) nanomaterials...

  17. Hydrogen storage capacity of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minoda, Ai; Oshima, Shinji; Iki, Hideshi; Akiba, Etsuo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The hydrogen adsorption of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons has been studied. • Lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity. • Lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. • Lithium reagent can alter the pore structure, depending on the raw material. • Optimizing the pore size and functional group is needed for better hydrogen uptake. - Abstract: The authors have studied the hydrogen adsorption performance of several types of lithium-doped KOH activated carbons. In the case of activated cokes, lithium doping improves their hydrogen adsorption affinity from 5.02 kg/m 3 to 5.86 kg/m 3 at 303 K. Hydrogen adsorption density increases by around 17% after lithium doping, likely due to the fact that lithium doping is more effective for materials with micropores of 0.8 nm or smaller. The effects of lithium on hydrogen storage capacity vary depending on the raw material, because the lithium reagent can react with the material and alter the pore structure, indicating that lithium doping has the effect of plugging or filling the micropores and changing the structures of functional groups, resulting in the formation of mesopores. Despite an observed decrease in hydrogen uptake, lithium doping was found to improve hydrogen adsorption affinity. Lithium doping increases hydrogen uptake by optimizing the pore size and functional group composition

  18. Lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions), disorders of impulse control (inability to resist the urge to perform a harmful action), and certain mental illnesses in children. Talk to your doctor ... for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of monomeric and dimeric manganese(II and zinc(II complexes of pyridine-2-carbaldoxime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Glerup

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The syntheses and characterization of two complexes of manganese(II and one complex of zinc(II with the ligand pyridine-2-carbaldoxime, C6H6N2O, are described. The monomeric manganese(II complex cis-[Mn(C6H6N2O 2Cl2] (1 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbcn with 4 formula units in a cell of dimensions a = 12.479(3 Å, b = 10.348(2 Å, and c = 11. 974(2 Å. The structure has been refined to a final value of the conventional R-factor of 0.0330 based on 1513 observed independent reflections. The analogous zinc(II complex, cis-[Zn(C6H6N2O2Cl2] (2 also crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbcn with 4 formula units in a cell of dimensions a = 12.215(2 Å, b = 10.383(2 Å, and c = 12. 016(2 Å. The structure has been refined to a final value of the conventional R-factor of 0.0377 based on 1117 observed independent reflections. The two complexes are isostructural, with the central metal atom lying on a crystallographic 2-fold axis. Both complexes are approximately octahedral, the coordination being provided by two trans pyridine nitrogen atoms and two cis amine nitrogen atoms from the oxime ligands, and by two cis chlorides. The dimeric manganese(II complex [(C6H6N2O(CH3OHClMnCl2MnCl(CH3OH(C6H6N2O] (3 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/n with 2 formula units in a cell of dimensions a = 7.895(2 Å, b = 11.196(3 Å, and c = 12. 544(2 Å, and b = 98.39(2o. The structure has been refined to a final value of the conventional R-factor of 0.0312 based on 1568 observed independent reflections. There is a crystallographic inversion center in the middle of the dimer relating one manganese center to the other. The geometry at each manganese(II center is again roughly octahedral, coordination being provided by two nitrogen atoms from the oxime ligand, a terminal chloride ion trans to the amine nitrogen, the oxygen atom of the coordinated methanol molecule, and two bridging chlorides that link the two halves of the dimer. The Mn

  20. Effect of impurities on the performance of lithium intended for lithium/thionyl chloride battery manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, W P; Hampson, N A; Packer, R K

    1988-09-01

    The elemental impurities in four different, commercially-available lithium samples have been determined. Cells consisting of these lithium samples as anodes and pressed acetylene black as cathodes were discharged at 20 C and at 70 C at a rate of 50 mA/sq cm. The passivating films remaining on the lithium surface after discharge were examined using electron microscopy and their elemental compositions determined using the surface sensitive technique of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Performance characteristics (voltage and capacity) of test cells consisting, in part, of the different lithium samples are discussed in terms of impurity concentrations determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The permeability and electronic conductivity of the LiCl passivating films are adduced as two possible reasons for the variations in capacity and on-load voltage of the different lithium samples. 25 references.

  1. Application of neutron radiography to visualize the distribution of lithium in lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Esaka, Takao; Fujine, Sigenori; Yoneda, Kenji; Kanda, Keiji.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have tried to visualize the motion of lithium ions in lithium ion conductors such as Li 1.33 Ti 1.67 O 4 at high temperatures using neutron radiography (NR) technique and confirmed that NR is very effective to the 6 Li containing systems. This means NR may be used as a non-destructive investigating method to study the electrode reactions and the mass transfer in lithium batteries. Here in this work, it was tried to visualize the distribution of lithium in commercial lithium batteries before and after discharge using NR technique. Obtained NR images will be presented with brief explanation on NR method. Further explanations on the principle of NR and on the NR facilities were presented elsewhere. (J.P.N.)

  2. Superior lithium adsorption and required magnetic separation behavior of iron-doped lithium ion-sieves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shulei; Zheng, Shili; Wang, Zheming; Cui, Wenwen; Zhang, Hailin; Yang, Liangrong; Zhang, Yi; Li, Ping

    2018-01-01

    The recent research on adsorption-based lithium recovery from lithium-containing solutions has been centred on adsorption capacity and separation of lithium ion-sieves powder from solutions. Herein, an effective iron-doped lithium titanium oxide (Fe-doped Li2TiO3) was synthesized by Fe-doping via solid state reactions followed by acid treatment to form iron-doped lithium ion-sieves (Fe/Ti-x(H)). The resulting solid powder displays both superior adsorption capacity of lithium and high separation efficiency of the adsorbent from the solutions. SEM imaging and BET surface area measurement results showed that at Fe doping levels x0.15, Fe-doping led to grain shrinkage as compared to Li2TiO3 and at the same time the BET surface area increased. The Fe/Ti-0.15(H) exhibited saturated magnetization values of 13.76 emu g-1, allowing effective separation of the material from solid suspensions through the use of a magnet. Consecutive magnetic separation results suggested that the Fe/Ti-0.15(H) powders could be applied at large-scale and continuously removed from LiOH solutions with separation efficiency of 96% or better. Lithium adsorption studies indicated that the equilibrium adsorption capacity of Fe/Ti-0.15(H) in LiOH 2 solutions (1.8 g L-1 Li, pH 12) reached 53.3 mg g-1 within 24 h, which was higher than that of pristine Li2TiO3 (50.5 mg g-1) without Fe doping. Competitive adsorption and regeneration results indicated that the Fe/Ti-0.15(H) possessed a high selectivity for Li with facile regeneration. Therefore, it could be expected that the iron-doped lithium ion-sieves have practical applicability potential for large scale lithium extraction and recovery from lithium-bearing solutions.

  3. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  4. Improving lithium therapeutics by crystal engineering of novel ionic cocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam J; Kim, Seol-Hee; Duggirala, Naga K; Jin, Jingji; Wojtas, Lukasz; Ehrhart, Jared; Giunta, Brian; Tan, Jun; Zaworotko, Michael J; Shytle, R Douglas

    2013-12-02

    Current United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved lithium salts are plagued with a narrow therapeutic window. Recent attempts to find alternative drugs have identified new chemical entities, but lithium's polypharmacological mechanisms for treating neuropsychiatric disorders are highly debated and are not yet matched. Thus, re-engineering current lithium solid forms in order to optimize performance represents a low cost and low risk approach to the desired therapeutic outcome. In this contribution, we employed a crystal engineering strategy to synthesize the first ionic cocrystals (ICCs) of lithium salts with organic anions. We are unaware of any previous studies that have assessed the biological efficacy of any ICCs, and encouragingly we found that the new speciation did not negatively affect established bioactivities of lithium. We also observed that lithium ICCs exhibit modulated pharmacokinetics compared to lithium carbonate. Indeed, the studies detailed herein represent an important advancement in a crystal engineering approach to a new generation of lithium therapeutics.

  5. Lithium Resources and Production: Critical Assessment and Global Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve H. Mohr

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically assesses if accessible lithium resources are sufficient for expanded demand due to lithium battery electric vehicles. The ultimately recoverable resources (URR of lithium globally were estimated at between 19.3 (Case 1 and 55.0 (Case 3 Mt Li; Best Estimate (BE was 23.6 Mt Li. The Mohr 2010 model was modified to project lithium supply. The Case 1 URR scenario indicates sufficient lithium for a 77% maximum penetration of lithium battery electric vehicles in 2080 whereas supply is adequate to beyond 2200 in the Case 3 URR scenario. Global lithium demand approached a maximum of 857 kt Li/y, with a 100% penetration of lithium vehicles, 3.5 people per car and 10 billion population.

  6. Lithium- an update on the mechanisms of action

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    rons depending on the level of their activity.4 Lithium thus seems to .... clear that MARCKS is crucial in neuronal growth and brain ... lithium's activity is predominantly confined to the left fron- ... This ranges from neurotransmitter production right.

  7. Lithium Insertion In Silicon Nanowires: An ab Initio Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qianfan; Zhang, Wenxing; Wan, Wenhui; Cui, Yi; Wang, Enge

    2010-01-01

    The ultrahigh specific lithium ion storage capacity of Si nanowires (SiNWs) has been demonstrated recently and has opened up exciting opportunities for energy storage. However, a systematic theoretical study on lithium insertion in SiNWs remains a

  8. Nanostructured Electrolytes for Stable Lithium Electrodeposition in Secondary Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Nath, Pooja; Lu, Yingying; Tikekar, Mukul D.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. ConspectusSecondary batteries based on lithium are the most important energy storage technology for contemporary portable devices. The lithium ion battery (LIB) in widespread commercial use today is a compromise

  9. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  10. Lithium batteries, anodes, and methods of anode fabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lain-Jong; Wu, Feng-Yu; Kumar, Pushpendra; Ming, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Prelithiation of a battery anode carried out using controlled lithium metal vapor deposition. Lithium metal can be avoided in the final battery. This prelithiated electrode is used as potential anode for Li- ion or high energy Li-S battery

  11. Nanoporous Polymer-Ceramic Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Metal Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Kambe, Yu; Lu, Yingying; Archer, Lynden A.

    2013-01-01

    A nanoporous composite material that offers the unique combination of high room-temperature ionic conductivity and high mechanical modulus is reported. When used as the separator/electrolyte in lithium batteries employing metallic lithium as anode

  12. Pushing the size limit of de novo structure ensemble prediction guided by sparse SDSL-EPR restraints to 200 residues: The monomeric and homodimeric forms of BAX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Axel W.; Bordignon, Enrica; Bleicken, Stephanie; García-Sáez, Ana J.; Jeschke, Gunnar; Meiler, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Structure determination remains a challenge for many biologically important proteins. In particular, proteins that adopt multiple conformations often evade crystallization in all biologically relevant states. Although computational de novo protein folding approaches often sample biologically relevant conformations, the selection of the most accurate model for different functional states remains a formidable challenge, in particular, for proteins with more than about 150 residues. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy can obtain limited structural information for proteins in well-defined biological states and thereby assist in selecting biologically relevant conformations. The present study demonstrates that de novo folding methods are able to accurately sample the folds of 192-residue long soluble monomeric Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX). The tertiary structures of the monomeric and homodimeric forms of BAX were predicted using the primary structure as well as 25 and 11 EPR distance restraints, respectively. The predicted models were subsequently compared to respective NMR/X-ray structures of BAX. EPR restraints improve the protein-size normalized root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD100) of the most accurate models with respect to the NMR/crystal structure from 5.9 Å to 3.9 Å and from 5.7 Å to 3.3 Å, respectively. Additionally, the model discrimination is improved, which is demonstrated by an improvement of the enrichment from 5% to 15% and from 13% to 21%, respectively. PMID:27129417

  13. Resolved single-molecule detection of individual species within a mixture of anti-biotin antibodies using an engineered monomeric nanopore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahie, Monifa; Chisholm, Christina; Chen, Min

    2015-02-24

    Oligomeric protein nanopores with rigid structures have been engineered for the purpose of sensing a wide range of analytes including small molecules and biological species such as proteins and DNA. We chose a monomeric β-barrel porin, OmpG, as the platform from which to derive the nanopore sensor. OmpG is decorated with seven flexible loops that move dynamically to create a distinct gating pattern when ionic current passes through the pore. Biotin was chemically tethered to the most flexible one of these loops. The gating characteristic of the loop's movement in and out of the porin was substantially altered by analyte protein binding. The gating characteristics of the pore with bound targets were remarkably sensitive to molecular identity, even providing the ability to distinguish between homologues within an antibody mixture. A total of five gating parameters were analyzed for each analyte to create a unique fingerprint for each biotin-binding protein. Our exploitation of gating noise as a molecular identifier may allow more sophisticated sensor design, while OmpG's monomeric structure greatly simplifies nanopore production.

  14. Methods for making lithium vanadium oxide electrode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutts, Scott M.; Kinney, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    A method of making vanadium oxide formulations is presented. In one method of preparing lithium vanadium oxide for use as an electrode material, the method involves: admixing a particulate form of a lithium compound and a particulate form of a vanadium compound; jet milling the particulate admixture of the lithium and vanadium compounds; and heating the jet milled particulate admixture at a temperature below the melting temperature of the admixture to form lithium vanadium oxide.

  15. Secondary electron emission from lithium and lithium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capece, A. M., E-mail: capecea@tcnj.edu [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Department of Physics, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, New Jersey 08628 (United States); Patino, M. I.; Raitses, Y. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Koel, B. E. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2016-07-04

    In this work, measurements of electron-induced secondary electron emission (SEE) yields of lithium as a function of composition are presented. The results are particularly relevant for magnetic fusion devices such as tokamaks, field-reversed configurations, and stellarators that consider Li as a plasma-facing material for improved plasma confinement. SEE can reduce the sheath potential at the wall and cool electrons at the plasma edge, resulting in large power losses. These effects become significant as the SEE coefficient, γ{sub e}, approaches one, making it imperative to maintain a low yield surface. This work demonstrates that the yield from Li strongly depends on chemical composition and substantially increases after exposure to oxygen and water vapor. The total yield was measured using a retarding field analyzer in ultrahigh vacuum for primary electron energies of 20–600 eV. The effect of Li composition was determined by introducing controlled amounts of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O vapor while monitoring film composition with Auger electron spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption. The results show that the energy at which γ{sub e} = 1 decreases with oxygen content and is 145 eV for a Li film that is 17% oxidized and drops to less than 25 eV for a fully oxidized film. This work has important implications for laboratory plasmas operating under realistic vacuum conditions in which oxidation significantly alters the electron emission properties of Li walls.

  16. Secondary electron emission from lithium and lithium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capece, A. M.; Patino, M. I.; Raitses, Y.; Koel, B. E.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, measurements of electron-induced secondary electron emission (SEE) yields of lithium as a function of composition are presented. The results are particularly relevant for magnetic fusion devices such as tokamaks, field-reversed configurations, and stellarators that consider Li as a plasma-facing material for improved plasma confinement. SEE can reduce the sheath potential at the wall and cool electrons at the plasma edge, resulting in large power losses. These effects become significant as the SEE coefficient, γ e , approaches one, making it imperative to maintain a low yield surface. This work demonstrates that the yield from Li strongly depends on chemical composition and substantially increases after exposure to oxygen and water vapor. The total yield was measured using a retarding field analyzer in ultrahigh vacuum for primary electron energies of 20–600 eV. The effect of Li composition was determined by introducing controlled amounts of O 2 and H 2 O vapor while monitoring film composition with Auger electron spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption. The results show that the energy at which γ e  = 1 decreases with oxygen content and is 145 eV for a Li film that is 17% oxidized and drops to less than 25 eV for a fully oxidized film. This work has important implications for laboratory plasmas operating under realistic vacuum conditions in which oxidation significantly alters the electron emission properties of Li walls.

