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Sample records for monomeric constituents selecting

  1. Peracetic Acid Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignin for Production of Selective Monomeric Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruoshui; Guo, Mond; Lin, Kuan-Ting; Hebert, Vincent R; Zhang, Jinwen; Wolcott, Michael P; Quintero, Melissa; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K; Chen, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-07-25

    Lignin is the largest source of renewable material with an aromatic skeleton. However, due to the recalcitrant and heterogeneous nature of the lignin polymer, it has been a challenge to effectively depolymerize lignin and produce high-value chemicals with high selectivity. In this study, a highly efficient lignin-to-monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC) conversion method based on peracetic acid (PAA) treatment was reported. PAA treatment of two biorefinery lignin samples, diluted acid pretreated corn stover lignin (DACSL) and steam exploded spruce lignin (SESPL), led to complete solubilization and production of selective hydroxylated monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC-H) and monomeric phenolic acid compounds (MPC-A) including 4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The maximized MPC yields obtained were 18 and 22 % based on the initial weight of the lignin in SESPL and DACSL, respectively. However, we found that the addition of niobium pentoxide catalyst to PAA treatment of lignin can significantly improve the MPC yields up to 47 %. The key reaction steps and main mechanisms involved in this new lignin-to-MPC valorization pathway were investigated and elucidated.

  2. Peracetic Acid Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignin for Production of Selective Monomeric Phenolic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ruoshui [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Guo, Mond [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Lin, Kuan-ting [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Hebert, Vincent R. [Food and Environmental Laboratory, Washington State, University-TriCities, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Zhang, Jinwen [Wood Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164 USA; Wolcott, Michael P. [Wood Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164 USA; Quintero, Melissa [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K. [Chemical and Biological Process Development Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Chen, Xiaowen [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Lab, 1617 Cole Blvd Golden CO 80127 USA; Zhang, Xiao [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA

    2016-07-04

    Lignin is the largest source of renewable material with an aromatic skeleton. However, due to the recalcitrant and heterogeneous nature of the lignin polymer as well as its complex side chain structures, it has been a challenge to effectively depolymerize lignin and produce high value chemicals with high selectivity. In this study, a highly efficient lignin-to-monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC) conversion method based on peracetic acid (PAA) treatment was reported. PAA treatment of two biorefinery lignin samples, diluted acid pretreated corn stover lignin (DACSL) and steam exploded spruce lignin (SESPL), led to complete solubilization and production of selective hydroxylated monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC-H) and monomeric phenolic acid compounds (MPC-A) inclduing 4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The maximized MPCs yields obtained were 18% and 22% based on the initial weight of the lignin in SESPL and DACSL respectively. However, we found that the addition of niobium pentoxide catalyst to PAA treatment of lignin can significantly improve the MPC yields up to 47%. The key reaction steps and main mechanisms involved in this new lignin-to-MPC valorization pathway were investigated and elucidated.

  3. Peracetic Acid Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignin for Production of Selective Monomeric Phenolic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ruoshui [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Guo, Mond [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Lin, Kuan-ting [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Hebert, Vincent R. [Food and Environmental Laboratory, Washington State, University-TriCities, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Zhang, Jinwen [Wood Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164 USA; Wolcott, Michael P. [Wood Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164 USA; Quintero, Melissa [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K. [Chemical and Biological Process Development Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Chen, Xiaowen [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Lab, 1617 Cole Blvd Golden CO 80127 USA; Zhang, Xiao [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Bioproducts, Science & Engineering Laboratory, Washington State University, 2710 Crimson Way Richland WA 99354 USA

    2016-07-04

    Lignin is the largest source of renewable material with an aromatic skeleton. However, due to the recalcitrant and heterogeneous nature of the lignin polymer, it has been a challenge to effectively depolymerize lignin and produce high-value chemicals with high selectivity. In this study, a highly efficient lignin-to-monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC) conversion method based on peracetic acid (PAA) treatment was reported. PAA treatment of two biorefinery lignin samples, diluted acid pretreated corn stover lignin (DACSL) and steam exploded spruce lignin (SESPL), led to complete solubilization and production of selective hydroxylated monomeric phenolic compounds (MPC-H) and monomeric phenolic acid compounds (MPC-A) including 4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The maximized MPC yields obtained were 18 and 22 % based on the initial weight of the lignin in SESPL and DACSL, respectively. However, we found that the addition of niobium pentoxide catalyst to PAA treatment of lignin can significantly improve the MPC yields up to 47 %. The key reaction steps and main mechanisms involved in this new lignin-to-MPC valorization pathway were investigated and elucidated.

  4. SEASONALITY OF SELECTED NUTRITIONAL CONSTITUENTS OF EDIBLE DELMARVA SEAWEEDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Matilda; Mitra, Madhumi; Ruby, Douglas; Schwarz, Jurgen

    2012-10-01

    Edible seaweeds have not been thoroughly explored for food, medicinal, or industrial purposes in the United States. This study compared selected proximate constituents of three edible seaweed species (Ulva lactuca L., Fucus vesiculosus L., and Gracilaria tikvahiae McLachan) at two sites for possible future development as a food crop on the Delmarva Peninsula. Sampling was conducted bimonthly at Chincoteague Memorial Park, Virginia, and Indian River Inlet, Delaware, from 2005 to 2008. Proximate constituents of moisture, ash, dietary fiber, proteins, and fat were measured seasonally and calorific values were calculated. Data were analyzed using correlation, paired samples t-tests and one- and two-way ANOVA. Significant variations in the proximate constituents were found among seasons, species, and between sites. The brown seaweed (Fucus) at both sites had higher fiber, fat, and ash (mineral) content than the green (Ulva) or the red (Gracilaria). Ulva and Gracilaria had higher protein content than Fucus. Seaweeds from Delaware had more fat, ash, and protein than from Virginia, potentially because of the more polluted, nutrient rich environment at the Delaware site. Positive correlations between seaweed fat and protein content may indicate an increase in the synthesis of both components under optimal growth conditions. Species' physiology differences and the water quality at the two sites likely impacted proximate constituent values. This study contributed new information to the existing body of knowledge in the areas of nutrition and ecology of seaweeds and their potential as a cash crop. © 2012 Phycological Society of America.

  5. Invitro antioxidant activity of selected antiasthmatic herbal constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilani, P; Kasthuribai, N; Duraisamy, B; Dhamodaran, P; Ravichandran, S; Ilango, K; Suresh, B

    2009-04-01

    Asthmatic patients are more subjected to continuous oxidative stress. Roosting the antioxidant defenses of asthma patient could be beneficial as it may help thwart symptoms of the lung disease and asthma. Considering these facts different plant extracts and phytoconstituents with proven anti asthmatic property had been subjected to antioxidant study at various combinations using Diphenyl Vicryl Hydrazyl radical scavenging method, Hydrogen Peroxide radical scavenging method, Nitric oxide radical inhibition method, ABTS radical scavenging method and Lipid peroxidation assay method.All the selected herbal based constituents and extracts at different combination showed a potent antioxidant activiy by Nitric oxide radical inhibition activiy method followed by ABTS method. The present finding suggests that the selected plant based anti asthmatic constituents namely Coleus extract (10% Forskolin), Piper longum extract (20% Piperine), CurcuminC3Complex (60% Curcumin), Vasaka (30% Vasicinone), Forskolin (95%), Pperine (98%), Curcumin C3 Complex (98.5%) and Vasicinone (75%) could be utilised in alternate anti asthmatic therapy, since they play a vital role in scavenging Nitric oxide which could prevent the bronchial inflammation in asthmatic patients.

  6. Advanced olive selections with enhanced quality for minor constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco, L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Squalene, phytosterols and tocopherols are minor constituents of paramount importance for the olive fruit and oil quality. The objective of this research was to conduct a two-year evaluation of these compounds in the fruits of seven advanced breeding selections. They were mainly selected for early bearing and high oil content from progenies of crosses between the cultivars ‘Arbequina’ and ‘Picual’. An analysis of variance showed high genotypic effects, non-significant year effects, and genotype x year interactions of low magnitude. The selections showed great variability for the traits, surpassing in some cases the parental values. One selection with total tocopherol content of 263 mg·kg−1 fruit flesh, compared to a maximum of 148 mg·kg −1 in the parents, and another one with Δ5-avenasterol concentration of 30.7% of total sterols, compared to a maximum of 22.1% in the parents, were the most relevant phenotypes. These selections may play an important role for improving olive fruit and oil quality for specific market niches.Compuestos como el escualeno, los fitoesteroles y los tocoferoles tienen una enorme importancia para la calidad del fruto y del aceite de oliva. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la evaluación durante dos años de estos compuestos en los frutos de siete selecciones avanzadas de olivo, seleccionadas principalmente para entrada temprana en producción y alto contenido en aceite a partir de las descendencias de cruzamientos entre los cultivares ‘Arbequina’ y ‘Picual’. El análisis de la varianza mostró, para la mayoría de los caracteres, un elevado efecto del genotipo, ausencia de efecto del factor año, e interacciones entre año y genotipo de baja magnitud. Las selecciones mostraron gran variabilidad para todos los caracteres, sobrepasando en algunos casos los valores de los parentales. Entre las selecciones con valores superiores a los parentales, destacaron una selección con un contenido en tocoferoles

  7. Evaluation of selected honey and one of its phenolic constituent eugenol against L1210 lymphoid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Mondhe, Dilip; Wani, Z A; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    People affected with leukemia are on the rise and several strategies were employed to thwart this deadly disease. Recent decade of research focuses on phenolic constituents as a tool for combating various inflammatory, cancer, and cardiac diseases. Our research showed honey and its phenolic constituents as crusaders against cancer. In this work, we explored the antileukemic activity of selected honey and one of its phenolic constituent eugenol against L1210 leukemia animal model. Results of this experiment showed that the selected honey samples as well as eugenol after intraperitoneal injection could not increase the median survival time (MST) of animals. Further, there was only slight marginal increase in the %T/C values of honey and eugenol treated groups. The number of phenolics present in the honey may not be a prime factor to promote antileukemic effect since there was no difference in the MST of two different honeys tested. This study limits the use of selected honey and eugenol against leukemia animal model.

  8. Changes of headspace volatile constituents of palm olein and selected oils after frying French fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Muhammad Nor Bin; Nor, Nor Nazuha M; Idris, Nor Aini

    2007-04-01

    Changes of aroma constituents of palm olein and selected oils after frying French fries have been studied. The aroma constituents of used oils were collected using a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) headspace technique with an absorbent of a divinylbenzene/carboxen (DVB/CAR) (50/30 microm) on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fibre. The extracted volatiles were desorbed from the fibre in the injection port of the gas chromatograph at 250 degrees C and the aroma constituents were identified by GC-MS. Analytical data showed that volatile constituents of palm olein, soybean oil, corn oil and sunflower oil changed while frying continued from 2 to 40 h, respectively. In palm olein, the 2t,4t-decadienal content decreased from 14.7 to 5.5 microg g(-1) (40 h) whilst hexanal increased from 7.9 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 29.2 microg g(-1) (40 h), respectively. Similar result was also obtained from soybean oil after frying French fries. The 2t,4t-decadienal content decreased from 15.9 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 3.2 microg g(-1) after 40 h frying whilst hexanal increased from 10.2 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 34.2 microg g(-1) (40 h). Meanwhile, in corn oil, it was found that 2t,4t-decadienal decreased from 15.6 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 3.2 microg g(-1) (40 h) whilst hexanal increased from 11.3 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 33.8 microg g(-1) when frying time reached 40 h. In sunflower oil, it was found that 2t,4t-decadienal, decreased from 16.8 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 1.2 microg g(-1) (40 h) while hexanal increased from 9.5 microg g(-1) (2 h) to 32.4 microg g(-1) when frying time reached 40 h. It also showed that used oils exhibited off-odour characteristics due to the increasing amount ofhexanal while their freshness characteristics diminished due to the decreasing amount of 2t, 4t-decadienal.

  9. Size separation of analytes using monomeric surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Edward S.; Wei, Wei

    2005-04-12

    A sieving medium for use in the separation of analytes in a sample containing at least one such analyte comprises a monomeric non-ionic surfactant of the of the general formula, B-A, wherein A is a hydrophilic moiety and B is a hydrophobic moiety, present in a solvent at a concentration forming a self-assembled micelle configuration under selected conditions and having an aggregation number providing an equivalent weight capable of effecting the size separation of the sample solution so as to resolve a target analyte(s) in a solution containing the same, the size separation taking place in a chromatography or electrophoresis separation system.

  10. Intravascular photoacoustic detection of vulnerable plaque based on constituent selected imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jian; Xing Da, E-mail: xingda@scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, a disease of the large arteries, is the primary cause of heart disease and stroke. Over decades, atherosclerosis is characterized by thickening of the walls of the arteries, only advanced atherosclerotic disease could be observed. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid imaging technique that combines the advantages of high spatial resolution of ultrasound with contrast of optical absorption. In this paper, we present an intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging system to characterize vulnerable plaques by using the optical absorption contrast between different constituents. Epidemiological studies have revealed several important plaque constituents associated with early atherosclerosis, such as macrophage, cholesterol, lipid, calcification, and so on. We chose a section of lipid rich atherosclerosis artery and a section of normal artery as the phantom. Two IVPA images of them are given to show the difference between sick and normal. As a new method of detecting vulnerable plaque, IVPA constituents imaging will provide more details for diagnosis that offer an enticing prospect in early detecting of atherosclerosis.

  11. Selected constituents in the smokes of foreign commercial cigaretts: tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Quincy, R.B.; Guerin, M.R.

    1979-05-01

    The tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide contents of the smokes of 220 brands of foreign commercial cigarettes are reported. In some instances, filter cigarettes of certain brands were found to deliver as much or more smoke constituents than their nonfilter counterparts. Also, data indicated that there can be a great variation in the tar, nicotine, or carbon monoxide content of the smoke of samples of a given brand of cigarettes, depending on the nation in which they are purchased. 24 tables.

  12. Flux of selected body fluid constituents and benzylpenicillin in polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahm, J; Lessel, R; Ditlev, S

    2012-01-01

    physiological and non-physiological constituents very efficiently with the surrounding medium. The efflux (J, mole/(cm(2) ¿×¿s), 25¿°C, pH 7.2) of water (4.4¿×¿10(-5) ), chloride (2.4¿×¿10(-7) ), urea (1.0¿×¿10(-9) ), and glucose (1.1¿×¿10(-9) ) was 3-40x greater than in human red blood cells. PAAG was also...

  13. Effect of selected antiasthmatic plant constituents against micro organism causing upper respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilani, P; Duraisamy, B; Dhamodaran, P; Ravichandran, S; Elango, K

    2010-01-01

    Most exacerbations of asthma can be proven to be associated with bacterial infections and there is scientific evidence that frequent respiratory infections particularly bacterial infections provoke asthma attack. Considering these facts different plant extracts and phytoconstituents with proven anti asthmatic property had been selected for screening anti microbial activity in in-vitro models. In the present study, Coleus forskohlii Willd. extract (10% Forskolin), Piper Longum L. Extract (20% Piperine), Adathoda vasica Nees. extract (30% Vasicinone), Curcuma longa L. extract (60% Curcumin) were screened for the antibacterial activity against human pathogens causing upper respiratory infection namely Haemophilus influenzae , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Streptococcus pyrogene and Staphylococcus aureus, by taking Gentamycin, Optochin, Bacitracin and Amoxicillin as reference standards. Except for Adathoda vasica Nees. extract, all the other selected plant extracts exhibited a moderate activity antibacterial activity against selected strains.

  14. Chemical Constituents and Combined Larvicidal Effects of Selected Essential Oils against Anopheles cracens (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitrawadee Intirach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study on larvicidal activity against laboratory-colonized Anopheles cracens mosquitos revealed that five of ten plant oils at concentration of 100 ppm showed 95–100% larval mortality. The essential oils of five plants, including Piper sarmentosum, Foeniculum vulgare, Curcuma longa, Myristica fragrans, and Zanthoxylum piperitum, were then selected for chemical analysis, dose-response larvicidal experiments, and combination-based bioassays. Chemical compositions analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry demonstrated that the main component in the oil derived from P. sarmentosum, F. vulgare, C. longa, M. fragrans, and Z. piperitum was croweacin (71.01%, anethole (63.00%, ar-turmerone (30.19%, safrole (46.60%, and 1,8-cineole (21.27%, respectively. For larvicidal bioassay, all five essential oils exerted promising efficacy in a dose-dependent manner and different performances on A. cracens after 24 hours of exposure. The strongest larvicidal potential was established from P. sarmentosum, followed by F. vulgare, C. longa, M. fragrans, and Z. piperitum, with LC50 values of 16.03, 32.77, 33.61, 40.00, and 63.17 ppm, respectively. Binary mixtures between P. sarmentosum, the most effective oil, and the others at the highest ratio were proved to be highly efficacious with a cotoxicity coefficient value greater than 100, indicating synergistic activity. Results of mixed formulations of different essential oils generating synergistic effects may prove helpful in developing effective, economical, and ecofriendly larvicides, as favorable alternatives for mosquito management.

  15. Impact of selected wastewater constituents on the removal of sulfonamide antibiotics via ultrafiltration and micellar enhanced ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exall, Kirsten; Balakrishnan, Vimal K; Toito, John; McFadyen, Renée

    2013-09-01

    To better understand the environmental mobility of sulfonamide antibiotics and develop improved processes for their removal during wastewater treatment, stirred cell ultrafiltration (UF) experiments were conducted using both synthetic and real wastewater effluent. The interactions between selected sulfonamides (sulfaguanidine, sulfathiazole and sulfamerazine), solids and dissolved organic matter were systematically explored. The further impact of micellar enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF), a process in which surfactants are added at micellar concentrations to enhance removal of various trace contaminants from aqueous streams, was then explored by using a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Ultrafiltration of sulfonamides in the absence of other materials generally removed only 15-20% of the antibiotics. The presence of micellar solutions of CTAB generally improved removal of sulfonamides over UF alone, with rejections ranging from 20 to 74%. Environmental solids (sediment) further increased retention of sulfonamides using both UF and MEUF, but the presence of DOM did not influence rejection. Similar trends were observed on UF and MEUF of real effluent samples that had been spiked with the sulfonamides, confirming the environmental relevance of the observed interactions between sulfonamides, surfactant, and wastewater constituents. The results demonstrate that MEUF processes can be designed for the selective removal of such trace contaminants as sulfonamide antibiotics.

  16. Radiochemical and chemical constituents in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area, Idaho, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Williams, L.M. [Geological Survey, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Campbell, L.J. [Idaho Dept. of Water Resources, Boise, ID (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake river Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from nine irrigation wells, three domestic wells, two dairy wells, two springs, one commercial well, one stock well, and one observation well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. Additional sampling at six sites was done to complete the third round of sampling. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.

  17. Addition-type polyimides from solutions of monomeric reactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvigs, P.; Serafini, T. T.; Lightsey, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    The monomeric reactants approach was used to fabricate addition-type polyimide/graphite fiber composites with improved mechanical properties and thermal stability characteristics over those of composites derived from addition-type amide acid prepolymers. A screening study of 24 different monomer combinations was performed. The results of a more extensive investigation of a selected number of monomer combinations showed that the combination providing the best thermomechanical properties was 5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester/4,4'-methylenedianiline/3,3'4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dimethyl ester at a molar ratio of 2/3.09/2.09.

  18. Concentration and spatial distribution of selected constituents in Detroit River bed sediment adjacent to Grassy Island, Michigan, August 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoard, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    In August 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, collected sediment?core samples from the bed of the Detroit River adjacent to Grassy Island. The goal of the sampling was to assess the distribution and concentration of chemical constituents in sediment adjacent to Grassy Island, which was operated from 1960 to 1982 as a confined disposal facility to hold dredge spoils. On August 31, 2006, seven samples were collected at four locations in the Detroit River on the north, south, east, and west sides of the island. Metals concentrations in the riverbed sediment tended to be higher on the west side of the island, whereas organic?compound concentrations were generally higher on the east side. Comparison of results from this sampling to concentrations reported in previous studies indicates that the concentrations of inorganic constituents, mainly metals, in the riverbed sediment around Grassy Island fell within the range of concentrations found regionally throughout the Detroit River and in most cases have lower mean and median values than found elsewhere regionally in the Detroit River. Comparison of results from the August 31, 2006, sampling to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency risk?based sediment?quality guidelines indicates that 18 organic constituents for which an ecological screening level (ESL), and (or) a threshold effect concentration (TEC), and (or) a probable effect concentration (PEC) has been defined exceeded one or more of these guidelines at least once. Further work would be needed to determine whether constituent concentrations in the river sediment are related to constituent runoff from Grassy Island.

  19. Evaluation of background concentrations of selected chemical and radiochemical constituents in water from the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; L. Flint Hall,

    2016-05-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho Department of Environmental Quality Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Oversight Program in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy determined background concentrations of selected chemical and radiochemical constituents in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer to aid with ongoing cleanup efforts at the INL. Chemical and radiochemical constituents including calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, silica, chloride, sulfate, fluoride, bicarbonate, chromium, nitrate, tritium, strontium-90, chlorine-36, iodine-129, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, -240 (undivided), americium-241, technetium-99, uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238 were selected for the background study because they were either not analyzed in earlier studies or new data became available to give a more recent determination of background concentrations. Samples of water collected from wells and springs at and near the INL that were not believed to be influenced by wastewater disposal were used to identify background concentrations. Groundwater in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the INL was divided into two major water types (western tributary and eastern regional) based on concentrations of lithium less than and greater than 5 micrograms per liter (μg/L). Median concentrations for each constituent were used to define the upper limit of background.

  20. A Well-Mixed Computational Model for Estimating Room Air Levels of Selected Constituents from E-Vapor Product Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Rostami

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Concerns have been raised in the literature for the potential of secondhand exposure from e-vapor product (EVP use. It would be difficult to experimentally determine the impact of various factors on secondhand exposure including, but not limited to, room characteristics (indoor space size, ventilation rate, device specifications (aerosol mass delivery, e-liquid composition, and use behavior (number of users and usage frequency. Therefore, a well-mixed computational model was developed to estimate the indoor levels of constituents from EVPs under a variety of conditions. The model is based on physical and thermodynamic interactions between aerosol, vapor, and air, similar to indoor air models referred to by the Environmental Protection Agency. The model results agree well with measured indoor air levels of nicotine from two sources: smoking machine-generated aerosol and aerosol exhaled from EVP use. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increasing air exchange rate reduces room air level of constituents, as more material is carried away. The effect of the amount of aerosol released into the space due to variability in exhalation was also evaluated. The model can estimate the room air level of constituents as a function of time, which may be used to assess the level of non-user exposure over time.

  1. Concentrations of selected trace inorganic constituents and synthetic organic compounds in the water-table aquifers in the Memphis area, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, B.W.; Parks, William Scott

    1988-01-01

    Water quality samples for analysis of selected trace inorganic constituents and synthetic organic compounds were collected from 29 private or observation wells in alluvium and fluvial deposits of Quaternary and Tertiary Age. The alluvium and fluvial deposits are the water table aquifers in the Memphis area. In addition, nine wells were installed in Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division well fields so that samples could be collected and analyzed to characterize the quality of water in the fluvial deposits at these well fields. Samples from seven of these wells (two were dry) were analyzed for major constituents and properties of water as well as for selected trace inorganic constituents and synthetic organic compounds. Analyses of the water from most of the 36 wells sampled indicated ranges in concentration values for the trace inorganic constituents that agreed with those previously known, although some new maximum values were established. The analysis of water from four wells indicated that the water is or may be contaminated. Concentrations of barium (1,400 micrograms/L -- ug/L), strontium (1,100 ug/L), and arsenic (15 ug/L), along with specific conductance (1,420 microsiemens/centimeter--us/cm) were in water from one well in the alluvium. Low concentrations (0.02 to 0.04 ug/L) of the pesticides aldrin, DDT, endosulfan, and perthane were present in water from two wells in the fluvial deposits. Water from one of these wells also contained 1,1,1 trichloroethane (4.4 ug/L). Analysis of water from another well in the fluvial deposits indicated values for specific conductance (1,100 uS/cm), alkalinity (508 milligrams per liter -- mg/L -- as CaCO3), hardness (550 mg/L as CaCO3), chloride (65 mg/L), and barium (240 ug/L) that are high for water from the fluvial deposits. (USGS)

  2. Assessment of selected inorganic constituents in streams in the Central Arizona Basins Study Area, Arizona and northern Mexico, through 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anning, David W.

    2003-01-01

    Stream properties and water-chemistry constituent concentrations from data collected by the National Water-Quality Assessment and other U.S. Geological Survey water-quality programs were analyzed to (1) assess water quality, (2) determine natural and human factors affecting water quality, and (3) compute stream loads for the surface-water resources in the Central Arizona Basins study area. Stream temperature, pH, dissolved-oxygen concentration and percent saturation, and dissolved-solids, suspended-sediment, and nutrient concentration data collected at 41 stream-water quality monitoring stations through water year 1998 were used in this assessment. Water-quality standards applicable to the stream properties and water-chemistry constituent concentration data for the stations investigated in this study generally were met, although there were some exceedences. In a few samples from the White River, the Black River, and the Salt River below Stewart Mountain Dam, the pH in reaches designated as a domestic drinking water source was higher than the State of Arizona standard. More than half of the samples from the Salt River below Stewart Mountain Dam and almost all of the samples from the stations on the Central Arizona Project Canal?two of the three most important surface-water sources used for drinking water in the Central Arizona Basins study area?exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level for dissolved solids. Two reach-specific standards for nutrients established by the State of Arizona were exceeded many times: (1) the annual mean concentration of total phosphorus was exceeded during several years at stations on the main stems of the Salt and Verde Rivers, and (2) the annual mean concentration of total nitrogen was exceeded during several years at the Salt River near Roosevelt and at the Salt River below Stewart Mountain Dam. Stream properties and water-chemistry constituent concentrations were related to

  3. Green tea constituent epigallocatechin-3-gallate selectively inhibits COX-2 without affecting COX-1 expression in human prostate carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Tajamul; Gupta, Sanjay; Adhami, Vaqar M; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2005-02-10

    Overexpression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 has been implicated in many pathologic conditions, including cancer. One practical inference of this finding is that sustained inhibition of COX-2 could serve as a promising target for prevention or therapy of cancer. Conventional nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and recently developed COX-2-specific inhibitors have shown considerable promise in prevention of some forms of human cancer; however, its application is limited due to severe toxic side effects on normal cells. Therefore, there is a need to define novel, nontoxic dietary constituents with proven chemopreventive effects through other pathways that also possess COX-2 but not COX-1 inhibitory activity. Recent studies on green tea and its major polyphenolic constituent (-)epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) have established its remarkable cancer preventive and some cancer therapeutic effects. Here, we show that EGCG inhibits COX-2 without affecting COX-1 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels, in androgen-sensitive LNCaP and androgen-insensitive PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells. Based on our study, it is tempting to suggest that a combination of EGCG with chemotherapeutic drugs could be an improved strategy for prevention and treatment of prostate cancer.

  4. Molecular docking analysis of selected Clinacanthus nutans constituents as xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide synthase, human neutrophil elastase, matrix metalloproteinase 2, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and squalene synthase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Narayanaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f. Lindau has gained popularity among Malaysians as a traditional plant for anti-inflammatory activity. Objective: This prompted us to carry out the present study on a selected 11 constituents of C. nutans which are clinacoside A–C, cycloclinacoside A1, shaftoside, vitexin, orientin, isovitexin, isoorientin, lupeol and β-sitosterol. Materials and Methods: Selected 11 constituents of C. nutans were evaluated on the docking behavior of xanthine oxidase (XO, nitric oxide synthase (NOS, human neutrophil elastase (HNE, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP 2 and 9, and squalene synthase (SQS using Discovery Studio Version 3.1. Also, molecular physicochemical, bioactivity, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET, and toxicity prediction by computer assisted technology analyzes were also carried out. Results: The molecular physicochemical analysis revealed that four ligands, namely clinacoside A–C and cycloclinacoside A1 showed nil violations and complied with Lipinski's rule of five. As for the analysis of bioactivity, all the 11 selected constituents of C. nutans exhibited active score (>0 toward enzyme inhibitors descriptor. ADMET analysis showed that the ligands except orientin and isoorientin were predicted to have Cytochrome P4502D6 inhibition effect. Docking studies and binding free energy calculations revealed that clinacoside B exhibited the least binding energy for the target enzymes except for XO and SQS. Isovitexin and isoorientin showed the potentials in the docking and binding with all of the six targeted enzymes, whereas vitexin and orientin docked and bound with only NOS and HNE. Conclusion: This present study has paved a new insight in understanding these 11 C. nutans ligands as potential inhibitors against XO, NOS, HNE, MMP 2, MMP 9, and SQS.

  5. Monomeric Friction Coefficient of Metalnanodispersible Polymeric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B. Kolupayev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Influence of a nanodispersible metal excipient in number of 0    5,0 vol.% Cu for the size of a monomeric friction coefficient of polyvinylchloride (PVC systems in temperature range 298  Т  (Tg + 10 K is investigated. It is shown that various types of coordination movements of building blocks are described by a friction coefficient which serves as a measure of influence of external fields and ingredients on viscoelastic behavior of a composite. The analysis of processes of a relaxation on the basis of the theory of flexible chains taking into account power and entropic factors is carried out.

  6. Identification of the chemical constituents of Chinese medicine Yi-Xin-Shu capsule by molecular feature orientated precursor ion selection and tandem mass spectrometry structure elucidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-ping; Chen, Chang; Liu, Yan; Yang, Hong-Jun; Wu, Hong-Wei; Xiao, Hong-Bin

    2015-11-01

    The incomplete identification of the chemical components of traditional Chinese medicinal formula has been one of the bottlenecks in the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. Tandem mass spectrometry has been widely used for the identification of chemical substances. Current automatic tandem mass spectrometry acquisition, where precursor ions were selected according to their signal intensity, encounters a drawback in chemical substances identification when samples contain many overlapping signals. Compounds in minor or trace amounts could not be identified because most tandem mass spectrometry information was lost. Herein, a molecular feature orientated precursor ion selection and tandem mass spectrometry structure elucidation method for complex Chinese medicine chemical constituent analysis was developed. The precursor ions were selected according to their two-dimensional characteristics of retention times and mass-to-charge ratio ranges from herbal compounds, so that all precursor ions from herbal compounds were included and more minor chemical constituents in Chinese medicine were identified. Compared to the conventional automatic tandem mass spectrometry setups, the approach is novel and can overcome the drawback for chemical substances identification. As an example, 276 compounds from the Chinese Medicine of Yi-Xin-Shu capsule were identified. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Water-quality characteristics for selected sites on the Cape Fear River, North Carolina, 1955-80; variability, loads, and trends of selected constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, J. Kent

    1983-01-01

    Water-quality data for selected sites in the Cape Fear River basin collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill are analyzed and interpreted in this report. Emphasis is given to the Cape Fear River at Lock 1 near Kelly, where data are most complete. Other data included in the report were collected from the Cape Fear River at Lillington, the Haw River near the Jordan Dam, and the Deep River at Moncure. Available data indicate that concentrations of dissolved oxygen at study sites are almost always within U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criteria; however, on two sampling dates, the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the Cape Fear at Lock 1 fell slightly below the 5.0 mg/L recommended for fish populations. Measurements of pH from all stations were frequently below the lower limit of 6.5 pH units recommended for protection of freshwater aquatic life. Major dissolved ions detected are sodium and bicarbonate. Sodium concentration averages 8.6 mg/L and bicarbonate averages 17.5 mg/L at Lock 1. Concentrations of dissolved substances and suspended sediment decrease in the downstream direction, presumably because the more heavily populated part of the basin is near the headwaters of the system. Heavy metals, with the exceptions of cadmium and mercury, rarely exceed Environmental Protection Agency criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Concentrations of mercury in the Haw River, which exceed the recommended 0.20 mg/L needed to protect aquatic life, have frequently been reported by other authors. Several of the most toxic metals, arsenic, cadmium, and cobalt, are about five times more concentrated in water from the Haw River site than from other study sites in the basin. Iron and manganese frequently exceed North Carolina water-quality standards. Available nitrogen averages 1.21 mg/L and available phosphorus averages 0.21 mg/L at Lock 1

  8. Chelation of Cu(II, Zn(II, and Fe(II by Tannin Constituents of Selected Edible Nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Karamać

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The tannin fractions isolated from hazelnuts, walnuts and almonds were characterised by colorimetric assays and by an SE-HPLC technique. The complexation of Cu(II and Zn(II was determined by the reaction with tetramethylmurexide, whereas for Fe(II, ferrozine was employed. The walnut tannins exhibited a significantly weaker reaction with the vanillin/HCl reagent than hazelnut and almond tannins, but the protein precipitation capacity of the walnut fraction was high. The SE-HPLC chromatogram of the tannin fraction from hazelnuts revealed the presence of oligomers with higher molecular weights compared to that of almonds. Copper ions were most effectively chelated by the constituents of the tannin fractions of hazelnuts, walnuts and almonds. At a 0.2 mg/assay addition level, the walnut tannins complexed almost 100% Cu(II. The Fe(II complexation capacities of the tannin fractions of walnuts and hazelnuts were weaker in comparison to that of the almond tannin fraction, which at a 2.5 mg/assay addition level, bound Fe(II by ~90%. The capacity to chelate Zn(II was quite varied for the different nut tannin fractions: almond tannins bound as much as 84% Zn(II, whereas the value for walnut tannins was only 8.7%; and for hazelnut tannins, no Zn(II chelation took place at the levels tested.

  9. SMS TECHNOLOGY AS DISASTER WARNING AND ALERT SYSTEM AS PERCEIVED BY SELECTED CONSTITUENTS OF DAVAO DEL NORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mervin Jay Z. Suaybaguio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anchored on Davis’ (1989 Technology Acceptance Model, three hundred constituents representing the three cities and eight municipalities of Davao del Norte were randomly surveyed on their perceptions about the use of Short Message Service (SMS technology as a tool for sending disaster warning and alert messages. 145 males and 155 females answered the survey. Tagum City had the highest number of respondents (78 while the municipalities of San Isidro (8 and Talaingod (8 had the least. Results showed that SMS technology as practiced by the Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council of Davao Del Norte was perceived as good by 93.83% of the respondents. With a mean of 4.17, the use of SMS was perceived as a more credible source that prompted the people to demand for timely information from the authorities. Such communication strategy as coping mechanism was meant to prepare people to brace themselves for upcoming natural calamities. However, barriers such as network problems and hoax messages hindered the transmission of disaster warnings in real time and therefore must be addressed to institutionalize the operation so that SMS technology can better serve its purpose.

  10. Regression Equations for Estimating Concentrations of Selected Water-Quality Constituents for Selected Gaging Stations in the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    2004-01-01

    The Dakota Water Resources Act, passed by the U.S. Congress on December 15, 2000, authorized the Secretary of the Interior to conduct a comprehensive study of future water-quantity and quality needs of the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota and possible options to meet those water needs. Previous Red River of the North Basin studies conducted by the Bureau of Reclamation used streamflow and water-quality data bases developed by the U.S. Geological Survey that included data for 1931-84. As a result of the recent congressional authorization and results of previous studies by the Bureau of Reclamation, redevelopment of the streamflow and water-quality data bases with current data through 1999 are needed in order to evaluate and predict the water-quantity and quality effects within the Red River of the North Basin. This report provides updated statistical summaries of selected water-quality constituents and streamflow and the regression relations between them. Available data for 1931-99 were used to develop regression equations between 5 selected water-quality constituents and streamflow for 38 gaging stations in the Red River of the North Basin. The water-quality constituents that were regressed against streamflow were hardness (as CaCO3), sodium, chloride, sulfate, and dissolved solids. Statistical summaries of the selected water-quality constituents and streamflow for the gaging stations used in the regression equations development and the applications and limitations of the regression equations are presented in this report.

  11. Concentrations, loads and yields of selected water-quality constituents during low flow and storm runoff from three watersheds at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, May 1994 through September 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, P.P.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the effects of storm runoff from urban areas on water quality at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, was conducted from May 1994 through September 1996. The purpose of this report is to present information to assess the current (1994-96) conditions and possible methods for anticipating future water-quality effects from storm runoff and changes in land use. Three sampling sites were established to monitor streamflow and water quality from three watersheds draining the study area. Streamflow was monitored continuously, and water-quality samples were collected during low-flow (12 samples) and storm-runoff (21 samples) conditions to determine mean annual constituent loads. Constituent concentrations for the most part were smallest during low flow with the exception of major ions, dissolved solids, and some nutrients. Concentrations of suspended solids and total recoverable metals at all three sites were much larger in storm-runoff samples than in low-flow samples--typically an order of magnitude larger than low-flow concentrations. Mean low-flow nutrient concentrations were either larger than or smaller than storm-runoff concentrations depending on the watershed. Total chloroform and total tetrachloroethylene were the only two volatile organic compounds detected, and acid-base/neutral organic compounds were not detected in any of the samples collected. Eight pesticides were detected in low-flow samples, and 15 pesticides were detected in storm-runoff samples. The only mean concentrations of the selected constituents in this study that exceeded either the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level or the Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level were dissolved solids and total recoverable iron and manganese.

  12. Water Quality in Big Cypress National Preserve and Everglades National Park - Trends and Spatial Characteristics of Selected Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ronald L.; McPherson, Benjamin F.; Sobczak, Robert; Clark, Christine

    2004-01-01

    Seasonal changes in water levels and flows in Big Cypress National Preserve (BICY) and Everglades National Park (EVER) affect water quality. As water levels and flows decline during the dry season, physical, geochemical and biological processes increase the breakdown of organic materials and the build-up of organic waste, nutrients, and other constituents in the remaining surface water. For example, concentrations of total phosphorus in the marsh are less than 0.01 milligram per liter (mg/L) during much of the year. Concentrations can rise briefly above this value during the dry season and occasionally exceed 0.1 mg/L under drought conditions. Long-term changes in water levels, flows, water management, and upstream land use also affect water quality in BICY and EVER, based on analysis of available data (1959-2000). During the 1980's and early 1990's, specific conductance and concentrations of chloride increased in the Taylor Slough and Shark River Slough. Chloride concentrations more than doubled from 1960 to 1990, primarily due to greater canal transport of high dissolved solids into the sloughs. Some apparent long-term trends in sulfate and total phosphorus were likely attributable, at least in part, to high percentages of less-than and zero values and to changes in reporting levels over the period of record. High values in nutrient concentrations were evident during dry periods of the 1980's and were attributable either to increased canal inflows of nutrient-rich water, increased nutrient releases from breakdown of organic bottom sediment, or increased build-up of nutrient waste from concentrations of aquatic biota and wildlife in remaining ponds. Long-term changes in water quality over the period of record are less pronounced in the western Everglades and the Big Cypress Swamp; however, short-term seasonal and drought-related changes are evident. Water quality varies spatially across the region because of natural variations in geology, hydrology, and vegetation

  13. Occurrence and trends of selected nutrients, other chemical constituents, diatoms, and cyanobacteria in bottom sediment, Lake Maxinkuckee, northern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2015-01-01

    Bottom-sediment cores collected in 2013 were used to investigate the recent and predevelopment (pre-1863) occurrence of selected nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus), carbon, 39 trace elements, diatoms, cyanobacterial akinetes, and 3 radionuclides in the bottom sediment of Lake Maxinkuckee, a kettle lake in northern Indiana. Total nitrogen concentrations in the recent sediment (since about 1970) were variable with no consistent trend indicated. Total phosphorus concentrations in the recent sediment generally were uniform from about 1970 to about 2000 and indicated consistent inputs to the lake during that time. Subsequently, the history of total phosphorus deposition apparently was obscured by postdepositional upward diffusion.

  14. A study of catalytic activity, constituent, and structure of V-Ag catalyst for selective oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui-Liang, Zhang; Wei, Zhong; Xiang, Duan; Xian-Cai, Fu (Nanjing Univ. (China))

    1991-06-01

    A series of V-Ag mixed oxide catalysts with various atomic ratios of V and Ag were prepared by a solution-mixing method. XRD, TEM, SMEA (surface micro-area element analysis), ESR, FT-IR, etc., were used to study the physicochemical properties of the catalysts. The experimental results showed that when silver was introduced into the vanadium pentoxide, the V{double bond}O bond was weakened, and the specific activity of the sample increased. When the atomic ratios of V/Ag were set between 3/1 and 1/1, the selectivity for benzaldehyde increased. In particular, when the V/Ag ratio equaled 2.16, the selectivity for benzaldehyde was greatest, the absorption peak of 900 cm{sup {minus}1} in FT-IR shifted to lower energy, and the relative quantity of V{sup 4 {minus}} measured with ESR appeared the highest. After reaction, XRD showed the main phases of the catalyst to exist as Ag{sub 0{center dot}80}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Ag{sub 0{center dot}68}V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, with a minor Ag phase. Small amounts of VO{sub 2} and V{sub 2}O{sub 4} were also detected. On the two component oxides of vanadium-silver, the toluene oxidation appeared to proceed through two parallel reaction paths: side-chain oxidation of toluene and oxidation coupling. The sample of pure silver promoted cleavage of the carbon ring of toluene and produced deep-oxidation products in large quantity, while the sample of pure V{sub 2}O{sub 5} promoted the oxidative coupling of toluene. After the addition of silver to V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, however the oxidative coupling reaction was depressed, and the silver-vanadium oxide phases, Ag{sub 0{center dot}80}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Ag{sub 0{center dot}68}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} were formed. These two phases are responsible for the selective oxidation of toluene.

  15. Exploring fish bioassay of textile dye wastewaters and their selected constituents in terms of mortality and erythrocyte disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, Subhasini; Singh, P K; Swami, R C; Sharma, K P

    2009-07-01

    Acute (4 day) and short-term (7 day) toxicity studies (at 1/5th and 1/10th of LC(50)) of textile dye wastewaters and their selected ingredients (azo dye methyl red and heavy metals Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) were made on a freshwater fish Gambusia affinis under laboratory conditions. LC(50) value was found to be the lowest in four cases, and the EC(50) value for reduction in erythrocyte counts in the remaining four tests. Thus, the reduction in erythrocyte counts to the 50% level was similar in sensitivity to fish mortality. The short-term toxicity studies revealed significant disorders in erythrocyte morphology (poikilocytosis) and its counts to be the better indices for toxicity monitoring in the absence of fish mortality.

  16. Occurrence and transport of selected constituents in streams near the Stibnite mining area, Central Idaho, 2012–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Alexandra B.

    2015-12-07

    Mining of stibnite (antimony sulfide), tungsten, gold, silver, and mercury near the town of Stibnite in central Idaho has left a legacy of trace element contamination in local streams. Water-quality and streamflow monitoring data from a network of five streamflow-gaging stations were used to estimate trace-element and suspended-sediment loads and flow-weighted concentrations in the Stibnite mining area between 2012 and 2014. Measured concentrations of arsenic exceeded human health-based water-quality criteria at each streamflow-gaging station, except for Meadow Creek (site 2), which was selected to represent background conditions in the study area. Measured concentrations of antimony exceeded human health-based water-quality criteria at sites 3, 4, and 5.

  17. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. Bartholomay; B. V. Twining (USGS); L. J. Campbell (Idaho Department of Water Resources)

    1999-06-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from 2 domestic wells, 12 irrigation wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public supply well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the reported radiochemical or chemical constituent concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the respective reporting levels. Most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels.

  18. Alcohol Selectivity in a Synthetic Thermophilic n-Butanol Pathway Is Driven by Biocatalytic and Thermostability Characteristics of Constituent Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder, Andrew J.; Zeldes, Benjamin M.; Garrison, G. Dale; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2015-01-01

    n-Butanol is generated as a natural product of metabolism by several microorganisms, but almost all grow at mesophilic temperatures. A synthetic pathway for n-butanol production from acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) that functioned at 70°C was assembled in vitro from enzymes recruited from thermophilic bacteria to inform efforts for engineering butanol production into thermophilic hosts. Recombinant versions of eight thermophilic enzymes (β-ketothiolase [Thl], 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase [Hbd], and 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase [Crt] from Caldanaerobacter subterraneus subsp. tengcongensis; trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase [Ter] from Spirochaeta thermophila; bifunctional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase/alcohol dehydrogenase [AdhE] from Clostridium thermocellum; and AdhE, aldehyde dehydrogenase [Bad], and butanol dehydrogenase [Bdh] from Thermoanaerobacter sp. strain X514) were utilized to examine three possible pathways for n-butanol. These pathways differed in the two steps required to convert butyryl-CoA to n-butanol: Thl-Hbd-Crt-Ter-AdhE (C. thermocellum), Thl-Hbd-Crt-Ter-AdhE (Thermoanaerobacter X514), and Thl-Hbd-Crt-Ter-Bad-Bdh. n-Butanol was produced at 70°C, but with different amounts of ethanol as a coproduct, because of the broad substrate specificities of AdhE, Bad, and Bdh. A reaction kinetics model, validated via comparison to in vitro experiments, was used to determine relative enzyme ratios needed to maximize n-butanol production. By using large relative amounts of Thl and Hbd and small amounts of Bad and Bdh, >70% conversion to n-butanol was observed in vitro, but with a 60% decrease in the predicted pathway flux. With more-selective hypothetical versions of Bad and Bdh, >70% conversion to n-butanol is predicted, with a 19% increase in pathway flux. Thus, more-selective thermophilic versions of Bad, Bdh, and AdhE are needed to fully exploit biocatalytic n-butanol production at elevated temperatures. PMID:26253677

  19. Monomeric carbohydrates production from olive tree pruning biomass: modeling of dilute acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Juan G; Mateo, Soledad; Fonseca, Bruno G; Roberto, Inês C; Sánchez, Sebastián; Moya, Alberto J

    2013-12-01

    Statistical modeling and optimization of dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of olive tree pruning biomass has been performed using response surface methodology. Central composite rotatable design was applied to assess the effect of acid concentration, reaction time and temperature on efficiency and selectivity of hemicellulosic monomeric carbohydrates to d-xylose. Second-order polynomial model was fitted to experimental data to find the optimum reaction conditions by multiple regression analysis. The monomeric d-xylose recovery 85% (as predicted by the model) was achieved under optimized hydrolysis conditions (1.27% acid concentration, 96.5°C and 138 min), confirming the high validity of the developed model. The content of d-glucose (8.3%) and monosaccharide degradation products (0.1% furfural and 0.04% 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) provided a high quality subtract, ready for subsequent biochemical conversion to value-added products.

  20. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. Bartholomay (USGS); L. M. Williams (USGS); L. J. Campbell (Idaho Department of Water Resources)

    1998-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from seven domestic wells, six irrigation wells, two springs, one dairy well, one observation well, and one stock well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.

  1. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Gordon W.; Campbell, Linford J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Idaho Department of Water Resources, and the State of Idaho INEEL Oversight Program, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled water from 17 sites as part of the sixth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were collected from eight irrigation wells, three domestic wells, one stock well, one dairy well, one commercial well, one observation well, and two springs and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. One quality-assurance sample, a sequential replicate, also was collected and analyzed. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the reporting levels and most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels. However, none of the reported radiochemical- or chemical-constituent concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical evaluation of the replicate sample pair indicated that, with 95 percent confidence, 132 of the 135 constituent concentrations of the replicate pair were equivalent.

  2. How acidic are monomeric structural units of heparin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remko, Milan; Broer, Ria; Van Duijnen, Piet Th.

    2013-12-01

    Density functional theory methods with the B3LYP functional have been used to letter the acidity of carboxyl, O-sulfo and N-sulfo groups in six basic monomeric structural units of heparin (1-OMe ΔUA-2S, 1-OMe GlcN-S6S, 1,4-DiOMe GlcA, 1,4-DiOMe GlcN-S3S6S, 1,4-DiOMe IdoA-2S, and 1,4-DiOMe GlcN-S6S). The predicted gas-phase acidity of the acidic functional groups in the monomeric structural units of heparin is: O-sulfo > N-sulfo > carboxyl. The computed pKa values provide the same order of acidity as was observed in water solution. This implies that hydration does not change ordering of acidity of major acidic groups of monomeric structural units of heparin.

  3. The flavonoid herbacetin diglucoside as a constituent of the lignan macromolecule from flaxseed hulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, K.; Vincken, J.P.; Verhoef, R.P.; Oostveen, van W.H.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Lignans in flaxseed are known to be part of a macromolecule in which they are connected through the linker-molecule hydroxy-methyl-glutaric acid (HMGA). In this study, the lignan macromolecule was extracted from flaxseed hulls and degraded to its monomeric constituents by complete saponification. Be

  4. Homotropic cooperativity of monomeric cytochrome P450 3A4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baas, Bradley J.; Denisov, Ilia G.; Sligar, Stephen G. (UIUC)

    2010-11-16

    Mechanistic studies of mammalian cytochrome P450s are often obscured by the phase heterogeneity of solubilized preparations of membrane enzymes. The various protein-protein aggregation states of microsomes, detergent solubilized cytochrome or a family of aqueous multimeric complexes can effect measured substrate binding events as well as subsequent steps in the reaction cycle. In addition, these P450 monooxygenases are normally found in a membrane environment and the bilayer composition and dynamics can also effect these catalytic steps. Here, we describe the structural and functional characterization of a homogeneous monomeric population of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP 3A4) in a soluble nanoscale membrane bilayer, or Nanodisc [Nano Lett. 2 (2002) 853]. Cytochrome P450 3A4:Nanodisc assemblies were formed and purified to yield a 1:1 ratio of CYP 3A4 to Nanodisc. Solution small angle X-ray scattering was used to structurally characterize this monomeric CYP 3A4 in the membrane bilayer. The purified CYP 3A4:Nanodiscs showed a heretofore undescribed high level of homotropic cooperativity in the binding of testosterone. Soluble CYP 3A4:Nanodisc retains its known function and shows prototypic hydroxylation of testosterone when driven by hydrogen peroxide. This represents the first functional characterization of a true monomeric preparation of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase in a phospholipid bilayer and elucidates new properties of the monomeric form.

  5. Monomeric tartrate resistant acid phosphatase induces insulin sensitive obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Lång

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue, which may link adipose inflammation to insulin resistance. However, the impact of inflammatory cells in the pathophysiology of obesity remains unclear. Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP is an enzyme expressed by subsets of macrophages and osteoclasts that exists either as an enzymatically inactive monomer or as an active, proteolytically processed dimer. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using mice over expressing TRAP, we show that over-expression of monomeric, but not the dimeric form in adipose tissue leads to early onset spontaneous hyperplastic obesity i.e. many small fat cells. In vitro, recombinant monomeric, but not proteolytically processed TRAP induced proliferation and differentiation of mouse and human adipocyte precursor cells. In humans, monomeric TRAP was highly expressed in the adipose tissue of obese individuals. In both the mouse model and in the obese humans the source of TRAP in adipose tissue was macrophages. In addition, the obese TRAP over expressing mice exhibited signs of a low-grade inflammatory reaction in adipose tissue without evidence of abnormal adipocyte lipolysis, lipogenesis or insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Monomeric TRAP, most likely secreted from adipose tissue macrophages, induces hyperplastic obesity with normal adipocyte lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity.

  6. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Allium macrostemon Bunge and its selected major constituent compounds against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin Chao; Liu, Qiyong; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Zhi Long

    2014-04-15

    During the screening programme for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and local wild plants, the essential oil of dried bulbs of Allium macrostemon Bunge (Liliaceae) was found to possess larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. The aim of this research was to determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil and its major constituent compounds against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito, Aedes albopictus. Essential oil of A. macrostemon was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromaotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The activity of the essential oil and its two major constituents were evaluated, using World Health Organization (WHO) procedures, against the fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus for 24 h and larval mortalities were recorded at various essential oil/compound concentrations ranging from 9.0 - 150 μg/ml. The essential oil of A. macrostemon exhibited larvicidal activity against the early fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus with an LC₅₀ value of 72.86 μg/ml. The two constituent compounds, dimethyl trisulfide and methyl propyl disulfide possessed strong larvicidal activity against the early fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus with LC50 values of 36.36 μg/ml and 86.16 μg/ml, respectively. The results indicated that the essential oil of A. macrostemon and its major constituents have good potential as a source for natural larvicides.

  7. Radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Edwards, D.D. [Geological Survey, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Campbell, L.J. [State of Idaho, Dept. of Water Resources (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the US Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for manmade pollutants and naturally occurring constituents. The samples were collected from six irrigation wells, seven domestic wells, two springs, one stock well, one dairy well, and one observation well. Quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. The water samples were analyzed for selected radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria. None of the samples analyzed for radionuclides, inorganic constituents, or organic compounds exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. All the samples analyzed for dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their reporting level. Concentrations of 1,1,1 -trichloroethane exceeded the reporting level in two water samples. Two samples and a quality assurance replicate contained reportable concentrations of 2, 4-D. One sample contained fecal coliform bacteria counts that exceeded established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water.

  8. Quantification of the predominant monomeric catechins in baking chocolate standard reference material by LC/APCI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bryant C; Sharpless, Katherine E

    2003-01-29

    Catechins are polyphenolic plant compounds (flavonoids) that may offer significant health benefits to humans. These benefits stem largely from their anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, and antimutagenic properties. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that the consumption of flavonoid-containing foods is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Chocolate is a natural cocoa bean-based product that reportedly contains high levels of monomeric, oligomeric, and polymeric catechins. We have applied solid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry to the identification and determination of the predominant monomeric catechins, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, in a baking chocolate Standard Reference Material (NIST Standard Reference Material 2384). (+)-Catechin and (-)-epicatechin are detected and quantified in chocolate extracts on the basis of selected-ion monitoring of their protonated [M + H](+) molecular ions. Tryptophan methyl ester is used as an internal standard. The developed method has the capacity to accurately quantify as little as 0.1 microg/mL (0.01 mg of catechin/g of chocolate) of either catechin in chocolate extracts, and the method has additionally been used to certify (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin levels in the baking chocolate Standard Reference Material. This is the first reported use of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for the quantitative determination of monomeric catechins in chocolate and the only report certifying monomeric catechin levels in a food-based Standard Reference Material.

  9. Sediment deposition and occurrence of selected nutrients, other chemical constituents, and diatoms in bottom sediment, Perry Lake, northeast Kansas, 1969-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2003-01-01

    A combination of bathymetric surveying and bottom-sediment coring was used to investigate sediment deposition and the occurrence of selected nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus), organic and total carbon, 26 metals and trace elements, 15 organochlorine compounds, 1 radionuclide, and diatoms in bottom sediment of Perry Lake, northeast Kansas. The total estimated volume and mass of bottom sediment deposited from 1969 through 2001 in the original conservation-pool area of the lake was 2,470 million cubic feet (56,700 acre-feet) and 97,200 million pounds (44,100 million kilograms), respectively. The estimated sediment volume occupied about 23 percent of the original conservation-pool, water-storage capacity of the lake. Mean annual net sediment deposition since 1969 was estimated to be 3,040 million pounds (1,379 million kilograms). Mean annual sediment yield from the Perry Lake Basin was estimated to be 2,740,000 pounds per square mile (4,798 kilograms per hectare). The estimated mean annual net loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus deposited in the bottom sediment of Perry Lake were 7,610,000 pounds per year (3,450,000 kilograms per year) and 3,350,000 pounds per year (1,520,000 kilograms per year), respectively. The estimated mean annual yields of total nitrogen and total phosphorus from the Perry Lake Basin were 6,850 pounds per square mile per year (12.0 kilograms per hectare per year) and 3,020 pounds per square mile per year (5.29 kilograms per hectare per year), respectively. A statistically significant positive trend for total nitrogen deposition in the bottom sediment of Perry Lake was indicated. However, the trend may be due solely to analytical variance. No statistically significant trend for total phosphorus deposition was indicated. Overall, the transport and deposition of these constituents have been relatively uniform throughout the history of Perry Lake. On the basis of nonenforceable sediment-quality guidelines established by the U

  10. Regression models to estimate real-time concentrations of selected constituents in two tributaries to Lake Houston near Houston, Texas, 2005-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Timothy D.; Asquith, William H.; Milburn, Matthew S.

    2009-01-01

    In December 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Houston, Texas, began collecting discrete water-quality samples for nutrients, total organic carbon, bacteria (total coliform and Escherichia coli), atrazine, and suspended sediment at two U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations upstream from Lake Houston near Houston (08068500 Spring Creek near Spring, Texas, and 08070200 East Fork San Jacinto River near New Caney, Texas). The data from the discrete water-quality samples collected during 2005-07, in conjunction with monitored real-time data already being collected - physical properties (specific conductance, pH, water temperature, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen), streamflow, and rainfall - were used to develop regression models for predicting water-quality constituent concentrations for inflows to Lake Houston. Rainfall data were obtained from a rain gage monitored by Harris County Homeland Security and Emergency Management and colocated with the Spring Creek station. The leaps and bounds algorithm was used to find the best subsets of possible regression models (minimum residual sum of squares for a given number of variables). The potential explanatory or predictive variables included discharge (streamflow), specific conductance, pH, water temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, rainfall, and time (to account for seasonal variations inherent in some water-quality data). The response variables at each site were nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic carbon, Escherichia coli, atrazine, and suspended sediment. The explanatory variables provide easily measured quantities as a means to estimate concentrations of the various constituents under investigation, with accompanying estimates of measurement uncertainty. Each regression equation can be used to estimate concentrations of a given constituent in real time. In conjunction with estimated concentrations, constituent loads were estimated by multiplying the

  11. Synthesis and structure of monomeric, trimeric, and mixed phenylcyanamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Harald; Mayer, Peter; Schulz, Axel; Soller, Thomas; Villinger, Alexander

    2008-06-02

    In a new synthetic approach phenylcyanamide (Hpca) was synthesized by methylation of phenylthiourea followed by a basic work-up. All products along the synthetic route have been fully characterized by means of NMR, IR, and X-ray studies. The first structural report of neutral mixed crystals of phenylcyanamide containing monomeric and trimeric Hpca is presented. Examination of these intriguing mixed crystals revealed the formation of distinct layers of monomeric and trimeric Hpca. These layers are interconnected by weak hydrogen bonds. The trimer represents triphenylisomelamine, which readily isomerizes to the triphenylmelamine in the melt, in accord with computations at the B3LYP level, indicating an exothermic process (DeltaH = -49.4 kcal mol(-1)). Pure trimeric Hpca (triphenylisomelamine) was obtained either by recrystallization of the mixed crystals from boiling water or by trimerization of monomeric Hpca in isopropanol for 12 h under reflux conditions. For comparison tritylcyanamide (Htca) and potassium phenylcyanamide as an [18]crown-6 complex [K([18]crown-6)pca] have been synthesized, and the solid-state structures were determined using X-ray diffraction techniques. The thermal behavior was studied by thermo-analytical experiments. In agreement with the experimental results, computations predict an exothermic cyclotrimerization process for Hpca (DeltaH = -41.3 kcal mol(-1)).

  12. Radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Edwards, D.D.; Campbell, L.J.

    1994-10-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the US Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds. The samples were collected from seven irrigation wells, four domestic wells, two springs, one stock well, three dairy wells, one observation well, and one commercial well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radionuclide, inorganic constituent, or organic compound concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. All samples analyzed for surfactants and dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that equaled or exceeded their reporting levels. The ethylbenzene concentration in one water sample exceeded the reporting level.

  13. Hydrologic Conditions and Distribution of Selected Constituents in Water, Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1996 through 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. Bartholomay; B. J. Tucker; L. C. Davis; M. R. Greene

    2000-09-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds and disposal wells at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, maintains a monitoring network at the INEEL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement to radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the Snake River Plain aquifer during 1996-98. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEEL decreased or remained constant during 1996-98. Decreased concentrations are attributed to reduced rates of radioactive-waste disposal, sorption process, radioactive decay, and changes in waste-disposal practices. Detectable concentrations of chemical constituents in water from the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INEEL were variable during 1996-98.

  14. Regression model development and computational procedures to support estimation of real-time concentrations and loads of selected constituents in two tributaries to Lake Houston near Houston, Texas, 2005-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael T.; Asquith, William H.; Oden, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    In December 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Houston, Texas, began collecting discrete water-quality samples for nutrients, total organic carbon, bacteria (Escherichia coli and total coliform), atrazine, and suspended sediment at two USGS streamflow-gaging stations that represent watersheds contributing to Lake Houston (08068500 Spring Creek near Spring, Tex., and 08070200 East Fork San Jacinto River near New Caney, Tex.). Data from the discrete water-quality samples collected during 2005–9, in conjunction with continuously monitored real-time data that included streamflow and other physical water-quality properties (specific conductance, pH, water temperature, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen), were used to develop regression models for the estimation of concentrations of water-quality constituents of substantial source watersheds to Lake Houston. The potential explanatory variables included discharge (streamflow), specific conductance, pH, water temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and time (to account for seasonal variations inherent in some water-quality data). The response variables (the selected constituents) at each site were nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, total organic carbon, E. coli, atrazine, and suspended sediment. The explanatory variables provide easily measured quantities to serve as potential surrogate variables to estimate concentrations of the selected constituents through statistical regression. Statistical regression also facilitates accompanying estimates of uncertainty in the form of prediction intervals. Each regression model potentially can be used to estimate concentrations of a given constituent in real time. Among other regression diagnostics, the diagnostics used as indicators of general model reliability and reported herein include the adjusted R-squared, the residual standard error, residual plots, and p-values. Adjusted R-squared values for the Spring Creek models ranged

  15. Femtosecond fluorescence studies of DNA/RNA constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, T; Banyasz, A; Markovitsi, D [Laboratoire Francis Perrin, CEA/DSM/IRAMIS/SPAM - CNRS URA 2453 CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Improta, R, E-mail: thomas.gustavsson@cea.fr [Permanent address : Istituto Biostrutture e Bioimmagini - CNR, Via Mezzocannone 16, 80134 Napoli (Italy)

    2011-01-01

    In this overview, femtosecond fluorescence studies of various DNA constituents are presented, ranging from the monomeric chromophores to different model helices. In order to interpret the experimental results in terms of fundamental processes on the molecular scale they are discussed in the light of recent theoretical calculations. The ultrafast fluorescence decay observed for the monomers is explained by the involvement of highly efficient conical intersections (CI) between the first singlet excited state and the ground state. For the model helices, the picture is more complex, but fluorescence anisotropy data reveal collective effects.

  16. Slow Unfolding of Monomeric Proteins from Hyperthermophiles with Reversible Unfolding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Mukaiyama

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the differences in their optimal growth temperatures microorganisms can be classified into psychrophiles, mesophiles, thermophiles, and hyperthermophiles. Proteins from hyperthermophiles generally exhibit greater stability than those from other organisms. In this review, we collect data about the stability and folding of monomeric proteins from hyperthermophilies with reversible unfolding, from the equilibrium and kinetic aspects. The results indicate that slow unfolding is a general strategy by which proteins from hyperthermophiles adapt to higher temperatures. Hydrophobic interaction is one of the factors in the molecular mechanism of the slow unfolding of proteins from hyperthermophiles.

  17. Characterization of monomeric intermediates during VSV glycoprotein structural transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie A Albertini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Entry of enveloped viruses requires fusion of viral and cellular membranes, driven by conformational changes of viral glycoproteins. Crystal structures provide static pictures of pre- and post-fusion conformations of these proteins but the transition pathway remains elusive. Here, using several biophysical techniques, including analytical ultracentrifugation, circular dichroïsm, electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering, we have characterized the low-pH-induced fusogenic structural transition of a soluble form of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV glycoprotein G ectodomain (G(th, aa residues 1-422, the fragment that was previously crystallized. While the post-fusion trimer is the major species detected at low pH, the pre-fusion trimer is not detected in solution. Rather, at high pH, G(th is a flexible monomer that explores a large conformational space. The monomeric population exhibits a marked pH-dependence and adopts more elongated conformations when pH decreases. Furthermore, large relative movements of domains are detected in absence of significant secondary structure modification. Solution studies are complemented by electron micrographs of negatively stained viral particles in which monomeric ectodomains of G are observed at the viral surface at both pH 7.5 and pH 6.7. We propose that the monomers are intermediates during the conformational change and thus that VSV G trimers dissociate at the viral surface during the structural transition.

  18. Screening for potential α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory constituents from selected Vietnamese plants used to treat type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Thi Dieu Binh; Stærk, Dan; Jäger, Anna K

    2016-01-01

    . Materials and methods Chloroform, ethanol and water extracts of 18 plants were screened for α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activity. Analytical-scale HPLC was subsequently used to investigate the most active extracts, where samples with low level of tannins were identified and fractionated into 96......-well microplates, followed by α-glucosidase and α-amylase assessment of each well. High-resolution α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition profiles constructed from these assays allowed identification of HPLC peaks correlated with α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activity. The active constituents...... were subsequently isolated using preparative-scale HPLC and their structure was elucidated by HR-ESIMS and NMR. Results Ethanol extracts of Nepenthes mirabilis, Phyllanthus urinaria, and Kandelia candel significantly inhibited α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 32.7±6.3, 39.7±9.7, and 35.4±13.9 μg...

