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Sample records for monoliths iii gas

  1. Monolithic natural gas storage delivery system based on sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornbostel, Marc; Krishnan, Gopala N.; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2016-09-27

    The invention provides methods for producing a strong, light, sorbent-based storage/dispenser system for gases and fuels. The system comprises a porous monolithic material with an adherent strong impervious skin that is capable of storing a gas under pressure in a safe and usable manner.

  2. Monolithic natural gas storage delivery system based on sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornbostel, Marc; Krishnan, Gopala N.; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2016-09-27

    The invention provides methods for producing a strong, light, sorbent-based storage/dispenser system for gases and fuels. The system comprises a porous monolithic material with an adherent strong impervious skin that is capable of storing a gas under pressure in a safe and usable manner.

  3. 3D-Printed MOF Monoliths for Gas Adsorption Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Harshul; Eastman, Stephen; Al-Naddaf, Qasim; Rownaghi, Ali Asghar; Rezaei, Fateme

    2017-09-27

    Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) have shown promising performance in separation, adsorption, reaction and storage of various industrial gases, however, their large-scale applications have been hampered by the lack of a proper strategy to formulate them into scalable gas-solid contactors. Herein, we report fabrication of MOF monoliths using 3D printing technique and evaluation of their adsorptive performance in CO2 removal from air. The 3D-printed MOF-74(Ni) and UTSA-16(Co) monoliths with MOF loadings as high as 80 and 85 wt %, respectively were developed and their physical and structural properties were characterized and compared with those of MOF powders. Our adsorption experiments showed that upon exposure to 5,000 ppm (0.5%) CO2 at 25 ºC, the MOF-74(Ni) and UTSA-16(Co) monoliths can adsorb CO2 with the uptake capacity of 1.35 and 1.31 mmol/g, respectively, which are 79 and 87% of the capacity of their MOF analogues under the same conditions. Furthermore, a stable performance was obtained for self-standing 3D-printed monolithic structures with relatively good adsorption kinetics. The preliminary findings reported in this investigation highlight the advantage of robocasting (3D printing) technique for shaping MOF materials into practical configurations that are suitable for various gas separation applications.

  4. III-nitride monolithic LED covering full RGB color gamut

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghoroury, Hussein S.; Chuang, Chih-Li; Kisin, Mikhail V.

    2016-03-01

    We present numerical simulation of III-nitride monolithic multi-color LED covering full red-green-blue (RGB) color gamut. The RGB LED structure was grown at Ostendo Technologies Inc. and has been used in Ostendo proprietary Quantum Photonic Imager (QPI) device. Active region of our RGB LED incorporates specially designed intermediate carrier blocking layers (ICBLs) controlling transport of each type of carriers and subsequent carrier injection redistribution among the optically active quantum wells (QWs) with different emission wavelengths. ICBLs are proved to be essential elements of multi-color LED active region design requiring optimization both in material composition and doping level. Strong interdependence between ICBL parameters and active QW characteristics presents additional challenge to multi-color LED design. Combination of several effects was crucial for adequate simulation of RGB LED color control features. Standard drift-diffusion transport model has been appended with rate equations for dynamic QW-confined carrier populations which appear severely off-balanced from corresponding mobile carrier subsystems. QW overshoot and Auger-assisted QW depopulation were also included into the carrier kinetic model thus enhancing the non-equilibrium character of QW confined populations and supporting the mobile carrier transport across the MQW active region. For device simulation we use COMSOL-based program suit developed at Ostendo Technologies Inc.

  5. Photoluminescent red, green and blue monoliths of new Eu(III), Tb(III) and Y(III) complexes embedded in silica matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Corneliu S.; Popa, Marcel; Sutiman, Daniel; Horlescu, Petronela

    2014-07-01

    Large transparent photoluminescent monoliths were prepared by embedding newly synthesized Eu(III), Tb(III) and Y(III) complexes with 2-(1H-1,2,4-Triazol-3-yl)pyridine ligand in silica matrices through a modified sol-gel process. The remarkable luminescent properties of the free complexes were preserved in silica matrix, resulting in red, green and blue monoliths with a shape that may be tailored during the gelation process according to specific applications. Prior to embedment, the complexes prepared at 1/3 metal to ligand ratio were investigated through elemental analysis, thermal analysis, FT-IR, mass and fluorescence spectroscopy while the obtained silica monoliths were supplementary investigated through SEM and fluorescence spectroscopy. The emission peaks are located at 612 nm for the monolithic silica embedded Eu(III) complex, at 542 nm for the monolithic silica embedded Tb(III) complex and at 482 nm respectively for the silica monolith containing the Y(III) complex. Their excellent photoluminescent properties may recommend them as photonic conversion materials in various optoelectronic applications.

  6. Monolithic III-V and hybrid polysilicon-III-V microelectromechanical tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Edward M.; Lott, James A.; Nelson, Thomas R., Jr.; Harvey, M. C.; Raley, J. A.; Stintz, Andreas; Malloy, Kevin J.

    2003-04-01

    We report our progress on the design and fabrication of electrostatically-actuated microelectromechanical (MEM) tunable wavelength filters and vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). We investigate both an all-semiconductor monolithic approach and a hybrid approach based on the combination of conventional polysilicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and III-V semiconductor thin-film distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and VCSEL structures. In the tunable hybrid structures the III-V semiconductor layers are flip-bonded onto specially designed polysilicon foundry MEMS structures and separated from their lattice-matched parent substrates by a novel post-bonding lift-off process.

  7. Feasibility of the preparation of silica monoliths for gas chromatography: fast separation of light hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Imadeddine; Essoussi, Anouar; Fleury, Joachim; Haudebourg, Raphael; Thiebaut, Didier; Vial, Jerome

    2015-02-27

    The preparation conditions of silica monoliths for gas chromatography were investigated. Silica-based monolithic capillary columns based on sol-gel process were tested in the course of high-speed gas chromatographic separations of light hydrocarbons mixture (C1-C4). The impact of modifying the amount of porogen and/or catalyst on the monolith properties were studied. At the best precursor/catalyst/porogen ratio evaluated, a column efficiency of about 6500 theoretical plates per meter was reached with a very good resolution (4.3) for very light compounds (C1-C2). The test mixture was baseline separated on a 70cm column. To our knowledge for the first time a silica-based monolithic capillary column was able to separate light hydrocarbons from methane to n-butane at room temperature with a back pressure in the range of gas chromatography facilities (under 4.1bar).

  8. Improved breakdown characteristics of monolithically integrated III-nitride HEMT-LED devices using carbon doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Liu, Zhaojun; Huang, Tongde; Ma, Jun; May Lau, Kei

    2015-03-01

    We report selective growth of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) on InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) for monolithic integration of III-nitride HEMT and LED devices (HEMT-LED). To improve the breakdown characteristics of the integrated HEMT-LED devices, carbon doping was introduced in the HEMT buffer by controlling the growth pressure and V/III ratio. The breakdown voltage of the fabricated HEMTs grown on LEDs was enhanced, without degradation of the HEMT DC performance. The improved breakdown characteristics can be attributed to better isolation of the HEMT from the underlying conductive p-GaN layer of the LED structure.

  9. Purge and trap with monolithic sorbent for gas chromatographic analysis of pesticides in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chienthavorn, Orapin; Dararuang, Kanittha; Sasook, Anupop; Ramnut, Narumol

    2012-01-01

    Polydivinylbenzene (P-DVB) and silica monolithic materials were synthesised in capillaries and then used to adsorb nine organonitrogen pesticides extracted from honey. After adsorption, each monolith-capillary was connected to a gas chromatograph (GC) with nitrogen-phosphorous detector (NPD). The silica monolith gave better peak shape and intensity than the P-DVB monolith. Formulation of silica monolith with tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) as a sole initiator provided better separation and higher peak intensity, compared to those with methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) and (3:1) TMOS/MTMS initiators. The optimum internal diameter and length of silica monolith-capillary were 0.25 mm and 5 cm, respectively. The purge and trap conditions were optimised by purging with nitrogen and heating the honey sample solution at 100 °C for 60 min. Recovery of the method was in a range of 84.95-99.71% and the detection limits of the pesticides determined by using GC-NPD and GC-mass spectrometric detector (MSD) ranged between 0.36-1.75 and 0.13-0.25 ng g(-1), respectively.

  10. An Innovative Gas Sensor with On-Chip Reference Using Monolithic Twin Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-Gang; TIAN Zhao-Bing; ZHANG Xiao-Jun; GU Yi; LI Ai-Zhen; ZHU Xiang-Rong; ZHENG Yan-Lan; LIU Sheng

    2007-01-01

    An innovative gas sensor with on-chip reference using a monolithic twin laser is proposed. In this sensor a monolithic twin laser generates two closer laser beams with slight different wavelengths alternatively, one photodiode is used to catch both absorption and reference signals by time division multiplexing. The detection of nitrous oxide adopting this scheme using a 2.1 μm antimonide laser and an InGaAs photodiode has been demonstrated experimentally with detection limit below 1 ppm. Using this on chip reference scheme the fluctuations from the optical path and devices can be compensated effectively; the sensor system is simplified distinctly.

  11. Effect of Distributor Design on Gas-Liquid Distribution in Monolithic Bed at High Gas/Liquid Ratios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周媛; AL-DAHHAN Muthanna; DUDUKOVIC Milorad; 刘辉

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the liquid flow distribution at high gas/liquid ratios in a cold model monolith bed of a 0.048 m diameter with 62 cells per cm2.Three types of distributor for the liquid distribu-tion were used to evaluate their distribution performance.Local liquid saturation in individual channels was meas-ured using 16 single-point optical fiber probes mounted inside the channels.The results indicate that 1) The optical fiber probe technique can measure phase distribution in the monolith bed;2) Liquid saturation distribution along the radial direction of the monolith bed is not uniform and the extent of non-uniformity depends on the distributor de-sign and phase velocities;and 3) The tube array distributor provides superior liquid distribution performance over the showerhead and nozzle distributors.

  12. Connection Between Liquid Distribution and Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer in Monolithic Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许闽; 刘辉; 李成岳; 周媛; 季生福

    2011-01-01

    With a particular focus on the connection between liquid flow distribution and gas-liquid mass transfer in monolithic beds in the Taylor flow regime, hydrodynamic and gas-liquid mass transfer experiments were carriedout in a column with a monolithic bed of cell density of 50 cpsi with trio different distributors (nozzle and packed bed distributors). Liquid saturation in individual channels was measured by using self-made micro-conductivity probes. A mal-distribution factor was used to evaluate uniform degree of phase distribution in monoliths. Overall bed pressure drop and mass transfer coefficients were measured. For liquid flow distribution and gas-liquid masstransfer, it is found that the superficial liquid velocity is a crucial factor and the packed bed distributor is better than the nozzle distributor. A semi-theoretical analysis using single channel models shows that the packed bed distributor always yields shorter and uniformly distributed liquid slugs compared to the nozzle distributor, which in turn ensures a better mass transfer performance. A bed scale mass transfer model is proposed by employing the single channel models in individual channels and incorporating effects of non-uniform liquid distribution along the bedcross-section. The model predicts the overall gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient wig a relative error within +30%.

  13. Monolithic integration of III-V nanowire with photonic crystal microcavity for vertical light emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrue, Alexandre; Wilhelm, Christophe; Vest, Gwenaelle; Combrié, Sylvain; de Rossi, Alfredo; Soci, Cesare

    2012-03-26

    A novel photonic structure formed by the monolithic integration of a vertical III-V nanowire on top of a L3 two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavity is proposed to enhance light emission from the nanowire. The impact on the nanowire spontaneous emission rate is evaluated by calculating the spontaneous emission factor β, and the material gain at threshold is used as a figure of merit of this vertical emitting nanolaser. An optimal design is identified for a GaAs nanowire geometry with r = 155 nm and L~1.1 μm, where minimum gain at threshold (gth~13×10³ cm⁻¹) and large spontaneous emission factor (β~0.3) are simultaneously achieved. Modification of the directivity of the L3 photonic crystal cavity via the band-folding principle is employed to further optimize the far-field radiation pattern and to increase the directivity of the device. These results lay the foundation for a new approach toward large-scale integration of vertical emitting nanolasers and may enable applications such as intra-chip optical interconnects.

  14. Garnet-free optical circulators monolithically integrated on spatially modified III-V quantum wells

    CERN Document Server

    Aleahmad, Parinaz; Christodoulides, Demetrios; LiKamWa, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Optical circulators are indispensable components in photonic networks that are aimed to route information in a unidirectional way among their N-ports1,2. In general, these devices rely on magneto-optical garnets3 with appreciable Verdet constants that are utilized in conjunction with other elements like permanent magnets, wave-plates, birefringent crystals and/or beam splitters. Consequently, these arrangements are typically bulky and hence not conducive to on-chip photonic integration4-6. Of interest would be to devise strategies through which miniaturized optical circulators can be monolithically fabricated on light-emitting semiconductor platforms by solely relying on physical properties that are indigenous to the material itself. By exploiting the interplay between non-Hermiticity and nonlinearity, here we demonstrate a new class of chip-scale circulators on spatially modified III-V quantum well systems. These garnet-free unidirectional structures are broadband (over 2.5 THz) at 1550 nm, effectively loss-...

  15. The influence of cladding on fission gas release from irradiated U-Mo monolithic fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkes, Douglas E.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.

    2017-04-01

    The monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy has been proposed as a fuel design capable of converting the world's highest power research reactors from use of high enriched uranium to low enriched uranium. However, a zirconium (Zr) diffusion barrier must be used to eliminate interactions that form between the U-Mo monolith and aluminum alloy 6061 (AA6061) cladding during fabrication and are enhanced during irradiation. One aspect of fuel development and qualification is to demonstrate an appropriate understanding of the extent of fission product release from the fuel under anticipated service environments. An exothermic reaction has previously been observed between the AA6061 cladding and Zr diffusion layer. In this paper, two fuel segments with different irradiation history were subjected to specified thermal profiles under a controlled atmosphere using a thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyzer coupled with a mass spectrometer inside a hot cell. Samples from each segment were tested with cladding and without cladding to investigate the effect, if any, that the exothermic reaction has on fission gas release mechanisms. Measurements revealed there is an instantaneous effect of the cladding/Zr exothermic reaction, but not necessarily a cumulative effect above approximately 973 K (700 °C). The mechanisms responsible for fission gas release events are discussed.

  16. Measurement of Fission Gas Release from Irradiated U-Mo Monolithic Fuel Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkes, Douglas; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Luscher, Walter G.; Rice, Francine; Pool, Karl N.

    2015-06-01

    The uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy in a monolithic form has been proposed as one fuel design capable of converting some of the world’s highest power research reactors from the use of high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). One aspect of the fuel development and qualification process is to demonstrate appropriate understanding of the extent of fission product release from the fuel under anticipated service environments. An apparatus capable of annealing post-irradiated small-scale samples cut from larger fuel segments according to specified thermal profiles under a controlled atmosphere has been installed into a hot cell. Results show that optimized experimental parameters to investigate fission product release from small samples have been established. Initial measurements conducted on aluminum alloy clad uranium-molybdenum monolithic fuel samples reveal three clear fission gas release events over the temperature range of 30-1050 C. The mechanisms responsible for these events are discussed, and the results have been compared with available information in literature.

  17. Measurement of fission gas release from irradiated U–Mo monolithic fuel samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkes, Douglas E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Amanda J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Andrew M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Luscher, Walter G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rice, Francine J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pool, Karl N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The uranium–molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy in a monolithic form has been proposed as one fuel design capable of converting some of the world’s highest power research reactors from the use of high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). One aspect of the fuel development and qualification process is to demonstrate appropriate understanding of the extent of fission product release from the fuel under anticipated service environments. An apparatus capable of heating post-irradiated small-scale samples cut from larger fuel segments according to specified thermal profiles under a controlled atmosphere has been installed into a hot cell. Results show that optimized experimental parameters to investigate fission product release from small samples have been established. Initial measurements conducted on aluminum alloy clad uranium–molybdenum monolithic fuel samples reveal three clear fission gas release events over the temperature range of 30-1000 °C. The mechanisms responsible for these events are discussed, and the results have been compared with available information in the literature.

  18. Use of eutectic mixtures for preparation of monolithic carbons with CO₂-adsorption and gas-separation capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Salas, N; Jardim, E O; Silvestre-Albero, A; Gutiérrez, M C; Ferrer, M L; Rodríguez-Reinoso, F; Silvestre-Albero, J; del Monte, F

    2014-10-21

    With global warming becoming one of the main problems our society is facing nowadays, there is an urgent demand to develop materials suitable for CO2 storage as well as for gas separation. Within this context, hierarchical porous structures are of great interest for in-flow applications because of the desirable combination of an extensive internal reactive surface along narrow nanopores with facile molecular transport through broad "highways" leading to and from these pores. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been recently used in the synthesis of carbon monoliths exhibiting a bicontinuous porous structure composed of continuous macroporous channels and a continuous carbon network that contains a certain microporosity and provides considerable surface area. In this work, we have prepared two DESs for the preparation of two hierarchical carbon monoliths with different compositions (e.g., either nitrogen-doped or not) and structure. It is worth noting that DESs played a capital role in the synthesis of hierarchical carbon monoliths not only promoting the spinodal decomposition that governs the formation of the bicontinuous porous structure but also providing the precursors required to tailor the composition and the molecular sieve structure of the resulting carbons. We have studied the performance of these two carbons for CO2, N2, and CH4 adsorption in both monolithic and powdered form. We have also studied the selective adsorption of CO2 versus CH4 in equilibrium and dynamic conditions. We found that these materials combined a high CO2-sorption capacity besides an excellent CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 selectivity and, interestingly, this performance was preserved when processed in both monolithic and powdered form.

  19. Dual Layer Monolith ATR of Pyrolysis Oil for Distributed Synthesis Gas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawal, Adeniyi [Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point Hoboken NJ 07030

    2012-09-29

    We have successfully demonstrated a novel reactor technology, based on BASF dual layer monolith catalyst, for miniaturizing the autothermal reforming of pyrolysis oil to syngas, the second and most critical of the three steps for thermochemically converting biomass waste to liquid transportation fuel. The technology was applied to aged as well as fresh samples of pyrolysis oil derived from five different biomass feedstocks, namely switch-grass, sawdust, hardwood/softwood, golden rod and maple. Optimization of process conditions in conjunction with innovative reactor system design enabled the minimization of carbon deposit and control of the H2/CO ratio of the product gas. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis of the integrated process using in part, experimental data from the project, indicates (1) net energy recovery of 49% accounting for all losses and external energy input, (2) weight of diesel oil produced as a percent of the biomass to be ~14%, and (3) for a demonstration size biomass to Fischer-Tropsch liquid plant of ~ 2000 daily barrels of diesel, the price of the diesel produced is ~$3.30 per gallon, ex. tax. However, the extension of catalyst life is critical to the realization of the projected economics. Catalyst deactivation was observed and the modes of deactivation, both reversible and irreversible were identified. An effective catalyst regeneration strategy was successfully demonstrated for reversible catalyst deactivation while a catalyst preservation strategy was proposed for preventing irreversible catalyst deactivation. Future work should therefore be focused on extending the catalyst life, and a successful demonstration of an extended (> 500 on-stream hours) catalyst life would affirm the commercial viability of the process.

  20. Industrial fuel gas demonstration plant program. Current working estimate. Phase III and III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) executed a contract with Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division (MLGW) which requires MLGW to perform process analysis, design, procurement, construction, testing, operation, and evaluation of a plant which will demonstrate the feasibility of converting high sulfur bituminous coal to industrial fuel gas with a heating value of 300 +- 30 Btu per standard cubic foot (SCF). The demonstration plant is based on the U-Gas process, and its product gas is to be used in commercial applications in Memphis, Tenn. The contract specifies that the work is to be conducted in three phases. The Phases are: Phase I - Program Development and Conceptual Design; Phase II - Demonstration Plant Final Design, Procurement and Construction; and Phase III - Demonstration Plant Operation. Under Task III of Phase I, a Cost Estimate for the Demonstration Plant was completed as well as estimates for other Phase II and III work. The output of this Estimate is presented in this volume. This Current Working Estimate for Phases II and III is based on the Process and Mechanical Designs presented in the Task II report (second issue) and the 12 volumes of the Task III report. In addition, the capital cost estimate summarized in the appendix has been used in the Economic Analysis (Task III) Report.

  1. CHAOS III: Gas-phase Abundances in NGC 5457

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxall, Kevin V.; Pogge, Richard W.; Berg, Danielle A.; Skillman, Evan D.; Moustakas, John

    2016-10-01

    We present Large Binocular Telescope observations of 109 H ii regions in NGC 5457 (M101) obtained with the Multi-Object Double Spectrograph. We have robust measurements of one or more temperature-sensitive auroral emission lines for 74 H ii regions, permitting the measurement of “direct” gas-phase abundances. Comparing the temperatures derived from the different ionic species, we find: (1) strong correlations of T[N ii] with T[S iii] and T[O iii], consistent with little or no intrinsic scatter; (2) a correlation of T[S iii] with T[O iii], but with significant intrinsic dispersion; (3) overall agreement between T[N ii], T[S ii], and T[O ii], as expected, but with significant outliers; (4) the correlations of T[N ii] with T[S iii] and T[O iii] match the predictions of photoionization modeling while the correlation of T[S iii] with T[O iii] is offset from the prediction of photoionization modeling. Based on these observations, which include significantly more observations of lower excitation H ii regions, missing in many analyses, we inspect the commonly used ionization correction factors (ICFs) for unobserved ionic species and propose new empirical ICFs for S and Ar. We have discovered an unexpected population of H ii regions with a significant offset to low values in Ne/O, which defies explanation. We derive radial gradients in O/H and N/O which agree with previous studies. Our large observational database allows us to examine the dispersion in abundances, and we find intrinsic dispersions of 0.074 ± 0.009 in O/H and 0.095 ± 0.009 in N/O (at a given radius). We stress that this measurement of the intrinsic dispersion comes exclusively from direct abundance measurements of H ii regions in NGC 5457.

  2. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarre, Joseph; Walker, Richard; Cisewski, Michael; Zawodny, Joseph; Cheek, Dianne; Thornton, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) mission will extend the SAGE data record from the ideal vantage point of the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS orbital inclination is ideal for SAGE measurements providing coverage between 70 deg north and 70 deg south latitude. The SAGE data record includes an extensively validated data set including aerosol optical depth data dating to the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) experiments in 1975 and 1978 and stratospheric ozone profile data dating to the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) in 1979. These and subsequent data records, notably from the SAGE II experiment launched on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite in 1984 and the SAGE III experiment launched on the Russian Meteor-3M satellite in 2001, have supported a robust, long-term assessment of key atmospheric constituents. These scientific measurements provide the basis for the analysis of five of the nine critical constituents (aerosols, ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), water vapor (H2O), and air density using O2) identified in the U.S. National Plan for Stratospheric Monitoring. SAGE III on ISS was originally scheduled to fly on the ISS in the same timeframe as the Meteor-3M mission, but was postponed due to delays in ISS construction. The project was re-established in 2009.

  3. Low-temperature H{sub 2}S removal from steam-containing gas mixtures with ZnO for fuel cell application. 2. Wash-coated monolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivan I. Novochinskii; Chunshan Song; Xiaoliang Ma; Xinsheng Liu; Lawrence Shore; Jordan Lampert; Robert J. Farrauto [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (USA). Clean Fuels and Catalysis Program, Energy Institute and Department of Energy and Geo-Environmental Engineering

    2004-04-01

    This work is part of our efforts to explore more-effective ways to remove hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) for fuel cell applications. Various absorbents (ZnO, SnO{sub 2}, coprecipitated NiO-MoO{sub 3}, supported CuO-ZnO, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-ZnO, and ZnO supported on {gamma}-alumina) were tested for H{sub 2}S removal. The absorbents that were wash-coated onto the monolith were compared with particulate traps in the inlet H{sub 2}S concentration range of 0.5-8 parts per million by volume (ppmv). The monolith provides much-higher dynamic capacity (the amount of H{sub 2}S trapped before breakthrough) under the same conditions. The ZnO-based monolith demonstrated the best performance. An extremely low H{sub 2}S outlet concentration (as low as 20 parts per billion, by volume (20 ppbv)) was observed over ZnO-based monolith samples for extended periods of time, under various conditions relevant for the desulfurization of gas products from the autothermal reforming of hydrocarbon fuels for a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell. The capacity of the H{sub 2}S trap is dependent on the monolith characteristics (active component loading per cubic inch, and the number of cells per square inch) and operating conditions (including inlet H{sub 2}S concentration, space velocity, and temperature). Wash-coating of ZnO that was chemically modified by an ammonium carbonate treatment onto a monolith with 400 cells per square inch gave the best H{sub 2}S absorbence with higher dynamic capacity. 9 refs, 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Using tunnel junctions to grow monolithically integrated optically pumped semipolar III-nitride yellow quantum wells on top of electrically injected blue quantum wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowsz, Stacy J; Young, Erin C; Yonkee, Benjamin P; Pynn, Christopher D; Farrell, Robert M; Speck, James S; DenBaars, Steven P; Nakamura, Shuji

    2017-02-20

    We report a device that monolithically integrates optically pumped (20-21) III-nitride quantum wells (QWs) with 560 nm emission on top of electrically injected QWs with 450 nm emission. The higher temperature growth of the blue light-emitting diode (LED) was performed first, which prevented thermal damage to the higher indium content InGaN of the optically pumped QWs. A tunnel junction (TJ) was incorporated between the optically pumped and electrically injected QWs; this TJ enabled current spreading in the buried LED. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition enabled the growth of InGaN QWs with high radiative efficiency, while molecular beam epitaxy was leveraged to achieve activated buried p-type GaN and the TJ. This initial device exhibited dichromatic optically polarized emission with a polarization ratio of 0.28. Future improvements in spectral distribution should enable phosphor-free polarized white light emission.

  5. Fabrication of a new porous glass-ceramic monolith using vanadium(III) calcium phosphate glass as precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazali, Italo Odone; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: mazali@iqm.unicamp.br

    2004-08-01

    Preliminary XRD, IR, Raman and SEM data indicate that porous glass-ceramic monoliths (pgc-LVCP) with skeleton of V(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} and Ca{sub 3}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2} with three-dimensional network structure using an original Li{sub 2}O-V{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glass as precursor was obtained. The pgc-LVCP is a promising porous host for integrated chemical systems because the Ca{sub 3}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2} has ferroelectric and luminophore properties while V(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} exhibits magnetic properties associated with high degree of mechanical, chemical and thermal stability. (author)

  6. Binderless Composite Electrode Monolith from Carbon Nanotube and Biomass Carbon Activated by H2 SO4 and CO2 Gas for Supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deraman, M.; Ishak, M. M.; Farma, R.; Awitdrus, Taer, E.; Talib, I. A.; Omar, R.

    2011-12-01

    Binderless composite electrodes in the monolithic form prepared from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG) from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunch were studied as an electrode in a supercapacitor. The green monoliths (GMs) were prepared from three different types of precursors, SACG, SACG treated with 0.4 Molar H2 SO4 and mixture of SACG and 5% CNTs (by weight) treated with 0.4 Molar H2 SO4 , respectively. These GMs were carbonized at 600 ° C in N2 gas environment and activated by CO2 gas at 800 ° C for 1 hour to produce activated carbon monoliths (ACMs). The properties of the ACMs (density, porosity, microstructure, structure and electrical conductivity) were found affected by CNTs addition and acid treatment. The acid treatment did not improve the electrochemical behavior of the ACMs used as electrodes (specific capacitance, specific energy and specific power of the supercapacitor) in the supercapacitor cells but CNTs addition improves the equivalent series resistance of the cell.

  7. Monolithic spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajic, Slobodan; Egert, Charles M.; Kahl, William K.; Snyder, Jr., William B.; Evans, III, Boyd M.; Marlar, Troy A.; Cunningham, Joseph P.

    1998-01-01

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays.

  8. Metal oxide-based monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor gas sensor microsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Markus; Barrettino, Diego; Taschini, Stefano; Hagleitner, Christoph; Hierlemann, Andreas; Baltes, Henry

    2004-08-01

    A fully integrated gas sensor microsystem is presented, which comprises for the first time a micro hot plate as well as advanced analog and digital circuitry on a single chip. The micro hot plate is coated with a nanocrystalline SnO2 thick film. The sensor chip is produced in an industrial 0.8-microm CMOS process with subsequent micromachining steps. A novel circular micro hot plate, which is 500 x 500 microm(2) in size, features an excellent temperature homogeneity of +/-2% over the heated area (300-microm diameter) and a high thermal efficiency of 6.0 degrees C/mW. A robust prototype package was developed, which relies on standard microelectronic packaging methods. Apart from a microcontroller board for managing chip communication and providing power supply and reference signals, no additional measurement equipment is needed. The on-chip digital temperature controller can accurately adjust the membrane temperature between 170 and 300 degrees C with an error of +/-2 degrees C. The on-chip logarithmic converter covers a wide measurement range between 1 kOmega and 10 MOmega. CO concentrations in the sub-parts-per-million range are detectable, and a resolution of +/-0.1 ppm CO was achieved, which renders the sensor capable of measuring CO concentrations at threshold levels.

  9. Zirconia modified monolithic macroporous Pt/CeO2/Al2O3 catalyst used for water-gas shift reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Hao; YUAN Honggang; WEI Feng; ZHANG Xiwen; LIU Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Monolithic macroporous Pt/CeO2/Al2O3 and zirconia modified Pt/f eO2/Al2O3 catalysts Were prepared by using concentrated emulsions synthesis route.The catalytic performances over the platinum-based catalysts were investigated by water-gas shift (WGS) reaction in a wide temperature range (180-300 ℃).The samples were characterized with thermogravimetry (TG),X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR) techniques as well.The SEM and HRTEM results indicated that the monoliths possessed macroporosity,in size of 5-50 μm,and platinum particles were homogeneously dispersed on macroporous materials.XRD and TPR results showed that the interaction between ceria and zirconia oxide was formed and the addition of zirconia could promote the reducibility of platinum oxide on the interface of ceria and zirconia particles,which led to an improvement of catalytic activity in WGS reaction.The results indicated that zirconia modified monolithic macroporous Pt/CeO2/Al2O3 could be fabricated in small size (from millimeter lever to centimeter) and had good reaction activity,which was a potential new route for miniaturization of the WGS reactor.

  10. Monolithic integration of hybrid III-V/Si lasers and Si-based modulators for data transmission up to 25Gbps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrotti, Thomas; Blampey, Benjamin; Jany, Christophe; Duprez, Hélène; Chantre, Alain; Boeuf, Frédéric; Seassal, Christian; Ben Bakir, Badhise

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the 200mm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform is used to demonstrate the monolithic co-integration of hybrid III-V/silicon Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) tunable lasers and silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZMs), to achieve fully integrated hybrid transmitters for silicon photonics. The design of each active component, as well as the fabrication process steps of the whole architecture are described in details. Data transmission rate up to 25Gb/s has been reached for transmitters using MZMs with active lengths of 2mm and 4mm. Extinction ratios of respectively 2.9dB and 4.7dB are obtained by applying drive voltages of 2.5V peak-to-peak on the MZMs. 25Gb/s data transmission is demonstrated at 1303.5nm and 1315.8nm, with the possibility to tune the operating wavelength by up to 8.5nm in each case, by using metallic heaters above the lasers Bragg reflectors.

  11. III-nitride disk-in-nanowire 1.2 μm monolithic diode laser on (001)silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Hazari, Arnab

    2015-11-12

    III-nitride nanowirediodeheterostructures with multiple In0.85Ga0.15N disks and graded InGaN mode confining regions were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (001)Si substrates. The aerial density of the 60 nm nanowires is ∼3 × 1010 cm−2. A radiative recombination lifetime of 1.84 ns in the disks is measured by time-resolved luminescence measurements. Edge-emitting nanowire lasers have been fabricated and characterized. Measured values of Jth, T0, and dg/dn in these devices are 1.24 kA/cm2, 242 K, and 5.6 × 10−17 cm2, respectively. The peak emission is observed at ∼1.2 μm.

  12. III-nitride disk-in-nanowire 1.2 μm monolithic diode laser on (001)silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Arnab; Aiello, Anthony; Ng, Tien-Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2015-11-01

    III-nitride nanowire diode heterostructures with multiple In0.85Ga0.15N disks and graded InGaN mode confining regions were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (001)Si substrates. The aerial density of the 60 nm nanowires is ˜3 × 1010 cm-2. A radiative recombination lifetime of 1.84 ns in the disks is measured by time-resolved luminescence measurements. Edge-emitting nanowire lasers have been fabricated and characterized. Measured values of Jth, T0, and dg/dn in these devices are 1.24 kA/cm2, 242 K, and 5.6 × 10-17 cm2, respectively. The peak emission is observed at ˜1.2 μm.

  13. III-nitride disk-in-nanowire 1.2 μm monolithic diode laser on (001)silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazari, Arnab; Aiello, Anthony; Bhattacharya, Pallab [Center for Photonics and Multiscale Nanomaterials, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Ng, Tien-Khee; Ooi, Boon S. [Division of Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-11-09

    III-nitride nanowire diode heterostructures with multiple In{sub 0.85}Ga{sub 0.15}N disks and graded InGaN mode confining regions were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (001)Si substrates. The aerial density of the 60 nm nanowires is ∼3 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}. A radiative recombination lifetime of 1.84 ns in the disks is measured by time-resolved luminescence measurements. Edge-emitting nanowire lasers have been fabricated and characterized. Measured values of J{sub th}, T{sub 0}, and dg/dn in these devices are 1.24 kA/cm{sup 2}, 242 K, and 5.6 × 10{sup −17} cm{sup 2}, respectively. The peak emission is observed at ∼1.2 μm.

  14. Monolithic silica spin column extraction and simultaneous derivatization of amphetamines and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamines in human urine for gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Akihiro; Nishida, Manami; Saito, Takeshi; Kishiyama, Izumi; Miyazaki, Shota; Murakami, Katsunori; Nagao, Masataka; Namura, Akira

    2010-02-19

    A simple, sensitive, and specific method with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for simultaneous extraction and derivatization of amphetamines (APs) and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamines (MDAs) in human urine by using a monolithic silica spin column. All the procedures, such as sample loading, washing, and elution were performed by centrifugation. APs and MDAs in urine were adsorbed on the monolithic silica and derivatized with propyl chloroformate in the column. Methamphetamine-d(5) was used as an internal standard. The linear ranges were 0.01-5.0 microg mL(-1) for methamphetamine (MA) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 0.02-5.0 microg mL(-1) for amphetamine (AP) and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) (coefficient of correlation > or = 0.995). The recovery of APs and MDAs in urine was 84-94%, and the relative standard deviation of the intra- and interday reproducibility for urine samples containing 0.1, 1.0, and 4.0 microg mL(-1) of APs and MDAs ranged from 1.4% to 13.6%. The lowest detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio > or = 3) in urine was 5 ng mL(-1) for MA and MDMA and 10 ng mL(-1) for AP and MDA. The proposed method can be used to perform simultaneous extraction and derivatization on spin columns that have been loaded with a small quantity of solvent by using centrifugation.

  15. NIHAO III: The constant disc gas mass conspiracy

    CERN Document Server

    Stinson, G S; Wang, L; Macciò, A V; Herpich, J; Bradford, J D; Quinn, T R; Wadsley, J; Keller, B

    2015-01-01

    We show that the cool gas masses of galactic discs reach a steady state that lasts many Gyr after their last major merger in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. The mass of disc gas, M$_{\\rm gas}$, depends upon a galaxy halo's spin and virial mass, but not upon stellar feedback. Halos with low spin have high star formation efficiency and lower disc gas mass. Similarly, lower stellar feedback leads to more star formation so the gas mass ends up nearly the same irregardless of stellar feedback strength. Even considering spin, the M$_{\\rm gas}$ relation with halo mass, M$_{200}$ only shows a factor of 3 scatter. The M$_{\\rm gas}$--M$_{200}$ relation show a break at M$_{200}$=$2\\times10^{11}$ M$_\\odot$ that corresponds to an observed break in the M$_{\\rm gas}$--M$_\\star$ relation. The constant disc mass stems from a shared halo gas density profile in all the simulated galaxies. In their outer regions, the profiles are isothermal. Where the profile rises above $n=10^{-3}$ cm$^{-3}$, the gas readily cools and th...

  16. NIHAO III: the constant disc gas mass conspiracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, G. S.; Dutton, A. A.; Wang, L.; Macciò, A. V.; Herpich, J.; Bradford, J. D.; Quinn, T. R.; Wadsley, J.; Keller, B.