  17. Lithium conducting ionic liquids based on lithium borate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygadlo-Monikowska, E.; Florjanczyk, Z.; Sluzewska, K.; Ostrowska, J.; Langwald, N.; Tomaszewska, A. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, ul. Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-09-15

    The simple reaction of trialkoxyborates with butyllithium resulted in the obtaining of new lithium borate salts: Li{l_brace}[CH{sub 3}(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub n}O]{sub 3}BC{sub 4}H{sub 9}{r_brace}, containing oxyethylene substituents (EO) of n=1, 2, 3 and 7. Salts of n {>=} 2 show properties of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) of low glass transition temperature, T{sub g} of the order from -70 to -80 C. The ionic conductivity of the salts depends on the number of EO units, the highest conductivity is shown by the salt with n = 3; in bulk its ambient temperature conductivity is 2 x 10{sup -5} S cm{sup -1} and in solution in cyclic propylene sulfite or EC/PC mixture, conductivity increases by an order of magnitude. Solid polymer electrolytes with borate salts over a wide concentration range, from 10 to 90 mol.% were obtained and characterized. Three types of polymeric matrices: poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) and two copolymers of acrylonitrile and butyl acrylate p(AN-BuA) were used in them as polymer matrices. It has been found that for systems of low salt concentration (10 mol.%) the best conducting properties were shown by solid polymer electrolytes with PEO, whereas for systems of high salt concentration, of the polymer-in-salt type, good results were achieved for PTMC as polymer matrix. (author)

  18. Oxide materials as positive electrodes of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhonina, Elena V; Pervov, Vladislav S; Dubasova, Valeriya S

    2004-01-01

    The published data on oxide materials as positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries are described systematically. The mechanisms of structural changes in cathode materials occurring during the operation of lithium-ion batteries and the problems concerned with their selection are discussed. Modern trends in optimising cathode materials and lithium-ion batteries on the whole are considered.

  19. Obtainment of lithium metal by electrolysis of molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Costa, M.A.Z. da.

    1988-04-01

    The obtainment metallic lithium through KCL + LiCl, using a stainless steel cathode and a graphite anode is studied. The applications of lithium on nuclear energy, aerospatial program, metalurgy and as refining and degassing agent are also presented. The purification of lithium is still mentioned. (C.G.C.) [pt

  20. Stable lithium electrodeposition in salt-reinforced electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying; Tu, Zhengyuan; Shu, Jonathan; Archer, Lynden A.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Development of high-energy lithium-based batteries that are safe remains a challenge due to the non-uniform lithium electrodeposition during repeated charge and discharge cycles. We report on the effectiveness of lithium bromide

  1. 76 FR 53056 - Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 20 Outbound International Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal... incorporate new maximum limits for the outbound mailing of lithium batteries. This is consistent with [email protected] , with a subject line of ``International Lithium Batteries.'' Faxed comments are not...

  2. 75 FR 9147 - Hazardous Materials: Transportation of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ...: Transportation of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT... transport of lithium cells and batteries. PHMSA and FAA will hold a public meeting on March 5, 2010, in... will be attending the Lithium Battery Public Meeting and wait to be escorted to the Conference Center...

  3. NREL's Advanced Atomic Layer Deposition Enables Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battery Technology News Release: NREL's Advanced Atomic Layer Deposition Enables Lithium-Ion Battery increasingly demanding needs of any battery application. These lithium-ion batteries feature a hybrid solid further customized lithium-ion battery materials for high performance devices by utilizing our patented

  4. Lithium in older patients: treatment patterns and somatic adverse effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Melick, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium has been used in psychiatry for over 60 years and is still one of the first-line treatments in bipolar disorder. It is also used as augmentation to antidepressants in treatment resistant depression. Age-dependent changes in lithium pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics may influence lithium

  5. SBIR reports on the chemistry of lithium battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilroy, W. P.

    1989-11-01

    The following contents are included: Identification of an Improved Mixed Solvent Electrolyte for a Lithium Secondary Battery; Catalyzed Cathodes for Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Batteries; Improved Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Cells Using New Electrolyte Salts; Development of Calcium Primary Cells With Improved Anode Stability and Energy Density.

  6. 131I therapy of Graves' disease using lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kenshi

    1983-01-01

    Lithium is known to cause goiter and hypothyroidism. In the mechanism of goitrogenesis, there is general agreement that lithium inhibits the release of the thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland without significantly impairing other thyroid functions. The present study was undertaken, therefore, to investigate the usefulness of lithium in the radioiodine treatment of Graves' disease. Nine patients with Graves' disease who were all, except one, previously treated with antithyroid drugs were studied. 600 mg of lithium carbonate were administered daily to investigate the effects on thyroidal 131 I uptake, disappearance rate of 131 I from the prelabeled thyroid and the serum concentrations of thyroid hormones. Lithium showed no significant effect on the thyroidal 131 I uptake when the 24 hour thyroidal 131 I uptakes were determined both before and during lithium treatment in the five cases. On the other hand, lithium clearly prolonged the mean value of effective half-lives of 131 I to approximately 8 days vs. 5.1 days before lithium treatment (p 4 and T 3 levels significantly decreased during lithium treatment, from 21.3 to 12.4μg/dl (n=9, p 131 I for the Graves' disease can be reduced by using lithium, the radiation exposure to the total body is decreased. Moreover, it is possible to perform the 131 I therapy while improving the thyrotoxicosis with lithium. Finally, it is concluded that lithium is a very useful drug to be combined with the 131 I therapy of Graves' disease. (author)

  7. Performances of a lithium-carbon ``lithium ion``battery for electric powered vehicle; Performances d`un accumulateur au lithium-carbone ``Lithium Ion`` pour vehicule electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broussely, M.; Planchat, J.P.; Rigobert, G.; Virey, D.; Sarre, G. [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1996-12-31

    The lithium battery, also called `lithium-carbon` or `lithium ion`, is today the most promising candidate that can reach the expected minimum traction performances of electric powered vehicles. Thanks to a more than 20 years experience on lithium generators and to a specific research program on lithium batteries, the SAFT company has developed a 100 Ah electrochemical system, and full-scale prototypes have been manufactured for this application. These prototypes use the Li{sub x}NiO{sub 2} lithiated graphite electrochemical pair and were tested in terms of their electrical performances. Energy characteristics of 125 Wh/kg and 265 Wh/dm{sup 3} could be obtained. The possibility of supplying a power greater than 200 W/kg, even at low temperature (-10 deg. C) has been demonstrated with these elements. A full battery set of about 20 kWh was built and its evaluation is in progress. It comprises the electronic control systems for the optimum power management during charge and output. (J.S.) 9 refs.

  8. Safety assessment of a lithium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgazzi, Luciano; Roberta, Ferri; Barbara, Giannone

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the safety assessment of the lithium target of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) through evaluating the most important risk factors related to system operation and verifying the fulfillment of the safety criteria. The hazard assessment is based on using a well-structured Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) procedure by detailing on a component-by-component basis all the possible failure modes and identifying their effects on the plant. Additionally, a systems analysis, applying the fault tree technique, is performed in order to evaluate, from a probabilistic standpoint, all the relevant and possible failures of each component required for safe system operation and assessing the unavailability of the lithium target system. The last task includes the thermal-hydraulic transient analysis of the target lithium loop, including operational and accident transients. A lithium target loop model is developed, using the RELAP5/Mod3.2 thermal-hydraulic code, which has been modified to include specific features of IFMIF itself. The main conclusions are that target safety is fulfilled, the hazards associated with lithium operation are confined within the IFMIF security boundaries, the environmental impact is negligible, and the plant responds to the simulated transients by being able to reach steady conditions in a safety situation

  9. Evaporated Lithium Surface Coatings in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, Rajesh; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Allain, J.P.; Gates, D.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Majeski, R.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.; Paul, S.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A.L.; Ross, P.W.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Schneider, H.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stevenson, T.; Timberlake, J.; Wampler, W.R.; Wilgen, John B.; Zakharov, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    Two lithium evaporators were used to evaporate more than 100 g of lithium on to the NSTX lower divertor region. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators were withdrawn behind shutters, where they also remained during the subsequent HeGDC applied for periods up to 9.5 min. After the HeGDC, the shutters were opened and the LITERs were reinserted to deposit lithium on the lower divertor target for 10 min, at rates of 10-70 mg/min, prior to the next discharge. The major improvements in plasma performance from these lithium depositions include: (1) plasma density reduction as a result of lithium deposition; (2) suppression of ELMs; (3) improvement of energy confinement in a low-triangularity shape; (4) improvement in plasma performance for standard, high-triangularity discharges: (5) reduction of the required HeGDC time between discharges; (6) increased pedestal electron and ion temperature; (7) reduced SOL plasma density; and (8) reduced edge neutral density.

  10. Performances of a lithium-carbon ``lithium ion``battery for electric powered vehicle; Performances d`un accumulateur au lithium-carbone ``Lithium Ion`` pour vehicule electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broussely, M; Planchat, J P; Rigobert, G; Virey, D; Sarre, G [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1997-12-31

    The lithium battery, also called `lithium-carbon` or `lithium ion`, is today the most promising candidate that can reach the expected minimum traction performances of electric powered vehicles. Thanks to a more than 20 years experience on lithium generators and to a specific research program on lithium batteries, the SAFT company has developed a 100 Ah electrochemical system, and full-scale prototypes have been manufactured for this application. These prototypes use the Li{sub x}NiO{sub 2} lithiated graphite electrochemical pair and were tested in terms of their electrical performances. Energy characteristics of 125 Wh/kg and 265 Wh/dm{sup 3} could be obtained. The possibility of supplying a power greater than 200 W/kg, even at low temperature (-10 deg. C) has been demonstrated with these elements. A full battery set of about 20 kWh was built and its evaluation is in progress. It comprises the electronic control systems for the optimum power management during charge and output. (J.S.) 9 refs.

  11. Evaporated Lithium Surface Coatings in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, R.; Bel, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Allain, J.P.; Gates, D.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.; Majeski, R.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.

    2009-01-01

    Two lithium evaporators were used to evaporate more than 100 g of lithium on to the NSTX lower divertor region. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators were withdrawn behind shutters, where they also remained during the subsequent HeGDC applied for periods up to 9.5 min. After the HeGDC, the shutters were opened and the LITERs were reinserted to deposit lithium on the lower divertor target for 10 min, at rates of 10-70 mg/min, prior to the next discharge. The major improvements in plasma performance from these lithium depositions include: (1) plasma density reduction as a result of lithium deposition; (2) suppression of ELMs; (3) improvement of energy confinement in a low-triangularity shape; (4) improvement in plasma performance for standard, high-triangularity discharges; (5) reduction of the required HeGDC time between discharges; (6) increased pedestal electron and ion temperature; (7) reduced SOL plasma density; and (8) reduced edge neutral density

  12. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha; Button, Robert; Manzo, Michelle; McKissock, Barbara; Miller, Thomas; Gemeiner, Russel; Bennett, William; Hand, Evan

    2006-01-01

    Life-test data of Lithium-Ion battery cells is critical in order to establish their performance capabilities for NASA missions and Exploration goals. Lithium-ion cells have the potential to replace rechargeable alkaline cells in aerospace applications, but they require a more complex charging scheme than is typically required for alkaline cells. To address these requirements in our Lithium-Ion Cell Test Verification Program, a Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit was developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). This unit gives researchers the ability to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and results in a substantial reduction in test costs as compared to individual cell testing. The Naval Surface Warfare Center at Crane, Indiana developed a power reduction scheme that works in conjunction with the Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit. This scheme minimizes the power dissipation required by the circuitry to prolong circuit life and improve its reliability.

  13. Lithium mass transport in ceramic breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, P.E.; Johnson, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this activity is to measure the lithium vaporization from lithium oxide breeder material under differing temperature and moisture partial pressure conditions. Lithium ceramics are being investigated for use as tritium breeding materials. The lithium is readily converted to tritium after reacting with a neutron. With the addition of 1000 ppM H 2 to the He purge gas, the bred tritium is readily recovered from the blanket as HT and HTO above 400 degree C. Within the solid, tritium may also be found as LiOT which may transport lithium to cooler parts of the blanket. The pressure of LiOT(g), HTO(g), or T 2 O(g) above Li 2 O(s) is the same as that for reactions involving hydrogen. In our experiments we were limited to the use of hydrogen. The purpose of this work is to investigate the transport of LiOH(g) from the blanket material. 8 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  14. Direct observation of lithium polysulfides in lithium-sulfur batteries using operando X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conder, Joanna; Bouchet, Renaud; Trabesinger, Sigita; Marino, Cyril; Gubler, Lorenz; Villevieille, Claire

    2017-06-01

    In the on going quest towards lithium-battery chemistries beyond the lithium-ion technology, the lithium-sulfur system is emerging as one of the most promising candidates. The major outstanding challenge on the route to commercialization is controlling the so-called polysulfide shuttle, which is responsible for the poor cycling efficiency of the current generation of lithium-sulfur batteries. However, the mechanistic understanding of the reactions underlying the polysulfide shuttle is still incomplete. Here we report the direct observation of lithium polysulfides in a lithium-sulfur cell during operation by means of operando X-ray diffraction. We identify signatures of polysulfides adsorbed on the surface of a glass-fibre separator and monitor their evolution during cycling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the adsorption of the polysulfides onto SiO2 can be harnessed for buffering the polysulfide redox shuttle. The use of fumed silica as an electrolyte additive therefore significantly improves the specific charge and Coulombic efficiency of lithium-sulfur batteries.

  15. Method for fabricating carbon/lithium-ion electrode for rechargeable lithium cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Attia, Alan I. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The method includes steps for forming a carbon electrode composed of graphitic carbon particles adhered by an ethylene propylene diene monomer binder. An effective binder composition is disclosed for achieving a carbon electrode capable of subsequent intercalation by lithium ions. The method also includes steps for reacting the carbon electrode with lithium ions to incorporate lithium ions into graphitic carbon particles of the electrode. An electrical current is repeatedly applied to the carbon electrode to initially cause a surface reaction between the lithium ions and to the carbon and subsequently cause intercalation of the lithium ions into crystalline layers of the graphitic carbon particles. With repeated application of the electrical current, intercalation is achieved to near a theoretical maximum. Two differing multi-stage intercalation processes are disclosed. In the first, a fixed current is reapplied. In the second, a high current is initially applied, followed by a single subsequent lower current stage. Resulting carbon/lithium-ion electrodes are well suited for use as an anode in a reversible, ambient temperature, lithium cell.

  16. Lithium control during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanarayan, S.; Jain, D.

    2010-01-01

    Periodic increases in lithium (Li) concentrations in the primary heat transport (PHT) system during normal operation are a generic problem at CANDU® stations. Lithiated mixed bed ion exchange resins are used at stations for pH control in the PHT system. Typically tight chemistry controls including Li concentrations are maintained in the PHT water. The reason for the Li increases during normal operation at CANDU stations such as Pickering was not fully understood. In order to address this issue a two pronged approach was employed. Firstly, PNGS-A data and information from other available sources was reviewed in an effort to identify possible factors that may contribute to the observed Li variations. Secondly, experimental studies were carried out to assess the importance of these factors in order to establish reasons for Li increases during normal operation. Based on the results of these studies, plausible mechanisms/reasons for Li increases have been identified and recommendations made for proactive control of Li concentrations in the PHT system. (author)

  17. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D.; Bowden, W.; Hamilton, N.; Cubbison, D.; Dey, A. N.

    1981-04-01

    The main objective is to develop, fabricate, test, and deliver safe high rate lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for various U.S. Army applications such as manpack ratios and GLLD Laser Designators. We have devoted our efforts in the following major areas: (1) Optimization of the spirally wound D cell for high rate applications, (2) Development of a 3 inch diameter flat cylindrical cell for the GLLD laser designator application, and (3) Investigation of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2. The rate capability of the spirally wound D cell previously developed by us has been optimized for both the manpack radio (BA5590) battery and GLLD laser designator battery application in this program. A flat cylindrical cell has also been developed for the GLLD laser designator application. It is 3 inches in diameter and 0.9 inch in height with extremely low internal cell impedance that minimizes cell heating and polarization on the GLLD load. Typical cell capacity was found to be 18.0-19.0 Ahr with a few cells delivering up to about 21.0 Ahr on the GLLD test load. Study of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2 using electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques has also been carried out in this program which may be directly relevant to the intrinsic safety of the system.

  18. Reduced Dimensionality Lithium Niobate Microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichenfield, Matt [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The following report describes work performed under the LDRD program at Sandia National Laboratories October 2014 and September 2016. The work presented demonstrates the ability of Sandia Labs to develop state-of-the-art photonic devices based on thin film lithium niobate (LiNbO3 ). Section 1 provides an introduction to integrated LiNbO3 devices and motivation for developing thin film nonlinear optical systems. Section 2 describes the design, fabrication, and photonic performance of thin film optical microdisks fabricated from bulk LiNbO3 using a bulk implantation method developed at Sandia. Sections 3 and 4 describe the development of similar thin film LiNbO3 structures fabricated from LiNbO3 on insulator (LNOI) substrates and our demonstration of optical frequency conversion with state-of-the-art efficiency. Finally, Section 5 describes similar microdisk resonators fabricated from LNOI wafers with a buried metal layer, in which we demonstrate electro-optic modulation.