  19. Transport and distribution of trace elements and other selected inorganic constituents by suspended particulates in the Salton Sea Basin, California, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, L.A.; Schroeder, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    In order to examine the transport of contaminants associated with river-derived suspended particles in the Salton Sea, California, large volume water samples were collected in transects established along the three major rivers emptying into the Salton Sea in fall 2001. Rivers in this area carry significant aqueous and particulate contaminant loads derived from irrigation water associated with the extensive agricultural activity, as well as wastewater from small and large municipalities. A variety of inorganic constituents, including trace metals, nutrients, and organic carbon were analyzed on suspended material isolated from water samples collected at upriver, near-shore, and off-shore sites established on the Alamo, New, and Whitewater rivers. Concentration patterns showed expected trends, with river-borne metals becoming diluted by organic-rich algal particles of lacustrine origin in off-shore stations. More soluble metals, such as cadmium, copper, and zinc showed a more even distribution between sites in the rivers and off-shore in the lake basin. General distributional trends of trace elements between particulate and aqueous forms were discerned by combining metal concentration data for particulates from this study with historical aqueous metals data. Highly insoluble trace metals, such as iron and aluminum, occurred almost entirely in the particulate phase, while major cations and approximately 95% of selenium were transported in the soluble phase. Evidence for greater reducing conditions in the New compared to the Alamo River was provided by the greater proportion of reduced (soluble) manganese in the New River. Evidence of bioconcentration of selenium and arsenic within the lake by algae was provided by calculating "enrichment" concentration ratios from metal concentrations on the algal-derived particulate samples and the off-shore sites. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  20. An update of hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected constituents in water, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, Emphasis 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Linda C.

    2006-01-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds, evaporation ponds, and disposal wells at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has affected water quality in the Snake River Plain aquifer underlying the INL. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains ground-water monitoring networks at the INL to determine hydrologic trends, and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from wells in the USGS ground-water monitoring networks during 1999-2001. Water in the Snake River Plain aquifer moves principally through fractures and interflow zones in basalt, generally flows southwestward, and eventually discharges at springs along the Snake River. The aquifer is recharged principally from infiltration of irrigation water, infiltration of streamflow, ground-water inflow from adjoining mountain drainage basins, and infiltration of precipitation. Water levels in wells rose in the northern and west-central parts of the INL by 1 to 3 feet, and declined in the southwestern parts of the INL by up to 4 feet during 1999-2001. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the Snake River Plain aquifer at the INL generally decreased or remained constant during 1999-2001. Decreases in concentrations were attributed to decreased rates of radioactive-waste disposal, radioactive decay, changes in waste-disposal methods, and dilution from recharge. Tritium concentrations in water samples decreased as much as 8.3 picocuries per milliliter (pCi/mL) during 1999-2001, ranging from 0.43?0.14 to 13.6?0.6 pCi/mL in October 2001. Tritium concentrations in five wells near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) increased a few picocuries per milliliter from October 2000 to October 2001. Strontium-90 concentrations decreased or remained

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Lewis Base Stabilized Monomeric Parent Stibanylboranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Christian; Hegen, Oliver; Hautmann, Matthias; Balázs, Gábor; Bodensteiner, Michael; Virovets, Alexander V; Timoshkin, Alexey Y; Scheer, Manfred

    2015-10-26

    The synthesis of the Lewis base stabilized monomeric parent compound of stibanylboranes, "H2 Sb-BH2 ", is reported. Through a salt metathesis route, the silyl-substituted compounds (Me3 Si)2 Sb-BH2 ⋅LB (LB=NMe3 , NHC(Me) ) were synthesized as representatives of derivatives with a Sb-B σ bond. Under very mild conditions, they could be transformed into the target compounds Me3 N⋅H2 B-HSb-BH2 ⋅NMe3 and H2 Sb-BH2 ⋅NHC(Me) , respectively. The products were characterized by X-ray structure analysis, NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. DFT calculations give further insight into the stability and bonding of these unique compounds.

  2. Light-induced structural changes in a monomeric bacteriophytochrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Takala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytochromes sense red light in plants and various microorganism. Light absorption causes structural changes within the protein, which alter its biochemical activity. Bacterial phytochromes are dimeric proteins, but the functional relevance of this arrangement remains unclear. Here, we use time-resolved X-ray scattering to reveal the solution structural change of a monomeric variant of the photosensory core module of the phytochrome from Deinococcus radiodurans. The data reveal two motions, a bend and a twist of the PHY domain with respect to the chromophore-binding domains. Infrared spectroscopy shows the refolding of the PHY tongue. We conclude that a monomer of the phytochrome photosensory core is sufficient to perform the light-induced structural changes. This implies that allosteric cooperation with the other monomer is not needed for structural activation. The dimeric arrangement may instead be intrinsic to the biochemical output domains of bacterial phytochromes.

  3. Characterization of the Partially Folded Monomeric Intermediate of Creatine Kinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴龙斗; 周海梦

    2002-01-01

    The importance of understanding the protein folding pathway and intermediates is well recognized on the basis of extensive studies of protein folding in vitro and in vivo. Creatine kinase (CK) is a typical model for studying unfolding and refolding of proteins due to several interesting properties. Recent studies on the folding of CK show that its partially folded monomeric intermediate is present kinetically and is stable at equilibrium. The present paper contains 33 References as a mini review to characterize the properties of CK from studies on the CK folding pathway. Characterization of these intermediates is an essential step toward understanding the mechanism of protein folding. Some well-determined schemes are suggested as protein folding models.

  4. Single Molecule Spectroscopy of Monomeric LHCII: Experiment and Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Malý, Pavel; van Grondelle, Rienk; Mančal, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    We derive approximate equations of motion for excited state dynamics of a multilevel open quantum system weakly interacting with light to describe fluorescence detected single molecule spectra. Based on the Frenkel exciton theory, we construct a model for the chlorophyll part of the LHCII complex of higher plants and its interaction with previously proposed excitation quencher in the form of the lutein molecule Lut 1. The resulting description is valid over a broad range of timescales relevant for single molecule spectroscopy, i.e. from ps to minutes. Validity of these equations is demonstrated by comparing simulations of ensemble and single-molecule spectra of monomeric LHCII with experiments. Using a conformational change of the LHCII protein as a switching mechanism, the intensity and spectral time traces of individual LHCII complexes are simulated, and the experimental statistical distributions are reproduced. Based on our model, it is shown that with reasonable assumptions about its interaction with chlo...

  5. mKikGR, a monomeric photoswitchable fluorescent protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Habuchi

    Full Text Available The recent demonstration and utilization of fluorescent proteins whose fluorescence can be switched on and off has greatly expanded the toolkit of molecular and cell biology. These photoswitchable proteins have facilitated the characterization of specifically tagged molecular species in the cell and have enabled fluorescence imaging of intracellular structures with a resolution far below the classical diffraction limit of light. Applications are limited, however, by the fast photobleaching, slow photoswitching, and oligomerization typical for photoswitchable proteins currently available. Here, we report the molecular cloning and spectroscopic characterization of mKikGR, a monomeric version of the previously reported KikGR that displays high photostability and switching rates. Furthermore, we present single-molecule imaging experiments that demonstrate that individual mKikGR proteins can be localized with a precision of better than 10 nanometers, suggesting their suitability for super-resolution imaging.

  6. An update of the distribution of selected radiochemical and chemical constituents in perched ground water, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, Emphasis 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Linda C.

    2006-01-01

    Radiochemical and chemical wastes generated at facilities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) were discharged since 1952 to infiltration ponds at the Reactor Technology Complex (RTC) (known as the Test Reactor Area [TRA] until 2005), and the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) and buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Disposal of wastewater to infiltration ponds and infiltration of surface water at waste burial sites resulted in formation of perched ground water in basalts and in sedimentary interbeds above the Snake River Plain aquifer. Perched ground water is an integral part of the pathway for waste-constituent migration to the aquifer. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains ground-water monitoring networks at the INL to determine hydrologic trends, and to monitor the movement of radiochemical and chemical constituents in wastewater discharged from facilities to both perched ground water and the aquifer. This report presents an analysis of water-quality and water-level data collected from wells completed in perched ground water at the INL during 1999-2001, and summarizes historical disposal data and water-level-and water-quality trends. At the RTC, tritium, strontium-90, cesium-137, dissolved chromium, chloride, sodium, and sulfate were monitored in shallow and deep perched ground water. In shallow perched ground water, no tritium was detected above the reporting level. In deep perched ground water, tritium concentrations generally decreased or varied randomly during 1999-2001. During October 2001, tritium concentrations ranged from less than the reporting level to 39.4?1.4 picocuries per milliliter (pCi/mL). Reportable concentrations of tritium during July-October 2001 were smaller than the reported concentrations measured during July-December 1998. Tritium concentrations in water from wells at the RTC were likely affected by: well's distance from the

  7. Lyophilization-induced protein denaturation in phosphate buffer systems: monomeric and tetrameric beta-galactosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikal-Cleland, K A; Carpenter, J F

    2001-09-01

    During freezing in phosphate buffers, selective precipitation of a less soluble buffer component and subsequent pH shifts may induce protein denaturation. Previous reports indicate significantly more inactivation and secondary structural perturbation of monomeric and tetrameric beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) during freeze-thawing in sodium phosphate (NaP) buffer as compared with potassium phosphate (KP) buffer. This observation was attributed to the significant pH shifts (from 7.0 to as low as 3.8) observed during freezing in the NaP buffer (1). In the current study, we investigated the impact of the additional stress of dehydration after freezing on the recovery of active protein on reconstitution and the retention of the native structure in the dried state. Freeze-drying monomeric and tetrameric beta-gal in either NaP or KP buffer resulted in significant secondary structural perturbations, which were greatest for the NaP samples. However, similar recoveries of active monomeric protein were observed after freeze-thawing and freeze-drying, indicating that most dehydration-induced unfolding was reversible on reconstitution of the freeze-dried protein. In contrast, the tetrameric protein was more susceptible to dehydration-induced denaturation as seen by the greater loss in activity after reconstitution of the freeze-dried samples relative to that measured after freeze-thawing. To ensure optimal protein stability during freeze-drying, the protein must be protected from both freezing and dehydration stresses. Although poly(ethylene glycol) and dextran are preferentially excluded solutes and should confer protection during freezing, they were unable to prevent lyophilization-induced denaturation. In addition, Tween did not foster maintenance of native protein during freeze-drying. However, sucrose, which hydrogen bonds to dried protein in the place of lost water, greatly reduced freezing- and drying-induced denaturation, as observed by the high retention of native

  8. Computational design and characterization of a monomeric helical dinuclear metalloprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Jennifer R; Kono, Hidetoshi; Lahr, Steven; Wang, Wei; DeGrado, William F; Saven, Jeffery G

    2003-12-12

    The de novo design of di-iron proteins is an important step towards understanding the diversity of function among this complex family of metalloenzymes. Previous designs of due ferro (DF) proteins have resulted in tetrameric and dimeric four-helix bundles having crystallographically well-defined structures and active-site geometries. Here, the design and characterization of DFsc, a 114 residue monomeric four-helix bundle, is presented. The backbone was modeled using previous oligomeric structures and appropriate inter-helical turns. The identities of 26 residues were predetermined, including the primary and secondary ligands in the active site, residues involved in active site accessibility, and the gamma beta gamma beta turn between helices 2 and 3. The remaining 88 amino acid residues were determined using statistical computer aided design, which is based upon a recent statistical theory of protein sequences. Rather than sampling sequences, the theory directly provides the site-specific amino acid probabilities, which are then used to guide sequence design. The resulting sequence (DFsc) expresses well in Escherichia coli and is highly soluble. Sedimentation studies confirm that the protein is monomeric in solution. Circular dichroism spectra are consistent with the helical content of the target structure. The protein is structured in both the apo and the holo forms, with the metal-bound form exhibiting increased stability. DFsc stoichiometrically binds a variety of divalent metal ions, including Zn(II), Co(II), Fe(II), and Mn(II), with micromolar affinities. 15N HSQC NMR spectra of both the apo and Zn(II) proteins reveal excellent dispersion with evidence of a significant structural change upon metal binding. DFsc is then a realization of complete de novo design, where backbone structure, activity, and sequence are specified in the design process.

  9. Water Quality in the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge - Trends and Spatial Characteristics of Selected Constituents, 1974-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ronald L.; McPherson, Benjamin F.

    2008-01-01

    primarily using an uncensored seasonal Kendall test with a water-level adjustment to reduce the effects of long wet or dry periods. Significant long-term trends (1974-2003) for specific conductance, chloride, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen at canal sites S-5A and S-6 were generally downward. Of the five sites, S-5A had the most pronounced decline for specific conductance at about -340 microsiemens per centimeter (?S/cm), followed by S-6 with a decline of about -280 ?S/cm. The two internal marsh sites, LOX8 and LOX13, had significant long-term trends in specific conductance of about +37 and -36 ?S/cm, respectively. Long-term trends for other constituents at the two internal marsh sites were generally small in magnitude or not measurable between 1978 and 2003. Marsh site LOX15 near the Hillsboro Canal showed no long-term trends, although specific conductance and sulfate concentration increased about 560 ?S/cm and 30 milligrams per liter, respectively, from 1998 to 2002. Site LOX15 is influenced strongly by intrusions of canal water, and increases in specific conductance and sulfate at this site coincided with increased canal-water inflows from STA-1W between 2001 and 2003. Median concentrations at LOX13 and S-5A were used to represent background and canal concentrations, respectively. Based on these values, the median chloride concentration at LOX15 indicates that the water is typically about 31 percent canal water and 69 percent ?natural? background water. Using median sulfate concentrations, similarly to chloride, the fraction of water at LOX15 was estimated to be 17 percent from canals and 83 percent from ?natural? background water. This finding suggests that in the low sulfate environment of the Refuge, sulfate is not conservative and only about half of the sulfate from canal water typically reaches LOX15; the rest presumably is removed by marsh plants, algae, and bottom sediments. Concentrations of pesticides and other organic compounds were measured

  10. [Selection of mobile phases for the determination of gamma-schisandrin and multi-active constituents in Schisandra chinensis and its preparations by high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaorong; Xiang, Qingxiang; Chen, Jiaxuan

    2009-05-01

    The systems of mobile phase for the determination of gamma-schisandrin in Schisandra chinensis and its preparations were developed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The separation was performed on a Shim-pack VP-ODS column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) at 30 degrees C, the detection wavelength was set at 285 nm and the flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. Retention times and separation were investigated in mixed solution of three reference substances (gamma-schisandrin, anwulignan, and deoxyschizandrin) and methanol extract of Schisandra chinensis by different systems and proportions of mobile phases to select optimal conditions for the determination of gamma-schisandrin. The results showed that the complete separation of gamma-schisandrin and anwulignan was difficult in the systems of methanol-water and methanol-acetic acid-water. The separation of gamma-schisandrin, anwulignan and deoxyschizandrin can be completed in the systems of acetonitrile-methanol-water and acetonitrile-acetic acid-water when their proportions were suitable. The mobile phase of acetonitrile-methanol-water (17:58:25, v/v/v) was selected for the determination of deoxyschizandrin, gamma-schisandrin and anwulignan in Schisandra chinensis and Hugan tablets. The determination results of the three substances were satisfactory with the relative standard deviations (n = 4) ranged from 0.95% to 5.8%, and the average recoveries ranged from 94.50% to 105.6%. The efficiency of separation and the results of determination were satisfactory for the real samples.

  11. Distribution of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and selected water-quality constituents in the surficial aquifer at the Dover National Test Site, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Marie; Guertal, William R.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; McHale, Timothy J.

    2004-01-01

    A joint study by the Dover National Test Site, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, and the U.S. Geological Survey was conducted from June 27 through July 18, 2001, to determine the spatial distribution of the gasoline oxygenate additive methyl tert-butyl ether and selected water-quality constituents in the surficial aquifer underlying the Dover National Test Site. This report provides a summary assessment of the distribution of methyl tert-butyl ether and a preliminary screening of selected constituents that may affect natural attenuation and remediation demonstrations at the Dover National Test Site. The information gathered during this study is designed to assist potential remedial investigators who are considering conducting a methyl tert-butyl ether remedial demonstration at the test site. In addition, the study supported a planned enhanced bioremediation demonstration and assisted the Dover National Test Site in identifying possible locations for future methyl tert-butyl ether remediation demonstrations. A direct-push drill rig was used to collect a total of 147 ground-water samples (115 VOC samples and 32 quality-assurance samples) at varying depths. Volatile organic compounds were above the method reporting limits in 59 of the 115 ground-water samples. The concentrations ranged from below detection limits to maximum values of 12.4 micrograms per liter of cis-1,2-dichloro-ethene, 1.14 micrograms per liter of trichloro-ethene, 2.65 micrograms per liter of tetrachloro-ethene, 1,070 micrograms per liter of methyl tert-butyl ether, 4.36 micrograms per liter of benzene, and 1.8 micrograms per liter of toluene. Vinyl chloride, ethylbenzene, p,m-xylene, and o-xylene were not detected in any of the samples collected during this investigation. Methyl tert-butyl ether was detected in 47 of the 115 ground-water samples. The highest concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether were detected in the surficial aquifer from ?4.6 to 6.4 feet mean sea level; however, methyl tert

  12. Sedimentation and Occurrence and Trends of Selected Nutrients, Other Chemical Constituents, and Diatoms in Bottom Sediment, Fall River Lake, Southeast Kansas, 1948-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2008-01-01

    A combination of available bathymetric-survey information and bottom-sediment coring was used to investigate sedimentation and the occurrence of selected nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus), organic and total carbon, 25 trace elements, diatoms, and the radionuclide cesium-137 in the bottom sediment of Fall River Lake, southeast Kansas. The total estimated volume and mass of bottom sediment deposited from 1948 through 2006 in the original conservation pool of the reservoir was 470 million cubic feet and 18.8 billion pounds, respectively. The estimated sediment volume occupied about 36 percent of the original conservation-pool, water-storage capacity of the reservoir. Mean annual net sediment deposition since 1948 in the original conservation pool of the reservoir was estimated to be 324 million pounds per year. Mean annual net sediment yield from the Fall River Lake Basin was estimated to be 585,000 pounds per square mile per year. The mean annual net loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus deposited in the bottom sediment of Fall River Lake were estimated to be 648,000 pounds per year and 267,000 pounds per year, respectively. The estimated mean annual net yields of total nitrogen and total phosphorus from the Fall River Lake Basin were 1,170 pounds per square mile per year and 480 pounds per square mile per year, respectively. Throughout the history of Fall River Lake, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in the deposited sediment were relatively uniform. Trace element concentrations in the bottom sediment of Fall River Lake generally were uniform over time. Arsenic, chromium, nickel, and zinc concentrations typically exceeded the threshold-effects guidelines, which represent the concentrations above which toxic biological effects occasionally occur. Trace element concentrations did not exceed the probable-effects guidelines (available for eight trace elements), which represent the concentrations above which toxic biological effects

  13. Properties of monomeric paramyosin using a transient electric birefringence techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaney, D; Krause, S

    1976-01-01

    Paramyosin samples obtained from the chowder clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, by different extraction techniques were studied using transient electric birefringence techniques. The protein remain monomeric (unaggregated) in 1 mM buffer solution at pH 3.1 to 3.8 and near pH 10. At pH 3.2, the molecules obtained by different extraction techniques exhibit rotational diffusion constants that indicate a 5% difference in length between them, with the probable native form of paramyosin being the longer species. This difference in rotational diffusion constant disappears at higher pH, and, in addition, a large difference in dipole moment between the molecules observed at pH 3.2 also disappears at high pH. These results are used to hypothesize that the rodlike native paramyosin molecules have one or two partly flexible portions on their ends; at one end of each molecule this portion probably contains excess basic amino acids which are charged at low pH to account for the higher dipole moment of this form of paramyosin at these low pH values. At pH 3.2, these portions of the macromolecule are not flexible and act as stiff parts of the rodlike molecules, but they gradually become flexible at higher pH. Possible mechanisms for this change in flexibility are discussed.

  14. Labeling Monomeric Insulin with Renal-Clearable Luminescent Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinluan, Rodrigo D; Yu, Mengxiao; Gannaway, Melissa; Sullins, Justin; Xu, Jing; Zheng, Jie

    2015-12-16

    In the native physiological environment, inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) often induce nonspecific protein adsorption, which could significantly alter the function of the proteins they labeled. As a result, small fluorescent dyes are still widely used in the imaging of proteins in animals due to their minimal interference with protein function. Here, we used monomeric insulin as a model and compared its bioactivity before and after labeling with renal-clearable near-infrared-emitting gold NPs. These NPs were chosen because they have high resistance to serum protein adsorption and low nonspecific accumulation. We have found that a 1:1 insulin-NP ratio can be achieved, where the insulin-NPs show minimal serum protein binding with fully retained bioactivity comparable to that of unlabeled insulin. These results show a proof of concept that renal-clearable NPs can behave like small molecules in protein labeling without changing the individual protein's function, laying down a foundation for in vivo tracking of proteins with multimodality imaging techniques.

  15. Chemical constituents of Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Negi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus species (family Liliaceae are medicinal plants of temperate Himalayas. They possess a variety of biological properties, such as being antioxidants, immunostimulants, anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antioxytocic, and reproductive agents. The article briefly reviews the isolated chemical constituents and the biological activities of the plant species. The structural formula of isolated compounds and their distribution in the species studied are also given.

  16. Sedimentation and occurrence and trends of selected nutrients, other chemical constituents, and cyanobacteria in bottom sediment, Clinton Lake, northeast Kansas, 1977-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2011-01-01

    A combination of available bathymetric-survey information and bottom-sediment coring was used to investigate sedimentation and the occurrence of selected nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus), organic and total carbon, 25 trace elements, cyanobacterial akinetes, and the radionuclide cesium-137 in the bottom sediment of Clinton Lake, northeast Kansas. The total estimated volume and mass of bottom sediment deposited from 1977 through 2009 in the conservation (multi-purpose) pool of the reservoir was 438 million cubic feet and 18 billion pounds, respectively. The estimated sediment volume occupied about 8 percent of the conservation-pool, water-storage capacity of the reservoir. Sedimentation in the conservation pool has occurred about 70 percent faster than originally projected at the time the reservoir was completed. Water-storage capacity in the conservation pool has been lost to sedimentation at a rate of about 0.25 percent annually. Mean annual net sediment deposition since 1977 in the conservation pool of the reservoir was estimated to be 563 million pounds per year. Mean annual net sediment yield from the Clinton Lake Basin was estimated to be 1.5 million pounds per square mile per year. Typically, the bottom sediment sampled in Clinton Lake was at least 99 percent silt and clay. The mean annual net loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus deposited in the bottom sediment of Clinton Lake were estimated to be 1.29 million pounds per year and 556,000 pounds per year, respectively. The estimated mean annual net yields of total nitrogen and total phosphorus from the Clinton Lake Basin were 3,510 pounds per square mile per year and 1,510 pounds per square mile per year, respectively. Throughout the history of Clinton Lake, total nitrogen concentrations in the deposited sediment generally were uniform and indicated consistent inputs to the reservoir over time. Likewise, total phosphorus concentrations in the deposited sediment generally were uniform

  17. Substrate-Induced Dimerization of Engineered Monomeric Variants of Triosephosphate Isomerase from Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Lara-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available The dimeric nature of triosephosphate isomerases (TIMs is maintained by an extensive surface area interface of more than 1600 Å2. TIMs from Trichomonas vaginalis (TvTIM are held in their dimeric state by two mechanisms: a ball and socket interaction of residue 45 of one subunit that fits into the hydrophobic pocket of the complementary subunit and by swapping of loop 3 between subunits. TvTIMs differ from other TIMs in their unfolding energetics. In TvTIMs the energy necessary to unfold a monomer is greater than the energy necessary to dissociate the dimer. Herein we found that the character of residue I45 controls the dimer-monomer equilibrium in TvTIMs. Unfolding experiments employing monomeric and dimeric mutants led us to conclude that dimeric TvTIMs unfold following a four state model denaturation process whereas monomeric TvTIMs follow a three state model. In contrast to other monomeric TIMs, monomeric variants of TvTIM1 are stable and unexpectedly one of them (I45A is only 29-fold less active than wild-type TvTIM1. The high enzymatic activity of monomeric TvTIMs contrast with the marginal catalytic activity of diverse monomeric TIMs variants. The stability of the monomeric variants of TvTIM1 and the use of cross-linking and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments permit us to understand the differences between the catalytic activities of TvTIMs and other marginally active monomeric TIMs. As TvTIMs do not unfold upon dimer dissociation, herein we found that the high enzymatic activity of monomeric TvTIM variants is explained by the formation of catalytic dimeric competent species assisted by substrate binding.

  18. Retention mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in reversed-phase liquid chromatography with monomeric stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Jake L; Siepmann, J Ilja; Schure, Mark R

    2011-12-23

    Reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) is the foremost technique for the separation of analytes that have very similar chemical functionalities, but differ only in their molecular shape. This ability is crucial in the analysis of various mixtures with environmental and biological importance including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and steroids. A large amount of effort has been devoted to studying this phenomenon experimentally, but a detailed molecular-level description remains lacking. To provide some insight on the mechanism of shape selectivity in RPLC, particle-based simulations were carried out for stationary phases and chromatographic parameters that closely mimic those in an experimental study by Sentell and Dorsey [J. Chromatogr. 461 (1989) 193]. The retention of aromatic hydrocarbons ranging in size from benzene to the isomeric PAHs of the formula C(18)H(12) was examined for model RPLC systems consisting of monomeric dimethyl octadecylsilane (ODS) stationary phases with surface coverages ranging from 1.6 to 4.2 μmol/m(2) (i.e., stationary phases yielding low to intermediate shape selectivity) in contact with a 67/33 mol% acetonitrile/water mobile phase. The simulations show that the stationary phase acts as a very heterogeneous environment where analytes with different shapes prefer different spatial regions with specific local bonding environments of the ODS chains. However, these favorable retentive regions cannot be described as pre-existing cavities because the chain conformation in these local stationary phase regions adapts to accommodate the analytes.

  19. Volatile constituents of selected Parmeliaceae lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORDANA S. STOJANOVIĆ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The acetone soluble fraction of the methanol extracts of Parmeliaceae lichens: Hypogymnia physodes, Evernia prunastri and Parmelia sulcata, growing on the same host tree (Prunus domestica and at the same locality was analyzed for the first time by GC and GC–MS. The major identified components were olivetol (33.5 % of the H. physodes extract, atraric acid (30.1 and 30.3 % of the E. prunastri and P. sulcata extracts, respectively, orcinol (25.0 % of the E. prunastri extract, vitamin E (24.7 % of the P. sulcata extract and olivetonide (15.7 % of the H. physodes extract. Even though all the identified compounds are known, a number of them were found for the first time in the examined lichens, i.e., orcinol monomethyl ether (H. physodes, orcinol, atranol, lichesterol, ergosterol (H. physodes and P. sulcata, methyl haematommate, atraric acid, olivetol, vitamin E (H. physodes and P. sulcata and b-sitosterol (P. sulcata.

  20. SGCC successfully developed large-capacity sodium-sulfur monomeric battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Through many years' cooperation,SGCC and Shanghai Silicate Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Science successfully developed 650 ampere-hours capacity sodium-sulfur monomeric storage battery with the independent intellectual property right

  1. Amphiphile dependency of the monomeric and dimeric forms of acetylcholinesterase from human erythrocyte membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, P; Brodbeck, U

    1984-08-08

    Human erythrocyte membrane-bound acetylcholinesterase was converted to a monomeric species by treatment of ghosts with 2-mercaptoethanol and iodoacetic acid. After solubilization with Triton X-100, the reduced and alkylated enzyme was partially purified by affinity chromatography and separated from residual dimeric enzyme by sucrose density gradient centrifugation in a zonal rotor. Monomeric and dimeric acetylcholinesterase showed full enzymatic activity in presence of Triton X-100 whereas in the absence of detergent, activity was decreased to approx. 20% and 15%, respectively. Preformed egg phosphatidylcholine vesicles fully sustained activity of the monomeric species whereas the dimer was only 80% active. The results suggest that a dimeric structure is not required for manifestation of amphiphile dependency of membrane-bound acetylcholinesterase from human erythrocytes. Furthermore, monomeric enzyme appears to be more easily inserted into phospholipid bilayers than the dimeric species.

  2. Design of monomeric water-soluble β-hairpin and β-sheet peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, M Angeles

    2014-01-01

    Since the first report in 1993 (JACS 115, 5887-5888) of a peptide able to form a monomeric β-hairpin structure in aqueous solution, the design of peptides forming either β-hairpins (two-stranded antiparallel β-sheets) or three-stranded antiparallel β-sheets has become a field of growing interest and activity. These studies have yielded great insights into the principles governing the stability and folding of β-hairpins and antiparallel β-sheets. This chapter provides an overview of the reported β-hairpin/β-sheet peptides focussed on the applied design criteria, reviews briefly the factors contributing to β-hairpin/β-sheet stability, and describes a protocol for the de novo design of β-sheet-forming peptides based on them. Guidelines to select appropriate turn and strand residues and to avoid self-association are provided. The methods employed to check the success of new designed peptides are also summarized. Since NMR is the best technique to that end, NOEs and chemical shifts characteristic of β-hairpins and three-stranded antiparallel β-sheets are given.

  3. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids: Testing for Toxic Constituents of Comfrey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, John J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the possibilities of toxins present in medicinal herbs. Describes an experiment in which toxic constituents can be selectively detected by thin-layer chromatography and NMR spectroscopy. (TW)

  4. Constituents of Doubly Periodic Instantons

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, C; Ford, Chris; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2002-01-01

    Using the Nahm transform we investigate doubly periodic charge one SU(2) instantons with radial symmetry. Two special points where the Nahm zero modes have softer singularities are identified as constituent locations. To support this picture, the action density is computed analytically and numerically within a two dimensional slice containing the two constituents. For particular values of the parameters the torus can be cut in half yielding two copies of a twisted charge 1/2 instanton. Such objects comprise a single constituent.

  5. A monomeric variant of insulin degrading enzyme (IDE loses its regulatory properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Suk Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin degrading enzyme (IDE is a key enzyme in the metabolism of both insulin and amyloid beta peptides. IDE is unique in that it is subject to allosteric activation which is hypothesized to occur through an oligomeric structure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: IDE is known to exist as an equilibrium mixture of monomers, dimers, and higher oligomers, with the dimer being the predominant form. Based on the crystal structure of IDE we deleted the putative dimer interface in the C-terminal region, which resulted in a monomeric variant. Monomeric IDE retained enzymatic activity, however instead of the allosteric behavior seen with wild type enzyme it displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetic behavior. With the substrate Abz-GGFLRKHGQ-EDDnp, monomeric IDE retained approximately 25% of the wild type activity. In contrast with the larger peptide substrates beta-endorphin and amyloid beta peptide 1-40, monomeric IDE retained only 1 to 0.25% of wild type activity. Unlike wild type IDE neither bradykinin nor dynorphin B-9 activated the monomeric variant of the enzyme. Similarly, monomeric IDE was not activated by polyphosphates under conditions in which the activity of wild type enzyme was increased more than 50 fold. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings serve to establish the dimer interface in IDE and demonstrate the requirement for an oligomeric form of the enzyme for its regulatory properties. The data support a mechanism where the binding of activators to oligomeric IDE induces a conformational change that cannot occur in the monomeric variant. Since a conformational change from a closed to a more open structure is likely the rate-determining step in the IDE reaction, the subunit induced conformational change likely shifts the structure of the oligomeric enzyme to a more open conformation.

  6. Trends in major-ion constituents and properties for selected sampling sites in the Tongue and Powder River watersheds, Montana and Wyoming, based on data collected during water years 1980-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Barnhart, Elliott P.; Sando, Thomas R.; Clark, Melanie L.; Lorenz, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to present information relating to flow-adjusted temporal trends in major-ion constituents and properties for 16 sampling sites in the Tongue and Powder River watersheds based on data collected during 1980–2010. In association with this primary purpose, the report presents background information on major-ion characteristics (including specific conductance, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium adsorption ratio, sodium, alkalinity, chloride, fluoride, dissolved sulfate, and dissolved solids) of the sampling sites and coal-bed methane (CBM) produced water (groundwater pumped from coal seams) in the site watersheds, trend analysis methods, streamflow conditions, and factors that affect trend results. The Tongue and Powder River watersheds overlie the Powder River structural basin (PRB) in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. Limited extraction of coal-bed methane (CBM) from the PRB began in the early 1990’s, and increased dramatically during the late 1990’s and early 2000’s. CBM-extraction activities produce discharges of water with high concentrations of dissolved solids (particularly sodium and bicarbonate ions) relative to most stream water in the Tongue and Powder River watersheds. Water-quality of CBM produced water is of concern because of potential effects of sodium on agricultural soils and potential effects of bicarbonate on aquatic biota. Two parametric trend-analysis methods were used in this study: the time-series model (TSM) and ordinary least squares regression (OLS) on time, streamflow, and season. The TSM was used to analyze trends for 11 of the 16 study sites. For five sites, data requirements of the TSM were not met and OLS was used to analyze trends. Two primary 10-year trend-analysis periods were selected. Trend-analysis period 1 (water years 1986–95; hereinafter referred to as period 1) was selected to represent variability in major-ion concentrations in the Tongue and Powder River

  7. Water-quality trends and constituent-transport analysis for selected sampling sites in the Milltown Reservoir/Clark Fork River Superfund Site in the upper Clark Fork Basin, Montana, water years 1996–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2016-07-20

    During the extended history of mining in the upper Clark Fork Basin in Montana, large amounts of waste materials enriched with metallic contaminants (cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc) and the metalloid trace element arsenic were generated from mining operations near Butte and milling and smelting operations near Anaconda. Extensive deposition of mining wastes in the Silver Bow Creek and Clark Fork channels and flood plains had substantial effects on water quality. Federal Superfund remediation activities in the upper Clark Fork Basin began in 1983 and have included substantial remediation near Butte and removal of the former Milltown Dam near Missoula. To aid in evaluating the effects of remediation activities on water quality, the U.S. Geological Survey began collecting streamflow and water-quality data in the upper Clark Fork Basin in the 1980s.Trend analysis was done on specific conductance, selected trace elements (arsenic, copper, and zinc), and suspended sediment for seven sampling sites in the Milltown Reservoir/Clark Fork River Superfund Site for water years 1996–2015. The most upstream site included in trend analysis is Silver Bow Creek at Warm Springs, Montana (sampling site 8), and the most downstream site is Clark Fork above Missoula, Montana (sampling site 22), which is just downstream from the former Milltown Dam. Water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is designated by the year in which it ends. Trend analysis was done by using a joint time-series model for concentration and streamflow. To provide temporal resolution of changes in water quality, trend analysis was conducted for four sequential 5-year periods: period 1 (water years 1996–2000), period 2 (water years 2001–5), period 3 (water years 2006–10), and period 4 (water years 2011–15). Because of the substantial effect of the intentional breach of Milltown Dam on March 28, 2008, period 3 was subdivided into period 3A (October 1, 2005–March 27, 2008

  8. Adsorption of Wine Constituents on Functionalized Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Smith, Paul A

    2016-10-18

    The adsorption of macromolecules on solid surfaces is of great importance in the field of nanotechnology, biomaterials, biotechnological, and food processes. In the field of oenology adsorption of wine macromolecules such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, and proteins is much less desirable on membrane materials because of fouling and reduced filtering performance. On the other hand, adsorption of these molecules on processing aids is very beneficial for achieving wine clarity and stability. In this article, the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of white, rosé, and red wine constituents was evaluated. Allylamine, acrylic acid, and ethanol were selected as precursors for plasma polymerization in order to generate coatings rich in amine, carboxyl, and hydroxyl chemical groups, respectively. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the ability of different surface chemical functionalities to adsorb wine constituents were characterized by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results demonstrated that the amine and carboxyl modified surfaces encourage adsorption of constituents from white wine. The hydroxyl modified surfaces have the ability to preferentially adsorb rosé wine constituents, whereas red wine adsorbed to the highest extent on acrylic acid surface.

  9. Adsorption of Wine Constituents on Functionalized Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mierczynska-Vasilev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of macromolecules on solid surfaces is of great importance in the field of nanotechnology, biomaterials, biotechnological, and food processes. In the field of oenology adsorption of wine macromolecules such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, and proteins is much less desirable on membrane materials because of fouling and reduced filtering performance. On the other hand, adsorption of these molecules on processing aids is very beneficial for achieving wine clarity and stability. In this article, the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of white, rosé, and red wine constituents was evaluated. Allylamine, acrylic acid, and ethanol were selected as precursors for plasma polymerization in order to generate coatings rich in amine, carboxyl, and hydroxyl chemical groups, respectively. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and the ability of different surface chemical functionalities to adsorb wine constituents were characterized by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The results demonstrated that the amine and carboxyl modified surfaces encourage adsorption of constituents from white wine. The hydroxyl modified surfaces have the ability to preferentially adsorb rosé wine constituents, whereas red wine adsorbed to the highest extent on acrylic acid surface.

  10. The impact of single nucleotide polymorphism in monomeric alpha-amylase inhibitor genes from wild emmer wheat, primarily from Israel and Golan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ze-Hong

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various enzyme inhibitors act on key insect gut digestive hydrolases, including alpha-amylases and proteinases. Alpha-amylase inhibitors have been widely investigated for their possible use in strengthening a plant's defense against insects that are highly dependent on starch as an energy source. We attempted to unravel the diversity of monomeric alpha-amylase inhibitor genes of Israeli and Golan Heights' wild emmer wheat with different ecological factors (e.g., geography, water, and temperature. Population methods that analyze the nature and frequency of allele diversity within a species and the codon analysis method (comparing patterns of synonymous and non-synonymous changes in protein coding sequences were used to detect natural selection. Results Three hundred and forty-eight sequences encoding monomeric alpha-amylase inhibitors (WMAI were obtained from 14 populations of wild emmer wheat. The frequency of SNPs in WMAI genes was 1 out of 16.3 bases, where 28 SNPs were detected in the coding sequence. The results of purifying and the positive selection hypothesis (p Conclusions Great diversity at the WMAI locus, both between and within populations, was detected in the populations of wild emmer wheat. It was revealed that WMAI were naturally selected for across populations by a ratio of dN/dS as expected. Ecological factors, singly or in combination, explained a significant proportion of the variations in the SNPs. A sharp genetic divergence over very short geographic distances compared to a small genetic divergence between large geographic distances also suggested that the SNPs were subjected to natural selection, and ecological factors had an important evolutionary role in polymorphisms at this locus. According to population and codon analysis, these results suggested that monomeric alpha-amylase inhibitors are adaptively selected under different environmental conditions.

  11. Anthocyanins and their variation in red wines I. Monomeric anthocyanins and their color expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Liang, Na-Na; Mu, Lin; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Wang, Jun; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2012-02-07

    Originating in the grapes, monomeric anthocyanins in young red wines contribute the majority of color and the supposed beneficial health effects related to their consumption, and as such they are recognized as one of the most important groups of phenolic metabolites in red wines. In recent years, our increasing knowledge of the chemical complexity of the monomeric anthocyanins, their stability, together with the phenomena such as self-association and copigmentation that can stabilize and enhance their color has helped to explain their color representation in red wine making and aging. A series of new enological practices were developed to improve the anthocyanin extraction, as well as their color expression and maintenance. This paper summarizes the most recent advances in the studies of the monomeric anthocyanins in red wines, emphasizing their origin, occurrence, color enhancing effects, their degradation and the effect of various enological practices on them.

  12. Anthocyanins and Their Variation in Red Wines I. Monomeric Anthocyanins and Their Color Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Qing Duan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Originating in the grapes, monomeric anthocyanins in young red wines contribute the majority of color and the supposed beneficial health effects related to their consumption, and as such they are recognized as one of the most important groups of phenolic metabolites in red wines. In recent years, our increasing knowledge of the chemical complexity of the monomeric anthocyanins, their stability, together with the phenomena such as self-association and copigmentation that can stabilize and enhance their color has helped to explain their color representation in red wine making and aging. A series of new enological practices were developed to improve the anthocyanin extraction, as well as their color expression and maintenance. This paper summarizes the most recent advances in the studies of the monomeric anthocyanins in red wines, emphasizing their origin, occurrence, color enhancing effects, their degradation and the effect of various enological practices on them.

  13. B22 Glu Des-B30 Insulin: A Novel Monomeric Insulin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Juan DU; Jia-Hao SHI; Da-Fu CUI; You-Shang ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Studies on monomeric insulin with reduced self-association are important in the development of insulin pharmaceutical preparations with rapid hypoglycemic action on patients with diabetes. Here we report a novel monomeric insulin, B22 Glu des-B30 insulin, prepared from a single chain insulin precursor with B22 Arg mutated to Glu, which was expressed in Pichia pastoris and converted to B22 Glu des-B30 insulin by tryptic digestion. It still retains 50% of the in vivo biological activity of porcine insulin and does not form a dimer even at a concentration of 10 mg/ml, showing that B22 Glu plays a key role in reducing the selfassociation of the insulin molecule without greatly reducing its biological activity. This novel monomeric insulin might have potential applications in the clinic.

  14. Crystal structure of a monomeric thiolase-like protein type 1 (TLP1 from Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelanjana Janardan

    Full Text Available An analysis of the Mycobacterium smegmatis genome suggests that it codes for several thiolases and thiolase-like proteins. Thiolases are an important family of enzymes that are involved in fatty acid metabolism. They occur as either dimers or tetramers. Thiolases catalyze the Claisen condensation of two acetyl-Coenzyme A molecules in the synthetic direction and the thiolytic cleavage of 3-ketoacyl-Coenzyme A molecules in the degradative direction. Some of the M. smegmatis genes have been annotated as thiolases of the poorly characterized SCP2-thiolase subfamily. The mammalian SCP2-thiolase consists of an N-terminal thiolase domain followed by an additional C-terminal domain called sterol carrier protein-2 or SCP2. The M. smegmatis protein selected in the present study, referred to here as the thiolase-like protein type 1 (MsTLP1, has been biochemically and structurally characterized. Unlike classical thiolases, MsTLP1 is a monomer in solution. Its structure has been determined at 2.7 Å resolution by the single wavelength anomalous dispersion method. The structure of the protomer confirms that the N-terminal domain has the thiolase fold. An extra C-terminal domain is indeed observed. Interestingly, it consists of six β-strands forming an anti-parallel β-barrel which is completely different from the expected SCP2-fold. Detailed sequence and structural comparisons with thiolases show that the residues known to be essential for catalysis are not conserved in MsTLP1. Consistent with this observation, activity measurements show that MsTLP1 does not catalyze the thiolase reaction. This is the first structural report of a monomeric thiolase-like protein from any organism. These studies show that MsTLP1 belongs to a new group of thiolase related proteins of unknown function.

  15. A novel method to highly versatile monomeric PNA building blocks by multi component reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dömling, Alexander; Chi, Kai-Zu; Barrère, Mathieux

    1999-01-01

    A novel approach to monomeric PNA building blocks by a solution phase Ugi multi component reaction (MCR) is described. The reaction is easily performed in 96 well plates. The products precipitate from the reaction solution and are thus obtained in high yields and purity. Those products are not amena

  16. Monomeric G-proteins as signal transducers in airway physiology and pathophysiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Dedmer; Roscioni, Sara S.; Meurs, Herman; Schmidt, Martina

    2008-01-01

    Monomeric G-proteins, also referred to as small GTPases, function as biological hubs being activated by extracellular stimuli and regulate downstream signalling events, which result in different cellular responses. The importance of these mechanisms is mirrored by the fact that several pathological

  17. Self-healing mechanism based on dispersed solid particles of various monomeric bismaleimides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkenburg, D.H.; Fischer, H.R.

    2016-01-01

    In view of self-healing materials for high temperature applications we have studied the use of solid monomeric bismaleimide particles as embedded self-healing component dispersed in a host material. Below the self-healing activation temperature, bismaleimides remain inert while above it they may rap

  18. Monomeric red fluorescent protein variants used for imaging studies in different species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller-Taubenberger, Annette; Vos, Michel J.; Boettger, Angelika; Lasi, Margherita; Lai, Frank P. L.; Fischer, Markus; Rottner, Klemens

    2006-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins have proven to be excellent tools for live-cell imaging studies. In addition to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its variants, recent progress was achieved in the development of monomeric red fluorescent proteins (mRFPs) that show improved properties in respect to maturation

  19. Monomeric and dendritic second generation Grubbs- and Hoveyda-Grubbs-type catalysts for olefin metathesis Metallodendrimers Special Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnenburg, Niels J M; Tomás-Mendivil, Eder; Mayland, Kimberley E.; Kleijn, Henk; Lutz, Martin; Spek, Anthony L.; Van Koten, Gerard; Klein Gebbink, Bert

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of monomeric and dendritic Grubbs II and Hoveyda-Grubbs II-based complexes are reported. These complexes were synthesized via a route based on the connection of monomeric or dendritic N-alkyl-N′-mesitylimidazol-2-ylidene pre-ligands to Grubbs I or Hoveyda-Grubbs I

  20. Water-quality trends and constituent-transport analysis for selected sampling sites in the Milltown Reservoir/Clark Fork River Superfund Site in the upper Clark Fork Basin, Montana, water years 1996–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2016-07-20

    During the extended history of mining in the upper Clark Fork Basin in Montana, large amounts of waste materials enriched with metallic contaminants (cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc) and the metalloid trace element arsenic were generated from mining operations near Butte and milling and smelting operations near Anaconda. Extensive deposition of mining wastes in the Silver Bow Creek and Clark Fork channels and flood plains had substantial effects on water quality. Federal Superfund remediation activities in the upper Clark Fork Basin began in 1983 and have included substantial remediation near Butte and removal of the former Milltown Dam near Missoula. To aid in evaluating the effects of remediation activities on water quality, the U.S. Geological Survey began collecting streamflow and water-quality data in the upper Clark Fork Basin in the 1980s.Trend analysis was done on specific conductance, selected trace elements (arsenic, copper, and zinc), and suspended sediment for seven sampling sites in the Milltown Reservoir/Clark Fork River Superfund Site for water years 1996–2015. The most upstream site included in trend analysis is Silver Bow Creek at Warm Springs, Montana (sampling site 8), and the most downstream site is Clark Fork above Missoula, Montana (sampling site 22), which is just downstream from the former Milltown Dam. Water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is designated by the year in which it ends. Trend analysis was done by using a joint time-series model for concentration and streamflow. To provide temporal resolution of changes in water quality, trend analysis was conducted for four sequential 5-year periods: period 1 (water years 1996–2000), period 2 (water years 2001–5), period 3 (water years 2006–10), and period 4 (water years 2011–15). Because of the substantial effect of the intentional breach of Milltown Dam on March 28, 2008, period 3 was subdivided into period 3A (October 1, 2005–March 27, 2008

  1. Monomeric yeast PCNA mutants are defective in interacting with and stimulating the ATPase activity of RFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Costin N; Shea, Kathleen A; Mehra, Rajendra; Prundeanu, Lucia; McAlear, Michael A

    2002-10-29

    Yeast PCNA is a homo-trimeric, ring-shaped DNA polymerase accessory protein that can encircle duplex DNA. The integrity of this multimeric sliding DNA clamp is maintained through the protein-protein interactions at the interfaces of adjacent subunits. To investigate the importance of trimer stability for PCNA function, we introduced single amino acid substitutions at residues (A112T, S135F) that map to opposite ends of the monomeric protein. Recombinant wild-type and mutant PCNAs were purified from E. coli, and they were tested for their properties in vitro. Unlike the stable wild-type PCNA trimers, the mutant PCNA proteins behaved as monomers when diluted to low nanomolar concentrations. In contrast to what has been reported for a monomeric form of the beta clamp in E. coli, the monomeric PCNAs were compromised in their ability to interact with their associated clamp loader, replication factor C (RFC). Similarly, monomeric PCNAs were not effective in stimulating the ATPase activity of RFC. The mutant PCNAs were able to form mixed trimers with wild-type subunits, although these mixed trimers were unstable when loaded onto DNA. They were able to function as weak DNA polymerase delta processivity factors in vitro, and when the monomeric PCNA-41 (A112T, S135F double mutant) allele was introduced as the sole source of PCNA in vivo, the cells were viable and healthy. These pol30-41 mutants were, however, sensitive to UV irradiation and to the DNA damaging agent methylmethane sulfonate, implying that DNA repair pathways have a distinct requirement for stable DNA clamps.

  2. Concentration comparison of selected constituents between groundwater samples collected within the Missouri River alluvial aquifer using purge and pump and grab-sampling methods, near the city of Independence, Missouri, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krempa, Heather M.

    2015-10-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Independence, Missouri, Water Department, has historically collected water-quality samples using the purge and pump method (hereafter referred to as pump method) to identify potential contamination in groundwater supply wells within the Independence well field. If grab sample results are comparable to the pump method, grab samplers may reduce time, labor, and overall cost. This study was designed to compare constituent concentrations between samples collected within the Independence well field using the pump method and the grab method.

  3. Effect of selected plant essential oils or their constituents and modified atmosphere packaging on the radiosensitivity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhi in ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgis, M; Borsa, J; Millette, M; Salmieri, S; Lacroix, M

    2008-03-01

    Twenty-six different essential oils were tested for their efficiency to increase the relative radiosensitivity of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhi in medium-fat ground beef (23% fat). Ground beef was inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella (10(6) CFU/g), and each essential oil or one of their main constituents was added separately at a concentration of 0.5% (wt/wt). Meat samples (10 g) were packed under air or under modified atmosphere and irradiated at doses from 0 to 1 kGy for the determination of the D10-value of E. coli O157:H7, and from 0 to 1.75 kGy for the determination of the D10-value of Salmonella Typhi. Depending on the compound tested, the relative radiation sensitivity increased from 1 to 3.57 for E. coli O157:H7 and from 1 to 3.26 for Salmonella Typhi. Addition of essential oils or their constituents before irradiation also reduced the irradiation dose needed to eliminate both pathogens. In the presence of Chinese cinnamon or Spanish oregano essential oils, the minimum doses required to eliminate the bacteria were reduced from 1.2 to 0.35 and from 1.4 to 0.5 for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhi, respectively. Cinnamon, oregano, and mustard essential oils were the most effective radiosensitizers.

  4. A study to investigate changes in the levels of biomarkers of exposure to selected cigarette smoke constituents in Japanese adult male smokers who switched to a non-combustion inhaler type of tobacco product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Naoki; Yuki, Dai; Minami, Naoki; Kakehi, Aoi; Futamura, Yasuyuki

    2015-04-01

    In a clinical study, changes in 14 biomarkers of exposures (BOEs) from 10 tobacco smoke constituents and mutagens detected by the urine mutagenicity test were investigated using a non-combustion inhaler type of tobacco product (NCIT) by switching from a conventional cigarette. This study was conducted in 80 Japanese healthy adult males with a 4-week residential, controlled, open-label, parallel group design. After randomization, 40 smokers used NCIT with approximately 750 aspirations, other 20 smokers smoked approximately 20 pieces of an assigned 1-mg ISO tar conventional cigarette (CC1) every day. Twenty non-smokers (NS) did not use any tobacco product. Under this study condition, switching from cigarette to NCIT showed significant reduction in all BOEs measured. On day 29, the levels of these BOEs were almost the same as those in the NS group, except BOEs of nicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). This suggested that the exposure to 8 constituents and mutagens in the NCIT group was similar to that in the NS group, while the exposure to nicotine was higher. Although the precise exposure level to NNK was not estimated because of the long half-life of its BOE, it would be substantially lower in the NCIT group than in the CC1 group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Roles of Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins in Macroautophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a cellular degradation process that sequesters components into a double-membrane structure called the autophagosome, which then fuses with the lysosome or vacuole for hydrolysis and recycling of building blocks. Bulk phase autophagy, also known as macroautophagy, controlled by specific Atg proteins, can be triggered by a variety of stresses, including starvation. Because autophagy relies extensively on membrane traffic to form the membranous structures, factors that control membrane traffic are essential for autophagy. Among these factors, the monomeric GTP-binding proteins that cycle between active and inactive conformations form an important group. In this review, we summarize the functions of the monomeric GTP-binding proteins in autophagy, especially with reference to experiments in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  6. Antifungal constituents of Melicope borbonica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Adsersen, Anne; Bremner, Paul

    2004-01-01

    , as the major constituents. All three compounds exhibited moderate antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Penicillium expansum, in accordance with the traditional use of the plant. Moreover, 2,4,6-trimethoxyacetophenone (methylxanthoxylin), three other coumarins [7-(3-methyl-2-butenyloxy)-6...

  7. Departmental Excellence: Constituencies in Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Ronald C.; Fritz, Janie M. Harden

    1999-01-01

    Places the question of departmental excellence within "the winds of historicity and temporality" and the political demands of multiple constituencies. Concludes that the task for every department that wants to pursue excellence is to know, understand, and operate within the hidden curriculum of a campus that socializes faculty to the…

  8. Chemical constituents from Schisandra sphenanthera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Tao Li; Zhi Ying Weng; Jian Xin Pu; Han Dong Sun

    2008-01-01

    The chemical constituents of the stems of Schisandra sphenanthera are described for the first time. This investigation has resulted in the isolation of a new phenolic glycoside (1), along with seven known compounds. The structure of 1 was assigned by using spectroscopic techniques, including 2D NMR spectra.

  9. Multistage modeling of protein dynamics with monomeric Myc oncoprotein as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaojiao; Dai, Jin; He, Jianfeng; Niemi, Antti J.; Ilieva, Nevena

    2017-03-01

    We propose to combine a mean-field approach with all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) into a multistage algorithm that can model protein folding and dynamics over very long time periods yet with atomic-level precision. As an example, we investigate an isolated monomeric Myc oncoprotein that has been implicated in carcinomas including those in colon, breast, and lungs. Under physiological conditions a monomeric Myc is presumed to be an example of intrinsically disordered proteins that pose a serious challenge to existing modeling techniques. We argue that a room-temperature monomeric Myc is in a dynamical state, it oscillates between different conformations that we identify. For this we adopt the C α backbone of Myc in a crystallographic heteromer as an initial ansatz for the monomeric structure. We construct a multisoliton of the pertinent Landau free energy to describe the C α profile with ultrahigh precision. We use Glauber dynamics to resolve how the multisoliton responds to repeated increases and decreases in ambient temperature. We confirm that the initial structure is unstable in isolation. We reveal a highly degenerate ground-state landscape, an attractive set towards which Glauber dynamics converges in the limit of vanishing ambient temperature. We analyze the thermal stability of this Glauber attractor using room-temperature molecular dynamics. We identify and scrutinize a particularly stable subset in which the two helical segments of the original multisoliton align in parallel next to each other. During the MD time evolution of a representative structure from this subset, we observe intermittent quasiparticle oscillations along the C-terminal α helix, some of which resemble a translating Davydov's Amide-I soliton. We propose that the presence of oscillatory motion is in line with the expected intrinsically disordered character of Myc.

  10. Fine blood vascular casting by monomeric methacrylate injection and microwave treatment

    OpenAIRE

    日根野谷, 仁

    1992-01-01

    A modified injection replica SEM method was introduced. Thorough injection of a resin mixture (monomeric metacrylate containing 1% benzoyl peroxide and 1% N, N-dimethylaniline) prior to the microwave treatment prepares good and fine blood vascular casts or replicas of brain, hypophysis, pineal body, thyroid gland and other organs. These casts sufficiently withstood ionbombardment and were useful for scanning electron microscopy. In this casting, preliminary perfusion fixation prior to the res...

  11. Heteroexpression and characterization of a monomeric isocitrate dehydrogenase from the multicellular prokaryote Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ao; Cao, Zheng-Yu; Wang, Peng; Liu, Ai-Min; Pan, Wei; Wang, Jie; Zhu, Guo-Ping

    2011-08-01

    A monomeric NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase from the multicellular prokaryote Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680 (SaIDH) was heteroexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the His-tagged enzyme was further purified to homogeneity. The molecular weight of SaIDH was about 80 kDa which is typical for monomeric isocitrate dehydrogenases. Structure-based sequence alignment reveals that the deduced amino acid sequence of SaIDH shows high sequence identity with known momomeric isocitrate dehydrogenase, and the coenzyme, substrate and metal ion binding sites are completely conserved. The optimal pH and temperature of SaIDH were found to be pH 9.4 and 45°C, respectively. Heat-inactivation studies showed that heating for 20 min at 50°C caused a 50% loss in enzymatic activity. In addition, SaIDH was absolutely specific for NADP+ as electron acceptor. Apparent Km values were 4.98 μM for NADP+ and 6,620 μM for NAD+, respectively, using Mn2+ as divalent cation. The enzyme performed a 33,000-fold greater specificity (kcat/Km) for NADP+ than NAD+. Moreover, SaIDH activity was entirely dependent on the presence of Mn2+ or Mg2+, but was strongly inhibited by Ca2+ and Zn2+. Taken together, our findings implicate the recombinant SaIDH is a divalent cation-dependent monomeric isocitrate dehydrogenase which presents a remarkably high cofactor preference for NADP+.

  12. Two mechanisms for dissipation of excess light in monomeric and trimeric light-harvesting complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Osto, Luca [Univ. di Verona, Verona (Italy). Dipartimento di Biotecnologie; Cazzaniga, Stefano [Univ. di Verona, Verona (Italy). Dipartimento di Biotecnologie; Bressan, Mauro [Univ. di Verona, Verona (Italy). Dipartimento di Biotecnologie; Paleček, David [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Physics; Židek, Karel [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Physics; Niyogi, Krishna K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Howard Hughes Medical Inst., Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division; Fleming, Graham R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry, Graduate Group in Applied Science and Technology; Zigmantas, Donatas [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Physics; Bassi, Roberto [Univ. di Verona, Verona (Italy). Dipartimento di Biotecnologie; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Firenze (Italy). Istituto per la Protezione delle Piante (IPP)

    2017-04-10

    Oxygenic photoautotrophs require mechanisms for rapidly matching the level of chlorophyll excited states from light harvesting with the rate of electron transport from water to carbon dioxide. These photoprotective reactions prevent formation of reactive excited states and photoinhibition. The fastest response to excess illumination is the so-called non-photochemical quenching which, in higher plants, requires the luminal pH sensor PsbS and other yet unidentified components of the photosystem II antenna. Both trimeric light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) and monomeric LHC proteins have been indicated as site(s) of the heat-dissipative reactions. Different mechanisms have been proposed: Energy transfer to a lutein quencher in trimers, formation of a zeaxanthin radical cation in monomers. Here, we report on the construction of a mutant lacking all monomeric LHC proteins but retaining LHCII trimers. Its non-photochemical quenching induction rate was substantially slower with respect to the wild type. A carotenoid radical cation signal was detected in the wild type, although it was lost in the mutant. Here, we conclude that non-photochemical quenching is catalysed by two independent mechanisms, with the fastest activated response catalysed within monomeric LHC proteins depending on both zeaxanthin and lutein and on the formation of a radical cation. Trimeric LHCII was responsible for the slowly activated quenching component whereas inclusion in supercomplexes was not required. Finally, this latter activity does not depend on lutein nor on charge transfer events, whereas zeaxanthin was essential.

  13. First synthesis and structural determination of a monomeric, unsolvated lithium amide, LiNH(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotjahn, D B; Sheridan, P M; Al Jihad, I; Ziurys, L M

    2001-06-13

    Alkali metal amides typically aggregate in solution and the solid phase, and even in the gas phase. In addition, even in the few known monomeric structures, the coordination number of the alkali metal is raised by binding of Lewis-basic solvent molecules, with concomitant changes in structure. In contrast, the simplest lithium amide LiNH(2) has never been made in a monomeric form, even though its structure has been theoretically predicted several times. Here, the first experimental structural data for a monomeric, unsolvated lithium amide are determined using a combination of gas-phase synthesis and millimeter/submillimeter-wave spectroscopy. All data point to a planar structure for LiNH(2). The r(o) structure of LiNH(2) has a Li-N distance of 1.736(3) A, an N-H distance of 1.022(3) A, and a H-N-H angle of 106.9(1) degrees. These results are compared with theoretical predictions for LiNH(2), and experimental data for oligomeric, solid-phase samples, which could not resolve the question of whether LiNH(2) is planar or not. In addition, comparisons are made with revised gas-phase and solid-phase data and calculated structures of NaNH(2).

  14. The peroxisomal protein import machinery displays a preference for monomeric substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Marta O; Francisco, Tânia; Rodrigues, Tony A; Lismont, Celien; Domingues, Pedro; Pinto, Manuel P; Grou, Cláudia P; Fransen, Marc; Azevedo, Jorge E

    2015-04-01

    Peroxisomal matrix proteins are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes and transported by the shuttling receptor PEX5 to the peroxisomal membrane docking/translocation machinery, where they are translocated into the organelle matrix. Under certain experimental conditions this protein import machinery has the remarkable capacity to accept already oligomerized proteins, a property that has heavily influenced current models on the mechanism of peroxisomal protein import. However, whether or not oligomeric proteins are really the best and most frequent clients of this machinery remain unclear. In this work, we present three lines of evidence suggesting that the peroxisomal import machinery displays a preference for monomeric proteins. First, in agreement with previous findings on catalase, we show that PEX5 binds newly synthesized (monomeric) acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1) and urate oxidase (UOX), potently inhibiting their oligomerization. Second, in vitro import experiments suggest that monomeric ACOX1 and UOX are better peroxisomal import substrates than the corresponding oligomeric forms. Finally, we provide data strongly suggesting that although ACOX1 lacking a peroxisomal targeting signal can be imported into peroxisomes when co-expressed with ACOX1 containing its targeting signal, this import pathway is inefficient.

  15. Treatment of iron deficiency anemia: are monomeric iron compounds suitable for parenteral administration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Crumbliss, A L

    2000-11-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional problem worldwide, especially in the developing countries. Oral iron supplementation programs have failed because of noncompliance and gastrointestinal toxicity, thereby necessitating parenteral administration of iron. For parenteral administration, only iron-carbohydrate complexes are currently used, because monomeric iron salts release free iron, thereby causing oxidant injury. However, iron-carbohydrate complexes also have significant toxicity, and they are expensive. We have proposed the hypothesis that monomeric iron salts can be safely administered by the parenteral route if iron is tightly complexed to the ligand, thereby causing clinically insignificant release of free iron, and the kinetic properties of the compound allow rapid transfer of iron to plasma transferrin. A detailed analysis of the physicochemical and kinetic properties reveals that ferric iron complexed to pyrophosphate or acetohydroxamate anions may be suitable for parenteral administration. We have demonstrated that infusion of ferric pyrophosphate into the circulation via the dialysate is safe and effective in maintaining iron balance in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Parenteral administration of monomeric iron compounds is a promising approach to the treatment of iron deficiency in the general population and merits further investigation.

  16. Directed evolution of a monomeric, bright and photostable version of Clavularia cyan fluorescent protein: structural characterization and applications in fluorescence imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al, Hui-wang; Henderson, J. Nathan; Remington, S. James; Campbell, Robert E. (Alberta); (Oregon)

    2008-05-07

    The arsenal of engineered variants of the GFP [green FP (fluorescent protein)] from Aequorea jellyfish provides researchers with a powerful set of tools for use in biochemical and cell biology research. The recent discovery of diverse FPs in Anthozoa coral species has provided protein engineers with an abundance of alternative progenitor FPs from which improved variants that complement or supersede existing Aequorea GFP variants could be derived. Here, we report the engineering of the first monomeric version of the tetrameric CFP (cyan FP) cFP484 from Clavularia coral. Starting from a designed synthetic gene library with mammalian codon preferences, we identified dimeric cFP484 variants with fluorescent brightness significantly greater than the wild-type protein. Following incorporation of dimer-breaking mutations and extensive directed evolution with selection for blue-shifted emission, high fluorescent brightness and photostability, we arrived at an optimized variant that we have named mTFP1 [monomeric TFP1 (teal FP 1)]. The new mTFP1 is one of the brightest and most photostable FPs reported to date. In addition, the fluorescence is insensitive to physiologically relevant pH changes and the fluorescence lifetime decay is best fitted as a single exponential. The 1.19 {angstrom} crystal structure (1 {angstrom}=0.1 nm) of mTFP1 confirms the monomeric structure and reveals an unusually distorted chromophore conformation. As we experimentally demonstrate, the high quantum yield of mTFP1 (0.85) makes it particularly suitable as a replacement for ECFP (enhanced CFP) or Cerulean as a FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) donor to either a yellow or orange FP acceptor.

  17. Concentrations of selected constituents in surface-water and streambed-sediment samples collected from streams in and near an area of oil and natural-gas development, south-central Texas, 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opsahl, Stephen P.; Crow, Cassi L.

    2014-01-01

    During 2011–13, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio River Authority and the Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority, analyzed surface-water and streambed-sediment samples collected from 10 sites in the San Antonio River Basin to provide data for a broad range of constituents that might be associated with hydraulic fracturing and the produced waters that are a consequence of hydraulic fracturing. Among surface-water samples, all sulfide concentrations were less than the method detection limit of 0.79 milligrams per liter. Four glycols—diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and triethylene glycol—were analyzed for in surface-water samples collected for this study, and none were detected. Of the 91 semivolatile organic compounds analyzed for this study, there were six detections, all but one of which were in storm-runoff samples. The base-flow sample collected at the San Antonio River at Goliad, Tex. (SAR Goliad), site contained bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride and a constituent in hydraulic fracturing fluids. The storm-runoff samples collected at the San Antonio River near Elmendorf, Tex. (SAR Elmendorf), and Ecleto Creek at County Road 326 near Runge, Tex. (Ecleto 2), sites also contained bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. The storm-runoff sample collected at the SAR Elmendorf site contained the plasticizer diethyl phthalate. Both storm-runoff samples collected at the Ecleto Creek near Runge, Tex. (Ecleto 1), and Ecleto 2 sites contained benzyl alcohol, a solvent commonly used in paints. Of the 67 volatile organic compounds analyzed in this study, there were a total of six detections, all of which were in base-flow samples. The surface-water sample collected at the SAR Elmendorf site contained bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and trichloromethane, all of which are disinfection byproducts associated with the chlorination of municipal water supplies and of treated municipal wastewater. The

  18. Constituents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    2004-01-01

    Taking language as a special, second-order representational system, the article explores some consequences of this view for syntactico-semantic analysis, in particular for the notion of argument structure.......Taking language as a special, second-order representational system, the article explores some consequences of this view for syntactico-semantic analysis, in particular for the notion of argument structure....