    2015-11-01

    We show that the cool gas masses of galactic discs reach a steady state that lasts many Gyr after their last major merger in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. The mass of disc gas, Mgas, depends mostly upon a galaxy virial mass and halo's spin, and less upon stellar feedback. Haloes with low spin have high star formation efficiency and lower disc gas mass. Similarly, lower stellar feedback leads to more star formation so the gas mass ends up being nearly the same regardless of stellar feedback strength. Rather than regulating cool gas mass, stellar feedback regulates the mass of stars that forms. Even considering spin, the Mgas relation with halo mass, M200 only shows a factor of 3 scatter. The simulated Mgas-M200 relation shows a break at M200 = 2 × 1011 M⊙ that corresponds to an observed break in the Mgas-M⋆ relation. The galaxies that maintain constant disc masses share a common halo gas density profile shape in all the simulated galaxies. In their outer regions, the profiles are isothermal. Where the profile rises above n = 10-3 cm-3, the gas readily cools and the profile steepens. Inside the disc, rotation supports gas with a flatter density profile. Energy injection from stellar feedback provides pressure support to the halo gas to prevent runaway cooling flows. The constant gas mass makes simpler models for galaxy formation possible, either using a `bathtub' model for star formation rates or when modelling chemical evolution.

  17. Monolithic silica spin column extraction and simultaneous derivatization of amphetamines and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamines in human urine for gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamoto, Akihiro [Scientific Investigation Laboratory, Hiroshima Prefectural Police Headquarters, Kohnan 2-26-3, Naka-ku, Hiroshima 730-0825 (Japan); Nishida, Manami [Hiroshima University Technical Center, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Saito, Takeshi [Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, Shimokasuya 143, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1143 (Japan); Kishiyama, Izumi; Miyazaki, Shota [GL Sciences Inc., Sayamagahara 237-2, Iruma, Saitama 358-0032 (Japan); Murakami, Katsunori [Scientific Investigation Laboratory, Hiroshima Prefectural Police Headquarters, Kohnan 2-26-3, Naka-ku, Hiroshima 730-0825 (Japan); Nagao, Masataka [Department of Forensic Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Namura, Akira, E-mail: namera@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Forensic Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan)

    2010-02-19

    A simple, sensitive, and specific method with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for simultaneous extraction and derivatization of amphetamines (APs) and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamines (MDAs) in human urine by using a monolithic silica spin column. All the procedures, such as sample loading, washing, and elution were performed by centrifugation. APs and MDAs in urine were adsorbed on the monolithic silica and derivatized with propyl chloroformate in the column. Methamphetamine-d{sub 5} was used as an internal standard. The linear ranges were 0.01-5.0 {mu}g mL{sup -1} for methamphetamine (MA) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 0.02-5.0 {mu}g mL{sup -1} for amphetamine (AP) and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) (coefficient of correlation {>=}0.995). The recovery of APs and MDAs in urine was 84-94%, and the relative standard deviation of the intra- and interday reproducibility for urine samples containing 0.1, 1.0, and 4.0 {mu}g mL{sup -1} of APs and MDAs ranged from 1.4% to 13.6%. The lowest detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio {>=} 3) in urine was 5 ng mL{sup -1} for MA and MDMA and 10 ng mL{sup -1} for AP and MDA. The proposed method can be used to perform simultaneous extraction and derivatization on spin columns that have been loaded with a small quantity of solvent by using centrifugation.

  18. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III instrument proposed for EOS - A conceptual design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, L. E.; Mccormick, M. P.; Zawodny, J. M.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Chu, W. P.; Gustafson, J. C.; Maddrea, G. L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument proposed for the Earth Observing System (EOS), which is designed to monitor the vertical distribution of stratospheric aerosols, ozone, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and temperature by measuring the extinction and scattering of solar radiation in the 03 to 1.6 micron range through the atmosphere. The SAGE III employs proven concepts which have evolved from the SAM II, SAGE, and SAGE II programs. The launch is scheduled for the summer of 1996. The SAGE II block diagram is included.

  19. Macroporous polymer monoliths as second dimension columns in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography: a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Peroni; R.J. Vonk; W. van Egmond; H.-G. Janssen

    2012-01-01

    When the typical column combinations are used, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) suffers from the impossibility to operate both dimensions at their optimum carrier gas velocities at the same time. This as a result of the flow mismatch caused by the different dimensions of th

  20. Spinning gas clouds: III. Solutions of minimal energy with precession

    CERN Document Server

    Gaffet, B

    2003-01-01

    We consider the model of rotating and expanding gas cloud originally proposed by Ovsiannikov (1956 Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 111 47) and Dyson (1968 J. Math. Mech. 18 91). Under the restricting assumptions of an adiabatic index gamma = 5/3 and of vorticity-free motion, this has been shown (Gaffet 2001 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 34 2097) to be a Liouville integrable Hamiltonian system. In the present work, we consider the precessing solutions where the cloud does not retain a fixed rotation axis. Choosing for definiteness a particular set of constants of motion (which corresponds to a minimum of the energy), we show that a separation of variables occurs, and that the equations of motion are reducible to the form of a Riccati equation, whose integration merely involves an elliptic integral.

  1. Spinning gas clouds: III. Solutions of minimal energy with precession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffet, B.

    2003-05-01

    We consider the model of rotating and expanding gas cloud originally proposed by Ovsiannikov (1956 Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 111 47) and Dyson (1968 J. Math. Mech. 18 91). Under the restricting assumptions of an adiabatic index gamma = 5/3 and of vorticity-free motion, this has been shown (Gaffet 2001 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 34 2097) to be a Liouville integrable Hamiltonian system. In the present work, we consider the precessing solutions where the cloud does not retain a fixed rotation axis. Choosing for definiteness a particular set of constants of motion (which corresponds to a minimum of the energy), we show that a separation of variables occurs, and that the equations of motion are reducible to the form of a Riccati equation, whose integration merely involves an elliptic integral.

  2. Sequential extraction of inorganic arsenic compounds and methyl arsenate in human urine using mixed-mode monolithic silica spin column coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namera, Akira; Takeuchi, Akito; Saito, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Shota; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Saruwatari, Tatsuro; Nagao, Masataka

    2012-09-01

    A sequential analytical method was developed for the detection of arsenite, arsenate, and methylarsenate in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The combination of a derivatization of trivalent arsenic compounds by 2,3-dithio-1-propanol (British antilewisite; BAL) and a reduction of pentavalent arsenic compounds (arsenate and methylarsenate) were accomplished to carry out the analysis of arsenic compounds in urine. The arsenic derivatives obtained using BAL were extracted in a stepwise manner using a monolithic spin column and analyzed by GC-MS. A linear curve was observed for concentrations of arsenic compounds of 2.0 to 200 ng/mL, where the correlation coefficients of calibration curves were greater than 0.996 (for a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio >10). The detection limits were 1 ng/mL (S/N > 3). Recoveries of the targets in urine were in the range 91.9-106.5%, and RSDs of the intra- and interday assay for urine samples containing 5, 50, and 150 ng/mL of arsenic compounds varied between 2.95 and 13.4%. The results from real samples obtained from a patient suspected of having ingested As containing medications using this proposed method were in good agreement with those obtained using high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

  3. Monoliths in Bioprocess Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignesh Rajamanickam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic columns are a special type of chromatography column, which can be used for the purification of different biomolecules. They have become popular due to their high mass transfer properties and short purification times. Several articles have already discussed monolith manufacturing, as well as monolith characteristics. In contrast, this review focuses on the applied aspect of monoliths and discusses the most relevant biomolecules that can be successfully purified by them. We describe success stories for viruses, nucleic acids and proteins and compare them to conventional purification methods. Furthermore, the advantages of monolithic columns over particle-based resins, as well as the limitations of monoliths are discussed. With a compilation of commercially available monolithic columns, this review aims at serving as a ‘yellow pages’ for bioprocess engineers who face the challenge of purifying a certain biomolecule using monoliths.

  4. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) on the International Space Station (ISS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisewski, Michael; Zawodny, Joseph; Gasbarre, Joseph; Eckman, Richard; Topiwala, Nandkishore; Rodriquez-Alvarez, Otilia; Cheek, Dianne; Hall, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) mission will provide the science community with high-vertical resolution and nearly global observations of ozone, aerosols, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and other trace gas species in the stratosphere and upper-troposphere. SAGE III/ISS measurements will extend the long-term Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) and SAGE data record begun in the 1970s. The multi-decadal SAGE ozone and aerosol data sets have undergone intense scrutiny and are considered the international standard for accuracy and stability. SAGE data have been used to monitor the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol. Key objectives of the mission are to assess the state of the recovery in the distribution of ozone, to re-establish the aerosol measurements needed by both climate and ozone models, and to gain further insight into key processes contributing to ozone and aerosol variability. The space station mid-inclination orbit allows for a large range in latitude sampling and nearly continuous communications with payloads. The SAGE III instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring atmospheric constituents with high vertical resolution. The SAGE III instrument is a moderate resolution spectrometer covering wavelengths from 290 nm to 1550 nm. Science data is collected in solar occultation mode, lunar occultation mode, and limb scatter measurement mode. A SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle will provide access to space. Mounted in the unpressurized section of the Dragon trunk, SAGE III will be robotically removed from the Dragon and installed on the space station. SAGE III/ISS will be mounted to the ExPRESS Logistics Carrier-4 (ELC-4) location on the starboard side of the station. To facilitate a nadir view from this location, a Nadir Viewing Platform (NVP) payload was developed which mounts between the carrier and the SAGE III Instrument Payload (IP).

  5. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Volume III. Demonstration plant environmental analysis (Deliverable No. 27)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    An Environmental Report on the Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Demonstration Plant was prepared for submission to the US Department of Energy under Contract ET-77-C-01-2582. This document is Volume III of a three-volume Environmental Report. Volume I consists of the Summary, Introduction and the Description of the Proposed Action. Volume II consists of the Description of the Existing Environment. Volume III contains the Environmental Impacts of the Proposed Action, Mitigating Measures and Alternatives to the Proposed Action.

  6. Novel method for the rapid and specific extraction of multiple β2 -agonist residues in food by tailor-made Monolith-MIPs extraction disks and detection by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haibo; Gan, Ning; Chen, Yinji; Ding, Qingqing; Huang, Jie; Lin, Saichai; Cao, Yuting; Li, Tianhua

    2016-09-01

    A quick and specific pretreatment method based on a series of extraction clean-up disks, consisting of molecularly imprinted polymer monoliths and C18 adsorbent, was developed for the specific enrichment of salbutamol and clenbuterol residues in food. The molecularly imprinted monolithic polymer disk was synthesized using salbutamol as a template through a one-step synthesis process. It can simultaneously and specifically recognize salbutamol and clenbuterol. The monolithic polymer disk and series of C18 disks were assembled with a syringe to form a set of tailor-made devices for the extraction of target molecules. In a single run, salbutamol and clenbuterol can be specifically extracted, cleaned, and eluted by methanol/acetic acid/H2 O. The target molecules, after a silylation derivatization reaction were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The parameters including solvent desorption, sample pH, and the cycles of reloading were investigated and discussed. Under the optimized extraction and clean-up conditions, the limits of detection and quantitation were determined as 0.018-0.022 and 0.042-0.049 ng/g for salbutamol and clenbuterol, respectively. The assay described was convenient, rapid, and specific; thereby potentially efficient in the high-throughput analysis of β2 -agonists residues in real food samples.

  7. Gravitational fragmentation in turbulent primordial gas and the initial mass function of Population III stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Paul C.; /ZAH, Heidelberg; Glover, Simon C.O.; /ZAH, Heidelberg; Klessen, Ralf S.; /ZAH, Heidelberg /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bromm, Volker; /Texas U., Astron. Dept.

    2010-08-25

    We report results from numerical simulations of star formation in the early universe that focus on the dynamical behavior of metal-free gas under different initial and environmental conditions. In particular we investigate the role of turbulence, which is thought to ubiquitously accompany the collapse of high-redshift halos. We distinguish between two main cases: the birth of Population III.1 stars - those which form in the pristine halos unaffected by prior star formation - and the formation of Population III.2 stars - those forming in halos where the gas is still metal free but has an increased ionization fraction. This latter case can arise either from exposure to the intense UV radiation of stellar sources in neighboring halos, or from the high virial temperatures associated with the formation of massive halos, that is, those with masses greater than {approx} 10{sup 8} M{sub {circle_dot}}. We find that turbulent primordial gas is highly susceptible to fragmentation in both cases, even for turbulence in the subsonic regime, i.e. for rms velocity dispersions as low as 20 % of the sound speed. Contrary to our original expectations, fragmentation is more vigorous and more widespread in pristine halos compared to pre-ionized ones. We therefore predict Pop III.1 stars to be on average of somewhat lower mass, and form in larger groups, than Pop III.2 stars. We find that fragment masses cover over two orders of magnitude, indicating that the resulting Population III initial mass function was significantly extended in mass as well. Our results suggest that the details of the fragmentation process depend on the local properties of the turbulent velocity field and hence we expect considerable variations in the resulting stellar mass spectrum in different halos. In particular, the lowest-mass objects in our sample should have survived to the present day and could potentially provide a unique record of the physical conditions of stellar birth in the primordial universe

  8. Gravitational fragmentation in turbulent primordial gas and the initial mass function of Population III stars

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Paul C; Klessen, Ralf S; Bromm, Volker

    2010-01-01

    We report results from numerical simulations of star formation in the early universe that focus on the dynamical behavior of metal-free gas under different initial and environmental conditions. In particular we investigate the role of turbulence, which is thought to ubiquitously accompany the collapse of high-redshift halos. We distinguish between two main cases: the birth of Population III.1 stars - those which form in the pristine halos unaffected by prior star formation - and the formation of Population III.2 stars - those forming in halos where the gas is still metal free but has an increased ionization fraction. This latter case can arise either from exposure to the intense UV radiation of stellar sources in neighboring halos, or from the high virial temperatures associated with the formation of massive halos, that is, those with masses greater than 1e8 solar masses. We find that turbulent primordial gas is highly susceptible to fragmentation in both cases, even for turbulence in the subsonic regime, i.e...

  9. Cold gas properties of the Herschel Reference Survey. III. Molecular gas stripping in cluster galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Boselli, A; Boquien, M; Boissier, S; Catinella, B; Gavazzi, G; Lagos, C; Saintonge, A

    2014-01-01

    The HRS is a complete volume-limited sample of nearby objects including Virgo cluster and isolated objects. Using a recent compilation of HI and CO data we study the effects of the cluster on the molecular gas content of spiral galaxies. We first identify M* as the scaling variable that traces the total H2 mass of galaxies better. We show that, on average, HI-deficient galaxies are significantly offset from the M(H2) vs. M* relation for HI-normal galaxies. We use the M(H2) vs. M* scaling relation to define the H2-deficiency parameter. This parameter shows a weak and scattered relation with the HI-def, here taken as a proxy for galaxy interactions with the cluster environment. We also show that, as for the HI, the extent of the H2 disc decreases with increasing HI-deficiency. These results show that cluster galaxies have, on average, a lower H2 content than similar objects in the field. The slope of the H2-def vs. HI-def relation is less than 1, while the D(HI)/D(i) vs. HI-def relation is steeper than the D(CO...

  10. Carbon Fiber Composite Monoliths as Catalyst Supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL; Pickel, Joseph M [ORNL; Blom, Douglas Allen [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Carbon fiber composite monoliths are rigid bodies that can be activated to a large surface area, have tunable porosity, and proven performance in gas separation and storage. They are ideal as catalyst supports in applications where a rigid support, with open structure and easy fluid access is desired. We developed a procedure for depositing a dispersed nanoparticulate phase of molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) on carbon composite monoliths in the concentration range of 3 to 15 wt% Mo. The composition and morphology of this phase was characterized using X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy, and a mechanism was suggested for its formation. Molybdenum carbide is known for its catalytic properties that resemble those of platinum group metals, but at a lower cost. The materials obtained are expected to demonstrate catalytic activity in a series of hydrocarbon reactions involving hydrogen transfer. This project demonstrates the potential of carbon fiber composite monoliths as catalyst supports.

  11. Carbon Fiber Composite Monoliths for Catalyst Supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL; Pickel, Joseph M [ORNL; Blom, Douglas Allen [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Carbon fiber composite monoliths are rigid bodies that can be activated to a large surface area, have tunable porosity, and proven performance in gas separation and storage. They are ideal as catalyst supports in applications where a rigid support, with open structure and easy fluid access is desired. We developed a procedure for depositing a dispersed nanoparticulate phase of molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) on carbon composite monoliths in the concentration range of 3 to 15 wt% Mo. The composition and morphology of this phase was characterized using X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy, and a mechanism was suggested for its formation. Molybdenum carbide is known for its catalytic properties that resemble those of platinum group metals, but at a lower cost. The materials obtained are expected to demonstrate catalytic activity in a series of hydrocarbon reactions involving hydrogen transfer. This project demonstrates the potential of carbon fiber composite monoliths as catalyst supports.

  12. The Formation of Population III Stars in Gas Accretion Stage: Effects of Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Machida, Masahiro N

    2013-01-01

    The formation of Population III stars is investigated using resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Starting from a magnetized primordial prestellar cloud, we calculate the cloud evolution several hundreds of years after first protostar formation, resolving the protostellar radius. When the natal minihalo field strength is weaker than B \\lesssim 10^-13 (n/1 cm^-3)^-2/3 G (n is the hydrogen number density), magnetic effects can be ignored. In this case, fragmentation occurs frequently and a stellar cluster forms, in which stellar mergers and mass exchange between protostars contribute to the mass growth of these protostars. During the early gas accretion phase, the most massive protostar remains near the cloud centre, whereas some of the less massive protostars are ejected. The magnetic field significantly affects Population III star formation when B_amb \\gtrsim 10^-12 (n/1 cm^-3)^-2/3 G. In this case, because the angular momentum around the protostar is effectively transferred by both magnetic braking and ...

  13. Monolithically integrated interferometer for optical displacement measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Daniel; Zappe, Hans P.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the fabrication of a monolithically integrated optical displacement sensors using III-V semiconductor technology. The device is configured as a Michelson interferometer and consists of a distributed Bragg reflector laser, a photodetector and waveguides forming a directional coupler. Using this interferometer, displacements in the 100 nm range could be measured at distances of up to 45 cm. We present fabrication, device results and characterization of the completed interferometer, problems, limitations and future applications will also be discussed.

  14. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucel, R. A.

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), a new microwave technology which is expected to exert a profound influence on microwave circuit designs for future military systems as well as for the commercial and consumer markets, is discussed. The book contains an historical discussion followed by a comprehensive review presenting the current status in the field. The general topics of the volume are: design considerations, materials and processing considerations, monolithic circuit applications, and CAD, measurement, and packaging techniques. All phases of MMIC technology are covered, from design to testing.

  15. Embedded-monolith armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElfresh, Michael W.; Groves, Scott E; Moffet, Mitchell L.; Martin, Louis P.

    2016-07-19

    A lightweight armor system utilizing a face section having a multiplicity of monoliths embedded in a matrix supported on low density foam. The face section is supported with a strong stiff backing plate. The backing plate is mounted on a spall plate.

  16. TiO{sub 2} on magnesium silicate monolith: effects of different preparation techniques on the photocatalytic oxidation of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona, Ana I.; Candal, Roberto; Sanchez, Benigno; Avila, Pedro; Rebollar, Moises

    2004-05-01

    In this article, the comparative results of the photocatalytic oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) alone and a mixture of chlorinated hydrocarbons (trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene and chloroform) in gas phase, obtained with three different monolithic catalysts in a flat reactor frontally illuminated with a Xenon lamp are presented. The three catalysts incorporate titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) as active phase on a magnesium silicate support, by means of different procedures: (i) incorporation of commercial TiO{sub 2} powder into the silicate matrix ('massic monolith'); (ii) sol-gel coating of the silicate support; (iii) impregnation with a commercial TiO{sub 2} aqueous suspension of the same silicate support. In the first case, the massic monolith was made from a 50:50 w/w mixture of magnesium silicate and 'Titafrance G5' TiO{sub 2} powder. In the second case, a magnesium silicate monolith was coated with several layers of an aqueous TiO{sub 2} sol prepared from hydrolysis and condensation of titanium tetra-isopropoxide (Ti(OC{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 4}) in excess of acidified water (acid catalysis). The third catalyst was prepared by impregnating the same silicate support with several layers of 'Titafrance G5' TiO{sub 2} powder water suspension. All the catalysts were thermal treated under comparable conditions in order to fix the TiO{sub 2} active phase to the silicate support. Although the performance of the massic monolith was better than the sol-gel monolith, the latter is of great interest because this technique allows the chemical composition of the active films to be easily modified.

  17. Monolithic MACS micro resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann-Horn, J. A.; Jacquinot, J.-F.; Ginefri, J. C.; Bonhomme, C.; Sakellariou, D.

    2016-10-01

    Magic Angle Coil Spinning (MACS) aids improving the intrinsically low NMR sensitivity of heterogeneous microscopic samples. We report on the design and testing of a new type of monolithic 2D MACS resonators to overcome known limitations of conventional micro coils. The resonators' conductors were printed on dielectric substrate and tuned without utilizing lumped element capacitors. Self-resonance conditions have been computed by a hybrid FEM-MoM technique. Preliminary results reported here indicate robust mechanical stability, reduced eddy currents heating and negligible susceptibility effects. The gain in B1 /√{ P } is in agreement with the NMR sensitivity enhancement according to the principle of reciprocity. A sensitivity enhancement larger than 3 has been achieved in a monolithic micro resonator inside a standard 4 mm rotor at 500 MHz. These 2D resonators could offer higher performance micro-detection and ease of use of heterogeneous microscopic substances such as biomedical samples, microscopic specimens and thin film materials.

  18. The MONOLITH prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Bencivenni, G; Candela, A M; Chiarini, A; Chignoli, F; De Deo, M; D'Incecco, M; Gerli, S; Giusti, P; Gómez, F; Gustavino, C; Lindozzi, M; Mannocchi, G; Menghetti, H; Morello, C; Murtas, F; Paoluzzi, G; Pilastrini, R; Redaelli, N G; Santoni, M; Sartorelli, G; Terranova, F; Trinchero, G C

    2000-01-01

    MONOLITH (Massive Observatory for Neutrino Oscillation or LImits on THeir existence) is the project of an experiment to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations with a massive magnetized iron detector. The baseline option is a 34 kt iron detector based on the use of about 50000 m/sup 2/ of the glass Resistive Plate Chambers (glass RPCs) developed at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS). An 8 ton prototype equipped with 23 m/sup 2/ of glass RPC has been realized and tested at the T7-PS beam at CERN. The energy resolution for pions follows a 68%/ square root (E(GeV))+2% law for orthogonally incident particles, in the energy range between 2 and 10 GeV. The time resolution and the tracking capability of the glass RPC are suitable for the MONOLITH experiment. (7 refs).

  19. Solar photocatalytic gas-phase degradation of n-decane--a comparative study using cellulose acetate monoliths coated with P25 or sol-gel TiO₂ films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Sandra M; Lopes, Filipe V S; Rodrigues-Silva, Caio; Martins, Susana D S; Silva, Adrián M T; Faria, Joaquim L; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose acetate monoliths (CAM) were used as the substrate for the deposition of TiO2 films to produce honeycombed photoactive structures to fill a tubular photoreactor equipped with a compound parabolic collector. By using such a setup, an efficient single-pass gas-phase conversion was achieved in the degradation of n-decane, a model volatile organic compound. The CAM three-dimensional, gas-permeable transparent structure with a rugged surface enables a good adhesion of the catalytic coating. It also provides a rigid structure for packing the tubular photoreactor, and maximizing the illuminated catalyst surface. The efficiency of the photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) process on n-decane degradation was evaluated under different operating conditions, such as feeding concentration (73 and 146 ppm), gas stream flow rate (73, 150, and 300 mL min(-1)), relative humidity (3 and 25 %), and UV irradiance (18.9, 29.1, and 38.4 WUV m(-2)). The results show that n-decane degradation by neat photolysis is negligible, but mineralization efficiencies of 86 and 82 % were achieved with P25-CAM and SG-CAM, respectively, for parent pollutant conversions above 95 %, under steady-state conditions. A mass transfer model, considering the mass balance to the plug-flow packed photoreactor, and PCO reaction given by a Langmuir-Hinshelwood bimolecular non-competitive two types of sites equation, was able to predict well the PCO kinetics under steady-state conditions, considering all the operational parameters tested. Overall, the performance of P25-CAM was superior taking into account mineralization efficiency, cost of preparation, surface roughness, and robustness of the deposited film.

  20. Steam reforming of n-hexane on pellet and monolithic catalyst beds. A comparative study on improvements due to heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Monolithic catalysts with higher available active surface areas and better thermal conductivity than conventional pellets beds, making possible the steam reforming of fuels heavier than naphtha, were examined. Performance comparisons were made between conventional pellet beds and honeycomb monolith catalysts using n-hexane as the fuel. Metal-supported monoliths were examined. These offer higher structural stability and higher thermal conductivity than ceramic supports. Data from two metal monoliths of different nickel catalyst loadings were compared to pellets under the same operating conditions. Improved heat transfer and better conversion efficiencies were obtained with the monolith having higher catalyst loading. Surface-gas interaction was observed throughout the length of the monoliths.

  1. Enhanced recovery of unconventional gas. The methodology--Volume III (of 3 volumes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuuskraa, V. A.; Brashear, J. P.; Doscher, T. M.; Elkins, L. E.

    1979-02-01

    The methodology is described in chapters on the analytic approach, estimated natural gas production, recovery from tight gas sands, recovery from Devonian shales, recovery from coal seams, and recovery from geopressured aquifers. (JRD)

  2. 镍基整体式催化剂重整净化生物制粗燃气性能的研究%Reforming of Biomass Raw Fuel Gas over Monolithic Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晨光; 王铁军; 常杰; 吕鹏梅

    2007-01-01

    The performance of the Ni monolithic catalyst for dry reforming and partial oxidation reforming(POR) of biomass fuel gas were studied at 750 ℃ during 108 hours with naphthalene as tar model compound. The catalyst shows good performance in both dry reforming and POR. Tar was completely converted to permanent gases and lighter hydrocarbon compounds. The catalyst kept its activity during the lifetime test.%以萘为焦油模型化合物,考察了镍基整体式催化剂上生物质粗燃气干重整和临氧重整的性能.镍基重整催化剂表现出良好的催化重整活性,焦油全部转化为H2、CO及微量轻质组分.在750 ℃下连续反应108 h,未检测到反应器压降变化和CH4与焦油转化率下降,整体式催化剂表现出较好的活性和稳定性.

  3. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III - International Space Station: Extending Long-Term Ozone and Aerosol Observations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, R.; Zawodny, J. M.; Cisewski, M.; Gasbarre, J.; Flittner, D. E.; Hill, C.; Roell, M.; Moore, J. R.; Hernandez, G.; McCormick, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III - International Space Station (SAGE III on ISS) will extend the global measurements of vertical profiles of ozone, aerosols, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and other trace gases begun with SAGE I in 1979, enabling the detection of long-term trends. SAGE III on ISS is the fourth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring these constituents in the stratosphere and troposphere. The SAGE III instrument is a moderate resolution spectrometer covering wavelengths from 290 nm to 1550 nm, using the heritage occultation technique, utilizing both the sun and the moon. Launch to ISS is planned for early 2015 aboard a Falcon 9 spacecraft. SAGE III will investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the measured species in order to determine their role in climatological processes, biogeochemical cycles, the hydrologic cycle, and atmospheric chemistry. It will characterize tropospheric, as well as stratospheric aerosols and upper tropospheric and stratospheric clouds, and investigate their effects on the Earth's environment including radiative, microphysical, and chemical interactions. The multi-decadal SAGE ozone and aerosol data sets have undergone intense scrutiny and are the international standard for accuracy and stability. SAGE data have been used to monitor the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol. Amongst its key objectives will be to assess the state of the recovery in the distribution of ozone, to reestablish the aerosol measurements needed by both climate and ozone models, and to gain further insight into key processes contributing to ozone and aerosol variability. The ISS is ideal for Earth observing experiments; its mid-inclination orbit allows for a large range in latitude sampling and nearly continuous communications with payloads. In this presentation, we describe the SAGE III on ISS mission, its implementation, current status, and concentrate on its key science objectives.

  4. PandaX-III: Searching for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay with High Pressure $^{136}$Xe Gas Time Projection Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xun; Galan, Javier; Giboni, Karl; Giuliani, Franco; Gu, Linghui; Han, Ke; Ji, Xiangdong; Lin, Heng; Liu, Jianglai; Ni, Kaixiang; Kusano, Hiroki; Ren, Xiangxiang; Wang, Shaobo; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Li; Sun, Xiangming; Hu, Shouyang; Jian, Siyu; Li, Xinglong; Li, Xiaomei; Liang, Hao; Zhang, Huanqiao; Zhao, Mingrui; Zhou, Jing; Mao, Yajun; Qiao, Hao; Wang, Siguang; Yuan, Ying; Wang, Meng; Khan, Amir N; Raper, Neill; Tang, Jian; Wang, Wei; Dong, Jianing; Feng, Changqing; Li, Chen; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Shubin; Wang, Xiaolian; Zhu, Danyang; Castel, Juan F; Cebrián, Susana; Dafni, Theopisti; Garza, Javier G; Irastorza, Igor G; Iguaz, Francisco J; Luzón, Gloria; Mirallas, Hector; Aune, Stephan; Berthoumieux, Eric; Bedfer, Yann; Calvet, Denis; d'Hose, Nicole; Delbart, Alain; Diakaki, Maria; Ferrer-Ribas, Esther; Ferrero, Andrea; Kunne, Fabienne; Neyret, Damien; Papaevangelou, Thomas; Sabatié, Franck; Vanderbroucke, Maxence; Tan, Andi; Haxton, Wick; Mei, Yuan; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Yan, Yu-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Searching for the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (NLDBD) is now regarded as the topmost promising technique to explore the nature of neutrinos after the discovery of neutrino masses in oscillation experiments. PandaX-III (Particle And Astrophysical Xenon Experiment III) will search for the NLDBD of \\xeots at the China Jin Ping underground Laboratory (CJPL). In the first phase of the experiment, a high pressure gas Time Projection Chamber (TPC) will contain 200 kg, 90\\% \\xeots enriched gas operated at 10 bar. Fine pitch micro-pattern gas detector (Microbulk Micromegas) will be used at both ends of the TPC for the charge readout with a cathode in the middle. Charge signals can be used to reconstruct tracks of NLDBD events and provide good energy and spatial resolution. The detector will be immersed in a large water tank to ensure $\\sim$5~m of water shielding in all directions. The second phase, a ton-scale experiment, will consist of five TPCs in the same water tank, with improved energy resolution and better c...

  5. Monolithic supports with unique geometries and enhanced mass transfer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuecker, John Nicholas; Ferrizz, Robert Matthew; Cesarano, Joseph, III; Miller, James Edward

    2004-01-01

    The catalytic combustion of natural gas has been the topic of much research over the past decade. Interest in this technology results from a desire to decrease or eliminate the emissions of harmful nitrogen oxides (NOX) from gas turbine power plants. A low-pressure drop catalyst support, such as a ceramic monolith, is ideal for this high-temperature, high-flow application. A drawback to the traditional honeycomb monoliths under these operating conditions is poor mass transfer to the catalyst surface in the straight-through channels. 'Robocasting' is a unique process developed at Sandia National Laboratories that can be used to manufacture ceramic monoliths with alternative 3-dimensional geometries, providing tortuous pathways to increase mass transfer while maintaining low pressure drops. This report details the mass transfer effects for novel 3-dimensional robocast monoliths, traditional honeycomb-type monoliths, and ceramic foams. The mass transfer limit is experimentally determined using the probe reaction of CO oxidation over a Pt / {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, and the pressure drop is measured for each monolith sample. Conversion versus temperature data is analyzed quantitatively using well-known dimensionless mass transfer parameters. The results show that, relative to the honeycomb monolith support, considerable improvement in mass transfer efficiency is observed for robocast samples synthesized using an FCC-like geometry of alternating rods. Also, there is clearly a trade-off between enhanced mass transfer and increased pressure drop, which can be optimized depending on the particular demands of a given application.

  6. Bioaffinity chromatography on monolithic supports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetala, K.K.R.; Beek, van T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Affinity chromatography on monolithic supports is a powerful analytical chemical platform because it allows for fast analyses, small sample volumes, strong enrichment of trace biomarkers and applications in microchips. In this review, the recent research using monolithic materials in the field of bi

  7. Bioaffinity chromatography on monolithic supports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetala, K.K.R.; Beek, van T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Affinity chromatography on monolithic supports is a powerful analytical chemical platform because it allows for fast analyses, small sample volumes, strong enrichment of trace biomarkers and applications in microchips. In this review, the recent research using monolithic materials in the field of bi

  8. Design of monoliths through their mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgornik, Aleš; Savnik, Aleš; Jančar, Janez; Krajnc, Nika Lendero

    2014-03-14

    Chromatographic monoliths have several interesting properties making them attractive supports for analytics but also for purification, especially of large biomolecules and bioassemblies. Although many of monolith features were thoroughly investigated, there is no data available to predict how monolith mechanical properties affect its chromatographic performance. In this work, we investigated the effect of porosity, pore size and chemical modification on methacrylate monolith compression modulus. While a linear correlation between pore size and compression modulus was found, the effect of porosity was highly exponential. Through these correlations it was concluded that chemical modification affects monolith porosity without changing the monolith skeleton integrity. Mathematical model to describe the change of monolith permeability as a function of monolith compression modulus was derived and successfully validated for monoliths of different geometries and pore sizes. It enables the prediction of pressure drop increase due to monolith compressibility for any monolith structural characteristics, such as geometry, porosity, pore size or mobile phase properties like viscosity or flow rate, based solely on the data of compression modulus and structural data of non-compressed monolith. Furthermore, it enables simple determination of monolith pore size at which monolith compressibility is the smallest and the most robust performance is expected. Data of monolith compression modulus in combination with developed mathematical model can therefore be used for the prediction of monolith permeability during its implementation but also to accelerate the design of novel chromatographic monoliths with desired hydrodynamic properties for particular application.

  9. Porous polymer monolithic col

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Terborg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new approach has been developed for the preparation of mixed-mode stationary phases to separate proteins. The pore surface of monolithic poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate capillary columns was functionalized with thiols and coated with gold nanoparticles. The final mixed mode surface chemistry was formed by attaching, in a single step, alkanethiols, mercaptoalkanoic acids, and their mixtures on the free surface of attached gold nanoparticles. Use of these mixtures allowed fine tuning of the hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance. The amount of attached gold nanoparticles according to thermal gravimetric analysis was 44.8 wt.%. This value together with results of frontal elution enabled calculation of surface coverage with the alkanethiol and mercaptoalkanoic acid ligands. Interestingly, alkanethiols coverage in a range of 4.46–4.51 molecules/nm2 significantly exceeded that of mercaptoalkanoic acids with 2.39–2.45 molecules/nm2. The mixed mode character of these monolithic stationary phases was for the first time demonstrated in the separations of proteins that could be achieved in the same column using gradient elution conditions typical of reverse phase (using gradient of acetonitrile in water and ion exchange chromatographic modes (applying gradient of salt in water, respectively.

  10. CHEMKIN-III: A FORTRAN chemical kinetics package for the analysis of gas-phase chemical and plasma kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kee, R.J.; Rupley, F.M.; Meeks, E.; Miller, J.A.

    1996-05-01

    This document is the user`s manual for the third-generation CHEMKIN package. CHEMKIN is a software package whose purpose is to facilitate the formation, solution, and interpretation of problems involving elementary gas-phase chemical kinetics. It provides a flexible and powerful tool for incorporating complex chemical kinetics into simulations of fluid dynamics. The package consists of two major software components: an Interpreter and a Gas-Phase Subroutine Library. The Interpreter is a program that reads a symbolic description of an elementary, user-specified chemical reaction mechanism. One output from the Interpreter is a data file that forms a link to the Gas-Phase Subroutine Library. This library is a collection of about 100 highly modular FORTRAN subroutines that may be called to return information on equations of state, thermodynamic properties, and chemical production rates. CHEMKIN-III includes capabilities for treating multi-fluid plasma systems, that are not in thermal equilibrium. These new capabilities allow researchers to describe chemistry systems that are characterized by more than one temperature, in which reactions may depend on temperatures associated with different species; i.e. reactions may be driven by collisions with electrons, ions, or charge-neutral species. These new features have been implemented in such a way as to require little or no changes to CHEMKIN implementation for systems in thermal equilibrium, where all species share the same gas temperature. CHEMKIN-III now has the capability to handle weakly ionized plasma chemistry, especially for application related to advanced semiconductor processing.

  11. Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry: Volume III ? gas phase reactions of inorganic halogens

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, R.; Baulch, D. L.; Cox, R A; J. N. Crowley; Hampson, R. F.; Hynes, R. G.; Jenkin, M. E.; M. J. Rossi; Troe, J.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; This article, the third in the series, presents kinetic and photochemical data evaluated by the IUPAC Subcommittee on Gas Kinetic Data Evaluation for Atmospheric Chemistry. It covers the gas phase and photochemical reactions of inorganic halogen species, which were last published in J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, in 2000 (Atkinson et al., 2000), were updated on the IUPAC website in 2003 and are updated again in the present evaluation. The article consists of a summary sheet...