  19. Technology roadmap for lithium ion batteries 2030; Technologie-Roadmap Lithium-Ionen-Batterien 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielmann, Axel; Isenmann, Ralf; Wietschel, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The technology roadmap for lithium ion batteries 2030 presents a graphical representation of the cell components, cell types and cell characteristics of lithium ion batteries and their connection with the surrounding technology field from today through 2030. This is a farsighted orientation on the way into the future and an implementation of the ''Roadmap: Batterieforschung Deutschland'' of the BMBF (Federal Ministry of Education and Science). The developments in lithium ion batteries are identified through 2030 form today's expert view in battery development and neighbouring areas. (orig.)

  20. Heteroaromatic-based electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gang; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2017-04-18

    The present invention provides an electrolyte for lithium and/or lithium-ion batteries comprising a lithium salt in a liquid carrier comprising heteroaromatic compound including a five-membered or six-membered heteroaromatic ring moiety selected from the group consisting of a furan, a pyrazine, a triazine, a pyrrole, and a thiophene, the heteroaromatic ring moiety bearing least one carboxylic ester or carboxylic anhydride substituent bound to at least one carbon atom of the heteroaromatic ring. Preferred heteroaromatic ring moieties include pyridine compounds, pyrazine compounds, pyrrole compounds, furan compounds, and thiophene compounds.

  1. Lithium-aluminum-magnesium electrode composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendres, Carlos A.; Siegel, Stanley

    1978-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary, high-temperature electrochemical cell. The cell also includes a molten salt electrolyte of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides and a positive electrode including a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent and a magnesium-aluminum alloy as a structural matrix. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, magnesium, and aluminum are formed but the electrode composition in both its charged and discharged state remains substantially free of the alpha lithium-aluminum phase and exhibits good structural integrity.

  2. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan eAngulakshmi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium-sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium-sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium-sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii ionic liquids, (iii solid polymer and (iv glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li-S cells is discussed.

  3. Methods of tritium recovery from molten lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farookhi, R.; Rogers, J.E.

    1968-01-01

    It is important to keep the tritium inventory in a blanket of a thermonuclear reactor at a low level both to eliminate possible hydriding of structural components and to reduce inventory cost. Removing the tritium from a lithium blanket by fractional distillation, flash vaporization, and fractional crystallization was investigated. No definitive data are available either on the vapor-liquid equilibrium between lithium and tritium at low T 2 concentrations, or on the rate of formation and decomposition of lithium tritide. The final distinction between the recovery systems discussed in this report will depend on such data, but presently distillation appears to be the best alternate to the diffusion scheme proposed by A.P. Fraas. The capital cost of equipment necessary to remove tritium by distillation appears to be greater than 10 million dollars for a 5000 MW system, whereas the capital cost associated with the diffusion process has been estimated to be 4 million dollars

  4. Identification and modelling of Lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.M.; Sun, L.; Chan, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    A universal battery model for the charging process has been identified for Lithium ion battery working at constant temperature. Mathematical models are fitted to different collected charging profiles using the least squares algorithm. With the removal of the component which is related to the DC resistance of the battery, a universal model can be fitted to predict profiles of different charging rates after time scaling. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the goodness of fit of the model at different charging rates and for batteries of different capacities. Comparison with standard electrical-circuit model is also presented. With the proposed model, it is possible to derive more effective way to monitor the status of Lithium ion batteries, and to develop a universal quick charger for different capacities of batteries to result with a more effective usage of Lithium ion batteries.

  5. Determination of lithium in rocks by distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, M.H.

    1949-01-01

    A method for the quantitative extraction and recovery of lithium from rocks is based on a high temperature volatilization procedure. The sample is sintered with a calcium carbonate-calcium chloride mixture at 1200?? C. for 30 minutes in a platinum ignition tube, and the volatilization product is collected in a plug of Pyrex glass wool in a connecting Pyrex tube. The distillate, which consists of the alkali chlorides with a maximum of 5 to 20 mg. of calcium oxide and traces of a few other elements, is removed from the apparatus by dissolving in dilute hydrochloric acid and subjected to standard analytiaal procedures. The sinter residues contained less than 0.0005% lithium oxide. Lithium oxide was recovered from synthetic samples with an average error of 1.1%.

  6. Theoretical study of adsorption of lithium atom on carbon nanotube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Senami

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the adsorption of lithium atoms on the surface of the (12,0 single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT by using ab initio quantum chemical calculations. The adsorption of one lithium atom on the inside of this SWCNT is favored compared to the outside. We check this feature by charge transfer and regional chemical potential density. The adsorption of multiple lithium atoms on the interior of the SWCNT is studied in terms of adsorption energy and charge transfer. We show that repulsive force between lithium atoms destabilizes a system for the large number of lithium atoms.

  7. Lithium - An impurity of interest in radiation effects of silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, J. A.; Horiye, H.; Passenheim, B. C.

    1971-01-01

    Study of the introduction and annealing of defects produced in lithium-diffused float-zone n-type silicon by 30-MeV electrons and fission neutrons. The introduction rate of recombination centers produced by electron irradiation is dependent on lithium concentration and for neutron irradiation is independent of lithium concentration. The introduction rate of Si-B1 centers also depends on the lithium concentration. The annealing of electron- and neutron-produced recombination centers, Si-B1 centers, and Si-G7 centers in lithium-diffused silicon occurs at much lower temperatures than in nondiffused material.

  8. Lithium-thionyl chloride batteries - past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCartney, J.F.; Lund, T.J.; Sturgeon, W.J.

    1980-02-01

    Lithium based batteries have the highest theoretical energy density of known battery types. Of the lithium batteries, the lithium-thionyl chloride electrochemistry has the highest energy density of those which have been reduced to practice. The characteristics, development status, and performance of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries are treated in this paper. Safety aspects of lithium-thionyl chloride batteries are discussed along with impressive results of hazard/safety tests of these batteries. An orderly development plan of a minimum family of standard cells to avoid a proliferation of battery sizes and discharge rates is presented.

  9. Effect of catalysts on lithium passivation in thionyl chloride electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanevskii, L.S.; Avdalyan, M.B.; Kulova, T.L. [Frumkin Institute of Electrochemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-04-01

    The effect that various catalysts added to the electrolyte or the cathode of lithium-thionyl chloride cells for promoting the cathodic process exert on lithium anodes is studied. It is shown that, in the presence of platinum, the lithium anode is subjected to intense corrosion, and this leads to the appearance of a great voltage delay. Macrocyclic complexes activate lithium electrodes. Impedance measurements showed that the introduction of such complexes in the system is accompanied by changes in the passive film characteristics, and this leads to a decrease in the corrosion rate of lithium and a noticeable reduction of the voltage delay.

  10. Electronic properties of lithium titanate ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla-Campos, Luis; Buljan, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    Research on tritium breeder material is fundamental to the development of deuterium-tritium type fusion reactors for producing clean, non contaminating, electrical energy, since only energy and helium, a harmless gas, are produced from the fusion reaction. Lithium titanate ceramic is one of the possible candidates for the tritium breeder material. This last material is thought to form part of the first wall of the nucleus of the reactor which will provide the necessary tritium for the fusion and will also serve as a shield. Lithium titanate has advantageous characteristics compared to other materials. Some of these are low activation under the irradiation of neutrons, good thermal stability, high density of lithium atoms and relatively fast tritium release at low temperatures. However, there are still several physical and chemical properties with respect to the tritium release mechanism and mechanical properties that have not been studied at all. This work presents a theoretical study of the electronic properties of lithium titanate ceramic and the corresponding tritiated material. Band calculations using the Extended H kel Tight-Binding approach were carried out. Results show that after substituting lithium for tritium atoms, the electronic states for the latter appear in the middle of prohibited band gap which it is an indication that the tritiated material should behave as a semiconductor, contrary to Li 2 TiO 3 which is a dielectric isolator. A study was also carried out to determine the energetically most favorable sites for the substitution of lithium for tritium atoms. Additionally, we analyzed possible pathways for the diffusion of a tritium atom within the crystalline structure of the Li 2 TiO 3

  11. Effect of amides on lithium tetraborate solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsekhanskij, R S; Skvortsov, V C; Molodkin, A K; Sadetdi-pov, Sh V [Chuvashskij Gosudarstvennyj Pedagogicheskij Inst., Cheboksary (USSR); Universitet Druzhby Narodov, Moscow (USSR))

    1983-03-01

    Using the methods of solubility, densi- and refractometry at 25 deg C, it has been established that the systems lithium tetraborate-formamide (acetamide, dimethyl-formamide)-water are of a simple eutonic type. Amides decrease the salt solubility. Lyotropic effect, as calculated for molar concentrations (-Lsub(M)) relative to the absolute value, increases from formamide to dimethyl-formamide. The sequence is determined by the fact that, when there is one or two hydrophilic methyl groups in amide molecules which are in contact with tetraborate, they decrease the hydration energy of lithium cations.

  12. Effect of amides on lithium tetraborate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsekhanskij, R.S.; Skvortsov, V.C.; Molodkin, A.K.; Sadetdi- pov, Sh.V.

    1983-01-01

    Using the methods of solubility, densi- and refractometry at 25 deg C, it has been established that the systemS lithium tetraborate-formamide (acetamide, dimethyl-formamide)-water are of a simple eutonic type. Amides decrease the salt solubility. Lyotropic effect, as calculated for molar concentrations (-Lsub(M)) relative to the absolute value, increases from formamide to dimethylformamide. The sequence is determined by the fact that, when there is one or two hydrophilic methyl groups in amide molecules which are in contact with tetraborate, they decrease the hydration energy of lithium cations

  13. Rechargeable lithium/polymer cathode batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Toshiki; Shiota, Koh; Owens, Boone B.

    1989-06-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PAn) were investigated for cathode materials of rechargeable lithium batteries. PPy films prepared with PF6(-) anion and/or platinum substrate precoated with nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) were excellent cathode materials because of rough and/or highly oriented film structure. PAn films were successfully prepared from non-aqueous propylene carbonate solution containing aniline, CF3COOH and lithium perchlorate. Its acidity strongly affects the anion doping-undoping behavior. The PAn cathode prepared in high acidic solution (e.g., 4:1 ratio of acid:aniline) gives the excellent battery performance.

  14. Optical cleaning of lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koesters, Michael

    2010-01-01

    An all-optical method for the removal of photoexcitable electrons from photorefractive centers to get rid of optical damage in lithium niobate crystals is presented, the so-called ''optical cleaning''. The method combines the photovoltaic drift of electrons with ionic charge compensation at sufficiently high temperatures of about 180 C. Optimum choice of the light pattern plus heat dramatically decreases the concentration of photoexcitable electrons in the exposed region leading to a suppression of optical damage. Experiments with slightly iron-doped lithium niobate crystals have shown an increase of the threshold for optical damage of more than 1000 compared to those of untreated crystals. (orig.)

  15. Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

  16. Fabrication of dense panels in lithium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcy, P.; Roger, J.; Pointud, R.

    1958-04-01

    The authors report a study aimed at the fabrication of large and dense lithium fluoride panels. This sintered lithium fluoride is then supposed to be used for the construction of barriers of protection against a flow of thermal neutrons. They briefly present the raw material which is used under the form of chamotte obtained through a pre-sintering process which is also described. Grain size measurements and sample preparation are indicated. Shaping, drying, and thermal treatment are briefly described, and characteristics of the sintered product are indicated

  17. Lithium safety and tolerability in mood disorders: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Aprahamian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lithium is a first-line treatment for bipolar disorder in all phases, also indicated as add-on drug for unipolar depression and suicide prevention. This study encompasses a broad critical review on the safety and tolerability of lithium for mood disorders. Methods : A computerized search for English written human studies was made in MEDLINE, using the keywords “lithium” and “mood disorders”, starting from July 1993 through July 2013 (n = 416. This initial search aimed to select clinical trials, prospective data, and controlled design studies of lithium treatment for mood disorders reporting adverse effects (n = 36. The final selection yielded 91 studies. Results : The most common general side effects in patients on lithium treatment were thirst, frequent urination, dry mouth, weight gain, fatigue and cognitive complaints. Lithium users showed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, and decrease in urinary concentration ability. Reduction of glomerular filtration rate in patients using lithium was also observed, but in a lesser extent. The evidence of teratogenicity associated with lithium use is not well established. Anti-inflammatory non-steroidal drugs, thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and alprazolam may increase serum lithium and the consequent risk for intoxication. Discussion : Short-term lithium treatment is associated with mild side effects. Medium and long-term lithium treatment, however, might have effects on target organs which may be prevented by periodical monitoring. Overall, lithium is still a safe option for the treatment of mood disorders.

  18. Corrosion behaviour of materials selected for FMIT lithium system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazinet, G.D.; Brehm, W.F.

    1983-09-01

    The corrosion behavior of selected materials in a liquid lithium environment was studied in support of system and component designs for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Testing conditions ranged from about 3700 to about6500 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at temperatures from 230/sup 0/ to 270/sup 0/C and static lithium at temperatures from 200/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/C. Principal areas of investigation included lithium corrosion/erosion effects on FMIT lithium system baseline and candidate materials. Material coupons and full-size prototypic components were evaluated to determine corrosion rates, fatigue crack growth rates, structural compatibility, and component acceptability for the lithium system. Based on the results of these studies, concerns regarding system materials and component designs were satisfactorily resolved to support a 20-year design life requirement for the FMIT lithium system.

  19. Corrosion behaviour of materials selected for FMIT lithium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazinet, G.D.; Brehm, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of selected materials in a liquid lithium environment was studied in support of system and component designs for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Testing conditions ranged from about 3700 to about6500 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at temperatures from 230 0 to 270 0 C and static lithium at temperatures from 200 0 to 500 0 C. Principal areas of investigation included lithium corrosion/erosion effects on FMIT lithium system baseline and candidate materials. Material coupons and full-size prototypic components were evaluated to determine corrosion rates, fatigue crack growth rates, structural compatibility, and component acceptability for the lithium system. Based on the results of these studies, concerns regarding system materials and component designs were satisfactorily resolved to support a 20-year design life requirement for the FMIT lithium system

  20. Lithium Surface Coatings for Improved Plasma Performance in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugel, H W; Ahn, J -W; Allain, J P; Bell, R; Boedo, J; Bush, C; Gates, D; Gray, T; Kaye, S; Kaita, R; LeBlanc, B; Maingi, R; Majeski, R; Mansfield, D; Menard, J; Mueller, D; Ono, M; Paul, S; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Ross, P W; Sabbagh, S; Schneider, H; Skinner, C H; Soukhanovskii, V; Stevenson, T; Timberlake, J; Wampler, W R

    2008-02-19

    NSTX high-power divertor plasma experiments have shown, for the first time, significant and frequent benefits from lithium coatings applied to plasma facing components. Lithium pellet injection on NSTX introduced lithium pellets with masses 1 to 5 mg via He discharges. Lithium coatings have also been applied with an oven that directed a collimated stream of lithium vapor toward the graphite tiles of the lower center stack and divertor. Lithium depositions from a few mg to 1 g have been applied between discharges. Benefits from the lithium coating were sometimes, but not always seen. These improvements sometimes included decreases plasma density, inductive flux consumption, and ELM frequency, and increases in electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement and periods of MHD quiescence. In addition, reductions in lower divertor D, C, and O luminosity were measured.

  1. Lithium pellet production (LiPP): A device for the production of small spheres of lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiflis, P.; Andrucyzk, D.; Roquemore, A. L.; McGuire, M.; Curreli, D.; Ruzic, D. N.

    2013-06-01

    With lithium as a fusion material gaining popularity, a method for producing lithium pellets relatively quickly has been developed for NSTX. The Lithium Pellet Production device is based on an injector with a sub-millimeter diameter orifice and relies on a jet of liquid lithium breaking apart into small spheres via the Plateau-Rayleigh instability. A prototype device is presented in this paper and for a pressure difference of ΔP = 5 Torr, spheres with diameters between 0.91 < D < 1.37 mm have been produced with an average diameter of D = 1.14 mm, which agrees with the developed theory. Successive tests performed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory with Wood's metal have confirmed the dependence of sphere diameter on pressure difference as predicted.

  2. Lithium vapor trapping at a high-temperature lithium PFC divertor target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Michael; Abrams, T.; Goldston, R. J.; Kaita, R.; Stotler, D. P.; de Temmerman, G.; Scholten, J.; van den Berg, M. A.; van der Meiden, H. J.

    2014-10-01

    Liquid lithium has been proposed as a novel plasma-facing material for NSTX-U and next-step fusion devices but questions remain on the ultimate temperature limits of such a PFC during plasma bombardment. Lithium targets were exposed to high-flux plasma bombardment in the Magnum-PSI experimental device resulting in a temperature ramp from room-temperature to above 1200°C. A stable lithium vapor cloud was found to form directly in front of the target and persist to temperature above 1000°C. Consideration of mass and momentum balance in the pre-sheath region of an attached plasma indicates an increase in the magnitude of the pre-sheath potential drop with the inclusion of ionization sources as well as the inclusion of momentum loss terms. The low energy of lithium emission from a surface measured in previous experiments (Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  3. Hybrid Lithium-ion Capacitor / Lithium-ion Battery System for Extended Performance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed task will involve the design of a hybrid power system with lithium-ion (li-ion) capacitors (LICs), li-ion batteries and solar cells. The challenge in...