  19. Induction of antibodies against epitopes inaccessible on the HIV type 1 envelope oligomer by immunization with recombinant monomeric glycoprotein 120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Bolmstedt, A; Novotny, J;

    1998-01-01

    An N-glycan (N306) at the base of the V3 loop of HIV-BRU gp120 is shielding a linear neutralization epitope at the tip of the V3 loop on oligomeric Env. In contrast, this epitope is readily antigenic on monomeric gp120. Immunization with recombinant monomeric HIV-BRU gp120 may thus be expected to...... immunogenic structures inaccessible on the envelope oligomer. The limited ability of recombinant gp120 vaccines to induce neutralizing antibodies against primary isolates may thus not exclusively reflect genetic variation.......An N-glycan (N306) at the base of the V3 loop of HIV-BRU gp120 is shielding a linear neutralization epitope at the tip of the V3 loop on oligomeric Env. In contrast, this epitope is readily antigenic on monomeric gp120. Immunization with recombinant monomeric HIV-BRU gp120 may thus be expected...

  20. [Chemical constituents of Desmodium sambuense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuankuan; Zhang, Qianjun; Huang, Zhongbi; Chen, Qing; Yao, Rongjun

    2010-09-01

    The chemical constituents of Desmodium sambuense were studied. Chromatographic techniques were applied to isolate and purify the constituents, and the structures were identified on the basis of physico-chemical and spectroscopeic methods. Thirteen compounds were isolated from the 75% ethanol extract of Desmodium sambuens and elucidated as beta-amyrin(1), betulic acid(2), daucosterol(3), triacontanoic acid(4), lup-20(29)-en-3-one(5), tetracosanoic-2,3-dihydroxypropylester(6), stigmast-5-ene-3beta, 7alpha-ol (7),methyl phaeophorbidea(8), o-hydroxy benzoic acid(9),beta-sitosterol(10),d-catechin(11), luteolin (12), epigallocatechin (13). All of the compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  1. A new approach to clausal constituent order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hengeveld

    2013-01-01

    This chapter studies the consequences of the FDG approach to constituent ordering for the typology of constituent orders at the clausal level. After introducing the theoretical framework, it is argued that the fact that FDG in its dynamic approach to constituent ordering uses four absolute positions

  2. Monomeric banana lectin at acidic pH overrules conformational stability of its native dimeric form.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed M Khan

    Full Text Available Banana lectin (BL is a homodimeric protein categorized among jacalin-related family of lectins. The effect of acidic pH was examined on conformational stability of BL by using circular dichroism, intrinsic fluorescence, 1-anilino-8-napthalene sulfonate (ANS binding, size exclusion chromatography (SEC and dynamic light scattering (DLS. During acid denaturation of BL, the monomerization of native dimeric protein was found at pH 2.0. The elution profile from SEC showed two different peaks (59.65 ml & 87.98 ml at pH 2.0 while single peak (61.45 ml at pH 7.4. The hydrodynamic radii (R h of native BL was 2.9 nm while at pH 2.0 two species were found with R h of 1.7 and 3.7 nm. Furthermore at, pH 2.0 the secondary structures of BL remained unaltered while tertiary structure was significantly disrupted with the exposure of hydrophobic clusters confirming the existence of molten globule like state. The unfolding of BL with different subunit status was further evaluated by urea and temperature mediated denaturation to check their stability. As inferred from high Cm and ΔG values, the monomeric form of BL offers more resistance towards chemical denaturation than the native dimeric form. Besides, dimeric BL exhibited a Tm of 77°C while no loss in secondary structures was observed in monomers even up to 95°C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on monomeric subunit of lectins showing more stability against denaturants than its native dimeric state.

  3. Conformational equilibria in monomeric alpha-synuclein at the single-molecule level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Sandal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human alpha-Synuclein (alphaSyn is a natively unfolded protein whose aggregation into amyloid fibrils is involved in the pathology of Parkinson disease. A full comprehension of the structure and dynamics of early intermediates leading to the aggregated states is an unsolved problem of essential importance to researchers attempting to decipher the molecular mechanisms of alphaSyn aggregation and formation of fibrils. Traditional bulk techniques used so far to solve this problem point to a direct correlation between alphaSyn's unique conformational properties and its propensity to aggregate, but these techniques can only provide ensemble-averaged information for monomers and oligomers alike. They therefore cannot characterize the full complexity of the conformational equilibria that trigger the aggregation process. We applied atomic force microscopy-based single-molecule mechanical unfolding methodology to study the conformational equilibrium of human wild-type and mutant alphaSyn. The conformational heterogeneity of monomeric alphaSyn was characterized at the single-molecule level. Three main classes of conformations, including disordered and "beta-like" structures, were directly observed and quantified without any interference from oligomeric soluble forms. The relative abundance of the "beta-like" structures significantly increased in different conditions promoting the aggregation of alphaSyn: the presence of Cu2+, the pathogenic A30P mutation, and high ionic strength. This methodology can explore the full conformational space of a protein at the single-molecule level, detecting even poorly populated conformers and measuring their distribution in a variety of biologically important conditions. To the best of our knowledge, we present for the first time evidence of a conformational equilibrium that controls the population of a specific class of monomeric alphaSyn conformers, positively correlated with conditions known to promote the formation of

  4. Isolation of monomeric photosystem II that retains the subunit PsbS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haniewicz, Patrycja; De Sanctis, Daniele; Büchel, Claudia; Schröder, Wolfgang P; Loi, Maria Cecilia; Kieselbach, Thomas; Bochtler, Matthias; Piano, Dario

    2013-12-01

    Photosystem II has been purified from a transplastomic strain of Nicotiana tabacum according to two different protocols. Using the procedure described in Piano et al. (Photosynth Res 106:221-226, 2010) it was possible to isolate highly active PSII composed of monomers and dimers but depleted in their PsbS protein content. A "milder" procedure than the protocol reported by Fey et al. (Biochim Biophys Acta 1777:1501-1509, 2008) led to almost exclusively monomeric PSII complexes which in part still bind the PsbS protein. This finding might support a role for PSII monomers in higher plants.

  5. Monomeric CH3: A Small, Stable Antibody Domain with Therapeutic Promise | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Antibody domains are emerging as promising biopharmaceuticals because of their relatively small size compared to full-sized antibodies, which are too large to effectively penetrate tumors and bind to sterically restricted therapeutic targets. In an article published in The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Tianlei Ying, Ph.D., Dimiter Dimitrov, Ph.D., and their colleagues in the Protein Interactions Group, Cancer and Inflammation Program, Center for Cancer Research, reported their design of a novel antibody domain, monomeric CH3 (mCH3).

  6. The Beckman DxI 800 prolactin assay demonstrates superior specificity for monomeric prolactin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Brendan

    2010-02-01

    Commercially available prolactin immunoassays detect macroprolactin to variable degrees. Best practice requires laboratories to assess the cross-reactivity of their prolactin assay with macroprolactin, and where appropriate, introduce a screen for the presence of macroprolactin. Our policy has been to reanalyse hyperprolactinaemic samples following polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and to report the resultant value as the monomeric prolactin content of the sample. The goal of this study was to determine the need to continue PEG precipitation when prolactin measurements with the Wallac AutoDELFIA were replaced by the Beckman DxI 800.

  7. INNOVATION CONSTITUENT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zhylinska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper substantiates an innovation constituent of sustainable development along with environmental, social and economic pillars of the concept. Determining of implementation details of innovation activity by J. Schumpeter is a theoretical prerequisite to understanding of innovation constituent. An innovator-entrepreneur provides a customer with an information image of 'new combinations.' The image is created by identifying customer's future needs, which outline business aims, subject and appropriate means for creating the innovation products. However, consumer choice is largely motivated by values and specific rules of behavior. The rules of consumer society that in the industrial age become the motive, morality and institution, did not consider the reproductive capabilities of the environment. This disagreement was previously presented in The Limits to Growth by the Club of Rome and was reflected in the concept of sustainable development, which gained immense significance after the report of the World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987 (Our Common Future. The study highlights importance for establishment of new social values that motivate innovators to change their thinking, comprehend their responsibility not only to consumers but also to the environment and future generations. The Rio+20 Corporate Sustainability Forum: Innovation and Collaboration for the Future We want, organized by the UN Global Compact, demonstrates the interest of entrepreneurs in practical implementation of the concept of sustainable development, through an effective innovation activity. The paper summarizes management tools for implementing business commitments to action in priority areas of ensuring sustainable development: Energy & Climate, Water & Ecosystems, Agriculture & Food, Economics & Finance of Sustainable Development, Social Development, and Urbanization & Cities. Main stages of changes in companies are outlined for making responsible

  8. Methods of using adsorption media for separating or removing constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Troy J.; Herbst, R. Scott; Mann, Nicholas R.; Todd, Terry A.

    2011-10-25

    Methods of using an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises contacting an adsorption medium with a feed stream comprising at least one constituent and removing the at least one constituent from the feed stream. The adsorption medium comprises a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) matrix and at least one metal hydroxide homogenously dispersed therein. The adsorption medium may comprise from approximately 15 wt % to approximately 90 wt % of the PAN and from approximately 10 wt % to approximately 85 wt % of the at least one metal hydroxide. The at least one metal hydroxide may be selected from the group consisting of ferric hydroxide, zirconium hydroxide, lanthanum hydroxide, cerium hydroxide, titanium hydroxide, copper hydroxide, antimony hydroxide, and molybdenum hydroxide.

  9. [Chemical constituents from Hydrangea paniculata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Yang, Jingzhi; Li, Chuangjun; Zhang, Dongming

    2010-11-01

    In order to study the chemical constituents of the plant of Hydrangea paniculata and provide reference for the study of the bioactive substances, we isolated nine compounds from the dried branches of H. paniculata. Their structures were determined by application of spectroscopic (NMR, MS) and chemical methods. These compounds were identified as skimmin (1), isotachioside (2), 8-methoxy-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy coumarin glycoside (3), scopolin (4), 1-(alpha-L-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6) -O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy) - 3, 4, 5-trimethoxybenzene (5), apiosylskimmin (6), umbelliferone (7), scopoletin (8), 7-hydroxy-8-methoxycoumarin (9). Compounds 1 - 7 were isolated from H. paniculata for the first time.

  10. Chemical Constituents of Euphorbia ebracteolata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIHai-ming; MINZhi-da

    2004-01-01

    Aim To study the chemical constituents of Euphorb/a ebracteolata Hayata. Methods Column chromatography was used in the isolation procedure, while the structures of isolated compounds were elucidated by spectral data. Results Six compounds were isolated and their structures were identified as baccatin (1), 3-acetyl-β-amyrin (2), 3,3'-diacetyl-4,4'-dim-ethoxy- 2,2', 6,6'-tetrah ydroxy diphenylmethane (3), 2,4- dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl acetophenone (4), β-sitosterol(5), and daucosterol (6). Conclusion Baccatin was obtained from Euphorbia ebracteolata for the first time.

  11. [Chemical constituents of Physalis pubescens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li-ping; Cheng, Fan-qin; Ji, Long; Yu, He-yong

    2015-11-01

    Chemical constituents of 95% ethanol extract of the dried persistent calyx of Physalis pubescens were investigated. By chromatography on a silica gel column and reverse-phase preparative HPLC, 10 compounds were isolated from the dichloromethane fraction. Based on the MS and 1D/2D NMR data, these compounds were identified as 5-O-(E-feruloyl) blumenol (1), isovanillin (2), (E) -ethyl 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acrylate (3), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde(4), 4-methylphenol (5), (E) -methyl cinnamate (6), 7,3',4' trimethoxyquercetin (7), 5,3', 5'-trihydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone(8), danielone (9), and 5,5'-diisobutoxy-2,2'-bifuran (10).

  12. The inorganic constituents of echinoderms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, F.W.; Wheeler, W.C.

    1915-01-01

    In a recent paper on the composition of crinoid skeletons we showed that crinoids contain large quantities of magnesia, and that its proportion varies with the temperature of the water in which the creatures live. This result was so novel and surprising that it seemed desirable to examine other echinoderms and to ascertain whether they showed the same characteristics and regularity. A number of sea urchins and starfishes were therefore studied, their inorganic constituents being analyzed in the same manner as those of the crinoids

  13. Volatile Constituents of Zhumaria Majdae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdanparst

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Capillary gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC- MS analyses of a sample of essential oil of zhumaria Linalool ned by simple water distillation of the pulverized air - dired leaves and flowers of the plant indicated that Linalool and comphor are the two major constituents of the volatile oil. Sylvestrene , y -terpinene, a- Pinene, b - carene, camphene, and Epiborneol constitute the other main components of the essential oil. The GC - MS chromatogram indicated the presence of more than fifty - components in the oil, most of them were present in trace amounts. In this study, the chemical structures of twenty of these consti tuents were elucidated using GC - MS analysis.

  14. Antibacterial constituents from Melodinus suaveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Ling; Lunga, Paul-Keilah; Zhao, Yun-Li; Qin, Xu-Jie; Yang, Xing-Wei; Liu, Ya-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the non-alkaloidal chemical constituents of the stems and leaves of Melodinus suaveolens and their antibacterial activities. Compounds were isolated and purified by repeated silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, RP18, and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by comparison with published spectroscopic data, as well as on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The antibacterial screening assays were performed by the dilution method. Fourteen compounds were isolated, and identified as lycopersene (1), betulinic aldehyde (2), 3β-acetoxy-22,23,24,25,26,27-hexanordammaran-20-one (3), 3a-acetyl-2, 3, 5-trimethyl-7a-hydroxy-5-(4,8,12-trimethyl-tridecanyl)-1,3a,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-4-oxainden-1-one (4), 3β-hydroxy-28-norlup-20(29)-ene-17β-hydroperoxide (5), 3β-hydroxy-28-norlup-20(29)-ene-17α-hydroperoxide (6), β-sitosterol (7), 28-nor-urs-12-ene-3β, 17β-diol (8), α-amyrin (9), ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (10), 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-olide (11), betulin (12), obtusalin (13), and ursolic acid (14). Among the isolates, compounds 1, 2, 6, 8, 10, and 14 showed potent antibacterial activities against the four bacteria. This is the first report of the antibacterial activity of the constituents of Melodinus suaveolens.

  15. Allosteric Partial Inhibition of Monomeric Proteases. Sulfated Coumarins Induce Regulation, not just Inhibition, of Thrombin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verespy III, Stephen; Mehta, Akul Y.; Afosah, Daniel; Al-Horani, Rami A.; Desai, Umesh R.

    2016-01-01

    Allosteric partial inhibition of soluble, monomeric proteases can offer major regulatory advantages, but remains a concept on paper to date; although it has been routinely documented for receptors and oligomeric proteins. Thrombin, a key protease of the coagulation cascade, displays significant conformational plasticity, which presents an attractive opportunity to discover small molecule probes that induce sub-maximal allosteric inhibition. We synthesized a focused library of some 36 sulfated coumarins to discover two agents that display sub-maximal efficacy (~50%), high potency (150-fold). Michaelis-Menten, competitive inhibition, and site-directed mutagenesis studies identified exosite 2 as the site of binding for the most potent sulfated coumarin. Stern-Volmer quenching of active site-labeled fluorophore suggested that the allosteric regulators induce intermediate structural changes in the active site as compared to those that display ~80–100% efficacy. Antithrombin inactivation of thrombin was impaired in the presence of the sulfated coumarins suggesting that allosteric partial inhibition arises from catalytic dysfunction of the active site. Overall, sulfated coumarins represent first-in-class, sub-maximal inhibitors of thrombin. The probes establish the concept of allosteric partial inhibition of soluble, monomeric proteins. This concept may lead to a new class of anticoagulants that are completely devoid of bleeding. PMID:27053426

  16. Nortriptyline inhibits aggregation and neurotoxicity of alpha-synuclein by enhancing reconfiguration of the monomeric form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Timothy J; Srivastava, Kinshuk R; Justman, Craig; Grammatopoulous, Tom; Hutter-Paier, Birgit; Prokesch, Manuela; Havas, Daniel; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Liu, Fang; Jock, Kevin; de Oliveira, Patrícia; Stirtz, Georgia L; Dettmer, Ulf; Sortwell, Caryl E; Feany, Mel B; Lansbury, Peter; Lapidus, Lisa; Paumier, Katrina L

    2017-10-01

    The pathology of Parkinson's disease and other synucleinopathies is characterized by the formation of intracellular inclusions comprised primarily of misfolded, fibrillar α-synuclein (α-syn). One strategy to slow disease progression is to prevent the misfolding and aggregation of its native monomeric form. Here we present findings that support the contention that the tricyclic antidepressant compound nortriptyline (NOR) has disease-modifying potential for synucleinopathies. Findings from in vitro aggregation and kinetics assays support the view that NOR inhibits aggregation of α-syn by directly binding to the soluble, monomeric form, and by enhancing reconfiguration of the monomer, inhibits formation of toxic conformations of the protein. We go on to demonstrate that NOR inhibits the accumulation, aggregation and neurotoxicity of α-syn in multiple cell and animal models. These findings suggest that NOR, a compound with established safety and efficacy for treatment of depression, may slow progression of α-syn pathology by directly binding to soluble, native, α-syn, thereby inhibiting pathological aggregation and preserving its normal functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Monomeric, Oligomeric and Polymeric Proteins in Huntington Disease and Other Diseases of Polyglutamine Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guylaine Hoffner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease and other diseases of polyglutamine expansion are each caused by a different protein bearing an excessively long polyglutamine sequence and are associated with neuronal death. Although these diseases affect largely different brain regions, they all share a number of characteristics, and, therefore, are likely to possess a common mechanism. In all of the diseases, the causative protein is proteolyzed, becomes abnormally folded and accumulates in oligomers and larger aggregates. The aggregated and possibly the monomeric expanded polyglutamine are likely to play a critical role in the pathogenesis and there is increasing evidence that the secondary structure of the protein influences its toxicity. We describe here, with special attention to huntingtin, the mechanisms of polyglutamine aggregation and the modulation of aggregation by the sequences flanking the polyglutamine. We give a comprehensive picture of the characteristics of monomeric and aggregated polyglutamine, including morphology, composition, seeding ability, secondary structure, and toxicity. The structural heterogeneity of aggregated polyglutamine may explain why polyglutamine-containing aggregates could paradoxically be either toxic or neuroprotective.

  18. An update of hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected constituents in water, eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and perched groundwater zones, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, emphasis 2009–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Linda C.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Rattray, Gordon W.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1952, wastewater discharged to infiltration ponds (also called percolation ponds) and disposal wells at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has affected water quality in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer and perched groundwater zones underlying the INL. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains groundwater monitoring networks at the INL to determine hydrologic trends, and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer and in perched groundwater zones. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from aquifer, multilevel monitoring system (MLMS), and perched groundwater wells in the USGS groundwater monitoring networks during 2009–11. Water in the ESRP aquifer primarily moves through fractures and interflow zones in basalt, generally flows southwestward, and eventually discharges at springs along the Snake River. The aquifer primarily is recharged from infiltration of irrigation water, infiltration of streamflow, groundwater inflow from adjoining mountain drainage basins, and infiltration of precipitation. From March–May 2009 to March–May 2011, water levels in wells generally declined in the northern part of the INL. Water levels generally rose in the central and eastern parts of the INL. Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from aquifer wells or MLMS equipped wells in the ESRP aquifer at the INL generally decreased or remained constant during 2009–11. Decreases in concentrations were attributed to radioactive decay, changes in waste-disposal methods, and dilution from recharge and underflow. In 2011, concentrations of tritium in groundwater from 50 of 127 aquifer wells were greater than or equal to the reporting level and ranged from 200±60 to 7,000±260 picocuries per liter. Tritium concentrations from one or more discrete zones from four wells equipped with MLMS were greater than or

  19. Synthesis and characterization of a monomeric mutant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase with partially reconstituted enzymic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banci, L; Bertini, I; Chiu, C Y; Mullenbach, G T; Viezzoli, M S

    1995-12-15

    A monomeric analog of human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (F50E/G51E SOD), previously characterized and found to have reduced enzymic activity, was here further modified by replacing Glu133 with Gln. This substitution does not dramatically affect the coordination geometry at the active site, but enhances enzymic activity, and also increases the affinity for anions at the active site. This behavior parallels earlier published results in which this point mutation was made in the dimeric wild-type enzyme. The analog described here has afforded for the first time a monomeric superoxide dismutase with substantial activity. This point mutation does not significantly influence the protein structure but interactions with anions, including superoxide, are altered with respect to the monomeric form. The present monomeric Glu133Gln mutant has partially restored enzymic activity. The diminished activity of the monomeric analogs is discussed in the light of possible minor structural changes and some of their characteristics are compared with those of naturally occurring mutants associated with various neurological diseases.

  20. Studies related to primitive chemistry. A proton and nitrogen-14 nuclear magnetic resonance amino acid and nucleic acid constituents and a and their possible relation to prebiotic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatt, S. L.; Cohen, E. A.; Shiller, A. M.; Chan, S. I.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies were made to determine the applicability of this technique for the study of interactions between monomeric and polymeric amino acids with monomeric nucleic acid bases and nucleotides. Proton NMR results for aqueous solutions (D2O) demonstrated interactions between the bases cytosine and adenine and acidic and aromatic amino acids. Solutions of 5'-AMP admixed with amino acids exhibited more complex behavior but stacking between aromatic rings and destacking at high amino acids concentration was evident. The multisite nature of 5'-AMP was pointed out. Chemical shift changes for adenine and 5'-AMP with three water soluble polypeptides demonstrated that significant interactions exist. It was found that the linewidth-pH profile of each amino acid is unique. It is concluded that NMR techniques can give significant and quantitative data on the association of amino acid and nucleic acid constituents.

  1. [Chemical constituents of Rhododendron seniavinii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Qing; Zhang, Ying; Ye, Wen-Cai; Zhou, Guang-Xiong

    2013-02-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Rhododendron seniavinii. Compounds were isolated from the aqueous extract of the leaves of R. seniavinii by using Sephadex LH-20, ODS open column chromatography and other means. Their structures were elucidated according to spectral data and physiochemical properties. Thirteen compounds were isolated from R. seniavinii and identified as 5-methoxydehydroconiferyl alcohol (1), dehydroconiferyl alcohol (2), (-)-syringaresinol (3), (-)-lyoniresinol (4), (+)-lyoniresinol 3alpha-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), (-)-lyoniresinol 3alpha-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6), 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7), nikoenoside (8), 3,5,7-trihydroxychromone-3-0-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (9), 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenol (10), scopoletin (11), scopolin (12) and quercitrin (13). Compounds 1-12 were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  2. [Chemical Constituents from Sphagneticola trilobata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hui; Dong, Li-mei; Zhou, Zhong-yu; Xu, Qiao-lin; Tan, Jian-wen

    2015-07-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the whole plant of Sphagneticola trilobata. The compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography and their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques. Three lignans, two indolics and two phenolic glycosides were isolated from the whole plant of Sphagneticola trilobata and identified as syringaresinol-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(1), pinoresinol-4-sulfate(2), pinoresinol-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(3), 1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid (4), 1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde(5), 2,6-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7). Compounds 1 - 7 are isolated from the genus Wedelia for the first time. Compound 4 demonstrates significant inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase.

  3. Properties and metathesis activity of monomeric and dimeric Mo centres variously located on γ-alumina A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handzlik, Jarosław

    2007-05-01

    Ethene metathesis proceeding on monomeric and dimeric Mo species on the (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) γ-alumina is investigated by density functional theory, applying the cluster approach. The calculated vibrational frequencies of the surface OH groups are assigned to the experimental IR bands. It is shown that both monomeric and dimeric Mo forms can be the active sites of olefin metathesis. Metathesis activity and stability of the Mo-methylidene centres depend on their location on alumina. The differences in the sites reactivity are explained on the basis of their geometrical and electronic structure parameters. For the monomeric centres, isomerisation of the trigonal bipyramidal intermediate to the stable square pyramidal molybdacyclobutane is kinetically favoured over the cycloreversal step. The situation is opposite in the case of the dimeric species.

  4. Nuclear Structure Functions from Constituent Quark Model

    CERN Document Server

    Arash, F; Arash, Firooz; Atashbar-Tehrani, Shahin

    1999-01-01

    We have used the notion of the constituent quark model of nucleon, where a constituent quark carries its own internal structure, and applied it to determine nuclear structure functions ratios. It is found that the description of experimental data require the inclusion of strong shadowing effect for $x<0.01$. Using the idea of vector meson dominance model and other ingredients this effect is calculated in the context of the constituent quark model. It is rather striking that the constituent quark model, used here, gives a good account of the data for a wide range of atomic mass number from A=4 to A=204.

  5. Extracellular monomeric tau protein is sufficient to initiate the spread of tau protein pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Claire H; Kumar, Satish; Pinotsi, Dorothea; Tunnacliffe, Alan; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Mandelkow, Eckhard; Mandelkow, Eva-Maria; Kaminski, Clemens F; Kaminski Schierle, Gabriele S

    2014-01-10

    Understanding the formation and propagation of aggregates of the Alzheimer disease-associated Tau protein in vivo is vital for the development of therapeutics for this devastating disorder. Using our recently developed live-cell aggregation sensor in neuron-like cells, we demonstrate that different variants of exogenous monomeric Tau, namely full-length Tau (hTau40) and the Tau-derived construct K18 comprising the repeat domain, initially accumulate in endosomal compartments, where they form fibrillar seeds that subsequently induce the aggregation of endogenous Tau. Using superresolution imaging, we confirm that fibrils consisting of endogenous and exogenous Tau are released from cells and demonstrate their potential to spread Tau pathology. Our data indicate a greater pathological risk and potential toxicity than hitherto suspected for extracellular soluble Tau.

  6. Monomeric GLP-1/GIP/glucagon triagonism corrects obesity, hepatosteatosis, and dyslipidemia in female mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jall, Sigrid; Sachs, Stephan; Clemmensen, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    . RESULTS: Our results show that GLP-1/GIP/glucagon triple agonism inhibits food intake and decreases body weight and body fat mass with comparable potency in male and female mice that have been matched for body fat mass. Treatment improved dyslipidemia in both sexes and reversed diet......OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a major health threat that affects men and women equally. Despite this fact, weight-loss potential of pharmacotherapies is typically first evaluated in male mouse models of diet-induced obesity (DIO). To address this disparity we herein determined whether a monomeric peptide...... mice and a cohort of fatmass-matched C57BL/6J male mice were treated for 27 days via subcutaneous injections with either the GLP-1/GIP/glucagon triagonist or PBS. A second cohort of C57BL/6J male mice was included to match the females in the duration of the high-fat, high-sugar diet (HFD) exposure...

  7. Novel Monomeric Phenanthroline—Thallium(Ⅲ) Complexes Multinuclear NMR Characterization in Organic Solvents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuiBinMA; JuliusGLASER

    2002-01-01

    A novel complex of monomeric thallium (Ⅲ) with the nitrogen donor ligand phenanthroline (phen) has been prepared and characterized by multimuclear NMR(1H,13C,205Tl). The three complexes exist in equilibria in DMSO and acetonitrile solution, which was proved by the 205Tl NMR spectra. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of tris-phen T1(Ⅲ) complex have been measured, where the spin-spin coupling between T1(I=1/2) and 13C or 1H signals were observed with the 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy in acetonitrile. The coupling constants are presented and the chemical shifts of complexes are discussed in detail.

  8. Novel Monomeric Phenanthroline - Thallium(Ⅲ) Complexes Multinuclear NMR Characterization in Organic Solvents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A novel complex of monomeric thallium(III) with the nitrogen donor ligand phenanthrolinc (phen) has been prepared and characterized by multinuclear NMR (1H, 13C, 205T1).The three complexes exist in equilibria in DMSO and acetonitrile solution, which was proved by the 205Tl NMR spectra. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of tris-phen Tl(III) complex have been measured, where the spin-spin coupling between TI (1 = 1/2) and 13C or 1H signals were observed with the 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy in acetonitrile. The coupling constants are presented and the chemical shifts of complexes are discussed in detail.

  9. Kinetics of carbon monoxide binding to monomeric hemoproteins. Role of the proximal histidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, M; Ascenzi, P; Traylor, T G; Brunori, M

    1985-04-10

    The effect of pH on (i) the second-order rate constant for CO binding and (ii) the spectral properties of the deoxygenated derivative of several monomeric hemoproteins has been investigated in the pH range between 2.3 and 9.0. As in the case of 3-[1-imidazolyl]-propylamide monomethyl ester mesoheme, the rate constant for CO binding to sperm whale, horse, Dermochelys coriacea, Coryphaena hippurus, and Aplysia limacina myoglobins (the latter only in the presence of acetate/acetic acid mixture) increases, as the pH is lowered, to a value at least 1 order of magnitude higher than at pH 7.0. Such an effect is not observed in A. limacina myoglobin (in the absence of the acetate/acetic acid mixture) and Chironomus thummi thummi erythrocruorin. Moreover, the absorption spectrum, in the visible region, of the deoxy derivative of all these monomeric hemoproteins (with the exception of A. limacina myoglobin in the absence of the acetate/acetic acid mixture) undergoes a transition as the pH is lowered, an effect observed previously with 3-[1-imidazolyl]-propylamide monomethyl ester protoheme. On the basis of analogous spectroscopic and kinetic properties of chelated heme model compounds we attribute this behavior to the protonation of the N epsilon of the proximal imidazole involved in the bond with the iron atom. On the basis of this model the movement of the iron atom to the heme plane appears as a crucial step for CO binding, the activation free energy of the process amounting to approximately 2 kcal/mol.

  10. LRP1 Modulates APP Intraneuronal Transport and Processing in Its Monomeric and Dimeric State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus U. Pietrzik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, LRP1, interacts with APP and affects its processing. This is assumed to be mostly caused by the impact of LRP1 on APP endocytosis. More recently, also an interaction of APP and LRP1 early in the secretory pathway was reported whereat retention of LRP1 in the ER leads to decreased APP cell surface levels and in turn, to reduced Aβ secretion. Here, we extended the biochemical and immunocytochemical analyses by showing via live cell imaging analyses in primary neurons that LRP1 and APP are transported only partly in common (one third but to a higher degree in distinct fast axonal transport vesicles. Interestingly, co-expression of LRP1 and APP caused a change of APP transport velocities, indicating that LRP1 recruits APP to a specific type of fast axonal transport vesicles. In contrast lowered levels of LRP1 facilitated APP transport. We further show that monomeric and dimeric APP exhibit similar transport characteristics and that both are affected by LRP1 in a similar way, by slowing down APP anterograde transport and increasing its endocytosis rate. In line with this, a knockout of LRP1 in CHO cells and in primary neurons caused an increase of monomeric and dimeric APP surface localization and in turn accelerated shedding by meprin β and ADAM10. Notably, a choroid plexus specific LRP1 knockout caused a much higher secretion of sAPP dimers into the cerebrospinal fluid compared to sAPP monomers. Together, our data show that LRP1 functions as a sorting receptor for APP, regulating its cell surface localization and thereby its processing by ADAM10 and meprin β, with the latter exhibiting a preference for APP in its dimeric state.

  11. LRP1 Modulates APP Intraneuronal Transport and Processing in Its Monomeric and Dimeric State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Uta-Mareike; Strecker, Paul; Storck, Steffen E; Thomas, Carolin; Rabiej, Verena; Junker, Anne; Schilling, Sandra; Schmidt, Nadine; Dowds, C Marie; Eggert, Simone; Pietrzik, Claus U; Kins, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, LRP1, interacts with APP and affects its processing. This is assumed to be mostly caused by the impact of LRP1 on APP endocytosis. More recently, also an interaction of APP and LRP1 early in the secretory pathway was reported whereat retention of LRP1 in the ER leads to decreased APP cell surface levels and in turn, to reduced Aβ secretion. Here, we extended the biochemical and immunocytochemical analyses by showing via live cell imaging analyses in primary neurons that LRP1 and APP are transported only partly in common (one third) but to a higher degree in distinct fast axonal transport vesicles. Interestingly, co-expression of LRP1 and APP caused a change of APP transport velocities, indicating that LRP1 recruits APP to a specific type of fast axonal transport vesicles. In contrast lowered levels of LRP1 facilitated APP transport. We further show that monomeric and dimeric APP exhibit similar transport characteristics and that both are affected by LRP1 in a similar way, by slowing down APP anterograde transport and increasing its endocytosis rate. In line with this, a knockout of LRP1 in CHO cells and in primary neurons caused an increase of monomeric and dimeric APP surface localization and in turn accelerated shedding by meprin β and ADAM10. Notably, a choroid plexus specific LRP1 knockout caused a much higher secretion of sAPP dimers into the cerebrospinal fluid compared to sAPP monomers. Together, our data show that LRP1 functions as a sorting receptor for APP, regulating its cell surface localization and thereby its processing by ADAM10 and meprin β, with the latter exhibiting a preference for APP in its dimeric state.

  12. Chemical constituents of Cinnamomum cebuense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Consolacion Y.Ragasa; Dinah L.Espineli; Esperanza Maribel G.Agoo; Ramon S.del Fierro

    2013-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the chemical constituents of Cinnamomum cebuense,an endemic and critically endangered tree found only in Cebu,Philippines.METHODS:The compounds were isolated by silica gel chromatography.The structures of the isolates were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy.RESULTS:The dichloromethane (DCM) extract of the bark of C.cebuense afforded a new monoterpene natural product 1 and a new sesquiterpene 2,along with the known compounds,4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamaldehyde (3),4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol (4),α-terpineol (5) and humulene (6).The DCM extract of the leaves of C.cebuense yielded 6,β-caryophyllene (7),squalene (8),and a mixture of α-amyrin (9),β-amyrin (10) and bauerenol (11).The structures of 1-7 were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy,while the structures of 8-11 were identified by comparison of their 13C NMR data with those reported in the literature.CONCLUSION:The bark of C.cebuense afforded monoterpenes,sesquiterpenes and phenolics,while the leaves yielded sesquiterpenes and triterpenes.

  13. [Chemical constituents of Poria cocos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng-Fei; Liu, Chao; Wang, Hong-Qing; Li, Jia-Chun; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2014-03-01

    The chemical constituents of Poria cocos were studied by means of silica gel, ODS column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Thirteen compounds were isolated from this plant. By analysis of the ESI-MS and NMR data, the structures of these compounds were determined as tumulosic acid (1), dehydrotumulosic acid (2), 3beta, 5alpha-dihydroxy-ergosta-7, 22-dien-6-one (3), 3beta, 5alpha, 9alpha-trihydroxy-ergosta-7, 22-diene -6-one (4), ergosta-7, 22-diene-3-one (5), 6, 9-epoxy-ergosta-7,22-diene-3-ol (6), ergosta-4,22-diene-3-one (7), 3beta, 5alpha, 6beta-trihydroxyl-ergosta-7,22-diene (8), ergosta-5, 6-epoxy-7,22-dien-3-ol (9), beta-sitosterol (10), ribitol (11), mannitol (12), and oleanic acid 3-O-acetate (13), respectively. Compounds 3-13 were isolated from the P. cocos for the first time.

  14. [Antitussive constituents of Disporum cantoniense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Xiu-Hai; Zhao, Chao; Liang, Zhi-Yuan; Gong, Xiao-Jian; Chen, Hua-Guo; Zhou, Xin

    2013-12-01

    The antitussive activity assay for the root extraction of Disporum cantoniense was carried out with coughing mice induced by ammonia liquor. The results showed that the ethanol and water extractions of D. cantoniense possess strong antitussive activity, and the high dose of the former was better than positive control, and then the constituents of the ethanol extraction were separated and purified by various modern chromatographic techniques. Their structures were identified by physico-chemical properties and spectroscopic data. As a result, eight compounds were isolated and identified as stigmast-4-en-3-one(1), (22E, 24R)-ergosta-5, 7, 22-trien-3beta-ol(2), obtucarbamate A(3), obtucarbamate B(4), neotigogenin(5), azo-2, 2'-bis[Z-(2,3-dihydroxy-4-methyl-5-methoxy) phenyl ethylene] (6),dimethyl {[carbonylbis (azanediyl)] bis( 2-methyl-5, 1-phenylene) j dicarbamate (7) , and quercetin-3-O-pB-D-glucopyranoside(8). All compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time, and the result of bioactivity-directed isolation showed that compounds 3, 4, and 6 had obvious effect on antitussive activity, and compound 6 had the same level as positive control.

  15. Scheil-Gulliver Constituent Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Arthur D.; Eriksson, Gunnar; Bale, Christopher W.

    2017-03-01

    During solidification of alloys, conditions often approach those of Scheil-Gulliver cooling in which it is assumed that solid phases, once precipitated, remain unchanged. That is, they no longer react with the liquid or with each other. In the case of equilibrium solidification, equilibrium phase diagrams provide a valuable means of visualizing the effects of composition changes upon the final microstructure. In the present study, we propose for the first time the concept of Scheil-Gulliver constituent diagrams which play the same role as that in the case of Scheil-Gulliver cooling. It is shown how these diagrams can be calculated and plotted by the currently available thermodynamic database computing systems that combine Gibbs energy minimization software with large databases of optimized thermodynamic properties of solutions and compounds. Examples calculated using the FactSage system are presented for the Al-Li and Al-Mg-Zn systems, and for the Au-Bi-Sb-Pb system and its binary and ternary subsystems.

  16. Principal component regression analysis of the relation between CIELAB color and monomeric anthocyanins in young Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fu-Liang; Zhang, Wen-Na; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Zheng, Cheng-Rong; Chen, Hai-Yan; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2008-11-17

    Color is one of the key characteristics used to evaluate the sensory quality of red wine, and anthocyanins are the main contributors to color. Monomeric anthocyanins and CIELAB color values were investigated by HPLC-MS and spectrophotometry during fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon red wine, and principal component regression (PCR), a statistical tool, was used to establish a linkage between the detected anthocyanins and wine coloring. The results showed that 14 monomeric anthocyanins could be identified in wine samples, and all of these anthocyanins were negatively correlated with the L*, b* and H*ab values, but positively correlated with a* and C*ab values. On an equal concentration basis for each detected anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy3-glu) had the most influence on CIELAB color value, while malvidin 3-O-glucoside (Mv3-glu) had the least. The color values of various monomeric anthocyanins were influenced by their structures, substituents on the B-ring, acyl groups on the glucoside and the molecular steric structure. This work develops a statistical method for evaluating correlation between wine color and monomeric anthocyanins, and also provides a basis for elucidating the effect of intramolecular copigmentation on wine coloring.

  17. Principal Component Regression Analysis of the Relation Between CIELAB Color and Monomeric Anthocyanins in Young Cabernet Sauvignon Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Qing Duan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Color is one of the key characteristics used to evaluate the sensory quality of red wine, and anthocyanins are the main contributors to color. Monomeric anthocyanins and CIELAB color values were investigated by HPLC-MS and spectrophotometry during fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon red wine, and principal component regression (PCR, a statistical tool, was used to establish a linkage between the detected anthocyanins and wine coloring. The results showed that 14 monomeric anthocyanins could be identified in wine samples, and all of these anthocyanins were negatively correlated with the L*, b* and H*ab values, but positively correlated with a* and C*ab values. On an equal concentration basis for each detected anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy3-glu had the most influence on CIELAB color value, while malvidin 3-O-glucoside (Mv3-glu had the least. The color values of various monomeric anthocyanins were influenced by their structures, substituents on the B-ring, acyl groups on the glucoside and the molecular steric structure. This work develops a statistical method for evaluating correlation between wine color and monomeric anthocyanins, and also provides a basis for elucidating the effect of intramolecular copigmentation on wine coloring.

  18. The flavonoid herbacetin diglucoside as a constituent of the lignan macromolecule from flaxseed hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struijs, Karin; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Verhoef, René; van Oostveen-van Casteren, Willemiek H M; Voragen, Alphons G J; Gruppen, Harry

    2007-04-01

    Lignans in flaxseed are known to be part of a macromolecule in which they are connected through the linker-molecule hydroxy-methyl-glutaric acid (HMGA). In this study, the lignan macromolecule was extracted from flaxseed hulls and degraded to its monomeric constituents by complete saponification. Besides secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the phenolic compounds p-coumaric acid glucoside (CouAG) and ferulic acid glucoside (FeAG) were isolated, which was expected based on indications from the literature. Also the flavonoid herbacetin diglucoside (HDG) was found. The presence of HDG was confirmed by NMR following preparative RP-HPLC purification. Also the presence of the three other constituents (CouAG, FeAG and SDG) was confirmed by NMR. To prove that HDG is a substructure of the lignan macromolecule, the macromolecule was fragmented by partial saponification. A fragment consisting of HDG and HMGA was indicated. This fragment was isolated by preparative RP-HPLC and its identity was confirmed by NMR. It is concluded that the flavonoid HDG is a substructure of the lignan macromolecule from flaxseed hulls and that it is incorporated in the macromolecule via the same linker-molecule as SDG.

  19. Reactivity studies on [Cp'FeI]2: monomeric amido, phenoxo, and alkyl complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Marc D; White, Peter S

    2012-11-05

    A series of monomeric mono(cyclopentadienyl) iron amido, phenoxo, and alkyl complexes were synthesized, and their structure and reactivity are presented. The iron(II) centers in these 14VE one-legged piano stool complexes are high spin (S = 2) in solid state and solution independent of solvent. The silylamide compound [Cp'FeN(SiMe(3))(2)] (2a, Cp' = 1,2,4-(Me(3)C)(3)C(5)H(2)) is an excellent starting material for the reaction with more acidic substrates such as phenols. Sterically encumbered phenols 2,6-(Me(3)C)(2)(4-R)C(6)H(2)OH (R = H, Me, and tBu) were investigated. In all cases monomeric iron phenoxo half-sandwich complexes [Cp'FeOR'] (4-R) are initially formed. Rearrangement of 4-R to the diamagnetic oxocyclohexadienyl complex [Cp'Fe(η(5)-O═C(6)H(2)R'(2)R")] (5-R) is observed for 2,6-(Me(3)C)(2)(4-R)C(6)H(2)OH (R = H and Me) and the Gibbs free enthalpy of activation (ΔG(‡)) was determined. In contrast this rearrangement is inhibited when the 4-position is blocked by a tBu group. Removing the steric bulk from the 2,6-positions leads to the formation of a μ-phenoxo dimer, [Cp'Fe(μ-OC(6)H(3)tBu(2)-3,5)](2) (5). Density functional theory (DFT) was used to further elucidate the structure-reactivity relationship in these molecules. The one-legged piano stool anilido complex [Cp'Fe(NHC(6)H(2)tBu(3)-2,4,6)] (7) is not accessible via acid-base reaction between 2a and H(2)NC(6)H(2)tBu(3)-2,4,6, but can be prepared by conventional salt metathesis reaction from [Cp'FeI](2) and [Li(NHC(6)H(2)tBu(3)-2,4,6)(OEt(2))](2). In contrast, reaction of 2a with Ph(2)NH yields the bimetallic [Cp'Fe(N,C-κ(1),η(5)-C(6)H(5)NPh)Fe(N-κ(1)-NPh(2))Cp'] (8) which combines two iron centers in the same oxidation state (+2), but different spin-states (S = 0 and S = 2) which is reflected in very different Cp(cent)-Fe distances of 1.68 and 2.04 Å, respectively. A monomeric iron alkyl half-sandwich complex [Cp'FeCH(SiMe(3))(2)] (9) was prepared that exhibits no reactivity toward H(2), C

  20. Synthesis and structural characterization of monomeric mercury(II) selenolate complexes derived from 2-phenylbenzamide ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Saket; Meenakshi; Hodage, Ananda S; Verma, Ajay; Agrawal, Shailendra; Yadav, Abhimanyu; Kumar, Sangit

    2016-03-07

    Monomeric Hg(II) selenolate complexes derived from 2-phenylbenzamide ligands were prepared by oxidative addition of diselenides [{C6H4(CONR2)Se}2, R = Me, Et, iPr] to elemental Hg and reductive cleavage of the Se–N bond of isoselenazolone derivatives [(NO2)C6H3(CONSe)R, (R = allyl, nbutyl)] followed by the treatment with HgCl2. The complexes have been characterized by multinuclear NMR (1H, 13C and 77Se) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry which suggest the monomeric form of these in solution. The molecular structures of diselenides [C6H4(CONR2)Se]2 and mercury selenolates [Hg{(NO2)C6H3(CONH-C3H5) Se}2], [Hg{C6H4(CONiPr2)Se}2] and [Hg{C6H4(CONMe2)Se}2] were established by a single crystal X-ray diffraction study. Diselenides show strong intramolecular non-bonded Se⋯O interactions, which are influenced by the nature of C(O)NR̲2 and decrease with the sterically bulky alkyl substituent (Se⋯O =2.823 Å for R = di-Me, 2.760 Å for R = allyl, and 3.157 Å for R = di-iPr). Mercury complexes derived from less bulky 2-phenyl-N,N-dialkylbenzamide ligands associated with poor or no intramolecular nonbonded Hg⋯O interactions (4.91 Å for R = di-Me, 4.199 Å for R = allyl) and instead strong intermolecular Hg⋯O [2.792(3) and 2.820(4) Å] for di-Me and allyl and Hg⋯Se [3.3212(5) and 3.4076(8) Å] interactions were observed which lead to a dimeric form in the crystals. On the other hand, the mercury complex derived from the sterically bulky diisopropyl amide ligand shows a strong intramolecular non-bonded Hg⋯O (2.860 Å) interaction, adopts linear geometry and exists as a monomer. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the mercury selenolate complexes revealed two-step decomposition which leads to the formation of HgSe. The mercury selenolate complex 3c derived from the sterically bulky 2-phenyl-N,Ndiisopropylbenzamide ligand decomposed to give HgSe in the range of 220-300 °C.

  1. 11 Efficacy and Tolerability of HDM Injective Immunotherapy With Monomeric Allergoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compalati, Enrico; Atzeni, Isabella; Cabras, Sergio; Fancello, Paolo; Gaspardini, Giulio; Longo, Rocco; Patella, Vincenzo; Tore, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Background Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) is an effective treatment of respiratory allergy and carbamylated monomeric allergoids (monoids), by virtue of their reduced IgE-binding activity, resulted clinically safe by sublingual administration. Purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of immunotherapy with house dust mites (HDM) monoid administered by injective route in patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR). Methods A preparation of 0.70 mL of 10 BU/mL containing modified extract with 50% Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and 50% Dermatophagoides farinae (amount of major allergen: 4 μg of group 1 per milliliter) was delivered monthly for 12 months, following a 5-week build-up induction phase (0.10–0.20–0.30–0.50–0.70 mL), to 58 patients (60% males, mean age 25.1 ± 12.7) suffering from AR due to mites for at least 2 years, whereas 60 patients with similar baseline characteristics were observed as controls. All patients were allowed to assume traditional drug therapy for their condition. At the end of the study changes from baseline in symptoms scores, in number of days with drug assumption, in severity of AR (according to ARIA classification) were compared between the 2 groups; moreover an overall assessment of clinical efficacy and tolerability was based on patients' and physicians' judgements (unsatisfactory, mild, good, optimal). Results In respect to baseline both groups showed, after 1 year, an improvement in symptoms score (P < 0.001) with a significant difference in favour of SCIT group (P < 0.05). Days of drug intake were significantly lower in patients receiving SCIT (P < 0.05). The number of patients with severe AR decreased in the first group while no variation was observed in controls. The subjective clinical overall assessment was optimal in 31 cases and good in 24 according to physicians' and patients' judgements; similarly 38 patients judged tolerability as optimal and 18 as good, whereas according to

  2. Holistic versus monomeric strategies for hydrological modelling of human-modified hydrosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantis, I.; Efstratiadis, A.; Rozos, E.; Kopsiafti, M.; Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2011-03-01

    The modelling of human-modified basins that are inadequately measured constitutes a challenge for hydrological science. Often, models for such systems are detailed and hydraulics-based for only one part of the system while for other parts oversimplified models or rough assumptions are used. This is typically a bottom-up approach, which seeks to exploit knowledge of hydrological processes at the micro-scale at some components of the system. Also, it is a monomeric approach in two ways: first, essential interactions among system components may be poorly represented or even omitted; second, differences in the level of detail of process representation can lead to uncontrolled errors. Additionally, the calibration procedure merely accounts for the reproduction of the observed responses using typical fitting criteria. The paper aims to raise some critical issues, regarding the entire modelling approach for such hydrosystems. For this, two alternative modelling strategies are examined that reflect two modelling approaches or philosophies: a dominant bottom-up approach, which is also monomeric and, very often, based on output information, and a top-down and holistic approach based on generalized information. Critical options are examined, which codify the differences between the two strategies: the representation of surface, groundwater and water management processes, the schematization and parameterization concepts and the parameter estimation methodology. The first strategy is based on stand-alone models for surface and groundwater processes and for water management, which are employed sequentially. For each model, a different (detailed or coarse) parameterization is used, which is dictated by the hydrosystem schematization. The second strategy involves model integration for all processes, parsimonious parameterization and hybrid manual-automatic parameter optimization based on multiple objectives. A test case is examined in a hydrosystem in Greece with high complexities

  3. Holistic versus monomeric strategies for hydrological modelling of human-modified hydrosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Nalbantis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The modelling of human-modified basins that are inadequately measured constitutes a challenge for hydrological science. Often, models for such systems are detailed and hydraulics-based for only one part of the system while for other parts oversimplified models or rough assumptions are used. This is typically a bottom-up approach, which seeks to exploit knowledge of hydrological processes at the micro-scale at some components of the system. Also, it is a monomeric approach in two ways: first, essential interactions among system components may be poorly represented or even omitted; second, differences in the level of detail of process representation can lead to uncontrolled errors. Additionally, the calibration procedure merely accounts for the reproduction of the observed responses using typical fitting criteria. The paper aims to raise some critical issues, regarding the entire modelling approach for such hydrosystems. For this, two alternative modelling strategies are examined that reflect two modelling approaches or philosophies: a dominant bottom-up approach, which is also monomeric and, very often, based on output information, and a top-down and holistic approach based on generalized information. Critical options are examined, which codify the differences between the two strategies: the representation of surface, groundwater and water management processes, the schematization and parameterization concepts and the parameter estimation methodology. The first strategy is based on stand-alone models for surface and groundwater processes and for water management, which are employed sequentially. For each model, a different (detailed or coarse parameterization is used, which is dictated by the hydrosystem schematization. The second strategy involves model integration for all processes, parsimonious parameterization and hybrid manual-automatic parameter optimization based on multiple objectives. A test case is examined in a hydrosystem in Greece

  4. Doubly Periodic Instantons and their Constituents

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, C; Ford, Chris; Pawlowski, Jan M.

    2002-01-01

    Using the Nahm transform we investigate doubly periodic charge one SU(2) instantons with radial symmetry. Two special points where the Nahm zero modes have softer singularities are identified as the locations of instanton core constituents. For a square torus this constituent picture is closely reflected in the action density. In rectangular tori with large aspect ratios the cores merge to form monopole-like objects. For particular values of the parameters the torus can be cut in half yielding two copies of a twisted charge 1/2 instanton. These findings are illustrated with plots of the action density within a two-dimensional slice containing the constituents.

  5. Mapping the dynamics and nanoscale organization of synaptic adhesion proteins using monomeric streptavidin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamma, Ingrid; Letellier, Mathieu; Butler, Corey; Tessier, Béatrice; Lim, Kok-Hong; Gauthereau, Isabel; Choquet, Daniel; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Park, Sheldon; Sainlos, Matthieu; Thoumine, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The advent of super-resolution imaging (SRI) has created a need for optimized labelling strategies. We present a new method relying on fluorophore-conjugated monomeric streptavidin (mSA) to label membrane proteins carrying a short, enzymatically biotinylated tag, compatible with SRI techniques including uPAINT, STED and dSTORM. We demonstrate efficient and specific labelling of target proteins in confined intercellular and organotypic tissues, with reduced steric hindrance and no crosslinking compared with multivalent probes. We use mSA to decipher the dynamics and nanoscale organization of the synaptic adhesion molecules neurexin-1β, neuroligin-1 (Nlg1) and leucine-rich-repeat transmembrane protein 2 (LRRTM2) in a dual-colour configuration with GFP nanobody, and show that these proteins are diffusionally trapped at synapses where they form apposed trans-synaptic adhesive structures. Furthermore, Nlg1 is dynamic, disperse and sensitive to synaptic stimulation, whereas LRRTM2 is organized in compact and stable nanodomains. Thus, mSA is a versatile tool to image membrane proteins at high resolution in complex live environments, providing novel information about the nano-organization of biological structures. PMID:26979420

  6. SuperNova, a monomeric photosensitizing fluorescent protein for chromophore-assisted light inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Kiwamu; Matsuda, Tomoki; Sakai, Naoki; Fu, Donald; Noda, Masanori; Uchiyama, Susumu; Kotera, Ippei; Arai, Yoshiyuki; Horiuchi, Masataka; Fukui, Kiichi; Ayabe, Tokiyoshi; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Nagai, Takeharu

    2013-01-01

    Chromophore-assisted light inactivation (CALI) is a powerful technique for acute perturbation of biomolecules in a spatio-temporally defined manner in living specimen with reactive oxygen species (ROS). Whereas a chemical photosensitizer including fluorescein must be added to specimens exogenously and cannot be restricted to particular cells or sub-cellular compartments, a genetically-encoded photosensitizer, KillerRed, can be controlled in its expression by tissue specific promoters or subcellular localization tags. Despite of this superiority, KillerRed hasn't yet become a versatile tool because its dimerization tendency prevents fusion with proteins of interest. Here, we report the development of monomeric variant of KillerRed (SuperNova) by direct evolution using random mutagenesis. In contrast to KillerRed, SuperNova in fusion with target proteins shows proper localization. Furthermore, unlike KillerRed, SuperNova expression alone doesn't perturb mitotic cell division. Supernova retains the ability to generate ROS, and hence promote CALI-based functional analysis of target proteins overcoming the major drawbacks of KillerRed.

  7. Hydrogen production from the monomeric sugars hydrolyzed from hemicellulose by Enterobacter aerogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yunli; Wang, Jianji; Liu, Zhen; Ren, Yunlai; Li, Guozhi [School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmaceutics, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471039, Henan (China)

    2009-12-15

    Relatively large percentages of xylose with glucose, arabinose, mannose, galactose and rhamnose constitute the hydrolysis products of hemicellulose. In this paper, hydrogen production performance of facultative anaerobe (Enterobacter aerogenes) has been investigated from these different monomeric sugars except glucose. It was shown that the stereoisomers of mannose and galactose were more effective for hydrogen production than those of xylose and arabinose. The substrate of 5 g/l xylose resulted in a relative high level of hydrogen yield (73.8 mmol/l), hydrogen production efficiency (2.2 mol/mol) and a maximum hydrogen production rate (249 ml/l/h). The hydrogen yield, hydrogen production efficiency and the maximum hydrogen production rate reached 104 mmol/l, 2.35 mol/mol and 290 ml/l/h, respectively, on a substrate of 10 g/l galactose. The hydrogen yields and the maximum hydrogen production rates increased with an increase of mannose concentrations and reached 119 mmol/l and 518 ml/l/h on the culture of 25 g/l mannose. However, rhamnose was a relative poor carbon resource for E. aerogenes to produce hydrogen, from which the hydrogen yield and hydrogen production efficiency were about one half of that from the mannose substrate. E. aerogenes was found to be a promising strain for hydrogen production from hydrolysis products of hemicellulose. (author)

  8. Generation of transgenic Wuzhishan miniature pigs expressing monomeric red fluorescent protein by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yue; Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo; Wang, Wei; Jin, Jun-Xue; Hong, Yu; Cui, Cheng-du; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun

    2013-08-01

    Red fluorescent protein and its variants enable researchers to study gene expression, localization, and protein-protein interactions in vitro in real-time. Fluorophores with higher wavelengths are usually preferred since they efficiently penetrate tissues and produce less toxic emissions. A recently developed fluorescent protein marker, monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1), is particularly useful because of its rapid maturation and minimal interference with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and GFP-derived markers. We generated a pCX-mRFP1-pgk-neoR construct and evaluated the ability of mRFP1 to function as a fluorescent marker in transgenic Wuzhishan miniature pigs. Transgenic embryos were generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) of nuclei isolated from ear fibroblasts expressing mRFP1. Embryos generated by SCNT developed into blastocysts in vitro (11.65%; 31/266). Thereafter, a total of 685 transgenic embryos were transferred into the oviducts of three recipients, two of which became pregnant. Of these, one recipient had six aborted fetuses, whereas the other recipient gave birth to four offspring. All offspring expressed the pCX-mRFP1-pgk-neoR gene as shown by PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. The transgenic pigs expressed mRFP1 in all organs and tissues at high levels. These results demonstrate that Wuzhishan miniature pigs can express mRFP1. To conclude, this transgenic animal represents an excellent model with widespread applications in medicine and agriculture.

  9. Contribution of Monomeric Anthocyanins to the Color of Young Red Wine: Statistical and Experimental Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fu Liang; Li, Zheng; Xu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Monomeric anthocyanin contributions to young red wine color were investigated using partial least square regression (PLSR) and aqueous alcohol solutions in this study. Results showed that the correlation between the anthocyanin concentration and the solution color fitted in a quadratic regression rather than linear or cubic regression. Malvidin-3-O-glucoside was estimated to show the highest contribution to young red wine color according to its concentration in wine, whereas peonidin-3-O-glucoside in its concentration contributed the least. The PLSR suggested that delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-O-glucoside under the same concentration resulted in a stronger color of young red wine compared with malvidin-3-O-glucoside. These estimates were further confirmed by their color in aqueous alcohol solutions. These results suggested that delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-O-glucoside were primary anthocyanins to enhance young red wine color by increasing their concentrations. This study could provide an alternative approach to improve young red wine color by adjusting anthocyanin composition and concentration.

  10. Model of a DNA-protein complex of the architectural monomeric protein MC1 from Euryarchaea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Paquet

    Full Text Available In Archaea the two major modes of DNA packaging are wrapping by histone proteins or bending by architectural non-histone proteins. To supplement our knowledge about the binding mode of the different DNA-bending proteins observed across the three domains of life, we present here the first model of a complex in which the monomeric Methanogen Chromosomal protein 1 (MC1 from Euryarchaea binds to the concave side of a strongly bent DNA. In laboratory growth conditions MC1 is the most abundant architectural protein present in Methanosarcina thermophila CHTI55. Like most proteins that strongly bend DNA, MC1 is known to bind in the minor groove. Interaction areas for MC1 and DNA were mapped by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR data. The polarity of protein binding was determined using paramagnetic probes attached to the DNA. The first structural model of the DNA-MC1 complex we propose here was obtained by two complementary docking approaches and is in good agreement with the experimental data previously provided by electron microscopy and biochemistry. Residues essential to DNA-binding and -bending were highlighted and confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. It was found that the Arg25 side-chain was essential to neutralize the negative charge of two phosphates that come very close in response to a dramatic curvature of the DNA.

  11. Crystal structure of monomeric photosystem II from Thermosynechococcus elongatus at 3.6-a resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broser, Matthias; Gabdulkhakov, Azat; Kern, Jan; Guskov, Albert; Müh, Frank; Saenger, Wolfram; Zouni, Athina

    2010-08-20

    The membrane-embedded photosystem II core complex (PSIIcc) uses light energy to oxidize water in photosynthesis. Information about the spatial structure of PSIIcc obtained from x-ray crystallography was so far derived from homodimeric PSIIcc of thermophilic cyanobacteria. Here, we report the first crystallization and structural analysis of the monomeric form of PSIIcc with high oxygen evolution capacity, isolated from Thermosynechococcus elongatus. The crystals belong to the space group C222(1), contain one monomer per asymmetric unit, and diffract to a resolution of 3.6 A. The x-ray diffraction pattern of the PSIIcc-monomer crystals exhibit less anisotropy (dependence of resolution on crystal orientation) compared with crystals of dimeric PSIIcc, and the packing of the molecules within the unit cell is different. In the monomer, 19 protein subunits, 35 chlorophylls, two pheophytins, the non-heme iron, the primary plastoquinone Q(A), two heme groups, 11 beta-carotenes, 22 lipids, seven detergent molecules, and the Mn(4)Ca cluster of the water oxidizing complex could be assigned analogous to the dimer. Based on the new structural information, the roles of lipids and protein subunits in dimer formation of PSIIcc are discussed. Due to the lack of non-crystallographic symmetry and the orientation of the membrane normal of PSIIcc perpendicular ( approximately 87 degrees ) to the crystallographic b-axis, further information about the structure of the Mn(4)Ca cluster is expected to become available from orientation-dependent spectroscopy on this new crystal form.

  12. An Intrinsically Disordered Motif Mediates Diverse Actions of Monomeric C-reactive Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Yun; Wang, Jing; Meng, Fan; Jia, Zhe-Kun; Su, Yang; Bai, Qi-Feng; Lv, Ling-Ling; Ma, Fu-Rong; Potempa, Lawrence A; Yan, Yong-Bin; Ji, Shang-Rong; Wu, Yi

    2016-04-15

    Most proinflammatory actions of C-reactive protein (CRP) are only expressed following dissociation of its native pentameric assembly into monomeric form (mCRP). However, little is known about what underlies the greatly enhanced activities of mCRP. Here we show that a single sequence motif, i.e. cholesterol binding sequence (CBS; a.a. 35-47), is responsible for mediating the interactions of mCRP with diverse ligands. The binding of mCRP to lipoprotein component ApoB, to complement component C1q, to extracellular matrix components fibronectin and collagen, to blood coagulation component fibrinogen, and to membrane lipid component cholesterol, are all found to be markedly inhibited by the synthetic CBS peptide but not by other CRP sequences tested. Likewise, mutating CBS in mCRP also greatly impairs these interactions. Functional experiments further reveal that CBS peptide significantly reduces the effects of mCRP on activation of endothelial cells in vitro and on acute induction of IL-6 in mice. The potency and specificity of CBS are critically determined by the N-terminal residues Cys-36, Leu-37, and His-38; while the versatility of CBS appears to originate from its intrinsically disordered conformation polymorphism. Together, these data unexpectedly identify CBS as the major recognition site of mCRP and suggest that this motif may be exploited to tune the proinflammatory actions of mCRP.

  13. Lipoamino acid-based micelles as promising delivery vehicles for monomeric amphotericin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafim, Cláudia; Ferreira, Inês; Rijo, Patrícia; Pinheiro, Lídia; Faustino, Célia; Calado, António; Garcia-Rio, Luis

    2016-01-30

    Lipoamino acid-based micelles have been developed as delivery vehicles for the hydrophobic drug amphotericin B (AmB). The micellar solubilisation of AmB by a gemini lipoamino acid (LAA) derived from cysteine and its equimolar mixtures with the bile salts sodium cholate (NaC) and sodium deoxycholate (NaDC), as well as the aggregation sate of the drug in the micellar systems, was studied under biomimetic conditions (phosphate buffered-saline, pH 7.4) using UV-vis spectroscopy. Pure surfactant systems and equimolar mixtures were characterized by tensiometry and important parameters were determined, such as critical micelle concentration (CMC), surface tension at the CMC (γCMC), maximum surface excess concentration (Γmax), and minimum area occupied per molecule at the water/air interface (Amin). Rheological behaviour from viscosity measurements at different shear rates was also addressed. Solubilisation capacity was quantified in terms of molar solubilisation ratio (χ), micelle-water partition coefficient (KM) and Gibbs energy of solubilisation (ΔGs°). Formulations of AmB in micellar media were compared in terms of drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, aggregation state of AmB and in vitro antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The LAA-containing micellar systems solubilise AmB in its monomeric and less toxic form and exhibit in vitro antifungal activity comparable to that of the commercial formulation Fungizone.

  14. 7 CFR 930.16 - Sales constituency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... consignments of cherries and does not direct where the consigned cherries are sold is not a sales constituency....

  15. NN Interaction in Chiral Constituent Quark Models

    CERN Document Server

    Valcarce, A; González, P

    2003-01-01

    We review the actual state in the description of the NN interaction by means of chiral constituent quark models. We present a series of relevant features that are nicely explained within the quark model framework.

  16. Chiral symmetry and the constituent quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Glozman, L Ya

    1995-01-01

    New results on baryon structure and spectrum developed in collaboration with Dan Riska [1-4] are reported. The main idea is that beyond the chiral symmetry spontaneous breaking scale light and strange baryons should be considered as systems of three constituent quarks with an effective confining interaction and a chiral interaction that is mediated by the octet of Goldstone bosons (pseudoscalar mesons) between the constituent quarks.