  12. Biobased monoliths for adenovirus purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Cláudia S M; Gonçalves, Bianca; Sousa, Margarida; Martins, Duarte L; Barroso, Telma; Pina, Ana Sofia; Peixoto, Cristina; Aguiar-Ricardo, Ana; Roque, A Cecília A

    2015-04-01

    Adenoviruses are important platforms for vaccine development and vectors for gene therapy, increasing the demand for high titers of purified viral preparations. Monoliths are macroporous supports regarded as ideal for the purification of macromolecular complexes, including viral particles. Although common monoliths are based on synthetic polymers as methacrylates, we explored the potential of biopolymers processed by clean technologies to produce monoliths for adenovirus purification. Such an approach enables the development of disposable and biodegradable matrices for bioprocessing. A total of 20 monoliths were produced from different biopolymers (chitosan, agarose, and dextran), employing two distinct temperatures during the freezing process (-20 °C and -80 °C). The morphological and physical properties of the structures were thoroughly characterized. The monoliths presenting higher robustness and permeability rates were further analyzed for the nonspecific binding of Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) preparations. The matrices presenting lower nonspecific Ad5 binding were further functionalized with quaternary amine anion-exchange ligand glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride hydrochloride by two distinct methods, and their performance toward Ad5 purification was assessed. The monolith composed of chitosan and poly(vinyl) alcohol (50:50) prepared at -80 °C allowed 100% recovery of Ad5 particles bound to the support. This is the first report of the successful purification of adenovirus using monoliths obtained from biopolymers processed by clean technologies.

  13. The structure of radiative shock waves. III. The model grid for partially ionized hydrogen gas

    CERN Document Server

    Fadeyev, Y A; Fadeyev, Yu. A.

    2001-01-01

    The grid of the models of radiative shock waves propagating through partially ionized hydrogen gas with temperature 3000K <= T_1 <= 8000K and density 10^{-12} gm/cm^3 <= \\rho_1 <= 10^{-9}gm/cm^3 is computed for shock velocities 20 km/s <= U_1 <= 90 km/s. The fraction of the total energy of the shock wave irreversibly lost due to radiation flux ranges from 0.3 to 0.8 for 20 km/s <= U_1 <= 70 km/s. The postshock gas is compressed mostly due to radiative cooling in the hydrogen recombination zone and final compression ratios are within 1 <\\rho_N/\\rho_1 \\lesssim 10^2, depending mostly on the shock velocity U_1. The preshock gas temperature affects the shock wave structure due to the equilibrium ionization of the unperturbed hydrogen gas, since the rates of postshock relaxation processes are very sensitive to the number density of hydrogen ions ahead the discontinuous jump. Both the increase of the preshock gas temperature and the decrease of the preshock gas density lead to lower postsh...

  14. Monolithic microchannel heatsink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benett, William J.; Beach, Raymond J.; Ciarlo, Dino R.

    1996-01-01

    A silicon wafer has slots sawn in it that allow diode laser bars to be mounted in contact with the silicon. Microchannels are etched into the back of the wafer to provide cooling of the diode bars. To facilitate getting the channels close to the diode bars, the channels are rotated from an angle perpendicular to the diode bars which allows increased penetration between the mounted diode bars. This invention enables the fabrication of monolithic silicon microchannel heatsinks for laser diodes. The heatsinks have low thermal resistance because of the close proximity of the microchannels to the laser diode being cooled. This allows high average power operation of two-dimensional laser diode arrays that have a high density of laser diode bars and therefore high optical power density.

  15. Monolitni katalizatori i reaktori: osnovne značajke, priprava i primjena (Monolith catalysts and reactors: preparation and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašić, V.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic (honeycomb catalysts are continuous unitary structures containing many narrow, parallel and usually straight channels (or passages. Catalytically active components are dispersed uniformly over the whole porous ceramic monolith structure (so-called incorporated monolithic catalysts or are in a layer of porous material that is deposited on the walls of channels in the monolith's structure (washcoated monolithic catalysts. The material of the main monolithic construction is not limited to ceramics but includes metals, as well. Monolithic catalysts are commonly used in gas phase catalytic processes, such as treatment of automotive exhaust gases, selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides, catalytic removal of volatile organic compounds from industrial processes, etc. Monoliths continue to be the preferred support for environmental applications due to their high geometric surface area, different design options, low pressure drop, high temperature durability, mechanical strength, ease of orientation in a reactor and effectiveness as a support for a catalytic washcoat. As known, monolithic catalysts belong to the class of the structured catalysts and/or reactors (in some cases the distinction between "catalyst" and "reactor" has vanished. Structured catalysts can greatly intensify chemical processes, resulting in smaller, safer, cleaner and more energy efficient technologies. Monolith reactors can be considered as multifunctional reactors, in which chemical conversion is advantageously integrated with another unit operation, such as separation, heat exchange, a secondary reaction, etc. Finally, structured catalysts and/or reactors appear to be one of the most significant and promising developments in the field of heterogeneous catalysis and chemical engineering of the recent years. This paper gives a description of the background and perspectives for application and development of monolithic materials. Different methods and techniques

  16. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musich, Mark; Swanson, Michael; Dunham, Grant; Stanislowski, Joshua

    2010-10-05

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most

  17. ADVANCED GASIFICATION MERCURY/TRACE METAL CONTROL WITH MONOLITH TRAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Musich; Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Joshua J. Stanislowski

    2010-07-31

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m3 (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m3 (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most effective arsine

  18. IFU spectroscopy of 10 early-type galactic nuclei - III. Properties of the circumnuclear gas emission

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, T V; Menezes, R B

    2015-01-01

    Many Early-type galaxies (ETG) have ionized gas emission in their centres that extends to scales of ~ 1kpc. The majority of such objects are classified as LINERs, but the nature of their ionizing source is still not clear. The kinematics associated with these gaseous structures usually shows deviations from a pure rotational motion due to non-gravitational effects or to non-axisymmetric potentials. This is the third of a series of papers that describes a sample of 10 nearby and massive ETG observed with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph in Integral Field mode installed on the Gemini-South telescope. In paper II, we performed spectral synthesis to subtract the stellar components from the data cubes of the sample galaxies in order to study their nuclear spectra. Here, we analyse the circumnuclear gas emission (scales of ~ 100 pc) of the sample galaxies. Circumnuclear gas emission was detected in seven galaxies, all of them classified as LINERs. Pure gaseous discs are found in three galaxies. In two objects, ...

  19. Molecular gas in the Galactic center region. III. Probing shocks in molecular cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettemeister, S.; Dahmen, G.; Mauersberger, R.; Henkel, C.; Wilson, T. L.; Martin-Pintado, J.

    1998-06-01

    Multiline observations of C(18) O and SiO isotopomers toward 33 molecular peaks in the Galactic center region, taken at the SEST, JCMT and HHT telescopes, are presented. The C(18) O presumably traces the total H_2 column density, while the SiO traces gas affected by shocks and high temperature chemistry. The J =2-> 1 line of SiO is seen only in few regions of the Galactic disk. This line is easily detected in all Galactic center sources observed. A comparison of the strength of the rare isotopomers (29) SiO and (30) SiO to the strength of the main isotopomer (28) SiO implies that the J = 2 -> 1 transition of (28) SiO is optically thick. The (29) Si/(30) Si isotope ratio of 1.6 in the Galactic center clouds is consistent with the terrestrial value. Large Velocity Gradient models show that the dense component (n_H_2 >= 10(4) \\percc) in typical molecular cores in the Galactic center is cool (\\TKIN ~ 25 K), contrary to what is usually found in Giant Molecular Clouds in the disk, where the densest cores are the hottest. High kinetic temperatures, > 100 K, known to exist from NH_3 studies, are only present at lower gas densities of a few 10(3) cm(-3) , where SiO is highly subthermally excited. Assuming that \\CEIO\\ traces all of the molecular gas, it is found that in all cases but one, SiO emission is compatible with arising in gas at higher density that is (presently) relatively cool. The relative abundance of SiO is typically 10(-9) , but differs significantly between individual sources. It shows a dependence on the position of the source within the Galactic center region. High abundances are found in those regions for which bar potential models predict a high likelihood for cloud-cloud collisions. These results can be used to relate the amount of gas that has encountered shocks within the last ~ 10(6) years to the large scale kinematics in the inner ~ 500 pc of the Galaxy. Based on observations obtained at the Swedish-ESO Submillimeter Telescope (SEST, Project C

  20. Hybrid and monolithic integration of planar lightwave circuits (PLCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ray T.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we review the status of monolithic and hybrid integration of planar lightwave circuits (PLCs). Building blocks needed for system integration based on polymeric materials, III-V semiconductor materials, LiNbO 3 and SOI on Silicon are summarized with pros and cons. Due to the maturity of silicon CMOS technology, silicon becomes the platform of choice for optical application specific integrated circuits (OASICs). However, the indirect bandgap of silicon makes the formation of electrically pumped silicon laser a remote plausibility which requires hybrid integration of laser sources made out of III-V compound semicouductor.

  1. Monolithic column incorporated with lanthanide metal-organic framework for capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Shun; Du, Pei-Yao; Gu, Wen; Zhao, Qing-Li; Huang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Zhao-Sheng

    2016-08-26

    A new lanthanide metal-organic frameworks NKU-1 have successfully incorporated into poly (BMA-co-EDMA) monolith and evaluated by capillary electrochromatography (CEC). Lanthanide metal-organic frameworks [Eu2(ABTC)1.5(H2O)3(DMA)] (NKU-1) were synthesized by self-assembly of Eu(III) ions and 3,3',5,5'-azo benzene tetracarboxylic acid ligands have been fabricated into poly(BMA-co-EDMA) monoliths. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and N,N-dimethylformamide were developed as binary porogen obtaining homogeneous dispersibility for NKU-1 and high permeability for monolithic column. The successful incorporation of NKU-1 into poly(BMA-co-EDMA) was confirmed and characterized by FT-IR spectra, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometer area scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Separation ability of the NKU-1-poly (BMA-co-EDMA) monoliths was demonstrated by separating four groups of analytes in CEC, including alkylbenzenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, aniline series and naphthyl substitutes. Compared with bare monolithic (column efficiency of 100,000plates/m), the NKU-1-poly (BMA-co-EDMA) monoliths have displayed greater column efficiency (maximum 210,000plates/m) and higher permeability, as well as less peak tailing. The results showed that the NKU-1-poly (BMA-co-EDMA) monoliths are promising stationary phases for CEC separations.

  2. Fe(III) fertilization mitigating net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in paddy rice-wheat rotation systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuwei; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Qiaohui; Zou, Jianwen

    2012-05-01

    A complete accounting of net greenhouse gas balance (NGHGB) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) affected by Fe(III) fertilizer application was examined in typical annual paddy rice-winter wheat rotation cropping systems in southeast China. Annual fluxes of soil carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) were measured using static chamber method, and the net ecosystem exchange of CO(2) (NEE) was determined by the difference between soil CO(2) emissions (R(H)) and net primary production (NPP). Fe(III) fertilizer application significantly decreased R(H) without adverse effects on NPP of rice and winter wheat. Fe(III) fertilizer application decreased seasonal CH(4) by 27-44%, but increased annual N(2)O by 65-100%. Overall, Fe(III) fertilizer application decreased the annual NGHGB and GHGI by 35-47% and 30-36%, respectively. High grain yield and low greenhouse gas intensity can be reconciled by Fe(III) fertilizer applied at the local recommendation rate in rice-based cropping systems.

  3. Solubility and surface thermodynamics of conducting polymers by inverse gas chromatography. III: polypyrrole chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duaij, Omar K; Alghamdi, Ali; Al-Saigh, Zeki Y

    2013-05-24

    Inverse gas chromatography, IGC, was applied to characterize conducting polypyrrole chloride (PPyCl) using twenty three solvents. IGC is able to reveal the change in the morphology, the strength of solvent-PPyCl interactions, thermodynamics parameters (χ12, Ω1(∞)), solvent and polymer solubility parameters, and molar heats of sorption, mixing and evaporation (ΔH1(s), ΔH1(∞), ΔH1(v)). The following solvents showed stronger interactions than others; yet, none of these solvents are good solvents for PPyCl: dodecane among the alkane family, tetrahydrofuran and methyl ethyl ketone among the oxy and keto group, dichloromethane among the chlorinated group up to 120°C and chloroform at 180°C, and toluene among the cyclic and aromatic group. Overall, the groups showed higher affinities to PPyCl are: acetates, oxy and cyclic, and chlorinated groups. Comprehensive solvents and PPyCl solubility parameters are obtained. The latter showed that PPyCl is not soluble in any solvent used.

  4. Realizing InGaN monolithic solar-photoelectrochemical cells for artificial photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahal, R.; Pantha, B. N.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X., E-mail: hx.jiang@ttu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

    2014-04-07

    InGaN alloys are very promising for solar water splitting because they have direct bandgaps that cover almost the whole solar spectrum. The demonstration of direct solar-to-fuel conversion without external bias with the sunlight being the only energy input would pave the way for realizing photoelectrochemical (PEC) production of hydrogen by using InGaN. A monolithic solar-PEC cell based on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells capable to directly generate hydrogen gas under zero bias via solar water splitting is reported. Under the irradiation by a simulated sunlight (1-sun with 100 mW/cm{sup 2}), a 1.5% solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency has been achieved under zero bias, setting a fresh benchmark of employing III-nitrides for artificial photosynthesis. Time dependent hydrogen gas production photocurrent measured over a prolonged period (measured for 7 days) revealed an excellent chemical stability of InGaN in aqueous solution of hydrobromic acid. The results provide insights into the architecture design of using InGaN for artificial photosynthesis to provide usable clean fuel (hydrogen gas) with the sunlight being the only energy input.

  5. Carbon monolith: preparation, characterization and application as microextraction fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhi-Guo; Chen, Fei; Xing, Jun; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2009-07-10

    A carbon monolith was synthesized via a polymerization-carbonization method, styrene and divinylbenzene being adopted as precursors and dodecanol as a porogen during polymerization. The resultant monolith had bimodal porous substructure, narrowly distributed nano skeleton pores and uniform textural pores or throughpores. The carbon monolith was directly used as an extracting fiber, taking place of the coated silica fibers in commercially available solid-phase microextraction device, for the extraction of phenols followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Under the studied conditions, the calibration curves were linear from 0.5 to 50 ng mL(-1) for phenol, o-nitrophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and p-chlorophenol. The limits of detection were between 0.04 and 0.43 ng mL(-1). The recoveries of the phenols spiked in real water samples at 10 ng mL(-1) were between 85% and 98% with the relative standard deviations below 10%. Compared with the commercial coated ones (e.g. PDMS, CW/DVB and DVB/CAR/PDMS), the carbon monolith-based fiber had advantages of faster extraction equilibrium and higher extraction capacity due to the superior pore connectivity and pore openness resulting from its bimodal porous substructure.

  6. In situ Fabrication of Monolithic Copper Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Li, Mingyu; Zeng, Qingxuan; Wu, Xingyu

    2016-04-01

    Fabrication and characterization of monolithic copper azide were performed. The monolithic nanoporous copper (NPC) with interconnected pores and nanoparticles was prepared by decomposition and sintering of the ultrafine copper oxalate. The preferable monolithic NPC can be obtained through decomposition and sintering at 400°C for 30 min. Then, the available monolithic NPC was in situ reacted with the gaseous HN3 for 24 h and the monolithic NPC was transformed into monolithic copper azide. Additionally, the copper particles prepared by electrodeposition were also reacted with the gaseous HN3 under uniform conditions as a comparison. The fabricated monolithic copper azide was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  7. Dissimilatory reduction of FeIII (EDTA) with microorganisms in the system of nitric oxide removal from the flue gas by metal chelate absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Bi-yao; LI Wei; JING Guo-hua; SHI Yao

    2004-01-01

    In the system of nitric oxide removal from the flue gas by metal chelate absorption, it is an obstacle that ferrous absorbents are easily oxidized by oxygen in the flue gas to ferric counterparts, which are not capable of binding NO. By adding iron metal or electrochemical method, FeIII (EDTA) can be reduced to FeII (EDTA). However, there are various drawbacks associated with these techniques. The dissimilatory reduction of FeIII (EDTA) with microorganisms in the system of nitric oxide removal by metal chelate absorption was investigated. Ammonium salt instead of nitrate was used as the nitrogen source, as nitrates inhibited the reduction of FeIII due to the competition between the two electron acceptors. Supplemental glucose and lactate stimulated the formation of FeII more than ethanol as the carbon sources. The microorganisms cultured at 50℃ were not very sensitive to the other experimental temperature, the reduction percentage of FeIII varied little with the temperature range of 30~50℃. Concentrated Na2CO3 solution was added to adjust the solution pH to an optimal pH range of 6~7. The overall results revealed that the dissimilatory ferric reducing microorganisms present in the mix-culture are probably neutrophilic, moderately thermophilic FeIII reducers.

  8. ALFALFA DISCOVERY OF THE NEARBY GAS-RICH DWARF GALAXY LEO P. III. AN EXTREMELY METAL DEFICIENT GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle A.; Olive, Keith A.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W., E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: berg@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: olive@physics.umn.edu, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); and others

    2013-07-01

    We present KPNO 4 m and LBT/MODS spectroscopic observations of an H II region in the nearby dwarf irregular galaxy Leo P discovered recently in the Arecibo ALFALFA survey. In both observations, we are able to accurately measure the temperature sensitive [O III] {lambda}4363 line and determine a ''direct'' oxygen abundance of 12 + log(O/H) = 7.17 {+-} 0.04. Thus, Leo P is an extremely metal deficient (XMD) galaxy, and, indeed, one of the most metal deficient star-forming galaxies ever observed. For its estimated luminosity, Leo P is consistent with the relationship between luminosity and oxygen abundance seen in nearby dwarf galaxies. Leo P shows normal {alpha} element abundance ratios (Ne/O, S/O, and Ar/O) when compared to other XMD galaxies, but elevated N/O, consistent with the ''delayed release'' hypothesis for N/O abundances. We derive a helium mass fraction of 0.2509{sup +0.0184}{sub -0.0123}, which compares well with the WMAP + BBN prediction of 0.2483 {+-} 0.0002 for the primordial helium abundance. We suggest that surveys of very low mass galaxies compete well with emission line galaxy surveys for finding XMD galaxies. It is possible that XMD galaxies may be divided into two classes: the relatively rare XMD emission line galaxies which are associated with starbursts triggered by infall of low-metallicity gas and the more common, relatively quiescent XMD galaxies like Leo P, with very low chemical abundances due to their intrinsically small masses.

  9. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment, SAGE III on ISS, An Earth Science Mission on the International Space Station, Schedule Risk Analysis, A Project Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonine, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    The presentation provides insight into the schedule risk analysis process used by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station Project. The presentation focuses on the schedule risk analysis process highlighting the methods for identification of risk inputs, the inclusion of generic risks identified outside the traditional continuous risk management process, and the development of tailored analysis products used to improve risk informed decision making.

  10. Monolithic Fuel Fabrication Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. R. Clark; N. P. Hallinan; J. F. Jue; D. D. Keiser; J. M. Wight

    2006-05-01

    The pursuit of a high uranium density research reactor fuel plate has led to monolithic fuel, which possesses the greatest possible uranium density in the fuel region. Process developments in fabrication development include friction stir welding tool geometry and cooling improvements and a reduction in the length of time required to complete the transient liquid phase bonding process. Annealing effects on the microstructures of the U-10Mo foil and friction stir welded aluminum 6061 cladding are also examined.

  11. Pressure drop in CIM disk monolithic columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihelic, Igor; Nemec, Damjan; Podgornik, Ales; Koloini, Tine

    2005-02-11

    Pressure drop analysis in commercial CIM disk monolithic columns is presented. Experimental measurements of pressure drop are compared to hydrodynamic models usually employed for prediction of pressure drop in packed beds, e.g. free surface model and capillary model applying hydraulic radius concept. However, the comparison between pressure drop in monolith and adequate packed bed give unexpected results. Pressure drop in a CIM disk monolithic column is approximately 50% lower than in an adequate packed bed of spheres having the same hydraulic radius as CIM disk monolith; meaning they both have the same porosity and the same specific surface area. This phenomenon seems to be a consequence of the monolithic porous structure which is quite different in terms of the pore size distribution and parallel pore nonuniformity compared to the one in conventional packed beds. The number of self-similar levels for the CIM monoliths was estimated to be between 1.03 and 2.75.

  12. An Inexpensive Field-Widened Monolithic Michelson Interferometer for Precision Radial Velocity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Suvrath; Ge, Jian; Fleming, Scott W.; Wan, Xiaoke; DeWitt, Curtis; van Eyken, Julian C.; McDavitt, Dan

    2008-09-01

    We have constructed a thermally compensated field-widened monolithic Michelson interferometer that can be used with a medium-resolution spectrograph to measure precise Doppler radial velocities of stars. Our prototype monolithic fixed-delay interferometer is constructed with off-the-shelf components and assembled using a hydrolysis bonding technique. We installed and tested this interferometer in the Exoplanet Tracker (ET) instrument at the Kitt Peak 2.1 m telescope, an instrument built to demonstrate the principles of dispersed fixed-delay interferometry. An iodine cell allows the interferometer drift to be accurately calibrated, relaxing the stability requirements on the interferometer itself. When using our monolithic interferometer, the ET instrument has no moving parts (except the iodine cell), greatly simplifying its operation. We demonstrate differential radial velocity precision of a few m s-1 on well known radial velocity standards and planet bearing stars when using this interferometer. Such monolithic interferometers will make it possible to build relatively inexpensive instruments that are easy to operate and capable of precision radial velocity measurements. A larger multiobject version of the Exoplanet Tracker will be used to conduct a large scale survey for planetary systems as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS III). Variants of the techniques and principles discussed in this paper can be directly applied to build large monolithic interferometers for such applications, enabling the construction of instruments capable of efficiently observing many stars simultaneously at high velocity precision.

  13. Graphene-supported metal oxide monolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Biener, Juergen; Biener, Monika A.; Wang, Yinmin; Ye, Jianchao; Tylski, Elijah

    2017-01-10

    A composition comprising at least one graphene-supported metal oxide monolith, said monolith comprising a three-dimensional structure of graphene sheets crosslinked by covalent carbon bonds, wherein the graphene sheets are coated by at least one metal oxide such as iron oxide or titanium oxide. Also provided is an electrode comprising the aforementioned graphene-supported metal oxide monolith, wherein the electrode can be substantially free of any carbon-black and substantially free of any binder.

  14. Graphene-supported metal oxide monolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Biener, Juergen; Biener, Monika A.; Wang, Yinmin; Ye, Jianchao; Tylski, Elijah

    2017-01-10

    A composition comprising at least one graphene-supported metal oxide monolith, said monolith comprising a three-dimensional structure of graphene sheets crosslinked by covalent carbon bonds, wherein the graphene sheets are coated by at least one metal oxide such as iron oxide or titanium oxide. Also provided is an electrode comprising the aforementioned graphene-supported metal oxide monolith, wherein the electrode can be substantially free of any carbon-black and substantially free of any binder.

  15. Monolithic Active Pixel Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) ASIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Farah F.; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Shenai, Alpana; Yarema, Raymond J.; /Fermilab

    2010-11-01

    Monolithic Active Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) is a counting ASIC designed for detecting and measuring low energy X-rays from 6-12 keV. Each pixel contains analogue functionality implemented with a charge preamplifier, CR-RC{sup 2} shaper and a baseline restorer. It also contains a window comparator which can be trimmed by 4 bit DACs to remove systematic offsets. The hits are registered by a 12 bit ripple counter which is reconfigured as a shift register to serially output the data from the entire ASIC. Each pixel can be tested individually. Two diverse approaches have been used to prevent coupling between the detector and electronics in MAMBO III and MAMBO IV. MAMBO III is a 3D ASIC, the bottom ASIC consists of diodes which are connected to the top ASIC using {mu}-bump bonds. The detector is decoupled from the electronics by physically separating them on two tiers and using several metal layers as a shield. MAMBO IV is a monolithic structure which uses a nested well approach to isolate the detector from the electronics. The ASICs are being fabricated using the SOI 0.2 {micro}m OKI process, MAMBO III is 3D bonded at T-Micro and MAMBO IV nested well structure was developed in collaboration between OKI and Fermilab.

  16. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Conceptual design and evaluation of commercial plant. Volume III. Economic analyses (Deliverable Nos. 15 and 16)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    This report presents the results of Task I of Phase I in the form of a Conceptual Design and Evaluation of Commercial Plant report. The report is presented in four volumes as follows: I - Executive Summary, II - Commercial Plant Design, III - Economic Analyses, IV - Demonstration Plant Recommendations. Volume III presents the economic analyses for the commercial plant and the supporting data. General cost and financing factors used in the analyses are tabulated. Three financing modes are considered. The product gas cost calculation procedure is identified and appendices present computer inputs and sample computer outputs for the MLGW, Utility, and Industry Base Cases. The results of the base case cost analyses for plant fenceline gas costs are as follows: Municipal Utility, (e.g. MLGW), $3.76/MM Btu; Investor Owned Utility, (25% equity), $4.48/MM Btu; and Investor Case, (100% equity), $5.21/MM Btu. The results of 47 IFG product cost sensitivity cases involving a dozen sensitivity variables are presented. Plant half size, coal cost, plant investment, and return on equity (industrial) are the most important sensitivity variables. Volume III also presents a summary discussion of the socioeconomic impact of the plant and a discussion of possible commercial incentives for development of IFG plants.

  17. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  18. Nanosecond monolithic CMOS readout cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchkov, Vitali V.

    2004-08-24

    A pulse shaper is implemented in monolithic CMOS with a delay unit formed of a unity gain buffer. The shaper is formed of a difference amplifier having one input connected directly to an input signal and a second input connected to a delayed input signal through the buffer. An elementary cell is based on the pulse shaper and a timing circuit which gates the output of an integrator connected to the pulse shaper output. A detector readout system is formed of a plurality of elementary cells, each connected to a pixel of a pixel array, or to a microstrip of a plurality of microstrips, or to a detector segment.

  19. Compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Vernon, George E.; Hoke, Darren A.; De Marquis, Virginia K.; Harris, Steven M.

    2007-06-26

    A compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit (CDU) is disclosed in which a thyristor switch and a flyback charging circuit are both sandwiched about a ceramic energy storage capacitor. The result is a compact rugged assembly which provides a low-inductance current discharge path. The flyback charging circuit preferably includes a low-temperature co-fired ceramic transformer. The CDU can further include one or more ceramic substrates for enclosing the thyristor switch and for holding various passive components used in the flyback charging circuit. A load such as a detonator can also be attached directly to the CDU.

  20. SURFACE CHEMKIN-III: A Fortran package for analyzing heterogeneous chemical kinetics at a solid-surface - gas-phase interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coltrin, M.E.; Kee, R.J.; Rupley, F.M.; Meeks, E.

    1996-05-01

    This document is the user`s manual for the SURFACE CHEMKIN-III package. Together with CHEMKIN-III, this software facilitates the formation, solution, and interpretation of problems involving elementary heterogeneous and gas-phase chemical kinetics in the presence of a solid surface. The package consists of two major software components: an Interpreter and a Surface Subroutine Library. The Interpreter is a program that reads a symbolic description of a user-specified chemical reaction mechanism. One output from the Interpreter is a data file that forms a link to the Surface Subroutine Library, which is a collection of about seventy modular Fortran subroutines that may be called from a user`s application code to return information on chemical production rates and thermodynamic properties. This version of SURFACE CHEMKIN-III includes many modifications to allow treatment of multi-fluid plasma systems, for example modeling the reactions of highly energetic ionic species with a surface. Optional rate expressions allow reaction rates to depend upon ion energy rather than a single thermodynamic temperature. In addition, subroutines treat temperature as an array, allowing an application code to define a different temperature for each species. This version of SURFACE CHEMKIN-III allows use of real (non-integer) stoichiometric coefficients; the reaction order with respect to species concentrations can also be specified independent of the reaction`s stoichiometric coefficients. Several different reaction mechanisms can be specified in the Interpreter input file through the new construct of multiple materials.

  1. Microscope-assisted UV-initiated preparation of well-defined porous polymer monolithic plugs in glass microchips for peptide preconcentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziomba, Szymon; Araya-Farias, Monica; Taverna, Myriam; Guerrouache, Mohamed; Carbonnier, Benjamin; Tran, N Thuy

    2017-03-01

    Herein, highly defined monolithic beds were prepared in glass microchips by photopolymerization of ethylene glycol methacrylate phosphate (EGMP), acrylamide, and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (BAA) using an epifluorescence microscope as UV-irradiation source. Such a fast and easy method allowed precise control of (i) the edge shape, (ii) the location along the microchannel, and (iii) the length of the monolithic plugs within glass microchips. The addition of hydroquinone, a polymerization inhibitor, to the prepolymerization mixture was beneficial for achieving local and robust incorporation of monoliths with sharp edges within microchannels. The monolith length was easily tuned from 160 to 400 μm through simple change in the magnification of the objective and was found to be repeatable (relative standard deviation microscope-UV-synthesis of monolithic plugs with sharp edges.

  2. Remote Sensing with Commutable Monolithic Laser and Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous trend toward miniaturized sensing systems demands novel concepts for compact and versatile spectroscopic tools. Conventional optical sensing setups include a light source, an analyte interaction region, and a separate external detector. We present a compact sensor providing room-temperature operation of monolithic surface-active lasers and detectors integrated on the same chip. The differentiation between emitter and detector is eliminated, which enables mutual commutation. Proof-of-principle gas measurements with a limit of detection below 400 ppm are demonstrated. This concept enables a crucial miniaturization of sensing devices. PMID:27785455

  3. Dedicated monolithic infrared spectrometer for process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Suneet; Kyle, William; Bolduc, Roy A.; Curtiss, Lawrence E.

    1999-12-01

    Foster-Miller has leveraged its innovations in IR fiber- optic probes and the recent development of a miniature spectrometer to build a novel IR sensor system for process applications. The developed sensor systems is a low-cost alternative to process FTIR and filter based systems. A monolithic wedge-grating optic provides the spectral dispersion with low cost thermopile point or array detectors picking off the diffracted wavelengths from the optic. The integrated optic provides spectral discrimination between 3- 12 micrometers with resolution at 8 cm-1 or better and high overall optical throughput. The device has a fixed cylindrical grating uniquely bonded to the edge of a ZnSe conditioning 'wedge'. The conditioning optic overcomes limitations of concave gratings as it accepts high angle light at the narrow end of the wedge and progressively conditions it to be near normal to the grating. On return, the diffracted wavelengths are concentrated on the discrete or array detector elements by the wedge, providing throughput comparable to that of an FTIR. The miniature spectrometer coupled to flow through liquid cells or multipass gas cells provides significant cost advantage over conventional sampling methodologies. Currently, we are investigating process applications for the petroleum and dairy markets. The sensor system eliminates the cost, complexity, reliability and bandwidth/resolution problems associated with either Fabry Perot or Michelson Interferometer based approaches for low-cost process applications.

  4. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Anson V; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay V

    2014-04-22

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  5. The JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey III: Comparisons of cold dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, molecular gas, and atomic gas in NGC 2403

    CERN Document Server

    Bendo, G J; Warren, B E; Brinks, E; Butner, H M; Chanial, P; Clements, D L; Courteau, S; Irwin, J; Israel, F P; Knapen, J H; Leech, J; Matthews, H E; Muehle, S; Petitpas, G; Serjeant, S; Tan, B K; Tilanus, R P J; Usero, A; Vaccari, M; van der Werf, P; Vlahakis, C; Wiegert, T; Zhu, M

    2009-01-01

    We used 3.6, 8.0, 70, 160 micron Spitzer Space Telescope data, James Clerk Maxwell Telescope HARP-B CO J=(3-2) data, National Radio Astronomy Observatory 12 meter telescope CO J=(1-0) data, and Very Large Array HI data to investigate the relations among PAHs, cold (~20 K) dust, molecular gas, and atomic gas within NGC 2403, an SABcd galaxy at a distance of 3.13 Mpc. The dust surface density is mainly a function of the total (atomic and molecular) gas surface density and galactocentric radius. The gas-to-dust ratio monotonically increases with radius, varying from ~100 in the nucleus to ~400 at 5.5 kpc. The slope of the gas-to-dust ratio is close to that of the oxygen abundance, suggesting that metallicity strongly affects the gas-to-dust ratio within this galaxy. The exponential scale length of the radial profile for the CO J=(3-2) emission is statistically identical to the scale length for the stellar continuum-subtracted 8 micron (PAH 8 micron) emission. However, CO J=(3-2) and PAH 8 micron surface brightne...

  6. H2O Southern Galactic Plane Survey (HOPS): Paper III - properties of dense molecular gas across the inner Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmore, S. N.; Walsh, A. J.; Purcell, C. R.; Burke, D. J.; Henshaw, J.; Walker, D.; Urquhart, J.; Barnes, A. T.; Whiting, M.; Burton, M. G.; Breen, S. L.; Britton, T.; Brooks, K. J.; Cunningham, M. R.; Green, J. A.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Hindson, L.; Hoare, M. G.; Indermuehle, B.; Jones, P. A.; Lo, N.; Lowe, V.; Moore, T. J. T.; Thompson, M. A.; Voronkov, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    The H2O Southern Galactic Plane Survey (HOPS) has mapped 100 deg2 of the Galactic plane for water masers and thermal molecular line emission using the 22 m Mopra telescope. We describe the automated spectral-line fitting pipelines used to determine the properties of emission detected in HOPS data cubes, and use these to derive the physical and kinematic properties of gas in the survey. A combination of the angular resolution, sensitivity, velocity resolution and high critical density of lines targeted make the HOPS data cubes ideally suited to finding precursor clouds to the most massive and dense stellar clusters in the Galaxy. We compile a list of the most massive HOPS ammonia regions and investigate whether any may be young massive cluster progenitor gas clouds. HOPS is also ideally suited to trace the flows of dense gas in the Galactic Centre. We find the kinematic structure of gas within the inner 500 pc of the Galaxy is consistent with recent predictions for the dynamical evolution of gas flows in the centre of the Milky Way. We confirm a recent finding that the dense gas in the inner 100 pc has an oscillatory kinematic structure with characteristic length-scale of 20 pc, and also identify similar oscillatory kinematic structure in the gas at radii larger than 100 pc. Finally, we make all of the above fits and the remaining HOPS data cubes across the 100 deg2 of the survey available to the community.

  7. Biasable, Balanced, Fundamental Submillimeter Monolithic Membrane Mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Peter; Schlecht, Erich; Mehdi, Imran; Gill, John; Velebir, James; Tsang, Raymond; Dengler, Robert; Lin, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This device is a biasable, submillimeter-wave, balanced mixer fabricated using JPL s monolithic membrane process a simplified version of planar membrane technology. The primary target application is instrumentation used for analysis of atmospheric constituents, pressure, temperature, winds, and other physical and chemical properties of the atmospheres of planets and comets. Other applications include high-sensitivity gas detection and analysis. This innovation uses a balanced configuration of two diodes allowing the radio frequency (RF) signal and local oscillator (LO) inputs to be separated. This removes the need for external diplexers that are inherently narrowband, bulky, and require mechanical tuning to change frequency. Additionally, this mixer uses DC bias-ability to improve its performance and versatility. In order to solve problems relating to circuit size, the GaAs membrane process was created. As much of the circuitry as possible is fabricated on-chip, making the circuit monolithic. The remainder of the circuitry is precision-machined into a waveguide block that holds the GaAs circuit. The most critical alignments are performed using micron-scale semiconductor technology, enabling wide bandwidth and high operating frequencies. The balanced mixer gets superior performance with less than 2 mW of LO power. This can be provided by a simple two-stage multiplier chain following an amplifier at around 90 GHz. Further, the diodes are arranged so that they can be biased. Biasing pushes the diodes closer to their switching voltage, so that less LO power is required to switch the diodes on and off. In the photo, the diodes are at the right end of the circuit. The LO comes from the waveguide at the right into a reduced-height section containing the diodes. Because the diodes are in series to the LO signal, they are both turned on and off simultaneously once per LO cycle. Conversely, the RF signal is picked up from the RF waveguide by the probe at the left, and flows

  8. Monolithic Continuous-Flow Bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Kornfield, Julia A.; Voecks, Gerald A.

    1993-01-01

    Monolithic ceramic matrices containing many small flow passages useful as continuous-flow bioreactors. Ceramic matrix containing passages made by extruding and firing suitable ceramic. Pores in matrix provide attachment medium for film of cells and allow free movement of solution. Material one not toxic to micro-organisms grown in reactor. In reactor, liquid nutrients flow over, and liquid reaction products flow from, cell culture immobilized in one set of channels while oxygen flows to, and gaseous reaction products flow from, culture in adjacent set of passages. Cells live on inner surfaces containing flowing nutrient and in pores of walls of passages. Ready access to nutrients and oxygen in channels. They generate continuous high yield characteristic of immobilized cells, without large expenditure of energy otherwise incurred if necessary to pump nutrient solution through dense biomass as in bioreactors of other types.