  4. Hydrolyzable tannins of tamaricaceous plants. V. Structures of monomeric-trimeric tannins and cytotoxicity of macrocyclic-type tannins isolated from Tamarix nilotica (1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orabi, Mohamed A A; Taniguchi, Shoko; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Morio; Yoshida, Takashi; Hatano, Tsutomu

    2013-05-24

    Three new ellagitannin monomers, nilotinins M5-M7 (1-3), a dimer, nilotinin D10 (4), and a trimer, nilotinin T1 (5), together with three known dimers, hirtellin D (7) and tamarixinins B (8) and C (9), and a trimer, hirtellin T2 (6), were isolated from Tamarix nilotica dried leaves. The structures of the tannins were elucidated by intensive spectroscopic methods and chemical conversions into known tannins. The new trimer (5) is a unique macrocyclic type whose monomeric units are linked together by an isodehydrodigalloyl and two dehydrodigalloyl moieties. Additionally, dimeric and trimeric macrocyclic-type tannins isolated from T. nilotica in this study were assessed for possible cytotoxic activity against four human tumor cell lines. Tumor-selective cytotoxicities of the tested compounds were higher than those of synthetic and natural potent cytotoxic compounds, including polyphenols, and comparable with those of 5-fluorouracil and melphalan.

  5. Corrosion inhibition of aluminum with a series of aniline monomeric surfactants and their analog polymers in 0.5 M HCl solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. El-Deeb

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition effect of 3-(12-sodiumsulfonate dodecyloxy aniline monomeric surfactant (MC12 and its analog polymer Poly 3-(dodecyloxy sulfonic acid aniline (PC12 on the corrosion of aluminum in 0.5 M HCl solution was investigated using weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The presence of these two compounds in 0.5 M HCl inhibits the corrosion of aluminum without modifying the mechanism of corrosion process. It was found that these inhibitors act as mixed-type inhibitors with anodic predominance as well as the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing inhibitor concentration, but decreases with raising temperature. Langmuir and Frumkin adsorption isotherms fit well with the experimental data. Thermodynamic functions for both dissolution and adsorption processes were determined. The obtained results from weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization techniques are in good agreement with contact angle measurements.

  6. Quinoline derivative containing monomeric and polymeric metal carboxylates: Synthesis, crystal structure and gas adsorption study over a 2D layered framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Saikat; Saha, Debraj; Koner, Subratanath

    2018-06-01

    A new supramolecular metal-carboxylate framework [Co(mqc)2]n (1), and another monomeric compound [Zn (mqc)2(H2O)] (2) (mqcH = 4-methoxy 2-quinolinecarboxylic acid) have been synthesized solvothermally and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, IR spectra, UV-vis spectra, powdered X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and thermogravimetric analysis. Compound 1 is a 2D coordination polymer, extended to a 3D porous supramolecular network having void space in between 2D layers. Compound 1 exhibits gas uptake capacity of N2, H2, CO2 and CH4 like small gas molecules in which moderately high uptake of H2 and CO2 takes place among the 2D MOFs. While the Zn variety, compound 2 features a one-dimensional chain like structure through strong intermolecular hydrogen-bonding.

  7. Electrochemical Model for Ionic Liquid Electrolytes in Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Kisoo; Deshpande, Anirudh; Banerjee, Soumik; Dutta, Prashanta

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Room temperature ionic liquids are considered as potential electrolytes for high performance and safe lithium batteries due to their very low vapor pressure and relatively wide electrochemical and thermal stability windows. Unlike organic electrolytes, ionic liquid electrolytes are molten salts at room temperature with dissociated cations and anions. These dissociated ions interfere with the transport of lithium ions in lithium battery. In this study, a mathematical model is developed for transport of ionic components to study the performance of ionic liquid based lithium batteries. The mathematical model is based on a univalent ternary electrolyte frequently encountered in ionic liquid electrolytes of lithium batteries. Owing to the very high concentration of components in ionic liquid, the transport of lithium ions is described by the mutual diffusion phenomena using Maxwell-Stefan diffusivities, which are obtained from atomistic simulation. The model is employed to study a lithium-ion battery where the electrolyte comprises ionic liquid with mppy + (N-methyl-N-propyl pyrrolidinium) cation and TFSI − (bis trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide) anion. For a moderate value of reaction rate constant, the electric performance results predicted by the model are in good agreement with experimental data. We also studied the effect of porosity and thickness of separator on the performance of lithium-ion battery using this model. Numerical results indicate that low rate of lithium ion transport causes lithium depleted zone in the porous cathode regions as the porosity decreases or the length of the separator increases. The lithium depleted region is responsible for lower specific capacity in lithium-ion cells. The model presented in this study can be used for design of optimal ionic liquid electrolytes for lithium-ion and lithium-air batteries

  8. Gas absorption and discharge behaviors of lead-lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakabe, Toshiro; Yokomine, Takehiko; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Kawara, Zensaku; Ueki, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Teruya

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The absorption of argon in the lead-lithium is comparable with that of helium even at the solid state. • For the molten state of lead-lithium, the absorption of argon could be larger than that of helium. • It is observed that the argon tends to desorb when the phase change of lead-lithium occurs. • It is observed from the TPD-MS analysis that the argon tends to desorb when the phase change of lead-lithium occurs. - Abstract: The absorption of rare gas in the lead-lithium has been quite low and the gas is used as a cover-gas to control the environment of experiment. In our previous thermo-fluid experiment by using lithium-lead, it was found the cover gas pressure enclosed in the very leak tight container of lithium-lead was decreased with time, that is, the gas-absorption of the solid lithium-lead occurred at room temperature under atmospheric pressure. The variation of pressure exceeded the retention of argon in lead-lithium which is expected by the published data. Therefore, we aim to confirm those phenomena under well-controlled experimental condition by using argon, nitrogen and helium. According to the results of gas exposure tests, the absorption of argon in the lead-lithium is comparable with that of helium even at the solid state. For the molten state of lead-lithium, the absorption of argon could be larger than that of helium. It is also observed from the TPD-MS analysis that the argon tends to desorb when the phase change of lead-lithium occurs. If the retention of argon in the lead-lithium cannot be ignored, the problem of Ar-41 activity should be taken into consideration as well as the problem of argon bubble in the lead-lithium

  9. Preliminary experimental study of liquid lithium water interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, X.M.; Tong, L.L.; Cao, X.W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Explosive reaction occurs when lithium temperature is over 300 °C. • The violence of liquid lithium water interaction increases with the initial temperature of liquid lithium. • The interaction is suppressed when the initial water temperature is above 70 °C. • Steam explosion is not ignorable in the risk assessment of liquid lithium water interaction. • Explosion strength of liquid lithium water interaction is evaluated by explosive yield. - Abstract: Liquid lithium is the best candidate for a material with low Z and low activation, and is one of the important choices for plasma facing materials in magnetic fusion devices. However, liquid lithium reacts violently with water under the conditions of loss of coolant accidents. The release of large heats and hydrogen could result in the dramatic increase of temperature and pressure. The lithium–water explosion has large effect on the safety of fusion devices, which is an important content for the safety assessment of fusion devices. As a preliminary investigation of liquid lithium water interaction, the test facility has been built and experiments have been conducted under different conditions. The initial temperature of lithium droplet ranged from 200 °C to 600 °C and water temperature was varied between 20 °C and 90 °C. Lithium droplets were released into the test section with excess water. The shape of lithium droplet and steam generated around the lithium were observed by the high speed camera. At the same time, the pressure and temperature in the test section were recorded during the violent interactions. The preliminary experimental results indicate that the initial temperature of lithium and water has an effect on the violence of liquid lithium water interaction.

  10. Preliminary experimental study of liquid lithium water interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, X.M.; Tong, L.L.; Cao, X.W., E-mail: caoxuewu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Explosive reaction occurs when lithium temperature is over 300 °C. • The violence of liquid lithium water interaction increases with the initial temperature of liquid lithium. • The interaction is suppressed when the initial water temperature is above 70 °C. • Steam explosion is not ignorable in the risk assessment of liquid lithium water interaction. • Explosion strength of liquid lithium water interaction is evaluated by explosive yield. - Abstract: Liquid lithium is the best candidate for a material with low Z and low activation, and is one of the important choices for plasma facing materials in magnetic fusion devices. However, liquid lithium reacts violently with water under the conditions of loss of coolant accidents. The release of large heats and hydrogen could result in the dramatic increase of temperature and pressure. The lithium–water explosion has large effect on the safety of fusion devices, which is an important content for the safety assessment of fusion devices. As a preliminary investigation of liquid lithium water interaction, the test facility has been built and experiments have been conducted under different conditions. The initial temperature of lithium droplet ranged from 200 °C to 600 °C and water temperature was varied between 20 °C and 90 °C. Lithium droplets were released into the test section with excess water. The shape of lithium droplet and steam generated around the lithium were observed by the high speed camera. At the same time, the pressure and temperature in the test section were recorded during the violent interactions. The preliminary experimental results indicate that the initial temperature of lithium and water has an effect on the violence of liquid lithium water interaction.

  11. Experimental study of gaseous lithium deuterides and lithium oxides. Implications for the use of lithium and Li2O as breeding materials in fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihle, H.R.; Wu, C.H.; Kudo, H.

    1980-01-01

    In addition to LiH, which has been studied extensively by optical spectroscopy, the existence of a number of other stable lithium hydrides has been predicted theoretically. By analysis of the saturated vapour over dilute solutions of the hydrogen isotopes in lithium, using Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry, all lithium hydrides predicted to be stable were found. Solutions of deuterium in lithium were used predominantly because of practical advantages for mass spectrometric measurements. The heats of dissociation of LiD, Li 2 D, LiD 2 and Li 2 D 2 , and the binding energies of their singly charged positive ions were determined, and the constants of the gas/liquid equilibria were calculated. The existence of these lithium deuterides in the gas phase over solutions of deuterium in lithium leads to enrichment of deuterium in the gas above 1240 K. The enrichment factor, which increases exponentially with temperature and is independent of concentration for low concentrations of deuterium in the liquid, was determined by Rayleigh distillation experiments. It was found that it is thermodynamically possible to separate deuterium from lithium by distillation. One of the alternatives to the use of lithium in (D,T)-fusion reactors as tritium-breeding blanket material is to employ solid lithium oxide. This has a high melting point, a high lithium density and still favourable tritium-breeding properties. Because of its rather high volatility, an experimental study of the vaporization of Li 2 O was undertaken by mass spectrometry. It vaporizes to give lithium and oxygen, and LiO, Li 2 O, Li 3 O and Li 2 O 2 . The molecule Li 3 O was found as a new species. Heats of dissociation, binding energies of the various ions and the constants of the gas/solid equilibria were determined. The effect of using different materials for the Knudsen cells and the relative thermal stabilities of lithium-aluminium oxides were also studied. (author)

  12. Monomeric RC-LH1 core complexes retard LH2 assembly and intracytoplasmic membrane formation in PufX-minus mutants of Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Peter G; Mothersole, David J; Ng, Irene W; Olsen, John D; Hunter, C Neil

    2011-09-01

    In the model photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides domains of light-harvesting 2 (LH2) complexes surround and interconnect dimeric reaction centre-light-harvesting 1-PufX (RC-LH1-PufX) 'core' complexes, forming extensive networks for energy transfer and trapping. These complexes are housed in spherical intracytoplasmic membranes (ICMs), which are assembled in a stepwise process where biosynthesis of core complexes tends to dominate the early stages of membrane invagination. The kinetics of LH2 assembly were measured in PufX mutants that assemble monomeric core complexes, as a consequence of either a twelve-residue N-terminal truncation of PufX (PufXΔ12) or the complete removal of PufX (PufX(-)). Lower rates of LH2 assembly and retarded maturation of membrane invagination were observed for the larger and less curved ICM from the PufX(-) mutant, consistent with the proposition that local membrane curvature, initiated by arrays of bent RC-LH1-PufX dimers, creates a favourable environment for stable assembly of LH2 complexes. Transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution atomic force microscopy were used to examine ICM morphology and membrane protein organisation in these mutants. Some partitioning of core and LH2 complexes was observed in PufX(-) membranes, resulting in locally ordered clusters of monomeric RC-LH1 complexes. The distribution of core and LH2 complexes in the three types of membrane examined is consistent with previous models of membrane curvature and domain formation (Frese et al., 2008), which demonstrated that a combination of crowding and asymmetries in sizes and shapes of membrane protein complexes drives membrane organisation. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Resolution of two native monomeric 90 kDa nitrate reductase active proteins from Shewanella gelidimarina and the sequence of two napA genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Philippa J.L.; McKinzie, Audra A.; Codd, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Two monomeric 90 kDa nitrate reductase active proteins from Shewanella gelidimarina. → Sequence of napA from napEDABC-type operon and napA from NapDAGHB-type operon. → Isolation of NAP as NapA or NapAB correlated with NapA P47E amino acid substitution. -- Abstract: The reduction of nitrate to nitrite in the bacterial periplasm occurs in the 90 kDa NapA subunit of the periplasmic nitrate reductase (NAP) system. Most Shewanella genomes contain two nap operons: napEDABC and napDAGHB, which is an unusual feature of this genus. Two native, monomeric, 90 kDa nitrate reductase active proteins were resolved by hydrophobic interaction chromatography from aerobic cultures of Shewanella gelidimarina replete with reduced nitrogen compounds. The 90 kDa protein obtained in higher yield was characterized as NapA by electronic absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies and was identified by LC/MS/MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS as NapA from the napEDABC-type operon. The other 90 kDa protein, which was unstable and produced in low yields, was posited as NapA from the napDAGHB-type operon. Two napA genes have been sequenced from the napEDABC-type and napDAGHB-type operons of S. gelidimarina. Native NAP from S. putrefaciens was resolved as one NapA monomer and one NapAB heterodimer. Two amino acid substitutions in NapA correlated with the isolation of NAP as a NapA monomer or a NapAB heterodimer. The resolution of native, redox-active NapA isoforms in Shewanella provides new insight into the respiratory versatility of this genus, which has implications in bioremediation and the assembly of microbial fuel cells.

  14. Crystal Structure of a Monomeric Form of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Endonuclease Nsp15 Suggests a Role for Hexamerization As An Allosteric Switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, J.S.; Saikatendu, K.S.; Subramanian, V.; Neuman, B.W.; Buchmeier, M.J.; Stevens, R.C.; Kuhn, P.; /Scripps Res. Inst.

    2007-07-09

    Mature nonstructural protein-15 (nsp15) from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) contains a novel uridylate-specific Mn{sup 2+}-dependent endoribonuclease (NendoU). Structure studies of the full-length form of the obligate hexameric enzyme from two CoVs, SARS-CoV and murine hepatitis virus, and its monomeric homologue, XendoU from Xenopus laevis, combined with mutagenesis studies have implicated several residues in enzymatic activity and the N-terminal domain as the major determinant of hexamerization. However, the tight link between hexamerization and enzyme activity in NendoUs has remained an enigma. Here, we report the structure of a trimmed, monomeric form of SARS-CoV nsp15 (residues 28 to 335) determined to a resolution of 2.9 Angstroms. The catalytic loop (residues 234 to 249) with its two reactive histidines (His 234 and His 249) is dramatically flipped by {approx}120 degrees into the active site cleft. Furthermore, the catalytic nucleophile Lys 289 points in a diametrically opposite direction, a consequence of an outward displacement of the supporting loop (residues 276 to 295). In the full-length hexameric forms, these two loops are packed against each other and are stabilized by intimate intersubunit interactions. Our results support the hypothesis that absence of an adjacent monomer due to deletion of the hexamerization domain is the most likely cause for disruption of the active site, offering a structural basis for why only the hexameric form of this enzyme is active.

  15. Influence of temperature and lithium purity on corrosion of ferrous alloys in a flowing lithium environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Smith, D.L.