  17. Baryons in chiral constituent quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Glozman, L Ya

    1996-01-01

    Beyond the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking scale light and strange baryons should be considered as systems of three constituent quarks with an effective confining interaction and a flavor-spin chiral interaction that is mediated by the octet of Goldstone bosons (pseudoscalar mesons) between the constituent quarks. One cannot exclude, however, the possibility that this flavor-spin interaction has an appreciable vector- and higher meson exchange component.

  18. Production of rhesus monkey cloned embryos expressing monomeric red fluorescent protein by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hai-Ying; Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo; Jin, Jun-Xue; Hong, Yu; Jin, Long; Guo, Qing; Gao, Qing-Shan; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun, E-mail: yinxj33@msn.com

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Rhesus monkey cells were electroporated with a plasmid containing mRFP1, and an mRFP1-expressing cell line was generated. • For the first time, mRFP1-expressing rhesus monkey cells were used as donor cells for iSCNT. • The effect of VPA on the development of embryos cloned using iSCNT was determined. - Abstract: Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a promising method to clone endangered animals from which oocytes are difficult to obtain. Monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) is an excellent selection marker for transgenically modified cloned embryos during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In this study, mRFP-expressing rhesus monkey cells or porcine cells were transferred into enucleated porcine oocytes to generate iSCNT and SCNT embryos, respectively. The development of these embryos was studied in vitro. The percentage of embryos that underwent cleavage did not significantly differ between iSCNT and SCNT embryos (P > 0.05; 71.53% vs. 80.30%). However, significantly fewer iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reached the blastocyst stage (2.04% vs. 10.19%, P < 0.05). Valproic acid was used in an attempt to increase the percentage of iSCNT embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage. However, the percentages of embryos that underwent cleavage and reached the blastocyst stage were similar between untreated iSCNT embryos and iSCNT embryos treated with 2 mM valproic acid for 24 h (72.12% vs. 70.83% and 2.67% vs. 2.35%, respectively). These data suggest that porcine-rhesus monkey interspecies embryos can be generated that efficiently express mRFP1. However, a significantly lower proportion of iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reach the blastocyst stage. Valproic acid does not increase the percentage of porcine-rhesus monkey iSCNT embryos that reach the blastocyst stage. The mechanisms underling nuclear reprogramming and epigenetic modifications in iSCNT need to be investigated further.

  19. Monomeric malonate precursors for the MOCVD of HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothiraja, Ramasamy; Milanov, Andrian; Parala, Harish; Winter, Manuela; Fischer, Roland A; Devi, Anjana

    2009-01-28

    New Hf and Zr malonate complexes have been synthesized by the reaction of metal amides with different malonate ligands (L = dimethyl malonate (Hdmml), diethyl malonate (Hdeml), di-tert-butyl malonate (Hdbml) and bis(trimethylsilyl) malonate (Hbsml)). Homoleptic eight-coordinated monomeric compounds of the type ML4 were obtained for Hf with all the malonate ligands employed. In contrast, for Zr only Hdmml and Hdeml yielded the eight-coordinated monomeric compounds of the type ML4, while using the bulky Hdbml and Hbsml ligands resulted into mixed alkoxo-malonato six-coordinated compounds of the type [ML2(OR)2]. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of all the compounds are presented and discussed, and they are found to be monomeric. The complexes are solids and in solution, they retain their monomeric nature as evidenced by NMR measurements. Compared to the classical beta-diketonate complexes, [M(acac)4] and [M(thd)4] (M = Hf, Zr; acac: acetylacetonate; thd: tetramethylheptadione), the new malonate compounds are more volatile, decompose at lower temperatures and have lower melting points. In particular, the homoleptic diethyl malonate complexes of Hf and Zr melt at temperatures as low as 62 degrees C. In addition, the compounds are very stable in air and can be sublimed quantitatively. The promising thermal properties makes these compounds interesting for metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). This was demonstrated by depositing HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films successfully with two representative Hf and Zr complexes.

  20. Neurodevelopmental Expression Profile of Dimeric and Monomeric Group 1 mGluRs: Relevance to Schizophrenia Pathogenesis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jeremy S.; Fernandez, Francesca; Matosin, Natalie; Andrews, Jessica L.; Huang, Xu-Feng; Ooi, Lezanne; Newell, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1/mGluR5) play an integral role in neurodevelopment and are implicated in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. mGluR1 and mGluR5 are expressed as homodimers, which is important for their functionality and pharmacology. We examined the protein expression of dimeric and monomeric mGluR1α and mGluR5 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus throughout development (juvenile/adolescence/adulthood) and in the perinatal phencyclidine (PCP) model of schizophrenia. Under control conditions, mGluR1α dimer expression increased between juvenile and adolescence (209–328%), while monomeric levels remained consistent. Dimeric mGluR5 was steadily expressed across all time points; monomeric mGluR5 was present in juveniles, dramatically declining at adolescence and adulthood (−97–99%). The mGluR regulators, Homer 1b/c and Norbin, significantly increased with age in the PFC and hippocampus. Perinatal PCP treatment significantly increased juvenile dimeric mGluR5 levels in the PFC and hippocampus (37–50%) but decreased hippocampal mGluR1α (−50–56%). Perinatal PCP treatment also reduced mGluR1α dimer levels in the PFC at adulthood (−31%). These results suggest that Group 1 mGluRs have distinct dimeric and monomeric neurodevelopmental patterns, which may impact their pharmacological profiles at specific ages. Perinatal PCP treatment disrupted the early expression of Group 1 mGluRs which may underlie neurodevelopmental alterations observed in this model. PMID:27721389

  1. Monomerization of viral entry inhibitor griffithsin elucidates the relationship between multivalent binding to carbohydrates and anti-HIV activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulaei, Tinoush; Shenoy, Shilpa R; Giomarelli, Barbara; Thomas, Cheryl; McMahon, James B; Dauter, Zbigniew; O'Keefe, Barry R; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2010-09-08

    Mutations were introduced to the domain-swapped homodimer of the antiviral lectin griffithsin (GRFT). Whereas several single and double mutants remained dimeric, insertion of either two or four amino acids at the dimerization interface resulted in a monomeric form of the protein (mGRFT). Monomeric character of the modified proteins was confirmed by sedimentation equilibrium ultracentrifugation and by their high resolution X-ray crystal structures, whereas their binding to carbohydrates was assessed by isothermal titration calorimetry. Cell-based antiviral activity assays utilizing different variants of mGRFT indicated that the monomeric form of the lectin had greatly reduced activity against HIV-1, suggesting that the antiviral activity of GRFT stems from crosslinking and aggregation of viral particles via multivalent interactions between GRFT and oligosaccharides present on HIV envelope glycoproteins. Atomic resolution crystal structure of a complex between mGRFT and nonamannoside revealed that a single mGRFT molecule binds to two different nonamannoside molecules through all three carbohydrate-binding sites present on the monomer.

  2. Identification of the chromophores involved in aggregation-dependent energy quenching of the monomeric photosystem II antenna protein Lhcb5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballottari, Matteo; Girardon, Julien; Betterle, Nico; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bassi, Roberto

    2010-09-03

    Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of excess absorbed light energy is a fundamental process that regulates photosynthetic light harvesting in higher plants. Among several proposed NPQ mechanisms, aggregation-dependent quenching (ADQ) and charge transfer quenching have received the most attention. In vitro spectroscopic features of both mechanisms correlate with very similar signals detected in more intact systems and in vivo, where full NPQ can be observed. A major difference between the models is the proposed quenching site, which is predominantly the major trimeric light-harvesting complex II in ADQ and exclusively monomeric Lhcb proteins in charge transfer quenching. Here, we studied ADQ in both monomeric and trimeric Lhcb proteins, investigating the activities of each antenna subunit and their dependence on zeaxanthin, a major modulator of NPQ in vivo. We found that monomeric Lhcb proteins undergo stronger quenching than light-harvesting complex II during aggregation and that this is enhanced by binding to zeaxanthin, as occurs during NPQ in vivo. Finally, the analysis of Lhcb5 mutants showed that chlorophyll 612 and 613, in close contact with lutein bound at site L1, are important facilitators of ADQ.

  3. Induction of antibodies against epitopes inaccessible on the HIV type 1 envelope oligomer by immunization with recombinant monomeric glycoprotein 120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Bolmstedt, A; Novotny, J

    1998-01-01

    An N-glycan (N306) at the base of the V3 loop of HIV-BRU gp120 is shielding a linear neutralization epitope at the tip of the V3 loop on oligomeric Env. In contrast, this epitope is readily antigenic on monomeric gp120. Immunization with recombinant monomeric HIV-BRU gp120 may thus be expected...... to elicit antibodies preferentially neutralizing mutant variants of HIV-BRU lacking the N306 glycan. Therefore, two guinea pigs were immunized with monomeric wild-type HIV-BRU gp120 possessing the N306 glycan and immune sera were tested for neutralization against target viruses HIV-BRU, -A308, and -A308T321....... HIV-A308 and HIV-A308T321 lack the N306 glycan; HIV-A308T321 contains an additional mutation at the tip of V3 rendering it resistant to MAb binding at this epitope. Both immune sera preferentially neutralized the two mutant virus variants lacking the N306 glycan, with a 10- to 20-fold increase...

  4. Induction of antibodies against epitopes inaccessible on the HIV type 1 envelope oligomer by immunization with recombinant monomeric glycoprotein 120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Bolmstedt, A; Novotny, J

    1998-01-01

    An N-glycan (N306) at the base of the V3 loop of HIV-BRU gp120 is shielding a linear neutralization epitope at the tip of the V3 loop on oligomeric Env. In contrast, this epitope is readily antigenic on monomeric gp120. Immunization with recombinant monomeric HIV-BRU gp120 may thus be expected...... to elicit antibodies preferentially neutralizing mutant variants of HIV-BRU lacking the N306 glycan. Therefore, two guinea pigs were immunized with monomeric wild-type HIV-BRU gp120 possessing the N306 glycan and immune sera were tested for neutralization against target viruses HIV-BRU, -A308, and -A308T321....... HIV-A308 and HIV-A308T321 lack the N306 glycan; HIV-A308T321 contains an additional mutation at the tip of V3 rendering it resistant to MAb binding at this epitope. Both immune sera preferentially neutralized the two mutant virus variants lacking the N306 glycan, with a 10- to 20-fold increase...

  5. Monomeric and gemini surfactants as antimicrobial agents - influence on environmental and reference strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziróg, Anna; Brycki, Bogumił

    2015-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) belong to surfactant commonly used both, in the household and in different branches of industry, primarily in the process of cleaning and disinfection. They have several positive features inter alia effectively limiting the development of microorganisms on many surfaces. In the present work, two compounds were used as biocides: hexamethylene-1,6-bis-(N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecylammonium bromide) that belongs to the gemini surfactant (GS), and its single analogue - dodecyl(trimethyl)ammonium bromide (DTAB). Two fold dilution method was used to determine the minimum concentration of compounds (MIC) which inhibit the growth of bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538 and an environmental strain), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 85327 and an environmental strain), and yeast Candida albicans (ATCC 11509 and an environmental strain). The viability of cells in liquid cultures with addition of these substances at ¼ MIC, ½ MIC and MIC concentrations were also determined. The obtained results show that DTAB inhibits the growth of bacteria at the concentration of 0.126-1.010 µM/ml, and gemini surfactant is active at 0.036-0.029 µM/ml. Therefore, GS is active at more than 17-70-fold lower concentrations than its monomeric analogue. Strains isolated from natural environment are less sensitive upon testing biocides than the references strains. Both compounds at the MIC value reduced the number of cells of all strains. The use of too low concentration of biocides can limit the growth of microorganisms, but often only for a short period of time in case of special environmental strains. Later on, they can adapt to adverse environmental conditions and begin to evolve defence mechanisms.

  6. Production of transgenic cloned pigs expressing the far-red fluorescent protein monomeric Plum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masahito; Kobayashi, Mirina; Nagaya, Masaki; Matsunari, Hitomi; Nakano, Kazuaki; Maehara, Miki; Hayashida, Gota; Takayanagi, Shuko; Sakai, Rieko; Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Nobuyuki; Onodera, Masafumi; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Monomeric Plum (Plum), a far-red fluorescent protein with photostability and photopermeability, is potentially suitable for in vivo imaging and detection of fluorescence in body tissues. The aim of this study was to generate transgenic cloned pigs exhibiting systemic expression of Plum using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. Nuclear donor cells for SCNT were obtained by introducing a Plum-expression vector driven by a combination of the cytomegalovirus early enhancer and chicken beta-actin promoter into porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs). The cleavage and blastocyst formation rates of reconstructed SCNT embryos were 81.0% (34/42) and 78.6% (33/42), respectively. At 36-37 days of gestation, three fetuses systemically expressing Plum were obtained from one recipient to which 103 SCNT embryos were transferred (3/103, 2.9%). For generation of offspring expressing Plum, rejuvenated PFFs were established from one cloned fetus and used as nuclear donor cells. Four cloned offspring and one stillborn cloned offspring were produced from one recipient to which 117 SCNT embryos were transferred (5/117, 4.3%). All offspring exhibited high levels of Plum fluorescence in blood cells, such as lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes. In addition, the skin, heart, kidney, pancreas, liver and spleen also exhibited Plum expression. These observations demonstrated that transfer of the Plum gene did not interfere with the development of porcine SCNT embryos and resulted in the successful generation of transgenic cloned pigs that systemically expressed Plum. This is the first report of the generation and characterization of transgenic cloned pigs expressing the far-red fluorescent protein Plum.

  7. Purification and biochemical characterization of a monomeric form of papaya mosaic potexvirus coat protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecours, Katia; Tremblay, Marie-Hélène; Gagné, Marie-Eve Laliberté; Gagné, Stéphane M; Leclerc, Denis

    2006-05-01

    Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) is a flexuous rod shape virus made of 1400 subunits that assemble around a plus sense genomic RNA. The structure determination of PapMV and of flexuous viruses in general is a major challenge for both NMR and X-ray crystallography. In this report, we present the characterization of a truncated version of the PapMV coat protein (CP) that is suitable for NMR study. The deletion of the N-terminal 26 amino acids of the PapMV CP (CP27-215) generates a monomer that can be expressed to high level and easily purified for production of an adequate NMR sample. The RNA gel shift assay showed that CP27-215 lost its ability to bind RNA in vitro, suggesting that the multimerization of the subunit is important for this function. The fusion of a 6x His tag at the C-terminus improved the solubility of the monomer and allowed its concentration to 0.2 mM. The CD spectra of the truncated and the wild-type proteins were similar, suggesting that both proteins are well ordered and have a similar secondary structure. CP27-215 was 15N labeled for NMR studies and a 2D 1H-15N-HSQC spectrum confirmed the presence of a well-ordered structure and the monomeric form of the protein. These results show that CP27-215 is amenable to a complete and exhaustive NMR study that should lead to the first three-dimensional structure determination of a flexuous rod shape virus.

  8. Production of transgenic cloned pigs expressing the far-red fluorescent protein monomeric Plum

    Science.gov (United States)

    WATANABE, Masahito; KOBAYASHI, Mirina; NAGAYA, Masaki; MATSUNARI, Hitomi; NAKANO, Kazuaki; MAEHARA, Miki; HAYASHIDA, Gota; TAKAYANAGI, Shuko; SAKAI, Rieko; UMEYAMA, Kazuhiro; WATANABE, Nobuyuki; ONODERA, Masafumi; NAGASHIMA, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Monomeric Plum (Plum), a far-red fluorescent protein with photostability and photopermeability, is potentially suitable for in vivo imaging and detection of fluorescence in body tissues. The aim of this study was to generate transgenic cloned pigs exhibiting systemic expression of Plum using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. Nuclear donor cells for SCNT were obtained by introducing a Plum-expression vector driven by a combination of the cytomegalovirus early enhancer and chicken beta-actin promoter into porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs). The cleavage and blastocyst formation rates of reconstructed SCNT embryos were 81.0% (34/42) and 78.6% (33/42), respectively. At 36–37 days of gestation, three fetuses systemically expressing Plum were obtained from one recipient to which 103 SCNT embryos were transferred (3/103, 2.9%). For generation of offspring expressing Plum, rejuvenated PFFs were established from one cloned fetus and used as nuclear donor cells. Four cloned offspring and one stillborn cloned offspring were produced from one recipient to which 117 SCNT embryos were transferred (5/117, 4.3%). All offspring exhibited high levels of Plum fluorescence in blood cells, such as lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes. In addition, the skin, heart, kidney, pancreas, liver and spleen also exhibited Plum expression. These observations demonstrated that transfer of the Plum gene did not interfere with the development of porcine SCNT embryos and resulted in the successful generation of transgenic cloned pigs that systemically expressed Plum. This is the first report of the generation and characterization of transgenic cloned pigs expressing the far-red fluorescent protein Plum. PMID:25739316

  9. Structural Analysis of Monomeric RNA-Dependent Polymerases: Evolutionary and Therapeutic Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Jácome

    Full Text Available The crystal structures of monomeric RNA-dependent RNA polymerases and reverse transcriptases of more than 20 different viruses are available in the Protein Data Bank. They all share the characteristic right-hand shape of DNA- and RNA polymerases formed by the fingers, palm and thumb subdomains, and, in many cases, "fingertips" that extend from the fingers towards the thumb subdomain, giving the viral enzyme a closed right-hand appearance. Six conserved structural motifs that contain key residues for the proper functioning of the enzyme have been identified in all these RNA-dependent polymerases. These enzymes share a two divalent metal-ion mechanism of polymerization in which two conserved aspartate residues coordinate the interactions with the metal ions to catalyze the nucleotidyl transfer reaction. The recent availability of crystal structures of polymerases of the Orthomyxoviridae and Bunyaviridae families allowed us to make pairwise comparisons of the tertiary structures of polymerases belonging to the four main RNA viral groups, which has led to a phylogenetic tree in which single-stranded negative RNA viral polymerases have been included for the first time. This has also allowed us to use a homology-based structural prediction approach to develop a general three-dimensional model of the Ebola virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Our model includes several of the conserved structural motifs and residues described in other viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases that define the catalytic and highly conserved palm subdomain, as well as portions of the fingers and thumb subdomains. The results presented here help to understand the current use and apparent success of antivirals, i.e. Brincidofovir, Lamivudine and Favipiravir, originally aimed at other types of polymerases, to counteract the Ebola virus infection.

  10. Monomeric adiponectin increases cell viability in porcine aortic endothelial cells cultured in normal and high glucose conditions: Data on kinases activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grossini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We found that monomeric adiponectin was able to increase cell viability in porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAE cultured both in normal and high glucose condition. Moreover, in normal glucose condition monomeric adiponectin increased p38MAPK, Akt, ERK1/2 and eNOS phosphorylation in a dose- and time-dependent way. Also in high glucose condition monomeric adiponectin increased eNOS and above kinases phosphorylation with similar patterns but at lower extent. For interpretation of the data presented in this article, please see the research article “Monomeric adiponectin modulates nitric oxide release and calcium movements in porcine aortic endothelial cells in normal/high glucose conditions” (Grossini et al., in press [1].

  11. A monomeric methyl and hydroxypropyl methacrylate injection medium and its utility in casting blood capillaries and liver bile canaliculi for scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, T; Itoshima, T; Hitomi, K; Ohtsuka, A; Jones, A L

    1984-06-01

    A mixture of 50-60% monomeric methyl methacrylate and 40-50% monomeric 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate was supplemented with 1.5% benzoyl peroxide (catalyst) and 1.5% N,N-dimethylaniline (accelerator) and injected into glutaraldehyde-perfusion fixed rat hypophyseal and other endocrine organ blood vessels and biliary tracts. This injection medium rapidly polymerized at room temperature and did not require partial polymerization prior to injection. Good casts of blood vessels, including the hypophyseal capillaries, were obtained for scanning electron microscopy. The monomeric methacrylate medium possesses a great advantage over previous ones, as its fluidity enables the casting of very fine vessels such as bile canaliculi. In the case of non-fixed tissues, the monomeric methacrylate medium should be injected carefully, as it is toxic and destructive to the vessels.

  12. Single Enzyme Studies Reveal the Existence of Discrete Functional States for Monomeric Enzymes and How They Are “Selected” upon Allosteric Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatzakis, Nikos S.; Wei, Li; Jørgensen, Sune Klamer

    2012-01-01

    allosteric regulation of monomeric enzymes is poorly understood. Here we monitored for the first time allosteric regulation of enzymatic activity at the single molecule level. We measured single stochastic catalytic turnovers of a monomeric metabolic enzyme (Thermomyces lanuginosus Lipase) while titrating...... its proximity to a lipid membrane that acts as an allosteric effector. The single molecule measurements revealed the existence of discrete binary functional states that could not be identified in macroscopic measurements due to ensemble averaging. The discrete functional states correlate...

  13. Gluonic structure of the constituent quark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochelev, Nikolai, E-mail: kochelev@theor.jinr.ru [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow Region, 141980 (Russian Federation); Lee, Hee-Jung [Department of Physics Education, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Baiyang; Zhang, Pengming [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-06-10

    Based on both the constituent quark picture and the instanton model for QCD vacuum, we calculate the unpolarized and polarized gluon distributions in the constituent quark and in the nucleon. Our approach consists of the two main steps. At the first step, we calculate the gluon distributions inside the constituent quark generated by the perturbative quark–gluon interaction, the non-perturbative quark–gluon interaction, and the non-perturbative quark–gluon–pion anomalous chromomagnetic interaction. The non-perturbative interactions are related to the existence of the instantons, strong topological fluctuations of gluon fields, in the QCD vacuum. At the second step, the convolution model is applied to derive the gluon distributions in the nucleon. A very important role of the pion field in producing the unpolarized and the polarized gluon distributions in the hadrons is discovered. We discuss a possible solution of the proton spin problem.

  14. Total allowable concentrations of monomeric inorganic aluminum and hydrated aluminum silicates in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhite, Calvin C; Ball, Gwendolyn L; McLellan, Clifton J

    2012-05-01

    Maximum contaminant levels are used to control potential health hazards posed by chemicals in drinking water, but no primary national or international limits for aluminum (Al) have been adopted. Given the differences in toxicological profiles, the present evaluation derives total allowable concentrations for certain water-soluble inorganic Al compounds (including chloride, hydroxide, oxide, phosphate and sulfate) and for the hydrated Al silicates (including attapulgite, bentonite/montmorillonite, illite, kaolinite) in drinking water. The chemistry, toxicology and clinical experience with Al materials are extensive and depend upon the particular physical and chemical form. In general, the water solubility of the monomeric Al materials depends on pH and their water solubility and gastrointestinal bioavailability are much greater than that of the hydrated Al silicates. Other than Al-containing antacids and buffered aspirin, food is the primary source of Al exposure for most healthy people. Systemic uptake of Al after ingestion of the monomeric salts is somewhat greater from drinking water (0.28%) than from food (0.1%). Once absorbed, Al accumulates in bone, brain, liver and kidney, with bone as the major site for Al deposition in humans. Oral Al hydroxide is used routinely to bind phosphate salts in the gut to control hyperphosphatemia in people with compromised renal function. Signs of chronic Al toxicity in the musculoskeletal system include a vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia (deranged membranous bone formation characterized by accumulation of the osteoid matrix and reduced mineralization, reduced numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, decreased lamellar and osteoid bands with elevated Al concentrations) presenting as bone pain and proximal myopathy. Aluminum-induced bone disease can progress to stress fractures of the ribs, femur, vertebrae, humerus and metatarsals. Serum Al ≥100 µg/L has a 75-88% positive predictive value for Al bone disease. Chronic Al

  15. Use of the quartz crystal microbalance to determine the monomeric friction coefficient of polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Mary M.

    1995-01-01

    When a thin film of polymer is coated on to a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), the QCM can be used to detect the rate of increase in weight of the polymer film as the volatile penetrant diffuses into the polymer. From this rate information the diffusion coefficient of the penetrant into the polymer can be computed. Calculations requiring this diffusion coefficient lead to values which approximate the monomeric friction coefficient of the polymer. This project has been concerned with the trial of crystal oscillating circuits suitable for driving polymer coated crystals in an atmosphere of penetrant. For these studies done at room temperature, natural rubber was used as an easily applied polymer that is readily penetrated by toluene vapors, qualities anticipated with polyimides when they are tested at T(g) in the presence of toluene. Three quartz crystal oscillator circuits were tested. The simplest circuit used +/- 5 volt dc and had a transistor to transistor logic (TTL) inverter chip that provides a 180 deg phase shift via a feed back loop. This oscillator circuit was stable but would not drive the crystal when the crystal was coated with polymer and subjected to toluene vapors. Removal of a variable resistor from this circuit increased stability but did not otherwise increase performance. Another driver circuit tested contained a two stage differential input, differential output, wide band video amplifier and also contain a feed back loop. The circuit voltage could not be varied and operated at +/- 5 volts dc; this circuit was also stable but failed to oscillate the polymer coated crystal in an atmosphere saturated with toluene vapors. The third oscillator circuit was of similar construction and relied on the same video amplifier but allowed operation with variable voltage. This circuit would drive the crystal when the crystal was submerged in liquid toluene and when the crystal was coated with polymer and immersed in toluene vapors. The frequency readings

  16. Mesons in the Constituent Quark Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; PING Jia-Lun

    2007-01-01

    The quark-antiquark (q(-q)) spectrum is studied by solving the Schrǒdinger equation in the framework of non-relativistic constituent quark model. An overall good fit to the experimental data of meson is obtained. The interactions between quark and antiquark consist of quadratic colour confinement-exchange, one-gluon-exchange, and Goldstone-boson-exchange potentials.

  17. The fragrance mix and its constituents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    1995-01-01

    Results from 14 years of patch testing with the fragrance mix and its constituents are reviewed. From 1979-1992, 8215 consecutive patients were patch tested with the fragrance mix and 449 (5.5%) had a positive reaction. An increase in the frequency of reactions to fragrance mix was seen from the ...

  18. 21 CFR 610.15 - Constituent materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS General Provisions § 610.15 Constituent materials. (a) Ingredients... culture produced vaccines. Extraneous protein known to be capable of producing allergenic effects in human subjects shall not be added to a final virus medium of cell culture produced vaccines intended...

  19. Inorganic constituents of some Turkish lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, S.; Taptik, Y.; Yavuz, R.; Kuecuekbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty

    1996-12-31

    In this study the mineral matter contents of two different Turkish lignite samples from Cayirhan and Tuncbilek regions were isolated by means of mild oxidation of organic matrix applying H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/HCOOH treatment. The isolated minerals were analyzed by XRD and FTIR techniques and constituents of the minerals were investigated qualitatively.

  20. Studies on Chemical Constituents From Artabotrys Hainanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guangying; SONG Xiao-Ping; HAN Chang-ri

    2004-01-01

    Artabotrys Hainanensis R.E. Fries are plants of the Annonaccac family artabotrys genus,which includes an estimated 100 types of plants distributed mainly in the tropical zone and the subtropics areas. Four types of the plants are discovered in our country, two of which, A.Hongkongensis Hance and A. hexapetalus (Linn. F.) Bhandari, in Guangdong Province, and the other two, A. Pilosus and A. Hainanensis R.E. Fries, in Hainan Province. The latter are widely distributed in Hainan Island with very rich reserves. They have long been used among the ordinary people as medicinal plants with antipyretic, antidotal, antiphlogistic and analgesic effects and are often used for malaria. Scholars from home and abroad have paid much attention to the plants of the Annonaccac family for their containing anti-tumor activities, and after early or late research of the chemical constituents of the root, stem (derm), leaf and fruit of many types of plants of Artabotrys genus, more than 40 compounds including alkaloid, flavone and terpenoid have been isolated and obtained. Artabotrys Hainanensis R.E. Fries are Hainan endemic plants and there has been no report on the research of their chemical constituents and biological activities so far. In order to find new constituents of pharmacologic activity, we have researched the chemical constituents of the leaf and stem.The crude drugs were collected from Hainan Jianfeng Mountain and were identified as Artabotrys Hainanensis R.E. Fries of the Annonaccac family artabotrys genus. Its sample specimen is now kept in Chemistry Department of Hainan Normal University.After isolation and identification of constituent, six compounds were isolated from the leaf of Artabotrys Hainanensis R.E. Fries and elucidated as β -sitosterol (Ⅰ), catechin (Ⅱ), mangiferin (Ⅲ),(Ⅳ), (Ⅴ), (Ⅵ). All the compounds were obtained from this plant for the first time. Compounds Ⅱ, Ⅲ,Ⅳ, Ⅴ and Ⅵ were obtained from the genus of Artabotrys for the first time.

  1. Structure/function analysis of PARP-1 in oxidative and nitrosative stress-induced monomeric ADPR formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Buelow

    Full Text Available Poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1 is a multifunctional enzyme that is involved in two major cellular responses to oxidative and nitrosative (O/N stress: detection and response to DNA damage via formation of protein-bound poly adenosine diphosphate-ribose (PAR, and formation of the soluble 2(nd messenger monomeric adenosine diphosphate-ribose (mADPR. Previous studies have delineated specific roles for several of PARP-1's structural domains in the context of its involvement in a DNA damage response. However, little is known about the relationship between the mechanisms through which PARP-1 participates in DNA damage detection/response and those involved in the generation of monomeric ADPR. To better understand the relationship between these events, we undertook a structure/function analysis of PARP-1 via reconstitution of PARP-1 deficient DT40 cells with PARP-1 variants deficient in catalysis, DNA binding, auto-PARylation, and PARP-1's BRCT protein interaction domain. Analysis of responses of the respective reconstituted cells to a model O/N stressor indicated that PARP-1 catalytic activity, DNA binding, and auto-PARylation are required for PARP-dependent mADPR formation, but that BRCT-mediated interactions are dispensable. As the BRCT domain is required for PARP-dependent recruitment of XRCC1 to sites of DNA damage, these results suggest that DNA repair and monomeric ADPR 2(nd messenger generation are parallel mechanisms through which PARP-1 modulates cellular responses to O/N stress.

  2. Monomeric Cu(Ⅱ) Complex Containing Chiral Phase-transfer Catalyst as Ligand and Its Asymmetrically Catalytic Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Zhi-Rong; XIONG Ren-Gen

    2008-01-01

    The thermal treatment of CuCl2 with N-(4'-vinylbenzyl)cinchonidinitim chloride(L1)afforded a monomeric discrete homochiral copper(Ⅱ)complex N-4'-(vinylbenzyl)cinchonidinium trichlorocoprate(Ⅱ)(1).Their applications to the enantioselectively catalytic alkylation reaction of N-(diphenylmethylidene)glycine tert-butyl ester(3)show that the higher ee value observed in catalyst 1 than that in the corresponding free ligand L1 is probably due to the rigidity enhancement after the coordination of N atom of quinoline ring to the copper ion.

  3. Two-dimensional crystallization of monomeric bovine cytochrome c oxidase with bound cytochrome c in reconstituted lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuda, Yukiho; Shinzawa-Itoh, Kyoko; Tani, Kazutoshi; Maeda, Shintaro; Yoshikawa, Shinya; Tsukihara, Tomitake; Gerle, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase utilizes electrons provided by cytochrome c for the active vectorial transport of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane through the reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Direct structural evidence on the transient cytochrome c oxidase-cytochrome c complex thus far, however, remains elusive and its physiological relevant oligomeric form is unclear. Here, we report on the 2D crystallization of monomeric bovine cytochrome c oxidase with tightly bound cytochrome c at a molar ratio of 1:1 in reconstituted lipid membranes at the basic pH of 8.5 and low ionic strength.

  4. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Water Vapor Corrosion in EBC Constituent Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Benjamin; Fox, Dennis; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC) materials are sought after to protect ceramic matrix composites (CMC) in high temperature turbine engines. CMCs are particularly susceptible to degradation from oxidation, Ca-Al-Mg-Silicate (CMAS), and water vapor during high temperature operation which necessitates the use of EBCs. However, the work presented here focuses on water vapor induced recession in EBC constituent materials. For example, in the presence of water vapor, silica will react to form Si(OH)4 (g) which will eventually corrode the material away. To investigate the recession rate in EBC constituent materials under high temperature water vapor conditions, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) is employed. The degradation process can then be modeled through a simple boundary layer expression. Ultimately, comparisons are made between various single- and poly-crystalline materials (e.g. TiO2, SiO2) against those found in literature.

  6. [Chemical Constituents from Melissa officinalis Leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zi-yang; Yang, Yan-xia; Zhuang, Fang-fang; Yan, Fu-lin; Wang, Chang-hong

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves. The chemical constituents were separated by silica gel column chromatography and their structures were determined by spectroscopic experiments. 13 compounds were isolated and identified as protocatechuyl aldehyde(1), serratagenic acid(2), vanillin(3), 2α,3β-dihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid(4), ursolic acid(5), oleanolic acid(6), daucosterol(7),2α,3β,23,29-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid-29-O-β-D-gluco- pyranoside(8), luteolin(9) rosmarinic acid(10), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (11), β-stitosterol(12) and palmitic acid(13). Compounds 1 ~ 8 are separated from this plant for the first time and compounds 1-4 and 8 are isolated from this genus for the first time.

  7. Chemical Constituents from Roots of Flemingia philippinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Man-qin; DENG Dun; FENG Shi-xiu; HUANG Ri-ming; TIAN Shuai; QIU Sheng-xiang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents from the roots of Flemingia philippinensis.Methods The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by combination of silica gel column,Sephadex LH-20,polyamide,and ODS column chromatography.The structures of the isolated compounds were identified by means of spectral data.Results Ten compounds were isolated from F.philippinensis and identified as isoderrone (1),dalparvin A (2),prunetin (3),7,3'-dihydroxy-5,4',5'-trimethoxyisoflavone (4),pratensein-7-O-β-D-glucoside (5),sissotrin (6),sophororicoside (7),formononetin (8),orobol (9),and biochanin A (10).Conclusion Compounds 1-6 are obtained from this plant for the first time.

  8. Chemical Constituents from Roots of Millettia speciosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Man-qin Fu; Geng-sheng Xiao; Yu-juan Xu; Ji-jun Wu; Yu-long Chen; Samuel-X Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents from the roots of Mil/ettia speciosa.Methods The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by silica gel,Sephadex LH-20,and ODS column chromatography.The structures were identified by means of spectral data.Results Fifteen compounds were isolated and identified as naringenin (1),liquiritigenin (2),garbanzol (3),7-hydroxy-6,4'-dimethoxyisoflavone (4),calycosin (5),2',5',7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone (6),2'-hydroxybiochanin A (7),6-methoxycalopogonium isoflavone A (8),demethylmedicarpin (9),4,4'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxychalcone (10),2',4'-dihydroxy-4-methoxychalcone (11),rhododendrol (12),secoisolariciresinol (13),bisdihydrosiringenin (14),and polystachyol (15).Conclusion All compounds are obtained from this plant for the first time.

  9. Conditions for homogeneous preparation of stable monomeric and oligomeric forms of activated Vip3A toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunthic, Thittaya; Surya, Wahyu; Promdonkoy, Boonhiang; Torres, Jaume; Boonserm, Panadda

    2016-07-29

    Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal proteins like Vip3A have been used for crop protection and to delay resistance to existing insecticidal Cry toxins. However, little is known about Vip3A's behavior or its mechanism of action, and a structural model is required. Herein, in an effort to facilitate future crystallization and functional studies, we have used the orthogonal biophysical techniques of light scattering and sedimentation to analyze the aggregation behavior and stability of trypsin-activated Vip3A toxin in solution. Both scattering and sedimentation data suggest that at pH 10 the toxin is monomeric and adopts an elongated shape, but after overnight incubation aggregation was observed at all pH values tested (5-12). The narrowest size distribution was observed at pH 7, but it was consistent with large oligomers of ~50 nm on average. The addition of β-D-glucopyranoside (OG) helped in achieving preparations that were stable and with a narrower particle size distribution. In this case, scattering was consistent with a 4-nm monomeric globular Vip3A form. After OG dialysis, 40-nm particles were detected, with a molecular weight consistent with homotetramers. Therefore, OG is proposed as the detergent of choice to obtain a Vip3A crystal for structural studies, either before (monomers) or after dialysis (tetramers).

  10. Structural analysis of the bright monomeric yellow-green fluorescent protein mNeonGreen obtained by directed evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Damien; Gotthard, Guillaume; von Stetten, David; De Sanctis, Daniele; Pasquier, Hélène; Lambert, Gerard G; Shaner, Nathan C; Royant, Antoine

    2016-12-01

    Until recently, genes coding for homologues of the autofluorescent protein GFP had only been identified in marine organisms from the phyla Cnidaria and Arthropoda. New fluorescent-protein genes have now been found in the phylum Chordata, coding for particularly bright oligomeric fluorescent proteins such as the tetrameric yellow fluorescent protein lanYFP from Branchiostoma lanceolatum. A successful monomerization attempt led to the development of the bright yellow-green fluorescent protein mNeonGreen. The structures of lanYFP and mNeonGreen have been determined and compared in order to rationalize the directed evolution process leading from a bright, tetrameric to a still bright, monomeric fluorescent protein. An unusual discolouration of crystals of mNeonGreen was observed after X-ray data collection, which was investigated using a combination of X-ray crystallography and UV-visible absorption and Raman spectroscopies, revealing the effects of specific radiation damage in the chromophore cavity. It is shown that X-rays rapidly lead to the protonation of the phenolate O atom of the chromophore and to the loss of its planarity at the methylene bridge.

  11. Processing and storage effects on monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of processed blueberry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownmiller, C; Howard, L R; Prior, R L

    2008-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of processing and 6 mo of storage on total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of blueberries that were canned in syrup (CS), canned in water (CW), pureed, and juiced (clarified and nonclarified). Total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) assay using fluorescein (ORAC(FL)) were determined postprocessing after 1 d, and 1, 3, and 6 mo of storage. Thermal processing resulted in marked losses in total anthocyanins (28% to 59%) and ORAC(FL) values (43% to 71%) in all products, with the greatest losses occurring in clarified juices and the least in nonclarified juices. Storage at 25 degrees C for 6 mo resulted in dramatic losses in total anthocyanins, ranging from 62% in berries CW to 85% in clarified juices. This coincided with marked increases in percent polymeric color values of these products over the 6-mo storage. The ORAC(FL) values showed little change during storage, indicating that the formation of polymers compensated for the loss of antioxidant capacity due to anthocyanin degradation. Methods are needed to retain anthocyanins in thermally processed blueberries.

  12. Processing and storage effects on monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of processed black raspberry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, A; Howard, L R; Prior, R L; Brownmiller, C

    2008-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of processing and 6 mo of storage on total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of black raspberries that were individually quick-frozen (IQF), canned-in-syrup, canned-in-water, pureed, and juiced (clarified and nonclarified). Total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and ORAC(FL) were determined 1 d postprocessing and after 1, 3, and 6 mo of storage. Thermal processing resulted in marked losses in total anthocyanins ranging from 37% in puree to 69% to 73% in nonclarified and clarified juices, respectively, but only the juices showed substantial losses (38% to 41%) in ORAC(FL). Storage at 25 degrees C of all thermally processed products resulted in dramatic losses in total anthocyanins ranging from 49% in canned-in-syrup to 75% in clarified juices. This coincided with marked increases in percent polymeric color values of these products over the 6-mo storage. ORAC(FL) values showed little change during storage, indicating that the formation of polymers compensated for the loss of antioxidant capacity due to anthocyanin degradation. Total anthocyanins and ORACFL of IQF berries were well retained during long-term storage at -20 degrees C.

  13. Interaction of Classical Platinum Agents with the Monomeric and Dimeric Atox1 Proteins: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We carried out molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations for a series of binary and ternary models of the cisplatin, transplatin and oxaliplatin agents binding to a monomeric Atox1 protein and a dimeric Atox1 protein to investigate their interaction mechanisms. All three platinum agents could respectively combine with the monomeric Atox1 protein and the dimeric Atox1 protein to form a stable binary and ternary complex due to the covalent interaction of the platinum center with the Atox1 protein. The results suggested that the extra interaction from the oxaliplatin ligand–Atox1 protein interface increases its affinity only for the OxaliPt + Atox1 model. The binding of the oxaliplatin agent to the Atox1 protein might cause larger deformation of the protein than those of the cisplatin and transplatin agents due to the larger size of the oxaliplatin ligand. However, the extra interactions to facilitate the stabilities of the ternary CisPt + 2Atox1 and OxaliPt + 2Atox1 models come from the α1 helices and α2-β4 loops of the Atox1 protein–Atox1 protein interface due to the cis conformation of the platinum agents. The combinations of two Atox1 proteins in an asymmetric way in the three ternary models were analyzed. These investigations might provide detailed information for understanding the interaction mechanism of the platinum agents binding to the Atox1 protein in the cytoplasm.

  14. The volatile constituents of Salvia leucantha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Luis B; Visbal, Tomas; Morillo, Marielba; de Rojas, Yndra Cordero; Arzola, Juan Carmona; Usubillaga, Alfredo

    2010-06-01

    Salvia leucantha Cav. (Lamiaceae), native to Mexico, is found in Venezuela in parks and gardens. Hydrodistillation of the fresh leaves of this plant yielded 0.05% of essential oil. GC and GC/MS analyses permitted the identification of 30 compounds, which made up 95.9% of the oil. The most abundant constituents were bornyl acetate (24.1%), beta-gurjunene (14.8%), beta-caryophyllene (14.1%), dillapiol (11.0%) and bicyclogermacrene (8.9%).

  15. Essential Oils and Their Constituents: Anticonvulsant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damião Pergentino de Sousa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A literature-based survey of plants species and their essential oils with anticonvulsant activity was carried out. As results, 30 species belonging to 13 families and 23 genera were identified for their activities in the experimental models used for anticonvulsant drug screening. Thirty chemical constituents of essential oils with anticonvulsant properties were described. Information on these 30 species is presented together with isolated bioactive compound studies.

  16. Antimelanoma and Antityrosinase from Alpinia galangal Constituents

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Yu Lo; Po-Len Liu; Li-Ching Lin; Yen-Ting Chen; You-Cheng Hseu; Zhi-Hong Wen; Hui-Min Wang

    2013-01-01

    Two compounds, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one (BHPHTO) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) they have been isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia galangal, and the structures of both pure constituents were determined using spectroscopic analyses. The study examined the bioeffectivenesses of the two compounds on the human melanoma A2058 and showed that significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells in the cell viability assay. This research was also taken on the tests t...

  17. St. John's Wort constituents modulate P-glycoprotein transport activity at the blood-brain barrier.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ott, M.; Huls, M.; Cornelius, M.G.; Fricker, G.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term signaling effects of St. John's Wort (SJW) extract and selected SJW constituents on the blood-brain barrier transporter P-glycoprotein and to describe the role of PKC in the signaling. METHODS: Cultured porcine brain capillary endo

  18. Constituent properties of licorices derived from Glycyrrhiza uralensis, G. glabra, or G. inflata identified by genetic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Kenji; Shiba, Mao; Nakamura, Rie; Morota, Takashi; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2007-07-01

    Constituent properties of licorices derived from Glycyrrhiza uralensis, G. glabra, and G. inflata are revealed by comparing 117 of licorice identified using four genetic markers; internal tracscribed spacer (ITS) on nuclear ribosomal DNA, rbcL gene, matK gene, and trnH-trnK1 intergenic region on chloroplast DNA. Regarding six main constituents of licorice; glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, liquiritin apioside, isoliquiritin, isoliquiritin apioside, and liquiritigenin, the constituent property of G. glabra resembles to that of G. inflata. On the other hand, the constituent property of G. uralensis is not similar to that of G. glabra or G. inflata and is characterized by a wide content variation of the six constituents compared to those of G. glabra and/or G. inflata. The mean contents of liquiritin, isoliquiritin, or liquilitigenin in G. uralensis are significantly higher than those of G. glabra or G. inflata. Therefore, the licorice species should be selected depending on these constituent properties for the traditional Chinese medicines or the Japanese Kampo medicines. Additionally, glycycoumarin, glabridin, and licochalcone A were reconfirmed as the species-specific typical constituents of G. uralensis, G. glabra, and G. inflata respectively. Therefore, it is resulted that the determination of the three species-specific constituents may be useful for the species identification of licorice. However, since 6% of licorice examined and hybrids were exceptions to the rule, their genetic information is necessary for the accurate species identification of licorice.

  19. ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF ISOLATED CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS FROM MILIUSA SMITHIAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonthicha Naphong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Miliusa plants belonging to the family Annonaceae are found in Thailand and have been used as Thai traditional medicines. There have been a few previously reports on the chemical constituents of plants in this genus, describing the presence of aporphine alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, styrylpyrones, bis-styryls and homogentisic acid derivatives. Miliusa smithiae, a new species for Thailand and world, has not been studied chemical composition. The present study described phytochemical study of the leaves and twigs of M. smithiae together with their cytotoxicity. The M. smithiae was selected and percolated with hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. The extracts were purified and elucidated chemical structures. The constituent of ethyl acetate extract of M. smithiae has been investigated. We isolated and identified two flavonoid derivatives, 5-hydroxy-3,7,4′-trimetoxyflavone (1 and 5,3′-dihydroxy-3,7,4′-trimetoxyflavone (2. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Studies on ethyl acetate extract of M. smithiae has now resulted the isolation and structural characterization of two flavonoids. Their anticancer activities were evaluated using SRB assays. In this method, compound 2 showed potential activity in cell lines.

  20. Novel method for isolation of major phenolic constituents from cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramashivappa, R; Kumar, P P; Vithayathil, P J; Rao, A S

    2001-05-01

    Commercially available cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid (CNSL) mainly contains the phenolic constituents anacardic acid, cardol, and cardanol. These phenolic constituents are themselves heterogeneous, and each of them contains saturated, monoene, diene, and trienes in the fifteen-carbon side chain. This communication describes the separation of anacardic acid, cardol, and cardanol for industrial application. Anacardic acid was selectively isolated as calcium anacardate. The acid-free CNSL was treated with liquor ammonia and extracted with hexane/ethyl acetate (98:2) to separate the mono phenolic component, cardanol. Subsequently, ammonia solution was extracted with ethyl acetate/hexane (80:20) to obtain cardol.

  1. Bifunctional alkyl nitrates - trace constituents of the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastler, J. [Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, University of Ulm (Germany); Ballschmiter, K. [Center of Technology Assessment in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-04-01

    Mono- and multifunctional esters of nitric acid (alkyl nitrates or organonitrates) form very complex mixtures of organic trace constituents in air. An analytical method was developed which combines selectivity in separation and detection in order to simplify this complexity in analytical terms. Mononitrates, dinitrates, keto nitrates, hydroxy nitrates of alkanes and alkenes, respecitvely, and bifunctional terpene nitrates were synthesized as reference substances. A specially developed new HPLC stationary phase (organonitrate phase) allows a group separation of mono-, di-, and hydroxy nitrates. After the HPLC preseparation the single components were finally separated by capillary HRGC-ECD and HRGC-MSD on polar and non-polar stationary phases. Mass spectrometric detection in the selected-ion-mode using the highly selective NO{sub 2}{sup +} fragment (m/z = 46 amu) led to very good selectivities for the nitric acid ester moiety. The analysis of a 100 m{sup 3} ambient air sample using this new analytical protocol allowed the identification of seven hydroxy nitrates and 24 dinitrates ranging from C2 to C7, 22 of them for the first time ever. (orig.) With 3 figs., 3 tabs., 20 refs.

  2. Online Information About Harmful Tobacco Constituents: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Katherine A; Bernat, Jennifer K; Keely O'Brien, Erin; Delahanty, Janine C

    2017-10-01

    Tobacco products and smoke contain more than 7000 chemicals (ie, constituents). Research shows that consumers have poor understanding of tobacco constituents and find communication about them to be confusing. The current content analysis describes how information is communicated about tobacco constituents online in terms of source, target audience, and message. A search was conducted in September 2015 using tobacco constituent and tobacco terms and identified 226 relevant Web sites for coding. Web sites were coded for type, target audience, reading level, constituent information, type of tobacco product, health effects, and emotional valence by two coders who independently coded half of the sample. There was a 20% overlap to assess interrater reliability, which was high (κ = .83, p content and presentation of information related to tobacco constituents. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is required to publicly display a list of tobacco constituents in tobacco products and tobacco smoke by brand. However, little is known about tobacco constituent information available to the public. This is the first systematic content analysis of online information about tobacco constituents. The analysis reveals that although information about tobacco constituents is available online, large information gaps exist, including incomplete information about tobacco constituent-related health effects. This study highlights opportunities to improve the content and presentation of public information related to tobacco constituents.

  3. No need to be HAMLET or BAMLET to interact with histones: binding of monomeric alpha-lactalbumin to histones and basic poly-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permyakov, Serge E; Pershikova, Irina V; Khokhlova, Tatyana I; Uversky, Vladimir N; Permyakov, Eugene A

    2004-05-18

    The ability of a specific complex of human alpha-lactalbumin with oleic acid (HAMLET) to induce cell death with selectivity for tumor and undifferentiated cells was shown recently to be mediated by interaction of HAMLET with histone proteins irreversibly disrupting chromatin structure [Duringer, C., et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 42131-42135]. Here we show that monomeric alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA) in the absence of fatty acids is also able to bind efficiently to the primary target of HAMLET, histone HIII, regardless of Ca(2+) content. Thus, the modification of alpha-LA by oleic acid is not required for binding to histones. We suggest that interaction of negatively charged alpha-LA with the basic histone stabilizes apo-alpha-LA and destabilizes the Ca(2+)-bound protein due to compensation for excess negative charge of alpha-LA's Ca(2+)-binding loop by positively charged residues of the histone. Spectrofluorimetric curves of titration of alpha-LA by histone H3 were well approximated by a scheme of cooperative binding of four alpha-LA molecules per molecule of histone, with an equilibrium dissociation constant of 1.0 microM. Such a stoichiometry of binding implies that the binding process is not site-specific with respect to histone and likely is driven by just electrostatic interactions. Co-incubation of positively charged poly-amino acids (poly-Lys and poly-Arg) with alpha-LA resulted in effects which were similar to those caused by histone HIII, confirming the electrostatic nature of the alpha-LA-histone interaction. In all cases that were studied, the binding was accompanied by aggregation. The data indicate that alpha-lactalbumin can be used as a basis for the design of antitumor agents, acting through disorganization of chromatin structure due to interaction between alpha-LA and histone proteins.

  4. [Non-alkaloid constituents of Gelsemium elegans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binfeng; Chou, Guixin; Wang, Zhengtao

    2009-09-01

    To study the non-alkaloid chemical constituents of Gelsemium elegans. Compounds were isolated and purified by repeated column chromatography, and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Ten compounds were isolated and their structures were identified as tamarixin (1), tamarixetin 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2), scopolin (3), scopoletin (4), uradine (5), caffeic acid (6), caffeic acid ethyl ester (7), ferulic acid ethyl ester (8), ethyl-alpha-D-fructofuranoside (9), and ethyl-beta-D-fructopyranoside (10). Compounds 1-3,5-10 are firstly isolated from this plant and compounds 1, 2, and 5-10 are isolated from the genus Gelsemium for the first time.

  5. Constituent contacts can influence how legislators vote

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Does calling your legislator actually lead to results for those who are passionately for or against\\ud certain legislation? In new research, using a randomized field experiment, Daniel Bergan finds\\ud that it does. Those legislators who received at least one phone call from a constituent asking\\ud them to support a certain bill were 11-12 percent more likely to support the legislation, an effect\\ud independent of the legislators’ party, gender or the competitiveness of their district.

  6. Survey of chemical constituents of Tehran's groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatpanahi, M; Anderson, A C

    1987-12-01

    One hundred and forty wells throughout the City of Tehran and its environs were sampled to determine the chemical quality of the groundwater. Total alkalinity, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, hardness and detergent concentrations were determined as well as levels of bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, sulphate, chloride, sodium, potassium, fluoride, iodide and nitrate. Generally, chemical pollution of the water supplies was low. There were, however, regional elevations in nitrate, chloride and fluoride. Elevated fluoride levels were primarily in the northern regions of the city while high nitrates and chlorides were found primariiy in industrial areas. The health implications of chemical constituents in drinking water are discussed.

  7. Chemical constituents of Salacia elliptica (Celastraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Figueiredo, Rute Cunha; Sousa, Grasiely Faria de; Soares, Debora Barbosa da Silva; Rodrigues, Salomao Bento Vasconcelos; Silva, Fernando Cesar; Silva, Gracia Divina de Fatima, E-mail: lucienir@ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Vieira Filho, Sidney Augusto [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Escola de Farmacia. Dept. de Farmacia

    2010-07-01

    The chemical investigation of Salacia elliptica allowed to the isolation of 20 constituents: two polyols, one xanthone, a mixture of long chain hydrocarbons, one carboxylic acid, one polymer, two steroidal compounds, one aromatic ester and eleven pentacyclic triterpenes. These triterpenes include 3{beta}-stearyloxy-oleanane, 3{beta}-stearyloxy-ursane, one seco-friedelane, and eight compounds of the friedelane series. The chemical structure and the relative configuration of a new triterpene 1,3-dioxo-16alpha-hydroxyfriedelane (15) were established through {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR including 2D experiments (HMBC, HMQC, COSY and NOESY) and herein reported for the first time (author)

  8. Diagnóstico bioquímico de la hiperprolactinemia monomérica Biochemical diagnosis of monomeric hyperprolactinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rivero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. La prolactina se puede presentar bajo varias formas moleculares siendo la forma monomérica (PRLm la biológicamente activa. La presencia de macroprolactina (MPRL puede originar un falso diagnóstico de hiperprolactinemia debido a la interferencia en el procedimiento de medida. El objetivo ha sido desarrollar un protocolo que permita diagnosticar la hiperprolactinemia monomérica, que además sea complementario al procedimiento que detecta MPRL. Material y métodos. La población de referencia para PRLm estaba formada por 122 mujeres y 140 hombres aparentemente sanos a los que se les extrajo sangre para la cuantificación de PRL. Además, se recogieron 49 sueros (33 mujeres y 16 hombres hiperprolactinémicos. Se cuantificó PRL en todas las muestras en un Immulite 2000. La detección de MPRL y de PRLm se realizó tras precipitación con polietilenglicol. Se confirmó el resultado por cromatografía de filtración en gel. Para la obtención de los valores de referencia se siguieron las indicaciones del Panel de Expertos de la IFCC. Resultados. Los valores de referencia de PRLm fueron 3,4-26,6 μg/L y 4,6-16,4 μg/L en mujeres y varones, respectivamente. De los 49 pacientes hiperprolactinémicos, en el 57 % la concentración de PRLm tras PEG se encontraba fuera del intervalo de referencia previamente obtenido, confirmándose la presencia de hiperprolactinemia monomérica. Conclusiones. Se ha desarrollado e implantado un protocolo para la cuantificación de PRLm. La obtención de los valores de referencia de PRLm permite el diagnóstico de la hiperprolactinemia monomérica o activa de forma complementaria a la identificación de MPRL.Background. Prolactin can take several molecular forms of which the most biologically active is the monomeric form (PRLm. The presence of macroprolactin (MPRL can give rise to a false diagnosis of hyperprolactinemia due to interference in the measuring procedure. The aim was to develop a protocol that

  9. A monomeric G protein-coupled receptor isolated in a high-density lipoprotein particle efficiently activates its G protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whorton, Matthew R; Bokoch, Michael P; Rasmussen, Søren Gøgsig Faarup;

    2007-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) respond to a diverse array of ligands, mediating cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters, as well as the senses of smell and taste. The structures of the GPCR rhodopsin and several G proteins have been determined by x-ray crystallography, yet...... the organization of the signaling complex between GPCRs and G proteins is poorly understood. The observations that some GPCRs are obligate heterodimers, and that many GPCRs form both homo- and heterodimers, has led to speculation that GPCR dimers may be required for efficient activation of G proteins. However......, technical limitations have precluded a definitive analysis of G protein coupling to monomeric GPCRs in a biochemically defined and membrane-bound system. Here we demonstrate that a prototypical GPCR, the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR), can be incorporated into a reconstituted high-density lipoprotein...

  10. Successes and failures of the constituent quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Our approach considers the model as a possible bridge between QCD and the experimental data and examines its predictions to see where these succeed and where they fail. We also attempt to improve the model by looking for additional simple assumptions which give better fits to the experimental data. But we avoid complicated models with too many ad hoc assumptions and too many free parameters; these can fit everything but teach us nothing. We define our constituent quark model by analogy with the constituent electron model of the atom and the constituent nucleon model of the nucleus. In the same way that an atom is assumed to consist only of constituent electrons and a central Coulomb field and a nucleus is assumed to consist only of constituent nucleons hadrons are assumed to consist only of their constituent valence quarks with no bag, no glue, no ocean, nor other constituents. Although these constituent models are oversimplified and neglect other constituents we push them as far as we can. Atomic physics has photons and vacuum polarization as well as constituent electrons, but the constituent model is adequate for calculating most features of the spectrum when finer details like the Lamb shift are neglected. 54 references.

  11. Synthesis of monomeric and polymeric alkali and alkaline earth metal complexes using a phosphinoselenoic amide ligand in metal coordination sphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jayeeta Bhattacharjee; Ravi K Kottalanka; Harinath Adimulam; Tarun K Panda

    2014-09-01

    We report the monomeric complexes of magnesium and calcium of composition [M(THF){2-Ph2P(Se)N(CMe3)}2] [M= Mg (3), n = 1 andM = Ca (4), n = 2)] and polymeric complexes of potassium and barium of composition [K(THF)2{Ph2P(Se)N(CMe3)}] (2) and [K(THF)Ba{Ph2P(Se)N(CMe3)}3](5) respectively. The potassium complex 2 was readily prepared by the reaction of potassium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide with phosphinoselenoic amide ligand (1) at ambient temperature. The calcium complex 4 was prepared by two synthetic routes: in the first method, commonly known as salt metathesis reaction, the potassium complex 2 was made to react with alkaline earth metal diiodide at room temperature to afford the corresponding calcium complex. The metal bis(trimethylsilyl)amides were made to react with protic ligand 1 in the second method to eliminate the volatile bis(trimethyl)silyl amine. The magnesium complex 3 and barium complex 5 were prepared only through the first method. Solid-state structures of all the new complexes were established by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The smaller ionic radii of Mg2+ (0.72Å) and Ca2+ (0.99Å) ions form the monomeric complex, whereas the larger ions K+ (1.38Å) and Ba2+ (1.35Å) were found to form onedimensional polymeric complexes with monoanionic ligand 1. Compound 2 serves an example of magnesium complex with a Mg-Se direct bond.

  12. ASSESSING UNIVERSITY RESEARCH PERFORMANCE WITH MULTIPLE CONSTITUENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Liang Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research performance of the university is critical to the national competitiveness. Previous research has established that research performance is based on scholarly publishing. Several studies suggested that journal ranking is the important research quality indicator. However, unilateral measurement for the research performance will seriously corrode the development of university research work. Assessing university research performance with multiple constituencies is a better to enhance the university research. Although substantial studies have been performed on the critical factors that affect knowledge exploration in the university, those in knowledge exploitation are still lacking. With the multiple constituencies, a fully understanding of research performance can be gained. In the research model, knowledge exploration represents the academic research and knowledge exploitation represents the university–industry collaboration. Data collected from 124 university data in online database. The study shows that knowledge exploration and exploitation both are significant positive predictors of university competitiveness. University resources play important roles to affect both knowledge exploration and exploitation in the university. The study also shows that higher knowledge exploration will enhance knowledge exploitation. Implications for theory and practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  13. Chemical Constituents from Rhizomes of Curculigo capitulata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di, Lei; Wang, Kai Jin; Zhu, Cui Cui; Li, Ning [Anhui University, Hefei (China)

    2010-10-15

    To compare the chemical constituents' differences of the same Curculigo species belonging to different geographical distribution and climatic conditions, we investigated the rhizomes of C. capitulata collected in Napo region of Guangxi Province, China. Recently, we reported two novel norlignan derivatives with the rearranged skeletons, named as crassifoside I and sinensigenin C, from this species collected in Napo region of Guangxi Province, China. To further search more novel compounds, the minor constituents of this plant were investigated. This paper deals with the isolation and structure elucidation of one novel norlignan derivative, named as capitulo-side B, together with eight known compounds, curcapicycloside, capituloside, breviscaside B, crassifogenin C, breviscapin A, methyl-4-O-coumaroylquinate, orcinol glucoside, and 2,6-dimethoxy-benzioc acid, from its rhizomes as shown in Figure 1. Their structures were established by spectroscopic analysis, especially using 2D-NMR techniques ({sup 1}H-{sup 1}H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and comparisons of their data with literature values. Compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant, and compound was the first example isolated from the family.

  14. Decaying hadrons within constituent-quark models

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinhappel, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Within conventional constituent-quark models hadrons come out as stable bound states of the valence (anti)quarks. Thereby the resonance character of hadronic excitations is completely ignored. A more realistic description of hadron spectra can be achieved by including explicit mesonic degrees of freedom, which couple directly to the constituent quarks. We will present a coupled-channel formalism that describes such hybrid systems in a relativistically invariant way and allows for the decay of excited hadrons. The formalism is based on the point-form of relativistic quantum mechanics. If the confining forces between the (anti)quarks are described by instantaneous interactions it can be formally shown that the mass-eigenvalue problem for a system that consists of dynamical (anti)quarks and mesons reduces to a hadronic eigenvalue problem in which the eigenstates of the pure confinement problem (bare hadrons) are coupled via meson loops. The only point where the quark substructure enters are form factors at the m...

  15. Potential antidepressant constituents of Nigella sativa seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab S Elkhayat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nigella sativa Linn. is well known seed in the Middle East, Asia, and the Far East as a natural remedy for many ailments and as a flavoring agent proclaimed medicinal usage dating back to the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. An authentic saying of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him about black seed is also quoted in Al-Bukhari. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the antidepressant effect and isolate the potential antidepressant constituents of the polar extract of N. sativa seeds. Materials and Methods: The antidepressant effect was evaluated through the immobility duration in tail suspension and forced swim tests (FSTs. Albino mice were orally treated with N. sativa polar extract and its RP-18 column chromatography fractions (50 and 100 mg/kg,. Results: The polar extract and two of its sub-fractions were significantly able to decrease the immobility time of mice when subjected to both tail suspension and FSTs, the effects are comparable to standard drug (Sertraline, 5 mg/kg. However, these treatments did not affect the number of crossings and rearing in the open field test. Phytochemical investigation of the two active fractions led to the isolation of quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside 1, quercetin-7-O-β-D-gluco- pyranoside 2, tauroside E 3, and sapindoside B as the potential antidepressant constituents.

  16. Baryons in a chiral constituent quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Glozman, L Ya

    1998-01-01

    In the low-energy regime light and strange baryons should be considered as systems of constituent quarks with confining interaction and a chiral interaction that is mediated by Goldstone bosons as well as by vector and scalar mesons. The flavor-spin structure and sign of the short-range part of the spin-spin force reduces the $SU(6)_{FS}$ symmetry down to $SU(3)_F \\times SU(2)_S$, induces hyperfine splittings and provides correct ordering of the lowest states with positive and negative parity. There is a cancellation of the tensor force from pseudoscalar- and vector-exchanges in baryons. The spin-orbit interactions from $\\rho$-like and $\\omega$-like exchanges also cancel each other in baryons while they produce a big spin-orbit force in NN system. A unified description of light and strange baryon spectra calculated in a semirelativistic framework is presented. It is demonstrated that the same short-range part of spin-spin interaction between the constituent quarks induces a strong short-range repulsion in $NN...

  17. Urea Unfolding Study of E. coli Alanyl-tRNA Synthetase and Its Monomeric Variants Proves the Role of C-Terminal Domain in Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baisakhi Banerjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available E. coli alanyl-tRNA exists as a dimer in its native form and the C-terminal coiled-coil part plays an important role in the dimerization process. The truncated N-terminal containing the first 700 amino acids (1–700 forms a monomeric variant possessing similar aminoacylation activity like wild type. A point mutation in the C-terminal domain (G674D also produces a monomeric variant with a fivefold reduced aminoacylation activity compared to the wild type enzyme. Urea induced denaturation of these monomeric mutants along with another alaRS variant (N461 alaRS was studied together with the full-length enzyme using various spectroscopic techniques such as intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, 1-anilino-8-naphthalene-sulfonic acid binding, near- and far-UV circular dichroism, and analytical ultracentrifugation. Aminoacylation activity assay after refolding from denatured state revealed that the monomeric mutants studied here were unable to regain their activity, whereas the dimeric full-length alaRS gets back similar activity as the native enzyme. This study indicates that dimerization is one of the key regulatory factors that is important in the proper folding and stability of E. coli alaRS.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of decameric and monomeric forms of C49S mutant thioredoxin-dependent AhpC from Helicobacter pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supangat [Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Program), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Environmental Biotechnology National Core Research Center, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Kyung Hye; Furqoni, Ahmad [Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Program), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Environmental Biotechnology National Core Research Center, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Research Center, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young-Chul; Cho, Myung-Je; Rhee, Kwang-Ho [Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Kon Ho, E-mail: lkh@gsnu.ac.kr [Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Program), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Environmental Biotechnology National Core Research Center, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Research Center, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-01

    Decameric and monomeric forms of recombinant C49S mutant AhpC from H. pylori have been crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.8 and 2.25 Å, respectively. Cys49Ser mutant Helicobacter pylori alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (C49S HpAhpC) was purified under reducing conditions in monomeric and decameric forms. The monomeric form was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 2.25 Å resolution and belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 245.8, b = 140.7, c = 189.5 Å, β = 127°, and contained 20 molecules in the asymmetric unit. A crystal of the decameric form was obtained by the microbatch crystallization method and diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution. It belonged to space group C222, with unit-cell parameters a = 257.5, b = 417.5, c = 95.6 Å. The structure of the monomeric form of C49S HpAhpC has been solved by the molecular-replacement method.