  9. Anisotropically structured magnetic aerogel monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiligtag, Florian J.; Airaghi Leccardi, Marta J. I.; Erdem, Derya; Süess, Martin J.; Niederberger, Markus

    2014-10-01

    Texturing of magnetic ceramics and composites by aligning and fixing of colloidal particles in a magnetic field is a powerful strategy to induce anisotropic chemical, physical and especially mechanical properties into bulk materials. If porosity could be introduced, anisotropically structured magnetic materials would be the perfect supports for magnetic separations in biotechnology or for magnetic field-assisted chemical reactions. Aerogels, combining high porosity with nanoscale structural features, offer an exceptionally large surface area, but they are difficult to magnetically texture. Here we present the preparation of anatase-magnetite aerogel monoliths via the assembly of preformed nanocrystallites. Different approaches are proposed to produce macroscopic bodies with gradient-like magnetic segmentation or with strongly anisotropic magnetic texture.Texturing of magnetic ceramics and composites by aligning and fixing of colloidal particles in a magnetic field is a powerful strategy to induce anisotropic chemical, physical and especially mechanical properties into bulk materials. If porosity could be introduced, anisotropically structured magnetic materials would be the perfect supports for magnetic separations in biotechnology or for magnetic field-assisted chemical reactions. Aerogels, combining high porosity with nanoscale structural features, offer an exceptionally large surface area, but they are difficult to magnetically texture. Here we present the preparation of anatase-magnetite aerogel monoliths via the assembly of preformed nanocrystallites. Different approaches are proposed to produce macroscopic bodies with gradient-like magnetic segmentation or with strongly anisotropic magnetic texture. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Digital photographs of dispersions and gels with different water-to-ethanol ratios; magnetic measurements of an anatase aerogel containing 0.25 mol% Fe3O4 nanoparticles; XRD patterns of the iron oxide and

  10. Monolithic cells for solar fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongé, Jan; Bosserez, Tom; Martel, David; Nervi, Carlo; Boarino, Luca; Taulelle, Francis; Decher, Gero; Bordiga, Silvia; Martens, Johan A

    2014-12-07

    Hybrid energy generation models based on a variety of alternative energy supply technologies are considered the best way to cope with the depletion of fossil energy resources and to limit global warming. One of the currently missing technologies is the mimic of natural photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide and water into chemical fuel using sunlight. This idea has been around for decades, but artificial photosynthesis of organic molecules is still far away from providing real-world solutions. The scientific challenge is to perform in an efficient way the multi-electron transfer reactions of water oxidation and carbon dioxide reduction using holes and single electrons generated in an illuminated semiconductor. In this tutorial review the design of photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells that combine solar water oxidation and CO2 reduction is discussed. In such PEC cells simultaneous transport and efficient use of light, electrons, protons and molecules has to be managed. It is explained how efficiency can be gained by compartmentalisation of the water oxidation and CO2 reduction processes by proton exchange membranes, and monolithic concepts of artificial leaves and solar membranes are presented. Besides transferring protons from the anode to the cathode compartment the membrane serves as a molecular barrier material to prevent cross-over of oxygen and fuel molecules. Innovative nano-organized multimaterials will be needed to realise practical artificial photosynthesis devices. This review provides an overview of synthesis techniques which could be used to realise monolithic multifunctional membrane-electrode assemblies, such as Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), and porous silicon (porSi) engineering. Advances in modelling approaches, electrochemical techniques and in situ spectroscopies to characterise overall PEC cell performance are discussed.

  11. Examination of the coordination sphere of Al(III) in trifluoromethyl-heteroarylalkenolato complex ions by gas-phase IRMPD spectroscopy and computational modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückmann, Lisa; Tyrra, Wieland; Mathur, Sanjay; Berden, Giel; Oomens, Jos; Meijer, Anthony J H M; Schäfer, Mathias

    2012-06-01

    A series of aluminium complex ions with trifluoromethyl-heteroarylalkenolato (TMHA) ligands are studied by gas-phase infrared multiphoton-dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy and computational modelling. The selected series of aluminium TMHA complex ions are promising species for the initial study of intrinsic binding characteristics of Al(III) cations in the gas phase as corresponding molecular ions. They are readily available for examination by (+) and (-) electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) by spraying of [Al(3+)⋅(L(-))(3)] solutions. The complex ions under investigation contain trivalent Al(3+) cations with two chelating anionic enolate ligands, [Al(3+)⋅(L(-))(2)](+), providing insights in the nature of the heteroatom-Al bonds. Additionally, the structure of a deprotonated benzimidazole ligand, L(-,) and an anionic complex ion of Al(III) with two doubly deprotonated benzimidazole ligands, [Al(3+)⋅(L(2-))(2)](-), are examined by (-)ESI-IRMPD spectroscopy. Experimental and computational results are highly consistent and allow a reliable identification of the ion structures. In all complex ions examined the planar TMHA ligands are oriented perpendicular to each other around the metal ion, leading to a tetrahedral coordination sphere in which aluminium interacts with the enolate oxygen and heteroaryl nitrogen atoms available in each of the bidentate ligands.

  12. Two heterometallic-organic frameworks composed of iron(III)-salen-based ligands and d(10) metals: gas sorption and visible-light photocatalytic degradation of 2-chlorophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Yang, Jin; Liu, Ying-Ying; Ma, Jian-Fang

    2015-03-01

    Two examples of heterometallic-organic frameworks (HMOFs) composed of dicarboxyl-functionalized Fe(III)-salen complexes and d(10) metals (Zn, Cd), [Zn2(Fe-L)2(μ2-O)(H2O)2]⋅4 DMF⋅4 H2O (1) and [Cd2(Fe-L)2(μ2-O)(H2O)2]⋅2 DMF⋅H2O (2) (H4L = 1,2-cyclohexanediamino-N,N'-bis(3-methyl-5-carboxysalicylidene), have been synthesized and structurally characterized. In 1 and 2, each square-pyramidal Fe(III) atom is embedded in the [N2O2] pocket of an L(4-) anion, and these units are further bridged by a μ2-O anion to give an (Fe-L)2(μ2-O) dimer. The two carboxylate groups of each L(4-) anion bridge Zn(II) or Cd(II) atoms to afford a 3D porous HMOF. The gas sorption and magnetic properties of 1 and 2 have been studied. Remarkably, 1 and 2 show activity for the photocatalytic degradation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) under visible-light irradiation, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first time that this has been observed for Fe(III)-salen-based HMOFs.

  13. ALFALFA HI Data Stacking III. Comparison of environmental trends in HI gas mass fraction and specific star formation rate

    CERN Document Server

    Fabello, Silvia; Catinella, Barbara; Li, Cheng; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that both the star formation rate and the cold gas content of a galaxy depend on the local density out to distances of a few Megaparsecs. In this paper, we compare the environmental density dependence of the atomic gas mass fractions of nearby galaxies with the density dependence of their central and global specific star formation rates. We stack HI line spectra extracted from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey centered on galaxies with UV imaging from GALEX and optical imaging/spectroscopy from SDSS. We use these stacked spectra to evaluate the mean atomic gas mass fraction of galaxies in bins of stellar mass and local density. For galaxies with stellar masses less than 10^10.5 M_sun, the decline in mean atomic gas mass fraction with density is stronger than the decline in mean global and central specific star formation rate. The same conclusion does not hold for more massive galaxies. We interpret our results as evidence for ram-pressure stripping of atomic gas from the outer disks of low ...

  14. Three-Dimensional Distribution of the ISM in the Milky Way Galaxy: III. The Total Neutral Gas Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Nakanishi, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    We present newly obtained three-dimensional gaseous maps of the Milky Way Galaxy; HI, H$_2$ and total-gas (HI plus H$_2$) maps, which were derived from the HI and $^{12}$CO($J=1$--0) survey data and rotation curves based on the kinematic distance. The HI and H$_2$ face-on maps show that the HI disk is extended to the radius of 15--20 kpc and its outskirt is asymmetric to the Galactic center, while most of the H$_2$ gas is distributed inside the solar circle. The total gas mass within radius 30 kpc amounts to $8.0\\times 10^9$ M$_\\odot$, 89\\% and 11\\% of which are HI and H$_2$, {respectively}. The vertical slices show that the outer HI disk is strongly warped and the inner HI and H$_2$ disks are corrugated. The total gas map is advantageous to trace spiral structure from the inner to outer disk. Spiral structures such as the Norma-Cygnus, the Perseus, the Sagittarius-Carina, the Scutum-Crux, and the Orion arms are more clearly traced in the total gas map than ever. All the spiral arms are well explained with lo...

  15. Monolithic Time Delay Integrated APD Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the proposed program by Epitaxial Technologies is to develop monolithic time delay integrated avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays with sensitivity...

  16. Influence of Stellar Multiplicity On Planet Formation. III. Adaptive Optics Imaging of Kepler Stars With Gas Giant Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ji; Horch, Elliott P; Xie, Ji-Wei

    2015-01-01

    As hundreds of gas giant planets have been discovered, we study how these planets form and evolve in different stellar environments, specifically in multiple stellar systems. In such systems, stellar companions may have a profound influence on gas giant planet formation and evolution via several dynamical effects such as truncation and perturbation. We select 84 Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) with gas giant planet candidates. We obtain high-angular resolution images using telescopes with adaptive optics (AO) systems. Together with the AO data, we use archival radial velocity data and dynamical analysis to constrain the presence of stellar companions. We detect 59 stellar companions around 40 KOIs for which we develop methods of testing their physical association. These methods are based on color information and galactic stellar population statistics. We find evidence of suppressive planet formation within 20 AU by comparing stellar multiplicity. The stellar multiplicity rate for planet host stars is 0$^{+5...

  17. Monolithic multinozzle emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daojing; Yang, Peidong; Kim, Woong; Fan, Rong

    2011-09-20

    Novel and significantly simplified procedures for fabrication of fully integrated nanoelectrospray emitters have been described. For nanofabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (NM.sup.2 emitters), a bottom up approach using silicon nanowires on a silicon sliver is used. For microfabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (M.sup.3 emitters), a top down approach using MEMS techniques on silicon wafers is used. The emitters have performance comparable to that of commercially-available silica capillary emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry.

  18. Activated Carbon Fiber Monoliths as Supercapacitor Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelines Moreno-Fernandez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers (ACF are interesting candidates for electrodes in electrochemical energy storage devices; however, one major drawback for practical application is their low density. In the present work, monoliths were synthesized from two different ACFs, reaching 3 times higher densities than the original ACFs’ apparent densities. The porosity of the monoliths was only slightly decreased with respect to the pristine ACFs, the employed PVDC binder developing additional porosity upon carbonization. The ACF monoliths are essentially microporous and reach BET surface areas of up to 1838 m2 g−1. SEM analysis reveals that the ACFs are well embedded into the monolith structure and that their length was significantly reduced due to the monolith preparation process. The carbonized monoliths were studied as supercapacitor electrodes in two- and three-electrode cells having 2 M H2SO4 as electrolyte. Maximum capacitances of around 200 F g−1 were reached. The results confirm that the capacitance of the bisulfate anions essentially originates from the double layer, while hydronium cations contribute with a mixture of both, double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance.

  19. Monolithically integrated Ge CMOS laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Aguilera, Rodolfo

    2014-02-01

    Ge-on-Si devices are explored for photonic integration. Through the development of better growth techniques, monolithic integration, laser design and prototypes, it was possible to probe Ge light emitters with emphasis on lasers. Preliminary worked shows thermal photonic behavior capable of enhancing lamination at high temperatures. Increase luminescence is observed up to 120°C from L-band contribution. Higher temperatures show contribution from Δ -band. The increase carrier thermal contribution suggests high temperature applications for Ge light emitters. A Ge electrically pumped laser was probed under 0.2% biaxial strain and doping concentration ~4.5×1019cm-3 n-type. Ge pnn lasers exhibit a gain >1000cm-1 with 8mW power output, presenting a spectrum range of over 200nm, making Ge the ideal candidate for Si photonics. Large temperatures fluctuations and process limit the present device. Theoretically a gain of >4000cm- gain is possible with a threshold of as low as 1kA/cm2. Improvements in Ge work

  20. Electronic properties of the III-VI layer compounds GaS, GaSe and InSe. Part II: Photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonangeli, F.; Piacentini, M. (Comitato Nazionale per l' Energia Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Frascati); Balzarotti, A. (L' Aquila Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica); Grasso, V.; Girlanda, R. (Messina Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Struttura della Materia); Doni, E. (Pisa Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica)

    1979-05-11

    The valence density of states of the III-VI layer compounds GaS, GaSe and InSe is discussed on the basis of the available ultraviolet photoelectron spectra. A new set of X-ray photoelectron spectra, measured homogeneously on the three compounds, are presented and the experimental features are interpreted on the basis of the valence band density of states, calculated by using the band structures obtained in the first paper of this series with the overlap-reduced tight-binding method. The overall similarity of the experimental spectra agrees with the theoretical findings. The dependence of less bound states on the polarization of the exciting radiation is understood on the basis of the computed energy levels. The fine structure shown by some UPS peaks is interpreted, and some experimental features are shown to depend essentially on the interaction between adjacent layers.

  1. Poly(ethylenimine)-Functionalized Monolithic Alumina Honeycomb Adsorbents for CO2 Capture from Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakwa-Novak, Miles A; Yoo, Chun-Jae; Tan, Shuai; Rashidi, Fereshteh; Jones, Christopher W

    2016-07-21

    The development of practical and effective gas-solid contactors is an important area in the development of CO2 capture technologies. Target CO2 capture applications, such as postcombustion carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) from power plant flue gases or CO2 extraction directly from ambient air (DAC), require high flow rates of gas to be processed at low cost. Extruded monolithic honeycomb structures, such as those employed in the catalytic converters of automobiles, have excellent potential as structured contactors for CO2 adsorption applications because of the low pressure drop imposed on fluid moving through the straight channels of such structures. Here, we report the impregnation of poly(ethylenimine) (PEI), an effective aminopolymer reported commonly for CO2 separation, into extruded monolithic alumina to form structured CO2 sorbents. These structured sorbents are first prepared on a small scale, characterized thoroughly, and compared with powder sorbents with a similar composition. Despite consistent differences observed in the filling of mesopores with PEI between the monolithic and powder sorbents, their performance in CO2 adsorption is similar across a range of PEI contents. A larger monolithic cylinder (1 inch diameter, 4 inch length) is evaluated under conditions closer to those that might be used in large-scale applications and shows a similar performance to the smaller monoliths and powders tested initially. This larger structure is evaluated over five cycles of CO2 adsorption and steam desorption and demonstrates a volumetric capacity of 350 molCO2  m-3monolith and an equilibration time of 350 min under a 0.4 m s(-1) linear flow velocity through the monolith channels using 400 ppm CO2 in N2 as the adsorption gas at 30 °C. This volumetric capacity surpasses that of a similar technology considered previously, which suggested that CO2 could be removed from air at an operating cost as low as $100 per ton.

  2. ALFALFA Discovery of the Nearby Gas-Rich Dwarf Galaxy Leo~P. III. An Extremely Metal Deficient Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Skillman, Evan D; Berg, Danielle A; Pogge, Richard W; Haurberg, Nathalie C; Cannon, John M; Aver, Erik; Olive, Keith A; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P; Adams, Elizabeth A K; McQuinn, Kristen B W; Rhode, Katherine L

    2013-01-01

    We present KPNO 4-m and LBT/MODS spectroscopic observations of an HII region in the nearby dwarf irregular galaxy Leo P discovered recently in the Arecibo ALFALFA survey. In both observations, we are able to accurately measure the temperature sensitive [O III] 4363 Angstrom line and determine a "direct" oxygen abundance of 12 + log(O/H) = 7.17 +/- 0.04. Thus, Leo P is an extremely metal deficient (XMD) galaxy, and, indeed, one of the most metal deficient star-forming galaxies ever observed. For its estimated luminosity, Leo P is consistent with the relationship between luminosity and oxygen abundance seen in nearby dwarf galaxies. Leo P shows normal alpha element abundance ratios (Ne/O, S/O, and Ar/O) when compared to other XMD galaxies, but elevated N/O, consistent with the "delayed release" hypothesis for N/O abundances. We derive a helium mass fraction of 0.2509 +0.0184 -0.0123 which compares well with the WMAP + BBN prediction of 0.2483 +/- 0.0002 for the primordial helium abundance. We suggest that surve...

  3. Modified monolithic silica capillary for preconcentration of catecholamines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Chang; Tusyo-shi Komazu

    2009-01-01

    Preconcentration of catecholamines by the modified monolithic silica in the capillary was investigated in this study. In order to achieve a microchip-based method for determining catecholamines in the saliva, the monolithic silica was fabricated in the capillary and the monolithic silica was chemically modified by on-column reaction with phenylboronate. Different modified methods were compared. The concentration conditions were optimized. This study indicates the applicability of the modified monolithic silica capillary when it was used to concentrate catecholamines.

  4. Modified monolithic silica capillary for preconcentration of catecholamines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Preconcentration of catecholamines by the modified monolithic silica in the capillary was investigated in this study. In order to achieve a microchip-based method for determining catecholamines in the saliva,the monolithic silica was fabricated in the capillary and the monolithic silica was chemically modified by on-column reaction with phenylboronate. Different modified methods were compared. The concentration conditions were optimized. This study indicates the applicability of the modified monolithic sili...

  5. Fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia molar crowns with reduced thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Harada, A.; Inagaki, R.; Kanno, Taro; Niwano, Y; Milleding, Percy; Ørtengren, Ulf Thore

    2015-01-01

    This is the accepted manuscript version. Published version is available at Acta Odontologica Scandinavica Objectives. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the relationship between fracture load of monolithic zirconia crowns and axial/occlusal thickness, and to evaluate the fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns with reduced thickness in comparison with that of monolithic lithium disilicate crowns with regular thickness. Materials and methods. Monolithic zi...

  6. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Task III, Demonstration plant safety, industrial hygiene, and major disaster plan (Deliverable No. 35)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-03-01

    This Health and Safety Plan has been adopted by the IFG Demonstration Plant managed by Memphis Light, Gas and Water at Memphis, Tennessee. The plan encompasses the following areas of concern: Safety Plan Administration, Industrial Health, Industrial Safety, First Aid, Fire Protection (including fire prevention and control), and Control of Safety Related Losses. The primary objective of this plan is to achieve adequate control of all potentially hazardous activities to assure the health and safety of all employees and eliminate lost work time to both the employees and the company. The second objective is to achieve compliance with all Federal, state and local laws, regulations and codes. Some thirty specific safe practice instruction items are included.

  7. VALES - III. The calibration between the dust continuum and interstellar gas content of star-forming galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, T. M.; Ibar, E.; Villanueva, V.; Aravena, M.; Baes, M.; Bourne, N.; Cooray, A.; Davies, L. J. M.; Driver, S.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Furlanetto, C.; Herrera-Camus, R.; Ivison, R. J.; van Kampen, E.; Lara-López, M. A.; Maddox, S.; Michałowski, M. J.; Oteo, I.; Smith, D.; Smith, M. W. L.; Valiante, E.; van der Werf, P.; Viaene, S.; Xue, Y. Q.

    2017-06-01

    We present the calibration between the dust continuum luminosity and interstellar gas content obtained from the Valparaíso ALMA Line Emission Survey (VALES) sample of 67 main-sequence star-forming galaxies at 0.02 Assembly survey. Adopting αCO = 6.5 (K km s-1 pc2)-1, the average ratio of L_{ν _{850}}/MH2 = (6.4 ± 1.4)× 1019 erg s-1 Hz-1 M_{⊙}^{-1}, in excellent agreement with literature values. We obtain a linear fit of log _{10} ({M}_{H2}/{M_{⊙}}) = (0.92± 0.02) log _{10} (L_{ν _{850}}/{erg s^{-1} Hz^{-1}})-(17.31± 0.59). We provide relations between L_{ν _{850}}, MH2 and MISM when combining the VALES and literature samples, and adopting a Galactic αCO value.

  8. Gas around galaxy haloes - III: hydrogen absorption signatures around galaxies and QSOs in the Sherwood simulation suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiksin, Avery; Bolton, James S.; Puchwein, Ewald

    2017-01-01

    Modern theories of galaxy formation predict that galaxies impact on their gaseous surroundings, playing the fundamental role of regulating the amount of gas converted into stars. While star-forming galaxies are believed to provide feedback through galactic winds, Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSOs) are believed instead to provide feedback through the heat generated by accretion onto a central supermassive black hole. A quantitative difference in the impact of feedback on the gaseous environments of star-forming galaxies and QSOs has not been established through direct observations. Using the Sherwood cosmological simulations, we demonstrate that measurements of neutral hydrogen in the vicinity of star-forming galaxies and QSOs during the era of peak galaxy formation show excess Lyman-α absorption extending up to comoving radii of ˜150 kpc for star-forming galaxies and 300 - 700 kpc for QSOs. Simulations including supernovae-driven winds account for the absorption around star-forming galaxies but not QSOs.

  9. Development of a monolithic ferrite memory array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckler, C. H., Jr.; Bhiwandker, N. C.

    1972-01-01

    The results of the development and testing of ferrite monolithic memory arrays are presented. This development required the synthesis of ferrite materials having special magnetic and physical characteristics and the development of special processes; (1) for making flexible sheets (laminae) of the ferrite composition, (2) for embedding conductors in ferrite, and (3) bonding ferrite laminae together to form a monolithic structure. Major problems encountered in each of these areas and their solutions are discussed. Twenty-two full-size arrays were fabricated and fired during the development of these processes. The majority of these arrays were tested for their memory characteristics as well as for their physical characteristics and the results are presented. The arrays produced during this program meet the essential goals and demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating monolithic ferrite memory arrays by the processes developed.

  10. Eigenpolarization theory of monolithic nonplanar ring oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Alan C.; Gustafson, Eric K.; Byer, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Diode-laser-pumped monolithic nonplanar ring oscillators (NPROs) in an applied magnetic field can operate as unidirectional traveling-wave lasers. The diode laser pumping, monolithic construction, and unidirectional oscillation lead to narrow linewidth radiation. Here, a comprehensive theory of the eigenpolarizations of a monolithic NPRO is presented. It is shown how the properties of the integral optical diode that forces unidirectional operation depend on the choice of the gain medium, the applied magnetic field, the output coupler, and the geometry of the nonplanar ring light path. Using optical equivalence theorems to gain insight into the polarization characteristics of the NPRO, a strategy for designing NPROs with low thresholds and large loss nonreciprocities is given. An analysis of the eigenpolarizations for one such NPRO is presented, alternative optimization approaches are considered, and the prospects for further reducing the linewidths of these lasers are briefly discussed.

  11. Physical and chemical sensing using monolithic semiconductor optical transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappe, Hans P.; Hofstetter, Daniel; Maisenhoelder, Bernd; Moser, Michael; Riel, Peter; Kunz, Rino E.

    1997-09-01

    We present two monolithically integrated optical sensor systems based on semiconductor photonic integrated circuits. These compact, robust and highly functional transducers perform all necessary optical and electro-optical functions on-chip; extension to multi-sensor arrays is easily envisaged. A monolithic Michelson interferometer for high-resolution displacement measurement and a monolithic Mach-Zehnder interferometer for refractometry are discussed.

  12. Increased thermal conductivity monolithic zeolite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, James; Klett, Lynn; Kaufman, Jonathan

    2008-11-25

    A monolith comprises a zeolite, a thermally conductive carbon, and a binder. The zeolite is included in the form of beads, pellets, powders and mixtures thereof. The thermally conductive carbon can be carbon nano-fibers, diamond or graphite which provide thermal conductivities in excess of about 100 W/mK to more than 1,000 W/mK. A method of preparing a zeolite monolith includes the steps of mixing a zeolite dispersion in an aqueous colloidal silica binder with a dispersion of carbon nano-fibers in water followed by dehydration and curing of the binder is given.

  13. Characterization of CIM monoliths as enzyme reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodopivec, Martina; Podgornik, Ales; Berovic, Marin; Strancar, Ales

    2003-09-25

    The immobilization of the enzymes citrate lyase, malate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase to CIM monolithic supports was performed. The long-term stability, reproducibility, and linear response range of the immobilized enzyme reactors were investigated along with the determination of the kinetic behavior of the enzymes immobilized on the CIM monoliths. The Michaelis-Menten constant K(m) and the turnover number k(3) of the immobilized enzymes were found to be flow-unaffected. Furthermore, the K(m) values of the soluble and immobilized enzyme were found to be comparable. Both facts indicate the absence of a diffusional limitation in immobilized CIM enzyme reactors.

  14. Monolithically integrated optoelectronic down-converter (MIOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoi, Efrim L.; Venus, G. B.; Khazan, A. A.; Gorfinkel, Vera B.; Kompa, Guenter; Avrutin, Evgenii A.; Thayne, Iain G.; Barrow, David A.; Marsh, John H.

    1995-06-01

    Optoelectronic down-conversion of very high-frequency amplitude-modulated signals using a semiconductor laser simultaneously as a local oscillator and a mixer is proposed. Three possible constructions of a monolithically integrated down-converter are considered theoretically: a four-terminal semiconductor laser with dual pumping current/modal gain control, and both a passively mode-locked and a passively Q-switched semiconductor laser monolithically integrated with an electroabsorption or pumping current modulator. Experimental verification of the feasibility of the concept of down conversion in a laser diode is presented.

  15. Miniaturized monolithic columns for the electrochromatographic separation and SERS detection of molecules of exobiological interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonnier, Benjamin; Guerrouache, Mohamed

    Development of miniaturized separation and detection media represents one of the major challenges in the field of modern analytical chemistry dedicated to space exploration. To date, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been selected as the method of choice for exobiology flight experiments for seeking for organic molecules and especially potential chemical indicators of life. [1] Liquid phase separation methods have also been developed with for instance, the so-called Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA) capillary electrophoresis (CE) microchip.[2] Although CE offers the advantages of easy miniaturization and high separation efficiency it suffers from a lack of selectivity towards a broad range of analytes with varied chemical nature. In this respect, we propose the use of capillary columns filled with monolithic stationary phases for the electrochromatographic separation of organic molecules of exobiology interest. Polymer monoliths have attracted a great deal of interest in analytical science over the last years as (electro)chromatographic stationary phases [3], immunosensors [4]. Beyond the intrinsic properties of monolithic polymers, i.e. fast mass transport between the monolithic support and the surrounding fluid and high permeability, other major advantages are their easy in situ preparation and tuning of surface functionality. Indeed, monoliths can be simply prepared through free radical copolymerization of a homogeneous mixture made of monomers, cross-linkers, porogenic solvents and initiator. UV-initiation process has been exploited to the synthesis of a discrete section of monolith as a flow-through active element within the confines of micro channels [5,6] while two-step strategies have been reported for the design of varied adsorbent starting with a generic monolith [7,8]. Although a nearly limitless range of monolithic supports can be prepared by this traditional method, the resulting monoliths exhibit unique function. In this contribution, we describe an

  16. The formation of NGC 3603 young starburst cluster: "prompt" hierarchical assembly or monolithic starburst?

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Sambaran

    2014-01-01

    The formation of very young massive clusters or "starburst" clusters is currently one of the most widely debated topic in astronomy. The classical notion dictates that a star cluster is formed in-situ in a dense molecular gas clump followed by a substantial residual gas expulsion. On the other hand, based on the observed morphologies of many young stellar associations, a hierarchical formation scenario is alternatively suggested. A very young (age $\\approx$ 1 Myr), massive ($>10^4M_\\odot$) star cluster like the Galactic NGC 3603 young cluster (HD 97950) is an appropriate testbed for distinguishing between such "monolithic" and "hierarchical" formation scenarios. A recent study by Banerjee and Kroupa (2014) demonstrates that the monolithic scenario remarkably reproduces the HD 97950 cluster. In the present work, we explore the possibility of the formation of the above cluster via hierarchical assembly of subclusters. These subclusters are initially distributed over a wide range of spatial volumes and have vari...

  17. Herman Feshbach Prize in Theoretical Nuclear Physics Xiangdong Ji, University of Maryland PandaX-III: high-pressure gas TPC for Xe136 neutrinoless double beta decay at CJPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiangdong; PandaX-III Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The PandaX-III in China's Jinping Underground Lab is a new neutrinoless double beta decay experiment using Xe136 high-pressure gas TPC. The first phase of the experiment uses a 4 m3 gas detector with symmetric Micromegas charge readout planes. The gas TPC allows full reconstruction of the event topology, capable of distinguishing the two electron events from gamma background with high confidence level. The energy resolution can reach about 3% FWHM at the beta decay Q-value. The detector construction and the experimental lab is currently under active development. In this talk, the current status and future plan are reported.

  18. Effect on mass transference phenomena by textural change inside monolithic carbon aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chejne, F.; Camargo-Trillos, D.; Pabón, E.; Carrasco-Marin, F.

    2015-08-01

    The effects on mass transference phenomena due textural changes of monolithic carbon aerogels were studied by hexane adsorption. The monolithic carbon aerogels were prepared after carbonization of the organic aerogels obtained by resorcinol-formaldehyde polymerization, using p-toluenesulfonic acid (acid-catalyst) and sodium carbonate catalysts (basic-catalyst). Internal texture was modified by CO2 activation. The characterization by gas adsorption showed that the monolithic carbon aerogels presents a bi-modal pore size distribution with presence of both microporous and mesoporous. It was shown that the activation process of monolithic carbon aerogels increases their micropore volume bigger than the other one acid-catalyst aerogel. The mesopores volume in the carbon aerogels plays an important role on mass transport mechanism. The samples with presence of significant mesopore volume present a lower height of mass transfer zone than others less mesopore volume; therefore better efficiency of adsorption in mass transfer zone in dynamic adsorption. The breakthrough curve methodology proposed in this work has allowed finding a relationship between the structural parameters and dynamic adsorption variables, which opens new approaches for measuring textural parameters of material.

  19. Monolithic silica aerogel - material design on the nano-scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    By means of a production process in two major steps - a sol/gel process and a supercritical drying – open-cell, monolithic silica aerogel can be made. This material can have a density in the range of 30- to 300 kg/m3, corresponding to porosities between 86 and 98 %. The solid structure has...... of piezoelectric transducers. - Other applications could be; waste encapsulation, spacers for vacuum insulation panels, membranes, etc. Department of Civil Engineering is co-ordinator of a current EU FP5 research project1, which deals with the application of aerogel as transparent insulation materials in windows....... Due to the excellent optical and thermal properties of aerogel, it is possible to develop windows with both high insulation and high transmittance, which is impossible applying the conventional window techniques, i.e. extra layers of glass, low-e coatings and gas fillings. It can be shown...

  20. Monolith filter apparatus and membrane apparatus, and method using same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Robert L [Wayland, MA

    2012-04-03

    A filtration apparatus that separates a liquid feedstock mixed with a gas into filtrate and retentate, the apparatus including at least one filtration device comprised of at least one monolith segment of porous material that defines a plurality of passageways extending longitudinally from a feed face of the structure to a retentate end face. The filtration device contains at least one filtrate conduit within it for carrying filtrate toward a filtrate collection zone, the filtrate conduit providing a path of lower flow resistance than that of alternative flow paths through the porous material of the device. The filtration device can also be utilized as a membrane support for a device for microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, or pervaporation. Also disclosed is a method for using such a filtration apparatus.

  1. Method of producing monolithic ceramic cross-flow filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, D.A.; Bacchi, D.P.; Connors, T.F.; Collins, E.L. III

    1998-02-10

    Ceramic filter of various configuration have been used to filter particulates from hot gases exhausted from coal-fired systems. Prior ceramic cross-flow filters have been favored over other types, but those previously have been assemblies of parts somehow fastened together and consequently subject often to distortion or delamination on exposure hot gas in normal use. The present new monolithic, seamless, cross-flow ceramic filters, being of one-piece construction, are not prone to such failure. Further, these new products are made by a novel casting process which involves the key steps of demolding the ceramic filter green body so that none of the fragile inner walls of the filter is cracked or broken. 2 figs.

  2. Method of producing monolithic ceramic cross-flow filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, David A. (Clifton Park, NY); Bacchi, David P. (Schenectady, NY); Connors, Timothy F. (Watervliet, NY); Collins, III, Edwin L. (Albany, NY)

    1998-01-01

    Ceramic filter of various configuration have been used to filter particulates from hot gases exhausted from coal-fired systems. Prior ceramic cross-flow filters have been favored over other types, but those previously horn have been assemblies of parts somehow fastened together and consequently subject often to distortion or delamination on exposure hot gas in normal use. The present new monolithic, seamless, cross-flow ceramic filters, being of one-piece construction, are not prone to such failure. Further, these new products are made by novel casting process which involves the key steps of demolding the ceramic filter green body so that none of the fragile inner walls of the filter is cracked or broken.

  3. Monolithic Integration of GaN-based LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ao, Jin-Ping, E-mail: jpao@ee.tokushima-u.ac.jp [Institute of Technology and Science, University of Tokushima 2-1 Minami-Josanjima, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan)

    2011-02-01

    The technology of monolithically integrated GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is reported. First, the technology details to realize monolithic integration are described, including the circuit design for high-voltage and alternating current (AC) operation and the technologies for device isolation. The performances of the fabricated monolithic LED arrays are then demonstrated. A monolithic series array with totally 40 LEDs exhibited expected operation function under AC bias. The operation voltage of the array is 72 V when 20 LEDs were connected in series. Some modified circuit designs for high-voltage operation and other monolithic LED arrays are finally reviewed.

  4. Preparation and evaluation of micro and meso porous silica monoliths with embedded carbon nanoparticles for the extraction of non-polar compounds from waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresco-Cala, Beatriz; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-10-14

    A novel hybrid micro and meso porous silica monolith with embedded carbon nanoparticles (Si-CNPs monolith) was prepared inside a fused silica capillary (3cm in length) and used as a sorbent for solid-phase microextraction. The hybrid monolithic capillary was synthetized by hydrolysis and polycondensation of a mixture of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), ethanol, and three different carbon nanoparticles such as carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (c-SWCNTs), carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNTs), and oxidized single-walled carbon nanohorns (o-SWNHs) via a two-step catalytic sol-gel process. Compared with silica monolith without carbon nanoparticles, the developed monolithic capillary column exhibited a higher extraction efficiency towards the analytes which can be ascribed to the presence of the carbon nanoparticles. In this regard, the best performance was achieved for silica monolith with embedded c-MWCNTs. The resulted monolithic capillaries were also characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), elemental analysis and nitrogen intrusion porosimetry. Variables affecting to the preparation of the sorbent phase including three different carbon nanoparticles and extraction parameters were studied in depth using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as target analytes. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was selected as instrumental technique. Detection limits range from 0.1 to 0.3μgL(-1), and the inter-extraction units precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) is between 5.9 and 14.4%.

  5. Monolithic resonant optical reflector laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, T.; Suehiro, M.; Maeda, M.; Hihara, M.; Hosomatsu, H.

    1991-10-01

    The first monolithic resonant optical reflector laser diode that has a waveguide directional coupler and two DBR reflectors integrated by compositional disordering of quantum-well heterostructures is described. A linewidth of 440 kHz was obtained, and this value is expected to be greatly decreased by reducing the propagation loss in the integrated waveguide.

  6. Constant capacitance in nanopores of carbon monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Alejandra; Moreno-Fernández, Gelines; Lobato, Belén; Centeno, Teresa A

    2015-06-28

    The results obtained for binder-free electrodes made of carbon monoliths with narrow micropore size distributions confirm that the specific capacitance in the electrolyte (C2H5)4NBF4/acetonitrile does not depend significantly on the micropore size and support the foregoing constant result of 0.094 ± 0.011 F m(-2).

  7. Monolith-Supported Amine-Functionalized Mg2(dobpdc) Adsorbents for CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darunte, Lalit A; Terada, Yuri; Murdock, Christopher R; Walton, Krista S; Sholl, David S; Jones, Christopher W

    2017-05-24

    The potential of using an amine-functionalized metal organic framework (MOF), mmen-M2(dobpdc) (M = Mg and Mn), supported on a structured monolith contactor for CO2 capture from simulated flue gas is explored. The stability of the unsupported MOF powders under humid conditions is explored using nitrogen physisorption and X-ray diffraction analysis before and after exposure to humidity. Based on its superior stability to humidity, mmen-Mg2(dobpdc) is selected for further growth on a honeycomb cordierite monolith that is wash-coated with α-alumina. A simple approach for the synthesis of an Mg2(dobpdc) MOF film using MgO nanoparticles as the metal precursor is used. Rapid drying of MgO on the monolith surface followed by a hydrothermal treatment is demonstrated to allow for the synthesis of a MOF film with good crystallite density and favorable orientation of the MOF crystals. The CO2 adsorption behavior of the monolith-supported mmen-Mg2(dobpdc) material is assessed using 10% CO2 in helium and 100% CO2, demonstrating a CO2 uptake of 2.37 and 2.88 mmol/g, respectively. Excellent cyclic adsorption/desorption performance over multiple cycles is also observed. This is one of the first examples of the deployment of an advanced MOF adsorbent in a scalable, low-pressure drop gas-solid contactor. Such demonstrations are critical to the practical application of MOF materials in adsorptive gas separations, as structured contactors have many practical advantages over packed or fluidized beds.