    1986-03-01

    Corrosion data have been obtained on ferritic HT-9 and Fe-9Cr-1Mo steel and austenitic Type 316 stainless steel in a flowing lithium environment at temperatures between 372 and 538 0 C. The corrosion behavior is evaluated by measurements of weight loss as a function of time and temperature. A metallographic characterization of materials exposed to a flowing lithium environment is presented

  16. Lanthanum Nitrate As Electrolyte Additive To Stabilize the Surface Morphology of Lithium Anode for Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng; Li, Guo-Ran; Gao, Xue-Ping

    2016-03-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is regarded as one of the most promising candidates beyond conventional lithium ion batteries. However, the instability of the metallic lithium anode during lithium electrochemical dissolution/deposition is still a major barrier for the practical application of Li-S battery. In this work, lanthanum nitrate, as electrolyte additive, is introduced into Li-S battery to stabilize the surface of lithium anode. By introducing lanthanum nitrate into electrolyte, a composite passivation film of lanthanum/lithium sulfides can be formed on metallic lithium anode, which is beneficial to decrease the reducibility of metallic lithium and slow down the electrochemical dissolution/deposition reaction on lithium anode for stabilizing the surface morphology of metallic Li anode in lithium-sulfur battery. Meanwhile, the cycle stability of the fabricated Li-S cell is improved by introducing lanthanum nitrate into electrolyte. Apparently, lanthanum nitrate is an effective additive for the protection of lithium anode and the cycling stability of Li-S battery.

  17. Kinetics Tuning the Electrochemistry of Lithium Dendrites Formation in Lithium Batteries through Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Ran; Bi, Xuanxuan; The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH; Li, Shu; Yao, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Lithium batteries are one of the most advance energy storage devices in the world and have attracted extensive research interests. However, lithium dendrite growth was a safety issue which handicapped the application of pure lithium metal in the negative electrode. In this paper, two solvents, propylene carbonate (PC) and 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran (2MeTHF), and four Li"+ salts, LiPF_6, LiAsF_6, LiBF_4 and LiClO_4 were investigated in terms of their effects on the kinetics of lithium dendrite formation in eight electrolyte solutions. The kinetic parameters of charge transfer step (exchange current density, j_0, transfer coefficient, α) of Li"+/Li redox system, the mass transfer parameters of Li"+ (transfer number of Li"+, t_L_i_+, diffusion coefficient of Li"+, D_L_i_+), and the conductivity (κ) of each electrolyte were studied separately. The results demonstrate that the solvents play a critical role in the measured j_0, t_L_i_+, D_L_i_+, and κ of the electrolyte, while the choice of Li"+ salts only slightly affect the measured parameters. Finally, the understanding of the kinetics will gain insight into the mechanism of lithium dendrite formation and provide guidelines to the future application of lithium metal.

  18. Mechanical behaviour of aluminium-lithium alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aluminium-lithium alloys hold promise of providing a breakthrough response to the crying need for lightweight alloys for use as structurals in aerospace applications. Considerable worldwide research has gone into developing a range of these alloys over the last three decades. As a result, substantial understanding has ...

  19. Nanosized lithium titanates produced by plasma technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabis, J; Orlovs, A; Rasmane, Dz

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of nanosized lithium titanates is studied by evaporation of coarse grained commercially available titanium and lithium carbonate particles in radio-frequency plasma flow with subsequent controlling formation and growth conditions of product particles. In accordance with the XRD analysis the phase composition of the obtained powders is determined by feeding rate of precursors and strongly by ratio of lithium and titanium. The Li 2 TiO 3 and Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 particles containing small amounts of extra phases were obtained at ratio of Li/Ti = 2 and Li/Ti = 0.8 respectively, feeding rate of precursors being in the range of 0.6-0.9 kg/h. Specific surface area of powders is in the range of 20-40 m2/g depending on concentration of vapours in gas flow and cooling rate of the products. Additional calcination of nanosize particles at 800-900 deg. C improves phase composition of lithium titanates

  20. The TFTR lithium blanket module program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.; Bertone, P.C.; Creedon, R.L.; File, J.; Graumann, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) is an approximately 80X80X80 cm cubic module, representative of a helium-cooled lithium oxide fusion reactor blanket module, that will be installed on the TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) in late 1986. The principal objective of the LBM Program is to perform a series of neutron transport and tritium-breeding measurements throughout the LBM when it is exposed to the TFTR toroidal fusion neutron source, and to compare these data with the predictions of Monte Carlo (MCNP) neutronics codes. The LBM consists of 920 2.5-cm diameter breeder rods constructed of lithium oxide (Li 2 O) pellets housed in thin-walled stainless steel tubes. Procedures for mass-producing 25,000 Li 2 O pellets with satisfactory reproducibility were developed using purified Li 2 O powder, and fabrication of all the breeder rods was completed in early 1985. Tritium assay methods were investigated experimentally using both small lithium metal samples and LBM-type pellets. This work demonstrated that the thermal extraction method will be satisfactory for accurate evaluation of the minute concentrations of tritium expected in the LBM pellets (0.1-1nCi/g)

  1. Lithium: Priming the next 50 years

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2004-05-20

    May 20, 2004 ... Alvarez G, Munoz-Montano JR, Satrustegui J, Avila J, Bogonez E, Diaz-Nido J. Regulation of tau phosphorylation and protection against beta-amyloid-induced neurodegeneration by lithium. Possible implications for Alzheimer's disease. Bi- polar Disord 2002; 4:153-65. 11. Senatorov VV, Ren M, Kanai H, ...

  2. Concentrations of lithium in Chinese coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yuzhuang; Li, Yanheng; Zhao, Cunliang; Lin, Mingyue; Wang, Jinxi; Qin, Shenjun [Hebei University of Engineering, Handan (China). Key Laboratory of Resource Exploration Research of Hebei Province

    2010-04-15

    Lithium is an important energy metal. Its concentrations in coals have been studied by many geologists. Its average content is only 14 mg/kg in the coals of the world. Lithium has never been reported as a coal associated deposit before. In order to study the concentrations in Chinese coals, 159 coal and gangue samples were taken from six coal mines and were determined by ICP-MS and the minerals in the samples were identified by X-ray powder diffraction. The results indicate that the Li contents in the coal samples from the Antaibao Coal Mine have reached the industry grade of coal associated deposits. In Tongxing Coal Mine, Li contents in the coal floor rock samples have reached the industry grade of independent lithium deposits. Main minerals are polylithionite, triphylite, zinnwaldite, lithionite and cookeite, which were transported into the peats. Therefore, lithium enriched is most likely in the synsedimentary stage in both coal mines. Furthermore, a revised average Li content in Chinese coals was given.

  3. [Lithium and anticonvulsants in bipolar depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samalin, L; Nourry, A; Llorca, P-M

    2011-12-01

    For decades, lithium and anticonvulsants have been widely used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Their efficacy in the treatment of mania is recognized. These drugs have been initially evaluated in old and methodologically heterogeneous studies. Their efficacy in bipolar depression has not always been confirmed in more recent and methodologically more reliable studies. Thus, lithium's efficacy as monotherapy was challenged by the study of Young (2008) that showed a lack of efficacy compared with placebo in the treatment of bipolar depression. In two recent meta-analyses, valproate has shown a modest efficacy in the treatment of bipolar depression. As for lithium, valproate appeared to have a larger antimanic effect for acute phase and prophylaxis of bipolar disorder. In contrast, lamotrigine is more effective on the depressive pole of bipolar disorder with better evidence for the prevention of depressive recurrences. The guidelines include these recent studies and recommend lamotrigine as a first-line treatment of bipolar depression and for maintenance treatment. Because of more discordant data concerning lithium and valproate, these two drugs are placed either as first or as second line treatment of bipolar depression. The different safety/efficacy ratios of mood stabilizers underlie the complementarity and the importance of combination between them, or with some second-generation antipsychotics, in the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2011 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  4. Systematic hardness studies on lithium niobate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    crystals with different growth origins, and a Fe-doped sample. The problem of load ... The true hardness of LiNbO3 is found to be 630 ± 30 kg/mm2. .... Experimental. Pure lithium ... the index of d strikes at this simple and meaningful defini-.

  5. Toxic effect of lithium in mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, P.K.; Smithberg, M.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of lithium ion on glucose oxidation in the cerebrum and cerebellum of mice was measured in vitro by the conversion of isotopic glucose into 14 CO 2 /mg wet weight. Glucose utilization is unaffected by lowest lithium dosage but is inhibited by high lithium concentrations (197-295 mM). Chronic administration of lithium to adult mice decreased the DNA content of the cerebrum and cerebellum at concentrations of 80 and 108 mM. The DNA content of selected postnatal stages of cerebrum and cerebellum was measured starting on Day 1 or 2. This served as another parameter to evaluate glucose oxidation studies at these ages. On the basis of wet weight, both brain parts of neonates of ages 1 and 10 days were approximately one-half that of the adult counterparts. On the basis of DNA content, the cerebrum enhanced its glucose utilization twofold from Day 1 to Day 10 and tripled its utilization from Day 10 to Day 20. The glucose utilization by cerebrum at Day 20 is similar to adult values. In contrast, glucose oxidation in the cerebellum remained relatively constant throughout the postnatal growth. The relative susceptibility of the two brain parts is discussed

  6. Lithium hydride hydrolysis: experimental and kinetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charton, S.; Maupoix, C.; Brevet, A.; Delaunay, F.; Heintz, O.; Saviot, L.

    2006-01-01

    In this work has been studied the contribution of various analyses techniques in the framework, on the one hand of revealing the mechanisms implied in lithium hydride hydrolysis, and on the other hand of studying the kinetics of hydrogen production. Among the methods recently investigated, Raman spectroscopy, XPS and SIMS seem to be particularly attractive. (O.M.)

  7. Overview of ENEA's Projects on lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, F.; Conte, M.; Passerini, S.; Prosini, P. P.

    The increasing need of high performance batteries in various small-scale and large-scale applications (portable electronics, notebooks, palmtops, cellular phones, electric vehicles, UPS, load levelling) in Italy is motivating the R&D efforts of various public and private organizations. Research of lithium batteries in Italy goes back to the beginning of the technological development of primary and secondary lithium systems with national know-how spread in various academic and public institutions with a few private stakeholders. In the field of lithium polymer batteries, ENEA has been dedicating significant efforts in almost two decades to promote and carry out basic R&D and pre-industrial development projects. In recent years, three major national projects have been performed and coordinated by ENEA in co-operation with some universities, governmental research organizations and industry. In these projects novel polymer electrolytes with ceramic additives, low cost manganese oxide-based composite cathodes, environmentally friendly process for polymer electrolyte, fabrication processes of components and cells have been investigated and developed in order to fulfill long-term needs of cost-effective and highly performant lithium polymer batteries.

  8. Determination of lithium in rocks: Fluorometric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C.E.; Fletcher, M.H.; Parks, J.

    1951-01-01

    The gravimetric method in general use for the determination of lithium is tedious, and the final weighed product often contains other alkali metals. A fluorometric method was developed to shorten the time required for the analysis and to assure that the final determination is for lithium alone. This procedure is based on the complex formed between lithium and 8-hydroxyquinoline. The fluorescence is developed in a slightly alkaline solution of 95% alcohol and measurement is made on a photoelectric fluorometer. Separation from the ore is carried out by the wet method or by the distillation procedure. Sodium and potassium are removed by alcohol and ether, but complete separation is not necessary. Comparison of analyzed samples shows excellent agreement with spectrographic and gravimetric methods. The fluorometric method is more rapid than the gravimetric and produces more conclusive results. Another useful application is in the preparation of standard lithium solutions from reagent quality salts when a known standard is available. In this case no separations are necessary.

  9. Adsorption of Lithium on Finite Graphitic Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Cabria, I.; Lopez, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    The apparent discrepancies between density functional (DFT) and Moller-Plesset (MP2) calculations for the interaction of lithium with graphene recently pointed out by Ferre-Vilaplana (J. Phys. Chem. C 2008, 112, 3998) are discussed. In his calculations, this author used a finite coronene cluster, C...

  10. Lithium insertion in sputtered vanadium oxide film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, K.; Zachau-Christiansen, B.; Skaarup, S.V.

    1992-01-01

    were oxygen deficient compared to V2O5. Films prepared in pure argon were reduced to V(4) or lower. The vanadium oxide films were tested in solid-state lithium cells. Films sputtered in oxygen showed electrochemical properties similar to crystalline V2O5. The main differences are a decreased capacity...

  11. NSTX plasma operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugel, H.W., E-mail: hkugel@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Allain, J.P. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Diallo, A.; Ellis, R.; Gerhardt, S.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Heim, B. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Jaworski, M.A.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Maingi, R.; McLean, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Menard, J.; Mueller, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Nygren, R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Ono, M.; Paul, S.F. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); and others

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NSTX 2010 experiments tested the effectiveness of maintaining the deuterium retention properties of a static liquid lithium molybdenum divertor surface when refreshed by lithium evaporation as an approximation to a flowing liquid lithium surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Noteworthy improvements in plasma performance with the plasma strike point on the liquid lithium molybdenum divertor were obtained similar to those obtained previously with lithiated graphite. The role of lithium impurities in this result is discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inspection of the liquid lithium molybdenum divertor after the Campaign indicated mechanical damage to supports, and other hardware resulting from forces following plasma current disruptions. - Abstract: NSTX 2010 experiments were conducted using a molybdenum Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) surface installed on the outer part of the lower divertor. This tested the effectiveness of maintaining the deuterium retention properties of a static liquid lithium surface when refreshed by lithium evaporation as an approximation to a flowing liquid lithium surface. The LLD molybdenum front face has a 45% porosity to provide sufficient wetting to spread 37 g of lithium, and to retain it in the presence of magnetic forces. Lithium Evaporators were used to deposit lithium on the LLD surface. At the beginning of discharges, the LLD lithium surface ranged from solid to liquefied depending on the amount of applied and plasma heating. Noteworthy improvements in plasma performance were obtained similar to those obtained previously with lithiated graphite, e.g., ELM-free, quiescent edge, H-modes. During these experiments with the plasma outer strike point on the LLD, the rate of deuterium retention in the LLD, as indicated by the fueling needed to achieve and maintain stable plasma conditions, was the about the same as that for solid lithium coatings on the graphite prior to the installation of the

  12. Fixing the Big Bang Theory's Lithium Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    How did our universe come into being? The Big Bang theory is a widely accepted and highly successful cosmological model of the universe, but it does introduce one puzzle: the cosmological lithium problem. Have scientists now found a solution?Too Much LithiumIn the Big Bang theory, the universe expanded rapidly from a very high-density and high-temperature state dominated by radiation. This theory has been validated again and again: the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation and observations of the large-scale structure of the universe both beautifully support the Big Bang theory, for instance. But one pesky trouble-spot remains: the abundance of lithium.The arrows show the primary reactions involved in Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and their flux ratios, as predicted by the authors model, are given on the right. Synthesizing primordial elements is complicated! [Hou et al. 2017]According to Big Bang nucleosynthesis theory, primordial nucleosynthesis ran wild during the first half hour of the universes existence. This produced most of the universes helium and small amounts of other light nuclides, including deuterium and lithium.But while predictions match the observed primordial deuterium and helium abundances, Big Bang nucleosynthesis theory overpredicts the abundance of primordial lithium by about a factor of three. This inconsistency is known as the cosmological lithium problem and attempts to resolve it using conventional astrophysics and nuclear physics over the past few decades have not been successful.In a recent publicationled by Suqing Hou (Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) and advisorJianjun He (Institute of Modern Physics National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences), however, a team of scientists has proposed an elegant solution to this problem.Time and temperature evolution of the abundances of primordial light elements during the beginning of the universe. The authors model (dotted lines

  13. Adsorption behavior of lithium from seawater using manganese oxide adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajima, Takaaki; Munakata, Kenzo; Uda, Tatsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reactor system is expected to provide the main source of electricity in the future. Large amounts of lithium will be required, dependent on the reactor design concept, and alternative resources should be found to provide lithium inventories for nuclear fusion plants. Seawater has recently become an attractive source of this element and the separation and recovery of lithium from seawater by co-precipitation, solvent extraction and adsorption have been investigated. Amongst these techniques, the adsorption method is suitable for recovery of lithium from seawater, because certain inorganic ion-exchange materials, especially spinel-type manganese oxides, show extremely high selectivity for the lithium ion. In this study, we prepared a lithium adsorbent (HMn 2 O 4 ) by elution of spinel-type lithium di-manganese-tetra-oxide (LiMn 2 O 4 ) and examined the kinetics of the adsorbent for lithium ions in seawater using a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The intermediate, LiMn 2 O 4 , can be synthesized from LiOH·H 2 O and Mn 3 O 4 , from which the lithium adsorbent can subsequently be prepared via acid treatment., The adsorption kinetics become faster and the amount of lithium adsorbed on the adsorbent increases with increasing solution temperature. The thermodynamic values, ΔG 0 , ΔH 0 and ΔS 0 , indicate that adsorption is an endothermic and spontaneous process. (author)

  14. Implications of NSTX lithium results for magnetic fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, M., E-mail: mono@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Canik, J.M.; Diem, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Gerhardt, S.P.; Hosea, J.; Kaye, S.; Mansfield, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Menard, J.; Paul, S.F. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Raman, R. [University of Washington at Seattle, Seattle, WA (United States); Sabbagh, S.A. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Skinner, C.H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Taylor, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Lithium wall coating techniques have been experimentally explored on National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for the last five years. The lithium experimentation on NSTX started with a few milligrams of lithium injected into the plasma as pellets and it has evolved to a lithium evaporation system which can evaporate up to {approx}100 g of lithium onto the lower divertor plates between lithium re-loadings. The unique feature of the lithium research program on NSTX is that it can investigate the effects of lithium in H-mode divertor plasmas. This lithium evaporation system thus far has produced many intriguing and potentially important results; the latest of these are summarized in a companion paper by H. Kugel. In this paper, we suggest possible implications and applications of the NSTX lithium results on the magnetic fusion research which include electron and global energy confinement improvements, MHD stability enhancement at high beta, edge localized mode (ELM) control, H-mode power threshold reduction, improvements in radio frequency heating and non-inductive plasma start-up performance, innovative divertor solutions and improved operational efficiency.