  19. Urea Unfolding Study of E. coli Alanyl-tRNA Synthetase and Its Monomeric Variants Proves the Role of C-Terminal Domain in Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Baisakhi; Banerjee, Rajat

    2015-01-01

    E. coli alanyl-tRNA exists as a dimer in its native form and the C-terminal coiled-coil part plays an important role in the dimerization process. The truncated N-terminal containing the first 700 amino acids (1–700) forms a monomeric variant possessing similar aminoacylation activity like wild type. A point mutation in the C-terminal domain (G674D) also produces a monomeric variant with a fivefold reduced aminoacylation activity compared to the wild type enzyme. Urea induced denaturation of these monomeric mutants along with another alaRS variant (N461 alaRS) was studied together with the full-length enzyme using various spectroscopic techniques such as intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, 1-anilino-8-naphthalene-sulfonic acid binding, near- and far-UV circular dichroism, and analytical ultracentrifugation. Aminoacylation activity assay after refolding from denatured state revealed that the monomeric mutants studied here were unable to regain their activity, whereas the dimeric full-length alaRS gets back similar activity as the native enzyme. This study indicates that dimerization is one of the key regulatory factors that is important in the proper folding and stability of E. coli alaRS. PMID:26617997

  20. Calcium, acylation, and molecular confinement favor folding of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase CyaA toxin into a monomeric and cytotoxic form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karst, Johanna C; Ntsogo Enguéné, V Yvette; Cannella, Sara E; Subrini, Orso; Hessel, Audrey; Debard, Sylvain; Ladant, Daniel; Chenal, Alexandre

    2014-10-31

    The adenylate cyclase (CyaA) toxin, a multidomain protein of 1706 amino acids, is one of the major virulence factors produced by Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. CyaA is able to invade eukaryotic target cells in which it produces high levels of cAMP, thus altering the cellular physiology. Although CyaA has been extensively studied by various cellular and molecular approaches, the structural and functional states of the toxin remain poorly characterized. Indeed, CyaA is a large protein and exhibits a pronounced hydrophobic character, making it prone to aggregation into multimeric forms. As a result, CyaA has usually been extracted and stored in denaturing conditions. Here, we define the experimental conditions allowing CyaA folding into a monomeric and functional species. We found that CyaA forms mainly multimers when refolded by dialysis, dilution, or buffer exchange. However, a significant fraction of monomeric, folded protein could be obtained by exploiting molecular confinement on size exclusion chromatography. Folding of CyaA into a monomeric form was found to be critically dependent upon the presence of calcium and post-translational acylation of the protein. We further show that the monomeric preparation displayed hemolytic and cytotoxic activities suggesting that the monomer is the genuine, physiologically active form of the toxin. We hypothesize that the structural role of the post-translational acylation in CyaA folding may apply to other RTX toxins.

  1. Analysis of by-product formation and sugar monomerization in sugarcane bagasse pretreated at pilot plant scale: Differences between autohydrolysis, alkaline and acid pretreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der E.C.; Bakker, R.; Zeeland, van A.N.T.; Sanchez Garcia, D.; Punt, A.M.; Eggink, G.

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is an interesting feedstock for the biobased economy since a large fraction is polymerized sugars. Autohydrolysis, alkaline and acid pretreatment conditions combined with enzyme hydrolysis were used on lignocellulose rich bagasse to acquire monomeric. By-products found after pretre

  2. Effects of ginger and its pungent constituents on transient receptor potential channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Soo; Hong, Chan Sik; Lee, Sang Weon; Nam, Joo Hyun; Kim, Byung Joo

    2016-12-01

    Ginger extract is used as an analeptic in herbal medicine and has been reported to exert antioxidant effects. Transient receptor potential (TRP) canonical 5 (TRPC5), TRP cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7; melastatin 7), and TRP cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1; ankyrin 1) are non-selective cation channels that are modulated by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and subsequently control various cellular processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ginger and its pungent constituents modulate these channels and exert antioxidant effects. It was found that TRPC5 and TRPA1 currents were modulated by ginger extract and by its pungent constituents, [6]-gingerol, zingerone and [6]-shogaol. In particular, [6]-shogaol markedly and dose-dependently inhibited TRPC5 currents with an IC50 of value of ~18.3 µM. Furthermore, the strong dose-dependent activation of TRPA1 currents by [6]-shogaol was abolished by A‑967079 (a selective TRPA1 inhibitor). However, ginger extract and its pungent constituents had no effect on TRPM7 currents. These results suggest the antioxidant effects of ginger extract and its pungent constituents are mediated through TRPC5 and TRPA1, and that [6]-shogaol is predominantly responsible for the regulation of TRPC5 and TRPA1 currents by ginger extract.

  3. Deicing chemicals as source of constituents of highway runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The dissolved major and trace constituents of deicing chemicals as a source of constituents in highway runoff must be quantified for interpretive studies of highway runoff and its effects on surface water and groundwater. Dissolved constituents of the deicing chemicals-sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and premix (a mixture of sodium and calcium chloride)-were determined by analysis of salt solutions created in the laboratory and are presented as mass ratios to chloride. Deicing chemical samples studied are about 98 and 97 percent pure sodium chloride and calcium chloride, respectively: however, each has a distinct major and trace ion constituent signature. The greatest impurity in sodium chloride road sail samples was sulfate, followed by calcium, potassium, bromide, vanadium, magnesium, fluoride, and other constituents with a ratio to chloride of less than 0.0001 by mass. The greatest impurity in the calcium chloride road salt samples was sodium, followed by potassium, sulfate, bromide, silica, fluoride. strontium, magnesium, and other constituents with a ratio to chloride of less than 0.0001 by mass. Major constituents of deicing chemicals in highway runoff may account for a substantial source of annual chemical loads. Comparison of estimated annual loads and first flush concentrations of deicing chemical constituents in highway runoff with those reported in the literature indicate that although deicing chemicals are not a primary source of trace constituents, they are not a trivial source, either. Therefore, deicing chemicals should be considered as a source of many major and trace constituents in highway and urban runoff.

  4. Indicator bacteria and associated water quality constituents in stormwater and snowmelt from four urban catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galfi, H.; Österlund, H.; Marsalek, J.; Viklander, M.

    2016-08-01

    Four indicator bacteria were measured in association with physico-chemical constituents and selected inorganics during rainfall, baseflow and snowmelt periods in storm sewers of four urban catchments in a northern Swedish city. The variation patterns of coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci and Clostridium perfringens concentrations were assessed in manually collected grab samples together with those of phosphorus, nitrogen, solids, and readings of pH, turbidity, water conductivity, temperature and flow rates to examine whether these constituents could serve as potential indicators of bacteria sources. A similar analysis was applied to variation patterns of eight selected inorganics typical for baseflow and stormwater runoff to test the feasibility of using these inorganics to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources of inflow into storm sewers. The monitored catchments varied in size, the degree of development, and land use. Catchment and season (i.e., rainy or snowmelt periods) specific variations were investigated for sets of individual stormwater samples by the principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the constituents with variation patterns similar to those of indicator bacteria, and to exclude the constituents with less similarity. In the reduced data set, the similarities were quantified by the clustering correlation analysis. Finally, the positive/negative relationships found between indicator bacteria and the identified associated constituent groups were described by multilinear regressions. In the order of decreasing concentrations, coliforms, E. coli and enterococci were found in the highest mean concentrations during both rainfall and snowmelt generated runoff. Compared to dry weather baseflow, concentrations of these three indicators in stormwater were 10 (snowmelt runoff) to 102 (rain runoff) times higher. C. perfringens mean concentrations were practically constant regardless of the season and catchment. The type and number of

  5. [Studies on chemical constituents of Saussurea laniceps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawa, Zhuo-Ma; Zhou, Yan; Bai, Yang; Gesang, Suo-Lang; Xie, Ping; Ding, Li-Sheng

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of Saussurea laniceps. The ethanol extract of S. laniceps was separated by means of silica gel chromatography. The compounds isolated from the plant were identified by their spectral evidence. Fifteen compounds were isolated and identified as beta-stiosterol (1), umbelliferone (2), 4-hydroxyacetophenone (3), scopoletin (4), isoscopoletin (5), xuelianlactone (6), methyl 3-(2', 4'-dihydroxyphenyl) propanoate (7), apigenin (8), neoechinulin A (9), daucosterol (10), scopolin (11), xuelianlactone 8-O-beta-D-glcuoside (12), apigenin 7-glcuoside (13), apigenin 7-lutinoside (14) and syringin (15). Compounds 5-15 were isolated from S. laniceps, and among them, 7 and 9 were isolated from genus Saussurea for the first time.

  6. Mortar constituent of concrete under cyclic compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, A.; Darwin, D.

    1980-10-01

    The behavior of the mortar constituent of concrete under cyclic compression was studied and a simple analytic model was developed to represent its cyclic behavior. Experimental work consisted of monotonic and cyclic compressive loading of mortar. Two mixes were used, with proportions corresponding to concretes having water cement ratios of 0.5 and 0.6. Forty-four groups of specimens were tested at ages ranging from 5 to 70 days. complete monotonic and cyclic stress strain envelopes were obtained. A number of loading regimes were investigated, including cycles to a constant maximum strain. Major emphasis was placed on tests using relatively high stress cycles. Degradation was shown to be a continuous process and a function of both total strain and load history. No stability or fatigue limit was apparent.

  7. Bioactive constituents of Cirsium japonicum var. australe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wan-Chun; Wu, Yang-Chang; Dankó, Balázs; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Hsieh, Chi-Ting; Tsai, Yu-Chi; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Martins, Ana; Hohmann, Judit; Hunyadi, Attila; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2014-07-25

    Cirsium japonicum var. australe, used as a folk medicine in Taiwan, has been employed traditionally in the treatment of diabetes and inflammatory symptoms. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of its ethanolic extract, utilizing centrifugal partition chromatography monitored by DPPH-TLC analysis, led to the isolation of three new acetylenic phenylacrylic acid esters (1-3) and two new polyacetylenes (4 and 5), together with seven known compounds (6-12). The structures of 1-5 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The absolute configurations of 4 and 7 were determined utilizing Mosher's method and ECD/CD experiments. The DPPH scavenging activity of the constituents isolated from the C. japonicum var. australe ethanolic extract was evaluated. The potential antidiabetic activity of some of the isolates was evaluated using in vitro cellular glucose uptake and oil red staining assays.

  8. Chemical Constituents in Charred Sanguisorbae Radix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-li; ZHONG Ying; XIA Hong-min; ZHOU Qian; LV Jia

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents in the effective fractions of charred Sanguisorbae Radix.Methods The compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography and their structures were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis.Results Five compounds were isolated and identified as 3 β-hydroxy-28-norurs-17,19,21-trien (1),3 β-hydroxy-28-norurs-12,17-dien (2),3 β,19α-dihydroxyurs-13 (18)-en-28-oic acid (3),3β-[(α-L-arabin-opyranosyl) oxy]-28-norurs-12,17-dien (4),and pomolic acid (5).Conclusion Compounds 1,3,and 4 are novel compounds belong to triterpenoids and triterpenoid saponins,named as sanguisorbigenins Z,Y1,and Y2,respectively.

  9. Multi-Constituent Simulation of Thrombus Deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Wei-Tao; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Wagner, William R; Antaki, James F

    2016-01-01

    Based on the transport model of Sorensen et al. (1999), an improved mathematical model describing the process of thrombus deposition and growth was developed. Blood is treated as a multi-constituent mixture comprised of a linear fluid phase and a thrombus phase. The transport and reactions of 10 chemical and biological species are modeled using a system of coupled convection-reaction-diffusion (CRD) equations. These represent three main processes: initiation, propagation and stabilization. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations using the libraries of OpenFOAM were performed for two illustrative benchmark problems: mural thrombus growth in an injured blood vessel and thrombus deposition in a small (125 x 95 micros) crevice observed in vitro. For both problems, the simulated thrombus deposition agreed very well with experimental observations, both spatially and temporally. These promising results encourage further simulations to investigate clinical conditions and design factors that affect the risk of t...

  10. Antimelanoma and antityrosinase from Alpinia galangal constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chih-Yu; Liu, Po-Len; Lin, Li-Ching; Chen, Yen-Ting; Hseu, You-Cheng; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Hui-Min

    2013-01-01

    Two compounds, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one (BHPHTO) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) they have been isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia galangal, and the structures of both pure constituents were determined using spectroscopic analyses. The study examined the bioeffectivenesses of the two compounds on the human melanoma A2058 and showed that significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells in the cell viability assay. This research was also taken on the tests to B16-F10 cell line and showed minor inhibitory consequences of cellular tyrosinase activities and melanin contents. Our results revealed the anticancer effects of A. galangal compounds, and therefore, the target compounds could be potentially applied in the therapeutic application and the food industry.

  11. Constituent gluons and the static quark potential

    CERN Document Server

    Greensite, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    We suggest that Hamiltonian matrix elements between physical states in QCD might be approximated, in Coulomb gauge, by "lattice-improved" tree diagrams; i.e. tree diagram contributions with dressed ghost, transverse gluon, and Coulomb propagators obtained from lattice simulations. Such matrix elements can be applied to a variational treatment of hadronic states which include constituent gluons. As an illustration and first application of this hybrid approach, we derive a variational estimate of the heavy quark potential for distances up to 2.5 fm. The Coulomb string tension in SU(3) gauge theory is about a factor of four times greater than the asymptotic string tension. In our variational approach, using for simplicity a single variational parameter, we can reduce this overshoot by nearly the factor required. The building blocks of our approach are Coulomb gauge propagators, and in this connection we present new lattice results for the ghost and transverse gluon propagators in position space.

  12. [Chemical constituents from fruits of Ailanthus altissima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunchao; Shao, Jianhua; Li, Xian

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents from the extract of the fruits of Ailanthus altissimrna. Twelve compounds were isolated by chromatography and identified by spectral data. The compounds obtained were identified as (+)-isolariciresinol (1), isolariciresinol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), gallic acid (3), D-sorbitol (4), vanillin (5), 6,7-dihydroxy-coumarin (6), stigmast-4-en-3-one (7), 5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6,9 (11), 22E-trien-3beta-ol (8), ergosta-4,6,8 (14), 22E-tetraen-3-one (9), cycloeucalenol (10), lupeol (11), betulinic acid (12). Compounds 1-12 were isolated from this genus for the first time.

  13. Antimelanoma and Antityrosinase from Alpinia galangal Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yu Lo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two compounds, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one (BHPHTO and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC they have been isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia galangal, and the structures of both pure constituents were determined using spectroscopic analyses. The study examined the bioeffectivenesses of the two compounds on the human melanoma A2058 and showed that significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells in the cell viability assay. This research was also taken on the tests to B16-F10 cell line and showed minor inhibitory consequences of cellular tyrosinase activities and melanin contents. Our results revealed the anticancer effects of A. galangal compounds, and therefore, the target compounds could be potentially applied in the therapeutic application and the food industry.

  14. Constituent gluons and the static quark potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greensite, Jeff [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States); Szczepaniak, Adam P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We suggest that Hamiltonian matrix elements between physical states in QCD might be approximated, in Coulomb gauge, by "lattice-improved" tree diagrams; i.e. tree diagram contributions with dressed ghost, transverse gluon, and Coulomb propagators obtained from lattice simulations. Such matrix elements can be applied to a variational treatment of hadronic states which include constituent gluons. As an illustration and first application of this hybrid approach, we derive a variational estimate of the heavy quark potential for distances up to 2.5 fm. The Coulomb string tension in SU(3) gauge theory is about a factor of four times greater than the asymptotic string tension. In our variational approach, using for simplicity a single variational parameter, we can reduce this overshoot by nearly the factor required. The building blocks of our approach are Coulomb gauge propagators, and in this connection we present new lattice results for the ghost and transverse gluon propagators in position space.

  15. Information focus, syntactic weight and postverbal constituent order in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Heidinger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Spanish, postverbal constituents – such as direct object, locative adjunct or depicitive – can be ordered in different ways (e.g. Juan bailó desnudo en su casa vs. Juan bailó en su casa desnudo. The present paper examines two possible factors for postverbal constituent order: information focus and syntactic weight. Based on data from a perception experiment it will be shown that information focus and syntactic weight indeed influence in postverbal constituent order in Spanish: both the focalization of a constituent and the increase of the weight of a constituent increase the frequency with which the respective constituent takes up the sentence final position. As concerns the strength of the two factors, our results suggest that information focus and syntactic weight influence in postverbal constituent order to a similar extent. As concerns the syntatic position of narrow information focus in Spanish, our results show that the sentence final position is the preferred position for narrowly focused constituents, but such constituents are not limited to the sentence final position.

  16. Constituent Model of Extremal non-BPS Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Gimon, Eric; Larsen, Finn; Simon, Joan

    2009-01-01

    We interpret extremal non-BPS black holes in four dimensions as threshold bound states of four 1/2-BPS constituents. We verify the no-force condition for each of the primitive constituents in the probe approximation. Our computations are for a seed solution with $\\bar{D0}-D4$ charges and equal $B$-fields, but symmetries extend the result to any U-dual frame. We make the constituent model for the $D0-D6$ system explicit, and also discuss a duality frame where the constituents are $D3$ branes a...

  17. Functional alteration of a dimeric insecticidal lectin to a monomeric antifungal protein correlated to its oligomeric status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilanjana Banerjee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL is a 25-kDa homodimeric, insecticidal, mannose binding lectin whose subunits are assembled by the C-terminal exchange process. An attempt was made to convert dimeric ASAL into a monomeric form to correlate the relevance of quaternary association of subunits and their functional specificity. Using SWISS-MODEL program a stable monomer was designed by altering five amino acid residues near the C-terminus of ASAL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By introduction of 5 site-specific mutations (-DNSNN-, a β turn was incorporated between the 11(th and 12(th β strands of subunits of ASAL, resulting in a stable monomeric mutant ASAL (mASAL. mASAL was cloned and subsequently purified from a pMAL-c2X system. CD spectroscopic analysis confirmed the conservation of secondary structure in mASAL. Mannose binding assay confirmed that molecular mannose binds efficiently to both mASAL and ASAL. In contrast to ASAL, the hemagglutination activity of purified mASAL against rabbit erythrocytes was lost. An artificial diet bioassay of Lipaphis erysimi with mASAL displayed an insignificant level of insecticidal activity compared to ASAL. Fascinatingly, mASAL exhibited strong antifungal activity against the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Alternaria brassicicola in a disc diffusion assay. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of mASAL might be associated with the alteration of the membrane permeability of the fungus. Furthermore, a ligand blot assay of the membrane subproteome of R. solani with mASAL detected a glycoprotein receptor having interaction with mASAL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Conversion of ASAL into a stable monomer resulted in antifungal activity. From an evolutionary aspect, these data implied that variable quaternary organization of lectins might be the outcome of defense-related adaptations to diverse situations in plants. Incorporation of m

  18. Functional alteration of a dimeric insecticidal lectin to a monomeric antifungal protein correlated to its oligomeric status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Nilanjana; Sengupta, Subhadipa; Roy, Amit; Ghosh, Prithwi; Das, Kalipada; Das, Sampa

    2011-04-07

    Allium sativum leaf agglutinin (ASAL) is a 25-kDa homodimeric, insecticidal, mannose binding lectin whose subunits are assembled by the C-terminal exchange process. An attempt was made to convert dimeric ASAL into a monomeric form to correlate the relevance of quaternary association of subunits and their functional specificity. Using SWISS-MODEL program a stable monomer was designed by altering five amino acid residues near the C-terminus of ASAL. By introduction of 5 site-specific mutations (-DNSNN-), a β turn was incorporated between the 11(th) and 12(th) β strands of subunits of ASAL, resulting in a stable monomeric mutant ASAL (mASAL). mASAL was cloned and subsequently purified from a pMAL-c2X system. CD spectroscopic analysis confirmed the conservation of secondary structure in mASAL. Mannose binding assay confirmed that molecular mannose binds efficiently to both mASAL and ASAL. In contrast to ASAL, the hemagglutination activity of purified mASAL against rabbit erythrocytes was lost. An artificial diet bioassay of Lipaphis erysimi with mASAL displayed an insignificant level of insecticidal activity compared to ASAL. Fascinatingly, mASAL exhibited strong antifungal activity against the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Alternaria brassicicola in a disc diffusion assay. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of mASAL might be associated with the alteration of the membrane permeability of the fungus. Furthermore, a ligand blot assay of the membrane subproteome of R. solani with mASAL detected a glycoprotein receptor having interaction with mASAL. Conversion of ASAL into a stable monomer resulted in antifungal activity. From an evolutionary aspect, these data implied that variable quaternary organization of lectins might be the outcome of defense-related adaptations to diverse situations in plants. Incorporation of mASAL into agronomically-important crops could be an alternative method to protect them

  19. Exclusion of polymeric immunoglobulins and selective immunoglobulin Y transport that recognizes its Fc region in avian ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaguchi, Kohji; Osada, Kenichi; Horio, Fumihiko; Murai, Atsushi

    2008-02-15

    In avian species, blood immunoglobulin (Ig) Y, the equivalent to mammalian IgG, is selectively incorporated into ovarian follicles, but other classes, IgA and IgM, are much less abundant in the follicles. Several mammalian Igs, including IgG and IgA, are also incorporated into ovarian follicles when administered to birds. To clarify the Ig structure required for incorporation into ovarian follicles, Ig uptakes were determined after the intravenous injection of chicken and human Igs. Three chicken Igs (cIgY, cIgA and cIgM) and two human IgAs (monomeric hIgA and polymeric hIgA) were labeled with digoxigenin, and their uptakes into quail (Coturnix japonica) egg yolks were determined by ELISA and SDS-PAGE. The uptake of cIgY was the highest among the three cIgs (22% of injected cIgY was recovered from egg yolks). Chicken IgA was efficiently incorporated into egg yolk when it formed a monomeric state. Pentameric IgM was untransportable into egg yolk. We also found that the uptake of monomeric hIgA was much more efficient than that of polymeric hIgA. These results suggest that the retention of the monomeric form contributes to the efficient transport of Igs into ovarian follicles. On the other hand, Ig uptakes among monomeric Igs nevertheless differed; for example, a time-course analysis showed that the rate of monomeric cIgY uptake was approximately eight times faster than that of monomeric hIgA. The injection of cIgY fragments Fc, Fab and F(ab')(2) resulted in the largest uptake of Fc fragment, with the same level as that of cIgY. These results suggest the presence of a selective IgY transport system that recognizes its Fc region in avian ovarian follicles.

  20. Monomeric, porous type II collagen scaffolds promote chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaddon, M.; Burrows, M.; Ferreira, S. A.; Dazzi, F.; Apperley, J. F.; Bradshaw, A.; Brand, D. D.; Czernuszka, J.; Gentleman, E.

    2017-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common cause of pain and disability and is often associated with the degeneration of articular cartilage. Lesions to the articular surface, which are thought to progress to OA, have the potential to be repaired using tissue engineering strategies; however, it remains challenging to instruct cell differentiation within a scaffold to produce tissue with appropriate structural, chemical and mechanical properties. We aimed to address this by driving progenitor cells to adopt a chondrogenic phenotype through the tailoring of scaffold composition and physical properties. Monomeric type-I and type-II collagen scaffolds, which avoid potential immunogenicity associated with fibrillar collagens, were fabricated with and without chondroitin sulfate (CS) and their ability to stimulate the chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells was assessed. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that cells produced abundant collagen type-II on type-II scaffolds and collagen type-I on type-I scaffolds. Gene expression analyses indicated that the addition of CS – which was released from scaffolds quickly – significantly upregulated expression of type II collagen, compared to type-I and pure type-II scaffolds. We conclude that collagen type-II and CS can be used to promote a more chondrogenic phenotype in the absence of growth factors, potentially providing an eventual therapy to prevent OA.

  1. Monomeric, porous type II collagen scaffolds promote chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaddon, M; Burrows, M; Ferreira, S A; Dazzi, F; Apperley, J F; Bradshaw, A; Brand, D D; Czernuszka, J; Gentleman, E

    2017-03-03

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common cause of pain and disability and is often associated with the degeneration of articular cartilage. Lesions to the articular surface, which are thought to progress to OA, have the potential to be repaired using tissue engineering strategies; however, it remains challenging to instruct cell differentiation within a scaffold to produce tissue with appropriate structural, chemical and mechanical properties. We aimed to address this by driving progenitor cells to adopt a chondrogenic phenotype through the tailoring of scaffold composition and physical properties. Monomeric type-I and type-II collagen scaffolds, which avoid potential immunogenicity associated with fibrillar collagens, were fabricated with and without chondroitin sulfate (CS) and their ability to stimulate the chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells was assessed. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that cells produced abundant collagen type-II on type-II scaffolds and collagen type-I on type-I scaffolds. Gene expression analyses indicated that the addition of CS - which was released from scaffolds quickly - significantly upregulated expression of type II collagen, compared to type-I and pure type-II scaffolds. We conclude that collagen type-II and CS can be used to promote a more chondrogenic phenotype in the absence of growth factors, potentially providing an eventual therapy to prevent OA.

  2. Age-dependent preferential dense-core vesicle exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells revealed by newly developed monomeric fluorescent timer protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Takashi; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Karasawa, Satoshi; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Miyawaki, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Although it is evident that only a few secretory vesicles accumulating in neuroendocrine cells are qualified to fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents to the extracellular space, the molecular mechanisms that regulate their exocytosis are poorly understood. For example, it has been controversial whether secretory vesicles are exocytosed randomly or preferentially according to their age. Using a newly developed protein-based fluorescent timer, monomeric Kusabira Green Orange (mK-GO), which changes color with a predictable time course, here we show that small GTPase Rab27A effectors regulate age-dependent exocytosis of secretory vesicles in PC12 cells. When the vesicles were labeled with mK-GO-tagged neuropeptide Y or tissue-type plasminogen activator, punctate structures with green or red fluorescence were observed. Application of high [K(+)] stimulation induced exocytosis of new (green) fluorescent secretory vesicles but not of old (red) vesicles. Overexpression or depletion of rabphilin and synaptotagmin-like protein4-a (Slp4-a), which regulate exocytosis positively and negatively, respectively, disturbed the age-dependent exocytosis of the secretory vesicles in different manners. Our results suggest that coordinate functions of the two effectors of Rab27A, rabphilin and Slp4-a, are required for regulated secretory pathway.

  3. Differing modes of interaction between monomeric Aβ(1-40) peptides and model lipid membranes: an AFM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Khizar; Giordani, Cristiano; McManus, Jennifer J; Hovgaard, Mads Bruun; Jarvis, Suzanne P

    2012-02-01

    Membrane interactions with β-amyloid peptides are implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease and cholesterol has been shown to be key modulator of this interaction, yet little is known about the mechanism of this interaction. Using atomic force microscopy, we investigated the interaction of monomeric Aβ(1-40) peptides with planar mica-supported bilayers composed of DOPC and DPPC containing varying concentrations of cholesterol. We show that below the bilayer melting temperature, Aβ monomers adsorb to, and assemble on, the surface of DPPC bilayers to form layers that grow laterally and normal to the bilayer plane. Above the bilayer melting temperature, we observe protofibril formation. In contrast, in DOPC bilayers, Aβ monomers exhibit a detergent-like action, forming defects in the bilayer structure. The kinetics of both modes of interaction significantly increases with increasing membrane cholesterol content. We conclude that the mode and rate of the interaction of Aβ monomers with lipid bilayers are strongly dependent on lipid composition, phase state and cholesterol content.

  4. The full-length cell-cell fusogen EFF-1 is monomeric and upright on the membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeev-Ben-Mordehai, Tzviya; Vasishtan, Daven; Siebert, C. Alistair; Grünewald, Kay

    2014-05-01

    Fusogens are membrane proteins that remodel lipid bilayers to facilitate membrane merging. Although several fusogen ectodomain structures have been solved, structural information on full-length, natively membrane-anchored fusogens is scarce. Here we present the electron cryo microscopy three-dimensional reconstruction of the Caenorhabditis elegans epithelial fusion failure 1 (EFF-1) protein natively anchored in cell-derived membrane vesicles. This reveals a membrane protruding, asymmetric, elongated monomer. Flexible fitting of a protomer of the EFF-1 crystal structure, which is homologous to viral class-II fusion proteins, shows that EFF-1 has a hairpin monomeric conformation before fusion. These structural insights, when combined with our observations of membrane-merging intermediates between vesicles, enable us to propose a model for EFF-1 mediated fusion. This process, involving identical proteins on both membranes to be fused, follows a mechanism that shares features of SNARE-mediated fusion while using the structural building blocks of the unilaterally acting class-II viral fusion proteins.

  5. Rational design of a monomeric and photostable far-red fluorescent protein for fluorescence imaging in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan; Dong, Zhiqiang; Gustafson, William Clay; Ruiz-González, Rubén; Signor, Luca; Marzocca, Fanny; Borel, Franck; Klassen, Matthew P; Makhijani, Kalpana; Royant, Antoine; Jan, Yuh-Nung; Weiss, William A; Guo, Su; Shu, Xiaokun

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescent proteins (FPs) are powerful tools for cell and molecular biology. Here based on structural analysis, a blue-shifted mutant of a recently engineered monomeric infrared fluorescent protein (mIFP) has been rationally designed. This variant, named iBlueberry, bears a single mutation that shifts both excitation and emission spectra by approximately 40 nm. Furthermore, iBlueberry is four times more photostable than mIFP, rendering it more advantageous for imaging protein dynamics. By tagging iBlueberry to centrin, it has been demonstrated that the fusion protein labels the centrosome in the developing zebrafish embryo. Together with GFP-labeled nucleus and tdTomato-labeled plasma membrane, time-lapse imaging to visualize the dynamics of centrosomes in radial glia neural progenitors in the intact zebrafish brain has been demonstrated. It is further shown that iBlueberry can be used together with mIFP in two-color protein labeling in living cells and in two-color tumor labeling in mice.

  6. Understanding Physical Developer (PD): Part II--Is PD targeting eccrine constituents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hunty, Mackenzie; Moret, Sébastien; Chadwick, Scott; Lennard, Chris; Spindler, Xanthe; Roux, Claude

    2015-12-01

    Physical developer (PD) is a fingermark development technique that deposits silver onto fingermark ridges. It is the only technique currently in routine operational use that gives results on porous substrates that have been wet. There is a reasonable understanding of the working solution chemistry, but the chemical constituent(s) contained in fingermark residue that are specifically targeted by PD are largely unknown. A better understanding of the PD technique will permit a more informed selection of alternative or complementary detection methods, and greater usage in operational laboratories. Recent research by our group has shown that PD does not selectively target the lipids present in the residue. This research investigated the hypothesis that PD targets the eccrine constituents in fingermark residue. This was tested by comparison of PD and indanedione-zinc (Ind-Zn) treated natural fingermarks that had been deposited successively, and marks that had been deposited with a ten second interval in between depositions. Such an interval allows for the regeneration of secretions from the pores located on the ridges of the fingers. On fingermark depletions with no time interval between depositions, PD and Ind-Zn treated depletions successively (and comparatively) decreased in development intensity as the amount of residue diminished. Short time intervals in between successive depletions resulted in additional secretions from the pores intermittently occurring, the increased development of which was visualised by treatment with both PD and Ind-Zn. The changes in development intensity were seen with both techniques on the same split depletions in a series, comparably and proportionately. These results indicate that the components targeted by PD are contained in the material excreted by the friction ridge pores through its mirrored development with Ind-Zn. Repetition of the experiments on marks that only contained eccrine material showed good Ind-Zn development but poor

  7. [Study on chemical constituents of Inula cappa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li-hua; Hao, Xiao-jiang; Yuan, Chun-mao; Huang, Lie-jun; Zhang, Jian-xin; Dong, Fen; Fan, Tian-yun; Wu, Gui-hui; Chen, Yan; Ma, Yuan; Fan, Yi-min; Gu, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Column chromatographies over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, reverse phase C18, and MCI, and semi-preparative HPLC were used for separation and purification of constituents from Inula cappa. The 22 compounds were obtained and their strutures were determined by NMR and MS spectra data as nine flavonoids: luteolin (1), apigenin (2), chrysoeriol (3), artemetin (4), 2', 5-di- hydroxy-3, 6, 7, 4', 5'-pentamethoxyflavone (5), chrysosplenol C (6), apigenin-5-0-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), luteolin-3-methyl, luteolin-3-methylether-4'-0-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), luteolin-4'-0-β-D-glucopyranoside (9); four triterpenes: darma-20, 24-dien- 3β-0-acetate (10), darma-20, 24-dien-3β-ol (11), epirfiedelanol (12), friedelin (13); three coumarins: scopoletin (14) , isosco- poletin (15) , scopolin(16) , and other types of compounds stigmasta-5, 22-dien-3β-0-7-one (17), stigmasterol (18), palmitic acid (19), linoleic acid (20), linoleic acid methyl ester (21), (E) -9, 12, 13-trihydroxyoetadee-10-enoie acid (22). Compound 5 is a new natural product. Compounds 3-9, 15, 17, 21, and 22 were isolated from this genus for the first time.

  8. Constituents of south Indian vetiver oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallavarapu, Gopal Rao; Syamasundar, Kodakandla V; Ramesh, S; Rao, Bhaskaruni R Rajeswara

    2012-02-01

    The essential oils isolated from vetiver [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash.] roots collected from four locations in south India were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Eighty constituents, representing 94.5-97.8% of the oils, have been identified. The oils from Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kundapur, and Mettupalayam were rich in sesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes with cedrane, bisabolane, eudesmane, eremophilane, and zizaane skeletons. The main components of the four essential oils were: eudesma-4,6-diene (delta-selinene) + beta-vetispirene (3.9-6.1%), beta-vetivenene (0.9-9.4%), 13-nor-trans-eudesma-4(15),7-dien-11-one + amorph-4-en-10-ol (5.0-6.4%), trans-eudesma-4(15),7-dien-12-ol (vetiselinenol) + (E)-opposita-4(15),7(11)-dien-12-ol (3.7-5.9%), eremophila-1 (10),11-dien-2alpha-ol (nootkatol) + ziza-6(13)-en-12-ol (khusimol) (16.1-19.2%), and eremophila-1(10),7(11)-dien-2alpha-ol (isonootkatol) + (E)-eremophila-1(10),7(11)-12-ol (isovalencenol) (5.6-6.9%). The important compounds that impart the characteristic vetiver odor are: khusimene, delta-selinene, beta-vetivenene, cyclocopacamphan-12-ol (epimers A and B), vetiselinenol, khusimol, isovalencenol, khusimone, alpha-vetivone, and beta-vetivone. The chemical profiles of the oils are comparable to Haitian vetiver oil.

  9. Antioxidant Constituents of Cotoneaster melanocarpus Lodd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelheid H. Brantner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of Cotoneaster melanocarpus Lodd. and the identification of antioxidant active constituents of this plant. C. melanocarpus Lodd. is a shrub indigenous to Mongolia and used in Traditional Mongolian Medicine as a styptic. Before extraction, the plant material was separated into three parts: young sterile shoots, older stems and leaves. All these parts were extracted with water, methanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and hexane, successively. The methanolic extract of the sterile shoots showed the highest antioxidant activity in the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay (IC50 30.91 ± 2.97 µg/mL. This active extract was further analyzed with chromatographic methods. TLC fingerprinting and HPLC indicated the presence of the flavonol glycosides quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin, quercetin-3-O-galactoside (hyperoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercetin, ursolic acid as well as chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid. The findings were substantiated with LC-MS. All identified compounds have antioxidant properties and therefore contribute to the radical scavenging activity of the whole plant.

  10. Antimicrobial constituents from endophytic fungus Fusarium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat Hussain

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of fraction of the fungus Fusarium sp. and study the tentative identification of their active constituents. Methods: Six compounds were purified from an fraction of endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. using column chromatography and their structures have been confirmed based on 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer, 2D COSY, heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation experiments. The six isolated compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using the agar well diffusion method. Results: Phytochemical investigation of endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. lead to the isolation and identification of the following compounds viz., colletorin B, colletochlorin B, LL-Z1272β (llicicolin B, 4,5-dihydroascochlorin, ascochlorin, and 4,5-dihydrodechloroascochlorin. Colletorin B and colletochlorin B displayed moderate herbicidal, antifungal and antibacterial activities towards Chlorella fusca, Ustilago violacea, Fusarium oxysporum, and Bacillus megaterium. On the other hand LL-Z1272β (llicicolin B showed moderate antifungal activity towards Ustilago violacea and Fusarium oxysporum while 4,5-dihydroascochlorin showed strong antibacterial activity towards Bacillus megaterium. Furthermore, 4,5-dihydrodechloroascochlorin showed very strong antifungal activity towards Eurotium repens. Conclusions: Antimicrobial activities demonstrated by five of the six isolated compounds clearly demonstrate that these fungi extracts and active compounds present a great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  11. Antimicrobial chemical constituents from endophytic fungus Phomasp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidayat Hussain; Siegfried Draeger; Barbara Schulz; Karsten Krohn; Ines Kock; Ahmed Al-Harrasi; Ahmed Al-Rawahi; Ghulam Abbas; Ivan R Green; Afzal Shah; Amin Badshah; Muhammad Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of different extracts of the endophytic fungus Phomasp. and the tentative identification of their active constituents.Methods:The extract and compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using theAgarWellDiffusionMethod. Four compounds were purified using column chromatography and their structures were assigned using1H and13CNMR spectra,DEPT,2DCOSY,HMQC andHMBC experiments.Results:The ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp. showed good antifungal, antibacterial, and algicidal properties.One new dihydrofuran derivative, named phomafuranol(1), together with three known compounds, phomalacton(2),(3R)-5-hydroxymellein(3) and emodin(4) were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp.Preliminary studies indicated that phomalacton(2) displayed strong antibacterial, good antifungal and antialgal activities.Similarly(3R)-5-hydroxymellein (3) and emodin(4) showed good antifungal, antibacterial and algicidal properties.Conclusions:Antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of the endophytic fungusPhomasp. and isolated compounds clearly demonstrate thatPhomasp. and its active compounds represent a great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  12. Multi-Constituent Simulation of Thrombus Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Tao; Jamiolkowski, Megan A.; Wagner, William R.; Aubry, Nadine; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Antaki, James F.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a spatio-temporal mathematical model for simulating the formation and growth of a thrombus. Blood is treated as a multi-constituent mixture comprised of a linear fluid phase and a thrombus (solid) phase. The transport and reactions of 10 chemical and biological species are incorporated using a system of coupled convection-reaction-diffusion (CRD) equations to represent three processes in thrombus formation: initiation, propagation and stabilization. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations using the libraries of OpenFOAM were performed for two illustrative benchmark problems: in vivo thrombus growth in an injured blood vessel and in vitro thrombus deposition in micro-channels (1.5 mm × 1.6 mm × 0.1 mm) with small crevices (125 μm × 75 μm and 125 μm × 137 μm). For both problems, the simulated thrombus deposition agreed very well with experimental observations, both spatially and temporally. Based on the success with these two benchmark problems, which have very different flow conditions and biological environments, we believe that the current model will provide useful insight into the genesis of thrombosis in blood-wetted devices, and provide a tool for the design of less thrombogenic devices. PMID:28218279

  13. A review of current smoke constituent measurement activities and aspects of yield variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkis, Stephen W; Meger, Michael; Wuttke, Roland

    2012-02-01

    An increasing number of initiatives to regulate cigarette smoke constituents beyond 'tar', nicotine and carbon monoxide are being launched. The objective of existing and proposed regulation is presumably either to gain a better understanding of product performance, to be able to discriminate between products, or to impose limits for selected constituents. However, without standardized analytical methods and measurement tolerances a meaningful comparison of data or verification against regulated limits is challenging if not impossible. Hence, an understanding of the validity and limitations of generated data is important for industry and regulators alike to avoid unjustified 'out-of-compliance' situations, and consequent competitive and reputational concerns for manufacturers. This paper reviews smoke constituent regulation and provides examples of technical challenges and good practice. It discusses approaches used to standardize measurements; the role of the International Organization for Standardization; factors influencing result variability and limitations and possible misinterpretations of generated data. If smoke constituents regulation is to be introduced, a standardized, science-based approach must be the pre-requisite for the generation and comparison of data. Potential analytical and technical issues must be resolved in discussion, both before and after the implementation of regulation, to the benefit of the public, regulators and manufacturers.

  14. Acute effects of dietary constituents on motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Nuccio, Ryan P; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-12-01

    Performance in many sports is at least partially dependent on motor control, coordination, decision-making, and other cognitive tasks. This review summarizes available evidence about the ingestion of selected nutrients or isolated compounds (dietary constituents) and potential acute effects on motor skill and/or cognitive performance in athletes. Dietary constituents discussed include branched-chain amino acids, caffeine, carbohydrate, cocoa flavanols, Gingko biloba, ginseng, guarana, Rhodiola rosea, sage, L-theanine, theobromine, and tyrosine. Although this is not an exhaustive list, these are perhaps the most researched dietary constituents. Caffeine and carbohydrate have the greatest number of published reports supporting their ability to enhance acute motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes. At this time, there is insufficient published evidence to substantiate the use of any other dietary constituents to benefit sports-related motor skill or cognitive performance. The optimal dose and timing of caffeine and carbohydrate intake promoting enhanced motor skill and cognitive performance remain to be identified. Valid, reliable, and sensitive batteries of motor skills and cognitive tests should be developed for use in future efficacy studies.

  15. Light baryons in a constituent quark model with chiral dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Glozman, L Ya; Plessas, W

    1996-01-01

    It is shown from rigorous three-body Faddeev calculations that the masses of all 14 lowest states in the N and \\Delta spectra can be described within a constituent quark model with a Goldstone-boson-exch ange interaction plus linear confinement between the constituent quarks.

  16. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR UNIFORM DISTRIBUTION OF VOTERS PER CONSTITUENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Marošević

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two different approaches on the basis how to generate constituencies. The first one is based on cluster analysis by means of which approach can get compact constituencies having an approximately equal number of voters. An optimal number of constituencies can be obtained by using this method. The second approach is based on partitioning the country into several areas with respect to territorial integrity of bigger administrative units. The units obtained in this way will represent constituencies which do not necessarily have to have an approximately equal number of voters. Each constituency is associated with a number of representatives that is proportional to its number of voters, so the problem is reduced to the integer approximation problem. Finally, these two approaches are combined and applied on the Republic of Croatia.

  17. Structural analysis of the catalytic mechanism and stereo selectivity in Streptomyces coelicolor alditol oxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forneris, Federico; Heuts, Dominic P. H. M.; Delvecchio, Manuela; Rovida, Stefano; Fraaije, Marco W.; Mattevi, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Alditol oxidase (AldO) from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) is a soluble monomeric flavin-dependent oxidase that performs selective oxidation of the terminal primary hydroxyl group of several alditols. Here, we report the crystal structure of the recombinant enzyme in its native state and in complex w

  18. New strategy for high-level expression and purification of biologically active monomeric TGF-β1/C77S in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yana V; Gasparian, Marine E; Bocharov, Eduard V; Chertkova, Rita V; Tkach, Elena N; Dolgikh, Dmitry A; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P

    2015-02-01

    Mature transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1) is a homodimeric protein with a single disulfide bridge between Cys77 on the respective monomers. The synthetic DNA sequence encoding the mature human TGF-β1/C77S (further termed TGF-β1m) was cloned into plasmid pET-32a downstream to the gene of fusion partner thioredoxin (Trx) immediately after the DNA sequence encoding enteropeptidase recognition site. High-level expression (~1.5 g l(-1)) of Trx/TGF-β1m fusion was achieved in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) strain mainly in insoluble form. The fusion was solubilized and refolded in glutathione redox system in the presence of zwitterionic detergent CHAPS. After refolding, Trx/TGF-β1m fusion was cleaved by enteropeptidase, and the carrier protein of TGF-β1m was separated from thioredoxin on Ni-NTA agarose. Separation of monomeric molecules from the noncovalently bounded oligomers was done using cation-exchange chromatography. The structure of purified TGF-β1m was confirmed by circular dichroism analysis. The developed technology allowed purifying biologically active tag-free monomeric TGF-β1m from bacteria with a yield of about 2.8 mg from 100 ml cell culture. The low-cost and easy purification steps allow considering that our proposed preparation of recombinant monomeric TGF-β1 could be employed for in vitro and in vivo experiments as well as for therapeutic intervention.

  19. Recognition profile of Morus nigra agglutinin (Morniga G) expressed by monomeric ligands, simple clusters and mammalian polyvalent glycotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tanuja; Wu, June H; Peumans, Willy J; Rougé, Pierre; Van Damme, Els J M; Wu, Albert M

    2007-01-01

    The carbohydrate binding properties of a novel member of the subfamily of galactose-specific jacalin-related lectin isolated from the bark of black mulberry (Morus nigra) (Morniga G) was studied in detail by enzyme-linked lectinosorbent and inhibition assays using panels of monomeric saccharides, mammalian polyvalent glycotopes and polysaccharides. Among the natural glycans tested for lectin binding, Morniga G reacted best with glycoproteins (gps) presenting a high density of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens Tn (GalNAcalpha1-Ser/Thr) and Talpha (Galbeta1-3GalNAcalpha1-). Their reactivities, on a nanogram basis, were up to 72.5, 3.9x10(3), 6.0x10(3), 8.8x10(3) and 2.9x10(4) times higher than that of Tn-containing glycopeptides (M.W.Man/Glc, GlcNAc and lFuc; (ii) the mammalian glycotope specificity is Talpha1-benzyl>T>Tn>GalNAcbeta1-3Gal (P), while B/E (Galalpha1-3/4Gal), I/II (Galbeta1-3/4GlcNAc), S (GalNAcbeta1-4Gal), F/A (GalNAcalpha1-3GalNAc/Gal) and L (Galbeta1-4Glc) are inactive; (iii) the most active ligand is T/Tn; (iv) simple clustered Tn or triantennary N-glycans with II termini (Tri-II) have limited impact; (v) high-density polyvalent glycotopes play a prominent role for enhancing Morniga G reactivity. These results provide evidence for the binding of this lectin to dense cell surface T/Tn glycoconjugates and facilitate future usage of this lectin in biotechnological and medical applications.

  20. Pleiotropic benefit of monomeric and oligomeric flavanols on vascular health--a randomized controlled clinical pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje R Weseler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are expanding to a major social-economic burden in the Western World and undermine man's deep desire for healthy ageing. Epidemiological studies suggest that flavanol-rich foods (e.g. grapes, wine, chocolate sustain cardiovascular health. For an evidenced-based application, however, sound clinical data on their efficacy are strongly demanded. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention study we supplemented 28 male smokers with 200 mg per day of monomeric and oligomeric flavanols (MOF from grape seeds. At baseline, after 4 and 8 weeks we measured macro- and microvascular function and a cluster of systemic biomarkers for major pathological processes occurring in the vasculature: disturbances in lipid metabolism and cellular redox balance, and activation of inflammatory cells and platelets. RESULTS: In the MOF group serum total cholesterol and LDL decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05 by 5% (n = 11 and 7% (n = 9, respectively in volunteers with elevated baseline levels. Additionally, after 8 weeks the ratio of glutathione to glutathione disulphide in erythrocytes rose from baseline by 22% (n = 15, P<0.05 in MOF supplemented subjects. We also observed that MOF supplementation exerts anti-inflammatory effects in blood towards ex vivo added bacterial endotoxin and significantly reduces expression of inflammatory genes in leukocytes. Conversely, alterations in macro- and microvascular function, platelet aggregation, plasma levels of nitric oxide surrogates, endothelin-1, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, prostaglandin F2alpha, plasma antioxidant capacity and gene expression levels of antioxidant defense enzymes did not reach statistical significance after 8 weeks MOF supplementation. However, integrating all measured effects into a global, so-called vascular health index revealed a significant improvement of overall vascular health by MOF compared to placebo (P ≤ 0.05. CONCLUSION: Our

  1. Aggregation of a slow-folding mutant of a beta-clam protein proceeds through a monomeric nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Zoya; Gierasch, Lila M

    2005-05-17

    Mechanistic understanding of protein aggregation, leading either to structured amyloid fibrils or to amorphous inclusion body-like deposits, should facilitate the identification of potential therapeutic intervention strategies for the devastating amyloid-based diseases. Here we focus on the in vitro aggregation of a slow-folding mutant of the beta-clam protein, cellular retinoic acid-binding protein I (P39A CRABP I), which forms inclusion bodies when expressed in Escherichia coli. Aggregation was monitored by observing the fluorescence of a fluorescein-based biarsenical dye (FlAsH) that ligates to a tetra-Cys motif, here incorporated into a flexible Omega-loop. The fluorescence signal of FlAsH on the tetra-Cys-containing P39A CRABP I is sensitive to whether this protein is native or unfolded, and was used in combination with other techniques to follow aggregate formation. The aggregation time course is compatible with a nucleation-dependent polymerization model, and detailed kinetic analysis showed that the energetically unfavorable nucleus is monomeric. A similar conclusion was reached previously for poly(Gln) species [Chen, S., Ferrone, F. A., and Wetzel, R. (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 11884-11889] and points to an unfavorable equilibrium between the misfolded intermediate and the bulk pool of monomers as causative in aggregation. The P39A mutation, which removes a helix-stop signal, may slow closure of the beta-barrel in P39A CRABP I relative to the wild type, leaving it vulnerable to aggregation. Wide-angle X-ray scattering showed that the amorphous aggregates formed by the aggregation-prone intermediates of P39A CRABP I contain predominantly beta-strands structured in a lamellar fashion with 10.03 A spacing between adjacent beta-sheets.

  2. Occurrence and Speciation of Polymeric Chromium(III), Monomeric Chromium(III) and Chromium(VI) in Environmental Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    HU, LIGANG; CAI, YONG; JIANG, GUIBIN

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory experiments suggest that polymeric Cr(III) could exist in aqueous solution for a relative long period of time. However, the occurrence of polymeric Cr(III) has not been reported in environmental media due partially to the lack of method for speciating polymeric Cr. We observed an unknown Cr species during the course of study on speciation of Cr in the leachates of chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA)-treated wood. Efforts were made to identify structure of the unknown Cr species. Considering the forms of Cr existed in the CCA-treated woods, we mainly focused our efforts to determine if the unknown species were polymeric Cr(III), complex of Cr/As or complex of Cr with dissolved organic matter (DOM). In order to evaluate whether polymeric Cr(III) largely exist in wood leachates, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICPMS was used) for simultaneous speciation of monomeric Cr(III), polymeric Cr(III), and Cr(VI). In addition to wood leachates where polymeric Cr (III) ranged from 39.1 to 67.4 %, occurrence of the unknown Cr species in other environmental matrices, including surface waters, tap and waste waters, was also investigated. It was found that polymeric Cr(III) could exist in environmental samples containing μg/L level of Cr, at a level up to 60% of total Cr, suggesting that polymeric Cr(III) could significantly exist in natural environments. Failure in quantifying polymeric Cr(III) would lead to the underestimation of total Cr and bias in Cr speciation. The environmental implication of the presence of polymeric Cr(III) species in the environment deserves further study. PMID:27156211

  3. Stability, structural and functional properties of a monomeric, calcium–loaded adenylate cyclase toxin, CyaA, from Bordetella pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannella, Sara E.; Ntsogo Enguéné, Véronique Yvette; Davi, Marilyne; Malosse, Christian; Sotomayor Pérez, Ana Cristina; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Vachette, Patrice; Durand, Dominique; Ladant, Daniel; Chenal, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, secretes an adenylate cyclase toxin, CyaA, which invades eukaryotic cells and alters their physiology by cAMP overproduction. Calcium is an essential cofactor of CyaA, as it is the case for most members of the Repeat-in-ToXins (RTX) family. We show that the calcium-bound, monomeric form of CyaA, hCyaAm, conserves its permeabilization and haemolytic activities, even in a fully calcium-free environment. In contrast, hCyaAm requires sub-millimolar calcium in solution for cell invasion, indicating that free calcium in solution is involved in the CyaA toxin translocation process. We further report the first in solution structural characterization of hCyaAm, as deduced from SAXS, mass spectrometry and hydrodynamic studies. We show that hCyaAm adopts a compact and stable state that can transiently conserve its conformation even in a fully calcium-free environment. Our results therefore suggest that in hCyaAm, the C-terminal RTX-domain is stabilized in a high-affinity calcium-binding state by the N-terminal domains while, conversely, calcium binding to the C-terminal RTX-domain strongly stabilizes the N-terminal regions. Hence, the different regions of hCyaAm appear tightly connected, leading to stabilization effects between domains. The hysteretic behaviour of CyaA in response to calcium is likely shared by other RTX cytolysins. PMID:28186111

  4. Production of Monomeric Aromatic Compounds from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Lignin by Chemical and Enzymatic Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Pei-Ling; Hassan, Osman; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof; Badri, Khairiah

    2015-01-01

    In this study, oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFBF) was pretreated with alkali, and lignin was extracted for further degradation into lower molecular weight phenolic compounds using enzymes and chemical means. Efficiency of monomeric aromatic compounds production from OPEFBF lignin via chemical (nitrobenzene versus oxygen) and enzymatic [cutinase versus manganese peroxidase (MnP)] approaches was investigated. The effects of sodium hydroxide concentration (2, 5, and 10% wt.) and reaction time (30, 90, and 180 minutes) on the yield of aromatic compounds were studied. The results obtained indicated that nitrobenzene oxidation produced the highest yield (333.17 ± 49.44 ppm hydroxybenzoic acid, 5.67 ± 0.25 ppm p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 25.57 ± 1.64 ppm vanillic acid, 168.68 ± 23.23 ppm vanillin, 75.44 ± 6.71 ppm syringic acid, 815.26 ± 41.77 ppm syringaldehyde, 15.21 ± 2.19 ppm p-coumaric acid, and 44.75 ± 3.40 ppm ferulic acid), among the tested methods. High sodium hydroxide concentration (10% wt.) was needed to promote efficient nitrobenzene oxidation. However, less severe oxidation condition was preferred to preserve the hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid). Cutinase-catalyzed hydrolysis was found to be more efficient than MnP-catalyzed oxidation in the production of aromatic compounds. By hydrolyzed 8% wt. of lignin with 0.625 mL cutinase g(-1) lignin at pH 8 and 55°C for 24 hours, about 642.83 ± 14.45 ppm hydroxybenzoic acid, 70.19 ± 3.31 ppm syringaldehyde, 22.80 ± 1.04 ppm vanillin, 27.06 ± 1.20 ppm p-coumaric acid, and 50.19 ± 2.23 ppm ferulic acid were produced.

  5. Constituent-level pile-up mitigation techniques in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Pile-up of simultaneous proton-proton collisions at the LHC has a significant impact on jet reconstruction. In this note the performance of several pile-up mitigation techniques is evaluated in detailed simulations of the ATLAS experiment. Four algorithms that act on the jet-constituent level are evaluated: SoftKiller, the cluster vertex fraction algorithm and Voronoi and constituent subtraction. We find that application of these constituent-level algorithms improves the resolution of low-transverse-momentum jets. The improvement is significant for collisions with 80-200 simultaneous proton-proton collisions envisaged in future runs of the LHC.

  6. Systematic Review of Chemical Constituents in the Genus Lycium (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Qian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Lycium genus is widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine and functional food. Many of the chemical constituents of the genus Lycium were reported previously. In this review, in addition to the polysaccharides, we have enumerated 355 chemical constituents and nutrients, including 22 glycerogalactolipids, 29 phenylpropanoids, 10 coumarins, 13 lignans, 32 flavonoids, 37 amides, 72 alkaloids, four anthraquinones, 32 organic acids, 39 terpenoids, 57 sterols, steroids, and their derivatives, five peptides and three other constituents. This comprehensive study could lay the foundation for further research on the Lycium genus.

  7. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Bailey, S.A.; Stepp, A.K.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

  8. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.; Dennis, D.M.; Graumann, L.R.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents.

  9. Evaluation of nonpoint-source contamination, Wisconsin: Land-use and Best-Management-Practices inventory, selected streamwater-quality data, urban-watershed quality assurance and quality control, constituent loads in rural streams, and snowmelt-runoff analysis, water year 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.F.; Graczyk, D.J.; Corsi, S.R.; Owens, D.W.; Wierl, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    isolate contamination in the sample bottle, the automatic sampler and splitter, and the filtration system. Significant contamination caused excessive concentrations of dissolved chloride, alkalinity, and biochemical oxygen demand. The level of contamination may be large enough to affect data for water samples in which these analytes are present at low concentration. Further investigation is being done to determine the source of contamination and take measures to minimize its effect on the sampling. A preliminary regression analysis was done for the rural sites using data collected during water years 1989-93. Loads of suspended solids and total phosphorus in stormflow were regressed against various precipitation-related measures. The results indicate that, for most sites, changes in constituent load on the order of 40 to 50 percent could be detected with a statistical test. For two sites, the change would have to be 60 to 70 percent to be detected. A detailed comparison of snowmelt runoff and rainfall stormflow in urban and rural areas was done using data collected during water years 1985-93. For the rural sites where statistically significant differences were found between constituent loads in snowmelt and storm runoff, the loads of suspended solids and total phosphorus in snowmelt runoff were greater than those in storm runoff. For the urban sites where statistically significant differences were found between snowmelt and storm runoff, the loads of suspended solids and total phosphorus in storm runoff were greater than those in snowmelt runoff. The importance of including snowmelt runoff in designing and analyzing the effects of BMP's on streamwater quality, particularly in rural areas, is emphasized by these results.

  10. determination of elemental constituents for three herbal plants that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    DETERMINATION OF ELEMENTAL CONSTITUENTS FOR THREE HERBAL PLANTS THAT ARE. TRADITIONALLY ... transferred to a personal computer using USB code wire for ... that the intake conforms to the values in table 4. According to.

  11. Tabanone a new phytotoxic constituent of cogongrass (Imperta culindrica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogongrass [Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.] is a troublesome invasive weedy species with reported allelopathic properties. The phytotoxicity of different constituents isolated from roots and aerial parts of this species was evaluated on Lactuca sativa and Agrostis stolonifera. No significant phytot...

  12. Distributions and correlations of constituent quarks in jets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑞典; 蔡勖; 钱婉燕; 杨纯斌

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of the quark recombination model, we study the momentum distributions and correlations of constituent quarks in jets by analyzing the final state hadrons generated by PYTHIA for the hard parton fragmentation processes in vacuum. Parameterizat

  13. Chemical Constituents from the Stems of Morinda citrifolia Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Sattar, Fouzia A; Begum, Sabira; Gulzar, Tahsin; Ahmad, Fayaz

    2007-07-01

    Studies on the chemical constituents of the stems of Morinda citrifolia, Linn. have led to the isolation of two new compounds, morindicone (9-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-methyl-3,10-anthracenedione, 1) and morinthone (4-methoxy-3-heptadecylxanthone, 2), as well as two known constituents, 1-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (3) and 2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone (4). Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis including 2D NMR techniques.

  14. Comparative DFT Study of Phytochemical Constituents of the Fruits of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. and Cucumis sativus Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subarayan Bothi Gopalakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hepatoprotective active phytochemical constituents from the ethanolic extracts of the fruits of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. and Cucumis sativus Linn. were identified by GC-MS analysis. The density functional theory (DFT of these molecules was calculated by density functional B3LYP methods using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p basis set. The optimized geometries of phytochemical constituents were evaluated. Physicochemical properties such as HOMO, LUMO, ionization potential, electron affinity, electronegativity, electrochemical potential, hardness, softness, electrophilicity, total energy, and dipole moment have also been recorded. These are very important parameters to understand the chemical reactivity and biological activity of the phytochemical constituents. Glycodeoxycholic acid and 2-(2-methylcyclohexylidene-hydrazinecarboxamide were found to be effective drugs selected on the basis of their HOMO and LUMO energy gap and softness. The effective properties of these compounds may be due to the presence of amino, carbonyl, and alcohol as a functional group.

  15. Stable divalent germanium, tin and lead amino(ether)-phenolate monomeric complexes: structural features, inclusion heterobimetallic complexes, and ROP catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingfang; Roşca, Sorin-Claudiu; Poirier, Valentin; Sinbandhit, Sourisak; Dorcet, Vincent; Roisnel, Thierry; Carpentier, Jean-François; Sarazin, Yann

    2014-03-21

    Stable germanium(II) and lead(II) amido complexes {LO(i)}M(N(SiMe3)2) (M = Ge(II), Pb(II)) bearing amino(ether)phenolate ligands are readily available using the proteo-ligands {LO(i)}H of general formula 2-CH2NR2-4,6-tBu2-C6H2OH (i = 1, NR2 = N((CH2)2OCH3)2; i = 2, NR2 = NEt2; i = 3, NR2 = aza-15-crown-5) and M(N(SiMe3)2)2 precursors. The molecular structures of these germylenes and plumbylenes, as well as those of {LO(3)}GeCl, {LO(3)}SnCl and of the congeneric {LO(4)}Sn(II)(N(SiMe3)2) where NR2 = aza-12-crown-4, have been determined crystallographically. All complexes are monomeric, with 3-coordinate metal centres. The phenolate systematically acts as a N^O(phenolate) bidentate ligand, with no interactions between the metal and the O(side-arm) atoms in these cases (for {LO(1)}(-), {LO(3)}(-) and {LO(4)}(-)) where they could potentially arise. For each family, the lone pair of electrons essentially features ns(2) character, and there is little, if any, hybridization of the valence orbitals. Heterobimetallic complexes {LO(3)}M(N(SiMe3)2)·LiOTf, where the Li(+) cation sits inside the tethered crown-ether, were prepared by reaction of {LO(3)}M(N(SiMe3)2) and LiOTf (M = Ge(II), Sn(II)). The inclusion of Li(+) (featuring a close contact with the triflate anion) in the macrocycle bears no influence on the coordination sphere of the divalent tetrel element. In association with iPrOH, the amido germylenes, stannylenes and plumbylenes catalyse the controlled polymerisation of L- and racemic lactide. The activity increases linearly according to Ge(II) ≪ Sn(II) ≪ Pb(II). The simple germylenes generate very sluggish catalysts, but the activity is significantly boosted if the heterobimetallic complex {LO(3)}Ge(N(SiMe3)2)·LiOTf is used instead. On the other hand, with 10-25 equiv. of iPrOH, the plumbylenes afford highly active binary catalysts, converting 1000 or 5000 equiv. of monomer at 60 °C within 3 or 45 min, respectively, in a controlled fashion.

  16. Production of Monomeric Aromatic Compounds from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Lignin by Chemical and Enzymatic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ling Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFBF was pretreated with alkali, and lignin was extracted for further degradation into lower molecular weight phenolic compounds using enzymes and chemical means. Efficiency of monomeric aromatic compounds production from OPEFBF lignin via chemical (nitrobenzene versus oxygen and enzymatic [cutinase versus manganese peroxidase (MnP] approaches was investigated. The effects of sodium hydroxide concentration (2, 5, and 10% wt. and reaction time (30, 90, and 180 minutes on the yield of aromatic compounds were studied. The results obtained indicated that nitrobenzene oxidation produced the highest yield (333.17±49.44 ppm hydroxybenzoic acid, 5.67±0.25 ppm p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 25.57±1.64 ppm vanillic acid, 168.68±23.23 ppm vanillin, 75.44±6.71 ppm syringic acid, 815.26±41.77 ppm syringaldehyde, 15.21±2.19 ppm p-coumaric acid, and 44.75±3.40 ppm ferulic acid, among the tested methods. High sodium hydroxide concentration (10% wt. was needed to promote efficient nitrobenzene oxidation. However, less severe oxidation condition was preferred to preserve the hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. Cutinase-catalyzed hydrolysis was found to be more efficient than MnP-catalyzed oxidation in the production of aromatic compounds. By hydrolyzed 8% wt. of lignin with 0.625 mL cutinase g−1 lignin at pH 8 and 55°C for 24 hours, about 642.83±14.45 ppm hydroxybenzoic acid, 70.19±3.31 ppm syringaldehyde, 22.80±1.04 ppm vanillin, 27.06±1.20 ppm p-coumaric acid, and 50.19±2.23 ppm ferulic acid were produced.

  17. Development and characterization of mouse monoclonal antibodies against monomeric dengue virus non-structural glycoprotein 1 (NS1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelanew, Tesfaye; Poole-Smith, B Katherine; Hunsperger, Elizabeth

    2015-09-15

    Dengue virus (DENV) nonstructural-1 (NS1) glycoprotein is useful for diagnosis of DENV infections in the first 8 days of illness with any of the four serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4). However, NS1 diagnostics are less sensitive for secondary DENV infections so the utility of NS1 diagnostics in dengue endemic countries where there is predominantly secondary infections is being questioned. Heat-mediated immunecomplex dissociation (ICD) prior to testing serum samples can significantly improve NS1 test sensitivity in secondary infections but requires monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reactive to heat-denatured NS1. In order to incorporate a simple heat-mediated ICD step, a crucial step was to develop new MAbs with high affinity and specificity to heat-denatured DENV NS1 protein. In the present study, six new MAbs were isolated from BALB/c mice immunized with recombinant monomeric NS1 of DENV-1 and DENV-2. Characterization using three different methods: indirect ELISA, fixed cell ELISA and western blot revealed that all six MAbs are serotype-cross-reactive and capable of recognizing dimeric and hexameric isoforms as well as heat-denatured NS1 from all four DENV serotypes. No cross-reactivity to NS1 of West Nile virus and Yellow fever virus was observed on western blot and indirect ELISA. Five of the six MAbs mapped to the DENV NS1 region of 105-119 amino acids. The remaining MAb mapped to DENV NS1 region of 25-39 amino acids. These two NS1 regions were found to be highly conserved among all four DENV serotypes by sequences analysis and database comparison. These MAbs were used to develop an NS1 capture ELISA and tested using a small panel of clinical specimens. The results from the NS1 capture ELISA indicated at least a three-fold increase in NS1 antigen detection in heat-denatured samples compared to untreated specimens. Furthermore, artificial immunecomplexed results also demonstrated the binding efficiency of these MAbs to heat denatured NS1. Taken together

  18. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitzman, D.O.; Stepp, A.K.