  8. Multi-scale modeling of the heat and mass transfer in a monolithic methane steam-reformer for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, Luis Evelio Garcia; Oliveira, Amir Antonio Martins [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: evelio@labcet.ufsc.br, e-mail: amirol@emc.ufsc.br

    2006-07-01

    Here we present a heat and mass transfer analysis for the catalytic methane steam-reforming in a porous monolithic reactor. Thermodynamic analysis provides the bounds for temperature, pressure and steam-methane molar ration for optimum operation. However, the reactor operation is also constrained by chemical kinetics and heat and mass transfer limitations. Porous wash coated monoliths have been used for a long time in the automotive industry as catalytic converters for destruction of gas and particulate pollutants. Here we analyze the modeling issues related to a multi-scale porous structure and develop a model able to assess the advantages and drawbacks of using a monolith as support for a catalyst layer for steam-reforming. (author)

  9. Ni catalyst wash-coated on metal monolith with enhanced heat-transfer capability for steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jae-Hong; Lee, Kwan-Young; La, Howon; Kim, Hak-Joo; Yang, Jung-Il; Jung, Heon

    A commercial Ni-based catalyst is wash-coated on a monolith made of 50 μm-thick fecralloy plates. Compared with the same volume of coarsely powdered Ni catalysts, the monolith wash-coated Ni catalysts give higher methane conversion in the steam reforming reaction, especially at gas hourly space velocities (GHSV) higher than 28,000 h -1, and with no pressure drop. A higher conversion of the monolith catalyst is obtained, even though it contains a lower amount of active catalyst (3 g versus 17 g for a powdered catalyst), which indicates that the heat-transfer capability of the wash-coated Ni catalyst is significantly enhanced by the use of a metal monolith. The efficacy of the monolith catalyst is tested using a shell-and-tube type heat-exchanger reactor with 912 cm 3 of the monolith catalyst charged on to the tube side and hot combusted gas supplied to the shell side in a counter-current direction to the reactant flow. A methane conversion greater than 94% is obtained at a GHSV of 7300 h -1 and an average temperature of 640 °C. Nickel catalysts should first be reduced to become active for steam reforming. Doping a small amount (0.12 wt.%) of noble metal (Ru or Pt) in the commercial Ni catalyst renders the wash-coated catalyst as active as a pre-reduced Ni catalyst. Thus, noble metal-doped Ni appears useful for steam reforming without any pre-reduction procedure.

  10. A monolithic integrated photonic microwave filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandiño, Javier S.; Muñoz, Pascual; Doménech, David; Capmany, José

    2016-12-01

    Meeting the increasing demand for capacity in wireless networks requires the harnessing of higher regions in the radiofrequency spectrum, reducing cell size, as well as more compact, agile and power-efficient base stations that are capable of smoothly interfacing the radio and fibre segments. Fully functional microwave photonic chips are promising candidates in attempts to meet these goals. In recent years, many integrated microwave photonic chips have been reported in different technologies. To the best of our knowledge, none has monolithically integrated all the main active and passive optoelectronic components. Here, we report the first demonstration of a tunable microwave photonics filter that is monolithically integrated into an indium phosphide chip. The reconfigurable radiofrequency photonic filter includes all the necessary elements (for example, lasers, modulators and photodetectors), and its response can be tuned by means of control electric currents. This is an important step in demonstrating the feasibility of integrated and programmable microwave photonic processors.

  11. Macroporous Monolithic Polymers: Preparation and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Inés Alvarez Igarzabal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, macroporous monolithic materials have been introduced as a new and useful generation of polymers used in different fields. These polymers may be prepared in a simple way from a homogenous mixture into a mold and contain large interconnected pores or channels allowing for high flow rates at moderate pressures. Due to their porous characteristics, they could be used in different processes, such as stationary phases for different types of chromatography, high-throughput bioreactors and in microfluidic chip applications. This review reports the contributions of several groups working in the preparation of different macroporous monoliths and their modification by immobilization of specific ligands on the products for specific purposes.

  12. Monolithic pixel detectors for high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Snoeys, W

    2013-01-01

    Monolithic pixel detectors integrating sensor matrix and readout in one piece of silicon have revolutionized imaging for consumer applications, but despite years of research they have not yet been widely adopted for high energy physics. Two major requirements for this application, radiation tolerance and low power consumption, require charge collection by drift for the most extreme radiation levels and an optimization of the collected signal charge over input capacitance ratio ( Q / C ). It is shown that monolithic detectors can achieve Q / C for low analog power consumption and even carryout the promise to practically eliminate analog power consumption, but combining suf fi cient Q / C , collection by drift, and integration of readout circuitry within the pixel remains a challenge. An overview is given of different approaches to address this challenge, with possible advantages and disadvantages.

  13. Non-isothermal compositional gas flow during carbon dioxide storage and enhanced gas recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ashok; Böettcher, N.; Wang, W.;

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present the conceptual modeling and the numerical scheme for carbon dioxide storage into nearly depleted gas reservoirs for enhanced gas recovery reasons. For this we develop non-isothermal compositional gas flow model. We used a combined monolithic / staggered coupling scheme to ...

  14. Update On Monolithic Fuel Fabrication Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. R Clark; J. M. Wight; G. C. Knighton; G. A. Moore; J. F. Jue

    2005-11-01

    Efforts to develop a viable monolithic research reactor fuel plate have continued at Idaho National Laboratory. These efforts have concentrated on both fabrication process refinement and scale-up to produce full sized fuel plates. Advancements have been made in the production of U-Mo foil including full sized foils. Progress has also been made in the friction stir welding and transient liquid phase bonding fabrication processes resulting in better bonding, more stable processes and the ability to fabricate larger fuel plates.

  15. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER MONOLITH FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C

    2006-12-22

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as an alternative technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of aqueous high sodium containing radioactive wastes at various DOE facilities in the United States. The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants converts aqueous Low Activity Wastes (LAW) to a granular or ''mineralized'' waste form while converting organic components to CO{sub 2} and steam, and nitrate/nitrite components, if any, to N{sub 2}. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like structures that atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The granular product has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Shallow land burial requires that the mineralized waste form be able to sustain the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations. The strength requirement necessitates binding the granular product into a monolith. FBSR mineral products were formulated into a variety of monoliths including various cements, Ceramicrete, and hydroceramics. All but one of the nine monoliths tested met the <2g/m{sup 2} durability specification for Na and Re (simulant for Tc-99) when tested using the Product Consistency Test (PCT; ASTM C1285). Of the nine monoliths tested the cements produced with 80-87 wt% FBSR product, the Ceramicrete, and the hydroceramic produced with 83.3 wt% FBSR product, met the compressive strength and durability requirements for an LAW waste form.

  16. Development and Investigation of Evacuated Windows Based on Monolithic Silica Xerogel Spacers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    will be approximately 0.013 W/(m K) which is approximately 33% of the value for commonly used insulation materials, e.g. mineral wool. Monolithic silica xerogel is a highly porous material (pore volume up to 90%) with a solar transmittance of 50% (thickness = 20 mm). However, if the silica xerogel is not made...... and 3) application for insulating glazings.Scientific developments have made it possible to prepare low density monolithic silica xerogels, only from about 1990, and developments in both the production process as well as size of the samples are necessary for a commercial use of the material...... for insulating glazings. Using the material as spacer between two layers of glass with a vacuum tight sealing of the rim combined with an internal gas pressure below 50-100 hPa result in an insulating glazing having a heat loss coefficient comparable with that of the surrounding walls, but at the same time...

  17. Preparation of methacrylate-based anion-exchange monolithic microbore column for chromatographic separation of DNA fragments and oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabarudin, Akhmad, E-mail: sabarjpn@ub.ac.id [Division of Nano-materials Science, EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furu-Cho, Chikusa-Ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Brawijaya University, Jl Veteran Malang 65145 (Indonesia); Huang, Junchao; Shu, Shin; Sakagawa, Shinnosuke [Division of Nano-materials Science, EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furu-Cho, Chikusa-Ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Umemura, Tomonari, E-mail: umemura@apchem.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Division of Nano-materials Science, EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furu-Cho, Chikusa-Ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2012-07-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microbore-scale (1 mm i.d.) anion-exchange monolithic column. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potentially preparative applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Separation of oligodeoxythymidylic acids and DNA fragments. - Abstract: In this paper, we report on the preparation of a microbore-scale (1 mm i.d.) anion-exchange monolithic column suitable not only for analytical purposes but also for potentially preparative applications. In order to meet the conflicting requirements of high permeability and good mechanical strength, the following two-step procedure was applied. First, an epoxy-containing monolith was synthesized by in situ copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) within the confines of a silicosteel tubing of 1.02 mm i.d. and 1/16 Double-Prime o.d. in the presence of a ternary porogenic mixture of 1-propanol, 1,4-butanediol, and water. The monolithic matrix was subsequently converted into weak anion-exchanger via the ring-opening reaction of epoxy group with diethyl amine. The dynamic binding capacity was 21.4 mg mL{sup -1} for bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 10% breakthrough. The morphology and porous structure of this monolith were assessed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and inverse size exclusion chromatography (ISEC). To optimize the separation efficiency, the effects of various chromatographic parameters upon the separation of DNA fragments were investigated. The resulting monolithic anion exchanger demonstrated good potential for the separation of both single- and double-stranded DNA molecules using a gradient elution with NaCl in Tris-HCl buffer (20 mM). Oligodeoxythymidylic acids (dT{sub 12}-dT{sub 18}) were successfully resolved at pH 8, while the fragments of 20 bp DNA ladder, 100 bp DNA ladder, and pBR322-HaeIII digest were efficiently separated at pH 9.

  18. An overview of monolithic zirconia in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Malkondu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zirconia restorations have been used successfully for years in dentistry owing to their biocompatibility and good mechanical properties. Because of their lack of translucency, zirconia cores are generally veneered with porcelain, which makes restorations weaker due to failure of the adhesion between the two materials. In recent years, all-ceramic zirconia restorations have been introduced in the dental sector with the intent to solve this problem. Besides the elimination of chipping, the reduced occlusal space requirement seems to be a clear advantage of monolithic zirconia restorations. However, scientific evidence is needed to recommend this relatively new application for clinical use. This mini-review discusses the current scientific literature on monolithic zirconia restorations. The results of in vitro studies suggested that monolithic zirconia may be the best choice for posterior fixed partial dentures in the presence of high occlusal loads and minimal occlusal restoration space. The results should be supported with much more in vitro and particularly in vivo studies to obtain a final conclusion.

  19. Preparation of imprinted monolithic column under molecular crowding conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Xia Li; Xin Liu; Li Hong Bai; Hong Quan Duan; Yan Ping Huang; Zhao Sheng Liu

    2011-01-01

    Molecular crowding is a new concept to obtain molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with greater capacity and selectivity. In this work, molecular crowding agent was firstly applied to the preparation of MIPs monolithic column. A new polymerization system based on molecular crowding surrounding was developed to prepare enrofloxacin-imprinted monolith, which was composed of polystyrene and tetrahydrofuran. The result showed that the monolithic MIPs under molecular crowding conditions presented good molecular recognition for enrofloxacin with an imprinting factor of 3.03.

  20. Monolithic Lumped Element Integrated Circuit (M2LEIC) Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    INTEGRATED CIRCUITS, *MONOLITHIC STRUCTURES(ELECTRONICS), *TRANSISTORS, CHIPS(ELECTRONICS), FABRICATION, EPITAXIAL GROWTH, ULTRAHIGH FREQUENCY, POLYSILICONS, PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY, RADIOFREQUENCY POWER, IMPEDANCE MATCHING .

  1. Selective oxidation of cyclohexene through gold functionalized silica monolith microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Mohammed T.; Taylor, Martin J.; Liu, Dan; Beaumont, Simon K.; Kyriakou, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Two simple, reproducible methods of preparing evenly distributed Au nanoparticle containing mesoporous silica monoliths are investigated. These Au nanoparticle containing monoliths are subsequently investigated as flow reactors for the selective oxidation of cyclohexene. In the first strategy, the silica monolith was directly impregnated with Au nanoparticles during the formation of the monolith. The second approach was to pre-functionalize the monolith with thiol groups tethered within the silica mesostructure. These can act as evenly distributed anchors for the Au nanoparticles to be incorporated by flowing a Au nanoparticle solution through the thiol functionalized monolith. Both methods led to successfully achieving even distribution of Au nanoparticles along the length of the monolith as demonstrated by ICP-OES. However, the impregnation method led to strong agglomeration of the Au nanoparticles during subsequent heating steps while the thiol anchoring procedure maintained the nanoparticles in the range of 6.8 ± 1.4 nm. Both Au nanoparticle containing monoliths as well as samples with no Au incorporated were tested for the selective oxidation of cyclohexene under constant flow at 30 °C. The Au free materials were found to be catalytically inactive with Au being the minimum necessary requirement for the reaction to proceed. The impregnated Au-containing monolith was found to be less active than the thiol functionalized Au-containing material, attributable to the low metal surface area of the Au nanoparticles. The reaction on the thiol functionalized Au-containing monolith was found to depend strongly on the type of oxidant used: tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) was more active than H2O2, likely due to the thiol induced hydrophobicity in the monolith.

  2. GaAs-based nanoneedle light emitting diode and avalanche photodiode monolithically integrated on a silicon substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Linus C; Sedgwick, Forrest G; Chen, Roger; Ko, Wai Son; Moewe, Michael; Ng, Kar Wei; Tran, Thai-Truong D; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

    2011-02-09

    Monolithic integration of III-V compound semiconductor devices with silicon CMOS integrated circuits has been hindered by large lattice mismatches and incompatible processing due to high III-V epitaxy temperatures. We report the first GaAs-based avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and light emitting diodes, directly grown on silicon at a very low, CMOS-compatible temperature and fabricated using conventional microfabrication techniques. The APDs exhibit an extraordinarily large multiplication factor at low voltage resulting from the unique needle shape and growth mode.

  3. Energy Absorption of Monolithic and Fibre Reinforced Aluminium Cylinders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kanter, J.L.C.G.

    2006-01-01

    Summary accompanying the thesis: Energy Absorption of Monolithic and Fibre Reinforced Aluminium Cylinders by Jens de Kanter This thesis presents the investigation of the crush behaviour of both monolithic aluminium cylinders and externally fibre reinforced aluminium cylinders. The research is based

  4. Time-based position estimation in monolithic scintillator detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabacchini, V.; Borghi, G.; Schaart, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray detectors based on bright monolithic scintillation crystals coupled to pixelated photodetectors are currently being considered for several applications in the medical imaging field. In a typical monolithic detector, both the light intensity and the time of arrival of the earliest

  5. Time-based position estimation in monolithic scintillator detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabacchini, V.; Borghi, G.; Schaart, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray detectors based on bright monolithic scintillation crystals coupled to pixelated photodetectors are currently being considered for several applications in the medical imaging field. In a typical monolithic detector, both the light intensity and the time of arrival of the earliest scintilla

  6. Time-based position estimation in monolithic scintillator detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabacchini, V.; Borghi, G.; Schaart, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray detectors based on bright monolithic scintillation crystals coupled to pixelated photodetectors are currently being considered for several applications in the medical imaging field. In a typical monolithic detector, both the light intensity and the time of arrival of the earliest scintilla

  7. A Monolithic Perovskite Structure for Use as a Magnetic Regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini; Clemens, Frank; Menon, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    A La0.67Ca0.26Sr0.07Mn1.05O3 (LCSM) perovskite was prepared for the first time as a ceramic monolithic regenerator used in a regenerative magnetic refrigeration device. The parameters influencing the extrusion process and the performance of the regenerator, such as the nature of the monolith paste...

  8. Energy Absorption of Monolithic and Fibre Reinforced Aluminium Cylinders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kanter, J.L.C.G.

    2006-01-01

    Summary accompanying the thesis: Energy Absorption of Monolithic and Fibre Reinforced Aluminium Cylinders by Jens de Kanter This thesis presents the investigation of the crush behaviour of both monolithic aluminium cylinders and externally fibre reinforced aluminium cylinders. The research is based

  9. Hydrogel coated monoliths for enzymatic hydrolysis of penicillin G

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lathouder, K.M.; Smeltink, M.W.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Paasman, M.A.; Van de Sandt, E.J.A.X.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a hydrogel-coated monolith for the entrapment of penicillin G acylase (E. coli, PGA). After screening of different hydrogels, chitosan was chosen as the carrier material for the preparation of monolithic biocatalysts. This protocol leads to active immobilize

  10. A new large area monolithic silicon telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Tudisco, S; Cabibbo, M; Cardella, G; De Geronimo, G; Di Pietro, A; Fallica, G; Figuera, P; Musumarra, A; Papa, M; Pappalardo, G S; Rizzo, F; Valvo, G

    1999-01-01

    A new prototype of large area (20x20 mm sup 2) monolithic silicon telescope with an ultrathin DELTA E stage (1 mu m) has been built and tested. A particular mask for the ground electrode has been developed to improve the charge collection reducing the induction between the E and DELTA E stages. A special designed preamplifier has been used for the readout of the signal from the DELTA E stage to overcome the problem of the large input capacitance (40 nF). A rather low energy threshold charge discrimination has been obtained. Small side effects due to the electric field deformation near the ground electrode were observed and quantified.

  11. Monolithic aerogels with nanoporous crystalline phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Christophe; Guerra, Gaetano

    2015-05-01

    High porosity monolithic aerogels with nanoporous crystalline phases can be obtained from syndiotactic polystyrene and poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene)oxide thermoreversible gels by removing the solvent with supercritical CO2. The presence of crystalline nanopores in the aerogels based on these polymers allows a high uptake associated with a high selectivity of volatile organic compounds from vapor phase or aqueous solutions even at very low activities. The sorption and the fast kinetics make these materials particularly suitable as sorption medium to remove traces of pollutants from water and moist air.

  12. Suspended particle filter for Diesel engine exhaust gas. Schwebeteilchenfilter fuer Dieselmaschinenabgase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, G.S.

    1981-06-19

    The purpose of the invention is to create a filter which has a reduced flow resistance for exhaust gases with better separation of the suspended particles. According to the invention this problem is solved by having a filter element consisting of a monolith of very heat-resisting ceramics and a large number of micropores, which permit a large volume of gas to pass through. There are a large number of fine ceramic fibres in the monolith, which extend freely into the ducts. The monolith consists of foam-like material, which has connected walls limiting the pores. The monolith has internal intermediate walls adjacent to inlet and outlet ducts.

  13. Monolithic columns in plant proteomics and metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigobello-Masini, Marilda; Penteado, José Carlos Pires; Masini, Jorge Cesar

    2013-03-01

    Since "omics" techniques emerged, plant studies, from biochemistry to ecology, have become more comprehensive. Plant proteomics and metabolomics enable the construction of databases that, with the help of genomics and informatics, show the data obtained as a system. Thus, all the constituents of the system can be seen with their interactions in both space and time. For instance, perturbations in a plant ecosystem as a consequence of application of herbicides or exposure to pollutants can be predicted by using information gathered from these databases. Analytical chemistry has been involved in this scientific evolution. Proteomics and metabolomics are emerging fields that require separation, identification, and quantification of proteins, peptides, and small molecules of metabolites in complex biological samples. The success of this work relies on efficient chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques, and on mass spectrometric detection. This paper reviews recent developments in the use of monolithic columns, focusing on their applications in "top-down" and "bottom-up" approaches, including their use as supports for immobilization of proteolytic enzymes and their use in two-dimensional and multidimensional chromatography. Whereas polymeric columns have been predominantly used for separation of proteins and polypeptides, silica-based monoliths have been more extensively used for separation of small molecules of metabolites. Representative applications in proteomics and in analysis of plant metabolites are given and summarized in tables.

  14. Growth techniques for monolithic YBCO solenoidal magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scruggs, S.J. [Texas Center for Superconductivity at University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)]. E-mail: Sscruggs2@uh.edu; Putman, P.T. [Texas Center for Superconductivity at University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Fang, H. [Texas Center for Superconductivity at University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Alessandrini, M. [Texas Center for Superconductivity at University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Salama, K. [Texas Center for Superconductivity at University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2006-10-01

    The possibility of growing large single domain YBCO solenoids by the use of a large seed has been investigated. There are two known methods for producing a similar solenoid. This first is a conventional top seeded melt growth process followed by a post processing machining step to create the bore. The second involves using multiple seeds spaced around the magnet bore. The appeal of the new technique lies in decreasing processing time compared to the single seed technique, while avoiding alignment problems found in the multiple seeding technique. By avoiding these problems, larger diameter monoliths can be produced. Large diameter monoliths are beneficial because the maximum magnetic field produced by a trapped field magnet is proportional to the radius of the sample. Furthermore, the availability of trapped field magnets with large diameter could enable their use in applications that traditionally have been considered to require wound electromagnets, such as beam bending magnets for particle accelerators or electric propulsion. A comparison of YBCO solenoids grown by the use of a large seed and grown by the use of two small seeds simulating multiple seeding is made. Trapped field measurements as well as microstructure evaluation were used in characterization of each solenoid. Results indicate that high quality growth occurs only in the vicinity of the seeds for the multiple seeded sample, while the sample with the large seeded exhibited high quality growth throughout the entire sample.

  15. High surface area, high permeability carbon monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Organic Materials Processing Dept.

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this work is to prepare carbon monoliths having precisely tailored pore size distribution. Prior studies have demonstrated that poly(acrylonitrile) can be processed into a precursor having tailored macropore structure. Since the macropores were preserved during pyrolysis, this synthetic process provided a route to porous carbon having macropores with size =0.1 to 10{mu}m. No micropores of size <2 nm could be detected in the carbon, however, by nitrogen adsorption. In the present work, the authors have processed a different polymer, poly(vinylidene chloride) into a macroporous precursor, Pyrolysis produced carbon monoliths having macropores derived from the polymer precursor as well as extensive microporosity produced during the pyrolysis of the polymer. One of these carbons had BET surface area of 1,050 m{sup 2}/g and about 1.2 cc/g total pore volume, with about 1/3 of the total pore volume in micropores and the remainder in 1{mu}m macropores. No mesopores in the intermediate size range could be detected by nitrogen adsorption. Carbon materials having high surface area as well as micron size pores have potential applications as electrodes for double layer supercapacitors containing liquid electrolyte, or as efficient media for performing chemical separations.

  16. Hydrothermal method for preparing calcium phosphate monoliths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Carrodeguas Raúl

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new hydrothermal route for preparing biphasic calcium phosphate monoliths is proposed. Firstly, a slurry of beta-tricalcium phosphate/ortho-phosphoric acid (b-TCP/H3PO4 is cast into the desired final shape and size to obtain a block composed of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD and b-TCP. This block is then treated in 1.0 M Na2HPO4 at 60 °C in order to hydrolyze the DCPD into Ca10-x(HPO4x(PO4 6-x(OH2-x (CDHA and Ca8H2(PO46 .5H2O (OCP. The result is a monolithic piece which preserves the initial shape and size, but which is composed instead of CDHA, OCP, and b-TCP. During the initial stage, when the pH is slightly alkaline, the product of DCPD hydrolysis is CDHA. However, when a neutral or slightly acidic pH is reached OCP is formed. Test samples processed by this method showed complete conversion of DCPD into CDHA and OCP after 112 h of hydrolysis, and with a compressive strength of 16.2 MPa, similar to cancellous bone.

  17. Catastrophic failure of a monolithic zirconia prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jae-Seung; Ji, Woon; Choi, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Sunjai

    2015-02-01

    Recently, monolithic zirconia restorations have received attention as an alternative to zirconia veneered with feldspathic porcelain to eliminate chipping failures of veneer ceramics. In this clinical report, a patient with mandibular edentulism received 4 dental implants in the interforaminal area, and a screw-retained monolithic zirconia prosthesis was fabricated. The patient also received a maxillary complete removable dental prosthesis over 4 anterior roots. At the 18-month follow-up, all of the zirconia cylinders were seen to be fractured, and the contacting abutment surfaces had lost structural integrity. The damaged abutments were replaced with new abutments, and a new prosthesis was delivered with a computer-assisted design and computer-assisted manufacturing fabricated titanium framework with denture teeth and denture base resins. At the 6-month recall, the patient did not have any problems. Dental zirconia has excellent physical properties; however, care should be taken to prevent excessive stresses on the zirconia cylinders when a screw-retained zirconia restoration is planned as a definitive prosthesis.

  18. Non-isothermal compositional gas flow during carbon dioxide storage and enhanced gas recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ashok; Böettcher, N.; Wang, W.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present the conceptual modeling and the numerical scheme for carbon dioxide storage into nearly depleted gas reservoirs for enhanced gas recovery reasons. For this we develop non-isothermal compositional gas flow model. We used a combined monolithic / staggered coupling scheme to ......-Robinson equations of state, to determine the density of the real gas mixture along with an empirically extended ideal gas equation. A real behavior of mixture is accounted by using energy and distance parameters.......In this work we present the conceptual modeling and the numerical scheme for carbon dioxide storage into nearly depleted gas reservoirs for enhanced gas recovery reasons. For this we develop non-isothermal compositional gas flow model. We used a combined monolithic / staggered coupling scheme...

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Temperature-responsive Porous Monoliths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG, Rongyue; QI, Li; XIN, Peiyong; YANG, Gengliang; CHEN, Yi

    2009-01-01

    A new temperature-responsive porous monolith has been prepared by surface-initiated activators generated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (AGET ATRP) grafting poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) within the pores of the porous polymer monolith. The grafting copolymerization was carried out by a method based on a continuous flow-through technique without special deoxygenation procedure needed in the general ATRP. The addition of ascorbic acid could counteract the oxidation effect of oxygen diffusing into the reaction system. The resulting grafted monolith was characterized by a mercury intrusion method and the size of macropore was 3.65 μm, which was suitable for flow through the monolith for HPLC. The thermally responsive property of the grafted monolith was evaluated by HPLC using steroids with various hydrophobicities as probes. Through determination of retention factor of each steroid on the grafted monolith at different temperatures using water as mobile phase, it was found that the slope of the plot of retention factor of each steroid versus the temperature changed around the low critical solution temperature (LCST, 32 ℃) of PNIPAAm in water. It was relative to the grafted PNIPAAm temperature sensitivity that a hydrophobic and hydrophilic alternation would take place around its LCST.Based on this thermally responsive property, the grafted monolith was used as stationary phase for HPLC and to separate the steroids using water as mobile phase by changing the column temperature. As a mobile phase, water is much better than organic solvents concerning the environment.

  20. Influence of different carbon monolith preparation parameters on pesticide adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukčević Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of carbon monolith for pesticide removal from water, and the mechanism of pesticide interaction with carbon surface were examined. Different carbon monolith samples were obtained by varying the carbonization and activation parameters. In order to examine the role of surface oxygen groups in pesticide adsorption, carbon monolith surface was functionalized by chemical treatment in HNO3, H2O2 and KOH. The surface properties of the obtained samples were investigated by BET surface area, pore size distribution and temperature-programmed desorption. Adsorption of pesticides from aqueous solution onto activated carbon monolith samples was studied by using five pesticides belonging to different chemical groups (acetamiprid, dimethoate, nicosulfuron, carbofuran and atrazine. Presented results show that higher temperature of carbonization and the amount of activating agent allow obtaining microporous carbon monolith with higher amount of surface functional groups. Adsorption properties of the activated carbon monolith were more readily affected by the amount of the surface functional groups than by specific surface area. Results obtained by carbon monolith functionalisation showed that π-π interactions were the main force for adsorption of pesticides with aromatic structure, while acidic groups play an important role in adsorption of pesticides with no aromatic ring in the chemical structure.

  1. Influence of the V/III ratio in the gas phase on thin epitaxial AlN layers grown on (0001) sapphire by high temperature hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudel, A., E-mail: arnaud.claudel@grenoble-inp.org [ACERDE, 354 Voie Magellan — Alpespace, 73800 Ste Hélène du Lac (France); Fellmann, V. [ACERDE, 354 Voie Magellan — Alpespace, 73800 Ste Hélène du Lac (France); Science et Ingénierie des Matériaux et des Procédés, Grenoble INP-CNRS-UJF, BP 75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Hères (France); Gélard, I. [ACERDE, 354 Voie Magellan — Alpespace, 73800 Ste Hélène du Lac (France); Coudurier, N. [ACERDE, 354 Voie Magellan — Alpespace, 73800 Ste Hélène du Lac (France); Science et Ingénierie des Matériaux et des Procédés, Grenoble INP-CNRS-UJF, BP 75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Hères (France); Sauvage, D. [ACERDE, 354 Voie Magellan — Alpespace, 73800 Ste Hélène du Lac (France); Balaji, M. [ACERDE, 354 Voie Magellan — Alpespace, 73800 Ste Hélène du Lac (France); Science et Ingénierie des Matériaux et des Procédés, Grenoble INP-CNRS-UJF, BP 75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Hères (France); Crystal Growth Center, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India); and others

    2014-12-31

    Thin (0001) epitaxial aluminum nitride (AlN) layers were grown on c-plane sapphire using high temperature hydride vapor phase epitaxy. The experimental set-up consists of a vertical cold-wall quartz reactor working at low pressure in which the reactions take place on a susceptor heated by induction. The reactants used are ammonia and aluminum chlorides in situ formed via hydrogen chloride reaction with high purity aluminum pellets. As-grown AlN layers have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopies. The influence of the V/III ratio in the gas phase, from 1.5 to 15, on growth rate, surface morphology, roughness and crystalline quality is investigated in order to increase the quality of thin epitaxial AlN layers grown at high temperature. Typical growth rates of around 0.45 μm/h were obtained for such thin epitaxial AlN layers. The growth rate was unaffected by the V/III ratio. An optimum for roughness, crystalline quality and optical properties seems to exist at V/III = 7.5. As a matter of fact, for a V/III ratio of 7.5, best root mean square roughness and crystalline quality — measured on 0002 symmetric reflection — as low as 6.9 nm and 898 arcsec were obtained, respectively. - Highlights: • Growth of thin epitaxial AlN layers by high temperature hydride vapor phase epitaxy • Influence of V/III ratio on growth rate, morphology and crystalline quality • The effect of surface morphology on strain state and crystal quality is established.

  2. Preliminary comparison of monolithic and aperture optics for XRMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havrilla, G.J.; Worley, C.G.

    1997-08-01

    Comparisons between standard aperture optics and a custom designed monolithic capillary x-ray optic for the Kevex Omicron are presented. The results demonstrate the feasibility of retrofitting an Omicron with a monolithic capillary. Increased flux is observed especially at lower energies which results in an increase in sensitivity and potentially an increase in spatial resolution. Alignment is a critical factor in achieving optimal performance of the monolithic capillary. Further improvements in flux output, spot size and overall sensitivity are expected with better alignment.

  3. On monolithic stability and reinforcement analysis of high arch dams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Monolithic stability safety and reinforcement based on monolithic stability are very important for arch dam design.In this paper,the issue is addressed based on deformation reinforcement theory.In this approach,plastic complementary energy norm can be taken as safety Index for monolithic stability.According to deformation reinforcement theory,the areas where unbalanced force exists require reinforcement,and the required reinforcement forces are just the unbalanced forces with opposite direction.Results show that areas with unbalanced force mainly concentrate in dam-toes,dam-heels and faults.

  4. Hierarchically Structured Monolithic ZSM-5 through Macroporous Silica Gel Zeolitization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Qian; Zhao Tianbo; Li Fengyan; Zong Baoning; Tong Yangchuan

    2006-01-01

    The hierarchically structured ZSM-5 monolith was prepared through transforming the skeletons of the macroporous silica gel into ZSM-5 by the steam-assisted conversion method. The morphology and monolithic shapes of macroporous silica gel were well preserved. The hierarchically structured ZSM-5 monolith exhibited the hierarchical porosity, with mesopores and macropores existing inside the macroporous silica gel, and micropores formed by the ZSM-5. The products have been characterized properly by using the XRD, SEM and N2 adsorption-desorption methods.

  5. Preparation of carbon monoliths from orange peel for NOx retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of monoliths are prepared from orange peels and chemically activated with H3PO4, KOH, ZnCl2, and water vapor without a binder. The monoliths were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms at 77 K, Boehm titrations and XPS. Thereafter, monoliths were tested for their ability to establish NOx retention. The results show that the retention capacities of NOx were a function of the textural properties and chemistries. The carbons synthesized with ZnCl2 and KOH retained similar amounts of NOx.

  6. A decoupled monolithic projection method for natural convection problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaomin; Kim, Kyoungyoun; Lee, Changhoon; Choi, Jung-Il

    2016-06-01

    We propose an efficient monolithic numerical procedure based on a projection method for solving natural convection problems. In the present monolithic method, the buoyancy, linear diffusion, and nonlinear convection terms are implicitly advanced by applying the Crank-Nicolson scheme in time. To avoid an otherwise inevitable iterative procedure in solving the monolithic discretized system, we use a linearization of the nonlinear convection terms and approximate block lower-upper (LU) decompositions along with approximate factorization. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed method is more stable and computationally efficient than other semi-implicit methods, preserving temporal second-order accuracy.

  7. COLD GASS, an IRAM Legacy Survey of Molecular Gas in Massive Galaxies: III. Comparison with semi-analytic models of galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffmann, Guinevere; Fu, Jian; Saintonge, Amelie; Catinella, Barbara; Tacconi, Linda J; Kramer, Carsten; Genzel, Reinhard; Moran, Sean; Schiminovich, David

    2012-01-01

    We compare the semi-analytic models of galaxy formation of Fu et al. (2010), which track the evolution of the radial profiles of atomic and molecular gas in galaxies, with gas fraction scaling relations derived from the COLD GASS survey (Saintonge et al 2011). The models provide a good description of how condensed baryons in galaxies with gas are partitioned into stars, atomic and molecular gas as a function of galaxy stellar mass and surface density. The models do not reproduce the tight observed relation between stellar surface density and bulge-to-disk ratio for this population. We then turn to an analysis of the"quenched" population of galaxies without detectable cold gas. The current implementation of radio-mode feedback in the models disagrees strongly with the data. In the models, gas cooling shuts down in nearly all galaxies in dark matter halos above a mass of 10**12 M_sun. As a result, stellar mass is the observable that best predicts whether a galaxy has little or no neutral gas. In contrast, our d...

  8. On the Cluster Physics of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich and X-ray Surveys III: Measurement Biases and Cosmological Evolution of Gas and Stellar Mass Fractions

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglia, N; Pfrommer, C; Sievers, J L

    2012-01-01

    Gas masses tightly correlate with the virial masses of galaxy clusters, allowing for a precise determination of cosmological parameters by means of large-scale X-ray surveys. However, according to recent Suzaku X-ray measurements, gas mass fractions, f_gas, appear to be considerably larger than the cosmic mean at the virial radius, R_200, questioning the accuracy of the cosmological parameter estimations. Here, we use a large suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to study measurement biases of f_gas. We employ different variants of simulated physics, including radiative gas physics, star formation, and thermal feedback by active galactic nuclei. Computing the mass profiles in 48 angular cones, whose footprints partition the sphere, we find anisotropic gas and total mass distributions that imply an angular variance of f_gas at the level of 30%. This anisotropic distribution originates from the recent formation epoch of clusters and from the strong internal baryon-to-dark-matter density bias. In the ...

  9. Monolithically Peltier-cooled laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hava, S.; Hunsperger, R.G.; Sequeira, H.B.

    1984-04-01

    A new method of cooling a GaAs/GaAlAs laser in an optical integrated circuit or on a discrete chip, by adding an integral thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling and heat spreading device to the laser, is presented. This cooling both reduces and stabilizes the laser junction temperature to minimize such deleterious effects as wavelength drift due to heating. A unified description of the electrical and thermal properties of a monolithic semiconductor mesa structure is given. Here it is shown that an improvement in thermal characteristics is obtained by depositing a relatively thick metallic layer, and by using this layer as a part of an active Peltier structure. Experimental results reveal a 14-percent increase in emitted power (external quantum efficiency) due to passive heat spreading and a further 8-percent if its Peltier cooler is operated. Fabrication techniques used to obtain devices exhibiting the above performance characteristics are given. 21 references.

  10. LSST primary/tertiary monolithic mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebag, J.; Gressler, W.; Liang, M.; Neill, D.; Araujo-Hauck, C.; Andrew, J.; Angeli, G.; Cho, M.; Claver, C.; Daruich, F.; Gessner, C.; Hileman, E.; Krabbendam, V.; Muller, G.; Poczulp, G.; Repp, R.; Wiecha, O.; Xin, B.; Kenagy, K.; Martin, H. M.; Tuell, M. T.; West, S. C.

    2016-08-01

    At the core of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) three-mirror optical design is the primary/tertiary (M1M3) mirror that combines these two large mirrors onto one monolithic substrate. The M1M3 mirror was spin cast and polished at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab at The University of Arizona (formerly SOML, now the Richard F. Caris Mirror Lab at the University of Arizona (RFCML)). Final acceptance of the mirror occurred during the year 2015 and the mirror is now in storage while the mirror cell assembly is being fabricated. The M1M3 mirror will be tested at RFCML after integration with its mirror cell before being shipped to Chile.