  15. Implications of NSTX Lithium Results for Magnetic Fusion Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Canik, J.M.; Diem, S.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Hosea, J.; Kaye, S.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.; Paul, S.F.; Raman, R.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Taylor, G.

    2010-01-01

    Lithium wall coating techniques have been experimentally explored on NSTX for the last five years. The lithium experimentation on NSTX started with a few milligrams of lithium injected into the plasma as pellets and it has evolved to a lithium evaporation system which can evaporate up to ∼ 100 g of lithium onto the lower divertor plates between lithium reloadings. The unique feature of the lithium research program on NSTX is that it can investigate the effects of lithium in H-mode divertor plasmas. This lithium evaporation system thus far has produced many intriguing and potentially important results; the latest of these are summarized in a companion paper by H. Kugel. In this paper, we suggest possible implications and applications of the NSTX lithium results on the magnetic fusion research which include electron and global energy confinement improvements, MHD stability enhancement at high beta, ELM control, H-mode power threshold reduction, improvements in radio frequency heating and non-inductive plasma start-up performance, innovative divertor solutions and improved operational efficiency.

  16. Implications of NSTX lithium results for magnetic fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Canik, J.M.; Diem, S.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Hosea, J.; Kaye, S.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.; Paul, S.F.; Raman, R.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Taylor, G.

    2010-01-01

    Lithium wall coating techniques have been experimentally explored on National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for the last five years. The lithium experimentation on NSTX started with a few milligrams of lithium injected into the plasma as pellets and it has evolved to a lithium evaporation system which can evaporate up to ∼100 g of lithium onto the lower divertor plates between lithium re-loadings. The unique feature of the lithium research program on NSTX is that it can investigate the effects of lithium in H-mode divertor plasmas. This lithium evaporation system thus far has produced many intriguing and potentially important results; the latest of these are summarized in a companion paper by H. Kugel. In this paper, we suggest possible implications and applications of the NSTX lithium results on the magnetic fusion research which include electron and global energy confinement improvements, MHD stability enhancement at high beta, edge localized mode (ELM) control, H-mode power threshold reduction, improvements in radio frequency heating and non-inductive plasma start-up performance, innovative divertor solutions and improved operational efficiency.

  17. Kinetics of liquid lithium reaction with oxygen-nitrogen mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, T.K.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted in order to characterize the kinetics of lithium chemical reaction with a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen. Three mixed gas compositions were used; 80% N 2 and 20% O 2 , 90% N 2 and 10% O 2 , and 95% N 2 and 5% O 2 . The reaction rate was obtained as a function of lithium temperature and the oxygen fraction. Liquid lithium temperature varied from 400 to 1100 0 C. By varying the composition, the degree of inhibition of the lithium-nitrogen reaction rate due to the presence of oxygen was observed. The results indicate that the lithium-nitrogen reaction rate depended on both the fraction of oxygen present and lithium temperature. The lithium nitride layer formed from the reaction also had a significant inhibition effect on the lithium-nitrogen reaction rate while the lithium-oxygen reaction rate was not as greatly hindered. LITFIRE, a computer code which simulates temperature and pressure history in a containment building following lithium spills, was modified by including (1) an improved model for the lithium-nitrogen reaction rate and (2) a model for the lithium-CO 2 reaction. LITFIRE was used to simulate HEDL's LC-2 and LA-5 experiments, and the predicted temperatures and pressures were in a reasonable agreement. Furthermore, LITFIRE was applied to a prototypical fusion reactor containment in order to simulate the consequences of a lithium spill accident. The result indicated that if nitrogen was used as containment building gas during the accident, the consequences of the accident would be less severe than those with air. The pressure rise in the building was found to be reduced by 50% and the maximum temperature of the combustion zone was limited to 900 0 C instead of 1200 0 C in the case of air

  18. A chemically stable PVD multilayer encapsulation for lithium microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, J F; Sousa, R; Cunha, D J; Vieira, E M F; Goncalves, L M; Silva, M M; Dupont, L

    2015-01-01

    A multilayer physical vapour deposition (PVD) thin-film encapsulation method for lithium microbatteries is presented. Lithium microbatteries with a lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO 2 ) cathode, a lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) electrolyte and a metallic lithium anode are under development, using PVD deposition techniques. Metallic lithium film is still the most common anode on this battery technology; however, it presents a huge challenge in terms of material encapsulation (lithium reacts with almost any materials deposited on top and almost instantly begins oxidizing in contact with atmosphere). To prove the encapsulation concept and perform all the experiments, lithium films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique on top of a glass substrate, with previously patterned Al/Ti contacts. Three distinct materials, in a multilayer combination, were tested to prevent lithium from reacting with protection materials and atmosphere. These multilayer films were deposited by RF sputtering and were composed of lithium phosphorous oxide (LiPO), LiPON and silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ). To complete the long-term encapsulation after breaking the vacuum, an epoxy was applied on top of the PVD multilayer. In order to evaluate oxidation state of lithium films, the lithium resistance was measured in a four probe setup (cancelling wires/contact resistances) and resistivity calculated, considering physical dimensions. A lithium resistivity of 0.16 Ω μm was maintained for more than a week. This PVD multilayer exonerates the use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD), glove-box chambers and sample manipulation between them, significantly reducing the fabrication cost, since battery and its encapsulation are fabricated in the same PVD chamber. (paper)

  19. A chemically stable PVD multilayer encapsulation for lithium microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, J. F.; Sousa, R.; Cunha, D. J.; Vieira, E. M. F.; Silva, M. M.; Dupont, L.; Goncalves, L. M.

    2015-10-01

    A multilayer physical vapour deposition (PVD) thin-film encapsulation method for lithium microbatteries is presented. Lithium microbatteries with a lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) cathode, a lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) electrolyte and a metallic lithium anode are under development, using PVD deposition techniques. Metallic lithium film is still the most common anode on this battery technology; however, it presents a huge challenge in terms of material encapsulation (lithium reacts with almost any materials deposited on top and almost instantly begins oxidizing in contact with atmosphere). To prove the encapsulation concept and perform all the experiments, lithium films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique on top of a glass substrate, with previously patterned Al/Ti contacts. Three distinct materials, in a multilayer combination, were tested to prevent lithium from reacting with protection materials and atmosphere. These multilayer films were deposited by RF sputtering and were composed of lithium phosphorous oxide (LiPO), LiPON and silicon nitride (Si3N4). To complete the long-term encapsulation after breaking the vacuum, an epoxy was applied on top of the PVD multilayer. In order to evaluate oxidation state of lithium films, the lithium resistance was measured in a four probe setup (cancelling wires/contact resistances) and resistivity calculated, considering physical dimensions. A lithium resistivity of 0.16 Ω μm was maintained for more than a week. This PVD multilayer exonerates the use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD), glove-box chambers and sample manipulation between them, significantly reducing the fabrication cost, since battery and its encapsulation are fabricated in the same PVD chamber.

  20. Sustainable governance of scarce metals: The case of lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prior, Timothy, E-mail: tim.prior@sipo.gess.ethz.ch [Center for Security Studies (CSS), ETH Zürich (Switzerland); Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology, Sydney (Australia); Wäger, Patrick A. [Technology and Society Laboratory, Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Stamp, Anna [Technology and Society Laboratory, Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Institute for Environmental Decisions, ETH Zürich (Switzerland); Widmer, Rolf [Technology and Society Laboratory, Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Giurco, Damien [Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology, Sydney (Australia)

    2013-09-01

    Minerals and metals are finite resources, and recent evidence suggests that for many, primary production is becoming more difficult and more expensive. Yet these resources are fundamentally important for society—they support many critical services like infrastructure, telecommunications and energy generation. A continued reliance on minerals and metals as service providers in modern society requires dedicated and concerted governance in relation to production, use, reuse and recycling. Lithium provides a good example to explore possible sustainable governance strategies. Lithium is a geochemically scarce metal (being found in a wide range of natural systems, but in low concentrations that are difficult to extract), yet recent studies suggest increasing future demand, particularly to supply the lithium in lithium-ion batteries, which are used in a wide variety of modern personal and commercial technologies. This paper explores interventions for sustainable governance and handling of lithium for two different supply and demand contexts: Australia as a net lithium producer and Switzerland as a net lithium consumer. It focuses particularly on possible nation-specific issues for sustainable governance in these two countries' contexts, and links these to the global lithium supply chain and demand scenarios. The article concludes that innovative business models, like ‘servicizing’ the lithium value chain, would hold sustainable governance advantages for both producer and consumer countries. - Highlights: • Lithium is a geochemically scare metal, but demand is forecast to increase in future • We explore sustainable lithium governance implications for Australia and Switzerland • One governance mechanism is the ‘servicization’ of the lithium value chain • We explore one actual, and two hypothetical lithium service business models • ‘Servicizing’ a commodity would require fundamental innovations in minerals policy.

  1. Sustainable governance of scarce metals: The case of lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, Timothy; Wäger, Patrick A.; Stamp, Anna; Widmer, Rolf; Giurco, Damien

    2013-01-01

    Minerals and metals are finite resources, and recent evidence suggests that for many, primary production is becoming more difficult and more expensive. Yet these resources are fundamentally important for society—they support many critical services like infrastructure, telecommunications and energy generation. A continued reliance on minerals and metals as service providers in modern society requires dedicated and concerted governance in relation to production, use, reuse and recycling. Lithium provides a good example to explore possible sustainable governance strategies. Lithium is a geochemically scarce metal (being found in a wide range of natural systems, but in low concentrations that are difficult to extract), yet recent studies suggest increasing future demand, particularly to supply the lithium in lithium-ion batteries, which are used in a wide variety of modern personal and commercial technologies. This paper explores interventions for sustainable governance and handling of lithium for two different supply and demand contexts: Australia as a net lithium producer and Switzerland as a net lithium consumer. It focuses particularly on possible nation-specific issues for sustainable governance in these two countries' contexts, and links these to the global lithium supply chain and demand scenarios. The article concludes that innovative business models, like ‘servicizing’ the lithium value chain, would hold sustainable governance advantages for both producer and consumer countries. - Highlights: • Lithium is a geochemically scare metal, but demand is forecast to increase in future • We explore sustainable lithium governance implications for Australia and Switzerland • One governance mechanism is the ‘servicization’ of the lithium value chain • We explore one actual, and two hypothetical lithium service business models • ‘Servicizing’ a commodity would require fundamental innovations in minerals policy

  2. Advances in ambient temperature secondary lithium cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, S.; Shen, D. H.; Deligiannis, F.; Huang, C-K.; Halpert, G.

    1989-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is involved in a Research and Development program sponsored by NASA/OAST on the development of ambient temperature secondary lithium cells for future space applications. Some of the projected applications are planetary spacecraft, planetary rovers, and astronaut equipment. The main objective is to develop secondary lithium cells with greater than 100 Wh/kg specific energy while delivering 1000 cycles at 50 percent Depth of Discharge (DOD). To realize these ambitious goals, the work was initially focused on several important basic issues related to the cell chemistry, selection of cathode materials and electrolytes, and component development. The performance potential of Li-TiS2, Li-MoS3, Li-V6O13 and Li-NbSe3 electrochemical systems was examined. Among these four, the Li-TiS2 system was found to be the most promising system in terms of realizable specific energy and cycle life. Some of the major advancements made so far in the development of Li-TiS2 cells are in the areas of cathode processing technology, mixed solvent electrolytes, and cell assembly. Methods were developed for the fabrication of large size high performance TiS2 cathodes. Among the various electrolytes examined, 1.5M LiAsF6/EC + 2-MeTHF mixed solvent electrolyte was found to be more stable towards lithium. Experimental cells activated with this electrolyte exhibited more than 300 cycles at 100 percent Depth of Discharge. Work is in progress in other areas such as selection of lithium alloys as candidate anode materials, optimization of cell design, and development of 5 Ah cells. The advances made at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on the development of secondary lithium cells are summarized.

  3. Lithium manganese oxide spinel electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Robert Mason

    Batteries based oil intercalation eletrodes are currently being considered for a variety of applications including automobiles. This thesis is concerned with the simulation and experimental investigation of one such system: spinel LiyMn2O4. A mathematical model simulating the behavior of an electrochemical cell containing all intercalation electrode is developed and applied to Li yMn2O4 based systems. The influence of the exchange current density oil the propagation of the reaction through the depth of the electrode is examined theoretically. Galvanostatic cycling and relaxation phenomena on open circuit are simulated for different particle-size distributions. The electrode with uniformly sized particles shows the best performance when the current is on, and relaxes towards equilibrium most quickly. The impedance of a porous electrode containing a particle-size distribution at low frequencies is investigated with all analytic solution and a simplified version of the mathematical model. The presence of the particle-size distribution leads to an apparent diffusion coefficient which has all incorrect concentration dependence. A Li/1 M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate (PC)/ LiyMn 2O4 cell is used to investigate the influence of side reactions oil the current-potential behavior of intercalation electrodes. Slow cyclic voltammograms and self-discharge data are combined to estimate the reversible potential of the host material and the kinetic parameters for the side reaction. This information is then used, together with estimates of the solid-state diffusion coefficient and main-reaction exchange current density, in a mathematical model of the system. Predictions from the model compare favorably with continuous cycling results and galvanostatic experiments with periodic current interruptions. The variation with respect to composition of' the diffusion coefficient of lithium in LiyMn2O4 is estimated from incomplete galvanostatic discharges following open-circult periods. The

  4. ^{7}Be(n,α)^{4}He Reaction and the Cosmological Lithium Problem: Measurement of the Cross Section in a Wide Energy Range at n_TOF at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, M; Musumarra, A; Cosentino, L; Maugeri, E; Heinitz, S; Mengoni, A; Dressler, R; Schumann, D; Käppeler, F; Colonna, N; Finocchiaro, P; Ayranov, M; Damone, L; Kivel, N; Aberle, O; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Bacak, M; Balibrea-Correa, J; Barros, S; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Beinrucker, C; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Caamaño, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Cardella, R; Casanovas, A; Castelluccio, D M; Cerutti, F; Chen, Y H; Chiaveri, E; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Cristallo, S; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dupont, E; Duran, I; Fernandez-Dominguez, B; Ferrari, A; Ferreira, P; Furman, W; Ganesan, S; García-Rios, A; Gawlik, A; Glodariu, T; Göbel, K; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Harada, H; Heftrich, T; Heyse, J; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Katabuchi, T; Kavrigin, P; Kimura, A; Kokkoris, M; Krtička, M; Leal-Cidoncha, E; Lerendegui, J; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Lo Meo, S; Lonsdale, S J; Losito, R; Macina, D; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P; Mastromarco, M; Mazzone, A; Mendoza, E; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Montesano, S; Nolte, R; Oprea, A; Pappalardo, A; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Piscopo, M; Plompen, A; Porras, I; Praena, J; Quesada, J; Rajeev, K; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego-Perez, A; Rout, P; Rubbia, C; Ryan, J; Sabate-Gilarte, M; Saxena, A; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Sedyshev, P; Smith, A G; Stamatopoulos, A; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Vollaire, J; Wallner, A; Warren, S; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wolf, C; Woods, P J; Wright, T; Žugec, P

    2016-10-07

    The energy-dependent cross section of the ^{7}Be(n,α)^{4}He reaction, of interest for the so-called cosmological lithium problem in big bang nucleosynthesis, has been measured for the first time from 10 meV to 10 keV neutron energy. The challenges posed by the short half-life of ^{7}Be and by the low reaction cross section have been overcome at n_TOF thanks to an unprecedented combination of the extremely high luminosity and good resolution of the neutron beam in the new experimental area (EAR2) of the n_TOF facility at CERN, the availability of a sufficient amount of chemically pure ^{7}Be, and a specifically designed experimental setup. Coincidences between the two alpha particles have been recorded in two Si-^{7}Be-Si arrays placed directly in the neutron beam. The present results are consistent, at thermal neutron energy, with the only previous measurement performed in the 1960s at a nuclear reactor. The energy dependence reported here clearly indicates the inadequacy of the cross section estimates currently used in BBN calculations. Although new measurements at higher neutron energy may still be needed, the n_TOF results hint at a minor role of this reaction in BBN, leaving the long-standing cosmological lithium problem unsolved.