    2003-02-11

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal was to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery.

  19. In vitro evaluation of Bacopa monniera extract and individual constituents on human recombinant monoamine oxidase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajbir; Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Bhateria, Manisha; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2014-09-01

    Bacopa monniera is a traditional Ayurvedic medicinal plant that has been used worldwide for its nootropic action. Chemically standardized extract of B. monniera is now available as over the counter herbal remedy to enhance memory in children and adults. Considering the nootropic action of B. monniera, we evaluated the effect of clinically available B. monniera extract and six of B. monniera constituents (bacoside A3, bacopaside I, bacopaside II, bacosaponin C, bacosine, and bacoside A mixture) on recombinant human monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes. The effect of B. monniera extract and individual constituents on human recombinant MAO-A and MAO-B enzymes was evaluated using MAO-Glo(TM) assay kit (Promega Corporation, USA), following the instruction manual. IC50 and mode of inhibition were measured for MAO enzymes. Bacopaside I and bacoside A mixture inhibited the MAO-A and MAO-B enzymes. Bacopaside I exhibited mixed mode of inhibition with IC50 and Ki values of 17.08 ± 1.64 and 42.5 ± 3.53 µg/mL, respectively, for MAO-A enzyme. Bacopaside I is the major constituent of B. monniera, which inhibited the MAO-A enzyme selectively.

  20. Growing media constituents determine the microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media for horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Oliver; Reheul, Dirk; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Perneel, Maaike; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Boon, Nico

    2016-05-01

    Vegetables and fruits are an important part of a healthy food diet, however, the eco-sustainability of the production of these can still be significantly improved. European farmers and consumers spend an estimated €15.5 billion per year on inorganic fertilizers and the production of N-fertilizers results in a high carbon footprint. We investigated if fertilizer type and medium constituents determine microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media and can be used as a next step towards a more sustainable horticulture. We demonstrated that growing media constituents showed differences in urea hydrolysis, ammonia and nitrite oxidation and in carbon dioxide respiration rate. Interestingly, mixing of the growing media constituents resulted in a stimulation of the function of the microorganisms. The use of organic fertilizer resulted in an increase in amoA gene copy number by factor 100 compared to inorganic fertilizers. Our results support our hypothesis that the activity of the functional microbial community with respect to nitrogen turnover in an organic growing medium can be improved by selecting and mixing the appropriate growing media components with each other. These findings contribute to the understanding of the functional microbial community in growing media and its potential role towards a more responsible horticulture.

  1. Bioactive constituents of Salvia chrysophylla Stapf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çulhaoğlu, Burcu; Yapar, Gönül; Dirmenci, Tuncay; Topçu, Gülaçtı

    2013-03-01

    The dichloromethane extract of the aerial parts of Salvia chrysophylla Stapf (Lamiaceae), which is an endemic species to south-western Anatolia, was studied for non-volatile secondary metabolites for the first time in this study. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated as sclareol, β-sitosterol, salvigenin, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. The lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity and the DPPH free radical scavenging activity of the pure isolates were investigated to establish their antioxidant potential. Their anticholinesterase activity was carried out by the Ellman assay against both enzymes, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase, and diterpene sclareol exhibited fairly good activity against both the enzymes while the two triterpenoids oleanolic and ursolic acids exhibited selective activity against AChE.

  2. Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. O. Hitzman; A. K. Stepp; D. M. Dennis; L. R. Graumann

    2003-03-31

    This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work is underway. Microbial cultures have been isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters with cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Field pilot studies are underway.

  3. Unique fluorophores in the dimeric archaeal histones hMfB and hPyA1 reveal the impact of nonnative structure in a monomeric kinetic intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, Matthew R; Gloss, Lisa M

    2008-02-01

    Homodimeric archaeal histones and heterodimeric eukaryotic histones share a conserved structure but fold through different kinetic mechanisms, with a correlation between faster folding/association rates and the population of kinetic intermediates. Wild-type hMfB (from Methanothermus fervidus) has no intrinsic fluorophores; Met35, which is Tyr in hyperthermophilic archaeal histones such as hPyA1 (from Pyrococcus strain GB-3A), was mutated to Tyr and Trp. Two Tyr-to-Trp mutants of hPyA1 were also characterized. All fluorophores were introduced into the long, central alpha-helix of the histone fold. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) indicated that the fluorophores did not significantly alter the helical content of the histones. The equilibrium unfolding transitions of the histone variants were two-state, reversible processes, with DeltaG degrees (H2O) values within 1 kcal/mol of the wild-type dimers. The hPyA1 Trp variants fold by two-state kinetic mechanisms like wild-type hPyA1, but with increased folding and unfolding rates, suggesting that the mutated residues (Tyr-32 and Tyr-36) contribute to transition state structure. Like wild-type hMfB, M35Y and M35W hMfB fold by a three-state mechanism, with a stopped-flow CD burst-phase monomeric intermediate. The M35 mutants populate monomeric intermediates with increased secondary structure and stability but exhibit decreased folding rates; this suggests that nonnative interactions occur from burial of the hydrophobic Tyr and Trp residues in this kinetic intermediate. These results implicate the long central helix as a key component of the structure in the kinetic monomeric intermediates of hMfB as well as the dimerization transition state in the folding of hPyA1.

  4. Trapping of Vibrio cholerae cytolysin in the membrane-bound monomeric state blocks membrane insertion and functional pore formation by the toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Anand Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Kausik

    2014-06-13

    Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC) is a potent membrane-damaging cytolytic toxin that belongs to the family of β barrel pore-forming protein toxins. VCC induces lysis of its target eukaryotic cells by forming transmembrane oligomeric β barrel pores. The mechanism of membrane pore formation by VCC follows the overall scheme of the archetypical β barrel pore-forming protein toxin mode of action, in which the water-soluble monomeric form of the toxin first binds to the target cell membrane, then assembles into a prepore oligomeric intermediate, and finally converts into the functional transmembrane oligomeric β barrel pore. However, there exists a vast knowledge gap in our understanding regarding the intricate details of the membrane pore formation process employed by VCC. In particular, the membrane oligomerization and membrane insertion steps of the process have only been described to a limited extent. In this study, we determined the key residues in VCC that are critical to trigger membrane oligomerization of the toxin. Alteration of such key residues traps the toxin in its membrane-bound monomeric state and abrogates subsequent oligomerization, membrane insertion, and functional transmembrane pore-formation events. The results obtained from our study also suggest that the membrane insertion of VCC depends critically on the oligomerization process and that it cannot be initiated in the membrane-bound monomeric form of the toxin. In sum, our study, for the first time, dissects membrane binding from the subsequent oligomerization and membrane insertion steps and, thus, defines the exact sequence of events in the membrane pore formation process by VCC.

  5. Antioxidant effects of phenolic rye (Secale cereale L.) extracts, monomeric hydroxycinnamates, and ferulic acid dehydrodimers on human low-density lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mette Findal; Landbo, A K; Christensen, L P

    2001-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants that protect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from oxidation may help to prevent atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The antioxidant activities of purified monomeric and dimeric hydroxycinnamates and of phenolic extracts from rye (whole grain, bran, and flour) were...... investigated using an in vitro copper-catalyzed human LDL oxidation assay. The most abundant ferulic acid dehydrodimer (diFA) found in rye, 8-O-4-diFA, was a slightly better antioxidant than ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity of the 8-5-diFA was comparable to that of ferulic acid...

  6. Antioxidant effects of phenolic rye (Secale cereale L.) extracts, monomeric hydroxycinnamates, and ferulic acid dehydrodimers on human low-density lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, M.F.; Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Christensen, L.P.

    2001-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants that protect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from oxidation may help to prevent atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The antioxidant activities of purified monomeric and dimeric hydroxycinnamates and of phenolic extracts from rye (whole grain, bran, and flour) were...... investigated using an in vitro copper-catalyzed human LDL oxidation assay. The most abundant ferulic acid dehydrodimer (diFA) found in rye, 8-O-4- diFA, was a slightly better antioxidant than ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. The antioxidant activity of the 8-5-diFA was comparable to that of ferulic acid...

  7. Complexation of buffer constituents with neutral complexation agents: part I. Impact on common buffer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesová, Martina; Svobodová, Jana; Tošner, Zdeněk; Beneš, Martin; Tesařová, Eva; Gaš, Bohuslav

    2013-09-17

    The complexation of buffer constituents with the complexation agent present in the solution can very significantly influence the buffer properties, such as pH, ionic strength, or conductivity. These parameters are often crucial for selection of the separation conditions in capillary electrophoresis or high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and can significantly affect results of separation, particularly for capillary electrophoresis as shown in Part II of this paper series (Beneš, M.; Riesová, M.; Svobodová, J.; Tesařová, E.; Dubský, P.; Gaš, B. Anal. Chem. 2013, DOI: 10.1021/ac401381d). In this paper, the impact of complexation of buffer constituents with a neutral complexation agent is demonstrated theoretically as well as experimentally for the model buffer system composed of benzoic acid/LiOH or common buffers (e.g., CHES/LiOH, TAPS/LiOH, Tricine/LiOH, MOPS/LiOH, MES/LiOH, and acetic acid/LiOH). Cyclodextrins as common chiral selectors were used as model complexation agents. We were not only able to demonstrate substantial changes of pH but also to predict the general complexation characteristics of selected compounds. Because of the zwitterion character of the common buffer constituents, their charged forms complex stronger with cyclodextrins than the neutral ones do. This was fully proven by NMR measurements. Additionally complexation constants of both forms of selected compounds were determined by NMR and affinity capillary electrophoresis with a very good agreement of obtained values. These data were advantageously used for the theoretical descriptions of variations in pH, depending on the composition and concentration of the buffer. Theoretical predictions were shown to be a useful tool for deriving some general rules and laws for complexing systems.

  8. INNOVATIVE MIOR PROCESS UTILIZING INDIGENOUS RESERVOIR CONSTITUENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.O. Hitzman; A.K. Stepp; D.M. Dennis; L.R. Graumann

    2003-09-01

    This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions and technologies for improving oil production. The goal was to identify and utilize indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work in model sandpack cores was conducted using microbial cultures isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters using cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Increased oil recovery in multiple model sandpack systems was achieved and the technology and results were verified by successful field studies. Direct application of the research results has lead to the development of a feasible, practical, successful, and cost-effective technology which increases oil recovery. This technology is now being commercialized and applied in numerous field projects to increase oil recovery. Two field applications of the developed technology reported production increases of 21% and 24% in oil recovery.

  9. Use of environmental tobacco smoke constituents as markers for exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaKind, J.S. [LaKind Associates (United States); Jenkins, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Naiman, D.Q. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Ginevan, M.E. [M.E. Ginevan and Associates (United States); Graves, C.G.; Tardiff, R.G. [Sapphire Group, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The 16-City Study analyzed for gas-phase environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents (nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine [3-EP], and myosmine) and for particulate-phase constituents (respirable particulate matter [RSP], ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter [UVPM], fluorescing particulate matter [FPM], scopoletin, and solanesol). In this second of three articles, the authors discuss the merits of each constituent as a marker for ETS and report pair-wise comparisons of the markers. Neither nicotine nor UVPM were good predictors for RSP. However, nicotine and UVPM were good qualitative predictors of each other. Nicotine was correlated with other gas-phase constituents. Comparisons between UVPM and other particulate-phase constituents were performed. Its relation with FPM was excellent, with UVPM approximately 1 1/2 times FPM. The correlation between UVPM and solanesol was good, but the relationship between the two was not linear. The relation between UVPM and scopoletin was not good, largely because of noise in the scopoletin measures around its limit of detection. The authors considered the relation between nicotine and saliva cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine. The two were highly correlated on the group level.

  10. The anchorless adhesin Eap (extracellular adherence protein) from Staphylococcus aureus selectively recognizes extracellular matrix aggregates but binds promiscuously to monomeric matrix macromolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Uwe; Hussain, Muzaffar; Villone, Daniela; Herrmann, Mathias; Robenek, Horst; Peters, Georg; Sinha, Bhanu; Bruckner, Peter

    Besides a number of cell wall-anchored adhesins, the majority of Staphylococcus aureus strains produce anchorless, cell wall-associated proteins, such as Eap (extracellular adherence protein). Eap contains four to six tandem repeat (EAP)-domains. Eap mediates diverse biological functions, including

  11. The anchorless adhesin Eap (extracellular adherence protein) from Staphylococcus aureus selectively recognizes extracellular matrix aggregates but binds promiscuously to monomeric matrix macromolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Uwe; Hussain, Muzaffar; Villone, Daniela; Herrmann, Mathias; Robenek, Horst; Peters, Georg; Sinha, Bhanu; Bruckner, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Besides a number of cell wall-anchored adhesins, the majority of Staphylococcus aureus strains produce anchorless, cell wall-associated proteins, such as Eap (extracellular adherence protein). Eap contains four to six tandem repeat (EAP)-domains. Eap mediates diverse biological functions, including

  12. Effective Q-Q Interactions in Constituent Quark Models

    CERN Document Server

    Glozman, L Ya; Plessas, W; Varga, K; Wagenbrun, R F

    1998-01-01

    We study the performance of some recent potential models suggested as effective interactions between constituent quarks. In particular, we address constituent quark models for baryons with hybrid Q-Q interactions stemming from one-gluon plus meson exchanges. Upon recalculating two of such models we find them to fail in describing the N and \\Delta spectra. Our calculations are based on accurate solutions of the three-quark systems in both a variational Schrödinger and a rigorous Faddeev approach. It is argued that hybrid {Q-Q} interactions encounter difficulties in describing baryon spectra due to the specific contributions from one-gluon and pion exchanges together. In contrast, a chiral constituent quark model with a Q-Q interaction solely derived from Goldstone-boson exchange is capable of providing a unified description of both the N and \\Delta spectra in good agreement with phenomenology.

  13. Absorption spectrum of monomeric pseudoisocyanine: A new perspective and its implications for formation and spectral response of J-aggregates in solution and in thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guelen, Demet [Physics Department, Middle East Technical University (METU), 06531 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: dgul@metu.edu.tr; Ozcelik, Serdar [Chemistry Department, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla 35430, Izmir (Turkey)

    2008-05-15

    We argued against the current spectral assignment for absorption spectrum of monomeric PIC which is widely accepted since the pioneering works of Scheibe and Jelley [G. Scheibe, Angew. Chem. 49 (1936) 563; E.E. Jelly, Nature 138 (1936) 1009]. A new spectrum is presented along with its conceptual basis. The hypothesized spectrum attributes the previous 0-0 ({approx}525 nm) and 0-1 ({approx}490 nm) assignments, respectively, to intermediates acting as the precursor of J-aggregates and to the 0-0 transition of monomeric PIC and brings the spectrum in accord with the seemingly universal spectral fingerprint of cyanines. The hypothesis is used to analyze and interpret the temperature dependence of the UV-vis absorption of PIC aggregates in saline aqueous solution by incorporating the J-band simulations within frenkel exciton formalism. Its implications for aggregate formation kinetics are given on the basis of current spectroscopic evidence. The hypothesis readily answers several long-standing questions: Why compared to many other cyanines at least an order of magnitude higher dye concentration is needed to form J-aggregates of PIC? Why are there no precursors, since aggregation is expected to be a consecutive process? A large number of observations on steady-state and time-resolved spectral properties, and aggregation kinetics in solution/thin films are likely to find reasonable explanations within this hypothesis.

  14. Binding of the monomeric form of C-reactive protein to enzymatically-modified low-density lipoprotein: effects of phosphoethanolamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjay K.; Suresh, Madathilparambil V.; Hammond, David J.; Rusiñol, Antonio E.; Potempa, Lawrence A.; Agrawal, Alok

    2009-01-01

    Background The 5 subunits of native pentameric C-reactive protein (CRP) are dissociated to generate monomeric form of CRP (mCRP) in some in vitro conditions, both physiological and non-physiological, and also in vivo. Many bioactivities of mCRP generated by urea-treatment of CRP and of mCRP generated by mutating the primary structure of CRP have been reported. The bioactivities of mCRP generated by spontaneous dissociation of CRP are largely unexplored. Methods We purified mCRP generated by spontaneous dissociation of CRP and investigated the binding of mCRP to enzymatically-modified low-density lipoprotein (E-LDL). Results mCRP was approximately 60 times more potent than CRP in binding to E-LDL. In the presence of the small-molecule compound phosphoethanolamine (PEt), at 37°C, the binding of mCRP to E-LDL was enhanced 10-fold. In contrast, PEt inhibited the binding of both CRP and mCRP to pneumococcal C-polysaccharide, another phosphocholine-containing ligand to which CRP and mCRP were found to bind. We have not investigated yet whether PEt alters the structure of CRP at 37°C. Conclusions Combined data suggest that the targeting of CRP with the aim to monomerize CRP in vivo may be an effective approach to capture modified forms of LDL. PMID:19545552

  15. International Space Station Major Constituent Analyzer On-orbit Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Ben D.; Erwin, Phillip M.; Wiedemann, Rachel; Matty, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is a mass spectrometer based system that measures the major atmospheric constituents on the International Space Station. A number of limited-life components require periodic change-out, including the ORU 02 analyzer and the ORU 08 Verification Gas Assembly. The most recent ORU 02 and ORU 08 assemblies are operating nominally. For ORU 02, the ion source filaments and ion pump lifetime continue to be key determinants of MCA performance. Additionally, testing is underway to evaluate the capacity of the MCA to analyze ammonia. Finally, plans are being made to bring the second MCA on ISS to an operational configuration.

  16. Modeling of constituent redistribution in U Pu Zr metallic fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Hayes, S. L.; Hofman, G. L.; Yacout, A. M.

    2006-12-01

    A computer model was developed to analyze constituent redistribution in U-Pu-Zr metallic nuclear fuels. Diffusion and thermochemical properties were parametrically determined to fit the postirradiation data from a fuel test performed in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). The computer model was used to estimate redistribution profiles of fuels proposed for the conceptual designs of small modular fast reactors. The model results showed that the level of redistribution of the fuel constituents of the designs was similar to the measured data from EBR-II.

  17. Nigella sativa and its active constituent thymoquinone in oral health

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAttas, Safia A.; Zahran, Fat’heya M.; Turkistany, Shereen A.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we summarized published reports that investigated the role of Nigella sativa (NS) and its active constituent, thymoquinone (TQ) in oral health and disease management. The literature studies were preliminary and scanty, but the results revealed that black seed plants have a potential therapeutic effect for oral and dental diseases. Such results are encouraging for the incorporation of these plants in dental therapeutics and hygiene products. However, further detailed preclinical and clinical studies at the cellular and molecular levels are required to investigate the mechanisms of action of NS and its constituents, particularly TQ. PMID:26905343

  18. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jihui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hanyue; Zhang, Xuelan; Han, Chunchao

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents' corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. PMID:25960753

  19. Chemical constituents from the leaves ofCerbera manghas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiao-po; Pei Yue-hu; Liu Ming-sheng; Kang Sheng-li; Zhang Jun-qing

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To study the chemical constituents in leaves ofCebera manghas.Methods: Chemical constituents were isolated by using various column chromatography and the structures were elucidated on basis of physicochemical constants and spectral data analysis.Results: Nine compounds were obtained including p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (1), benzamide (2), n-hexadecane acid monoglyceride(3), loliolide(4), β-sitosterol(5), cerberin(6), neriifolin(7), cerleaside A(8), daucosterol (9).Conclusions: Compounds 1-4 are obtained from this genus for the first time.

  20. International Space Station Major Constituent Analyzer On-Orbit Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Ben D.; Erwin, Phillip M.; Cougar, Tamara; Ulrich, BettyLynn

    2017-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is a mass spectrometer based system that measures the major atmospheric constituents on the International Space Station. A number of limited-life components require periodic change-out, including the ORU 02 analyzer and the ORU 08 Verification Gas Assembly. The most recent ORU 02 and ORU 08 assemblies in the LAB MCA are operating nominally. For ORU 02, the ion source filaments and ion pump lifetime continue to be key determinants of MCA performance. Finally, the Node 3 MCA is being brought to an operational configuration.

  1. [Studies on chemical constituents of leaves of Cassia angustifolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen-fei; Lu, Jin-cai; Yu, Xiao-min; Ding, You-mei

    2007-09-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the leaves of Cassia angustifolia Vahl. Solvents extraction and various chromatographic methods were applied to separate and purify its constituents. The structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical evidence and spectral analysis. Six compounds were obtained and identified as cholesterol (I), kampferol-3-rutinoside (II), calyxanthone (III), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (IV), p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (V), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (VI). Six compounds ( I -VI) are obtained from this plant for the first time.

  2. [Study on chemical constituents from flowers of Ailanthus altissima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Ke-Qin; Tang, Wen-Zhao; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2012-10-01

    To isolate and identify the chemical constituents from the flowers of Ailanthus altissima. Macroporous adsorptive resins (DM130), Silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS were employed for the isolation and purification of chemical constituents. The structures were identified on the basis of spectral data and physicochemical examination. Eight compounds were isolated and identified as follows: brevifolin (1), brevifolin carboxylic acid (2), methyl brevifolin carboxylate (3), ellagic acid (4), diethyl-2,2',3,3',4,4'- hexahydroxybiphenyl-6,6'-dicarboxylate (5), rutin (6), gallic acid (7), ethyl gallate (8). Compounds 1 -5 are isolated from this genus for the first time.

  3. Chemical Constituents of Swertia angustifolia Buch%狭叶獐牙菜化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽元; 李水仙; 夏从龙

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究狭叶獐牙菜的主要化学成分。方法:采用硅胶柱层析分离纯化化合物,依据理化性质和现代波谱技术进行结构鉴定。结果:从氯仿部位分离鉴定了4个单体化合物,分别为:齐墩果酸(1)、乌苏酸(2)、羽扇豆醇(3)、3β-羟基-11α,12α-环氧齐敦果-28,13β-内酯(4)。结论:除化合物(1)外,化合物(2)、(3)、(4)为首次从该药用植物中分离得到。%Objective:To explore the chemical constituents of Swertia angustifolia Buch. Methods:Compounds were separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Results: Four monomeric compounds were obtained from trichloromethane extract of S. angustifolia and were identified as asoleanolic acid(1), ursolic acid(2), lupeol(3), and 3β-hydroxy-11α,12α-epoxyoleanan-28,13β-olide(4). Conclusion:Compounds(2),(3)and(4)were obtained from S. angustifolia for the first time.

  4. Carbonyl Alkyl Nitrates as Trace Constituents in Urban Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woidich, S.; Gruenert, A.; Ballschmiter, K.

    2003-04-01

    Organic nitrates, esters of nitric acid, significantly contribute to the entire pool of odd nitrogen (NOY) in the atmosphere. Organic nitrates are formed in NO rich air by degradation of alkanes and alkenes initiated by OH and NO3 radicals during daytime and nighttime, respectively. Bifunctional organonitrates like the alkyl dinitrates and hydroxy alkyl nitrates are formed primarily from alkenes. The two main sources for Alkenes are traffic emissions and naturally occurring terpenes. So far a broad spectrum of alkyl dinitrates and hydroxy alkyl nitrates including six different isoprene nitrates has been identified in urban and marine air (1-3). We report here for the first time about the group of C4 C7 carbonyl alkyl nitrates as trace constituents in urban air collected on the campus of the University of Ulm Germany, and in the downtown area of Salt Lake City, Utah. Air sampling was done by high volume sampling (flow rate 25 m3/h) using a layer of 100 g silica gel (particle diameter 0.2 - 0.5 mm) as adsorbent. The organic nitrates were eluted from the silica gel by pentane/acetone (4:1, w/w) and the extract was concentrated to a volume of 500 µL for a group separation using normal phase HPLC. Final analysis was performed by high resolution capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection as well as by mass selective detection in the (CH4)NCI mode using NO2- = m/e 46 as the indicator mass. The carbonyl alkyl nitrates were identified by self synthesized reference standards . So far we have identified eight non-branched a-carbonyl alkyl nitrates (vicinal carbonyl alkyl nitrates), two b-carbonyl alkyl nitrates and one g-carbonyl alkyl nitrate with carbon chains ranging from C4 to C7. The mixing ratios are between 0.05 and 0.30 ppt(v) for daytime samples and are two to three times higher for samples taken at night. (1) M. Schneider, O. Luxenhofer, Angela Deißler, K. Ballschmiter: 2C1-C15 Alkyl Nitrates, Benzyl Nitrate, and Bifunctional Nitrates

  5. Self-collimation in photonic crystals with anisotropic constituents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. W. Haus; M. Siraj; P. Prasad; P. Markowicz

    2007-01-01

    @@ In a photonic crystal composed of anisotropic constituents we quantify the range of input angles and the degree of collimation of the beam inside the crystal. The optical properties of a photobleached 4-dimethylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium-tosylate (DAST) crystal are used in our model to demonstrate the efficacy of the self-collimation features.

  6. Towards Verification of Constituent Systems through Automated Proof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couto, Luis Diogo Monteiro Duarte; Foster, Simon; Payne, R

    2014-01-01

    to specify contractual obligations on the constituent systems of a SoS. To support verification of these obligations we have developed a proof obligation generator and theorem prover plugin for Symphony. The latter uses the Isabelle/HOL theorem prover to automatically discharge the proof obligations arising...

  7. Spectrograph dedicated to measuring tropospheric trace gas constituents from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J. de; Laan, E.C.; Deutz, A.F.; Escudero-Sanz, I.; Bokhove, H.; Hoegee, J.; Aben, I.; Jongma, R.; Landgraf, J.; Hasekamp, O.P.; Houweling, S.; Weele, M. van; Oss, R. van; Oord, G. van den; Levelt, P.

    2005-01-01

    Several organizations in the Netherlands are cooperating to develop user requirements and instrument concepts in the line of SCIAMACHY and OMI but with an increased focus on measuring tropospheric constituents from space. The concepts use passive spectroscopy in dedicated wavelength sections in the

  8. 40 CFR 264.342 - Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE...) Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHCs) in the waste feed must be treated to the extent required by... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principal organic hazardous...

  9. Further constituents from the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warashina, Tsutomu; Nagatani, Yoshimi; Noro, Tadataka

    2005-03-01

    Further study on the constituents from the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC) Standley afforded twelve compounds, consisting of four iridoid glycosides, one phenylethanoid glycoside, five phenolic glycosides, and one lignan glycoside, along with seven known compounds. The structures of these compounds were determined based on the interpretation of their NMR and MS measurements and by chemical evidence.

  10. Volatile Constituents of Three Invasive Weeds of Himalayan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra C. Padalia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents of three most common aromatic exotic weeds viz. Lantana camara L., Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng and Ageratum conyzoides L. of the Uttarakhand, India were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil of Lantana camara L. was dominated by sesquiterpenoids (70.8% represented by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (68.7% with germacrene D (27.9%, germacrene B (16.3%, b-caryophyllene (9.6%, b-selinene (6.2%, α-humulene (5.8% as major constituents. Other constituents in significant amount were sabinene (5.6% and 1,8-cineole (4.8%. Amorphenes viz. amorph-4-en-7-ol (9.6%, 3-acetoxyamorpha-4,7(11-dien-8-one (7.8% and amorph-4,7(11-dien-8-one (5.7% were identified as the marker constituents of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng along with p-cymene (16.6%, bornyl acetate (15.6% and camphene (8.9%. On the contrary, the essential oil of Ageratum conyzoides L. was characterized by the presence of high percentages of ageratochromene (precocene II, 42.5%, β-caryophyllene (20.7%, demethoxyageratochromene (precocene I, 16.7%, a-humulene (6.6% and p-cymene (3.3%.

  11. A simple DOP model for constituency parsing of Italian sentences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangati, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a simplified Data-Oriented Parsing (DOP) formalism for learning the constituency structure of Italian sentences. In our approach we try to simplify the original DOP methodology by constraining the number and type of fragments we extract from the training corpus. We provide some examples

  12. Constituent Aspects of Workplace Guidance in Secondary VET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Robert; Klarus, Ruud; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present an integrated model of workplace guidance to enhance awareness of what constitutes good guidance, to improve workplace guidance practices in vocational education and training. Design/methodology/approach: To identify constituent aspects of workplace guidance, a systematic search of Web of Science was conducted,…

  13. Distributions and correlations of constituent quarks in jets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Rui-Dian; CAI Xu; QIAN Wan-Yan; YANG Chun-Bin

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of the quark recombination model, we study the momentum distributions and cor- relations of constituent quarks in jets by analyzing the final state hadrons generated by PYTHIA for the hard parton fragmentation processes in vacuum. Parameterizations for the distributions are tabulated.

  14. Sociophonetic Variations in Korean Constituent Final "-Ko" and "-To"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, So Young L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine (i) linguistic and extralinguistic factors that influence vowel raising of /o/ in constituent-final "-ko" and "-to" in Seoul Korean and (ii) listeners' perceptions of this vowel raising and social meanings of the raised variant. The analyses are based on production data collected…

  15. Antiparasitic, Nematicidal and Antifouling Constituents from Juniperus Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Juniperus procera berries yielded antiparasitic, nematicidal and antifouling constituents, including a wide range of known abietane, pimarane and labdane diterpenes. Among these, abieta-7,13-diene (1) demonstrated in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium f...

  16. Evidence for the VP Constituent from Child Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-mee Yu; Hong, Ki-Sun

    An examination of children's sentence structure in Korean argues for a verb phrase (VP) constituent in child grammar, but suggests that this does not necessarily support its existence in adult Korean grammar. Korean children, it is noted, generally restrict their sentences to one word order, subject-object-verb, despite the existence of another…

  17. A simple DOP model for constituency parsing of Italian sentences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Sangati

    2009-01-01

    We present a simplified Data-Oriented Parsing (DOP) formalism for learning the constituency structure of Italian sentences. In our approach we try to simplify the original DOP methodology by constraining the number and type of fragments we extract from the training corpus. We provide some examples o

  18. LC-MS characterization of constituents of mesquite flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using an LC-MS method in conjunction with two complementary types of chromatographic retention modes—namely reversed phase and aqueous normal phase (ANP)—various compounds present in mesquite flour extracts were identified. Because of the diverse types of chemical constituents found in such natural ...

  19. Investigation of monomeric and oligomeric wine stilbenoids in red wines by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ryan; Mao, Qinyong; Taylor, Dennis; Saucier, Cédric

    2013-08-30

    Stilbenoids are secondary plant metabolites responsible for the protection of multiple plant species including grape vine from bacterial and fungal infection. Red wine has been shown to be a major source of these compounds in the human diet, where they display an array of health benefits. Providing a more complete profile of the stilbenoids present in red wine, this study detects 41 stilbenoid compounds, 23 of which have never before been detected in red wine. Red wine extracts were scanned using an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass analyzer. Multiple targeted MS/MS precursor ion scan experiments were performed using electrospray ionization operated in negative mode. Precursor ion masses were scanned for the monomeric and oligomeric stilbenoids, as well as modifications such as O-glycosylation, methoxylation and oxidation products of these compounds. Accurate mass precursor and characteristic product ions afforded partial structural elucidation and assignment of these compounds. A total of 41 (both known and novel) stilbenoids were detected in extracted red wine. In addition to the well-known monomeric stilbenes, several resveratrol-resveratrol homodimers (m/z 453.1344), resveratrol-piceatannol heterodimers (m/z 469.1293) and piceatannol-piceatannol homodimers (m/z 485.1236) were detected. Modified dimers of resveratrol including O-glycosylated (m/z 615.1872), methoxylated (m/z 485.1606) and oxidized (m/z 471.1449) dimers were also detected. Multiple trimers of resveratrol (m/z 679.1978) were detected for the first time in red wine, as well as some known and some novel stilbenoid tetramers (m/z 905.2604). In summary, 41 stilbenoids were detected in red wine, 23 for the first time. Both monomeric and oligomeric stilbenoids were partially identified and assigned by their accurate mass precursor ions and characteristic stilbenoid fragmentation patterns. Knowledge gained from these experiments contributes to

  20. Use of time series and harmonic constituents of tidal propagation to enhance estimation of coastal aquifer heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joseph D.; White, Jeremy T.; Langevin, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    A synthetic two‐dimensional model of a horizontally and vertically heterogeneous confined coastal aquifer system, based on the Upper Floridan aquifer in south Florida, USA, subjected to constant recharge and a complex tidal signal was used to generate 15‐minute water‐level data at select locations over a 7‐day simulation period.   “Observed” water‐level data were generated by adding noise, representative of typical barometric pressure variations and measurement errors, to 15‐minute data from the synthetic model. Permeability was calibrated using a non‐linear gradient‐based parameter inversion approach with preferred‐value Tikhonov regularization and 1) “observed” water‐level data, 2) harmonic constituent data, or 3) a combination of “observed” water‐level and harmonic constituent data.    In all cases, high‐frequency data used in the parameter inversion process were able to characterize broad‐scale heterogeneities; the ability to discern fine‐scale heterogeneity was greater when harmonic constituent data were used.  These results suggest that the combined use of highly parameterized‐inversion techniques and high frequency time and/or processed‐harmonic constituent water‐level data could be a useful approach to better characterize aquifer heterogeneities in coastal aquifers influenced by ocean tides.

  1. A luminescent-water soluble inorganic co-crystal for a selective pico-molar range arsenic(III) sensor in water medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Biswajit; Saha, Rajat; Mukherjee, Priyanka

    2013-08-14

    The water solution of an intriguing luminescent 'Inorganic Co-crystal' of Cu(II) monomeric and dimeric units shows extremely selective sensing ability towards inorganic arsenic(III) in water medium in the pico-molar concentration range even in the presence of other cations.

  2. Fluorescent visualisation of the hypothalamic oxytocin neurones activated by cholecystokinin-8 in rats expressing c-fos-enhanced green fluorescent protein and oxytocin-monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 fusion transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, A; Shoguchi, K; Matsuoka, H; Yoshimura, M; Ohkubo, J-I; Matsuura, T; Maruyama, T; Ishikura, T; Aritomi, T; Fujihara, H; Hashimoto, H; Suzuki, H; Murphy, D; Ueta, Y

    2014-05-01

    The up-regulation of c-fos gene expression is widely used as a marker of neuronal activation elicited by various stimuli. Anatomically precise observation of c-fos gene products can be achieved at the RNA level by in situ hybridisation or at the protein level by immunocytochemistry. Both of these methods are time and labour intensive. We have developed a novel transgenic rat system that enables the trivial visualisation of c-fos expression using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) tag. These rats express a transgene consisting of c-fos gene regulatory sequences that drive the expression of a c-fos-eGFP fusion protein. In c-fos-eGFP transgenic rats, robust nuclear eGFP fluorescence was observed in osmosensitive brain regions 90 min after i.p. administration of hypertonic saline. Nuclear eGFP fluorescence was also observed in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) 90 min after i.p. administration of cholecystokinin (CCK)-8, which selectively activates oxytocin (OXT)-secreting neurones in the hypothalamus. In double transgenic rats that express c-fos-eGFP and an OXT-monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) fusion gene, almost all mRFP1-positive neurones in the SON and PVN expressed nuclear eGFP fluorescence 90 min after i.p. administration of CCK-8. It is possible that not only a plane image, but also three-dimensional reconstruction image may identify cytoplasmic vesicles in an activated neurone at the same time.

  3. Evaluating the effect of wood ultrastructural changes from mechanical treatment on kinetics of monomeric sugars and chemicals production in acid bisulfite treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yalan; Wang, Jinwu; Wolcott, Michael P

    2017-02-01

    Currently, various chemical-mechanical treatments were widely used in biofuel production to achieve high total sugar yields. However, the interaction between two treatments was scarcely investigated. In this study, we employed a ball milling process to create ultrastructural changes for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) micronized wood powders. The 0, 30, and 60min ball milled wood powders resulted in a crystallinity index of 0.41, 0.21, and 0.10 respectively. It was found that the ultrastructural changes accelerate monomeric sugars production without influencing the yield of sugar degradation products. The optimal acid bisulfite treatment time was substantially decreased from 120min to 40min as the cellulose crystallinity decreased. Meanwhile, total sugar yield increased from 65% to 92% and had a linear relation with a decrease of the cellulose crystallinity.

  4. Corrosion inhibition of aluminum with a series of aniline monomeric surfactants and their analog polymers in 0.5 M HCl solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. El-Deeb

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition effect of 3-(12-sodiumsulfonate dodecyloxy aniline monomeric surfactant (MC12 and its analog polymer Poly 3-(dodecyloxy sulfonic acid aniline (PC12 on the corrosion of aluminum in 0.5 M HCl solution was investigated using weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The presence of these two compounds in 0.5 M HCl inhibits the corrosion of aluminum without modifying the mechanism of corrosion process. It was found that these inhibitors act as mixed-type inhibitors with anodic predominance as well as the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing inhibitor concentration, but decreases with raising temperature. Langmuir and Frumkin adsorption isotherms fit well with the experimental data. Thermodynamic functions for both dissolution and adsorption processes were determined. The obtained results from weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization techniques are in good agreement with contact angle measurements.

  5. Plant small monomeric G-proteins (RAC/ROPs) of barley are common elements of susceptibility to fungal leaf pathogens, cell expansion and stomata development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathuri, Indira Priyadarshini; Eichmann, Ruth; Hückelhoven, Ralph

    2009-02-01

    Small monomeric RAC/ROP GTPases act as molecular switches in signal transduction processes of plant development and stress responses. They emerged as crucial players in plant-pathogen interactions either by supporting susceptibility or resistance. In a recent publication, we showed that constitutively activated (CA) mutants of different barley (Hordeum vulgare) RAC/ROPs regulate susceptibility to barley fungal leaf pathogens of different life style in a contrasting way. This illustrates the distinctive signalling roles of RAC/ROPs for different plant-pathogen combinations. We also reported the involvement of RAC/ROPs in plant epidermis development in a monocotyledonous plant. Here we further discuss a failure of CA HvRAC/ROP-expressing barley to normally develop stomata.

  6. PENGARUH PENGOLAHAN PANAS TERHADAP KONSENTRASI ANTOSIANIN MONOMERIK UBI JALAR UNGU (Ipomoea batatas L (Efect of Heat Processing on Monomeric Anthocyanin of Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Mahmudatussa'adah

    2015-09-01

    content in PSP during heat processing of flakes. The other purpose of this reseach was to observe the order kinetics model of effect temperature and time baking on total anthocyanin monomeric of fresh PSP and rehydration PSP flakes. The experimental applied a completely randomized design with three replications. The color and amount of anthocyanin (L * = 23.38 ± 0.71, C = 9.84 ± 0.98, Hue = 12.25 ± 1.61. Total monomeric anthocyanin in fresh PSP was 1.45 ± 0.00 mg cyanidin equivalent (CyE/g dry basis (db. In general, the color and the amount of PSP anthocyanin changed during the flakes processing. Steamed PSP for 7 minutes turned its color into a bright purple (L * = 25.88 ± 0.47, C = 24.64 ± 0.25, Hue = 348.83 ± 0.33 with the amount of monomeric anthocyanin increased to 3.76 ± 0.01 CyE mg/g db. Flakes PSP was very bright purple (L * = 36.12 ± 0.11, C = 9.97 ± 0.18, Hue = 359.29 ± 0.31 and the amount of monomericanthocyanin was slightly lower than that of steamed sweet potato (3.19 ± 0.12 mg CyE / g db. Total monomeric anthocyanin of fresh PSP and rehydration flakes PSP decrease during baking time. Keywords: Color, anthocyanin, purple sweet potato, flakes, degradation kinetics   ABSTRAK Antosianin merupakan salah satu kelompok zat warna alami yang terdapat pada tanaman, seperti daun, bunga, umbi, buah atau sayur. Salah satu sumber antosianin pada tanaman adalah ubi jalar ungu (UJU yang mengandung lebih dari 98% antosianin terasilasi dari konsentrasi antosianin umbi. Warna antosianin bervariasi mulai dari merah, ungu, biru, sampai kuning. Warna dan konsentrasi antosianin dapat berubah karena pengaruh panas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari perubahan warna dan konsentrasi antosianin monomerik sebagai akibat proses pengolahan dalam pembuatan  UJU. Penelitian ini mengkaji juga mengenai model kinetika reaksi pengaruh suhu dan waktu panggang terhadap konsentrasi antosianin UJU segar dan  rehidrasi. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap

  7. Purified monomeric ligand.MD-2 complexes reveal molecular and structural requirements for activation and antagonism of TLR4 by Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioannini, Theresa L; Teghanemt, Athmane; Zhang, DeSheng; Esparza, Gregory; Yu, Liping; Weiss, Jerrold

    2014-08-01

    A major focus of work in our laboratory concerns the molecular mechanisms and structural bases of Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin recognition by host (e.g., human) endotoxin-recognition proteins that mediate and/or regulate activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. Here, we review studies of wild-type and variant monomeric endotoxin.MD-2 complexes first produced and characterized in our laboratories. These purified complexes have provided unique experimental reagents, revealing both quantitative and qualitative determinants of TLR4 activation and antagonism. This review is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Theresa L. Gioannini (1949-2014) who played a central role in many of the studies and discoveries that are reviewed.

  8. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) and total phenolic content (TPC) from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranca, Florina; Oroian, Mircea

    2016-07-01

    The present study describes the extraction of total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) and total phenolic content (TPC) from eggplant peel using ultrasonic treatments and methanol and 2-propanol as extraction solvents. The extraction yields were optimized by varying the solvent concentration, ultrasonic frequency, temperature and time of ultrasonic treatment. Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction. The results showed that for TPC extraction the optimal condition were obtained with a methanol concentration of 76.6%, 33.88 kHz ultrasonic frequency, a temperature of 69.4 °C and 57.5 min extraction time. For TMA the optimal condition were the following: 54.4% methanol concentration, 37 kHz, 55.1 °C and process time of 44.85 min. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Zn-bis-glutathionate is the best co-substrate of the monomeric phytochelatin synthase from the photosynthetic heavy metal-hyperaccumulator Euglena gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Jorge D; Girard, Lourdes; Hernández, Georgina; Saavedra, Emma; Pardo, Juan P; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S; Encalada, Rusely; Reyes-Prieto, Adrián; Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2014-03-01

    The phytochelatin synthase from photosynthetic Euglena gracilis (EgPCS) was analyzed at the transcriptional, kinetic, functional, and phylogenetic levels. Recombinant EgPCS was a monomeric enzyme able to synthesize, in the presence of Zn(2+) or Cd(2+), phytochelatin2-phytochelatin4 (PC2-PC4) using GSH or S-methyl-GS (S-methyl-glutathione), but not γ-glutamylcysteine or PC2 as a substrate. Kinetic analysis of EgPCS firmly established a two-substrate reaction mechanism for PC2 synthesis with Km values of 14-22 mM for GSH and 1.6-2.5 μM for metal-bis-glutathionate (Me-GS2). EgPCS showed the highest Vmax and catalytic efficiency with Zn-(GS)2, and was inactivated by peroxides. The EgPCS N-terminal domain showed high similarity to that of other PCSases, in which the typical catalytic core (Cys-70, His-179 and Asp-197) was identified. In contrast, the C-terminal domain showed no similarity to other PCSases. An EgPCS mutant comprising only the N-terminal 235 amino acid residues was inactive, suggesting that the C-terminal domain is essential for activity/stability. EgPCS transcription in Euglena cells was not modified by Cd(2+), whereas its heterologous expression in ycf-1 yeast cells provided resistance to Cd(2+) stress. Phylogenetic analysis of the N-terminal domain showed that EgPCS is distant from plants and other photosynthetic organisms, suggesting that it evolved independently. Although EgPCS showed typical features of PCSases (constitutive expression; conserved N-terminal domain; kinetic mechanism), it also exhibited distinct characteristics such as preference for Zn-(GS)2 over Cd-(GS)2 as a co-substrate, a monomeric structure, and ability to solely synthesize short-chain PCs, which may be involved in conferring enhanced heavy-metal resistance.

  10. Resolution of two native monomeric 90 kDa nitrate reductase active proteins from Shewanella gelidimarina and the sequence of two napA genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Philippa J.L. [School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); McKinzie, Audra A. [School of Medical Sciences (Pharmacology) and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Codd, Rachel, E-mail: rachel.codd@sydney.edu.au [School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Medical Sciences (Pharmacology) and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Two monomeric 90 kDa nitrate reductase active proteins from Shewanella gelidimarina. {yields} Sequence of napA from napEDABC-type operon and napA from NapDAGHB-type operon. {yields} Isolation of NAP as NapA or NapAB correlated with NapA P47E amino acid substitution. -- Abstract: The reduction of nitrate to nitrite in the bacterial periplasm occurs in the 90 kDa NapA subunit of the periplasmic nitrate reductase (NAP) system. Most Shewanella genomes contain two nap operons: napEDABC and napDAGHB, which is an unusual feature of this genus. Two native, monomeric, 90 kDa nitrate reductase active proteins were resolved by hydrophobic interaction chromatography from aerobic cultures of Shewanella gelidimarina replete with reduced nitrogen compounds. The 90 kDa protein obtained in higher yield was characterized as NapA by electronic absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies and was identified by LC/MS/MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS as NapA from the napEDABC-type operon. The other 90 kDa protein, which was unstable and produced in low yields, was posited as NapA from the napDAGHB-type operon. Two napA genes have been sequenced from the napEDABC-type and napDAGHB-type operons of S. gelidimarina. Native NAP from S. putrefaciens was resolved as one NapA monomer and one NapAB heterodimer. Two amino acid substitutions in NapA correlated with the isolation of NAP as a NapA monomer or a NapAB heterodimer. The resolution of native, redox-active NapA isoforms in Shewanella provides new insight into the respiratory versatility of this genus, which has implications in bioremediation and the assembly of microbial fuel cells.

  11. Salt anions promote the conversion of HypF-N into amyloid-like oligomers and modulate the structure of the oligomers and the monomeric precursor state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campioni, Silvia; Mannini, Benedetta; López-Alonso, Jorge P; Shalova, Irina N; Penco, Amanda; Mulvihill, Estefania; Laurents, Douglas V; Relini, Annalisa; Chiti, Fabrizio

    2012-12-07

    An understanding of the solution factors contributing to the rate of aggregation of a protein into amyloid oligomers, to the modulation of the conformational state populated prior to aggregation and to the structure/morphology of the resulting oligomers is one of the goals of present research in this field. We have studied the influence of six different salts on the conversion of the N-terminal domain of Escherichiacoli HypF (HypF-N) into amyloid-like oligomers under conditions of acidic pH. Our results show that salts having different anions (NaCl, NaClO(4), NaI, Na(2)SO(4)) accelerate oligomerization with an efficacy that follows the electroselectivity series of the anions (SO(4)(2-)≥ ClO(4)(-)>I(-)>Cl(-)). By contrast, salts with different cations (NaCl, LiCl, KCl) have similar effects. We also investigated the effect of salts on the structure of the final and initial states of HypF-N aggregation. The electroselectivity series does not apply to the effect of anions on the structure of the oligomers. By contrast, it applies to their effect on the content of secondary structure and on the exposure of hydrophobic clusters of the monomeric precursor state. The results therefore indicate that the binding of anions to the positively charged residues of HypF-N at low pH is the mechanism by which salts modulate the rate of oligomerization and the structure of the monomeric precursor state but not the structure of the resulting oligomers. Overall, the data contribute to rationalize the effect of salts on amyloid-like oligomer formation and to explain the role of charged biological macromolecules in protein aggregation processes.

  12. In silico target fishing for rationalized ligand discovery exemplified on constituents of Ruta graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinger, Judith M; Schuster, Daniela; Danzl, Birgit; Schwaiger, Stefan; Markt, Patrick; Schmidtke, Michaela; Gertsch, Jürg; Raduner, Stefan; Wolber, Gerhard; Langer, Thierry; Stuppner, Hermann

    2009-02-01

    The identification of targets whose interaction is likely to result in the successful treatment of a disease is of growing interest for natural product scientists. In the current study we performed an exemplary application of a virtual parallel screening approach to identify potential targets for 16 secondary metabolites isolated and identified from the aerial parts of the medicinal plant RUTA GRAVEOLENS L. Low energy conformers of the isolated constituents were simultaneously screened against a set of 2208 pharmacophore models generated in-house for the IN SILICO prediction of putative biological targets, i. e., target fishing. Based on the predicted ligand-target interactions, we focused on three biological targets, namely acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the human rhinovirus (HRV) coat protein and the cannabinoid receptor type-2 (CB (2)). For a critical evaluation of the applied parallel screening approach, virtual hits and non-hits were assayed on the respective targets. For AChE the highest scoring virtual hit, arborinine, showed the best inhibitory IN VITRO activity on AChE (IC (50) 34.7 muM). Determination of the anti-HRV-2 effect revealed 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin and arborinine to be the most active antiviral constituents with IC (50) values of 11.98 muM and 3.19 muM, respectively. Of these, arborinine was predicted virtually. Of all the molecules subjected to parallel screening, one virtual CB (2) ligand was obtained, i. e., rutamarin. Interestingly, in experimental studies only this compound showed a selective activity to the CB (2) receptor ( Ki of 7.4 muM) by using a radioligand displacement assay. The applied parallel screening paradigm with constituents of R. GRAVEOLENS on three different proteins has shown promise as an IN SILICO tool for rational target fishing and pharmacological profiling of extracts and single chemical entities in natural product research.

  13. Exploration of hyperfine interaction between constituent quarks via eta productions

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jun; Xu, H S

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the different exchange freedom, one gluon, one pion or Goldstone boson, in constituent quark model is investigated, which is responsible to the hyperfine interaction between constituent quarks, via the combined analysis of the eta production processes, $\\pi^{-}p\\rightarrow\\eta n$ and $\\gamma p\\rightarrow\\eta p$. With the Goldstone-boson exchange, as well as the one-gluon or one-pion exchange, both the spectrum and observables, such as, the differential cross section and polarized beam asymmetry, are fitted to the suggested values of Particle Data Group and the experimental data. The first two types of exchange freedoms give acceptable description of the spectrum and observables while the one pion exchange can not describe the observables and spectrum simultaneously, so can be excluded. The experimental data for the two processes considered here strongly support the mixing angles for two lowest S11 sates and D13 states as about -30 and 6 degree respectively.

  14. Toxicology effects of saffron and its constituents: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Hasan Badie; Mehri, Soghra; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) has been considered as a medicinal plant since ancient times and also widely used as food additive for its color, taste and odor. The pharmacological properties of saffron and its main constituents, crocin and safranal have been evaluated using different in vivo and in vitro models. Additionally, other lines of studies have found toxicological effects of saffron. However, a comprehensive review that covers all aspects of its toxicity has not been published yet. The current study provides classified information about the toxic effects of saffron and its constituents in various exposure conditions including acute, sub-acute, sub-chronic and chronic studies. Therapeutic doses of saffron exhibits no significant toxicity in both clinical and experimental investigations. PMID:28293386

  15. [Advances in chemical constituents and bioactivity of Salvia genus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qing; Liu, Jian-xun

    2015-06-01

    The genus Salvia in the family Lamiaceae with nearly 1 000 species, is widespread in temperate and tropical regions around the world. Many species of genus Salvia are important medicinal plants with a long history of which Danshen (the dried roots and rhizomes of S. miltiorrhiza) is one of the most popular herbal traditional medicines in Asian countries. The chemical constituents from Salvia plants mainly contain sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, steroids and polyphenols etc, which exhibit antibacterial, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, antiplatelet aggregation activities and so on. In this article, the development of new constituents and their biological activities of Salvia genus in the past five years were reviewed and summarized for its further development and utilization.

  16. The fight against fraud and abuse: analyzing constituent support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzioni, A

    1982-01-01

    Most efforts to combat fraud and abuse have relied on a punitive-deterrent approach, assuming that higher penalties and stricter enforcement will both punish present offenders and deter potential ones. Social science perspectives, particularly that of systems theory, suggest that a more effective approach is prevention grounded in an understanding of the constituencies involved. Constituency analysis can identify the constellations of social and political power that sustain existing opportunities for fraud and abuse, and those that will support countermeasures. Illustrations are drawn from the author's experience with New York State's attempt at reform in nursing homes and with efforts by the General Accounting Office and the Office of Management and Budget to combat fraud and abuse in federal programs.

  17. Structures of antimutagenic constituents in the peels of Citrus limon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takahiro; Takahashi, Kazuki; Kanayama, Sumire; Nakano, Yuka; Imai, Hiromi; Kibi, Masumi; Imahori, Daisuke; Hasei, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Tetsushi

    2017-07-11

    The methanolic extracts from the peels of Citrus limon were found to show antimutagenic effects against 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole, and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in the Ames test. From the methanolic extracts, four new coumarins (wakayamalimonol A-D) and a new furanocoumarin (wakayamalimonol E) were isolated together with fifteen known compounds. The absolute stereostructures of the new compounds were determined by chemical synthesis and the modified Mosher's method. Among the isolated constituents, coumarins, furanocoumarins, and limonoids showed antimutagenic effects in the Ames test. One of the major constituent, limonin, showed significant antimutagenic effects against mitomycinC and PhIP in the micronucleus test in vivo.

  18. A Euclidean bridge to the relativistic constituent quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, T J; Miller, Gerald A

    2016-01-01

    ${\\bf Background}$ Knowledge of nucleon structure is today ever more of a precision science, with heightened theoretical and experimental activity expected in coming years. At the same time, a persistent gap lingers between theoretical approaches grounded in Euclidean methods (e.g., lattice QCD, Dyson-Schwinger Equations [DSEs]) as opposed to traditional Minkowski field theories (such as light-front constituent quark models). ${\\bf Purpose}$ Seeking to bridge these complementary worldviews, we explore the potential of a Euclidean constituent quark model (ECQM). This formalism enables us to study the gluonic dressing of the quark-level axial-vector vertex, which we undertake as a test of the framework. ${\\bf Method}$ To access its indispensable elements with a minimum of inessential detail, we develop our ECQM using the simplified quark $+$ scalar diquark picture of the nucleon. We construct a hyperspherical formalism involving polynomial expansions of diquark propagators to marry our ECQM with the results of ...

  19. Yucca schidigera bark: phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacente, Sonia; Montoro, Paola; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Pizza, Cosimo

    2004-05-01

    Two new phenolic constituents with unusual spirostructures, named yuccaols D (1) and E (2), were isolated from the MeOH extract of Yucca schidigera bark. Their structures were established by spectroscopic (ESIMS and NMR) analysis. The new yuccaols D and E, along with resveratrol (3), trans-3,3',5,5'-tetrahydroxy-4'-methoxystilbene (4), yuccaols A-C (5-7), yuccaone A (8), larixinol (9), the MeOH extract of Yucca schidigera bark, and the phenolic portion of this extract, were assayed for antioxidant activity by measuring the free radical scavenging effects using two different assays, namely, the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay and the coupled oxidation of beta-carotene and linoleic acid (autoxidation assay). The significant activities exhibited by the phenolic fraction and its constituents in both tests show the potential use of Y. schidigera as a source of antioxidant principles.

  20. Antibacterial activity of chemical constituents isolated from Asparagus racemosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdullah Shah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus racemosus is a medical extensively used in traditional medicine for various disorders including its use in infectious. So far work has been done to identify its active constituents responsible for antiseptic folk use of this plant. In the current investigation, we have made an effort to identify its chemical constituents that might be partly responsible for antimicrobial properties. Extraction and isolation of plant extract lead to isolation of two nor-lignans and two steroidal triterpenes (compound 1 to 4. All compound showed considerable antibacterial activities against E. coli and S. aureus while no significant activity was observed against S. typhi. This study highlighted the potential of A. racemosus to be further explored as a source of bioactive natural products.

  1. Metacognition and its Constituent Parts (Concept and Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Suchanova

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the conception and classification of metacognition and its constituent parts. The term is being tackled through a range of definitions in an attempt to make readers acquainted with the perception of this term abroad. A detailed description of metacognition constituent parts (metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive skills is given, which helps to analyze this phenomenon comprehensively. One of the conclusions made is that education of metacognitive components leads the learners towards autonomous foreign language enrichment, encourage their motivation. As a result their knowledge becomes long-term, learners‘marks are higher. Metacognition is a very important as well as an inherent part of the autonomous foreign language enrichment process.

  2. [Chemical constituents of C-glycosylflavones from Mimosa pudica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ke; Lü, Jie-Li; Yin, Ming-Wen

    2006-05-01

    To study chemical constituents of Mimosa pudica of Hainan province. The constituents were separated and purified by column chromatography with macroporous adsorption resin Diaion HP-20, Sephadex LH-20, Toyopearl HW-40, MCI Gel CHP-20, RP-18 and normal phase silica gel. Their structures were identified on the basis of physical and spectral data. Four compounds were isolated and identified as: 7, 8, 3', 4'-tetrahydroxyl-6-C-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl flavone (I); 5, 7, 4'-trihydroxyl-8-C-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-( --> 2)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl flavone (II); 5, 7, 3', 4'-tetrahydroxyl-6-C-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl flavone (III); catcher (IV). Compound I is a new compound and componuds II - IV were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  3. [Studies on chemical constituents from bark of Morus nigra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Hong-Qing; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents in the barks of Morus nigra. The nine compounds were isolated and purified by column chromatography over silica gel, LH -20 and preparative HPLC and their structures were identified by various spectroscopic methods. The nine compounds were isolated and identified as olcancolic acid , apigenin, cyclocommunol, morusin, cyclomorusin, kuwanon C, daucosterol, ursolic acid, 63-sitosterol. Olcancolic acid, apingenin, cyclocommunol, morusin, cyclomorusin, kuwanon C, daucosterol were firstly isolated from the M. nigra.

  4. Triterpenoidal constituents of the leaves of Carissa carandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Ghani, Usman; Ali, Syed Tahir; Usmani, Shahid Badar; Begum, Sabira

    2003-06-01

    Studies undertaken on the fresh leaves of Carissa carandas have led to the isolation of four pentacyclic triterpenoids (1-4) including one new constituent carissin (1) and two hitherto unreported compounds 2 and 3. The structure of the new triterpenoid has been elucidated as 3beta-hydroxy-27-E-feruloyloxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid. Compelete assignment of the protons of 2 has also been made based on 2D NMR studies.

  5. Visible light scatter as quantitative information source on milk constituents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melentieva, Anastasiya; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    VISIBLE LIGHT SCATTER AS A QUANTITATIVE INFORMATION SOURCE ON MILK CONSTITUENTS A. Melenteva 1, S. Kucheryavski 2, A. Bogomolov 1,31Samara State Technical University, Molodogvardeyskaya Street 244, 443100 Samara, Russia. 2Aalborg University, campus Esbjerg, Niels Bohrs vej 8, 6700 Esbjerg, Denmar...... research area are presented and discussed. References: [1] A. Bogomolov, S. Dietrich, B. Boldrini, R.W. Kessler, Food Chemistry (2012), doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.077....

  6. Cycloanthranilylproline-derived constituents from a myxomycete Fuligo candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Satomi; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Hayashi, Masahiko; Komiyama, Kanki; Ishibashi, Masami

    2004-03-01

    Cycloanthranilylproline (1) and its derivatives (2--4) were isolated from field-collected fruit-bodies of a myxomycete Fuligo candida and their structures were elucidated by spectral data. Compound 4, which was contained in the water-soluble fraction of the extract of this myxomycete, was unstable and quite susceptible to decarboxylation to yield compound 2, which was a major constituent of the EtOAc-soluble fraction of this extract.

  7. Nutritional constituents of soybean grown in northeast region of China

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Zou; Chenghui LIU

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional constituents of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr.) grown in the Northeast Region of China were evaluated through measuring amino acid composition, fatty acid profile and mineral content. Results showed that there were eighteen detectable amino acids in soybean samples. The fatty acid profile indicated linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid and linolenic acid as the most abundant fatty acid followed by stearic acid, lauric acid, arachidonic acid, behenic acid and gondoic acid. Miner...

  8. [Studies on the chemical constituents of Dendrobium loddigesii rolfe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M F; Hirata, Y; Xu, G J; Niwa, M; Wu, H M

    1991-01-01

    According to IR, UV, MS and NMR spectra of the compounds isolated from the fresh stem of Dendrobium loddigesii Rolfe (a Chinese medicine), 3 constituents were identified. They are shihunidine, shihunine and dendrophenol (4,4'- dihydroxy-3,3',5-trimethoxybibenzyl). Chemical reactions showed that shihunidine was derived from shihunine during isolation. Shihunidine and shihunine were shown to be inhibitors of Na+, K+-ATPase of the rat kidney.

  9. VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF THE FRUIT OF CORIANDRUM SATIVUML. FROM ISFAHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIREZA GHANNADI

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. which is cultivated in Isfahan was isolated by steam distillation and analyzed by TLC, GC, GC/MS and ^-NMR. Eight compounds representing 95.3% of the total components were characterized. Linalool (56.2%, y- terpinene (12.0% and 5-3-carene (9.7% were the major constituents of the oil which were obtained in 0.68% (V/W yield.

  10. Chemical constituents and biological applications of Lippia nodiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faheem Amir* ,Wan Sinn Yam & Koay Yen Chin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lippia nodiflora has been reviewed for its biological activitiesand phytochemical constituents. The plant is found topredominantly contain triterpenoids, flavonoids and steroidsamongst others and is found to possess analgesic, antiinflammatory,antioxidant, antinociceptive, antimicrobial,antipyretic, antitumor, lipid peroxide scavenging and freeradical scavenging activities. For future studies it would bevaluable to investigate the biologically active constituentsresponsible for the various activities of the plant demonstratedin the traditional system of medicine.

  11. UKRAINIAN CONSTITUENT OF AMERICAN MULTICULTURALISM: ETHNIC AND CULTURAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Dumchak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the features of the Ukrainian constituent of American multiculturalism of the second half of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century. Multicultural trends actively developing in the context of the American mainstream are characterized. The scientific research analyzes the literary activity of Ukrainian-American representatives of multicultural literature; it outlines the problems of writers’ works of art from ethno-cultural point of view.

  12. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and its bioactive constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laribi, Bochra; Kouki, Karima; M'Hamdi, Mahmoud; Bettaieb, Taoufik

    2015-06-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), a member of the Apiaceae family, is among most widely used medicinal plant, possessing nutritional as well as medicinal properties. Thus, the aim of this updated review is to highlight the importance of coriander as a potential source of bioactive constituents and to summarize their biological activities as well as their different applications from data obtained in recent literature, with critical analysis on the gaps and potential for future investigations. A literature review was carried out by searching on the electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar for studies focusing on the biological and pharmacological activities of coriander seed and herb bioactive constituents. All recent English-language articles published between 2000 and 2014 were searched using the terms 'C. sativum', 'medicinal plant', 'bioactive constituents', and 'biological activities'. Subsequently, coriander seed and herb essential oils have been actively investigated for their chemical composition and biological activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anxiolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant and anti-cancer activities, among others. Although coriander has been reported to possess a wide range of traditional medicinal uses, no report is available in its effectiveness use in reactive airway diseases such as asthma and bronchiolitis. In brief, the information presented herein will be helpful to create more interest towards this medicinal species by defining novel pharmacological and clinical applications and hence, may be useful in developing new drug formulations in the future or by employing coriander bioactive constituents in combination with conventional drugs to enhance the treatment of diseases such as Alzheimer and cancer.

  13. Manipulation of Cellular Processing Bodies and Their Constituents by Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Pattnaik, Asit K.; Dinh, Phat X.

    2013-01-01

    The processing bodies (PBs) are a form of cytoplasmic aggregates that house the cellular RNA decay machinery as well as many RNA-binding proteins and mRNAs. The PBs are constitutively present in eukaryotic cells and are involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis by regulating RNA metabolism, cell signaling, and survival. Virus infections result in modification of the PBs and their constituents. Many viruses induce compositionally altered PBs, while many others use specific components of the...

  14. Preventive and Prophylactic Mechanisms of Action of Pomegranate Bioactive Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Viladomiu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate fruit presents strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiobesity, and antitumoral properties, thus leading to an increased popularity as a functional food and nutraceutical source since ancient times. It can be divided into three parts: seeds, peel, and juice, all of which seem to have medicinal benefits. Several studies investigate its bioactive components as a means to associate them with a specific beneficial effect and develop future products and therapeutic applications. Many beneficial effects are related to the presence of ellagic acid, ellagitannins (including punicalagins, punicic acid and other fatty acids, flavonoids, anthocyanidins, anthocyanins, estrogenic flavonols, and flavones, which seem to be its most therapeutically beneficial components. However, the synergistic action of the pomegranate constituents appears to be superior when compared to individual constituents. Promising results have been obtained for the treatment of certain diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, intestinal inflammation, and cancer. Although moderate consumption of pomegranate does not result in adverse effects, future studies are needed to assess safety and potential interactions with drugs that may alter the bioavailability of bioactive constituents of pomegranate as well as drugs. The aim of this review is to summarize the health effects and mechanisms of action of pomegranate extracts in chronic inflammatory diseases.