  11. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. (Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Electro-Optics Technology Center); Wei, G. (Mobil Solar Energy Corp., Billerica, MA (United States)); Yu, P.C. (PPG Industries, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors' institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  12. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Electro-Optics Technology Center; Wei, G. [Mobil Solar Energy Corp., Billerica, MA (United States); Yu, P.C. [PPG Industries, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  13. Machining distortion prediction of aerospace monolithic components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-bo BI; Qun-lin CHENG; Hui-yue DONG; Ying-lin KE

    2009-01-01

    To predict the distortion of aerospace monolithic components.a model is established to simulate the numerical control (NC)milling process using 3D finite element method(FEM).In this model,the cutting layer is simplified firstly.Then,the models of cutting force and cutting temperature are established to gain the cutting loads,which are applied to the mesh model of the part.Finally,a prototype of machining simulation environment is developed to simulate the milling process of a spar.Key factors influencing the distortion,such as initial residual stress,cutting loads,fixture layout,cutting sequence,and tool path are considered all together.The total distortion of the spar is predicted and an experiment is conducted to validate the numerical results.It is found that the maximum discrepancy between the simulation results and experiment values is 19.0%

  14. Solid oxide fuel cell having monolithic core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, J. P.; Young, J. E.

    1983-10-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell is described for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output, wherein the cell core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. The core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material. The electrolyte walls are arranged and backfolded between adjacent interconnect walls operable to define a plurality of core passageways alternately arranged where the inside faces have only the anode material or only the cathode material exposed. Each layer of the electrolyte and interconnect materials 0.002 to 0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is 0.002 to 0.05 cm thick.

  15. Silver deposition on chemically treated carbon monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Zoran M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monolith was treated with HNO3, KOH and H2O2. Effects of these treatments on the surface functional groups and on the amount of silver deposited on the CM surface were studied by temperature programmed desorption (TPD and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. As a result of chemical treatment there was an increase in the amount of surface oxygen complexes. The increase in the amount of silver deposit is proportional to the amount of surface groups that produce CO under decomposition. However, the high amount of CO groups, decomposing above 600°C, induces the smaller Ag crystallite size. Therefore, the high temperature CO evolving oxides are, most likely, the initial centers for Ag deposition.

  16. Nanosized CuO and ZnO Catalyst Supported on Honeycomb-Typed Monolith for Hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide to Methyl Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Min; Ahn, Won-Ju; Jo, Woong-Kyu; Song, Jin-Hun; Oh, Chang-Yeop; Jeong, Young-Shin; Chung, Min-Chul; Park, Kwon-Pil; Kim, Ki-Joong; Jeong, Woon-Jo; Sohn, Bo-Kyun; Jung, Sang-Chul; Lee, Do-Jin; Ahn, Byeong-Kwon; Ahn, Ho-Geun

    2015-01-01

    The greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been recognized as one of the most serious problems in the world. Conversion of CO2 to methyl alcohol (CH3OH) was studied using catalytic chemical methods. Honeycomb-typed monolith used as catalyst support was 400 cell/inch2. Pretreatment of the monolith surface was carried out by thermal treatment and acid treatment. Monolith-supported nanosized CuO-ZnO catalysts were prepared by wash-coat method. The prepared catalysts were characterized by using SEM, TEM, and XRD. The catalytic activity for CO2 hydrogenation to CH3OH was investigated using a flow-type reactor with varying reaction temperature, reaction pressure and contact time. Conversion of CO2 was increased with increasing reaction temperature, but selectivity to CH3OH was decreased. Optimum reaction temperature was about 250 degrees C under 20 atm. Because of the reverse water gas shift reaction.

  17. M/L, Hα Rotation Curves, and H I Gas Measurements for 329 Nearby Cluster and Field Spirals. III. Evolution in Fundamental Galaxy Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Nicole P.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Herter, Terry

    2004-06-01

    We have conducted a study of optical and H I properties of spiral galaxies (size, luminosity, Hα flux distribution, circular velocity, H I gas mass) to investigate causes (e.g., nature vs. nurture) for variation within the cluster environment. We find H I-deficient cluster galaxies to be offset in fundamental plane space, with disk scale lengths decreased by a factor of 25%. This may be a relic of early galaxy formation, caused by the disk coalescing out of a smaller, denser halo (e.g., higher concentration index) or by truncation of the hot gas envelope due to the enhanced local density of neighbors, although we cannot completely rule out the effect of the gas stripping process. The spatial extent of Hα flux and the B-band radius also decreases, but only in early-type spirals, suggesting that gas removal is less efficient within steeper potential wells (or that stripped late-type spirals are quickly rendered unrecognizable). We find no significant trend in stellar mass-to-light ratios or circular velocities with H I gas content, morphological type, or clustercentric radius, for star-forming spiral galaxies throughout the clusters. These data support the findings of a companion paper that gas stripping promotes a rapid truncation of star formation across the disk and could be interpreted as weak support for dark matter domination over baryons in the inner regions of spiral galaxies.

  18. Monolithic Rare Earth Doped PTR Glass Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main goal of the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a monolithic solid state laser on the basis of PTR glass co-doped with luminescent rare earth ions....

  19. Plant oil-based shape memory polymer using acrylic monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tsujimoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the synthesis of a plant oil-based material using acrylic monolith. An acrylic monolith bearing oxirane groups was prepared via simple technique that involved the dissolution of poly(glycidyl methacrylate-comethyl methacrylate (PGMA in ethanolic – aqueous solution by heating and subsequent cooling. The PGMA monolith had topologically porous structure, which was attributed to the phase separation of the polymer solution. The PGMA monolith was impregnated by epoxidized soybean oil (ESO containing thermally-latent catalyst, and the subsequent curing produced a crosslinked material with relatively good transparency. The Young’s modulus and the tensile strength of polyESO/PGMA increased compared with the ESO homopolymer. The strain at break of polyESO/PGMA was larger than that of the ESO homopolymer and crosslinked PGMA. Furthermore, polyESO/PGMA exhibited good shape memory-recovery behavior.

  20. Application of monolithic chromatographic supports in virus research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajacic, Mladen; Ravnikar, Maja; Štrancar, Aleš; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion

    2017-05-12

    Key properties of monolithic chromatographic supports, make them suitable for separation and/or concentration of large biomolecules, especially virus particles and viral genomes. One by one, the studies that have been completed so far, contributed to the knowledge that monolith chromatography has hardly any limitation to be applied in virus research. Viruses of different sizes, possessing icosahedral structure and symmetrical morphology, as well as rod-shaped or filamentous viruses with helical structure, even enveloped ones, all of them could be successfully managed by means of monolith chromatography. Same is true for viral genomes, primarily when being distinct from other nucleic acid forms present in a host cell. This review is exclusively focused on viruses. It describes the application of monolith chromatography to different problematics within the virus research field. The reviewed achievements offer new possibilities and trigger new aspects in virology. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Monolithic Perovskite Silicon Tandem Solar Cells with Advanced Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Jan C.; Bett, Alexander J.; Bivour, Martin; Blasi, Benedikt; Eisenlohr, Johannes; Kohlstadt, Markus; Lee, Seunghun; Mastroianni, Simone; Mundt, Laura; Mundus, Markus; Ndione, Paul; Reichel, Christian; Schubert, Martin; Schulze, Patricia S.; Tucher, Nico; Veit, Clemens; Veurman, Welmoed; Wienands, Karl; Winkler, Kristina; Wurfel, Uli; Glunz, Stefan W.; Hermle, Martin

    2016-11-14

    For high efficiency monolithic perovskite silicon tandem solar cells, we develop low-temperature processes for the perovskite top cell, rear-side light trapping, optimized perovskite growth, transparent contacts and adapted characterization methods.

  2. Effect of accelerated aging on translucency of monolithic zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Abdelbary

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Thickness of zirconia has significant effect on translucency. Aging has significant effect on thinner sections of zirconia. More research is required on zirconia towards making the material more translucent for its potential use as esthetic monolithic restoration.

  3. Monolithic CMOS pixel detector for international linear collider vertex detection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J E Brau; O Igonkina; N Sinew; D Strom; C Baltay; W Emmet; H Neal; D Rabinowitz

    2007-12-01

    A monolithic CMS pixel detector is under development for an ILC experiment. This chronopixel array provides a time stamp resolution of one bunch crossing, a critical feature for background suppression. The status of this effort is summarized.

  4. Performance characteristics between monolithic and microservice-based systems

    OpenAIRE

    Flygare, Robin; Holmqvist, Anthon

    2017-01-01

    A new promising technology to face the problem of scalability and availability is the microservice architecture. The problem with this architecture is that there is no significant study that clearly proves the performance differences compared to the monolithic architecture. Our thesis aims to provide a more conclusive answer of how the microservice architecture differs performance wise compared to the monolithic architecture. In this study, we conducted several experiments on a self-developed...

  5. Sol-Gel Synthesis of Non-Silica Monolithic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Gaweł

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic materials have become very popular because of various applications, especially within chromatography and catalysis. Large surface areas and multimodal porosities are great advantages for these applications. New sol-gel preparation methods utilizing phase separation or nanocasting have opened the possibility for preparing materials of other oxides than silica. In this review, we present different synthesis methods for inorganic, non-silica monolithic materials. Some examples of application of the materials are also included.

  6. Reliability Analysis and Optimal Design of Monolithic Vertical Wall Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, Hans F.; Christiani, E.

    1994-01-01

    Reliability analysis and reliability-based design of monolithic vertical wall breakwaters are considered. Probabilistic models of the most important failure modes, sliding failure, failure of the foundation and overturning failure are described . Relevant design variables are identified and relia......Reliability analysis and reliability-based design of monolithic vertical wall breakwaters are considered. Probabilistic models of the most important failure modes, sliding failure, failure of the foundation and overturning failure are described . Relevant design variables are identified...

  7. Extended Leach Testing of Simulated LAW Cast Stone Monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Benjamin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jung, H. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-09

    This report describes the results from long-term laboratory leach tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the release of key constituents from monoliths of Cast Stone prepared with four simulated low-activity waste (LAW) liquid waste streams. Specific objectives of the Cast Stone long-term leach tests described in this report focused on four activities: 1. Extending the leaching times for selected ongoing EPA-1315 tests on monoliths made with LAW simulants beyond the conventional 63-day time period up to 609 days reported herein (with some tests continuing that will be documented later) in an effort to evaluate long-term leaching properties of Cast Stone to support future performance assessment activities. 2. Starting new EPA-1315 leach tests on archived Cast Stone monoliths made with four LAW simulants using two leachants (deionized water [DIW] and simulated Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Site vadose zone pore water [VZP]). 3. Evaluating the impacts of varying the iodide loading (starting iodide concentrations) in one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) Average) by manufacturing new Cast Stone monoliths and repeating the EPA-1315 leach tests using DIW and the VZP leachants. 4. Evaluating the impacts of using a non-pertechnetate form of Tc that is present in some Hanford tanks. In this activity one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na HTWOS Average) was spiked with a Tc(I)-tricarbonyl gluconate species and then solidified into Cast Stone monoliths. Cured monoliths were leached using the EPA-1315 leach protocol with DIW and VZP. The leach results for the Tc-Gluconate Cast Stone monoliths were compared to Cast Stone monoliths pertechnetate.

  8. Mechanically stable, hierarchically porous Cu3(btc)2 (HKUST-1) monoliths via direct conversion of copper(II) hydroxide-based monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitra, Nirmalya; Fukumoto, Shotaro; Reboul, Julien; Sumida, Kenji; Zhu, Yang; Nakanishi, Kazuki; Furukawa, Shuhei; Kitagawa, Susumu; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi

    2015-02-28

    The synthesis of highly crystalline macro-meso-microporous monolithic Cu3(btc)2 (HKUST-1; btc(3-) = benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate) is demonstrated by direct conversion of Cu(OH)2-based monoliths while preserving the characteristic macroporous structure. The high mechanical strength of the monoliths is promising for possible applications to continuous flow reactors.

  9. c2d Spitzer IRS Spectra of Disks around T Tauri Stars. III. [Ne II], [Fe I], and H_2 gas-phase lines

    CERN Document Server

    Lahuis, Fred; Blake, Geoffrey A; Evans, Neal J; Kessler-Silacci, Jacqueline E; Pontoppidan, Klaus M

    2007-01-01

    We present a survey of mid-infrared gas-phase lines toward a sample of 76 circumstellar disks around low mass pre-main sequence stars from the Spitzer "Cores to Disks" legacy program. We report the first detections of [Ne II] and [Fe I] toward classical T Tauri stars in ~20% respectively ~9% of our sources. The observed [Ne II] line fluxes and upper limits are consistent with [Ne II] excitation in an X-ray irradiated disk around stars with X-ray luminosities L_X=10^{29}-10^{31} erg s^{-1}. [Fe I] is detected at ~10^-5-10^-4 L_Sun, but no [S I] or [Fe II] is detected down to ~10^{-6} L_Sun. The [Fe I] detections indicate the presence of gas-rich disks with masses of >~0.1 M_J. No H_2 0-0 S(0) and S(1) disk emission is detected, except for S(1) toward one source. These data give upper limits on the warm (T~100-200K) gas mass of a few Jovian masses, consistent with recent T Tauri disk models which include gas heating by stellar radiation. Compact disk emission of hot (T>~500K) gas is observed through the H_2 0-0...

  10. Monoliths: A Review of the Basics, Preparation Methods and Their Relevance to Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeeran Govender

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research has been conducted on monolithic catalysts for various applications. Strategies toward coating monoliths are of equal interest and importance. In this paper, the preparation of monoliths and monolithic catalysts have been summarized. More specifically, a brief explanation for the manufacturing of ceramic and metallic monoliths has been provided. Also, different methods for coating γ-alumina, as a secondary support, are included. Techniques used to deposit metal-based species, zeolites and carbon onto monoliths are discussed. Furthermore, monoliths extruded with metal oxides, zeolites and carbon are described. The main foci are on the reasoning and understanding behind the preparation of monolithic catalysts. Ideas and concerns are also contributed to encourage better approaches when designing these catalysts. More importantly, the relevance of monolithic structures to reactions, such as the selective oxidation of alkanes, catalytic combustion for power generation and the preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide, has been described.

  11. Polymethacrylate monolithic and hybrid particle-monolithic columns for reversed-phase and hydrophilic interaction capillary liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandera, Pavel; Urban, Jirí; Skeríková, Veronika; Langmaier, Pavel; Kubícková, Romana; Planeta, Josef

    2010-01-01

    We prepared hybrid particle-monolithic polymethacrylate columns for micro-HPLC by in situ polymerization in fused silica capillaries pre-packed with 3-5microm C(18) and aminopropyl silica bonded particles, using polymerization mixtures based on laurylmethacrylate-ethylene dimethacrylate (co)polymers for the reversed-phase (RP) mode and [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) zwitterionic (co)polymers for the hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) mode. The hybrid particle-monolithic columns showed reduced porosity and hold-up volumes, approximately 2-2.5 times lower in comparison to the pure monolithic columns prepared in the whole volume of empty capillaries. The elution volumes of sample compounds are also generally lower in comparison to packed or pure monolithic columns. The efficiency and permeability of the hybrid columns are intermediate in between the properties of the reference pure monolithic and particle-packed columns. The chemistries of the embedded solid particles and of the interparticle monolithic moiety in the hybrid capillary columns contribute to the retention to various degrees, affecting the selectivity of separation. Some hybrid columns provided improved separations of proteins in comparison to the reference particle-packed columns in the reversed-phase mode. Zwitterionic hybrid particle-monolithic columns show dual mode retention HILIC/RP behaviour depending on the composition of the mobile phase and allow separations of polar compounds such as phenolic acids in the HILIC mode at lower concentrations of acetonitrile and, often in shorter analysis time in comparison to particle-packed and full-volume monolithic columns.

  12. Pilot‐scale investigation and CFD modeling of particle deposition in low‐dust monolithic SCR DeNOx catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiredal, Michael Lykke; Jensen, Anker Degn; Thøgersen, Joakim Reimer

    2013-01-01

    Deposition of particles in selective catalytic reduction DeNOx monolithic catalysts was studied by low‐dust pilot‐scale experiments. The experiments showed a total deposition efficiency of about 30%, and the deposition pattern was similar to that observed in full‐scale low‐dust applications....... On extended exposure to the dust‐laden flue gas, complete blocking of channels was observed, showing that also in low‐dust applications soot blowing is necessary to keep the catalyst clean. A particle deposition model was developed in computational fluid dynamics, and simulations were carried out assuming...... either laminar or turbulent flow. Assuming laminar flow, the accumulated mass was underpredicted with a factor of about 17, whereas assuming turbulent flow overpredicted the experimental result with a factor of about 2. The simulations showed that turbulent diffusion in the monolith channels and inertial...

  13. Examination of the Coordination Sphere of AlIII in Trifluoromethyl-Heteroarylalkenolato Complex Ions by Gas-Phase IRMPD Spectroscopy and Computational Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruckmann, L.; Tyrra, W.; Mathur, S.; G. Berden,; Oomens, J.; Meijer, Ajhm; Schafer, M.

    2012-01-01

    A series of aluminium complex ions with trifluoromethyl-heteroarylalkenolato (TMHA) ligands are studied by gas-phase infrared multiphoton-dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy and computational modelling. The selected series of aluminium TMHA complex ions are promising species for the initial study of i

  14. Examination of the coordination sphere of AlIII in trifluoromethyl-heteroarylalkenolato complex ions by gas-phase IRMPD spectroscopy and computational modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Brueckmann; W. Tyrra; S. Mathur; G. Berden; J. Oomens; A.J.H.M. Meijer; M. Schaefer

    2012-01-01

    A series of aluminium complex ions with trifluoromethyl-heteroarylalkenolato (TMHA) ligands are studied by gas-phase infrared multiphoton-dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy and computational modelling. The selected series of aluminium TMHA complex ions are promising species for the initial study of i

  15. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. C. Kwon

    2006-09-30

    CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives using a monolithic catalyst reactor, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 40-560 seconds at 120-150 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, total pressure, space time, and catalyst regeneration on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,600-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,800-2,000 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 23-27 v% hydrogen, 36-41 v% CO, 10-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 30-180 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-150 C. The pressure of the reactor

  16. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. C. Kwon

    2006-09-30

    CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives using a monolithic catalyst reactor, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 40-560 seconds at 120-150 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, total pressure, space time, and catalyst regeneration on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,600-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,800-2,000 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 23-27 v% hydrogen, 36-41 v% CO, 10-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 30-180 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-150 C. The pressure of the reactor

  17. Gas hydrates

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.

    and the role it plays in the global climate and the future of fuels. Russia, Japan, Nigeria, Peru, Chile, Pakistan, Indonesia, Korea, etc are various countries who are perusing the gas hydrates studies as a future resource for fuel. Indian Initiative..., 1993, Free gas at the base of the gas hydrate zone in the vicinity of the Chile Triple junction: Geology, v. 21, pp. 905-908. Borowski, W.S., C.K. Paull, and U. William, III, 1999, Global and local variations of interstitial sulfate gradients...

  18. The Advanced Virgo monolithic fused silica suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aisa, D.; Aisa, S.; Campeggi, C.; Colombini, M. [University of Perugia and INFN Perugia (Italy); Conte, A. [University of Roma Sapienza and INFN Roma (Italy); Farnesini, L. [University of Perugia and INFN Perugia (Italy); Majorana, E.; Mezzani, F. [University of Roma Sapienza and INFN Roma (Italy); Montani, M. [University of Urbino and INFN Firenze (Italy); Naticchioni, L.; Perciballi, M. [University of Roma Sapienza and INFN Roma (Italy); Piergiovanni, F. [University of Urbino and INFN Firenze (Italy); Piluso, A. [University of Perugia and INFN Perugia (Italy); Puppo, P., E-mail: paola.puppo@roma1.infn.it [University of Roma Sapienza and INFN Roma (Italy); Rapagnani, P. [University of Roma Sapienza and INFN Roma (Italy); Travasso, F. [University of Perugia and INFN Perugia (Italy); Vicerè, A. [University of Urbino and INFN Firenze (Italy); Vocca, H. [University of Perugia and INFN Perugia (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    The detection of gravitational waves is one of the most challenging prospects faced by experimental physicists. Suspension thermal noise is an important noise source at operating frequencies between approximately 10 and 30 Hz, and represents a limit to the sensitivity of the ground based interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Its effects can be reduced by minimizing the losses and by optimizing the geometry of the suspension fiber as well as its attachment system. In this proceeding we will describe the mirrors double stage monolithic suspension system to be used in the Advanced Virgo (AdV) detector. We also present the results of the thermal noise study, performed with the help of a finite elements model, taking into account the precise geometry of the fibers attachment systems on the suspension elements. We shall demonstrate the suitability of this suspension for installation in AdV. - Highlights: • Suspension system design for the test masses of the gravitational wave detectors. • Finite element model studies. • Suspension thermal noise studies.

  19. Metal Monolithic Amine-grafted Zeolite for CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Steven

    2011-03-31

    The solid amine sorbent for CO{sub 2} capture process has advantages of simplicity and low operating cost compared to the MEA (monoethanolamine) process. Solid amine sorbents reported so far suffered from either low CO{sub 2} capture capacity or low stability. The solid amine sorbent developed in this project exhibited more than 3.2 mmol/g and degraded less than 10% even after 500 cycles of heating and cooling in absence of steam. The presence of steam further enhanced CO{sub 2} capture capacity. The cost of the sorbent is estimated to be less than $7.00/lb. This sorbent was developed using the results of in situ infrared spectroscopic study. Infrared results showed that CO{sub 2} adsorbs on TEPA (tetraethylenepentamine)/PEG (polyethylene glycol) as carbamates and bicarbonates. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity and oxidation resistance of the amine sorbent can be enhanced by the interactions between NH{sub 2} of TEPA molecules with the OH group of PEG molecules. PEG was also found to be effectively disperse and immobilize the aromatic amines for SO{sub 2} adsorption. The infrared study also showed that SiO{sub 2} is a significantly better support than zeolites due to its proper hydrophobicity. The results of this study led to the development of a high performance solid amine sorbent under simulated gas flow condition in a fixed bed, a fluidized bed, and a metal monolith unit. This study showed heat transfer could become a major technical issue in scaling up a fixed bed adsorber. The use of the fluidized bed and metal monoliths can alleviate the heat transfer issue. The metal monolith could be suitable for small scale applications due to the high cost of manufacturing; the fluidized bed mode would be most suitable for large scale applications. Preliminary economic analysis suggested that the Akron solid amine process would cost 45% less than that of MEA process.

  20. Reactor models for a series of continuous stirred tank reactors with a gas-liquid-solid leaching system: Part III. Model application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papangelakis, V. G.; Demopoulos, G. P.

    1992-12-01

    A mathematical model developed to describe the steady-state performance of a three-phase leaching reactor is applied to the analysis and simulation of an industrial process: the high-temperature (180 °C to 200 °C) aqueous pressure oxidation (O2-H2SO4) of refractory pyrite-arsenopyrite (FeS2-FeAsS) gold concentrates. The simulation work reported here centers on the analysis of the autothermal operation of a continuous multistage horizontal autoclave. The focus is on the performance of the first autoclave compartment, since its autothermal “initialization” determines the rate of the whole process. The analysis of the whole autoclave is subsequently done on a stage-by-stage basis. The model considers both possible reaction control regimes, that is, reactor operation limited by the rate of the particle dissolution reaction (surface reaction control) or limited by the rate of O2 transfer at the g-1 interface (gas-transfer control). The decision whether the reactor operates under surface reaction control or gas transfer control is based on whether the gas-transfer capacity of the reactor can or cannot satisfy the oxygen demands of the leaching reactions. With the aid of the model, the effects of feed rate, feed preheating, cooling with water injection, slurry recycling, and autoclave configuration are critically evaluated from the standpoint of optimum autoclave performance.

  1. HiRISE observations of gas sublimation-driven activity in Mars' southern polar regions: III. Models of processes involving translucent ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portyankina, G.; Markiewicz, W.J.; Thomas, N.; Hansen, C.J.; Milazzo, M.

    2010-01-01

    Enigmatic surface features, known as 'spiders', found at high southern martian latitudes, are probably caused by sublimation-driven erosion under the seasonal carbon dioxide ice cap. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) has imaged this terrain in unprecedented details throughout southern spring. It has been postulated [Kieffer, H.H., Titus, T.N., Mullins, K.F., Christensen, P.R., 2000. J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9653-9700] that translucent CO2 slab ice traps gas sublimating at the ice surface boundary. Wherever the pressure is released the escaping gas jet entrains loose surface material and carries it to the top of the ice where it is carried downslope and/or downwind and deposited in a fan shape. Here we model two stages of this scenario: first, the cleaning of CO2 slab ice from dust, and then, the breaking of the slab ice plate under the pressure built below it by subliming ice. Our modeling results and analysis of HiRISE images support the gas jet hypothesis and show that outbursts happen very early in spring. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Richard III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Palle Schantz

    2017-01-01

    Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"......Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"...

  3. New Graphene Form of Nanoporous Monolith for Excellent Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hui; Lin, Tianquan; Xu, Feng; Tang, Yufeng; Liu, Zhanqiang; Huang, Fuqiang

    2016-01-13

    Extraordinary tubular graphene cellular material of a tetrahedrally connected covalent structure was very recently discovered as a new supermaterial with ultralight, ultrastiff, superelastic, and excellent conductive characteristics, but no high specific surface area will keep it from any next-generation energy storage applications. Herein, we prepare another new graphene monolith of mesoporous graphene-filled tubes instead of hollow tubes in the reported cellular structure. This graphene nanoporous monolith is also composed of covalently bonded carbon network possessing high specific surface area of ∼1590 m(2) g(-1) and electrical conductivity of ∼32 S cm(-1), superior to graphene aerogels and porous graphene forms self-assembled by graphene oxide. This 3D graphene monolith can support over 10 000 times its own weight, significantly superior to CNT and graphene cellular materials with a similar density. Furthermore, pseudocapacitance-active functional groups are introduced into the new nanoporous graphene monolith as an electrode material in electrochemical capacitors. Surprisingly, the electrode of 3D mesoporous graphene has a specific capacitance of 303 F g(-1) and maintains over 98% retention after 10 000 cycles, belonging to the list for the best carbon-based active materials. The macroscopic mesoporous graphene monolith suggests the great potential as an electrode for supercapacitors in energy storage areas.

  4. Recent advances in polymer monoliths for ion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordborg, Anna; Hilder, Emily F

    2009-05-01

    The use of polymeric materials in ion-exchange chromatography applications is advantageous because of their typically high mechanical stability and tolerance of a wide range of pH conditions. The possibility of using polymeric monoliths in ion-exchange chromatography is therefore obvious and many of the same strategies developed for polymeric particles have been adapted for use with polymeric monoliths. In this review different strategies for the synthesis of polymeric monoliths with ion-exchange functionality are discussed. The incorporation of ion-exchange functionality by co-polymerization is included, as also are different post-polymerization alterations to the monolith surface such as grafting. The formulations and strategies presented include materials intended for use in analytical separations in ion-exchange chromatography, sample pre-treatment or enrichment applications, and materials for capillary electrochromatography. Finally, examples of the use of polymeric monoliths in ion-exchange chromatography applications are included with examples published in the years 2003 to 2008.

  5. HPLC analysis of synthetic polymers on short monolithic columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, Elena; Vlakh, Evgenia; Sinitsyna, Ekaterina; Tennikova, Tatiana

    2013-12-01

    Ultrashort monolithic columns (disks) were thoroughly studied as efficient stationary phases for precipitation-dissolution chromatography of synthetic polymers. Gradient elution mode was applied in all chromatographic runs. The mixtures of different flexible chain homopolymers, such as polystyrenes, poly(methyl methacrylates), and poly(tert-butylmethacrylates) were separated according to their molecular weights on both commercial poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) disks (12 id × 3 mm and 5 × 5 mm) and lab-made monolithic columns (4.6 id × 50 mm) filled with supports of different hydrophobicity. The experimental conditions were optimized to reach fast and highly efficient separation. It was observed that, similar to the separation of monoliths of other classes of (macro)molecules (proteins, DNA, oligonucleotides), the length of column did not affect the peak resolution. A comparison of the retention properties of the poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) disk-shaped monoliths with those based on poly(lauryl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate), poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate), and poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) supports demonstrated the obvious effect of surface chemistry on the resolution factor. Additionally, the results of the discussed chromatographic mode on the fast determination of the molecular weights of homopolymers used in this study were compared to those established by SEC on columns packed with sorbent beads of a similar nature to the monoliths. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Edge chipping and flexural resistance of monolithic ceramics☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Lee, James J.-W.; Srikanth, Ramanathan; Lawn, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Test the hypothesis that monolithic ceramics can be developed with combined esthetics and superior fracture resistance to circumvent processing and performance drawbacks of traditional all-ceramic crowns and fixed-dental-prostheses consisting of a hard and strong core with an esthetic porcelain veneer. Specifically, to demonstrate that monolithic prostheses can be produced with a much reduced susceptibility to fracture. Methods Protocols were applied for quantifying resistance to chipping as well as resistance to flexural failure in two classes of dental ceramic, microstructurally-modified zirconias and lithium disilicate glass–ceramics. A sharp indenter was used to induce chips near the edges of flat-layer specimens, and the results compared with predictions from a critical load equation. The critical loads required to produce cementation surface failure in monolithic specimens bonded to dentin were computed from established flexural strength relations and the predictions validated with experimental data. Results Monolithic zirconias have superior chipping and flexural fracture resistance relative to their veneered counterparts. While they have superior esthetics, glass–ceramics exhibit lower strength but higher chip fracture resistance relative to porcelain-veneered zirconias. Significance The study suggests a promising future for new and improved monolithic ceramic restorations, with combined durability and acceptable esthetics. PMID:24139756

  7. Monolithic View of Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Chiosi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We review and critically discuss the current understanding of galaxy formation and evolution limited to Early Type Galaxies (ETGs as inferred from the observational data and briefly contrast the hierarchical and quasi-monolithic paradigms of formation and evolution. Since in Cold Dark Matter (CDM cosmogony small scale structures typically collapse early and form low-mass haloes that subsequently can merge to assembly larger haloes, galaxies formed in the gravitational potential well of a halo are also expected to merge thus assembling their mass hierarchically. Mergers should occur all over the Hubble time and large mass galaxies should be in place only recently. However, recent observations of high redshift galaxies tell a different story: massive ETGs are already in place at high redshift. To this aim, we propose here a revision of the quasi-monolithic scenario as an alternative to the hierarchical one, in which mass assembling should occur in early stages of a galaxy lifetime and present recent models of ETGs made of Dark and Baryonic Matter in a Λ-CDM Universe that obey the latter scheme. The galaxies are followed from the detachment from the linear regime and Hubble flow at z ≥ 20 down to the stage of nearly complete assembly of the stellar content (z ∼ 2 − 1 and beyond.  It is found that the total mass (Mh = MDM + MBM and/or initial over-density of the proto-galaxy drive the subsequent star formation histories (SFH. Massive galaxies (Mh ~ _1012M⊙ experience a single, intense burst of star formation (with rates ≥ 103M⊙/yr at early epochs, consistently with observations, with a weak dependence on the initial over-density; intermediate mass haloes (Mh~_ 1010 − 1011M⊙ have star formation histories that strongly depend on their initial over-density; finally, low mass haloes (Mh ~_ 109M⊙ always have erratic, burst-like star forming histories. The present-day properties (morphology, structure, chemistry and photometry of the

  8. The HI Chronicles of LITTLE THINGS BCDs. III. Gas Clouds in and around Mrk 178, VII Zw 403, and NGC 3738

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Trisha; Simpson, Caroline E.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Johnson, Megan; Pokhrel, Nau Raj

    2017-03-01

    In most blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies, it remains unclear what triggers their bursts of star formation. We study the H i of three relatively isolated BCDs, Mrk 178, VII Zw 403, and NGC 3738, in detail to look for signatures of star formation triggers, such as gas cloud consumption, dwarf–dwarf mergers, and interactions with companions. High angular and velocity resolution atomic hydrogen (H i) data from the Very Large Array (VLA) dwarf galaxy H i survey, Local Irregulars That Trace Luminosity Extremes, The H i Nearby Galaxy Survey (LITTLE THINGS), allow us to study the detailed kinematics and morphologies of the BCDs in H i. We also present high-sensitivity H i maps from the NRAO Green Bank Telescope (GBT) of each BCD to search their surrounding regions for extended tenuous emission or companions. The GBT data do not show any distinct galaxies obviously interacting with the BCDs. The VLA data indicate several possible star formation triggers in these BCDs. Mrk 178 likely has a gas cloud impacting the southeast end of its disk or it is experiencing ram pressure stripping. VII Zw 403 has a large gas cloud in its foreground or background that shows evidence of accreting onto the disk. NGC 3738 has several possible explanations for its stellar morphology and H i morphology and kinematics: an advanced merger, strong stellar feedback, or ram pressure stripping. Although apparently isolated, the H i data of all three BCDs indicate that they may be interacting with their environments, which could be triggering their bursts of star formation.

  9. Monolithic Solid Oxide Fuel Cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, K. M.; McPheeters, C. C.

    1989-12-01

    The Monolithic Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (MSOFC) is an oxide-ceramic structure in which appropriate electronic and ionic conductors are fabricated in a honeycomb shape similar to a block of corrugated paperboard. These electronic and ionic conductors are arranged to provide short conduction paths to minimize resistive losses. The power density achievable with the MSOFC is expected to be about 8 kW/kg or 4 kW/L, at fuel efficienceis over 50 percent, because of small cell size and low resistive losses in the materials. The MSOFC operates in the range of 700 to 1000 C, at which temperatures rapid reform of hydrocarbon fuels is expected within the nickel-YSZ fuel channels. Tape casting and hot roll calendering are used to fabricate the MSOFC structure. The performance of the MSOFC has improved significantly during the course of development. The limitation of this system, based on materials resistance alone without interfacial resistances, is 0.093 ohm-sq cm area-specific resistance (ASR). The current typical performance of MSOFC single cells is characterized by ASRs of about 0.4 to 0.5 ohm-sq cm. With further development the ASR is expected to be reduced below 0.2 ohm-sq cm, which will result in power levels greater than 1.4 W/sq cm. The feasibility of the MSOFC concept was proven, and the performance was dramatically improved. The differences in thermal expansion coefficients and firing shrinkages among the fuel cell materials were minimized. As a result of good matching of these properties, the MSOFC structure was successfully fabricated with few defects, and the system shows excellent promise for development into a practical power source.

  10. One-dimensional lattices topologically equivalent to two-dimensional lattices within the context of the lattice gas model, III. The hexagonal lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, E. F.; Costanza, G.

    2017-02-01

    Continuum partial differential equations are obtained from a set of discrete stochastic evolution equations of both non-Markovian and Markovian processes and applied to the diffusion within the context of the lattice gas model. A procedure allowing to construct one-dimensional lattices that are topologically equivalent to two-dimensional lattices is described in detail in the case of a hexagonal lattice which has the particular feature that need four types of dynamical variables. This example shows additional features to the general procedure and some extensions are also suggested in order to provide a wider insight in the present approach.

  11. Investigation of Vortex Structures in Gas-Discharge Nonneutral Electron Plasma: III. Pulse Ejection of Electrons at the Formation and Radial Oscillations of Vortex Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Kervalishvili, N A

    2015-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of electron ejection from gas-discharge nonneutral electron plasma at the formation and radial oscillations of vortex structure have been presented. The electrons are injected from the vortex structure and the adjacent region of electron sheath in the form of pulses the duration and periodicity of which are determined by the processes of evolution and dynamics of this structure. The possible mechanisms of pulse ejection of electrons are considered. The influence of electron ejection on other processes in discharge electron sheath is analyzed.

  12. Processing and characterization of multi-cellular monolithic bioceramics for bone regenerative scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari-Wahjoedi, Bambang; Ginta, Turnad Lenggo; Parman, Setyamartana; Abustaman, Mohd Zikri Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    Multicellular monolithic ceramic body is a ceramic material which has many gas or liquid passages partitioned by thin walls throughout the bulk material. There are many currently known advanced industrial applications of multicellular ceramics structures i.e. as supports for various catalysts, electrode support structure for solid oxide fuel cells, refractories, electric/electronic materials, aerospace vehicle re-entry heat shields and biomaterials for dental as well as orthopaedic implants by naming only a few. Multicellular ceramic bodies are usually made of ceramic phases such as mullite, cordierite, aluminum titanate or pure oxides such as silica, zirconia and alumina. What make alumina ceramics is excellent for the above functions are the intrinsic properties of alumina which are hard, wear resistant, excellent dielectric properties, resists strong acid and alkali attacks at elevated temperatures, good thermal conductivities, high strength and stiffness as well as biocompatible. In this work the processing technology leading to truly multicellular monolithic alumina ceramic bodies and their characterization are reported. Ceramic slip with 66 wt.% solid loading was found to be optimum as impregnant to the polyurethane foam template. Mullitic ceramic composite of alumina-sodium alumino disilicate-Leucite-like phases with bulk and true densities of 0.852 and 1.241 g cm-3 respectively, pore linear density of ±35 cm-1, linear and bulk volume shrinkages of 7-16% and 32 vol.% were obtained. The compressive strength and elastic modulus of the bioceramics are ≈0.5-1.0 and ≈20 MPa respectively.