  5. Lithium in drinking water and the incidence of bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars V; Gerds, Thomas A; Knudsen, Nikoline N

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Animal data suggest that subtherapeutic doses, including micro doses, of lithium may influence mood, and lithium levels in drinking water have been found to correlate with the rate of suicide. It has never been investigated whether consumption of lithium may prevent the development...... of bipolar disorder (primary prophylaxis). In a nation-wide population-based study, we investigated whether long-term exposure to micro levels of lithium in drinking water correlates with the incidence of bipolar disorder in the general population, hypothesizing an inverse association in which higher long......-term lithium exposure is associated with lower incidences of bipolar disorder. METHODS: We included longitudinal individual geographical data on municipality of residence, data from drinking water lithium measurements and time-specific data from all cases with a hospital contact with a diagnosis of mania...

  6. Operational Characteristics of Liquid Lithium Divertor in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; Abrams, T.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Gerhardt, S.; Jaworski, M. A.; Kallman, J.; Leblanc, B.; Mansfield, D.; Mueller, D.; Paul, S.; Roquemore, A. L.; Scotti, F.; Skinner, C. H.; Timberlake, J.; Zakharov, L.; Maingi, R.; Nygren, R.; Raman, R.; Sabbagh, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.

    2010-11-01

    Lithium coatings on plasma-facing components (PFC's) have resulted in improved plasma performance on NSTX in deuterium H-mode plasmas with neutral beam heating.^ Salient results included improved electron confinement and ELM suppression. In CDX-U, the use of lithium-coated PFC's and a large-area liquid lithium limiter resulted in a six-fold increase in global energy confinement time. A Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) has been installed in NSTX for the 2010 run campaign. The LLD PFC consists of a thin film of lithium on a temperature-controlled substrate to keep the lithium liquefied between shots, and handle heat loads during plasmas. This capability was demonstrated when the LLD withstood a strike point on its surface during discharges with up to 4 MW of neutral beam heating.

  7. Fractionation of lithium isotopes in cation-exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Takao; Kawada, Kazuhiko; Kakihana, Hidetake; Hosoe, Morikazu

    1991-01-01

    Various methods for lithium isotope separation have been developed, and their applicability to large-scale enriched lithium isotope production has been assessed. Ion-exchange chromatography is one such method. Cation-exchange chromatography of lithium was carried out to investigate the lithium isotope effect in aqueous ion-exchange systems. The heavier isotope. 7 Li, was preferentially fractionated into the resin phase in every experiment conducted, and this result is consistent with the results of previous work. The value of the separation factor was 1.00089-1.00171 at 25C. A comparison of lithium isotope effect with those of potassium and rubidium indicated that the isotope effect originating from hydration is larger than the effect due to phase change for lithium, while the opposite is the case with potassium and rubidium

  8. Lithium in Tap Water and Suicide Mortality in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Terao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has been used as a mood-stabilizing drug in people with mood disorders. Previous studies have shown that natural levels of lithium in drinking water may protect against suicide. This study evaluated the association between lithium levels in tap water and the suicide standardized mortality ratio (SMR in 40 municipalities of Aomori prefecture, which has the highest levels of suicide mortality rate in Japan. Lithium levels in the tap water supplies of each municipality were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. After adjusting for confounders, a statistical trend toward significance was found for the relationship between lithium levels and the average SMR among females. These findings indicate that natural levels of lithium in drinking water might have a protective effect on the risk of suicide among females. Future research is warranted to confirm this association.

  9. Characterization of polyelectrolytes and lithium salts for electrochemical energy storage devices using novel measurement systems; Charakterisierung von Polyelektrolyten und Lithiumsalzen fuer elektrochemische Energiespeicher unter Verwendung neu entwickelter Messsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Benedikt

    2013-04-08

    In the first part of this work, three imidazolium-based ionic liquid monomers with polymerizable vinyl groups and the resulting polyelectrolytes have been synthesized and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the purity of the materials. Besides comprehensive monomer and polymer analytics, electrical impedance spectroscopy was carried out to obtain information about the ion conducting properties of the three systems under investigation: poly(3-ethyl-1-vinylimidazolium)-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (P1), poly(3-methyl-1-(4-vinylbenzyl)imidazolium)-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (P2) and poly(1-butyl-3-methyl-2-(4-vinylphenethyl)imidazolium)-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (P3). The pure polymers, which are bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (N(Tf)2) anion conductors, exhibit room-temperature conductivities of the order of 10-8 S/cm in the best case. The anion conduction mechanism is strongly influenced by the length of the spacer group between the polymer backbone and the imidazolium cations attached to the side chain. In polymers P1 and P2 with short spacer groups, intra- and inter-cation hopping of the N(Tf)2 anions can be distinguished below the glass transition temperature, while this is not possible in the case of polymer P3 with longer spacer groups. Furthermore, we have studied several mixtures of the best conducting polymer P2 with LiN(Tf)2, zwitterions and monomeric ionic liquid. While the zwitterions were capable of compensating for the conductivity drop due to Li salt addition, the addition of monomeric IL as plasticizer leads to a considerable conductivity enhancement without a significant loss of mechanical stability. In the second part of this work, three lithium salts, lithium bis(pentafluorophenyl)amide LiN(Pfp)2, lithium pentafluorophenyl-trifluoromethyl-sulfonylimide LiN(Pfp)(Tf) and lithium pentafluorophenyl-nonafluorobutyl-sulfonylimide LiN(Pfp)(Nf) were characterized with respect to their thermal and electrochemical

  10. Theoretical study of adsorption of lithium atom on carbon nanotube

    OpenAIRE

    Senami, Masato; Ikeda, Yuji; Fukushima, Akinori; Tachibana, Akitomo

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the adsorption of lithium atoms on the surface of the (12, 0) single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) by using ab initio quantum chemical calculations. The adsorption of one lithium atom on the inside of this SWCNT is favored compared to the outside. We check this feature by charge transfer and regional chemical potential density. The adsorption of multiple lithium atoms on the interior of the SWCNT is studied in terms of adsorption energy and charge transfer. We show that repulsiv...

  11. Adsorption of lithium-lanthanum films on W (112) face

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupalo, M.S.; Smereka, T.P.; Palyukh, B.M.; Babkin, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    The method of contact potential difference is employed to study the electron adsorption properties (the work function phi and adsorption heat q) lithium films on a lanthanized W(112) surface. It is found that the work function of mixed lithium-lanthanum films is intermediate between phi of the summands. The presence of lanthanum on a W(112) face reduces the adsorption heat of lithium

  12. Evaluation Method for Low-Temperature Performance of Lithium Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. W.; Ma, Q.; Fu, Y. L.; Tao, Z. Q.; Xiao, H. Q.; Bai, H.; Bai, H.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the evaluation method for low temperature performance of lithium battery is established. The low temperature performance level was set up to determine the best operating temperature range of the lithium battery using different cathode materials. Results are shared with the consumers for the proper use of lithium battery to make it have a longer service life and avoid the occurrence of early rejection.

  13. Invention of Lithium Ion Secondary Battery and Its Business Development

    OpenAIRE

    正本, 順三/米田,晴幸; 米田, 晴幸; MASAMOTO, Junzo; YONEDA, Haruyuki

    2010-01-01

    At present, mobile phones and laptop computers are essential items in our daily life. As a battery for such portable devices, the lithium ion secondary battery is used. The lithium ion secondary battery, which is used as a battery for such portable devices, was first invented by Dr. Yoshino at Asahi Kasei. In this paper, the authors describe how the lithium ion secondary battery was developed by the inventor. The authors also describe the battery separator, which is one of the key components ...

  14. Enhancing effects of chronic lithium on memory in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, Eleftheria; Kontis, Dimitrios; Boulougouris, Vasileios; Papakosta, Vasiliki-Maria; Giannou, Haralambos; Poulopoulou, Cornelia; Soldatos, Constantine

    2007-02-12

    In spite of recent enrichment of neurochemical and behavioural data establishing a neuroprotective role for lithium, its primary effects on cognitive functioning remain ambiguous. This study examines chronic lithium effects on spatial working memory and long-term retention. In three discrete experiments, rats subjected to 30 daily intraperitoneal injections (2mmol/kg) of lithium (lithium groups: serum lithium=0.5+/-0.4mEq/l, 12h post-injection) or saline (controls) were trained in 0-s delay T-maze alternation and then tested in 30-, 45- and 60-s delay alternation (Experiments 1, 2, 3, respectively). Animals from Experiment 1 were further tested in one-trial step-through passive avoidance under mild shock parameters (0.5mA, 1s). Retention was assessed 6h later. Daily lithium or saline injections continued throughout behavioural testing. Lithium animals were indistinguishable from controls during 0-delay alternation baseline (Experiments 1-3, accuracy>88%) but showed significantly higher accuracy than controls at 30- and 45-s delays (93% versus 85% and 92% versus 82%, Experiments 1 and 2, respectively). At 60-s delay (Experiment 3) this beneficial effect of lithium was no longer apparent (lithium and control accuracy=78%). In Experiment 4, the shock used did not support 6-h passive avoidance retention in controls, whereas lithium animals showed significant step-through latency increases. Chronic lithium enhanced spatial working memory and promoted long-term retention of a weak aversive contingency. The results suggest that lithium may have potential as a cognitive enhancer.

  15. Extraction separation of lithium isotopes with crown-ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsivadze, A.Yu.; Demin, S.V.; Levkin, A.V.; Zhilov, V.I.; Nikol'skij, S.F.; Knyazev, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    By the method of extraction chromatography lithium isotope separation coefficients are measured during chemical isotope exchange between lithium aquocomplex and its complex in chloroform with crown-ethers: benzo-15-crown-5, 15crown-5, dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 and dibenzo-18-crown-6. Lithium perchlorate and trichloroacetate are the salts extracted. Values of 6 Li/ 7 Li isotope separation are 1.0032-1.020

  16. Lithium batteries, anodes, and methods of anode fabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-12-29

    Prelithiation of a battery anode carried out using controlled lithium metal vapor deposition. Lithium metal can be avoided in the final battery. This prelithiated electrode is used as potential anode for Li- ion or high energy Li-S battery. The prelithiation of lithium metal onto or into the anode reduces hazardous risk, is cost effective, and improves the overall capacity. The battery containing such an anode exhibits remarkably high specific capacity and a long cycle life with excellent reversibility.

  17. Description of tritium release from lithium titanate at constant temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, L; Lagos, S; Jimenez, J; Saravia, E [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)

    1998-03-01

    Lithium Titanate Ceramics have been prepared by the solid-state route, pebbles and pellets were fabricated by extrusion and their microstructure was characterized in our laboratories. The ceramic material was irradiated in the La Reina Reactor, RECH-1. A study of post-irradiation annealing test, was performed measuring Tritium release from the Lithium Titanate at constant temperature. The Bertone`s method modified by R. Verrall is used to determine the parameters of Tritium release from Lithium Titanate. (author)

  18. Targeted proteins involved in the neuroprotective effects of lithium citrate

    OpenAIRE

    I. Yu. Torshin; O. A. Gromova; L. A. Mayorova; A. Yu. Volkov

    2017-01-01

    Preparations based on organic lithium salts are promising neuroprotective agents that are effective just in the micromolar concentration range and, at the same time, have high safety (Toxicity Class V).Objective: to elucidate more detailed mechanisms responsible for the biological and pharmacological effects of lithium citrate, by analyzing the possible interactions of lithium ion with human proteome proteins that are also represented in the rat proteome.Material and methods. The targets of l...

  19. Safe and recyclable lithium-ion capacitors using sacrificial organic lithium salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeżowski, P.; Crosnier, O.; Deunf, E.; Poizot, P.; Béguin, F.; Brousse, T.

    2018-02-01

    Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) shrewdly combine a lithium-ion battery negative electrode capable of reversibly intercalating lithium cations, namely graphite, together with an electrical double-layer positive electrode, namely activated carbon. However, the beauty of this concept is marred by the lack of a lithium-cation source in the device, thus requiring a specific preliminary charging step. The strategies devised thus far in an attempt to rectify this issue all present drawbacks. Our research uncovers a unique approach based on the use of a lithiated organic material, namely 3,4-dihydroxybenzonitrile dilithium salt. This compound can irreversibly provide lithium cations to the graphite electrode during an initial operando charging step without any negative effects with respect to further operation of the LIC. This method not only restores the low CO2 footprint of LICs, but also possesses far-reaching potential with respect to designing a wide range of greener hybrid devices based on other chemistries, comprising entirely recyclable components.

  20. Recovery of lithium and cobalt from waste lithium ion batteries of mobile phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Manis Kumar; Kumari, Anjan; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumar, Vinay; Hait, Jhumki; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2013-09-01

    In view of the stringent environmental regulations, availability of limited natural resources and ever increasing need of alternative energy critical elements, an environmental eco-friendly leaching process is reported for the recovery of lithium and cobalt from the cathode active materials of spent lithium-ion batteries of mobile phones. The experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for the recovery of lithium and cobalt by varying the concentration of leachant, pulp density, reductant volume and temperature. Leaching with 2M sulfuric acid with the addition of 5% H(2)O(2) (v/v) at a pulp density of 100 g/L and 75°C resulted in the recovery of 99.1% lithium and 70.0% cobalt in 60 min. H(2)O(2) in sulfuric acid solution acts as an effective reducing agent, which enhance the percentage leaching of metals. Leaching kinetics of lithium in sulfuric acid fitted well to the chemical controlled reaction model i.e. 1-(1-X)(1/3)=k(c)t. Leaching kinetics of cobalt fitted well to the model 'ash diffusion control dense constant sizes spherical particles' i.e. 1-3(1-X)(2/3)+2(1-X)=k(c)t. Metals could subsequently be separated selectively from the leach liquor by solvent extraction process to produce their salts by crystallization process from the purified solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Spectroscopic measurements of lithium influx from an actively water-cooled liquid lithium limiter on FTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apruzzese, G.M., E-mail: gerarda.apruzzese@enea.it; Apicella, M.L.; Maddaluno, G.; Mazzitelli, G.; Viola, B.

    2017-04-15

    Since 2006, experiments using a liquid lithium limiter (LLL) were successfully performed on FTU, pointing out the problem of the quantity of lithium in the plasma, especially in conditions of strong evaporation due to the high temperature of limiter surface. In order to avoid the strong evaporation it is necessary to control the temperature by removing the heat from the limiter during the plasma exposure. To explore this issue a new actively cooled lithium limiter (CLL) has been installed and tested in FTU. Suitable monitors to detect the presence of lithium in the plasma are the spectroscopic diagnostics in the visible range that permit to measure the flux of lithium, coming from the limiter surface, through the brightness of the LiI spectral lines. For this aim an Optical Multichannel Analyser (OMA) spectrometer and a single wavelength impurities monitor have been used. The analysis of the Li influx signals has permitted to monitor the effects of interaction between the plasma and the limiter connected to the thermal load. Particular attention has been paid on the possible occurrence of sudden rise of the signals, which is an index of a strong interaction that could lead to a disruption. On the other hand, the appearance of significant signals gives useful indication if the interaction with the plasma has taken place.

  2. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries that use aqueous electrolytes offer safety and cost advantages when compared to today\\'s commercial cells that use organic electrolytes. The equilibrium reaction potential of lithium titanium phosphate is -0.5 V with respect to the standard hydrogen electrode, which makes this material attractive for use as a negative electrode in aqueous electrolytes. This material was synthesized using a Pechini type method. Galvanostatic cycling of the resulting lithium titanium phosphate showed an initial discharge capacity of 115 mAh/g and quite good capacity retention during cycling, 84% after 100 cycles, and 70% after 160 cycles at a 1 C cycling rate in an organic electrolyte. An initial discharge capacity of 113 mAh/g and capacity retention of 89% after 100 cycles with a coulombic efficiency above 98% was observed at a C/5 rate in pH -neutral 2 M Li2 S O4. The good cycle life and high efficiency in an aqueous electrolyte demonstrate that lithium titanium phosphate is an excellent candidate negative electrode material for use in aqueous lithium-ion batteries. © 2011 The Electrochemical Society.