  15. Preventive and prophylactic mechanisms of action of pomegranate bioactive constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viladomiu, Monica; Hontecillas, Raquel; Lu, Pinyi; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate fruit presents strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiobesity, and antitumoral properties, thus leading to an increased popularity as a functional food and nutraceutical source since ancient times. It can be divided into three parts: seeds, peel, and juice, all of which seem to have medicinal benefits. Several studies investigate its bioactive components as a means to associate them with a specific beneficial effect and develop future products and therapeutic applications. Many beneficial effects are related to the presence of ellagic acid, ellagitannins (including punicalagins), punicic acid and other fatty acids, flavonoids, anthocyanidins, anthocyanins, estrogenic flavonols, and flavones, which seem to be its most therapeutically beneficial components. However, the synergistic action of the pomegranate constituents appears to be superior when compared to individual constituents. Promising results have been obtained for the treatment of certain diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, intestinal inflammation, and cancer. Although moderate consumption of pomegranate does not result in adverse effects, future studies are needed to assess safety and potential interactions with drugs that may alter the bioavailability of bioactive constituents of pomegranate as well as drugs. The aim of this review is to summarize the health effects and mechanisms of action of pomegranate extracts in chronic inflammatory diseases.

  16. Volatile Constituents of Three Piper Species from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieua, Le D; Hoic, Tran M; Thangda, Tran D; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2015-11-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of three Piper plants grown in Vietnam are reported. The analysis was achieved by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents of the leaf oil of Piper majusculum Blume were β-caryophyllene (20.7%), germacrene D (18.6%) and β-elemene (11.3%). The quantitatively significant compounds of the volatile oils of P. harmandii C. DC were sabinene (leaves, 14.5%; stems, 16.2%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.0%; stems, 29.40%) and benzyl salicylate (leaves, 14.1%; stems, 24.3%). Also, α-cadinol (17.0%) was identified in large proportion in the leaf oil. However, sabinene (leaves, 17.9%; stems, 13.5%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.5%; stems, 32.5%) and β-eudesmol (leaves, 13.8%; stems, 8.4%) were the main constituents of P. brevicaule C. DC. This is the first report on the volatile constituents of both P. harmandii and P. brevicaule.

  17. Fatty acid composition and possible health effects of coconut constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehowich, D J; Gomes, A V; Barnes, J A

    2000-06-01

    The link between excessive consumption of dietary saturated fats and coronary heart disease (CHD) is now well established. Because of its high content of saturated fatty acids, the consumption of foods containing coconut oil may therefore be a risk factor for CHD. While the fatty acid composition of coconut oil is well established, relatively little is known about the other constituents of coconut: the milk, water, cream and meat fractions. In this study, we show that while the water fraction is low in lipid content, the milk contains about 24% of the fat content of oil and the cream and meat fractions about 34%. The other coconut constituents contain significant amounts of medium-chain triglycerides that are formed from fatty acids of chain length 8:0 to 14:0. It is these fatty acids, primarily 14:0, that are thought to be atherogenic. On the other hand, medium-chain triglycerides may be advantageous under some circumstances in that they are absorbed intact and do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes. As a result, medium-chain triglycerides provide a ready source of energy and may be useful in baby foods or in diet therapy. Nevertheless, the possible negative effects of the saturated fatty acids and the absence of the essential fatty acid linolenic acid from all coconut constituents suggest that the coconut milk, oil and cream should not be used on a regular basis in adults.

  18. Multi-satellite ocean tide modelling - the K-1 constituent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    1997-01-01

    All major ocean tide constituents are aliased into signals with periods less than 90 days from TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry, except the K-1 constituent. The aliased K-1 has a period of 173 days. Consequently, it might be confounded with height variations caused by the semiannual cycle having a period......, where the presence of crossing tracks cannot separate K-1 from the semiannual signal from TOPEX/POSEIDON, the importance of including ERS-1 and GEOSAT observations was demonstrated. A comparison with 29 pelagic and coastal tide gauges in the Southern Ocean south of 50 degrees S gave 5.59 (M-2), 2.27 (S......-2) and 5.04 (K-1) cm RMS agreement for FES95.1 ocean tide model. The same comparison for the best empirical estimated constituents based on TOPEX/POSEIDON + ERS-1 + GEOSAT gave 4.32, 2.21, and 4.29 cm for M-2, S-2 and K-1, respectively....

  19. Diuretic Properties and Chemical Constituent Studies on Stauntonia brachyanthera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Li Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological evaluation demonstrated that the extracts from the stem of S. brachyanthera could significantly increase the outputs of urine of rats compared to those of furosemide treated group, and the effect could last for a longer period of time. The best effect appeared in the first two hours, which scientifically confirmed the diuretic effect of the plant. The comparative pharmacognosy study showed that the characters of the crude drugs of the stem of S. brachyanthera were similar to those of Akebia caulis. Further systemic work on its chemical constituents by chromatographic methods and NMR elucidations led to the isolation of 10 triterpenoids, 6 flavonoids, 4 lignanoids, and 3 phenylethanoid glycosides, whose structural types were much similar to those of A. quinata. Among them, 7 compounds were firstly reported in the genus of Stauntonia and calceolarioside B was the common characteristic constituent in both plants. From the similar pharmacognosy characters, pharmacological effects, and chemical constituents, it could be concluded that S. brachyanthera have a great possibility to be a succedaneum of Akebia caulis, whose supply is extremely short in recent years.

  20. The use of stable isotopes to trace oil sands constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farwell, A.J.; Nero, V.; Dixon, D.G. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2002-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the biological effects of oil sands mining operations on aquatic ecosystems. The study focused on the Athabasca oil sand deposit, the largest of 4 deposits in northern Alberta. In particular, the study examined the cycling of oil sand constituents in Benthic invertebrates collected from test pits at Syncrude Canada Ltd.. The invertebrates were similar in size, but different in the quantity of process-affected water or mature fine tailings containing residual bitumen. Dragonflies and damselflies in particular, showed trends of depletion for the carbon 13 isotope and enrichment in nitrogen 15 isotope in pits where levels of process affected water was high. The depletion of carbon 13 isotope suggests that oil sand constituents assimilate into the benthic food chain. The greatest carbon 13 depletion, which was approximately 27 per cent, was found to be in test pits with high turbidity. This implies that oil sands constituents degrade microbially instead of by photosynthetic production. All benthic invertebrate group demonstrated an incremental enrichment in nitrogen 15 isotope from the control pit to the pit with greatest levels of mature fine tailings.

  1. International Space Station Major Constituent Analyzer On-Orbit Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Ben D.; Erwin, Philip M.; Thoresen, Souzan; Granahan, John; Matty, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is an integral part of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The MCA is a mass spectrometer-based instrument designed to provide critical monitoring of six major atmospheric constituents; nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor. These gases are sampled continuously and automatically in all United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) modules via the Sample Distribution System (SDS). The MCA is the primary tool for management of atmosphere constituents and is therefore critical for ensuring a habitable ISS environment during both nominal ISS operations and campout EVA preparation in the Airlock. The MCA has been in operation in the US Destiny Laboratory Module for over 10 years, and a second MCA has been delivered to the ISS for Node 3 operation. This paper discusses the performance of the MCA over the two past year, with particular attention to lessons learned regarding the operational life of critical components. Recent data have helped drive design upgrades for a new set of orbit-replaceable units (ORUs) currently in production. Several ORU upgrades are expected to increase expected lifetimes and reliability.

  2. Antimalarial Evaluation of the Chemical Constituents of Hairy Root Culture of Bixa orellana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 216 million malaria cases are reported annually worldwide and about a third of these cases, primarily children under the age of five years old, will not survive the infection. Despite this significant world health impact, only a limited number of therapeutic agents are currently available. The lack of scaffold diversity poses a threat in the event that multi-drug–resistant strains emerge. Terrestrial natural products have provided a major source of chemical diversity for starting materials in many FDA approved drugs over the past century. Bixa orellana L. is a popular plant used in South America for the treatment of malaria. In search of new potential therapeutic agents, the chemical constituents of a selected hairy root culture line of Bixa orellana L. were characterized utilizing NMR and mass spectrometry methods, followed by its biological evaluation against malaria strains 3D7 and K1. The crude extract and its isolated compounds demonstrated EC50 values in the micromolar range. Herein, we report our findings on the chemical constituents of Bixa orellana L. from hairy roots responsible for the observed antimalarial activity.

  3. Antimalarial evaluation of the chemical constituents of hairy root culture of Bixa orellana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Bo; Clark, Julie; Ling, Taotao; Connelly, Michele; Medina-Bolivar, Fabricio; Rivas, Fatima

    2014-01-08

    Over 216 million malaria cases are reported annually worldwide and about a third of these cases, primarily children under the age of five years old, will not survive the infection. Despite this significant world health impact, only a limited number of therapeutic agents are currently available. The lack of scaffold diversity poses a threat in the event that multi-drug-resistant strains emerge. Terrestrial natural products have provided a major source of chemical diversity for starting materials in many FDA approved drugs over the past century. Bixa orellana L. is a popular plant used in South America for the treatment of malaria. In search of new potential therapeutic agents, the chemical constituents of a selected hairy root culture line of Bixa orellana L. were characterized utilizing NMR and mass spectrometry methods, followed by its biological evaluation against malaria strains 3D7 and K1. The crude extract and its isolated compounds demonstrated EC50 values in the micromolar range. Herein, we report our findings on the chemical constituents of Bixa orellana L. from hairy roots responsible for the observed antimalarial activity.

  4. Bioactivity and phytochemical constituents of marine red seaweeds (Jania rubens, Corallina mediterranea and Pterocladia capillacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soad M. Mohy El-Din

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are potential renewable resources in the marine environment. The antibacterial activity of Jania rubens, Corallina mediterranea and Pterocladia capillacea were analyzed against human pathogenic bacteria. The present study was performed to investigate the phytochemical constituents of seaweeds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and phlobatannins. In this study, we estimated phenols, flavonoids, tannins, pigments and mineral contents and determined the hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity of various extracts of selected seaweeds. Phytochemicals were extracted from the three seaweeds using various solvents, such as methanol, ethanol, acetone and chloroform. Among the various extracts, the methanolic extract was found to have the highest reducing power and total antioxidant capacity. We evaluated the seaweeds against Vibrio fluvialis, and Pterocladia capillacea was the most effective at controlling its growth. The highest zone of inhibition was recorded in the methanol extract. The chemical constituents of the seaweeds were characterized by GC–MS, which showed that they contain organic compounds, such as 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid.

  5. Honey constituents up-regulate detoxification and immunity genes in the western honey bee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wenfu; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R

    2013-05-28

    As a managed pollinator, the honey bee Apis mellifera is critical to the American agricultural enterprise. Recent colony losses have thus raised concerns; possible explanations for bee decline include nutritional deficiencies and exposures to pesticides and pathogens. We determined that constituents found in honey, including p-coumaric acid, pinocembrin, and pinobanksin 5-methyl ether, specifically induce detoxification genes. These inducers are primarily found not in nectar but in pollen in the case of p-coumaric acid (a monomer of sporopollenin, the principal constituent of pollen cell walls) and propolis, a resinous material gathered and processed by bees to line wax cells. RNA-seq analysis (massively parallel RNA sequencing) revealed that p-coumaric acid specifically up-regulates all classes of detoxification genes as well as select antimicrobial peptide genes. This up-regulation has functional significance in that that adding p-coumaric acid to a diet of sucrose increases midgut metabolism of coumaphos, a widely used in-hive acaricide, by ∼60%. As a major component of pollen grains, p-coumaric acid is ubiquitous in the natural diet of honey bees and may function as a nutraceutical regulating immune and detoxification processes. The widespread apicultural use of honey substitutes, including high-fructose corn syrup, may thus compromise the ability of honey bees to cope with pesticides and pathogens and contribute to colony losses.

  6. Effects of Articular Cartilage Constituents on Phosphotungstic Acid Enhanced Micro-Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhula, Sakari S.; Finnilä, Mikko A.; Lammi, Mikko J.; Ylärinne, Janne H.; Kauppinen, Sami; Rieppo, Lassi; Pritzker, Kenneth P. H.; Nieminen, Heikki J.; Saarakkala, Simo

    2017-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography (CEμCT) with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) has shown potential for detecting collagen distribution of articular cartilage. However, the selectivity of the PTA staining to articular cartilage constituents remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the dependence of PTA for the collagen content in bovine articular cartilage. Adjacent bovine articular cartilage samples were treated with chondroitinase ABC and collagenase to degrade the proteoglycan and the collagen constituents in articular cartilage, respectively. Enzymatically degraded samples were compared to the untreated samples using CEμCT and reference methods, such as Fourier-transform infrared imaging. Decrease in the X-ray attenuation of PTA in articular cartilage and collagen content was observed in cartilage depth of 0–13% and deeper in tissue after collagen degradation. Increase in the X-ray attenuation of PTA was observed in the cartilage depth of 13–39% after proteoglycan degradation. The X-ray attenuation of PTA-labelled articular cartilage in CEμCT is associated mainly with collagen content but the proteoglycans have a minor effect on the X-ray attenuation of the PTA-labelled articular cartilage. In conclusion, the PTA labeling provides a feasible CEμCT method for 3D characterization of articular cartilage. PMID:28135331

  7. Analysis of urinary stone constituents using powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pragnya A Bhatt; Parimal Paul

    2008-03-01

    Constituents of urinary stones obtained from various patients from western part of India, which is a highly urinary stone disease-prone area, have been analysed. Eight stones from four patients were collected through urologists and have been analysed using powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) image of selected samples were also carried out. The analysis revealed that calcium oxalate monohydrate, which is also known as whewellite, is the common constituent of all of the stones, particularly at the initial stage of stone formation. However, multi phases viz. whewellite phase, and hydroxyl and carbonate apatite phases are also detected in the case of third and fourth patients, from where multiple stones were obtained. Interestingly, in these mixed phase stones the concentration of whewellite decreases with increasing the concentration of apatite phases. Thermal behaviour of the whewellite phase was studied by TGA and variable temperature XRD analysis. Morphology of the whewellite and apatite phases, examined by SEM image, has also been reported.

  8. Cytotoxic activity of isolated constituents from leaves of Premna serratifolia on MCF-7 and HT-29 cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Biradi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Premna serratifolia (Syn: Premna integrifolia is an important medicinal herb known as “Agnimantha” in Ayurveda and traditionally used for anticancer activity. The objective of present study was to isolate the cytotoxic phytoconstituents from the n-hexane soluble fraction of P. serratifolia leaf extract. Unsaponifiable portion of n-hexane soluble fraction was subjected to silica based column chromatography. The major constituents present in all the sub-fractions were identified by TLC and phytochemical tests. Two constituents were isolated and they were purified. Sub-fractions with isolates were tested for cytotoxic effect by BSL bioassay. Two isolates were found to be active and which were tested on cancer cell lines MCF-7 and HT-29 for their cytotoxicity. Among two isolates, one compound has shown significant cytotoxicity. From the results we conclude that the plant isolates showed cytotoxicity against selected human cancer cell lines.

  9. Quantitation of selected odor-active constituents in dry fermented sausages prepared with different curing salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Aurora; Navarro, José Luis; Flores, Mónica

    2007-04-18

    The odor-active compounds of dry-fermented sausages with added nitrite or nitrate as curing agents were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) applying the detection frequency (DF) method. The quantification of these compounds in the sausage was determined by multiple headspace solid-phase microextraction (multiple HS-SPME). There were no specific odor-active compounds related to the use of nitrite or nitrate although there were differences in the DF value of several compounds. The nitrite-added sausages presented higher DF values for ethanol, 1-hexanol, propanoic acid, 2-heptenal, and nonanal while the nitrate-added sausages had higher DF values for phenylacetaldehyde and 3-methyl-butanal. Eighteen compounds were quantified by multiple HS-SPME. Most of them were above their air detection thresholds, but only hexanal, heptanal, and 1-octen-3-ol were in a concentration higher than their oil threshold values. These compounds would probably be the main contributors to the aroma of fermented sausages.

  10. Flux of selected body fluid constituents and benzylpenicillin in polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahm, J; Lessel, R; Ditlev, S

    2012-01-01

    accessible to sucrose, inulin, and benzylpenicillin that could not permeate biological cell membranes. The conclusion of the study is that the hydrogel structure created no significant barrier to the exchange of solvent and solutes with the surrounding medium. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  11. Quantification of selected volatile constituents and anions in Mexican Agave spirits (Tequila, Mezcal, Sotol, Bacanora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Sohnius, Eva-Maria; Attig, Rainer; López, Mercedes G

    2006-05-31

    A large collection (n = 95) of Mexican Agave spirits with protected appellations of origin (Tequila, Mezcal, Sotol, and Bacanora) was analyzed using ion and gas chromatography. Because of their production from oxalate-containing plant material, all Agave spirits contained significant concentrations of oxalate (0.1-9.7 mg/L). The two Tequila categories ("100% Agave" and "mixed") showed differences in the methanol, 2-/3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-phenylethanol concentrations with lower concentrations in the mixed category. Mezcal showed no significant differences in any of the evaluated parameters that would allow a classification. Sotol showed higher nitrate concentrations and lower 2-/3-methyl-1-butanol concentrations. Bacanora was characterized by exceptionally high acetaldehyde concentrations and a relatively low ethyl lactate content. The methanol content was the most problematic compound regarding the Mexican standards: two Tequilas (4%), five Sotols (31%), and six Bacanoras (46%) had levels above the maximum methanol content of 300 g/hL of alcohol. In conclusion, the composition of Mexican Agave spirits was found to vary over a relatively large range.

  12. [Optimize the extraction process with supercritical CO2 fluid from lotus leaves by the uniform design and analysis on the chemical constituents by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hui-jing; Qian, Yi-fan; Pu, Cun-hai

    2007-04-01

    To study the optimum parameters of the supercritical CO, fluid extraction of lotus leaves and chemical constituents of extractive matters. Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction condition was selected by uniform design. The extraction pressure, extraction temperature, extraction time were three factors in the experiment. GC-MS was applied for analyzing the extraction. The optimum condition were obtained: the extraction pressure was 26 Mpa, the extraction temperature was 40 degrees C, the extracion time was 90 minutes. The major constituent was 1H-Pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, 1-ethyl-in extractive matters. Uniform design can optimize the CO2 Supercritical Fluid Extraction process quickly and accuratly with satisfactory results.

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart A of... - Maximum Concentration of Constituents for Groundwater Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum Concentration of Constituents for Groundwater Protection 1 Table 1 to Subpart A of Part 192 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Concentration of Constituents for Groundwater Protection Constituent concentration 1 Maximum Arsenic 0.05 Barium...

  14. 75 FR 39450 - Terpene Constituents of the Extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Terpene Constituents of the Extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides near ambrosioides... establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of Terpene Constituents of the... the need to establish a maximum permissible level for residues of Terpene Constituents of the...

  15. Effects of the active constituents of Crocus sativus L., crocins, in an animal model of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsikas, N; Boultadakis, A; Georgiadou, G; Tarantilis, P A; Sakellaridis, N

    2008-12-01

    Crocus sativus L. is a plant cultivated in various parts of the world. Crocins are among the active components of Crocus sativus L. The present study was designed to investigate in the rat whether or not crocins possess anxiolytic properties. For this aim, the light/dark test was selected. Either crocins, at a dose which did not influence animals' motor activity (50mg/kg), or diazepam (1.5 mg/kg), significantly increased the latency to enter the dark compartment and prolonged the time spent in the lit chamber in the rats. Conversely, lower doses of crocins (15-30 mg/kg) did not substantially modify animals' behaviour. The present results indicate that treatment with these active constituents of Crocus sativus L. induce anxiolytic-like effects in the rat.

  16. Calcitonina monomérica plasmática e hipercalcemia em pacientes portadores de neoplasia pulmonar Monomeric plasmatic calcitonin and hypercalcemia in lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Coifman

    1997-06-01

    lung cancer, and its correlation with hypercalcemia, a very common complication in these tumors. METHOD. Blood were sampled from 56 patients with malignant lung disease for the CT and ionized calcium determinations. Calcitonin was measured using a specific radioimmunoassay for the monomeric form of the molecule, in a previous silica extracted serum probe. RESULTS. We did not find elevated levels of monomeric CT in lung cancer. Only 3 patients had mild elevated levels, while in the others CT was normal or undetectable. Hypercalcemia was found in 21.4% of these patients, but only one with supranormal CT levels. CONCLUSION. Monomeric CT serum levels are normal in lung cancer, what makes the latter use an unreliable tumor marker.

  17. Achieving ICME with Multiscale Modeling: The Effects of Constituent Properties and Processing on the Performance of Laminated Polymer Matrix Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan Jorge; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) is a useful approach for tailoring the performance of a material. For fiber-reinforced composites, not only do the properties of the constituents of the composite affect the performance, but so does the architecture (or microstructure) of the constituents. The generalized method of cells is demonstrated to be a viable micromechanics tool for determining the effects of the microstructure on the performance of laminates. The micromechanics is used to predict the inputs for a macroscale model for a variety of different fiber volume fractions, and fiber architectures. Using this technique, the material performance can be tailored for specific applications by judicious selection of constituents, volume fraction, and architectural arrangement given a particular manufacturing scenario

  18. The Escherichia coli P and Type 1 Pilus Assembly Chaperones PapD and FimC Are Monomeric in Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarowar, Samema; Hu, Olivia J.; Werneburg, Glenn T.; Thanassi, David G.; Li, Huilin; Christie, P. J.

    2016-06-27

    ABSTRACT

    The chaperone/usher pathway is used by Gram-negative bacteria to assemble adhesive surface structures known as pili or fimbriae. Uropathogenic strains ofEscherichia coliuse this pathway to assemble P and type 1 pili, which facilitate colonization of the kidney and bladder, respectively. Pilus assembly requires a periplasmic chaperone and outer membrane protein termed the usher. The chaperone allows folding of pilus subunits and escorts the subunits to the usher for polymerization into pili and secretion to the cell surface. Based on previous structures of mutant versions of the P pilus chaperone PapD, it was suggested that the chaperone dimerizes in the periplasm as a self-capping mechanism. Such dimerization is counterintuitive because the chaperone G1 strand, important for chaperone-subunit interaction, is buried at the dimer interface. Here, we show that the wild-type PapD chaperone also forms a dimer in the crystal lattice; however, the dimer interface is different from the previously solved structures. In contrast to the crystal structures, we found that both PapD and the type 1 pilus chaperone, FimC, are monomeric in solution. Our findings indicate that pilus chaperones do not sequester their G1 β-strand by forming a dimer. Instead, the chaperones may expose their G1 strand for facile interaction with pilus subunits. We also found that the type 1 pilus adhesin, FimH, is flexible in solution while in complex with its chaperone, whereas the P pilus adhesin, PapGII, is rigid. Our study clarifies a crucial step in pilus biogenesis and reveals pilus-specific differences that may relate to biological function.

    IMPORTANCEPili are critical virulence factors for many bacterial pathogens. UropathogenicE. colirelies on P and type 1 pili assembled by the chaperone/usher pathway to

  19. Folded-back solution structure of monomeric factor H of human complement by synchrotron X-ray and neutron scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation and constrained molecular modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, M; Perkins, S J

    2001-06-22

    Factor H (FH) is a regulatory cofactor for the protease factor I in the breakdown of C3b in the complement system of immune defence, and binds to heparin and other polyanionic substrates. FH is composed of 20 short consensus/complement repeat (SCR) domains, for which the overall arrangement in solution is unknown. As previous studies had shown that FH can form monomeric or dimeric structures, X-ray and neutron scattering was accordingly performed with FH in the concentration range between 0.7 and 14 mg ml(-1). The radius of gyration of FH was determined to be 11.1-11.3 nm by both methods, and the radii of gyration of the cross-section were 4.4 nm and 1.7 nm. The distance distribution function P(r) showed that the overall length of FH was 38 nm. The neutron data showed that FH was monomeric with a molecular mass of 165,000(+/-17,000) Da. Analytical ultracentrifugation data confirmed this, where sedimentation equilibrium curve fits gave a mean molecular mass of 155,000(+/-3,000) Da. Sedimentation velocity experiments using the g*(s) derivative method showed that FH was monodisperse and had a sedimentation coefficient of 5.3(+/-0.1) S. In order to construct a full model of FH for scattering curve and sedimentation coefficient fits, homology models were constructed for 17 of the 20 SCR domains using knowledge of the NMR structures for FH SCR-5, SCR-15 and SCR-16, and vaccinia coat protein SCR-3 and SCR-4. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to generate a large conformational library for each of the 19 SCR-SCR linker peptides. Peptides from these libraries were combined with the 20 SCR structures in order to generate stereochemically complete models for the FH structure. Using an automated constrained fit procedure, the analysis of 16,752 possible FH models showed that only those models in which the 20 SCR domains were bent back upon themselves were able to account for the scattering and sedimentation data. The best-fit models showed that FH had an overall length

  20. [Study on the chemical constituents in Pouzolzia zeylanica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ming; Niu, You-Ya; Yu, Juan; Kong, Qing-Tong

    2012-11-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Pouzolzia zeylanica. Many chromatography means were used in separation and purification, and the structures of all compounds were identified by the means of spectroscopic analysis and physicochemical properties. 14 compounds were elucidated as: beta-sitosterol (1), daucosterol (2), oleanolic acid (3), epicatechin (4), alpha-amyrin (5), eugenyl-beta-rutinoside (6), 2alpha, 3alpha, 19alpha-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic (7), scopolin (8), scutellarein-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (9), scopoletin (10), quercetin (11), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (12), apigenin (13), 2alpha-hydroxyursolic acid (14). All compounds are obtained from this plant for the first time.

  1. BPS states in M-theory and twistorial constituents

    CERN Document Server

    Bandos, I A; Izquierdo, J M; Lukierski, J; Bandos, Igor A.; Azcarraga, Jose A. de; Izquierdo, Jose M.; Lukierski, Jerzy

    2001-01-01

    We provide a complete algebraic description of BPS states in M-theory in terms of primary constituents that we call BPS preons. We argue that any BPS state preserving k of the 32 supersymmetries is a composite of (32-k) BPS preons. In particular, the BPS states corresponding to the basic M2 and M5 branes are composed of 16 BPS preons. By extending the M-algebra to a generalized D=11 conformal superalgebra osp(1|64) we relate the BPS preons with its fundamental representation, the D=11 supertwistors.

  2. Water-soluble constituents from aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, M-A; Kuo, Y-H

    2006-01-01

    Three new water-soluble constituents [ficuscarpanoside B (1), (7E,9Z)-dihydrophaseic acid 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4) and ficuscarpanic acid (6)] and the natural product 2,2'-dihydroxyl ether (7) have been isolated, together with three known compounds [(7S,8R)-syringoylglycerol (2), (7S,8R)-syringoylglycerol-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3) and icariside D2 (5)] from the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa. Identification of their structures was achieved by 1D and 2D NMR experiments, including 1H-1H COSY, NOESY, HMQC and HMBC methods and FAB mass spectral data.

  3. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents’ corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future.

  4. [Chemical constituents from roots of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai-Jiang; He, Lan-Yun

    2014-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the roots of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao. The methanol extract was isolated and purified by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by MS and spectral data (1H, 13C-NMR). Seven compounds were isolated and identified as plantainoside A (1), plantainoside B (2), calcedarioside C (3), calcedarioside D (4), platyphylloside (5), hirsutanonol (6), and hirsutanonol-5-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7). Compounds 5-7 were isolated for the first time from the family Gesneriaceae.

  5. Anthelmintic constituents from ginger (Zingiber officinale) against Hymenolepis nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Chen, Chung-Yi; Lu, Chin-Mei; Ma, Yi-Hsuan; Chung, Li-Yu; Wang, Jiun-Jye; Lee, June-Der; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the anthelmintic activity of gingerenone A, [6]-dehydrogingerdione, [4]-shogaol, 5-hydroxy-[6]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol, [6]-gingerol, [10]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol, hexahydrocurcumin, 3R,5S-[6]-gingerdiol and 3S,5S-[6]-gingerdiol, a constituent isolate from the roots of ginger, for the parasite Hymenolepis nana. The cestocidal activity or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement (oscillation/peristalsis) in H. nana of above constituents was reached from 24 to 72h in a time- and dose-dependent manner, respectively. The [10]-shogaol and [10]-gingero1 have maximum lethal efficacy and loss of spontaneous movement than the others at 24-72h. In addition, worms treated with 1 and 10μM [10]-gingero1, more than 30% had spontaneous movement of oscillation at 72h but [10]-shogaol at 72h only about 15-20% of oscillation. This showing that [10]-gingero1 had less loss of spontaneous movement efficacy than [10]-shogaol. After exposure to 200μM [10]-shogaol, 100% of H. nana had died at 12h rather than died at 24h for [10]-gingerol, showing that [10]-gingero1 had less lethal efficacy than [10]-shogaol. In addition, these constituents of ginger showed effects against peroxyl radical under cestocidal activity. In order to evaluate the cestocidal activity and cytokine production caused by ginger's extract R0 in the H. nana infected mice, we carried out in vivo examination about H. nana infected mice BALB/c mice were inoculated orally with 500 eggs. After post-inoculation, R0 (1g/kg/day) was administered orally for 10 days. The R0 exhibited cestocidal activity in vivo of significantly reduced worms number and cytokines production by in vitro Con A-stimulated spleen cells showed that INF-γ and IL-2 were significantly increases by R0. IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 were significantly decreases and Murine KC and IL-12 were not significantly changes by R0. Together, these findings first suggest that these constituents of ginger might be used as cestocidal

  6. [Chemical constituents from supercritical CO2 extraction of Schisandra chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-yan; Lin, Hai-cheng; Wang, Guo-li; Zhang, Lian-xue

    2014-11-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the supercritical CO2 extraction of Schisandra chinensis. The compounds were separated and purified by conventional column chromatography and their structures were identified by spectroscopic methods. Nine compounds were isolated from the supercritical CO2 extraction of Schisandra chinensis, and their structures were identified as chrysophanol(1),schisandrin B(2), β-sitosterol(3), schisandrin C(4),schisandrol A(5), angeloylgomisin H(6), daucosterol(7) 1, 5-dimethyl citrate (8), and shikimic acid (9). Compounds 1, 8 and 9 are isolated from Schisandra chinensis for the first time,and compound 1 as an anthraquinone is isolated from this genus for the first time.

  7. [Chemical constituents from the leaves of Cassia angustifolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiu-ping; Wang, Zhu-ju; Fu, Mei-hong; Tang, Li-ying; He, Yan; Fang, Jing; Gong, Qiang-feng

    2007-10-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the leaves of Cassia angustifolia. Compounds were isolated and repeatedly purified by chromatographic techniques on silica gel column. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectral methods. eight compounds were isolated from the leaves of Cassia angustifolia, and identified as tinnevellin glycoside(I), isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-gentiobioside(II), apigenin-6,8-di-C-glycoside(III), emodin-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(IV), kaempferol(V), aloe emodin(VI), D-3-O-methylinositol(VII), sucrose(VIII). Compounds III, VII and VIII are isolated from the plant for the first time.

  8. Cytotoxic constituents of ethyl acetate fraction from Dianthus superbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chengli; Zhang, Wu; Li, Jie; Lei, Jiachuan; Yu, Jianqing

    2013-01-01

    The ethyl acetate fraction (EE-DS) from Dianthus superbus was found to possess the cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in previous study. To investigate cytotoxic constituents, the bioassay-guided isolation of compounds from EE-DS was performed. Two dianthramides (1 and 2), three flavonoids (3-5), two coumarins (6 and 7) and three other compounds (8-10) were obtained. Structures of isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis. Cytotoxicity of the compounds against HepG2 cells was evaluated. Compound 1 showed the strongest cytotoxicity, compounds 10, 4, 3 and 5 had moderate cytotoxicity.

  9. Constituents of Moquinia kingii Constituintes de Moquinia kingii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisandra Cristina Schinor

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of the constituents of total plant (aerial parts and roots of Moquinia kingii afforded three flavonoids described for the first time in the tribe Moquinieae. In addition sesquiterpene lactone and triterpenes were isolated. Structures were established by spectroscopic studies.A extração da planta total (partes aéreas e raiz de Moquinia kingii forneceu três flavonóides, descritos pela primeira vez na tribo Moquinieae, além de lactona sesquiterpênica e triterpenos. As estruturas foram determinadas por estudos espectroscópicos.

  10. Chemical Constituents of the Roots of Vernonia cumingiana Benth.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Hua LIU; Jing-Quan YUAN; Mao-Rong SUO; Jun-Shan YANG

    2005-01-01

    To search for new and bioactive constituents from traditional Chinese medicines, a new steroidal saponin, named vernonioside G (1), was isolated from the roots of Vernonia cumingiana Benth. (Compositae).The structure of vernonioside G was elucidated using spectral methods, particularly two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Together with the new compound, eight known compounds were also isolated and identified from the roots of V. cumingiana, among which, VE-1 (2) and 24-methylenelanost-9(11)-en-3β-ol acetate (3) were assigned NMR data for the first time and compound 3 was obtained as a natural product from a plant for the first time.

  11. The grammar of visual narrative: Neural evidence for constituent structure in sequential image comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Neil; Jackendoff, Ray; Holcomb, Phillip J; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2014-11-01

    Constituent structure has long been established as a central feature of human language. Analogous to how syntax organizes words in sentences, a narrative grammar organizes sequential images into hierarchic constituents. Here we show that the brain draws upon this constituent structure to comprehend wordless visual narratives. We recorded neural responses as participants viewed sequences of visual images (comics strips) in which blank images either disrupted individual narrative constituents or fell at natural constituent boundaries. A disruption of either the first or the second narrative constituent produced a left-lateralized anterior negativity effect between 500 and 700ms. Disruption of the second constituent also elicited a posteriorly-distributed positivity (P600) effect. These neural responses are similar to those associated with structural violations in language and music. These findings provide evidence that comprehenders use a narrative structure to comprehend visual sequences and that the brain engages similar neurocognitive mechanisms to build structure across multiple domains.

  12. Rubus Fruticosus L.: Constituents, Biological Activities and Health Related Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rubus fruticosus L. is a shrub famous for its fruit called blackberry fruit or more commonly blackberry. The fruit has medicinal, cosmetic and nutritive value. It is a concentrated source of valuable nutrients, as well as bioactive constituents of therapeutic interest highlighting its importance as a functional food. Besides use as a fresh fruit, it is also used as ingredient in cooked dishes, salads and bakery products like jams, snacks, desserts, and fruit preserves. R. fruticosus contains vitamins, steroids and lipids in seed oil and minerals, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenes, acids and tannins in aerial parts that possess diverse pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, and antiviral. Various agrogeoclimatological factors like cultivar, environmental conditions of the area, agronomic practices employed, harvest time, post-harvest storage and processing techniques all influence the nutritional composition of blackberry fruit. This review focuses on the nutrients and chemical constituents as well as medicinal properties of different parts of R. fruticosus. Various cultivars and their physicochemical characteristics, polyphenolic content and ascorbic acid content are also discussed. The information in the present work will serve as baseline data and may lead to new biomedical applications of R. fruticosus as functional food.

  13. Pharmacological profile of extracts of Pelargonium sidoides and their constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Herbert; Kayser, Oliver; Radtke, Oliver A; Kiderlen, Albrecht F; Koch, Egon

    2003-01-01

    In areas of southern Africa, aqueous extracts from the roots of Pelargonium sidoides are employed to cure various disorders. Nowadays, a modern formulation (EPs 7630), elaborated from the traditional herbal medicine, is successfully used for the treatment of respiratory tract diseases. We previously observed that root extracts of P. sidoides and their representative constituents exhibit moderate antibacterial and significant immunomodulatory capabilities. The present study was performed to further assess the efficacy and mode of action for these pharmacological activities. The results indicate that P. sidoides extracts may well possess antimycobacterial activity as claimed in traditional uses. Furthermore, significant antibacterial properties against multi-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains as well as TNF-inducing potencies and prominent interferon-like activities in supernatants of sample-activated bone marrow-derived macrophages were observed using several functional assays. In addition, EPs 7630 stimulated the synthesis of IFN-beta in MG 63 cells as demonstrated by a specific enzyme immunoassay. For gallic acid, a characteristic constituent, evidence for the expression of iNOS and TNF-alpha transcripts in stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and, hence, activation at the transcriptional level was revealed by RT-PCR. The present results, when taken together with the recently reported pharmacological activities, provide for a rationale basis of the utilization of EPs 7630 in the treatment of respiratory tract infections.

  14. Volatile constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves determined by plant age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurzyńska-Wierdak, Renata; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Szymczak, Grazyna

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated changes in the content and chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from air-dried Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) leaves in the first and second year of plant growth. The lemon balm oil was analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The presence of 106 compounds, representing 100% of the oil constituents, was determined in the oil. The predominant components were geranial (45.2% and 45.1%) and neral (32.8% and 33.8%); their proportions in the examined samples of the oil obtained from one- and two-year-old plants were comparable. However, the age of lemon balm plants affected the concentration of other constituents and the proportions of the following compounds were subject to especially high fluctuations: citronellal (8.7% and 0.4%), geraniol (trace amounts and 0.6%), and geranyl acetate (0.5% and 3.0%), as well as, among others, isogeranial, E-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D, and carvacrol. The essential oil of two-year-old plants was characterized by a richer chemical composition than the oil from younger plants.

  15. Standard Test Methods for Constituent Content of Composite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods determine the constituent content of composite materials by one of two approaches. Method I physically removes the matrix by digestion or ignition by one of seven procedures, leaving the reinforcement essentially unaffected and thus allowing calculation of reinforcement or matrix content (by weight or volume) as well as percent void volume. Method II, applicable only to laminate materials of known fiber areal weight, calculates reinforcement or matrix content (by weight or volume), and the cured ply thickness, based on the measured thickness of the laminate. Method II is not applicable to the measurement of void volume. 1.1.1 These test methods are primarily intended for two-part composite material systems. However, special provisions can be made to extend these test methods to filled material systems with more than two constituents, though not all test results can be determined in every case. 1.1.2 The procedures contained within have been designed to be particularly effective for ce...

  16. Crataegus pinnatifida: Chemical Constituents, Pharmacology, and Potential Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crataegus pinnatifida (Hawthorn is widely distributed in China and has a long history of use as a traditional medicine. The fruit of C. pinnatifida has been used for the treatment of cardiodynia, hernia, dyspepsia, postpartum blood stasis, and hemafecia and thus increasing interest in this plant has emerged in recent years. Between 1966 and 2013, numerous articles have been published on the chemical constituents, pharmacology or pharmacologic effects and toxicology of C. pinnatifida. To review the pharmacologic advances and to discuss the potential perspective for future investigation, we have summarized the main literature findings of these publications. So far, over 150 compounds including flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, lignans, hydroxycinnamic acids, organic acids and nitrogen-containing compounds have been isolated and identified from C. pinnatifida. It has been found that these constituents and extracts of C. pinnatifida have broad pharmacological effects with low toxicity on, for example, the cardiovascular, digestive, and endocrine systems, and pathogenic microorganisms, supporting the view that C. pinnatifida has favorable therapeutic effects. Thus, although C. pinnatifida has already been widely used as pharmacological therapy, due to its various active compounds, further research is warranted to develop new drugs.

  17. Crataegus pinnatifida: chemical constituents, pharmacology, and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiaqi; Peng, Wei; Qin, Rongxin; Zhou, Hong

    2014-01-30

    Crataegus pinnatifida (Hawthorn) is widely distributed in China and has a long history of use as a traditional medicine. The fruit of C. pinnatifida has been used for the treatment of cardiodynia, hernia, dyspepsia, postpartum blood stasis, and hemafecia and thus increasing interest in this plant has emerged in recent years. Between 1966 and 2013, numerous articles have been published on the chemical constituents, pharmacology or pharmacologic effects and toxicology of C. pinnatifida. To review the pharmacologic advances and to discuss the potential perspective for future investigation, we have summarized the main literature findings of these publications. So far, over 150 compounds including flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, lignans, hydroxycinnamic acids, organic acids and nitrogen-containing compounds have been isolated and identified from C. pinnatifida. It has been found that these constituents and extracts of C. pinnatifida have broad pharmacological effects with low toxicity on, for example, the cardiovascular, digestive, and endocrine systems, and pathogenic microorganisms, supporting the view that C. pinnatifida has favorable therapeutic effects. Thus, although C. pinnatifida has already been widely used as pharmacological therapy, due to its various active compounds, further research is warranted to develop new drugs.

  18. Thymus mastichina: chemical constituents and their anti-cancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordo, Joana; Máximo, Patrícia; Cabrita, Eurico; Lourenço, Ana; Oliva, Abel; Almeida, Joana; Filipe, Mariana; Cruz, Pedro; Barcia, Rita; Santos, Miguel; Cruz, Helder

    2012-11-01

    The cytotoxicity-guided study of the dichloromethane and ethanol extracts of Thymus mastichina L. using the HCT colon cancer cell line allowed the identification of nine compounds, sakuranetin (1), sterubin (2), oleanolic acid (3), ursolic acid (4), lutein (5), beta-sitosterol (6), rosmarinic acid (7), 6-hydroxyluteolin-7-O-beta-glucopyranoside (8), and 6-hydroxyapigenin-7-O-beta-glucopyranoside (9). All compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against the HCT colon cancer cell line. Compound 4 showed cytotoxicity with GI50 value of 6.8 microg/mL. A fraction composed of a mixture (1:1) of triterpenoid acids 3 and 4 displayed improved cytotoxicity with a GI50 of 2.8 microg/mL suggesting a synergistic behavior. This is the first report on the chemical constituents of Thymus mastichina L. based on structural assignments by spectroscopic analysis. The presence of these constituents identified by colon cancer cytotoxicity-guided activity indicates that extracts of T. mastichina L. may have a protective effect against colon cancers.

  19. Antioxidant and Anti-Fatigue Constituents of Okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangbo Xia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench, a healthy vegetable, is widely spread in tropical and subtropical areas. Previous studies have proven that okra pods possess anti-fatigue activity, and the aim of this research is to clarify the anti-fatigue constituents. To achieve this, we divided okra pods (OPD into seeds (OSD and skins (OSK, and compared the contents of total polysaccharides, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, isoquercitrin, and quercetin-3-O-gentiobiose and the antioxidant activity in vitro and anti-fatigue activity in vivo between OSD and OSK. The contents of total polyphenols and total polysaccharides were 29.5% and 14.8% in OSD and 1.25% and 43.1% in OSK, respectively. Total flavonoids, isoquercitrin and quercetin-3-O-gentiobiose (5.35%, 2.067% and 2.741%, respectively were only detected in OSD. Antioxidant assays, including 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and reducing power test, and weight-loaded swimming test showed OSD possessed significant antioxidant and anti-fatigue effects. Moreover, biochemical determination revealed that that anti-fatigue activity of OSD is caused by reducing the levels of blood lactic acid (BLA and urea nitrogen (BUN, enhancing hepatic glycogen storage and promoting antioxidant ability by lowering malondialdehyde (MDA level and increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX levels. These results proved okra seeds were the anti-fatigue part of okra pods and polyphenols and flavonoids were active constituents.

  20. Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae: CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa G. Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical study of hexane extract from leaves of Salacia crassifolia resulted in the isolation of 3β-palmitoxy-urs-12-ene, 3-oxofriedelane, 3β-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-28-hydroxyfriedelane, 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane, 28,29-dihydroxyfriedelan-3-one, 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-oic acid, 3β-hydroxy-olean-9(11:12-diene and the mixture of α-amirin and β-amirin. β-sitosterol, the polymer gutta-percha, squalene and eicosanoic acid were also isolated. The chemical structures of these constituents were established by IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data. Crude extracts and the triterpenes were tested against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis and no activity was observed under the in vitro assay conditions. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol crude extracts, and the constituent 3,4-seco-friedelan-3-oic acid and 28,29-dihydroxyfriedelan-3-one showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus sanguinis and Candida albicans.

  1. Analysis of hallucinogenic constituents in Amanita mushrooms circulated in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Kenji; Mohri, Hiroyuki; Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Iwata, Yuko; Gohda, Akinaga; Fukushima, Sunao; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Kishi, Tohru

    2006-12-20

    The constituents of seven mushrooms sold as Amanita muscaria or Amanita pantherina (five A. muscaria and two A. pantherina) and four "extracts purported to contain A. muscaria" products that are currently circulated in Japan were determined. All mushroom samples were identified as A. muscaria or A. pantherina by macroscopic and microscopic observation. The dissociative constituents, ibotenic acid (IBO) and muscimol (MUS), were extracted with 70% methanol twice and determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The IBO (as the hydrate)/MUS contents were in the range of muscaria and 188-269ppm/1554-1880ppm in the cap of A. pantherina. In the caps, these compounds had a tendency to be more concentrated in the flesh than in the cuticle. On the other hand, the IBO/MUS contents in the stem were far lower than in the caps. In the "extracts purported to contain A. muscaria" products, IBO/MUS were detected below the lower limit of calibration curve (Amanita mushrooms that are circulated in the drug market.

  2. Antibacterial and Anticandidal Activities of Common Essential Oil Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökalp İşcan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils and some of their oxygenated constituents are known to possess antimicrobial activity. In the last 30 years, there is a dramatic increase in the number of resistant microorganisms against available antimicrobials and a tendency towards natural products; consequently, scientists have been forced to discover new bioactive agents preferably from nature. As a result of this, so many antimicrobial screening works have been published on plant essential oils including miscellaneous screening methods and several microorganism strains. The aim of this study was to determine the MIC values of 65 monoterpenoids and 3 phenyl propanoids commonly found in essential oils, against 24 pathogenic bacteria and Candida strains, by using standard reference broth dilution methods (CLSI M7-A7 and M27-A2. According to broth microdilution test results, when compared with standard agents, monoterpene hydrocarbons generally showed weak antibacterial effects (>16 to 4 mg/mL where the oxygenated monoterpenes inhibited the microbial growth between the concentrations of 16 to 0,03 mg/mL. Generally, tested compounds demonstrated better inhibitory effects on Candida strains then the bacteria panel. The most effective microbial growth inhibitor constituents were determined as carvacrol, thymol, cumin alcohol, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, lavandulol, estragol and thymoquinone.

  3. The Cytotoxic Constituents from Marine-derived Streptomyces 3320#

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The present work studies the chemical constituents from marine-derived streptomyces 3320# and their antitumor activities. The n-BuOH extract of the ferment broth of 3320# was chromatographed on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS columns and HPLC to separate the compounds with antitoumor activities. Their structures were identified using IR, UV, NMR, MS spectroscopic techniques and compared with published data. The antitumor activities of the isolates were assayed using SRB method and flow cytometry assay, accompanied with the morphological observation of the cells under light microscope against mammalian tsFT210 cells. Ten compounds, cyclo-(Ala-Leu) 1, cyclo-(Ala-Ile) 2, cyclo-(Ala-Val) 3, cyclo-(Phe- Pro) 4, cyclo-(Phe-Gly) 5, cyclo-(Leu-Pro) 6, 1-methyl-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid 7, N-(4-hydroxyphenethyl) acetamide 8, 4-methyoxy-1-(2-hydroxy) ethylbenzene 9 and uridine 10, were isolated from the ferment broth of streptomyces 3320#. Among them, compounds 6, 7, 8 and 10 showed potent cytotoxicity against the tsFT210 cell with the IC50 values of 3 . 6, 7 . 2, 5 . 2 and 1 . 6 mmol L - 1, respectively. Compounds 8, 10 also exhibited apoptosis inducing activity under 2 . 0 mmol L - 1. Compounds 6, 7, 8 and 10 are the principle bioactive constituents responsible for the antitumor activities of marine streptomyces 3320# . Compound 7 was isolated from this species for the first time.

  4. Data-oriented parsing with discontinuous constituents and function tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas van Cranenburgh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Statistical parsers are e ective but are typically limited to producing projective dependencies or constituents. On the other hand, linguisti- cally rich parsers recognize non-local relations and analyze both form and function phenomena but rely on extensive manual grammar development. We combine advantages of the two by building a statistical parser that produces richer analyses. We investigate new techniques to implement treebank-based parsers that allow for discontinuous constituents. We present two systems. One system is based on a string-rewriting Linear Context-Free Rewriting System (LCFRS, while using a Probabilistic Discontinuous Tree Substitution Grammar (PDTSG to improve disambiguation performance. Another system encodes the discontinuities in the labels of phrase structure trees, allowing for efficient context-free grammar parsing.The two systems demonstrate that tree fragments as used in tree-substitution grammar improve disambiguation performance while capturing non-local relations on an as-needed basis. Additionally, we present results of models that produce function tags, resulting in a more linguistically adequate model of the data. We report substantial accuracy improvements in discontinuous parsing for German, English, and Dutch, including results on spoken Dutch.

  5. Volatile Constituents of Three Myrsine L. Species from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur L. Corrêa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Myrsine rubra, Myrsine gardneriana and Myrsine parvifolia and the fruits of Myrsine parvifolia were elucidated by a combination of GC and GC-MS analyses. The main constituents of the native M. parvifolia were caryophyllene oxide (14.4%, β-caryophyllene (12.6% and γ-Muurolene (7.9% of the leaves oil and β-caryophyllene (11.7%, δ-Cadinene (7.1% of the fruit oil. The volatile oil of the endemic M. rubra leaves was dominated by β-caryophyllene (17.2%, γ-Muurolene (11.1%, Germacrene B (10.0%. The essential oil of the native M. gardneriana leaves was characterized by β-caryophyllene (18.0%, γ-Muurolene (8.4%. These three Myrsine species are similar in the dominance of sesquiterpenes. By contrast, monoterpenes were found only in the volatile oil from the fruits of M. parvifolia. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report on the volatile constituents of M. rubra, M. gardneriana, M. parvifolia.

  6. Determination of antioxidant constituents in cactus pear fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-López, José A; Almela, Luís; Obón, José M; Castellar, Rosario

    2010-09-01

    An analytical study was carried out on the presence of antioxidant constituents and the in vitro antioxidant capacity in the extracts of three species of Spanish red-skinned cactus pear fruits (Opuntia ficus-indica, Opuntia undulata and Opuntia stricta). The cactus pear fruit extracts were analyzed for determined constituents: ascorbic acid, flavonoids (quercetin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, kaempferol and luteolin), betalains, taurine, total carotenoids and total phenolics. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by means of two different methods: the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) method and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical method. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extract had the strongest antioxidant capacity and taurine content. O. stricta fruits were the richest in ascorbic acid and total phenolics, whereas O. undulata fruits showed the highest carotenoid content. Quercetin and isorhamnetin were the main flavonoids detected. This study provides basic information on the presence of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity in extracts of cactus pear fruits, in order to consider these extracts as ingredient for the production of health-promoting food.

  7. Transport of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Source-specific Indicator Organisms, and Standard Water Quality Constituents During Storm Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdevant-Rees, P. L.; Bourdeau, D.; Baker, R.; Long, S. C.; Barten, P. K.

    2004-05-01

    Microbial and water-quality measurements are collected during storm events under a variety of meteorological and land-use conditions in order to 1) identify risk of Cryptosporidium oocysts, Giardia cysts and other constituents, including microbial indicator organisms, entering surface waters from various land uses during periods of surface runoff; 2) optimize storm sampling procedures for these parameters; and 3) optimize strategies for accurate determination of constituent loads. The investigation is focused on four isolated land uses: forested with free ranging wildlife, beaver influenced forested with free ranging wildlife, residential/commercial, and dairy farm grazing/pastureland using an upstream and downstream sampling strategy. Traditional water-quality analyses include pH, temperature, turbidity, conductivity, total suspended solids, total phosphorus, total Kjeldahl-nitrogen, and ammonia nitrogen, Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. Total coliforms and fecal coliforms are measured as industry standard microbial analyses. Sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria, Rhodococcus coprophilus, Clostridium perfringens spores, and Somatic and F-specific coliphages are measured at select sites as potential alternative source-specific indicator organisms. Upon completion of the project, the final database will consist of wet weather transport data for a set of parameters during twenty-four distinct storm-events in addition to monthly baseline data. A subset of the results to date will be presented, with focus placed on demonstrating the impact of beaver on constituent loadings over a variety of hydrologic and meteorological conditions.

  8. Salt bridges regulate both dimer formation and monomeric flexibility in HdeB and may have a role in periplasmic chaperone function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjian; Rasmussen, Tim; Harding, Amanda J; Booth, Nuala A; Booth, Ian R; Naismith, James H

    2012-01-20

    Escherichia coli and Gram-negative bacteria that live in the human gut must be able to tolerate rapid and large changes in environmental pH. Low pH irreversibly denatures and precipitates many bacterial proteins. While cytoplasmic proteins are well buffered against such swings, periplasmic proteins are not. Instead, it appears that some bacteria utilize chaperone proteins that stabilize periplasmic proteins, preventing their precipitation. Two highly expressed and related proteins, HdeA and HdeB, have been identified as acid-activated chaperones. The structure of HdeA is known and a mechanism for activation has been proposed. In this model, dimeric HdeA dissociates at low pH, and the exposed dimeric interface binds exposed hydrophobic surfaces of acid-denatured proteins, preventing their irreversible aggregation. We now report the structure and biophysical characterization of the HdeB protein. The monomer of HdeB shares a similar structure with HdeA, but its dimeric interface is different in composition and spatial location. We have used fluorescence to study the behavior of HdeB as pH is lowered, and like HdeA, it dissociates to monomers. We have identified one of the key intersubunit interactions that controls pH-induced monomerization. Our analysis identifies a structural interaction within the HdeB monomer that is disrupted as pH is lowered, leading to enhanced structural flexibility.

  9. Salt Bridges Regulate Both Dimer Formation and Monomeric Flexibility in HdeB and May Have a Role in Periplasmic Chaperone Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjian; Rasmussen, Tim; Harding, Amanda J.; Booth, Nuala A.; Booth, Ian R.; Naismith, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli and Gram-negative bacteria that live in the human gut must be able to tolerate rapid and large changes in environmental pH. Low pH irreversibly denatures and precipitates many bacterial proteins. While cytoplasmic proteins are well buffered against such swings, periplasmic proteins are not. Instead, it appears that some bacteria utilize chaperone proteins that stabilize periplasmic proteins, preventing their precipitation. Two highly expressed and related proteins, HdeA and HdeB, have been identified as acid-activated chaperones. The structure of HdeA is known and a mechanism for activation has been proposed. In this model, dimeric HdeA dissociates at low pH, and the exposed dimeric interface binds exposed hydrophobic surfaces of acid-denatured proteins, preventing their irreversible aggregation. We now report the structure and biophysical characterization of the HdeB protein. The monomer of HdeB shares a similar structure with HdeA, but its dimeric interface is different in composition and spatial location. We have used fluorescence to study the behavior of HdeB as pH is lowered, and like HdeA, it dissociates to monomers. We have identified one of the key intersubunit interactions that controls pH-induced monomerization. Our analysis identifies a structural interaction within the HdeB monomer that is disrupted as pH is lowered, leading to enhanced structural flexibility. PMID:22138344

  10. The sigma-1 receptors are present in monomeric and oligomeric forms in living cells in the presence and absence of ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Deo R.; Biener, Gabriel; Yang, Jay; Oliver, Julie A.; Ruoho, Arnold; Raicu, Valerică

    2015-01-01

    The sigma-1 receptor (S1R) is a 223-amino-acid membrane protein that resides in the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane of some mammalian cells. The S1R is regulated by various synthetic molecules including (+)-pentazocine, cocaine and haloperidol and endogenous molecules such as sphingosine, dimethyltryptamine and dehydroepiandrosterone. Ligand-regulated protein chaperone functions linked to oxidative stress and neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and neuropathic pain have been attributed to the S1R. Several client proteins that interact with S1R have been identified including various types of ion channels and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). When S1R constructs containing C-terminal monomeric GFP2 and YFP fusions were co-expressed in COS-7 cells and subjected to FRET spectrometry analysis, monomers, dimers and higher oligomeric forms of S1R were identified under non-liganded conditions. In the presence of the prototypic S1R agonist, (+)-pentazocine, however, monomers and dimers were the prevailing forms of S1R. The prototypic antagonist, haloperidol, on the other hand, favoured higher order S1R oligomers. These data, in sum, indicate that heterologously expressed S1Rs occur in vivo in COS-7 cells in multiple oligomeric forms and that S1R ligands alter these oligomeric structures. We suggest that the S1R oligomerization states may regulate its function(s). PMID:25510962

  11. Structural and enzymatic insights into Lambda glutathione transferases from Populus trichocarpa, monomeric enzymes constituting an early divergent class specific to terrestrial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallement, Pierre-Alexandre; Meux, Edgar; Gualberto, José M; Prosper, Pascalita; Didierjean, Claude; Saul, Frederick; Haouz, Ahmed; Rouhier, Nicolas; Hecker, Arnaud

    2014-08-15

    GSTs represent a superfamily of multifunctional proteins which play crucial roles in detoxification processes and secondary metabolism. Instead of promoting the conjugation of glutathione to acceptor molecules as do most GSTs, members of the Lambda class (GSTLs) catalyse deglutathionylation reactions via a catalytic cysteine residue. Three GSTL genes (Pt-GSTL1, Pt-GSTL2 and Pt-GSTL3) are present in Populus trichocarpa, but two transcripts, differing in their 5' extremities, were identified for Pt-GSTL3. Transcripts for these genes were primarily found in flowers, fruits, petioles and buds, but not in leaves and roots, suggesting roles associated with secondary metabolism in these organs. The expression of GFP-fusion proteins in tobacco showed that Pt-GSTL1 is localized in plastids, whereas Pt-GSTL2 and Pt-GSTL3A and Pt-GSTL3B are found in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. The resolution of Pt-GSTL1 and Pt-GSTL3 structures by X-ray crystallography indicated that, although these proteins adopt a canonical GST fold quite similar to that found in dimeric Omega GSTs, their non-plant counterparts, they are strictly monomeric. This might explain some differences in the enzymatic properties of both enzyme types. Finally, from competition experiments between aromatic substrates and a fluorescent probe, we determined that the recognition of glutathionylated substrates is favoured over non-glutathionylated forms.

  12. Solvent exposure of Tyr10 as a probe of structural differences between monomeric and aggregated forms of the amyloid-β peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aran Terol, Pablo; Kumita, Janet R.; Hook, Sharon C.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Esbjörner, Elin K.

    2015-01-01

    Aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides is a characteristic pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease. We have exploited the relationship between solvent exposure and intrinsic fluorescence of a single tyrosine residue, Tyr10, in the Aβ sequence to probe structural features of the monomeric, oligomeric and fibrillar forms of the 42-residue Aβ1-42. By monitoring the quenching of Tyr10 fluorescence upon addition of water-soluble acrylamide, we show that in Aβ1-42 oligomers this residue is solvent-exposed to a similar extent to that found in the unfolded monomer. By contrast, Tyr10 is significantly shielded from acrylamide quenching in Aβ1-42 fibrils, consistent with its proximity to the fibrillar cross-β core. Furthermore, circular dichroism measurements reveal that Aβ1-42 oligomers have a considerably lower β-sheet content than the Aβ1-42 fibrils, indicative of a less ordered molecular arrangement in the former. Taken together these findings suggest significant differences in the structural assembly of oligomers and fibrils that are consistent with differences in their biological effects. PMID:26551456

  13. Novel DDR Processing of Corn Stover Achieves High Monomeric Sugar Concentrations from Enzymatic Hydrolysis (230 g/L) and High Ethanol Concentration (10% v/v) During Fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Jennings, Ed; Shekiro, Joe; Kuhn, Erik M.; O' Brien, Marykate; Wang, Wei; Schell, Daniel J.; Himmel, Mike; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2015-04-03

    Distilling and purifying ethanol, butanol, and other products from second and later generation lignocellulosic biorefineries adds significant capital and operating cost for biofuels production. The energy costs associated with distillation affects plant gate and life cycle analysis costs. Lower titers in fermentation due to lower sugar concentrations from pretreatment increase both energy and production costs. In addition, higher titers decrease the volumes required for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation vessels. Therefore, increasing biofuels titers has been a research focus in renewable biofuels production for several decades. In this work, we achieved over 200 g/L of monomeric sugars after high solids enzymatic hydrolysis using the novel deacetylation and disc refining (DDR) process on corn stover. The high sugar concentrations and low chemical inhibitor concentrations from the DDR process allowed ethanol titers as high as 82 g/L in 22 hours, which translates into approximately 10 vol% ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time that 10 vol% ethanol in fermentation derived from corn stover without any sugar concentration or purification steps has been reported. Techno-economic analysis shows the higher titer ethanol achieved from the DDR process could significantly reduce the minimum ethanol selling price from cellulosic biomass.

  14. Modeling of Alkane Oxidation Using Constituents and Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Jasette; Harstad, Kenneth G.

    2010-01-01

    It is currently not possible to perform simulations of turbulent reactive flows due in particular to complex chemistry, which may contain thousands of reactions and hundreds of species. This complex chemistry results in additional differential equations, making the numerical solution of the equation set computationally prohibitive. Reducing the chemical kinetics mathematical description is one of several important goals in turbulent reactive flow modeling. A chemical kinetics reduction model is proposed for alkane oxidation in air that is based on a parallel methodology to that used in turbulence modeling in the context of the Large Eddy Simulation. The objective of kinetic modeling is to predict the heat release and temperature evolution. This kinetic mechanism is valid over a pressure range from atmospheric to 60 bar, temperatures from 600 K to 2,500 K, and equivalence ratios from 0.125 to 8. This range encompasses diesel, HCCI, and gas-turbine engines, including cold ignition. A computationally efficient kinetic reduction has been proposed for alkanes that has been illustrated for n-heptane using the LLNL heptane mechanism. This model is consistent with turbulence modeling in that scales were first categorized into either those modeled or those computed as progress variables. Species were identified as being either light or heavy. The heavy species were decomposed into defined 13 constituents, and their total molar density was shown to evolve in a quasi-steady manner. The light species behave either in a quasi-steady or unsteady manner. The modeled scales are the total constituent molar density, Nc, and the molar density of the quasi-steady light species. The progress variables are the total constituent molar density rate evolution and the molar densities of the unsteady light species. The unsteady equations for the light species contain contributions of the type gain/loss rates from the heavy species that are modeled consistent with the developed mathematical

  15. Electrophysiological effects of kainic acid on vasopressin-enhanced green fluorescent protein and oxytocin-monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 neurones isolated from the supraoptic nucleus in transgenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, J; Ohbuchi, T; Yoshimura, M; Maruyama, T; Ishikura, T; Matsuura, T; Suzuki, H; Ueta, Y

    2014-01-01

    The supraoptic nucleus (SON) contains two types of magnocellular neurosecretory cells: arginine vasopressin (AVP)-producing and oxytocin (OXT)-producing cells. We recently generated and characterised two transgenic rat lines: one expressing an AVP-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and the other expressing an OXT-monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1). These transgenic rats enable the visualisation of AVP or OXT neurones in the SON. In the present study, we compared the electrophysiological responses of AVP-eGFP and OXT-mRFP1 neurones to glutamic acid in SON primary cultures. Glutamate mediates fast synaptic transmission through three classes of ionotrophic receptors: the NMDA, AMPA and kainate receptors. We investigated the contributions of the three classes of ionotrophic receptors in glutamate-induced currents. Three different antagonists were used, each predominantly selective for one of the classes of ionotrophic receptor. Next, we focused on the kainate receptors (KARs). We examined the electrophysiological effects of kainic acid (KA) on AVP-eGFP and OXT-mRFP1 neurones. In current clamp mode, KA induced depolarisation and increased firing rates. These KA-induced responses were inhibited by the non-NMDA ionotrophic receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3(1H4H)-dione in both AVP-eGFP and OXT-mRFP1 neurones. In voltage clamp mode, the application of KA evoked inward currents in a dose-dependent manner. The KA-induced currents were significantly larger in OXT-mRFP1 neurones than in AVP-eGFP neurones. This significant difference in KA-induced currents was abolished by the GluK1-containing KAR antagonist UBP302. At high concentrations (250-500 μm), the specific GluK1-containing KAR agonist (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid (ATPA) induced significantly larger currents in OXT-mRFP1 neurones than in AVP-eGFP neurones. Furthermore, the difference between the AVP-eGFP and OXT-mRFP1 neurones in the ATPA currents

  16. Chemical constituents and antihistamine activity of Bixa orellana leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yoke Keong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bixa orellana L. has been traditionally used in Central and South America to treat a number of ailments, including internal inflammation, and in other tropical countries like Malaysia as treatment for gastric ulcers and stomach discomfort. The current study aimed to determine the major chemical constituents of the aqueous extract of B. orellana (AEBO and to evaluate the antihistamine activity of AEBO during acute inflammation induced in rats. Methods Acute inflammation was produced by subplantar injection of 0.1 mL of 0.1% histamine into the right hind paw of each rat in the control and treatment groups. The degree of edema was measured before injection and at the time points of 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min after injection. Changes of peritoneal vascular permeability were studied using Evans blue dye as a detector. Vascular permeability was evaluated by the amount of dye leakage into the peritoneal cavity in rats. To evaluate the inhibitory effect of AEBO on biochemical mediators of vascular permeability, the levels of nitric oxide (NO and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were determined in histamine-treated paw tissues. The major constituents of AEBO were determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Results AEBO produced a significant inhibition of histamine-induced paw edema starting at 60 min time point, with maximal percentage of inhibition (60.25% achieved with a dose of 150 mg/kg of AEBO at 60 min time point. Up to 99% of increased peritoneal vascular permeability produced by histamine was successfully suppressed by AEBO. The expression of biochemical mediators of vascular permeability, NO and VEGF, was also found to be downregulated in the AEBO treated group. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis revealed that the major constituent in AEBO was acetic acid. Conclusions The experimental findings demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory activity of AEBO was

  17. Comparison of Bottom Friction Formulations for Single-Constituent Tidal Simulations in Kyunggi Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. C.; Kim, C. S.; Jung, K. T.