  13. The MASSIVE Survey - III. Molecular gas and a broken Tully-Fisher relation in the most massive early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Timothy A; Ma, Chung-Pei; Pandya, Viraj; Blakeslee, John P; McConnell, Nicholas; Thomas, Jens

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) observations of a pilot sample of 15 early-type galaxies (ETGs) drawn from the MASSIVE galaxy survey, a volume-limited integral-field spectroscopic study of the most massive ETGs ($M_* >10^{11.5}M_\\odot$) within 108 Mpc. These objects were selected because they showed signs of an interstellar medium and/or star formation. A large amount of gas ($>$2$\\times$10$^8$ M$_{\\odot}$) is present in 10 out of 15 objects, and these galaxies have gas fractions higher than expected based on extrapolation from lower mass samples. We tentatively interpret this as evidence that stellar mass loss and hot halo cooling may be starting to play a role in fuelling the most massive galaxies. These MASSIVE ETGs seem to have lower star-formation efficiencies (SFE=SFR/M$_{\\rm H2}$) than spiral galaxies, but the SFEs derived are consistent with being drawn from the same distribution found in other lower mass ETG samples. This suggests that the SFE is not simply a function of stellar mass, but...

  14. Biological effects of short-term, high-concentration exposure to methyl isocyanate. III. Influence on gas exchange in the guinea pig lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedde, M.R.; Dodd, D.E.; Troup, C.M.; Fowler, E.H.

    1987-06-01

    The influence of methyl isocyanate (MIC) inhalation on the gas exchange function of the lungs in guinea pigs was studied by measuring arterial blood gases, pH, and tracheal pressure during constant-volume, artificial ventilation with air or 100% O/sub 2/ at 40 and 120 min after exposure. A 15 min exposure to MIC at concentrations of 240 to 628 ppm caused a marked reduction in PaO/sub 2/ and pH/sub a/ and an elevated tracheal pressure during artificial ventilation. The low PaO/sub 2/ was only slightly elevated when the animals were ventilated with 100% O/sub 2/. Although the dry-wet lung weight ratio was reduced at the highest exposure concentration, the effect was not severe and no significant increase in lung water was found at the lower concentrations. MIC inhalation caused severe pulmonary blood shunting and ventilation/perfusion imbalance. This, in turn, led to hypoxemia, metabolic acidosis, and tissue hypoxia, which could produce death. The pulmonary gas exchange deficit likely resulted from bronchial and bronchiolar obstruction caused by sloughed epithelium and other debris from intra- and extrapulmonary airways.

  15. Spectroastrometry of rotating gas disks for the detection of supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei. III. CRIRES observations of the Circinus galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Gnerucci, A; Capetti, A; Axon, D J; Robinson, A

    2012-01-01

    We present new CRIRES spectroscopic observations of BrGamma in the nuclear region of the Circinus galaxy, obtained with the aim of measuring the black hole (BH) mass with the spectroastrometric technique. The Circinus galaxy is an ideal benchmark for the spectroastrometric technique given its proximity and secure BH measurement obtained with the observation of its nuclear H2O maser disk. The kinematical data have been analyzed both with the classical method based on the analysis of the rotation curves and with the new method developed by us and based on spectroastrometry. The classical method indicates that the gas disk rotates in the gravitational potential of an extended stellar mass distribution and a spatially unresolved mass of (1.7 +- 0.2) 10^7 Msun, concentrated within r < 7 pc. The new method is capable of probing gas rotation at scales which are a factor ~3.5 smaller than those probed by the rotation curve analysis. The dynamical mass spatially unresolved with the spectroastrometric method is a fa...

  16. Electronic properties of the III-VI layer compounds GaS, GaSe and InSe. Part I: Band structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doni, E. (Pisa Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica); Girlanda, R.; Grasso, V. (Messina Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Struttura della Materia); Balzarotti, A. (L' Aquila Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica); Piacentini, M. (Comitato Nazionale per l' Energia Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Frascati)

    1979-05-11

    The electronic properties of the semiconducting layer compounds GaS, GaSe and InSe are considered comparatively in a series of papers. In this first paper the band structures of the three compounds are computed by using the same method and the same approximations for all of them. The overlap-reduced semi-empirical tight-binding method (ORSTB) is outlined at first. The method consists in scaling only the overlap integrals in the secular equation. In this way it takes into account the localization of the atomiclike functions used in the Bloch sums in a more effective and simpler way than previous tight-binding semi-empirical schemes. For GaS, GaSe and InSe bands only two scaling factors are used as matching parameters to reproduce optical and photo-emission experimental data. The agreement between computed and experimental bands is very good. In particular, the shape of the bonding metal-metal bands which all previous tight-binding calculations failed a dipolar moment. The SEP is the macroscopic results of the alignment and the ''freezing-in'' of those structures. The study of the SEP promises to be useful in understanding the kinetic of the vapour-solid phase transition and in acquiring information about the structural transformations and phase transitions of the solids.

  17. Monolithic series-connected gallium arsenide converter development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzer, M.B.; McClelland, R.W.; Dingle, B.D.; Dingle, J.E.; Hill, D.S. (Kopin Corp., Taunton, MA (United States)); Rose, B.H. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1991-01-01

    We report the development of monolithic GaAs photovoltaic devices intended to convert light generated by a laser or other bright source to electricity. The converters described here can provide higher operating voltage than is possible using a single-junction converter, owing to use of a monolithic circuit that forms a planar series-connected string of single-junction sub-cells. This planar monolithic circuit is arranged to deliver the desired voltage and current during operation at the maximum power point. The paper describes two-, six-, and twelve-junction converters intended for illumination by a laser diode with a wavelength of 0.8 {mu}m. Design and characterization data are presented for optical power in the range of 100 mW to 1 W. The best conversion efficiency exceeds 50%. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Design of Monolithic Integrator for Strain-to-Frequency Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan Mohd. Khairi Tuan Mat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Strain-to-Frequency converter (SFC is a one of the analog conditioner tools that converts any strain signal to the frequency signal. The basic concept of SFC is by detecting any changing of strains, then converting the strain to the voltage signal and converting the voltage signal to the frequency signal. This tool consists of 3 main  components which are strain gauge, differential integrator and comparator. This paper presents the designing and analysis of monolithic integrator that to be used in the Strain-toFrequency converter. The primary goal is to design and simulate the performance of monolithic integrator for SFC using GATEWAY Silvaco Electronic Design Automation (S EDA tools and EXPERT software. The performances of SFC using the designed monolithic integrator are also investigated.

  19. Molecularly imprinted macroporous monolithic materials for protein recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Liang Deng; Yan Li Li; Li Hua Zhang; Yu Kui Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic materials that can specifically recognize proteins will find wide application in many fields. In this report, bovine serum albumin was chosen as the template protein. Acrylamide and N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide were employed as the functional and cross-linker monomers, respectively. Molecularly imprinted macroporous monolithic materials that can preferentially bind the template protein in an aqueous environment were prepared by combination of molecular imprinting technique and freezing/thawing preparation method. The resulted imprinted macroporous monolithic columns were evaluated by utilizing as stationary phase in high performance liquid chromatography and solid-phase extraction materials. The experimental results indicated that the imprinted macroporous monolithic column exhibited good recognition for template protein, as compared with the control protein (hemoglobin), whereas the non-imprinted polymer (prepared under the same conditions except without addition template protein) had no selective properties.

  20. A Possible Astronomically Aligned Monolith at Gardom's Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel; Alder, Andy; Bemand, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    A unique triangular shaped monolith located within the Peak District National Park at Gardom's Edge could be intentionally astronomically aligned. It is set within a landscape rich in late Neolithic and Bronze Age remains. We show that the stone is most likely in its original orientation owing to its clear signs of erosion and associated to the time period of the late Neolithic. It is tilted towards south and its north side slopes at an angle equal to the maximum altitude of the Sun at mid-summer. This alignment emphasizes the changing declinations of the Sun during the seasons as well as giving an indication of mid-summers day. This functionality is achieved by an impressive display of light and shadow on the north facing side of the monolith. Together with other monuments in the close vicinity the monolith would have represented an ideal marker or social arena for seasonal gatherings for the otherwise dispersed small communities.

  1. Preliminary shielding analysis for the CSNS target station monolith

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 陈义学; 杨寿海; 吴军; 殷雯; 梁天骄; 贾学军

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) has been initiated at Dongguan,Guangdong,China.In spallation neutron sources the target station monolith is contaminated by a large number of fast neutrons whose energies can be as large as those of the protons of the proton beam directed towards the tungsten target.A detailed radiation transport analysis of the target station monolith is important for the construction of the CSNS.The analysis is performed using the coupled Monte Carlo and multi-dimensional discrete ordinates method.Successful elimination of the primary ray effects via the two-dimensional uncollided flux and first collision source methodology is also illustrated.The dose at the edge of the monolith is calculated.The results demonstrate that the doses received by the hall staff members are below the required standard limit.

  2. Monolithic fuel cell based power source for burst power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fee, D. C.; Blackburn, P. E.; Busch, D. E.; Dees, D. W.; Dusek, J.; Easler, T. E.; Ellingson, W. A.; Flandermeyer, B. K.; Fousek, R. J.; Heiberger, J. J.

    A unique fuel cell coupled with a low power nuclear reactor presents an attractive approach for SDI burst power requirements. The monolithic fuel cell looks attractive for space applications and represents a quantum jump in fuel cell technology. Such a breakthrough in design is the enabling technology for lightweight, low volume power sources for space based pulse power systems. The monolith is unique among fuel cells in being an all solid state device. The capability for miniaturization, inherent in solid state devices, gives the low volume required for space missions. In addition, the solid oxide fuel cell technology employed in the monolith has high temperature reject heat and can be operated in either closed or open cycles. Both these features are attractive for integration into a burst power system.

  3. A Possible Astronomically Aligned Monolith at Gardom's Edge

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, D; Bemand, E

    2012-01-01

    A unique triangular shaped monolith located within the Peak District National Park at Gardom's Edge could be intentionally astronomically aligned. It is set within a landscape rich in late Neolithic and Bronze Age remains. We show that the stone is most likely in its original orientation owing to its clear signs of erosion and associated to the time period of the late Neolithic. It is tilted towards South and its North side slopes at an angle equal to the maximum altitude of the Sun at mid-summer. This alignment emphasizes the changing declinations of the Sun during the seasons as well as giving an indication of mid-summers day. This functionality is achieved by an impressive display of light and shadow on the North-facing side of the Monolith. Together with other monuments in the close vicinity the monolith would have represented an ideal marker or social arena for seasonal gatherings for the else dispersed small communities.

  4. MONOLITHIC FUEL FABRICATION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY_

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. A. Moore; F. J. Rice; N. E. Woolstenhulme; J-F. Jue; B. H. Park; S. E. Steffler; N. P. Hallinan; M. D. Chapple; M. C. Marshall; B. L. Mackowiak; C. R. Clark; B. H. Rabin

    2009-11-01

    Full-size/prototypic U10Mo monolithic fuel-foils and aluminum clad fuel plates are being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC). These efforts are focused on realizing Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) high density monolithic fuel plates for use in High Performance Research and Test Reactors. The U10Mo fuel foils under development afford a fuel meat density of ~16 gU/cc and thus have the potential to facilitate LEU conversions without any significant reactor-performance penalty. An overview is provided of the ongoing monolithic UMo fuel development effort, including application of a zirconium barrier layer on fuel foils, fabrication scale-up efforts, and development of complex/graded fuel foils. Fuel plate clad bonding processes to be discussed include: Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and Friction Bonding (FB).

  5. Synthesis of hierarchical porous carbon monoliths with incorporated metal-organic frameworks for enhancing volumetric based CO₂ capture capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Dan; Lei, Cheng; Hao, Guang-Ping; Li, Wen-Cui; Lu, An-Hui

    2012-11-01

    This work aims to optimize the structural features of hierarchical porous carbon monolith (HCM) by incorporating the advantages of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) (Cu₃(BTC)₂) to maximize the volumetric based CO₂ capture capability (CO₂ capacity in cm³ per cm³ adsorbent), which is seriously required for the practical application of CO₂ capture. The monolithic HCM was used as a matrix, in which Cu₃(BTC)₂ was in situ synthesized, to form HCM-Cu₃(BTC)₂ composites by a step-by-step impregnation and crystallization method. The resulted HCM-Cu₃(BTC)₂ composites, which retain the monolithic shape and exhibit unique hybrid structure features of both HCM and Cu₃(BTC)₂, show high CO₂ uptake of 22.7 cm³ cm⁻³ on a volumetric basis. This value is nearly as twice as the uptake of original HCM. The dynamic gas separation measurement of HCM-Cu₃(BTC)₂, using 16% (v/v) CO₂ in N₂ as feedstock, illustrates that CO₂ can be easily separated from N₂ under the ambient conditions and achieves a high separation factor for CO₂ over N₂, ranging from 67 to 100, reflecting a strongly competitive CO₂ adsorption by the composite. A facile CO₂ release can be realized by purging an argon flow through the fixed-bed adsorber at 25 °C, indicating the good regeneration ability.

  6. Mitigation of global greenhouse gas emissions from waste: conclusions and strategies from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report. Working Group III (Mitigation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Jean; Pipatti, Riitta; Hashimoto, Seiji; Diaz, Cristobal; Mareckova, Katarina; Diaz, Luis; Kjeldsen, Peter; Monni, Suvi; Faaij, Andre; Gao, Qingxian; Zhang, Tianzhu; Ahmed, Mohammed Abdelrafie; Sutamihardja, R T M; Gregory, Robert

    2008-02-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from post-consumer waste and wastewater are a small contributor (about 3%) to total global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Emissions for 2004-2005 totalled 1.4 Gt CO2-eq year(-1) relative to total emissions from all sectors of 49 Gt CO2-eq year(-1) [including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and F-gases normalized according to their 100-year global warming potentials (GWP)]. The CH4 from landfills and wastewater collectively accounted for about 90% of waste sector emissions, or about 18% of global anthropogenic methane emissions (which were about 14% of the global total in 2004). Wastewater N2O and CO2 from the incineration of waste containing fossil carbon (plastics; synthetic textiles) are minor sources. Due to the wide range of mature technologies that can mitigate GHG emissions from waste and provide public health, environmental protection, and sustainable development co-benefits, existing waste management practices can provide effective mitigation of GHG emissions from this sector. Current mitigation technologies include landfill gas recovery, improved landfill practices, and engineered wastewater management. In addition, significant GHG generation is avoided through controlled composting, state-of-the-art incineration, and expanded sanitation coverage. Reduced waste generation and the exploitation of energy from waste (landfill gas, incineration, anaerobic digester biogas) produce an indirect reduction of GHG emissions through the conservation of raw materials, improved energy and resource efficiency, and fossil fuel avoidance. Flexible strategies and financial incentives can expand waste management options to achieve GHG mitigation goals; local technology decisions are influenced by a variety of factors such as waste quantity and characteristics, cost and financing issues, infrastructure requirements including available land area, collection and transport considerations, and regulatory constraints

  7. Preparation of poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglyceldimethacrylate) monolithic column modified with β-cyclodextrin and nano-cuprous oxide and its application in polymer monolithic microextraction of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haijiao; Liu, Qingwen; Jia, Qiong

    2014-05-23

    A poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglyceldimethacrylate) (poly(BMA-EDMA)) monolithic column was prepared with in situ polymerization method and modified with allylamine-β-cyclodextrin (ALA-β-CD) and nano-cuprous oxide (Cu2O). A polymer monolith microextraction method was developed with the modified monolithic column for the preconcentration of polychlorinated biphenyls combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detector. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions, we obtained acceptable linearities, low limits of detection, and good intra-day/inter-day relative standard deviations. Because of the hydrophobic properties of β-CD and the porous nano structure of Cu2O, the enrichment capacity of the poly(BMA-EDMA) monolithic column was significantly improved. The extraction efficiency followed the order: poly(BMA-EDMA-ALA-β-CD-Cu2O)>poly(BMA-EDMA-ALA-β-CD)>poly(BMA-EDMA)>direct GC analysis. When applied to the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in wine samples, low limits of detection (0.09ngmL(-1)) were obtained under the preoptimized conditions (sample volume 1.0mL, sample flow rate 0.1mLmin(-1), eluent volume 0.1mL, and eluent flow rate 0.05mLmin(-1)). In addition, the present method was employed to determine polychlorinated biphenyls in red wine samples and the accuracy was assessed through recovery experiments. The obtained recovery values were in the range of 78.8-104.1% with relative standard deviations less than 9.0%.

  8. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.C. Kwon

    2009-09-30

    CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash coat, and catalytic metals, to develop a regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor. The task of developing kinetic rate equations and modeling the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants will be abandoned since formulation of catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS is being in progress. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 46-570 seconds under reaction conditions to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases and evaluate their capabilities in reducing hydrogen sulfide and COS in coal gases. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,200-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-20,000-ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-27 v% hydrogen, 29-41 v% CO, 8-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of simulated coal gas mixtures to the reactor are 30 - 180 cm{sup 3}/min at 1 atm and 25 C (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is

  9. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. C. Kwon

    2007-09-30

    CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 130-156 seconds at 120-140 C to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases, evaluate removal capabilities of hydrogen sulfide and COS from coal gases with formulated catalysts, and develop an economic regeneration method of deactivated catalysts. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,300-3,800-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-1,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-21 v% hydrogen, 29-34 v% CO, 8-10 v% CO{sub 2}, 5-18 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 114-132 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-140 C. The pressure of the reactor

  10. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. C. Kwon

    2007-09-30

    CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 130-156 seconds at 120-140 C to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases, evaluate removal capabilities of hydrogen sulfide and COS from coal gases with formulated catalysts, and develop an economic regeneration method of deactivated catalysts. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,300-3,800-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-1,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-21 v% hydrogen, 29-34 v% CO, 8-10 v% CO{sub 2}, 5-18 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 114-132 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-140 C. The pressure of the reactor

  11. Preparation of poly(γ-glutamic acid)/hydroxyapatite monolith via biomineralization for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Bin; Hasegawa, Urara; van der Vlies, André J; Sung, Moon-Hee; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid monolith of poly(γ-glutamic acid) and hydroxyapatite (PGA/HAp monolith) was prepared via biomineralization and used as a macroporous cell scaffold in bone tissue engineering. The PGA monolith having a bimodal pore size distribution was used as a substrate to induce biomineralization. The PGA/HAp monolith was obtained by immersing the PGA monolith in simulated body fluid. Pretreatment with CaCl2 enhanced the apatite-forming ability of the PGA monolith. Murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells efficiently attached and proliferated on the PGA/HAp monolith. MTT assay showed that both the PGA and PGA/HAp monolith did not have apparent cytotoxicity. Moreover, the PGA and PGA/HAp monoliths adsorbed bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) by electrostatic interaction which was slowly released in the medium during cell culture. The PGA/HAp monolith enhanced BMP-2 induced alkaline phosphatase activity compared to the PGA monolith and a polystyrene culture plate. Thus, these PGA/HAp monoliths may have potential in bone tissue engineering.

  12. Catalytic hot gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Gasification gas that contains particulates can be purified from tars and ammonia by using nickel monolith catalysts. Temperatures over 900 deg C are required at 20 bar pressure to avoid deactivation by H{sub 2}S and carbon. Dolomites and limestones are effective tar decomposing catalysts only when calcined. Tar decomposition in gasification conditions can take place by steam or dry (CO{sub 2}) reforming reactions. These reactions follow apparent first order kinetics with respect to hydrocarbons in gasification conditions. (author) (16 refs.)

  13. Numerical Simulation of Fluid Dynamics in a Monolithic Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Yamamoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As for the measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC is used for PAH identification and densitometry. However, when a solvent containing a substance to be identified passes through a column of UPLC, a dedicated high-pressure-proof device is required. Recently, a liquid chromatography instrument using a monolithic column technology has been proposed to reduce the pressure of UPLC. The present study tested five types of monolithic columns produced in experiments. To simulate the flow field, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM was used. The velocity profile was discussed to decrease the pressure drop in the ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC system.

  14. A Monolithic Oxide-Based Transversal Thermoelectric Energy Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, S.; Bochmann, A.; Reimann, T.; Schulz, T.; Dreßler, C.; Udich, S.; Töpfer, J.

    2016-03-01

    We report the fabrication and properties of a monolithic transversal thermoelectric energy harvester based on the combination of a thermoelectric oxide and a metal. The fabrication of the device is done with a ceramic multilayer technology using printing and co-firing processes. Five transversal devices were combined to a meander-like thermoelectric generator. Electrical measurements and finite element calculations were performed to characterize the resulting thermoelectric generator. A maximum experimental electrical power output of 30.2 mW at a temperature difference of {Δ }T = 208 K was found. The prepared monolithic thermoelectric generator provides at {Δ }T = 35 K sufficient energy to drive a simple electronic sensor application.

  15. Monolithic Michelson Interferometer as ultra stable wavelength reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Ge, Jian

    2010-07-01

    Ultra-stable Monolithic Michelson interferometer can be an ideal reference for highprecision applications such as RV measurement in planet searching and orbit study. The advantages include wide wavelength range, simple sinusoidal spectral format, and high optical efficiency. In this paper, we report that a monolithic Michelson interferometers has been in-house developed with minimized thermal sensitivity with compensation tuning. With a scanning white light interferometer, the thermal sensitivity is measured ~ 6x10-7/°C at 550 nm and it decreases to zero near 1000 nm. We expect the wideband wavelength reference source to be stabilized better than 0.3 m/s for RV experiments

  16. Synthesis of ZSM-5 Monoliths with Hierarchical Porosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Yangchuan; Zhao Tianbo; Li Fengyan; Zong Baoning; Wang Yue

    2006-01-01

    A new route to synthesize ZSM-5 monoliths with hierarchical pore structure has been referred to in this stud y. The successful incorporation of the macropores and mesopores within the ZSM-5 structure was achieved through transforming the skeleton of the macroporous silica gel into zeolite ZSM-5 using carbon materials as the transitional template. The ZSM-5 crystal covered part of the macroporous material, and provided micropores to the macroporous silica gel. The structure of carbon monolith was studied after dissolving the silica contained in the carbon/silica composite.

  17. Lectin-carbohydrate interactions on nanoporous gold monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yih Horng; Fujikawa, Kohki; Pornsuriyasak, Papapida; Alla, Allan J; Ganesh, N Vijaya; Demchenko, Alexei V; Stine, Keith J

    2013-07-01

    Monoliths of nanoporous gold (np-Au) were modified with self-assembled monolayers of octadecanethiol (C18-SH), 8-mercaptooctyl α-D-mannopyranoside (αMan-C8-SH), and 8-mercapto-3,6-dioxaoctanol (HO-PEG2-SH), and the loading was assessed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Modification with mixed SAMs containing αMan-C8-SH (at a 0.20 mole fraction in the SAM forming solution) with either octanethiol or HO-PEG2-SH was also investigated. The np-Au monoliths modified with αMan-C8-SH bind the lectin Concanavalin A (Con A), and the additional mass due to bound protein was assessed using TGA analysis. A comparison of TGA traces measured before and after exposure of HO-PEG2-SH modified np-Au to Con A showed that the non-specific binding of Con A was minimal. In contrast, np-Au modified with octanethiol showed a significant mass loss due to non-specifically adsorbed Con A. A significant mass loss was also attributed to binding of Con A to bare np-Au monoliths. TGA revealed a mass loss due to the binding of Con A to np-Au monoliths modified with pure αMan-C8-SH. The use of mass losses determined by TGA to compare the binding of Con A to np-Au monoliths modified by mixed SAMs of αMan-C8-SH and either octanethiol or HO-PEG2-SH revealed that binding to mixed SAM modified surfaces is specific for the mixed SAMs with HO-PEG2-SH but shows a significant contribution from non-specific adsorption for the mixed SAMs with octanethiol. Minimal adsorption of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and peanut agglutinin (PNA) towards the mannoside modified np-Au monoliths was demonstrated. A greater mass loss was found for Con A bound onto the monolith than for either IgG or PNA, signifying that the mannose presenting SAMs in np-Au retain selectivity for Con A. TGA data also provide evidence that Con A bound to the αMan-C8-SH modified np-Au can be eluted by flowing a solution of methyl α-D-mannopyranoside through the structure. The presence of Con A proteins on the modified np-Au surface was

  18. Paladin Enterprises: Monolithic particle physics models global climate.

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Paladin Enterprises presents a monolithic particle model of the universe which will be used by them to build an economical fusion energy system. The model is an extension of the work done by James Clerk Maxwell. Essentially, gravity is unified with electro-magnetic forces and shown to be a product of a closed loop current system, i.e. a particle - monolithic or sub atomic. This discovery explains rapid global climate changes which are evident in the geological record and also provides an explanation for recent changes in the global climate.

  19. Growth of cubic III-nitrides by gas source MBE using atomic nitrogen plasma: GaN, AlGaN and AlN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, H.; Hamaguchi, H.; Koizumi, T.; Balakrishnan, K.; Ishida, Y.; Arita, M.; Chichibu, S.; Nakanishi, H.; Nagatomo, T.; Yoshida, S.

    1998-06-01

    Cubic GaN, AlGaN and AlN epilayers were grown on 3C-SiC(0 0 1) substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy using radio-frequency N 2 plasma containing atomic nitrogen species. Due to the enhancement of growth rate by this plasma source, cubic GaN epilayers with the thickness of several micrometers were obtained, and the quality of epilayers was so much improved that they showed an X-ray diffraction peak width as small as 9 min. Cubic Al xGa 1- xN and cubic AlN epilayers were also grown, and the variations of X-ray diffraction peak position and emission energy were observed according to the Al content.

  20. Nanoassembled thin film gas sensors. III. Sensitive detection of amine odors using TiO2/poly(acrylic acid) ultrathin film quartz crystal microbalance sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Takahara, Naoki; Korposh, Sergiy; Yang, Do-Hyeon; Toko, Kiyoshi; Kunitake, Toyoki

    2010-03-15

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) gas sensors based on the alternate adsorption of TiO(2) and polyacrilic acid (PAA) were developed for the sensitive detection of amine odors. Individual TiO(2) gel layers could be regularly assembled with a thickness of approximately 0.3 nm by the gas-phase surface sol-gel process (GSSG). The thickness of the poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) layer is dependent on its molecular weight, showing different thicknesses of approximately 0.4 nm for PAA(25) (Mw 250,000) and 0.6-0.8 nm for PAA(400) (Mw 4,000,000). The QCM sensors showed a linear response to ammonia in the concentration range 0.3-15 ppm, depending on the deposition cycle of the alternate TiO(2)/PAA layer. The ammonia binding is based on the acid-base interaction to the free carboxylic acid groups of PAA and the limit of detection (LOD) of the 20-cycle TiO(2)/PAA(400) film was estimated to be 0.1 ppm when exposed to ammonia. The sensor response was very fast and stable in a wide relative humidity (rH) range of 30-70%, showing almost the same frequency changes at a given concentration of ammonia. Sensitivity to n-butylamine and ammonia was higher than to pyridine, which is owing to the difference of molecular weight and basicity of the amine analytes. The alternate TiO(2)/PAA(400) films have a highly effective ability to capture amine odors, and the ambient ammonia concentration of 15 ppm could be condensed up to approximately 20,000 ppm inside the films.

  1. Polyurea-Based Aerogel Monoliths and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Je Kyun

    2012-01-01

    aerogel insulation material was developed that will provide superior thermal insulation and inherent radiation protection for government and commercial applications. The rubbery polyureabased aerogel exhibits little dustiness, good flexibility and toughness, and durability typical of the parent polyurea polymer, yet with the low density and superior insulation properties associated with aerogels. The thermal conductivity values of polyurea-based aerogels at lower temperature under vacuum pressures are very low and better than that of silica aerogels. Flexible, rubbery polyurea-based aerogels are able to overcome the weak and brittle nature of conventional inorganic and organic aerogels, including polyisocyanurate aerogels, which are generally prepared with the one similar component to polyurethane rubber aerogels. Additionally, with higher content of hydrogen in their structures, the polyurea rubber-based aerogels will also provide inherently better radiation protection than those of inorganic and carbon aerogels. The aerogel materials also demonstrate good hydrophobicity due to their hydrocarbon molecular structure. There are several strategies to overcoming the drawbacks associated with the weakness and brittleness of silica aerogels. Development of the flexible fiber-reinforced silica aerogel composite blanket has proven to be one promising approach, providing a conveniently fielded form factor that is relatively robust in industrial environments compared to silica aerogel monoliths. However, the flexible, silica aerogel composites still have a brittle, dusty character that may be undesirable, or even intolerable, in certain application environments. Although the cross - linked organic aerogels, such as resorcinol- formaldehyde (RF), polyisocyanurate, and cellulose aerogels, show very high impact strength, they are also very brittle with little elongation (i.e., less rubbery). Also, silica and carbon aerogels are less efficient radiation shielding materials due

  2. Constitutive Theory Developed for Monolithic Ceramic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosik, Lesley A.

    1998-01-01

    with these service conditions by developing a multiaxial viscoplastic constitutive model that accounts for time-dependent hereditary material deformation (such as creep and stress relaxation) in monolithic structural ceramics. Using continuum principles of engineering mechanics, we derived the complete viscoplastic theory from a scalar dissipative potential function.

  3. The Coal-Seq III Consortium. Advancing the Science of CO2 Sequestration in Coal Seam and Gas Shale Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koperna, George [Advanced Resources International Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2014-03-14

    The Coal-Seq consortium is a government-industry collaborative that was initially launched in 2000 as a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored investigation into CO2 sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams. The consortium’s objective aimed to advancing industry’s understanding of complex coalbed methane and gas shale reservoir behavior in the presence of multi-component gases via laboratory experiments, theoretical model development and field validation studies. Research from this collaborative effort was utilized to produce modules to enhance reservoir simulation and modeling capabilities to assess the technical and economic potential for CO2 storage and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in coal basins. Coal-Seq Phase 3 expands upon the learnings garnered from Phase 1 & 2, which has led to further investigation into refined model development related to multicomponent equations-of-state, sorption and diffusion behavior, geomechanical and permeability studies, technical and economic feasibility studies for major international coal basins the extension of the work to gas shale reservoirs, and continued global technology exchange. The first research objective assesses changes in coal and shale properties with exposure to CO2 under field replicated conditions. Results indicate that no significant weakening occurs when coal and shale were exposed to CO2, therefore, there was no need to account for mechanical weakening of coal due to the injection of CO2 for modeling. The second major research objective evaluates cleat, Cp, and matrix, Cm, swelling/shrinkage compressibility under field replicated conditions. The experimental studies found that both Cp and Cm vary due to changes in reservoir pressure during injection and depletion under field replicated conditions. Using laboratory data from this study, a compressibility model was developed to predict the pore-volume compressibility, Cp, and the matrix compressibility, Cm, of coal and shale, which was applied to

  4. Chromatographic comparison of bupivacaine imprinted polymers prepared in crushed monolith, microsphere, silica-based composite and capillary monolith formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxelbark, Joakim; Legido-Quigley, Cristina; Aureliano, Carla S A; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena; Schillinger, Eric; Sellergren, Börje; Courtois, Julien; Irgum, Knut; Dambies, Laurent; Cormack, Peter A G; Sherrington, David C; De Lorenzi, Ersilia

    2007-08-10

    A comprehensive comparison of five chromatographic stationary phases based on molecularly imprinted polymers is presented. Efficiency, imprinting factors, water compatibility and batch-to-batch reproducibility are discussed for crushed monolith, microspheres, two silica-based composites and capillary monoliths, all imprinted with the local anaesthetic bupivacaine. Synthesis protocol and chromatographic test conditions have been kept fixed within certain limits, in order to provide further insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the different formats. Excluding microparticles, all formats give satisfactory performance, especially in aqueous mobile phases. An assessment of batch-to-batch reproducibility in different mobile phases adds further value to this comparison study.

  5. Spatially resolved chemistry in nearby galaxies. III. Dense molecular gas in the inner disk of the LIRG IRAS 04296+2923

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, David S. [Department of Physics, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Turner, Jean L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Beck, Sara C., E-mail: dmeier@nmt.edu, E-mail: turner@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: sara@wise.tau.ac.il [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Ramat Aviv (Israel)

    2014-11-10

    We present a survey of 3 mm molecular lines in IRAS 04296+2923, one of the brightest known molecular-line emitting galaxies, and one of the closest luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs). Data are from the Owens Valley and CARMA millimeter interferometers. Species detected at ≲ 4'' resolution include C{sup 18}O, HCN, HCO{sup +}, HNC, CN, CH{sub 3}OH, and, tentatively, HNCO. Along with existing CO, {sup 13}CO, and radio continuum data, these lines constrain the chemical properties of the inner disk. Dense molecular gas in the nucleus fuels a star formation rate ≳10 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and is traced by lines of HCN, HCO{sup +}, HNC, and CN. A correlation between HCN and star formation rate is observed on sub-kiloparsec scales, consistent with global relations. Toward the nucleus, CN abundances are similar to those of HCN, indicating emission comes from a collection (∼40-50) of moderate visual extinction, photon-dominated-region clouds. The CO isotopic line ratios are unusual: CO(1-0)/{sup 13}CO(1-0) and CO(1-0)/C{sup 18}O(1-0) line ratios are large toward the starburst, as is commonly observed in LIRGs, but farther out in the disk these ratios are remarkably low (≲ 3). {sup 13}CO/C{sup 18}O abundance ratios are lower than in Galactic clouds, possibly because the C{sup 18}O is enriched by massive star ejecta from the starburst. {sup 13}CO is underabundant relative to CO. Extended emission from CH{sub 3}OH indicates that dynamical shocks pervade both the nucleus and the inner disk. The unusual CO isotopologue ratios, the CO/HCN intensity ratio versus L {sub IR}, the HCN/CN abundance ratio, and the gas consumption time versus inflow rate all indicate that the starburst in IRAS 04296+2923 is in an early stage of development.

  6. Spectroastrometry of rotating gas disks for the detection of supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei. III. CRIRES observations of the Circinus galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnerucci, A.; Marconi, A.; Capetti, A.; Axon, D. J.; Robinson, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present new CRIRES spectroscopic observations of the Brγ emission line in the nuclear region of the Circinus galaxy, obtained with the aim of measuring the black hole (BH) mass with the spectroastrometric technique. The Circinus galaxy is an ideal benchmark for the spectroastrometric technique given its proximity and secure BH measurement obtained with the observation of its nuclear H2O maser disk. The kinematical data have been analyzed both with the classical method based on the analysis of the rotation curves and with the new method developed by us that is based on spectroastrometry. The classical method indicates that the gas disk rotates in a gravitational potential resulting from an extended stellar mass distribution and a spatially unresolved dynamical mass of (1.7 ± 0.2) × 107 M⊙, concentrated within r curve analysis, highlighting the potential of spectroastrometry. The dynamical mass, which is spatially unresolved with the spectroastrometric method, is a factor ~2 smaller, 7.9+1.4-1.1 × 106M⊙, indicating that spectroastrometry has been able to spatially resolve the nuclear mass distribution down to 2 pc scales. This unresolved mass is still a factor ~4.5 larger than the BH mass measurement obtained with the H2O maser emission, indicating that even with spectroastrometry, it has not been possible to resolve the sphere of influence of the BH. Based on literature data, this spatially unresolved dynamical mass distribution is likely dominated by warm molecular gas and has been tentatively identified with the circum-nuclear torus that prevents a direct view of the central BH in Circinus. This mass distribution, with a size of ~2 pc, is similar in shape to that of the star cluster of the Milky Way, suggesting that a molecular torus, forming stars at a high rate, might be the earlier evolutionary stage of the nuclear star clusters that are common in late-type spirals. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under

  7. CARMA Survey Toward Infrared-bright Nearby Galaxies (STING). III. The Dependence of Atomic and Molecular Gas Surface Densities on Galaxy Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Tony; Bolatto, Alberto D; Leroy, Adam K; Blitz, Leo; Rosolowsky, Erik; Bigiel, Frank; Fisher, David B; Ott, Jürgen; Rahman, Nurur; Vogel, Stuart N; Walter, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the correlation between CO and HI emission in 18 nearby galaxies from the CARMA Survey Toward IR-Bright Nearby Galaxies (STING) at sub-kpc and kpc scales. Our sample, spanning a wide range in stellar mass and metallicity, reveals evidence for a metallicity dependence of the HI column density measured in regions exhibiting CO emission. Such a dependence is predicted by the equilibrium model of McKee & Krumholz, which balances H_2 formation and dissociation. The observed HI column density is often smaller than predicted by the model, an effect we attribute to unresolved clumping, although values close to the model prediction are also seen. We do not observe HI column densities much larger than predicted, as might be expected were there a diffuse HI component that did not contribute to H_2 shielding. We also find that the H_2 column density inferred from CO correlates strongly with the stellar surface density, suggesting that the local supply of molecular gas is tightly regulated by the stella...