  3. The Escherichia coli P and Type 1 Pilus Assembly Chaperones PapD and FimC Are Monomeric in Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarowar, Samema; Hu, Olivia J.; Werneburg, Glenn T.; Thanassi, David G.; Li, Huilin; Christie, P. J.

    2016-06-27

    ABSTRACT

    The chaperone/usher pathway is used by Gram-negative bacteria to assemble adhesive surface structures known as pili or fimbriae. Uropathogenic strains ofEscherichia coliuse this pathway to assemble P and type 1 pili, which facilitate colonization of the kidney and bladder, respectively. Pilus assembly requires a periplasmic chaperone and outer membrane protein termed the usher. The chaperone allows folding of pilus subunits and escorts the subunits to the usher for polymerization into pili and secretion to the cell surface. Based on previous structures of mutant versions of the P pilus chaperone PapD, it was suggested that the chaperone dimerizes in the periplasm as a self-capping mechanism. Such dimerization is counterintuitive because the chaperone G1 strand, important for chaperone-subunit interaction, is buried at the dimer interface. Here, we show that the wild-type PapD chaperone also forms a dimer in the crystal lattice; however, the dimer interface is different from the previously solved structures. In contrast to the crystal structures, we found that both PapD and the type 1 pilus chaperone, FimC, are monomeric in solution. Our findings indicate that pilus chaperones do not sequester their G1 β-strand by forming a dimer. Instead, the chaperones may expose their G1 strand for facile interaction with pilus subunits. We also found that the type 1 pilus adhesin, FimH, is flexible in solution while in complex with its chaperone, whereas the P pilus adhesin, PapGII, is rigid. Our study clarifies a crucial step in pilus biogenesis and reveals pilus-specific differences that may relate to biological function.

    IMPORTANCEPili are critical virulence factors for many bacterial pathogens. UropathogenicE. colirelies on P and type 1 pili assembled by the chaperone/usher pathway to

  4. Successful lithium treatment of transvestism associated with manic-depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, N G

    1975-09-01

    A case of transvestism in a 24-year-old manic-depressive man is described. The behavior had been maintained for 2 years and disappeared soon after lithium treatment was begun. It has not returned during the first year on lithium. Dynamic and behavioral explanations for this unusual therapeutic response are considered. The dynamic explanation involves the assumption that the transvestism was perpetuated by mood-dependent motives that were eliminated by lithium. The behavioral explanation involves the assumption that the manic state itself became an intermittent reinforcer for the transvestism, and the lithium, by eliminating the mania, created a relatively permanent extinction period.

  5. Enantioselective Effect of Flurbiprofen on Lithium Disposition in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwai, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Masashi; Kawasaki, Tatsuya; Nabekura, Tomohiro

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is administered for treating bipolar disorders and is mainly excreted into urine. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit this process. In this study, we examined the enantioselective effect of flurbiprofen on the disposition of lithium in rats. Pharmacokinetic experiments with lithium were performed. Until 60 min after the intravenous administration of lithium chloride at 30 mg/kg as a bolus, 17.8% of lithium injected was recovered into the urine. Its renal clearance was calculated to be 1.62 mL/min/kg. Neither creatinine clearance (Ccr) nor pharmacokinetics of lithium was affected by the simultaneous injection of (R)-flurbiprofen at 20 mg/kg. (S)-flurbiprofen impaired the renal function and interfered with the urinary excretion of lithium. The ratio of renal clearance of lithium to Ccr was decreased by the (S)-enantiomer. This study clarified that the (S)-flurbiprofen but not (R)-flurbiprofen inhibited the renal excretion of lithium in rats. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Sustainable governance of scarce metals: the case of lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Timothy; Wäger, Patrick A; Stamp, Anna; Widmer, Rolf; Giurco, Damien

    2013-09-01

    Minerals and metals are finite resources, and recent evidence suggests that for many, primary production is becoming more difficult and more expensive. Yet these resources are fundamentally important for society--they support many critical services like infrastructure, telecommunications and energy generation. A continued reliance on minerals and metals as service providers in modern society requires dedicated and concerted governance in relation to production, use, reuse and recycling. Lithium provides a good example to explore possible sustainable governance strategies. Lithium is a geochemically scarce metal (being found in a wide range of natural systems, but in low concentrations that are difficult to extract), yet recent studies suggest increasing future demand, particularly to supply the lithium in lithium-ion batteries, which are used in a wide variety of modern personal and commercial technologies. This paper explores interventions for sustainable governance and handling of lithium for two different supply and demand contexts: Australia as a net lithium producer and Switzerland as a net lithium consumer. It focuses particularly on possible nation-specific issues for sustainable governance in these two countries' contexts, and links these to the global lithium supply chain and demand scenarios. The article concludes that innovative business models, like 'servicizing' the lithium value chain, would hold sustainable governance advantages for both producer and consumer countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Transparent plastic scintillators for neutron detection based on lithium salicylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabe, Andrew N.; Glenn, Andrew M.; Carman, M. Leslie; Zaitseva, Natalia P.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Transparent plastic scintillators with pulse shape discrimination containing "6Li salicylate have been synthesized by bulk polymerization with a maximum "6Li loading of 0.40 wt%. Photoluminescence and scintillation responses to gamma-rays and neutrons are reported herein. Plastics containing "6Li salicylate exhibit higher light yields and permit a higher loading of "6Li as compared to previously reported plastics based on lithium 3-phenylsalicylate. However, pulse shape discrimination performance is reduced in lithium salicylate plastics due to the requirement of adding more nonaromatic monomers to the polymer matrix as compared to those based on lithium 3-phenylsalicylate. Reduction in light yield and pulse shape discrimination performance in lithium-loaded plastics as compared to pulse shape discrimination plastics without lithium is interpreted in terms of energy transfer interference by the aromatic lithium salts. - Highlights: • Plastic scintillator with 0.4% "6Li loading is reported using lithium salicylate. • Influence of lithium salts on the scintillation mechanism is explored. • New lithium-loaded scintillator provides improved light yield and reduced cost.

  8. Transferring the Incremental Capacity Analysis to Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Purkayastha, Rajlakshmi

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the battery degradation and to estimate their health, various techniques can be applied. One of them, which is widely used for Lithium-ion batteries, is the incremental capacity analysis (ICA). In this work, we apply the ICA to Lithium-Sulfur batteries, which differ in many...... aspects from Lithium-ion batteries and possess unique behavior. One of the challenges of applying the ICA to Lithium-Sulfur batteries is the representation of the IC curves, as their voltage profiles are often non-monotonic, resulting in more complex IC curves. The ICA is at first applied to charge...

  9. NASICON Open Framework Structured Transition Metal Oxides for Lithium Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Begam, K.M.; Michael, M.S.; Prabaharan, S.R.S.

    2010-01-01

    We identified a group of NASICON open framework structured polyanion materials and examined the materials for rechargeable lithium battery application. We found that the open framework structure of these materials facilitated easy insertion/extraction of lithium into/from their structure. We synthesized the materials in lithium-rich [Li2M2(MoO4)3] and lithium-free [LixM2(MoO4)3] (M= Ni, Co) phases, for the first time, by means of a low temperature soft-combustion technique. The soft-combustio...

  10. Iron phosphate materials as cathodes for lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Prosini, Pier Paolo

    2011-01-01

    ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" describes the synthesis and the chemical-physical characteristics of iron phosphates, and presents methods of making LiFePO4 a suitable cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The author studies carbon's ability to increase conductivity and to decrease material grain size, as well as investigating the electrochemical behaviour of the materials obtained. ""Iron Phosphate Materials as Cathodes for Lithium Batteries"" also proposes a model to explain lithium insertion/extraction in LiFePO4 and to predict voltage profiles at variou

  11. Conceptual analysis of a tokamak reactor with lithium dust jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuteev, B.V.; Krylov, S.V.; Sergeev, V.Yu.; Skokov, V.G.; Timokhin, V.M.

    2010-01-01

    The steady-state operation of tokamak reactors requires radiating a substantial part of the fusion energy dissipated in plasma to make more uniform the heat loads onto the first wall and to reduce the erosion of the divertor plates. One of the approaches to realize this goal uses injection of lithium dust jet into the scrape-off layer (SOL). A quantitative conceptual analysis of the reactor parameters with lithium dust jet injection is presented here. The effects of the lithium on the core and SOL plasma are considered. The first results of developing the lithium jet injection technology and its application to the T-10 tokamak are also presented.

  12. RECOVERY GARAM LITHIUM DARI AIR ASIN (BRINE DENGAN METODA PRESIPITASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumarno Sumarno

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium demand increases as it is widely used as raw material for rechargeable battery, alloy for airplane, andfuel for fusion nuclear reactor. Lithium is an extremely reactive element, that it is never found as free element innature. Lithium compounds are found in earth crust, with very small concentration (20 – 70 ppm and totalcontent of more than 20 million tons. The biggest lithium reserve is in seawater (0,14 – 0,25 ppm andgeothermal water (7 ppm with total amount of 230 billion tons. There is no industry applies the technology torecover lithium from seawater. Having a vast sea area and abundant geothermal sources, Indonesia needs todevelop a technology to recover lithium from both sources. This research is aimed to recover lithium fromgeothermal water. The experiment was conducted using synthetic and geothermal water with lithiumconcentration range of 220 – 400 ppm, temperature range of 20 – 40°C, and mixing time range of 1 – 4 hours.The experiment was designed with 2 level factorial design. The results show that the most influencing variable ismixing time, while significant interaction amongst variables is not observed. Further experiment usinggeothermal water from Bledug Kuwu with initial lithium concentration of 400 ppm and temperature 30°Cresulted in optimum mixing time, i.e. 3 hours with 92,5% of the lithium could be recovered

  13. Highly Reversible Electrochemical Insertion of Lithium, Accompanied With a Marked Color Change, Occuring in Microcrystalline Lithium Nickel Oxide Films

    OpenAIRE

    Campet, G.; Portier, J.; Morel, B.; Ferry, D.; Chabagno, J. M.; Benotmane, L.; Bourrel, M.

    1992-01-01

    Thin films of lithium-nickel oxide, whose texture consists of microcrystallites with an average grain size of 50 Å, permit highly reversible electrochemical insertion of lithium ions in Li+ conducting electrolytes. Therefore, the corresponding materials would be of great interest for energy storage applications. In addition, the lithium insertion/extraction reactions in the nickel-based layers are accompanied with a marked color change, making these films of interest for the devel...

  14. Lithium position and occupancy fluctuations in a cathode during charge/discharge cycling of lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, N.; Yu, D.; Zhu, Y.; Wu, Y.; Peterson, V. K.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are undergoing rapid development to meet the energy demands of the transportation and renewable energy-generation sectors. The capacity of a lithium-ion battery is dependent on the amount of lithium that can be reversibly incorporated into the cathode. Neutron diffraction provides greater sensitivity towards lithium relative to other diffraction techniques. In conjunction with the penetration depth afforded by neutron diffraction, the information concerning lithium gained in a neutron diffraction study allows commercial lithium-ion batteries to be explored with respect to the lithium content in the whole cathode. Furthermore, neutron diffraction instruments featuring area detectors that allow relatively fast acquisitions enable perturbations of lithium location and occupancy in the cathode during charge/discharge cycling to be determined in real time. Here, we present the time, current, and temperature dependent lithium transfer occurring within a cathode functioning under conventional charge-discharge cycling. The lithium location and content, oxygen positional parameter, and lattice parameter of the Li 1+y Mn 2 0 4 cathode are measured and linked to the battery's charge/discharge characteristics (performance). We determine that the lithium-transfer mechanism involves two crystallographic sites, and that the mechanism differs between discharge and charge, explaining the relative ease of discharging (compared with charging) this material. Furthermore, we find that the rate of change of the lattice is faster on charging than discharging, and is dependent on the lithium insertion/ extraction processes (e.g. dependent on how the site occupancies evolve). Using in situ neutron diffraction data the atomic-scale understanding of cathode functionality is revealed, representing detailed information that can be used to direct improvements in battery performance at both the practical and fundamental level.

  15. Water testing of the FMIT lithium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassberger, J.A.; Ingham, J.G.

    1981-11-01

    Results of water tests of the lithium target design for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility demonstrate hydraulic features essential for acceptable target operation and confirm predictions of the target performance. This high speed, free surface, curved-wall jet has been shown to generate a stable surface shape and to provide the high velocities and pressures within the fluid needed to remove the 3.5 MW of power generated within the jet during FMIT operation. Measurements of the jet performance are found to fall within limits bounded by one- and two-dimensional potential flow predictions. This agreement between measured and predicted performance provides for a significant level of confidence in the ability of the FMIT lithium target to meet its design and functional objectives

  16. A hybrid lithium oxalate-phosphinate salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Andrew R; Deligonul, Nihal; Scherson, Daniel A; Protasiewicz, John D

    2010-12-06

    The novel organophosphorus-containing lithium salt Li(THF)[(C(2)O(4))B(O(2)PPh(2))(2)] (1; THF = tetrahydrofuran) was synthesized and characterized using a variety of spectroscopic techniques. An X-ray structural analysis on crystals of 1 grown from THF reveals a dimeric structure [Li(THF)(C(2)O(4))B(O(2)PPh(2))(2)](2)·THF, whereby the two units of 1 are bridged via P-O···Li interactions. Compound 1 displays high air and water stability and is also thermally robust, properties needed of electrolytes for their possible use as electrolytes and/or additives in lithium-ion battery applications.

  17. Solid lithium ion conductors for battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weppner, W.

    1985-01-15

    The phase equilibria and conductivities of the LiF-LiH, LiF-LiOH, LiF-Li/sub 2/O, Li/sub 2/S-Li/sub 2/O, Li/sub 2/S-LiCl and Li/sub 2/S-LiBr systems were investigated. All ternary single phases and two-phase mixtures are solid electrolytes which are thermodynamically stable in respect of reaction with elemental lithium (anode) and at practically useful, low lithium activities (cathode). The conductivity normally increases with decreasing thermodynamic stability and vice versa. The conductivity may be optimized in the case of solid solutions by selecting a composition with a decomposition voltage just above the value required by the cathode material employed. All materials are isotropic in structure and no dendrite formation was observed. This allows their use in rechargeable, thin film electrolyte batteries.

  18. Optical cleaning of lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesters, Michael

    2010-01-15

    An all-optical method for the removal of photoexcitable electrons from photorefractive centers to get rid of optical damage in lithium niobate crystals is presented, the so-called ''optical cleaning''. The method combines the photovoltaic drift of electrons with ionic charge compensation at sufficiently high temperatures of about 180 C. Optimum choice of the light pattern plus heat dramatically decreases the concentration of photoexcitable electrons in the exposed region leading to a suppression of optical damage. Experiments with slightly iron-doped lithium niobate crystals have shown an increase of the threshold for optical damage of more than 1000 compared to those of untreated crystals. (orig.)

  19. Hydrogen retention properties of lithium film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, Koh; Yamauchi, Yuji; Hirohata, Yuko; Hino, Tomoaki; Mori, Kintaro

    1998-01-01

    Hydrogen retention properties of Li films and lithium oxide-lithium hydroxide (Li 2 O-LiOH) mixed films were investigated by two methods, hydrogen ion irradiation and hydrogen glow discharge. In a case of the hydrogen ion irradiation, thermal desorption spectrum of hydrogen retained in Li 2 O-LiOH film had two desorption peaks at around 470 K and 570 K. The ratio between retained hydrogen and Li atom was about 0.7. In a case of the hydrogen glow discharge, the hydrogen was also gettered in Li film during the discharge. The ratio of H/Li was almost 0.9. Most of gettered hydrogen desorbed by a baking with a temperature of 370 K. On the contrary, when the Li film exposed to the atmosphere was irradiated by the hydrogen plasma, the desorption of H 2 O was observed in addition to the adsorption of H 2 . (author)

  20. Corrosion inhibition by lithium zinc phosphate pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alibakhshi, E.; Ghasemi, E.; Mahdavian, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Synthesis of lithium zinc phosphate (LZP) by chemical co-precipitation method. •Corrosion inhibition activity of pigments compare with zinc phosphate (ZP). •LZP showed superior corrosion inhibition effect in EIS measurements. •Evaluation of adhesion strength and dispersion stability. -- Abstract: Lithium zinc phosphate (LZP) has been synthesized through a co-precipitation process and characterized by XRD and IR spectroscopy. The inhibitive performances of this pigment for corrosion of mild steel have been discussed in comparison with the zinc phosphate (ZP) in the pigment extract solution by means of EIS and in the epoxy coating by means of salt spray. The EIS and salt spray results revealed the superior corrosion inhibitive effect of LZP compared to ZP. Moreover, adhesion strength and dispersion stability of the pigmented epoxy coating showed the advantage of LZP compared to ZP