    2001-11-01

    This paper investigates the influence of bottom friction on the tidal elevation in Kyunggi Bay, located west of Korea, by comparing the linear, linearized and quadratic bottom friction formulations, deducing an optimal bottom friction coefficient (BFC) for each formulation in single-constituent simulations. Model results are compared with observed tidal amplitudes and phases at 52 locations. The linear friction formulation with an optimal BFC produces the observed tidal elevation satisfactorily for all consitutents. However, the optimal linear BFC in Kyunggi Bay is one order smaller than that used in global tide calculations. The optimal BFC in the linearized formulation for the M 2tide is identical to the theoretical value given by Pingree (1983). The optimal linearized BFCs for other constituents are approximately 90% of optimal quadratic BFC for the M 2tide alone. Experiments with a range of quadratic BFCs show that the optimal BFCs for single-constituent tide are quite different from constituent by constituent, giving considerably large values of BFC except for the M 2tide. The single-constituent simulation shows that the optimal quadratic BFC for S 2(K 1) only is about 4 (10) times larger than that for M 2only. Multi-constituent simulation and single-constituent experiments with the force argument (Bowers et al., 1991) clearly show that the BFC in single-constituent simulations should be increased to incorporate the bulk effects of other constituents.

  18. Neuron Protective Constituents from Rheum Nanum and Rheum Sublanceolatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Lan; LEI Fan; XING Dongming; WANG Wei; ZHENG Junhua

    2005-01-01

    The neuron protective activity of the chemical constituents from Rheum nanum and Rheum sublanceolatum in vitro was investigated using cultured embryonic mouse cortical cells exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation. The protective effect was quantitatively evaluated by measuring the lactate dehydrogenase release rate. Most of the compounds reduce the lactate dehydrogenase release rate, including emodin, chrysophanol-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 6-hydroxymusizin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, gnetin C, torachrysone-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and maesopsin, and all possess potent neuron protective activity. Chrysophanol and aloe-emodin exhibit neuron protection only at low concentrations. Emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside protects the neuron cells at high concentration. Aloe-emodin-8-O-β-D- glucopyranoside is inactive.

  19. Chemical Constituents and Antimicrobial Activity of Salix subserrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat Hussain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaf and bark extracts of Salix subserrata showed promising antibacterial, antifungal, and antialgal activities. The bio-guided study of the chemical constituents of the bark and leaves of Salixsubserrata (Salicaceae has resulted in the isolation and characterization of eight compounds. These six compounds were identified as (+ catechin ( 1, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis (2-ethylhexyl ester ( 2, saligenin (3, methyl 1-hydroxy-6-oxocyclohex-2-enecarboxylate (4, catechol (5, propyl acetate ( 6, β-sitosterol (7, and β-sitosterol glucopyranoside ( 8, were isolated for the first time from Salixsubserrata. The above compounds were individually identified by spectroscopic analyses and comparisons with reported data . Preliminary studies indicated that compound 1, mixture of compounds 3/4, and 7 showed good antibacterial, fungicidal, and algicidal properties.

  20. Involvement of extracellular matrix constituents in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochter, Andre; Bissell, Mina J

    1995-06-01

    It has recently been established that the extracellular matrix is required for normal functional differentiation of mammary epithelia not only in culture, but also in vivo. The mechanisms by which extracellular matrix affects differentiation, as well as the nature of extracellular matrix constituents which have major impacts on mammary gland function, have only now begun to be dissected. The intricate variety of extracellular matrix-mediated events and the remarkable degree of plasticity of extracellular matrix structure and composition at virtually all times during ontogeny, make such studies difficult. Similarly, during carcinogenesis, the extracellular matrix undergoes gross alterations, the consequences of which are not yet precisely understood. Nevertheless, an increasing amount of data suggests that the extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-receptors might participate in the control of most, if not all, of the successive stages of breast tumors, from appearance to progression and metastasis.

  1. Modelling bioaccumulation of oil constituents in aquatic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Hoop, Lisette; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Schipper, Aafke M; Veltman, Karin; De Laender, Frederik; Viaene, Karel P J; Klok, Chris; Hendriks, A Jan

    2013-11-15

    Crude oil poses a risk to marine ecosystems due to its toxicity and tendency to accumulate in biota. The present study evaluated the applicability of the OMEGA model for estimating oil accumulation in aquatic species by comparing model predictions of kinetic rates (absorption and elimination) and bioconcentration factors (BCF) with measured values. The model was a better predictor than the means of the measurements for absorption and elimination rate constants, but did not outperform the mean measured BCF. Model estimates and measurements differed less than one order of magnitude for 91%, 80% and 61% of the absorption and elimination rates and BCFs of all oil constituents, respectively. Of the "potentially modifying" factors: exposure duration, biotransformation, molecular mass, and water temperature, the last two tended to influence the performance of the model. Inclusion of more explanatory variables in the bioaccumulation model, like the molecular mass, is expected to improve model performance.

  2. Chemical constituents isolated from Zygophyllum melongena Bunge growing in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganbaatar, Chunsriimyatav; Gruner, Margit; Tunsag, Jigjidsuren; Batsuren, Dulamjav; Ganpurev, Batsuren; Chuluunnyam, Lkhamjav; Sodbayar, Batsuren; Schmidt, Arndt W; Knölker, Hans-Joachim

    2016-07-01

    We report the first investigation of the chemical constituents of Zygophyllum melongena Bunge, a species growing in Mongolia. The quinovic acid glycosides 3-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)quinovic acid and 3-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)quinovic acid (28→1)-(β-D-glucopyranosyl) ester were identified in the chloroform fraction along with the flavonoid glycoside astragalin. The n-butanol fraction contained (+)-D-pinitol as the major component, a cyclitol with anti-diabetic properties. The structures of the isolated natural products were confirmed using ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C, COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY and ROESY). This is the first report of the isolation of (+)-D-pinitol from the genus Zygophyllum.

  3. Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Geranium wallichianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad I. Choudhary

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of the chemical constituents of the whole plant of Geranium wallichianum (Geraniaceae has resulted in the isolation and characterization of six compounds. These six compounds were identified as ursolic acid (1, β-sitosterol (2, stigmasterol (3,b-sitosterol galactoside (4, herniarin (5, and 2,4,6-trihydroxyethylbenzoate (6 which were isolated for the first time from Geranium wallichianum. The above compounds were individually identified by spectroscopic analyses and comparisons with reported data. The antioxidant potential of Geranium wallichianum extracts has been investigated by DPPH radical scavenging assay and EtOAc extract was found to be most potent with IC50 19.05 ug/mL

  4. Macro- and microhardness of IN-713C nickel superalloy constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Binczyk

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the effect of modification and cooling rate on the macrohardness of castings and microhardness of phase constituents in IN-713C nickel superalloy were described. As an inoculant, cobalt aluminate CoAl2O4 in composition with aluminium powder and colloidal silica was used. Changes in the cooling rate were obtained using a cast stepped test piece with steps of 6, 11 and 17 mm thickness. Macrohardness of the cast test piece steps was measured by Brinell technique, while Vickers method was used to measure the microhardness of γ and γ’ phases present in the alloy matrix, as well as the hardness of eutectic carbide precipitates.A significant effect of the cooling rate and modification treatment on the results of the measurements was stated, and difficulties in performing correctly the microhardness measurements due to the precipitates dimensions, especially after the modification treatment, were highlighted.

  5. Double parton distributions in Light-Front constituent quark models

    CERN Document Server

    Rinaldi, Matteo; Traini, Marco; Vento, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Double parton distribution functions (dPDF), accessible in high energy proton-proton and proton nucleus collisions, encode information on how partons inside a proton are correlated among each other and could represent a tool to explore the 3D proton structure. In recent papers, double parton correlations have been studied in the valence quark region, by means of constituent quark models. This framework allows to understand clearly the dynamical origin of the correlations and to establish which, among the features of the results, are model independent. Recent relevant results, obtained in a relativistic light-front scheme, able to overcome some drawbacks of previous calculations, such as the poor support, will be presented. Peculiar transverse momentum correlations, generated by the correct treatment of the boosts, are obtained. The role of spin correlations will be also shown. In this covariant approach, the symmetries of the dPDFs are unambiguously reproduced. The study of the QCD evolution of the model resu...

  6. [Studies on chemical constituents in seeds of Cicer arietinum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yong-xia; Sun, Yu-hua; Chen, Ruo-yun

    2007-08-01

    To study the chemical constituents in seeds of Cicer arietinum, so that to find bioactive natural products. Dried and sprouted seeds of C. arietinum were extracted with ethanol of various concentrations respectively, then isolated and purified by silica gel, macroreticular resin D 101, Sephadex LH -20 gel column chromatography, and structures of compounds were identified by spectral analysis. Nine compounds have been isolated and identified: 3-hydroxy-olean-12-ene (1), biochanin A-7-O-beta-D-glucoside (2), cerebroside (3), 1-ethyl-alpha-L-galactoside (4), uridine (5), adenosine (6), trytophan (7), biochanin A (8), fomononetin (9). Compounds 1, 3, 4, 6, 7 were isolated from genus Cicer for the first time.

  7. Chemical constituents of marijuana: the complex mixture of natural cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Slade, Desmond

    2005-12-22

    The cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) and products thereof (such as marijuana, hashish and hash oil) have a long history of use both as a medicinal agent and intoxicant. Over the last few years there have been an active debate regarding the medicinal aspects of cannabis. Currently cannabis products are classified as Schedule I drugs under the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) Controlled Substances act, which means that the drug is only available for human use as an investigational drug. In addition to the social aspects of the use of the drug and its abuse potential, the issue of approving it as a medicine is further complicated by the complexity of the chemical make up of the plant. This manuscript discusses the chemical constituents of the plant with particular emphasis on the cannabinoids as the class of compounds responsible for the drug's psychological properties.

  8. Nutritional constituents of soybean grown in northeast region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional constituents of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr. grown in the Northeast Region of China were evaluated through measuring amino acid composition, fatty acid profile and mineral content. Results showed that there were eighteen detectable amino acids in soybean samples. The fatty acid profile indicated linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid and linolenic acid as the most abundant fatty acid followed by stearic acid, lauric acid, arachidonic acid, behenic acid and gondoic acid. Mineral content analyses indicated that the most abundant mineral in soybeans was potassium, followed by calcium, iron, magnesium, sodium, zinc and manganese. The soybean cultivar “JinYou” contained higher (P<0.05 values of essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, calcium and iron contents compared to “HeFeng”, “NongKe” and other cultivars previously reported.

  9. Profiling proteins in nutraceutical formulations: characterization of the constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomaria, Alessia; Nepravishta, Ridvan; Marchetti, Mario; Paci, Maurizio

    2016-03-01

    Several nutraceutical preparations containing proteins, amino acids and other small molecules are nowadays present on the market. In this work we propose NMR spectroscopy such as (1)H NMR, (1)H-(1)H TOCSY and DOSY for their constituents characterization, identification and profiling, comparing these results with those obtained by electrophoretic technique such as SDS-PAGE. The (1)H NMR spectroscopy was applied for measurements of the amino acids and other small compounds added from the manufacturer. Further the autocorrelation function obtained from the one dimensional spectrum was used without the complete assignment of the resonances of the NMR spectrum of proteins for the evaluation of the folding quality and stability. Finally the DOSY NMR technique was performed on the samples for the characterization of the mean molecular weight range of proteins. All this features considered together create an important set of data useful for the evaluation of the protein profiling and the characterization of such formulations.

  10. [Chemical constituents in higher polar substances from Desmodium caudatum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Wang, Di; Wang, Guang-Hui; Guo, Zhi-Jian; Zou, Xiu-Hong; Lin, Ting; Chen, Hai-Feng

    2014-08-01

    In this study the chemical constituents of the higher polar sustances from Desmodium caudatum were investigated.The compounds were isolated by using column chromatographies over silicagel, polyamide, ODS, Sephadex LH-20, and preparative HPLC. The structures of these compounds were identified on the basis of NMR and MS spectra. Thirteen compounds were obtained and their structures were identified as vanillin(1), loliolide(2), indole-3-carboxaldehyde(3), salicylic acid(4), swertisin(5), saccharumoside C(6), isosinensin (7), kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (8), isovitexin (9), vitexin (10), nothofagin(11), resveratroloside (12), and 2"-α-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-methylvitexin (13). Except for compound 5, the remaining compounds were isolated from D. caudatum for the first time. Compounds 2, 3, 6-8, 11-13 were separated from the genus Desmodium for the first time.

  11. Chemical constituents of Panax ginseng exposed to. gamma. irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joongho; Belanger, J.M.R.; Sigouin, M.; Lanthier, J.; Willemot, C.; Pare, J.R.J. (Agriculture Canada, Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec (Canada))

    1990-03-01

    Chemical constituents were monitored to assess the biochemical and nutritional safety of Panax ginseng powders that were irradiated at doses of 1-10 kGy. Quantitative analysis has shown that the main effective components - saponins - are not altered by {sup 60}Co {gamma} irradiation. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} was not affected by the treatment. Negligible changes were observed in the free carbohydrate contents. Doses of more than 5 kGy caused significant decreases in sulfur-containing amino acids and in tyrosine. At doses of 10 kGy, free amino acids, such as proline and lysine, showed an appreciable increase. The composition in minerals was not altered irrespective of the applied doses.

  12. Optical dispersion of composite particles consisting of millicharged constituents

    CERN Document Server

    Kvam, Audrey K

    2016-01-01

    Composite dark matter (DM) comprised of electrically charged constituents can interact with the electromagnetic field via the particle's dipole moment. This interaction results in a dispersive optical index of refraction for the DM medium. We compute this refractive index for atomic dark matter and more strongly bound systems, modeled via a harmonic oscillator potential. The dispersive nature of the index will result in a time lag between high and low energy photons simultaneously emitted from a distant astrophysical observable. This time lag, due to matter dispersion, could confound potential claims of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) which can also result in such time lags. We compare the relative size of the two effects and determine that the dispersion due to DM is dwarfed by potential LIV effects for energies below the Planck scale.

  13. Palaeophytochemical Constituents of Cretaceous Ginkgo coriacea Florin Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Xing Zhao; Cheng-Sen Li; Xiao-Dong Luo; Yu-Fei Wang; Jun Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the organic solvent extract of Cretaceous Ginkgo coriacea Florin leaves by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), analogous to those from extant leaves of Ginkgo biloba L., led to the detection of a group of natural flavonoids and other volatiles. The similarity of the chemical constituents in these two species of Ginkgo suggest that the secondary metabolism of extant G. biloba is close to that of the Cretaceous species. The remaining natural products may be one explanation why the leaves of the Cretaceous G. coriacea have been preserved morphologically in fossilization. The detection of flavonoids suggests that the leaves of G. coriacea experienced a mild post-depositional environment during their fossilization. This appears to be the oldest occurrence of flavonoids in plant fossils.

  14. Chemical Constituents of Schisandra rubriflora Rehd.et Wils.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan-Peng LI; Jing-Feng ZHAO; Yong-Qiang TU; Xiao-Dong YANG; Hong-Bin ZHANG; Liang LI

    2005-01-01

    Schisandra rubriflora Rehd. et Wils. is a traditional Chinese medicine. To search for new and bioactive components from traditional Chinese medicines and provide scientific evidence for taxonomy, the chemical constituents ofthe plant were investigated by various column chromatography methods (silica gel,Sephadex LH-20, and RP-18). From the aerial parts ofS. rubriflora, three new megastigmane glycosides,namely (3S, 5R, 6S, 9R)-megastigmane-3, 9-diol 3-O-[α-L-arabionfuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside](1), 7-megastigmene-3-ol-9-one 3-O-[o-L-arabionfuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside] (2), and megastigmane-3α, 4β, 9ξ-triol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), along with 14 known compounds, were isolated.The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  15. Antifungal Constituents from the Roots of Piper dilatatum Rich.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruilan Alves dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The compounds (+-(7S,8R-epoxy-5,6-didehydrokavain (1, flavokavain B (2, β-sitosterol (3, and stigmasterol (4 are reported here as chemical constituents of Piper dilatatum Rich. (Piperaceae. Their structures were determined on the basis of their spectroscopic data (1H and 13C NMR, MS, and IR. The antifungal activities of pyrone 1 (1 μg and chalcone 2 (100 μg were determined by means of direct bioautography against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum. Results indicate P. dilatatum as a candidate for the development of novel antifungal phytotherapic products as well as point out pyrone 1 as a promising hit compound in the quest for novel antifungal agents.

  16. Optical dispersion of composite particles consisting of millicharged constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvam, Audrey K.; Latimer, David C.

    2016-08-01

    Composite dark matter (DM) comprised of electrically charged constituents can interact with the electromagnetic field via the particle's dipole moment. This interaction results in a dispersive optical index of refraction for the DM medium. We compute this refractive index for atomic DM and more strongly bound systems, modeled via a harmonic oscillator potential. The dispersive nature of the index will result in a time lag between high and low energy photons simultaneously emitted from a distant astrophysical observable. This time lag, due to matter dispersion, could confound potential claims of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) which can also result in such time lags. We compare the relative size of the two effects and determine that the dispersion due to DM is dwarfed by potential LIV effects for energies below the Planck scale.

  17. Modulatory Mechanism of Nociceptive Neuronal Activity by Dietary Constituent Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoru Takeda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes to somatic sensory pathways caused by peripheral tissue, inflammation or injury can result in behavioral hypersensitivity and pathological pain, such as hyperalgesia. Resveratrol, a plant polyphenol found in red wine and various food products, is known to have several beneficial biological actions. Recent reports indicate that resveratrol can modulate neuronal excitability, including nociceptive sensory transmission. As such, it is possible that this dietary constituent could be a complementary alternative medicine (CAM candidate, specifically a therapeutic agent. The focus of this review is on the mechanisms underlying the modulatory effects of resveratrol on nociceptive neuronal activity associated with pain relief. In addition, we discuss the contribution of resveratrol to the relief of nociceptive and/or pathological pain and its potential role as a functional food and a CAM.

  18. [Studies on the chemical constituents of Rumex crispus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ji-ping; Zhang, Zhen-liang

    2009-12-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Rumex crispus. Compounds were isolated and purified repeatedly by silica gel, Sephadex gel and ODS C18 column chromatographies, and structure identifications of compounds were carried out by physical, chemical methods and spectral data. Fifteen compounds were obtained from the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions of R. crispus, and were identified as beta-sitosterol(1), hexadecanoic acid(2), hexadecanoic-2,3-dihydroxy propyleste(3), chrysophanol(4), physcion(5), emodin(6), chrysophanol-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(7), physcion-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(8), emodin-8O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(9), gallic acid(10), (+)-catechin(11), kaempferol(12), quercetin(13), kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside(14), quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside(15). Compounds 3,8-12,14 and 15 are obtained from R. crispus for the first time.

  19. Hospital survival in a competitive environment: the competitive constituency model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehreth, J

    1993-01-01

    Organizational theory is extended to develop a method for administrators to assess hospital effectiveness in a competitive environment. First, the literature pertaining to organizational effectiveness and survival is synthesized to show the lack of consideration for the effects of competition. Second, the article integrates the effects of competition on organizational effectiveness through a competitive constituency model. A step-by-step procedure is proposed to apply the theory in an organizational setting. The model explicitly addresses differences in power relations between hospitals, their competition, and their stakeholders. The relative nature of effectiveness is explored by comparing the hospital to its competition using criteria developed through specific goals of stakeholders. The distinction between managerial and organizational effectiveness constructs is clarified. Finally, the practical application of this model is demonstrated by assessing the effectiveness of a hospital in the competitive environment of Seattle, Washington, where two hospitals have recently closed.

  20. Chemical constituents from Cornus officinalis and their biological activity 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Ying Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the chemical constituents from Cornus officinalis Sieb., Et Zucc, and their peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs agonist activity. Materials and Methods: The leaves of C. officinalis were extracted three times with 90% EtOH at room temperature. The ethanol extracts were combined and concentrated under reduced pressure to yield residue, which was isolated and purified by silica gel and reverse-phase C 18 column chromatography. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and their physiochemical characteristics. Cell-based luciferase reporter gene assays were used to evaluate PPARα/γ agonistic activities. Results: Five compounds were isolated and elucidated as 10-hydroxyhastatoside (1, β-dihydrocornin (2, isoquercitrin (3, loganin (4 and oleanolic acid (5. Conclusion: Compounds 1 and 2 were obtained from C. officinalis for the first time. Compound 3 exhibited moderate agonistic activities for PPARα, with EC 50 values of 29.5 μM.

  1. Decaying Dark Atom Constituents and Cosmic Positron Excess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belotsky, K.; Khlopov, M.; Kouvaris, C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a scenario where dark matter is in the form of dark atoms that can accommodate the experimentally observed excess of positrons in PAMELA and AMS-02 while being compatible with the constraints imposed on the gamma-ray ux from Fermi/LAT. This scenario assumes that the dominant component...... of dark matter is in the form of a bound state between a helium nucleus and a -2 particle and a small component is in the form of a WIMP-like dark atom compatible with direct searches in underground detectors. One of the constituents of this WIMP-like state is a +2 metastable particle with a mass of 1 Te...

  2. Analysis of Food Contaminants, Residues, and Chemical Constituents of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Baraem; Reuhs, Bradley L.; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The food chain that starts with farmers and ends with consumers can be complex, involving multiple stages of production and distribution (planting, harvesting, breeding, transporting, storing, importing, processing, packaging, distributing to retail markets, and shelf storing) (Fig. 18.1). Various practices can be employed at each stage in the food chain, which may include pesticide treatment, agricultural bioengineering, veterinary drug administration, environmental and storage conditions, processing applications, economic gain practices, use of food additives, choice of packaging material, etc. Each of these practices can play a major role in food quality and safety, due to the possibility of contamination with or introduction (intentionally and nonintentionally) of hazardous substances or constituents. Legislation and regulation to ensure food quality and safety are in place and continue to develop to protect the stakeholders, namely farmers, consumers, and industry. [Refer to reference (1) for information on regulations of food contaminants and residues.

  3. Antifungal action and antiaflatoxigenic properties of some essential oil constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, A L

    1994-08-01

    The effect of 20 essential oil constituents on Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production was tested at the level of 1000 ppm. Some of the tested oils exhibited inhibitory effects on fungal growth and toxin formation. Five oils, namely geraniol, nerol and citronellol (aliphatic oils), cinnamaldehyde (aromatic aldehyde) and thymol (phenolic ketone), completely suppressed growth and aflatoxin synthesis. Trials for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of these oils revealed that geraniol, nerol and citronellol were effective at 500 ppm, while thymol and cinnamaldehyde were highly effective at doses as low as 250 and 200 ppm, respectively. It was observed that citral, citronellol and eugenol prevented fungal growth and toxin formation for up to 8 d. However, after 15 d of incubation, toxin production was greater than the controls.

  4. Tyrosinase Inhibitory Chemical Constituents from Cleyera japonica Thunberg Branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Eun Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided investigation of the branches of Cleyera japonica led to the isolation of four phenolic constituents: 3,3’-di-O-methylellagic acid (1, 3,3’-di-O-methylellagic acid 4’-O-β-D-xylofuranoside (2, 3,5,7-trihydroxychromone 3-O-α-L-arabinofuranoside (3 and aviculin (4. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral studies, as well as by comparison with literature data. Tyrosinase inhibition activities were carried out for the isolated compounds using arbutin as a positive control. Among them, compound 2 was identified as a potent tyrosinase inhibitor. It inhibited mushroom tyrosinase with an IC50 value of 0.078 mM, which is about three times more active than arbutin (IC50 =0.25 mM. All of the compounds 1-4 were isolated for the first time from this plant.

  5. Jupiter's Mid-Infrared Aurora: Solar Connection and Minor Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, Theodore; Livengood, T.A.; Fast, K.E.; Hewagama, T.; Schmilling, F.; Sonnabend, G.; Delgado, J.

    2009-01-01

    High spectral resolution in the 12 pin region of the polar regions of Jupiter reveal unique information on auroral phenomena and upper stratospheric composition. Polar aurorae in Jupiter's atmosphere radiate; throughout the electromagnetic spectrum from X-ray through mid-infrared (mid-IR, 5 - 20 micron wavelength). Voyager IRIS data and ground-based. spectroscopic measurements of Jupiter's northern mid-IR aurora acquired since 1982, reveal a correlation between auroral brightness and solar activity that has not been observed in Jovian aurora at other wavelengths. Over nearly three solar cycles, Jupiter auroral ethane, emission brightness and solar 10.7-cm radar flux and sunspot number are positively correlated with high confidence. Ethane line emission intensity varies over tenfold between low and high scalar activity periods. Detailed measurements have been made using the GSFC HIPWAC spectrometer at the NASA IRTF since the last solar maximum, following the mid-IR emission through the declining phase toward solar minimum. An even more convincing correlation with solar activity is evident in these data. The spectra measured contain features that cannot be attributed to ethane and are most likely spectra of minor constituents whose molecular bands overlap the v9 band of ethane. Possible candidates are allene, propane, and other higher order hydrocarbons. These features appear to be enhanced in the active polar regions. Laboratory measurements at comparable spectral resolution of spectra of candidate molecules will be used to identify the constituents. Current analyses of these results will be described, including planned measurements on polar ethane line emission scheduled through the rise of the next solar maximum beginning in 2009, with a steep gradient to a maximum in 2012. This work is relevant to the Juno mission and to the development of the NASA/ESA Europa Jupiter System Mission.

  6. A new biocompatible nanocomposite as a promising constituent of sunscreens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Rehab M., E-mail: rehabamin@niles.edu.eg [Department of Laser Applications in Photochemistry, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University (Egypt); Elfeky, Souad A. [Department of Laser Applications in Photochemistry, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University (Egypt); University of Bath, Department of Chemistry, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Verwanger, Thomas; Krammer, Barbara [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)

    2016-06-01

    Skin naturally uses antioxidants to protect itself from the damaging effects of sunlight. If this is not sufficient, other measures have to be taken. Like this, hydroxyapatite has the potential to be applied as an active constituent of sunscreens since calcium phosphate absorbs in the ultraviolet region (UV). The objective of the present work was to synthesize a hydroxyapatite–ascorbic acid nanocomposite (HAp/AA-NC) as a new biocompatible constituent of sunscreens and to test its efficiency with skin cell models. The synthesized HAp/AA-NC was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, absorption spectrophotometry and X-ray diffraction analysis. The protective effect of the construct was tested with respect to viability and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of primary human dermal fibroblasts (SKIN) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). Both cell lines were irradiated with UV light, λ{sub max} = 254 nm with a fluence of 25 mJ cm{sup −2} to mimic the effect of UV radiation of sunlight on the skin. Results showed that HAp/AA-NC had a stimulating effect on the cell viability of both, HaCaT and SKIN cells, relative to the irradiated control. Intracellular ROS significantly decreased in UV irradiated cells when treated with HAp/AA-NC. We conclude that the synthesized HAp/AA-NC have been validated in vitro as a skin protector against the harmful effect of UV-induced ROS. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite–ascorbic acid nanocomposites were synthesized and characterized. • The prepared composites had a stimulating effect on the skin cell viability. • Reactive oxygen species decreased in UV-irradiated nanocomposite treated cells. • Hydroxyapatite–ascorbic acid nanocomposites could be used in sunscreens.

  7. Euclidean bridge to the relativistic constituent quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, T. J.; Alberg, Mary; Miller, Gerald A.

    2017-03-01

    Background: Knowledge of nucleon structure is today ever more of a precision science, with heightened theoretical and experimental activity expected in coming years. At the same time, a persistent gap lingers between theoretical approaches grounded in Euclidean methods (e.g., lattice QCD, Dyson-Schwinger equations [DSEs]) as opposed to traditional Minkowski field theories (such as light-front constituent quark models). Purpose: Seeking to bridge these complementary world views, we explore the potential of a Euclidean constituent quark model (ECQM). This formalism enables us to study the gluonic dressing of the quark-level axial-vector vertex, which we undertake as a test of the framework. Method: To access its indispensable elements with a minimum of inessential detail, we develop our ECQM using the simplified quark + scalar diquark picture of the nucleon. We construct a hyperspherical formalism involving polynomial expansions of diquark propagators to marry our ECQM with the results of Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) analyses, and constrain model parameters by fitting electromagnetic form factor data. Results: From this formalism, we define and compute a new quantity—the Euclidean density function (EDF)—an object that characterizes the nucleon's various charge distributions as functions of the quark's Euclidean momentum. Applying this technology and incorporating information from BSE analyses, we find the quenched dressing effect on the proton's axial-singlet charge to be small in magnitude and consistent with zero, while use of recent determinations of unquenched BSEs results in a large suppression. Conclusions: The quark + scalar diquark ECQM is a step toward a realistic quark model in Euclidean space, and needs additional refinements. The substantial effect we obtain for the impact on the axial-singlet charge of the unquenched dressed vertex compared to the quenched demands further investigation.

  8. The Enactment of Constituent Power in the Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asem Khalil

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Most modern states have adopted written and rigid constitutions. The existence of a constitution presupposes a constituent power, distinguished from other constituted powers, created by the constitution itself, and a constituent power presupposes the ability of a society to develop its capacity to act as a collective, in order to gain (or regain an active role in the organization of the lives of individuals and their social relationships with one another. For Pan-Arabism defenders, the (Arab nation exists as a cohesive group with its own unique characteristics, deriving from a common language, history and traditions. The ethnic concept of nation initially helped to justify an Arab revolution against other Muslims, but it was unable to distinguish individual Arab peoples or justify territorial Arab states. It was unavoidable then to switch to narrower concept of nation that covers citizens within defined state borders and living under the same laws. Despite the reference to the principle of popular sovereignty in most Arab Constitutions and the increasing attachment to territorially-defined states, there exists wide popular discontent with Arab regimes that continue to legitimize their authority based on Arab or Islamic nationalist discourses. Constitutions may fill the gap of legitimacy crisis in contemporary Arab States. They are a necessary tool for the nation to express its will but also for the individuals and communities within the state to protect themselves from the nation itself and from its expression, the state. Accordingly, there shall be red lines where the people, or their representatives, shall not transgress. Those red lines may be enumerated in a text, with particular legal inviolability that will be difficult (almost impossible to amend without joining a general consensus, that is not the equivalent to unanimity (difficult to obtain nor majority (easy to realize.

  9. Frying temperatures and minor constituents of oils and fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boskou, Dimitrios

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Two important classes of minor constituents of oils and fats are tocopherols and sterols. Both these classes are biologically active and they also affect the stability and performance of an oil at elevated temperatures. Tocopherols are phenolic antioxidants that react with free radicals and their concentration is reduced signifantly when the oil is heated. α-TocopheroI is lost faster during deep-fat frying than the beta, gamma and delta homologues. In the presence of stronger antioxidants, natural or synthetic, losses of α-tocopherol can be eliminated. Unchanged phytosterols naturally present in vegetable oils are believed to be beneficial for the health. Depending on the chemical structure, phytosterols may act as prooxidants or antioxidants. Sterols with an ethylidene group in the side chain have been found effective in retarding polymerisation at temperatures similar to those of deep-fat frying. Under unfavourable conditions (high temperature, presence of air oxidation products are formed from sterols and a marked increase in the oxidation rate of the fat is observed. Oxidation products of the main phytosterols, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, are: hydrocarbons (3,5-diene and 3,5,22-triene, mono-, di- and triunsaturated ketosteroids (4-en-3-one, 3,5-dien-7-one, 3,5,22-trien-7-one, 5,6-epoxy derivatives, 3,7-diols and pregnane derivatives. Other minor constituents which may affect the rate of degradation of unsaturated triacylglycerols at high temperatures are squalene, pigments and phospholipids. Squalene and phospholipids have both been reported to retard the degradation of unsaturated fatty acids under simulated frying conditions. High chlorophyll levels were found to increase the rate of tocopherol decomposition and formation of polymers in rape seed oil heated at 180°C.

  10. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Pohl, P.I.; Brinker, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Separating light gases using membranes is a technology area for which there exists opportunities for significant energy savings. Examples of industrial needs for gas separation include hydrogen recovery, natural gas purification, and dehydration. A membrane capable of separating H{sub 2} from other gases at high temperatures could recover hydrogen from refinery waste streams, and facilitate catalytic dehydrogenation and the water gas shift (CO + H{sub 2}O {yields} H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}) reaction. Natural gas purification requires separating CH{sub 4} from mixtures with CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, H{sub 2}O, and higher alkanes. A dehydrating membrane would remove water vapor from gas streams in which water is a byproduct or a contaminant, such as refrigeration systems. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, natural gas constituents, and water vapor at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. It is in applications such as these that the authors expect inorganic molecular sieve membranes to compete most effectively with current gas separation technologies. Cryogenic separations are very energy intensive. Polymer membranes do not have the thermal stability appropriate for high temperature hydrogen recovery, and tend to swell in the presence of hydrocarbon natural gas constituents. The authors goal is to develop a family of microporous oxide films that offer permeability and selectivity exceeding those of polymer membranes, allowing gas membranes to compete with cryogenic and adsorption technologies for large-scale gas separation applications.

  11. Analysis of amino acid residues involved in cold activity of monomeric isocitrate dehydrogenase from psychrophilic bacteria, Colwellia maris and Colwellia psychrerythraea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Wataru; Kobayashi, Miyuki; Takada, Yasuhiro

    2013-11-01

    Monomeric isocitrate dehydrogenases from psychrophilic bacteria, Colwellia maris and Colwellia psychrerythraea (CmIDH-II and CpIDH-M, respectively) are cold-adapted enzymes and show a high degree of amino acid sequential identity to each other (77%). However, maximum activity of CpIDH-M at optimum temperature is much less than that of CmIDH-II. In the C-terminal region 3 of these enzymes, which was suggested from previous study to be responsible for their distinct catalytic ability, several sequential differences of amino acid residue are present. Among them, ten amino acid residues were exchanged between them by site-directed mutagenesis and several properties of the mutated enzymes were examined in this study. The mutated enzymes of CmIDH-II substituted its Gln671, Leu724 and Phe735 residues with the corresponding residues of CpIDH-M (termed Q671K, L724Q and F735L, respectively) showed lower specific activity and thermostability for activity than the wild-type enzyme. Furthermore, the decreased specific activity was also observed in L693F. In contrast, the corresponding mutants of CpIDH-M, F693L, Q724L and L735F, showed the increased specific activity and thermostability for activity. The catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) values of these mutated CmIDH-II and CpIDH-M were lower and higher than those of their wild-type IDHs, respectively. These results suggest that the Gln671, Leu693, Leu724 and Phe735 residues of CmIDH-II are important for exerting its high catalytic ability.

  12. Effect of the disulfide bond on the monomeric structure of human amylin studied by combined Hamiltonian and temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghaei, Rozita; Mousseau, Normand; Wei, Guanghong

    2010-05-27

    The human Islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP or amylin) is a 37-residue peptide hormone that is normally cosecreted with insulin by the pancreatic beta-cells. In patients with type 2 diabetes, hIAPP deposits as amyloid fibrils in the extracellular spaces of the pancreatic islets. Recent experimental studies show that the intramolecular disulfide bond between Cys2 and Cys7 plays a central role in the process of fibril formation. However, the effect of the disulfide bond on the intrinsic structural properties of monomeric hIAPP is yet to be determined. In this study, we characterize the atomic structure and the thermodynamics of full-length hIAPP in the presence and absence of a disulfide bond using extensive combined Hamiltonian and temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations (HT-REMD) with a coarse grained protein force field. Our simulations show that HT-REMD is more efficient in sampling than temperature REMD. On the basis of a total simulation time of 28 mus, we find that, although native hIAPP (in the presence of a disulfide bond) essentially adopts a disordered conformation in solution, consistent with the signal measured by ultraviolet-circular dichroism (UV-CD) spectroscopy, it also transiently samples alpha-helical structure for residues 5-16. In comparison with the N-terminal region, the C-terminal region is highly disordered and populates a much lesser content of isolated beta-strand conformation for residues 22-26 and 30-35. Moreover, the absence of the disulfide bond greatly decreases the extent of helix formed throughout residues 5-9 in favor of random coil and beta-sheet structure. Implications of the stabilization of N-terminal helical structure by disulfide bond on the initialization of hIAPP amyloid formation are discussed.

  13. Monomeric Immunoglobulin A from Plasma Inhibits Human Th17 Responses In Vitro Independent of FcαRI and DC-SIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Chaitrali; Das, Mrinmoy; Patil, Veerupaxagouda; Stephen-Victor, Emmanuel; Sharma, Meenu; Wymann, Sandra; Jordi, Monika; Vonarburg, Cédric; Kaveri, Srini V.; Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2017-01-01

    Circulating immunoglobulins including immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM play a critical role in the immune homeostasis by modulating functions of immune cells. These functions are mediated in part by natural antibodies. However, despite being second most abundant antibody in the circulation, the immunoregulatory function of IgA is relatively unexplored. As Th17 cells are the key mediators of a variety of autoimmune, inflammatory, and allergic diseases, we investigated the ability of monomeric IgA (mIgA) isolated from pooled plasma of healthy donors to modulate human Th17 cells. We show that mIgA inhibits differentiation and amplification of human Th17 cells and the production of their effector cytokine IL-17A. mIgA also suppresses IFN-γ responses under these experimental conditions. Suppressive effect of mIgA on Th17 responses is associated with reciprocal expansion of FoxP3-positive regulatory T cells. The effect of mIgA on Th17 cells is dependent on F(ab′)2 fragments and independent of FcαRI (CD89) and DC-SIGN. Mechanistically, the modulatory effect of mIgA on Th17 cells implicates suppression of phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. Furthermore, mIgA binds to CD4+ T cells and recognizes in a dose-dependent manner the receptors for cytokines (IL-6Rα and IL-1RI) that mediate Th17 responses. Our findings thus reveal novel anti-inflammatory functions of IgA and suggest potential therapeutic utility of mIgA in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases that implicate Th17 cells. PMID:28352269

  14. Monomeric TonB and the Ton box are required for the Formation of a High-Affinity Transporter-TonB Complex†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Daniel M.; Lukasik, Stephen M.; Sikora, Arthur; Mokdad, Audrey; Cafiso, David S.

    2013-01-01

    The energy-dependent uptake of trace nutrients by Gram-negative bacteria involves the coupling of an outer membrane transport protein to the transperiplasmic protein TonB. In the present study, a soluble construct of Escherichia coli TonB (residues 33–239) was used to determine the affinity of TonB to the outer membrane transporters BtuB, FecA and FhuA. Using fluorescence anisotropy, TonB(33–239) was found to bind with high-affinity (tens of nM) to both BtuB and FhuA; however, no high-affinity binding was observed to FecA. In BtuB, the high affinity binding of TonB(33–239) was eliminated by mutations in the Ton box, which yield transport-defective protein, or by the addition of a Colicin E3 fragment, which stabilizes the Ton box in a folded state. These results indicate that transport requires a high-affinity transporter-TonB interaction that is mediated by the Ton box. Characterization of TonB(33–239) using double electron-electron resonance (DEER) demonstrates that a significant population of TonB(33–239) exists as a dimer; moreover, interspin distances are in approximate agreement with interlocked dimers observed previously by crystallography for shorter TonB fragments. When bound to the outer membrane transporter, DEER shows that the TonB(33–239) dimer is converted to a monomeric form, suggesting that a dimer-monomer conversion takes place at the outer membrane during the TonB-dependent transport cycle. PMID:23517233

  15. Monomeric TonB and the Ton box are required for the formation of a high-affinity transporter-TonB complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Daniel M; Lukasik, Stephen M; Sikora, Arthur; Mokdad, Audrey; Cafiso, David S

    2013-04-16

    The energy-dependent uptake of trace nutrients by Gram-negative bacteria involves the coupling of an outer membrane transport protein to the transperiplasmic protein TonB. In this study, a soluble construct of Escherichia coli TonB (residues 33-239) was used to determine the affinity of TonB for outer membrane transporters BtuB, FecA, and FhuA. Using fluorescence anisotropy, TonB(33-239) was found to bind with high affinity (tens of nanomolar) to both BtuB and FhuA; however, no high-affinity binding to FecA was observed. In BtuB, the high-affinity binding of TonB(33-239) was eliminated by mutations in the Ton box, which yield transport-defective protein, or by the addition of a Colicin E3 fragment, which stabilizes the Ton box in a folded state. These results indicate that transport requires a high-affinity transporter-TonB interaction that is mediated by the Ton box. Characterization of TonB(33-239) using double electron-electron resonance (DEER) demonstrates that a significant population of TonB(33-239) exists as a dimer; moreover, interspin distances are in approximate agreement with interlocked dimers observed previously by crystallography for shorter TonB fragments. When the TonB(33-239) dimer is bound to the outer membrane transporter, DEER shows that the TonB(33-239) dimer is converted to a monomeric form, suggesting that a dimer-monomer conversion takes place at the outer membrane during the TonB-dependent transport cycle.

  16. Resolution of two native monomeric 90kDa nitrate reductase active proteins from Shewanella gelidimarina and the sequence of two napA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Philippa J L; McKinzie, Audra A; Codd, Rachel

    2010-07-16

    The reduction of nitrate to nitrite in the bacterial periplasm occurs in the 90kDa NapA subunit of the periplasmic nitrate reductase (NAP) system. Most Shewanella genomes contain two nap operons: napEDABC and napDAGHB, which is an unusual feature of this genus. Two native, monomeric, 90kDa nitrate reductase active proteins were resolved by hydrophobic interaction chromatography from aerobic cultures of Shewanella gelidimarina replete with reduced nitrogen compounds. The 90kDa protein obtained in higher yield was characterized as NapA by electronic absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies and was identified by LC/MS/MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS as NapA from the napEDABC-type operon. The other 90kDa protein, which was unstable and produced in low yields, was posited as NapA from the napDAGHB-type operon. Two napA genes have been sequenced from the napEDABC-type and napDAGHB-type operons of S. gelidimarina. Native NAP from S. putrefaciens was resolved as one NapA monomer and one NapAB heterodimer. Two amino acid substitutions in NapA correlated with the isolation of NAP as a NapA monomer or a NapAB heterodimer. The resolution of native, redox-active NapA isoforms in Shewanella provides new insight into the respiratory versatility of this genus, which has implications in bioremediation and the assembly of microbial fuel cells.

  17. X-ray Crystal Structures of Monomeric and Dimeric Peptide Inhibitors in Complex with the Human Neonatal Fc Receptor, FcRn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezo, Adam R.; Sridhar, Vandana; Badger, John; Sakorafas, Paul; Nienaber, Vicki (Zenobia); (Biogen)

    2010-10-28

    The neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn, is responsible for the long half-life of IgG molecules in vivo and is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. A family of peptides comprising the consensus motif GHFGGXY, where X is preferably a hydrophobic amino acid, was shown previously to inhibit the human IgG:human FcRn protein-protein interaction (Mezo, A. R., McDonnell, K. A., Tan Hehir, C. A., Low, S. C., Palombella, V. J., Stattel, J. M., Kamphaus, G. D., Fraley, C., Zhang, Y., Dumont, J. A., and Bitonti, A. J. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 105, 2337-2342). Herein, the x-ray crystal structure of a representative monomeric peptide in complex with human FcRn was solved to 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. The structure shows that the peptide binds to human FcRn at the same general binding site as does the Fc domain of IgG. The data correlate well with structure-activity relationship data relating to how the peptide family binds to human FcRn. In addition, the x-ray crystal structure of a representative dimeric peptide in complex with human FcRn shows how the bivalent ligand can bridge two FcRn molecules, which may be relevant to the mechanism by which the dimeric peptides inhibit FcRn and increase IgG catabolism in vivo. Modeling of the peptide:FcRn structure as compared with available structural data on Fc and FcRn suggest that the His-6 and Phe-7 (peptide) partially mimic the interaction of His-310 and Ile-253 (Fc) in binding to FcRn, but using a different backbone topology.

  18. The photophysics of monomeric bacteriochlorophylls c and d and their derivatives: properties of the triplet state and singlet oxygen photogeneration and quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnovsky, A. A. Jr; Cheng, P.; Blankenship, R. E.; Moore, T. A.; Gust, D.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of pigment triplet-triplet absorption, pigment phosphorescence and photosensitized singlet oxygen luminescence were carried out on solutions containing monomeric bacteriochlorophylls (Bchl) c and d, isolated from green photosynthetic bacteria, and their magnesium-free and farnesyl-free analogs. The energies of the pigment triplet states fell in the range 1.29-1.34 eV. The triplet lifetimes in aerobic solutions were 200-250 ns; they increased to 280 +/- 70 microseconds after nitrogen purging in liquid solutions and to 0.7-2.1 ms in a solid matrix at ambient or liquid nitrogen temperatures. Rate constants for quenching of the pigment triplet state by oxygen were (2.0-2.5) x 10(9) M-1 s-1, which is close to 1/9 of the rate constant for diffusion-controlled reactions. This quenching was accompanied by singlet oxygen formation. The quantum yields for the triplet state formation and singlet oxygen production were 55-75% in air-saturated solutions. Singlet oxygen quenching by ground-state pigment molecules was observed. Quenching was the most efficient for magnesium-containing pigments, kq = (0.31-1.2) x 10(9) M-1 s-1. It is caused mainly by a physical process of singlet oxygen (1O2) deactivation. Thus, Bchl c and d and their derivatives, as well as chlorophyll and Bchl a, combine a high efficiency of singlet oxygen production with the ability to protect photochemical and photobiological systems against damage by singlet oxygen.

  19. EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENT IN CONVENTIONAL AND NON CONVENTIONAL SPECIES OF CURCUMA

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena Jyoti; Sahu Rajeshwari

    2012-01-01

    Plants and plant based medicaments are the basis of many of the modern pharmaceutical we use today for our various aliment. Plant show medicinal properties as it contain phytochemical constituent. Phytochemical constituent are non nutritive plant chemical that have disease preventive properties .This paper reports an investigation of phytochemical constituent present in the Methanolic crude rhizome extract of conventional and non conventional Curcuma species i.e Curcuma caecia , Curcuma amad...

  20. Phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of three Amaranthus plant species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Z C Maiyo; R M Ngure; J C Matasyoh; R Chepkorir

    2010-01-01

      This study investigated the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and methanol leave extracts of Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus spinosus...

  1. Microstructures and constituents of super-high strength aluminum alloy ingots made through LFEC process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Shuang

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Ingots of a new super-high strength Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Zr alloy were produced respectively by low frequency electromagnetic casting (LFEC and by conventional direct chill (DC casting process. Microstructure and constituents of the ingots were studied. The results indicated that the LFEC process significantly refines microstructure and constituents of the alloy, and to some extent, decreases the area (or volume fraction of constituents and eutectic structure precipitated at grain boundaries. But, no difference in the type of constituents was observed between LFEC and DC ingots. The results also showed LFEC process can improve the as-cast mechanical properties.

  2. Invited review: Technical solutions for analysis of milk constituents and abnormal milk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brandt, M; Haeussermann, A; Hartung, E

    2010-01-01

    Information about constituents of milk and visual alterations can be used for management support in improving mastitis detection, monitoring fertility and reproduction, and adapting individual diets...

  3. Chemical Constituents in Essential Oils from Elsholtzia ciliata and Their Antimicrobial Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Guang-hui

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the chemical constituents in the essential oils from the leaves,flowers,and seeds of Elsholtzia ciliata and their antimicrobial activities.Methods The chemical constituents in essential oils were extracted by the hydro-distillation method and analyzed by GC-MS.The chemical constituents in essential oils were identified on the basis of comparison on their retention indices and MS spectrum with published data.Moreover,the antimicrobial activities of the chemical constituents in the oils against the growth of six bacteria strains and one pathogenic yeast strain were evaluated by using minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration methods.Results A total of 58 compounds were identified,while compounds 31,35,and 36 were identified in the essential oils from the leaves,flowers,and seeds,respectively.Fifteen compounds were identified as shared constituents in the leaves,flowers,and seeds.The chemical constituents in the essential oils showed the inhibitory activities against the six bacteria strains and the yeast strain.Conclusion The major constituents are different in the essential oils of the leaves,flowers,and seeds.The major chemical constituents in the essential oils are monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids.And the chemical constituents in the essential oils obtained from the leaves show higher inhibitory activities especially against Bacillus subtillis CMCC63501 and Escherichia coli ATCC25922.

  4. Abundance, source, and mode of occurrence of the inorganic constituents in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelman, R. [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The inorganic constituents, minerals and organically bound inorganic elements are commonly minor components of coal. Nevertheless, they can exert a significant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal. Some of the more common ways in which the inorganic constituents influence coal utilization are listed. Inorganic constituents affect virtually every aspect of coal utilization, from prospecting and mining to the disposal of cleaning and combustion wastes. In this chapter the more important inorganic constituents in coal are identified and their sources, distribution, modes of occurrence, and significance discussed. 60 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Selection of yeast strains for bioethanol production from UK seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostas, Emily T; White, Daniel A; Du, Chenyu; Cook, David J

    Macroalgae (seaweeds) are a promising feedstock for the production of third generation bioethanol, since they have high carbohydrate contents, contain little or no lignin and are available in abundance. However, seaweeds typically contain a more diverse array of monomeric sugars than are commonly present in feedstocks derived from lignocellulosic material which are currently used for bioethanol production. Hence, identification of a suitable fermentative microorganism that can utilise the principal sugars released from the hydrolysis of macroalgae remains a major objective. The present study used a phenotypic microarray technique to screen 24 different yeast strains for their ability to metabolise individual monosaccharides commonly found in seaweeds, as well as hydrolysates following an acid pre-treatment of five native UK seaweed species (Laminaria digitata, Fucus serratus, Chondrus crispus, Palmaria palmata and Ulva lactuca). Five strains of yeast (three Saccharomyces spp, one Pichia sp and one Candida sp) were selected and subsequently evaluated for bioethanol production during fermentation of the hydrolysates. Four out of the five selected strains converted these monomeric sugars into bioethanol, with the highest ethanol yield (13 g L(-1)) resulting from a fermentation using C. crispus hydrolysate with Saccharomyces cerevisiae YPS128. This study demonstrated the novel application of a phenotypic microarray technique to screen for yeast capable of metabolising sugars present in seaweed hydrolysates; however, metabolic activity did not always imply fermentative production of ethanol.

  6. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  7. [Studies on the chemical constituents from Inula cappa (II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qi-lei; Yang, Jun-shan; Liu, Jian-xun

    2007-01-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the root of Inula cappa. The compounds were isolated and purified by recrystallization and chromatography with silica gel column and Sephadex LH-20 column. Their structures were identified by physico-chemical properties and spectral analysis. Seven compounds were isolated as scopolin (I), octacosanoic acid (II), tritriacontane (III), (2S,3S,4R,8E)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxydocosanosylamino]-octadecane-1,3,4-triol(IV),(2S,3S,4R,8E)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxytricosanosylamino]-octadecane-1,3,4-triol(V), (2S,3S,4R,8E)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxytetracosanosylamino]-octadecane-1,3,4-triol(VI), (2S,3S,4R,8E)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxypentacosanosylamino]-octadecane-1,3,4-triol(VIII), (2S,3S,4R,8E)-2-[(2'R)-2'-hydroxyhexacosanosylamino]-octadecane-1,3,4-triol(VIII). All compounds were isolated from Inula cappa for the first time.

  8. Identification of possible cigarette smoke constituents responsible for muscle catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Kaisari, Sharon; Aizenbud, Dror; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2012-08-01

    The age-related loss of muscle mass and strength also known as sarcopenia is significantly influenced by life style factors such as physical inactivity and impaired nutrition. Cigarette smoking is another life style habit that has been shown to be associated with sarcopenia and to affect skeletal muscle. Even today, smoking is still prevalent worldwide and is probably the most significant source of toxic chemicals exposure to humans. Cigarette smoke (CS) is a complex aerosol consisting of thousands of various constituents including reactive oxygen and nitrogen free radicals, toxic aldehydes and more. Previous epidemiological studies have identified tobacco smoking as a risk factor for sarcopenia. Clinical, in vivo and in vitro studies have revealed CS-induced skeletal muscle damage due to impaired muscle metabolism, increased inflammation and oxidative stress, over-expression of atrophy related genes and activation of various intracellular signaling pathways. This review aims to discuss and identify the components of CS that may promote catabolism of skeletal muscle.

  9. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J. (ed.); Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States)); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexingt

    1992-11-01

    The inorganic constituents or ash contained in pulverized coal significantly increase the environmental and economic costs of coal utilization. For example, ash particles produced during combustion may deposit on heat transfer surfaces, decreasing heat transfer rates and increasing maintenance costs. The minimization of particulate emissions often requires the installation of cleanup devices such as electrostatic precipitators, also adding to the expense of coal utilization. Despite these costly problems, a comprehensive assessment of the ash formation and had never been attempted. At the start of this program, it was hypothesized that ash deposition and ash particle emissions both depended upon the size and chemical composition of individual ash particles. Questions such as: What determines the size of individual ash particles What determines their composition Whether or not particles deposit How combustion conditions, including reactor size, affect these processes remained to be answered. In this 6-year multidisciplinary study, these issues were addressed in detail. The ambitious overall goal was the development of a comprehensive model to predict the size and chemical composition distributions of ash produced during pulverized coal combustion. Results are described.

  10. How likely are constituent quanta to initiate inflation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasha Berezhiani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose an intuitive framework for studying the problem of initial conditions in slow-roll inflation. In particular, we consider a universe at high, but sub-Planckian energy density and analyze the circumstances under which it is plausible for it to become dominated by inflated patches at late times, without appealing to the idea of self-reproduction. Our approach is based on defining a prior probability distribution for the constituent quanta of the pre-inflationary universe. To test the idea that inflation can begin under very generic circumstances, we make specific – yet quite general and well grounded – assumptions on the prior distribution. As a result, we are led to the conclusion that the probability for a given region to ignite inflation at sub-Planckian densities is extremely small. Furthermore, if one chooses to use the enormous volume factor that inflation yields as an appropriate measure, we find that the regions of the universe which started inflating at densities below the self-reproductive threshold nevertheless occupy a negligible physical volume in the present universe as compared to those domains that have never inflated.

  11. Constituent quark and baryon spectra from a modified Perturbative QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro; Cabo Montes de Oca, Alejandro; Madrazo, Marcos Rigol

    2000-01-01

    A recently proposed perturbative expansion for QCD incorporating gluon condensation is employed to evaluate the quark and gluon self-energy corrections in the simplest approximations. The results predict mass values of the order of 1/3 of the nucleon mass for the light quarks u,d and s and a monotonously growing variation with the current mass values. The mass spectrum of the ground states within the various groups of baryonic resonances and a class of vector meson ones is well predicted by the simple addition of the calculated constituent quark masses. In connection with the self-energy, it follows that the gluonic mass shell becomes tachyonic in the considered approximation. In order to obtain the above mentioned results was evaluated as a function of the condensate paramater up to order g^2 and then this parameter fixed to give the accepted numerical value of . The discussion leads us to conjecture that the procedure, after also introducing quark condensates in the same token as the gluonic ones, could a...

  12. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuardi A.W.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD, a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. The antipsychotic-like properties of CBD have been investigated in animal models using behavioral and neurochemical techniques which suggested that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results of two studies on healthy volunteers using perception of binocular depth inversion and ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms supported the proposal of the antipsychotic-like properties of CBD. In addition, open case reports of schizophrenic patients treated with CBD and a preliminary report of a controlled clinical trial comparing CBD with an atypical antipsychotic drug have confirmed that this cannabinoid can be a safe and well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. Future studies of CBD in other psychotic conditions such as bipolar disorder and comparative studies of its antipsychotic effects with those produced by clozapine in schizophrenic patients are clearly indicated.

  13. Lipophilic Constituents of Rumex vesicarius L. and Rumex dentatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. Abou Elfotoh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rumex dentatus L. and Rumex vesicarius L., of the family Polygonaceae, are edible herbs growing wild in Egypt. Their lipoid constituents were examined by both liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS and by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Their essential oil compositions consisted mainly of thujene, limonene, fenchon, estragole, and anethole but at largely different concentration. Fatty acid compositions were similar among the two species and consisting of palmitic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, with R. vesicarius containing much higher level of omega-3-fatty acids. Both of the crude lipid extracts of the two species showed strong antioxidant activity as a radical quenching agent against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH systems. Antioxidant activities were mostly associated with the polar lipid fractions. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC, both in the normal and reversed phase,as well as liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS in the positive and negative electrospray ionization (ESI, showed unique chemical profile for each species that can be useful for species identification and quality control of herbal drug formulations. R. vesicarius was characterized by abundances of flavonoids and R. dentatus was abundant in anthraquinones and chromones.

  14. Studies on the Chemical Constituents from Marine Bryozoan Cryptosula pallasiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Rong Tian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical constituents of marine bryozoan Cryptosula pallasiana inhabiting Huang Island of China. Three aromatic compounds, p-methylsulfonylmethyl-phenol (1, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4 and methylparaben (5, nine alkaloids, 7-bromoquinolin-4(1H-one (2, 7-bromo-2,4(1H,3H-quinazolinedione (3, benzamide (6, phenylacetamide (7, 4(3H-quinazolinone (8, thymine (9, uracil (10, hypoxanthine (11 and tryptophan (12, together with two glycerol derivatives, glycerol (13 and monoheneicosanoin (14, were isolated for the first time from this marine bryozoan. Among the isolates, compounds 1 and 2 were new natural products, and their spectral traits were reported for the first time. The structures of the two compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including HR-ESI-MS, EI-MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. The isolated compounds 1–3 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against HL-60 human myeloid leukemia cell line. The results showed that bromated alkaloid (3 appeared strong cytotoxicity against HL-60 cells with IC 50 value of 11.87 µg/mL, while compounds 1 and 2 were inactivity.

  15. Double parton correlations in Light-Front constituent quark models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldi Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Double parton distribution functions (dPDF represent a tool to explore the 3D proton structure. They can be measured in high energy proton-proton and proton nucleus collisions and encode information on how partons inside a proton are correlated among each other. dPFDs are studied here in the valence quark region, by means of a constituent quark model, where two particle correlations are present without any additional prescription. This framework allows to understand the dynamical origin of the correlations and to clarify which, among the features of the results, are model independent. Use will be made of a relativistic light-front scheme, able to overcome some drawbacks of the previous calculation. Transverse momentum correlations, due to the exact treatment of the boosts, are predicted and analyzed. The role of spin correlations is also shown. Due to the covariance of the approach, some symmetries of the dPDFs are seen unambigously. For the valence sector, also the study of the QCD evolution of the model results, which can be performed safely thanks to the property of good support, has been also completed.

  16. Bio-Functional Constituents from the Stems of Liriodendron tulipifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yi Chen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Four known compounds have been isolated from the stems of Liriodendron tulipifera, and the structures of these pure constituents were determined using spectroscopic analysis. Isolated compounds were screened for free radical scavenging ability, metal chelating power assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP. The anti-tyrosinase effects of L. tulipifera compounds were calculated the inhibition of hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to L-dopa according to an in vitro mushroom tyrosinase assay. The study also examined the bio-effects of the four compounds on the human melanoma A375.S2, and showed that liriodenine (1 and (--norglaucine (4 significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells in the cell viability assay. Wound healing results indicated that liriodenine (1, (--glaucine (3 and (--norglaucine (4 exerted anti-migration potential. Interestingly, (--glaucine (3, neither liriodenine (1 nor (--norglaucine (4 showed promising anti-migration potential without inducing significant cytotoxicity. Furthermore, a dramatically increased level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS was detected from (--glaucine (3. The cell cycle assessment demonstrated a moderate G2/M accumulation by (--glaucine (3. The above results revealed the anti-cancer effects of L. tulipifera compounds, especially on the anti-migration ability indicating the promising chemopreventive agents to human skin melanoma cells.

  17. Essential Oil Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Asplenium Ferns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Saoussen; Snène, Ali; El Mokni, Ridha; Faidi, Khaled; Falconieri, Danilo; Dhaouadi, Hatem; Piras, Alessandra; Mighri, Zine; Porcedda, Silvia

    2016-09-01

    Two fern species Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. and Asplenium trichomanes L. collected from the Kroumiria region (Northwest of Tunisia) were individually submitted to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger type apparatus. Volatile organic compounds were identified by GC-MS and GC-FID. Thus, 35 compounds were identified in A. adiantum-nigrum essential oil accounting for 77.5% of the whole constituents dominated by palmitic acid (34.5%); however, only 29 volatiles were identified in A. trichomanes showing a high amount of phytol, an odorous diterpene alcohol, representing 14.4% of the total oil contents. The total phenolic content and the antioxidant effects of crude extracts from both pteridophytes were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging assays, respectively. A. adiantum-nigrum ethyl acetate extract is shown to be lower in total phenolic contents (49.3 mg gallic acid equivalent/g) than similar extract from A. trichomanes (55.4 mg GAE/g).

  18. [Chemical constituents from the aerial part of Echinacea purpurea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiu-Ling; Wang, Lei; Feng, Feng

    2013-05-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the aerial part of Echinacea purpurea. The compounds were separated and purified by repeatedly silica gel, ODS, D101 macroporous resin, MCI, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and recrystallization. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physiochemical properties and spectral analysis. Sixteen compounds were isolated and identified as (2S)-1-O-octacosanoyl glycerol (1), (5R,6S)-6-hydroxy-6-((E)-3-hydroxybut-1-enyl)-1,1, 5-trimethylcyclohexanone (2), (3S, 6E, 10R)-3, 10, 11-trihydroxy-3, 7, 11-trimethyl-dodeca-1, 6-diene (3), negunfurol (4), schensianol A (5), ent-4 (15) -eudesmene-1beta, 6alpha-diol (6), (E) -5-hydroxy-N-isobutylpentadec-2-enamide (7), syringaresinol (8), quercetin (9), ethyl laurate (10), ethyl caffeate (11), ferulic acid (12), alpha-spinasterol (13), stigmasterol (14), beta-daucosterol (15), octacosanoic acid (16). Compound 1 - 5 are isolated from the Asteraceae for the first time, compound 6 ,7, 9, 10, 12 are isolated from genus of Echinacea for the first time, compound 15, 16 are isolated from this plant for the first time.

  19. Constituents of volatile organic compounds of evaporating essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hua-Hsien; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Lo, Cho-Ching; Chen, Ching-Yen; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2009-12-01

    Essential oils containing aromatic compounds can affect air quality when used indoors. Five typical and popular essential oils—rose, lemon, rosemary, tea tree and lavender—were investigated in terms of composition, thermal characteristics, volatile organic compound (VOC) constituents, and emission factors. The activation energy was 6.3-8.6 kcal mol -1, the reaction order was in the range of 0.6-0.8, and the frequency factor was 0.01-0.24 min -1. Toluene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, n-undecane, p-diethylbenzene and m-diethylbenzene were the predominant VOCs of evaporating gas of essential oils at 40 °C. In addition, n-undecane, p-diethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m-diethylbenzene, and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene revealed high emission factors during the thermogravimetric (TG) analysis procedures. The sequence of the emission factors of 52 VOCs (137-173 mg g -1) was rose ≈ rosemary > tea tree ≈ lemon ≈ lavender. The VOC group fraction of the emission factor of aromatics was 62-78%, paraffins were 21-37% and olefins were less than 1.5% during the TG process. Some unhealthy VOCs such as benzene and toluene were measured at low temperature; they reveal the potential effect on indoor air quality and human health.

  20. A Euclidean bridge to the relativistic constituent quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Timothy; Alberg, Mary; Miller, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    We explore the potential of a Euclidean constituent quark model (ECQM) to bridge the lingering gap between Euclidean and Minkowski field theories in studies of nucleon structure. Specifically, we develop our ECQM using a simplified quark-scalar diquark picture of the nucleon as a first calculation. Our treatment in Euclidean space necessitates a hyperspherical formalism involving polynomial expansions of diquark propagators in order to marry our ECQM with results from Bethe-Salpeter Equation (BSE) analyses. From this framework, we define and compute a new quantity - a Euclidean density function (EDF) - an object that characterizes the nucleon's various charge distributions as functions of the quark's Euclidean momentum. Applying this technology and incorporating information from BSE analyses, we find the quenched dressing effect on the proton's axial-singlet charge to be small in magnitude and consistent with zero, while use of recent determinations of unquenched BSEs results in a large suppression. The substantial effect we obtain for the impact on the axial-singlet charge of the unquenched dressed vertex compared to the quenched demands further investigation. Work supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-97ER-41014 and NSF Grant No. 1516105.