  8. A radiation hard bipolar monolithic front-end readout

    CERN Document Server

    Baschirotto, A; Cappelluti, I; Castello, R; Cermesoni, M; Gola, A; Pessina, G; Pistolesi, E; Rancoita, P G; Seidman, A

    1999-01-01

    A fast bipolar monolithic charge sensitive preamplifier (CSP), implemented in the monolithic 2 mu m BiCMOS technology (called HF2CMOS) was designed and built in a quad monolithic chip. Studies of radiation effects in the CSP $9 performance, from non-irradiated and up to neutron irradiation of 5.3*10/sup 14/ n/cm/sup 2/, have confirmed that the use of bipolar npn transistors is suitable for the radiation level of the future LHC collider environment. The CSP $9 presents a new circuit solution for obtaining adequate slew rate performances which results in an integral linearity better than 0.8554330n 5 V at 20 ns of shaping time, regardless of the bias current selected for the CSP. This way $9 the bias current of the CSP can be set for optimizing the power dissipation with respect to series and parallel noise, especially useful when the CSP is put in a radiation environment. A prototype test with a novel monolithic 20 ns $9 time constant RC-CR shaper, capable to sum up four inputs has been also realized, featurin...

  9. Shear bond strength of indirect composite material to monolithic zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of indirect composite material (Tescera Indirect Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). MATERIALS AND METHODS Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The indirect composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD tests (α=.05). RESULTS Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (P<.05). No difference between the glaze layer and hydrofluoric acid application treated groups were observed. However, bond strength for these groups were significantly higher as compared with the other two groups (P<.05). CONCLUSION Combined use of glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application and silanization are reliable for strong and durable bonding between indirect composite material and monolithic zirconia. PMID:27555895

  10. Cyclodextrin-Functionalized Monolithic Capillary Columns: Preparation and Chiral Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Frady G; Antwi, Nana Yaa; Ghanem, Ashraf

    2016-02-01

    In this review, the recently reported approaches for the preparation of cyclodextrin-functionalized capillary monolithic columns are highlighted, with few applications in chiral separations using capillary liquid chromatography (CLC) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC). Chirality 28:97-109, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Multiple Quantum Well (MQW) Devices For Monolithic Integrated Optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Thomas H.

    1988-05-01

    Semiconductor MQWs represent a new technology for opto-electronics. These MQWs have an electroabsorption effect approximately 50 times larger than conventional semiconductors. They are compatible with existing source and detector material systems and produce devices that are compact and high speed, which makes them useful for monolithic integrated optoelectronic devices.

  12. Morphosynthesis of cubic silver cages on monolithic activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhao, Hong; Lai, Yijian; Liu, Siyu; Zhao, Binyuan; Ning, Yuesheng; Hu, Xiaobin

    2013-11-14

    Cubic silver cages were prepared on monolithic activated carbon (MAC) pre-absorbed with Cl(-), SO4(2-), or PO4(3-) anions. Silver insoluble salts served as templates for the morphosynthesis of silver cages. The silver ions were reduced by reductive functional groups on MAC micropores through a galvanic cell reaction mechanism.

  13. From 1D to 3D - macroscopic nanowire aerogel monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Rechberger, Felix; Niederberger, Markus

    2016-08-01

    Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying.

  14. Directly Imaging Damped Ly-Alpha Galaxies at Redshifts Greater Than 2. III: The Star Formation Rates of Neutral Gas Reservoirs at Redshifts of Approximately 2.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Michele; OMeara, John M.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Rafelski, Marc; Kanekar, Nissim

    2014-01-01

    We present results from a survey designed to probe the star formation properties of 32 damped Ly alpha systems (DLAs) at redshifts of approximately 2.7. By using the "double-DLA" technique that eliminates the glare of the bright background quasars, we directly measure the rest-frame FUV flux from DLAs and their neighbouring galaxies. At the position of the absorbing gas, we place stringent constraints on the unobscured star formation rates (SFRs) of DLAs to 2 sigma limits of psi less than 0.09-0.27 solar mass yr(exp -1), corresponding to SFR surface densities sigma(sub sfr) less than 10(exp -2.6)-10(exp -1.5) solar mass yr(exp -1) kpc(exp -2). The implications of these limits for the star formation law, metal enrichment, and cooling rates of DLAs are examined. By studying the distribution of impact parameters as a function of SFRs for all the galaxies detected around these DLAs, we place new direct constraints on the bright end of the UV luminosity function of DLA hosts. We find that less than or equal to 13% of the hosts have psi greater than or equal to 2 solar mass yr(exp -1) at impact parameters b(sub dla) less than or equal to (psi/solar mass yr(exp -1))(exp 0.8) + 6 kpc, differently from current samples of confirmed DLA galaxies. Our observations also disfavor a scenario in which the majority of DLAs arise from bright LBGs at distances 20 less than or equal to b(sub dla) less than 100 kpc. These new findings corroborate a picture in which DLAs do not originate from highly star forming systems that are coincident with the absorbers, and instead suggest that DLAs are associated with faint, possibly isolated, star-forming galaxies. Potential shortcomings of this scenario and future strategies for further investigation are discussed.

  15. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and natural gas field facilities. Study design and data collection III. Methods of assessing animal exposure to contaminants from the oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Cheryl L

    2008-01-01

    Researchers measured exposure to oil and gas industry emissions in 205 cow-calf herds located in Western Canada. They measured airborne concentrations of sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and volatile organic compounds with passive monitors placed in each pasture, wintering, or calving area that contained study animals from the start of the breeding season in the spring of 2001 until June 30, 2002. Researchers continued air monitoring in a subset of herds to the end of the study in fall 2002. Each sampling device was exposed for 1 month and then shipped to the laboratory for analysis. New samplers were installed and the shelters relocated, as necessary, to follow the movements of herd-management groups between pastures. Researchers linked the results of the air-monitoring analysis to individual animals for the relevant month. For the 205 herds examined at pregnancy testing in 2001, monthly mean exposures on the basis of all available data were as follows: sulfur dioxide, geometric mean (GM)=0.5 ppb, geometric standard deviation (GSD)=2.2; hydrogen sulfide, GM=0.14 ppb, GSD=2.3; benzene, GM=0.247 microg/m3, GSD=2.5; and toluene, GM=0.236 microg/m3, GSD=2.7. Benzene and toluene were surrogates for volatile organic compound exposure. In addition to passive measurements of air quality, researchers obtained data from provincial regulatory agencies on the density of oil and gas field facilities and on flaring and venting from the surrounding facilities. They developed the data into additional measures of exposure that were linked to each animal at each location for each month of the study.

  16. A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing of Ceramic Composites. Part III; Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Ceramic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Ramsey, Jack; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This publication is the third part of a three part report of the project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing" funded by NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce ceramic matrix composite materials and aircraft engine components by the binder jet process. Different SiC powders with median sizes ranging from 9.3 to 53.0 microns were investigated solely and in powder blends in order to maximize powder packing. Various infiltration approaches were investigated to include polycarbosilane (SMP-10), phenolic, and liquid silicon. Single infiltrations of SMP-10 and phenolic only slightly filled in the interior. When the SMP-10 was loaded with sub-micron sized SiC powders, the infiltrant gave a much better result of filling in the interior. Silicon carbide fibers were added to the powder bed to make ceramic matrix composite materials. Microscopy showed that the fibers were well distributed with no preferred orientation on the horizontal plane and fibers in the vertical plane were at angles as much as 45deg. Secondary infiltration steps were necessary to further densify the material. Two to three extra infiltration steps of SMP-10 increased the density by 0.20 to 0.55 g/cc. However, the highest densities achieved were 2.10 to 2.15 g/cc. Mechanical tests consisting of 4 point bend tests were conducted. Samples from the two CMC panels had higher strengths and strains to failure than the samples from the two nonfiber reinforced panels. The highest strengths were from Set N with 65 vol% fiber loading which had an average strength of 66 MPa. Analysis of the fracture surfaces did not reveal pullout of the reinforcing fibers. Blunt fiber failure suggested that there was not composite behavior. The binder jet additive manufacturing method was used to also demonstrate the fabrication of turbine engine vane components of two different designs and sizes. The

  17. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.C. Kwon

    2009-09-30

    CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash coat, and catalytic metals, to develop a regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor. The task of developing kinetic rate equations and modeling the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants will be abandoned since formulation of catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS is being in progress. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 46-570 seconds under reaction conditions to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases and evaluate their capabilities in reducing hydrogen sulfide and COS in coal gases. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,200-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-20,000-ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-27 v% hydrogen, 29-41 v% CO, 8-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of simulated coal gas mixtures to the reactor are 30 - 180 cm{sup 3}/min at 1 atm and 25 C (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is

  18. Tomo III

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Memorias, histórico, físicas, crítico, apologéticas de la América Meridional con unas breves advertencias y noticias útiles, a los que de orden de Su Majestad, hubiesen de viajar y describir aquellas vastas regiones. Reino Animal. Tomo III. Por un anónimo americano en Cádiz por los años de 1757. Primera Parte Prólogo Artículo 1°De los cuadrúpedos útiles al hombre a varios usos y a su sustento. Vaca Caballos Carneros de la tierra, especie de camellos Vicuña Guanacos Puercos monteses Artículo 2...

  19. Salt dissolution in oil and gas test holes in central Kansas. Part III. Salt dissolution oil and gas test holes in the Chase-Silica Oilfield, Barton and Rice Counties, central Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, R.F.

    1975-06-01

    In the 135.3 square mile area of the Chase-Silica Oilfield, Barton and Rice Counties, Kansas, all of the 4,845 oil and gas test holes drilled completely through the Hutchinson Salt Member of the Permian Wellington Formation encountered at depths near 900 feet on the east to near 1000 feet on the west. No salt dissolution takes place after drilling ceases in either cased oil wells or dry holes, however plugged or if plugged at all, because fresh water aquifers in Quaternary and Cretaceous are sealed off by surface casing permanently cemented in place and plugged internally. Exceptions to this statement are three holes where excessive post-drilling salt dissolution caused slow surface subsidence. In the Panning No. 11-A which drilled 90 feet of alluvial sand and gravel, subsidence was followed by 12 hours of sudden dramatic collapse during which the cone shaped hole swallowed a 500-barrel redwood tank, four large concrete rig corners, and all evidence of 190 feet of 10-3/4 inch surface casing cement in place, leaving a circular lake 300 feet in diameter which is still 64 feet deep sixteen years later. These three subsidence areas, studied in detail, involve salt water disposal (SWD) wells moving large volumes (100+ barrels water per hour or 70+ gallons per minute) of corrosive brine, undersaturated as to chlorides, into an excellent outlet reservoir, the Arbuckle dolomite, permitting brine flow across the salt face through casing leaks caused by corrosion. The head differential of about 800 feet plus the gravity drop to 3500 feet provided a tremendous energy input. The 694 remaining oil wells in this 260 million barrel oilfield are nearing depletion; they average only 4.68 barrels of oil per day per well (BOPDPW). With the holes properly plugged as now required under state supervision, it is concluded that no additional areas of surface subsidence will form.

  20. One-pot preparation of a mixed-mode organic-silica hybrid monolithic capillary column and its application in determination of endogenous gibberellins in plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Hao, Yan-Hong; Ding, Jun; Xu, Sheng-Nan; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-10-16

    A newly improved one-pot method, based on "thiol-ene" click chemistry and sol-gel approach in microemulsion system, was developed for the preparation of C8/PO(OH)2-silica hybrid monolithic capillary column. The prepared monolith possesses large specific surface area, narrow mesopore size distribution and high column efficiency. The monolithic column was demonstrated to have cation exchange/reversed-phase (CX/RP) mixed-mode retention for analytes on nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC). On the basis of the developed nano-LC system with MS detector coupled to pipette tip solid phase extraction (PT-SPE) and derivatization process, we then realized simultaneous determination of 10 gibberellins (GAs) with low limits of detection (LODs, 0.003-0.025 ng/mL). Furthermore, 6 endogenous GAs in only 5mg rice leaves (fresh weight) were successfully detected and quantified. The developed PT-SPE-nano-LC-MS strategy may offer promising applications in the determination of low abundant bioactive molecules from complex matrix.

  1. High-Throughput and Low-Cost Analysis of Trace Volatile Phthalates in Seafood by Online Coupling of Monolithic Capillary Adsorbent with GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insuan, Wimonrut; Khawmodjod, Phatchara; Whitlow, Harry J; Soonthondecha, Peerapong; Malem, Fairda; Chienthavorn, Orapin

    2016-04-27

    A simple, sensitive, and high-throughput method was developed for the determination of six volatile phthalate esters-dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP)-in seafood samples by using monolith adsorbent in a capillary coupled to a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system. The freeze-dried samples were subjected to an ultrasonication with hexane, followed by vortex mixing. The liquid extract was quantitatively determined by a direct application to an online silica monolith capillary adsorbent coupled with a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometric detection. Method validation in seafood matrix gave recoveries of 72.8-85.4% and a detection limit of 6.8-10.0 ng g(-1) for bivalve samples. Reusability of the monolith capillary for trapping coextracted matrix was up to six times, allowing high-throughput analysis at the parts per billion level. When compared with the Food and Environment Research Agency (FERA) method, no significant difference in the result was observed, confirming the method was valid and applicable for the routine analysis of phthalates in seafood samples for food and environmental laboratories.

  2. Piezoresistive Sensors Development Using Monolithic CMOS MEMS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chaehoi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a monolithic CMOS-MEMS platform under the iDesign and SemeMEMS projects with the aim of jointly providing an open access “one-stop-shop” design and prototyping facility for integrated CMOS-MEMS. This work addresses the implementation of a 3-axis accelerometer and a pressure sensor using Semefab’s in-house 2-poly 1-metal CMOS process on a 380/4/15 μm SOI wafer; the membrane and the proof mass being micromachined using double-sided Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE. This monolithic approach promises, in high volume production and using low complexity processes, a dramatic cost reduction over hybrid sensors. Furthermore, the embedded signal conditioning and the low-noise level in polysilicon gauges enables high performance to be achieved by implementing dedicated on-chip amplification and filtering circuitry.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of monolithic solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, N. Q.; Horne, C. R.; Liu, F. S.; Moffatt, D. M.; Staszak, P. R.

    The monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) is an all-ceramic structure in which cell components are configured in a compact corrugated array. The MSOFC shows promise for use in a wide range of sizes (kilowatt to megawatt) and a broad spectrum of applications (electric utility, cogeneration, on-site, and aerospace power). A process based on the tape calendering technique is being developed for the fabrication of the MSOFC. MSOFC single cells have been fabricated by this process without cracking or delamination. Stacks of various sizes have been formed and processed to demonstrate fabricability of the monolithic structure. Extensive physical, chemical, electrical, and electrochemical characterization of fabricated samples has been carried out to confirm the required properties of each cell component. The characterization results reported have been used to support material and fabrication improvements.

  4. Low-bandgap, monolithic, multi-bandgap, optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanlass, Mark W.; Carapella, Jeffrey J.

    2014-07-08

    Low bandgap, monolithic, multi-bandgap, optoelectronic devices (10), including PV converters, photodetectors, and LED's, have lattice-matched (LM), double-heterostructure (DH), low-bandgap GaInAs(P) subcells (22, 24) including those that are lattice-mismatched (LMM) to InP, grown on an InP substrate (26) by use of at least one graded lattice constant transition layer (20) of InAsP positioned somewhere between the InP substrate (26) and the LMM subcell(s) (22, 24). These devices are monofacial (10) or bifacial (80) and include monolithic, integrated, modules (MIMs) (190) with a plurality of voltage-matched subcell circuits (262, 264, 266, 270, 272) as well as other variations and embodiments.

  5. Design and Testing of Prototypic Elements Containing Monolithic Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; M.K. Meyer; D.M. Wachs

    2011-10-01

    The US fuel development team has performed numerous irradiation tests on small to medium sized specimens containing low enriched uranium fuel designs. The team is now focused on qualification and demonstration of the uranium-molybdenum Base Monolithic Design and has entered the next generation of testing with the design and irradiation of prototypic elements which contain this fuel. The designs of fuel elements containing monolithic fuel, such as AFIP-7 (which is currently under irradiation) and RERTR-FE (which is currently under fabrication), are appropriate progressions relative to the technology life cycle. The culmination of this testing program will occur with the design, fabrication, and irradiation of demonstration products to include the base fuel demonstration and design demonstration experiments. Future plans show that design, fabrication, and testing activities will apply the rigor needed for a demonstration campaign.

  6. From 1D to 3D - macroscopic nanowire aerogel monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Rechberger, Felix; Niederberger, Markus

    2016-07-01

    Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying.Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, SEM and TEM images, and digital photographs. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr04429h

  7. Low-bandgap, monolithic, multi-bandgap, optoelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanlass, Mark W.; Carapella, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-05

    Low bandgap, monolithic, multi-bandgap, optoelectronic devices (10), including PV converters, photodetectors, and LED's, have lattice-matched (LM), double-heterostructure (DH), low-bandgap GaInAs(P) subcells (22, 24) including those that are lattice-mismatched (LMM) to InP, grown on an InP substrate (26) by use of at least one graded lattice constant transition layer (20) of InAsP positioned somewhere between the InP substrate (26) and the LMM subcell(s) (22, 24). These devices are monofacial (10) or bifacial (80) and include monolithic, integrated, modules (MIMs) (190) with a plurality of voltage-matched subcell circuits (262, 264, 266, 270, 272) as well as other variations and embodiments.

  8. Low-bandgap, monolithic, multi-bandgap, optoelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanlass, Mark W.; Carapella, Jeffrey J.

    2014-07-08

    Low bandgap, monolithic, multi-bandgap, optoelectronic devices (10), including PV converters, photodetectors, and LED's, have lattice-matched (LM), double-heterostructure (DH), low-bandgap GaInAs(P) subcells (22, 24) including those that are lattice-mismatched (LMM) to InP, grown on an InP substrate (26) by use of at least one graded lattice constant transition layer (20) of InAsP positioned somewhere between the InP substrate (26) and the LMM subcell(s) (22, 24). These devices are monofacial (10) or bifacial (80) and include monolithic, integrated, modules (MIMs) (190) with a plurality of voltage-matched subcell circuits (262, 264, 266, 270, 272) as well as other variations and embodiments.

  9. Low-bandgap, monolithic, multi-bandgap, optoelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanlass, Mark W.; Carapella, Jeffrey J.

    2016-03-22

    Low bandgap, monolithic, multi-bandgap, optoelectronic devices (10), including PV converters, photodetectors, and LED's, have lattice-matched (LM), double-heterostructure (DH), low-bandgap GaInAs(P) subcells (22, 24) including those that are lattice-mismatched (LMM) to InP, grown on an InP substrate (26) by use of at least one graded lattice constant transition layer (20) of InAsP positioned somewhere between the InP substrate (26) and the LMM subcell(s) (22, 24). These devices are monofacial (10) or bifacial (80) and include monolithic, integrated, modules (MIMs) (190) with a plurality of voltage-matched subcell circuits (262, 264, 266, 270, 272) as well as other variations and embodiments.

  10. Development of stable monolithic wide-field Michelson interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Ge, Jian; Chen, Zhiping

    2011-07-01

    Bulk wide-field Michelson interferometers are very useful for high precision applications in remote sensing and astronomy. A stable monolithic Michelson interferometer is a key element in high precision radial velocity (RV) measurements for extrasolar planets searching and studies. Thermal stress analysis shows that matching coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) is a critical requirement for ensuring interferometer stability. This requirement leads to a novel design using BK7 and LAK7 materials, such that the monolithic interferometer is free from thermal distortion. The processes of design, fabrication, and testing of interferometers are described in detail. In performance evaluations, the field angle is typically 23.8° and thermal sensitivity is typically -2.6×10-6/° C near 550nm, which corresponds to ˜800m/s/°C in the RV scale. Low-cost interferometer products have been commissioned in multiple RV instruments, and they are producing high stability performance over long term operations.

  11. Development of stable monolithic wide-field Michelson interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Ge, Jian; Chen, Zhiping

    2011-07-20

    Bulk wide-field Michelson interferometers are very useful for high precision applications in remote sensing and astronomy. A stable monolithic Michelson interferometer is a key element in high precision radial velocity (RV) measurements for extrasolar planets searching and studies. Thermal stress analysis shows that matching coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) is a critical requirement for ensuring interferometer stability. This requirement leads to a novel design using BK7 and LAK7 materials, such that the monolithic interferometer is free from thermal distortion. The processes of design, fabrication, and testing of interferometers are described in detail. In performance evaluations, the field angle is typically 23.8° and thermal sensitivity is typically -2.6×10(-6)/°C near 550 nm, which corresponds to ∼800 m/s/°C in the RV scale. Low-cost interferometer products have been commissioned in multiple RV instruments, and they are producing high stability performance over long term operations.

  12. Affinity Monolith-Integrated Microchips for Protein Purification and Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Changlu; Sun, Xiuhua; Wang, Huaixin; Qiao, Wei; Hu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Affinity chromatography is a valuable method to purify and concentrate minute amount of proteins. Monoliths with epoxy groups for affinity immobilization were prepared by direct in-situ photopolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in porogenic solvents consisting of 1-dodecanol and cyclohexanol. By integrating affinity monoliths onto a microfluidic system, targeted biomolecules can be captured and retained on affinity column, while other biomolecules having no specific interactions toward the immobilized ligands flow through the microchannel. Therefore, proteins which remain on the affinity column are purified and concentrated, and then eluted by appropriate solutions and finally, separated by microchip capillary electrophoresis. This integrated microfluidic device has been applied to the purification and separation of specific proteins (FITC-labeled human serum albumin and IgG) in a mixture.

  13. Processing and characterization of multi-cellular monolithic bioceramics for bone regenerative scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ari-Wahjoedi, Bambang, E-mail: bambang-ariwahjoedi@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia); Centre for Intelligent Signal and Imaging Research, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar (Malaysia); Ginta, Turnad Lenggo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia); Centre for Intelligent Signal and Imaging Research, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tro (Malaysia); Parman, Setyamartana [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia); Abustaman, Mohd Zikri Ahmad [Kebabangan Petroleum Operating Company Sdn Bhd, Lvl. 52, Tower 2, PETRONAS Twin Towers, KLCC, 50088 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Multicellular monolithic ceramic body is a ceramic material which has many gas or liquid passages partitioned by thin walls throughout the bulk material. There are many currently known advanced industrial applications of multicellular ceramics structures i.e. as supports for various catalysts, electrode support structure for solid oxide fuel cells, refractories, electric/electronic materials, aerospace vehicle re-entry heat shields and biomaterials for dental as well as orthopaedic implants by naming only a few. Multicellular ceramic bodies are usually made of ceramic phases such as mullite, cordierite, aluminum titanate or pure oxides such as silica, zirconia and alumina. What make alumina ceramics is excellent for the above functions are the intrinsic properties of alumina which are hard, wear resistant, excellent dielectric properties, resists strong acid and alkali attacks at elevated temperatures, good thermal conductivities, high strength and stiffness as well as biocompatible. In this work the processing technology leading to truly multicellular monolithic alumina ceramic bodies and their characterization are reported. Ceramic slip with 66 wt.% solid loading was found to be optimum as impregnant to the polyurethane foam template. Mullitic ceramic composite of alumina-sodium alumino disilicate-Leucite-like phases with bulk and true densities of 0.852 and 1.241 g cm{sup −3} respectively, pore linear density of ±35 cm{sup −1}, linear and bulk volume shrinkages of 7-16% and 32 vol.% were obtained. The compressive strength and elastic modulus of the bioceramics are ≈0.5-1.0 and ≈20 MPa respectively.

  14. Dynamic response of monolithic and laminate/particulate reactive mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Chung-Ting

    2011-01-01

    Two dynamic compression methods were applied to a monolithic metal and reactive mixtures to investigate their responses: (a) Dynamic experiments using a split Hopkinson pressure bar were applied to reactive mixtures densified by explosive consolidation in order to establish their mechanical response and failure mechanisms. (b) Laser compression and release, which can impart high stresses, up to hundreds GPa, in times of nanoseconds and fractions thereof, was applied to establish the spalling ...

  15. Advanced on-chip divider for monolithic microwave VCO's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Weddell C.

    1989-01-01

    High frequency division on a monolithic circuit is a critical technology required to significantly enhance the performance of microwave and millimeter-wave phase-locked sources. The approach used to meet this need is to apply circuit design practices which are essentially 'microwave' in nature to the basically 'digital' problem of high speed division. Following investigation of several promising circuit approaches, program phase 1 culminated in the design and layout of an 8.5 GHz (Deep Space Channel 14) divide by four circuit based on a dynamic mixing divider circuit approach. Therefore, during program phase 2, an 8.5 GHz VCO with an integral divider which provides a phase coherent 2.125 GHz reference signal for phase locking applications was fabricated and optimized. Complete phase locked operation of the monolithic GaAs devices (VCO, power splitter, and dynamic divider) was demonstrated both individually and as an integrated unit. The fully functional integrated unit in a suitable test fixture was delivered to NASA for engineering data correlation. Based on the experience gained from this 8.5 GHz super component, a monolithic GaAs millimeter-wave dynamic divider for operation with an external VCO was also designed, fabricated, and characterized. This circuit, which was also delivered to NASA, demonstrated coherent division by four at an input frequency of 24.3 GHz. The high performance monolithic microwave VCO with a coherent low frequency reference output described in this report and others based on this technology will greatly benefit advanced communications systems in both the DoD and commercial sectors. Signal processing and instrumentation systems based on phase-locking loops will also attain enhanced performance at potentially reduced cost.

  16. Advanced on-chip divider for monolithic microwave VCO's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Weddell C.

    1989-05-01

    High frequency division on a monolithic circuit is a critical technology required to significantly enhance the performance of microwave and millimeter-wave phase-locked sources. The approach used to meet this need is to apply circuit design practices which are essentially 'microwave' in nature to the basically 'digital' problem of high speed division. Following investigation of several promising circuit approaches, program phase 1 culminated in the design and layout of an 8.5 GHz (Deep Space Channel 14) divide by four circuit based on a dynamic mixing divider circuit approach. Therefore, during program phase 2, an 8.5 GHz VCO with an integral divider which provides a phase coherent 2.125 GHz reference signal for phase locking applications was fabricated and optimized. Complete phase locked operation of the monolithic GaAs devices (VCO, power splitter, and dynamic divider) was demonstrated both individually and as an integrated unit. The fully functional integrated unit in a suitable test fixture was delivered to NASA for engineering data correlation. Based on the experience gained from this 8.5 GHz super component, a monolithic GaAs millimeter-wave dynamic divider for operation with an external VCO was also designed, fabricated, and characterized. This circuit, which was also delivered to NASA, demonstrated coherent division by four at an input frequency of 24.3 GHz. The high performance monolithic microwave VCO with a coherent low frequency reference output described in this report and others based on this technology will greatly benefit advanced communications systems in both the DoD and commercial sectors. Signal processing and instrumentation systems based on phase-locking loops will also attain enhanced performance at potentially reduced cost.

  17. Clinical assessment of enamel wear caused by monolithic zirconia crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stober, T; Bermejo, J L; Schwindling, F S; Schmitter, M

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure enamel wear caused by antagonistic monolithic zirconia crowns and to compare this with enamel wear caused by contralateral natural antagonists. Twenty monolithic zirconia full molar crowns were placed in 20 patients. Patients with high activity of the masseter muscle at night (bruxism) were excluded. For analysis of wear, vinylpolysiloxane impressions were prepared after crown incorporation and at 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up. Wear of the occlusal contact areas of the crowns, of their natural antagonists, and of two contralateral natural antagonists (control teeth) was measured by use of plaster replicas and a 3D laser-scanning device. Differences of wear between the zirconia crown antagonists and the control teeth were investigated by means of two-sided paired Student's t-tests and linear regression analysis. After 2 years, mean vertical loss was 46 μm for enamel opposed to zirconia, 19-26 μm for contralateral control teeth and 14 μm for zirconia crowns. Maximum vertical loss was 151 μm for enamel opposed to zirconia, 75-115 μm for control teeth and 60 μm for zirconia crowns. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between wear of enamel by zirconia-opposed teeth and by control teeth. Gender, which significantly affected wear, was identified as a possible confounder. Monolithic zirconia crowns generated more wear of opposed enamel than did natural teeth. Because of the greater wear caused by other dental ceramics, the use of monolithic zirconia crowns may be justified.

  18. Applications of monolithic fiber interferometers and actively controlled fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Rugeland, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to develop applications of monolithic fiber devices and actively controlled fibers. A special twin-core fiber known as a ‘Gemini’ fiber was used to construct equal arm-length fiber interferometers, impervious to temperature and mechanical perturbations. A broadband add/drop multiplexer was constructed by inscribing fiber Bragg gratings in the arms of a Gemini Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A broadband interferometric nanosecond switch was constructed from a micr...

  19. Monolithically Integrated Ge-on-Si Active Photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Jifeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Monolithically integrated, active photonic devices on Si are key components in Si-based large-scale electronic-photonic integration for future generations of high-performance, low-power computation and communication systems. Ge has become an interesting candidate for active photonic devices in Si photonics due to its pseudo-direct gap behavior and compatibility with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) processing. In this paper, we present a review of the recent progress in Ge-on...

  20. Extended Leach Testing of Simulated LAW Cast Stone Monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lanigan, David C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Benjamin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jung, H. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-12

    This revision to the original report adds two longer term leach sets of data to the report and provides more discussion and graphics on how to interpret the results from long-term laboratory leach tests. The leach tests were performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the release of key constituents from monoliths of Cast Stone prepared with four simulated low-activity waste (LAW) liquid waste streams.

  1. A Distributed Model of Four-Port Monolithic Transformer

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Sangsoo; Jeon, Sang-Hoon; Park, Jae-Woo; Hong, Songcheol

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with modeling of a monolithic spiral transformer. The transformer is designed and fabricated as a symmetrical octagonal spiral structure using two-metal layer process on GaAs substrate for input balun applications of 2 GHz and 5 GHz push-pull power amplifiers. A distributed model of the transformer is developed to fit in wide frequency range with four ports. The model includes the skin effect which describes increase in series resistance with frequency. Six different se...

  2. UPDATE ON MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF MONOLITHIC FUEL PLATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Burkes; F. J. Rice; J.-F. Jue; N. P. Hallinan

    2008-03-01

    Results on the relative bond strength of the fuel-clad interface in monolithic fuel plates have been presented at previous RRFM conferences. An understanding of mechanical properties of the fuel, cladding, and fuel / cladding interface has been identified as an important area of investigation and quantification for qualification of monolithic fuel forms. Significant progress has been made in the area of mechanical analysis of the monolithic fuel plates, including mechanical property determination of fuel foils, cladding processed by both hot isostatic pressing and friction bonding, and the fuel-clad composite. In addition, mechanical analysis of fabrication induced residual stress has been initiated, along with a study to address how such stress can be relieved prior to irradiation. Results of destructive examinations and mechanical tests are presented along with analysis and supporting conclusions. A brief discussion of alternative non-destructive evaluation techniques to quantify not only bond quality, but also bond integrity and strength, will also be provided. These are all necessary steps to link out-of-pile observations as a function of fabrication with in-pile behaviours.

  3. Optimal parameters of monolithic high-index contrast grating VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Magdalena; Gebski, Marcin; Dems, Maciej; Czyszanowski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Monolithic High refractive index Contrast Grating (MHCG) allows several-fold size reduction of epitaxial structure of VCSEL and facilitates VCSEL fabrication in all photonic material systems. MHCGs can be fabricated of material which refractive index is higher than 1.75 without the need of the combination of low and high refractive index materials. MHCGs have a great application potential in optoelectronic devices, especially in phosphide- and nitride-based VCSELs, which suffer from the lack of efficient monolithically integrated DBR mirrors. MHCGs can simplify the construction of VCSELs, reducing their epitaxial design to monolithic wafer with carrier confinement and active region inside and etched stripes on both surfaces in post processing. In this paper we present results of numerical analysis of MHCGs as a high reflective mirrors for broad range of refractive indices that corresponds to plethora of materials typically used in optoelectronics. Our calculations base on a three-dimensional, fully vectorial optical model. We investigate the reflectance of the MHCG mirrors of different design as the function of the refractive index and we show the optimal geometrical parameters of MHCG enabling nearly 100% reflectance and broad reflection stop-band. We show that MHCG can be designed based on most of semiconductors materials and for any incident light wavelength from optical spectrum.

  4. A Ferrite LTCC-Based Monolithic SIW Phased Antenna Array

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Ahmed

    2016-11-17

    In this work, we present a novel configuration for realizing monolithic SIW-based phased antenna arrays using Ferrite LTCC technology. Unlike the current common schemes for realizing SIW phased arrays that rely on surface-mount component (p-i-n diodes, etc) for controlling the phase of the individual antenna elements, here the phase is tuned by biasing of the ferrite filling of the SIW. This approach eliminates the need for mounting of any additional RF components and enables seamless monolithic integration of phase shifters and antennas in SIW technology. As a proof of concept, a two-element slotted SIW-based phased array is designed, fabricated and measured. The prototype exhibits a gain of 4.9 dBi at 13.2 GHz and a maximum E-plane beam-scanning of 28 degrees using external windings for biasing the phase shifters. Moreover, the array can achieve a maximum beam-scanning of 19 degrees when biased with small windings that are embedded in the package. This demonstration marks the first time a fully monolithic SIW-based phased array is realized in Ferrite LTCC technology and paves the way for future larger-size implementations.

  5. Strong cation exchange monoliths for HPLC by Reactive Gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bastian; Krättli, Martin; Storti, Giuseppe; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2011-08-01

    Polymeric monolithic stationary phases for HPLC can be produced by Reactive Gelation. Unlike the conventional method of using porogens, such novel process consists of a number of separate steps, thus enabling a better control of the quality of the final material. A suspension of polymer nanoparticles in water is produced and subsequently swollen with hydrophobic monomers. The particles are then destabilised (usually by salt addition) to make them aggregate into a large percolating structure, the so-called monolith. Finally, the added monomer can then be polymerised to harden the structure. In this work, a polystyrene latex is used as the base material and functionalised by introduction of epoxide groups on the surface and subsequent reaction to sulphonic acid groups, yielding a SO3(-) density of 0.7 mmol/g dry material. Morphological investigations show 54% porosity made of 300 nm large pores. Van Deemter measurements of a large protein show no practical influence of diffusion limitations on the plate number. Finally, a preliminary separation of a test protein mixture is shown, demonstrating the potential of using ion-exchange chromatography on Reactive Gelation monoliths.

  6. Controlled porosity monolithic material as permselective ion exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojia; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2011-03-18

    Ion exchange membranes (IEMs) are used in a variety of analytical devices, including suppressors, eluent generators and other components used in ion chromatography. Such membranes are flexible and undergo substantial dimensional changes on hydration. Presently the push to miniaturization continues; a resurgent interest in open tubular ion chromatography requires microscale adaptation of these components. Incorporating IEMs in microscale devices is difficult. Although both macroporous and microporous ion exchange materials have been made for use as chromatographic packing, ion exchange material used as membranes are porous only on a molecular scale. Because such pores have vicinal ion exchange sites, ions of the same charge sign as those of the fixed sites are excluded from the IEMs. Monolithic polymers, including ion exchangers derived therefrom, are presently extensively used. When used in a separation column, such a monolithic structure contains an extensively connected porous network. We show here that by controlling the amount of porogen added during the synthesis of monolithic polymers derived from ethylene dimethacrylate - glycidyl methacrylate, which are converted to an anion exchanger by treatment with trimethylamine, it is possible to obtain rigid ion exchange polymers that behave like IEMs and allow only one charge type of ions to pass through, i.e., are permselective. We demonstrate successful open tubular cation chromatography suppressor performance.

  7. Monolithic pixels on moderate resistivity substrate and sparsifying readout architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giubilato, P.; Battaglia, M.; Bisello, D.; Caselle, M.; Chalmet, P.; Demaria, L.; Ikemoto, Y.; Kloukinas, K.; Mansuy, S. C.; Mattiazzo, S.; Marchioro, A.; Mugnier, H.; Pantano, D.; Potenza, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rousset, J.; Silvestrin, L.; Snoeys, W.

    2013-12-01

    The LePix projects aim realizing a new generation monolithic pixel detectors with improved performances at lesser cost with respect to both current state of the art monolithic and hybrid pixel sensors. The detector is built in a 90 nm CMOS process on a substrate of moderate resistivity. This allows charge collection by drift while maintaining the other advantages usually offered by MAPS, like having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line. The collection by drift mechanism, coupled to the low capacitance design of the collecting node made possible by the monolithic approach, provides an excellent signal to noise ratio straight at the pixel cell together with a radiation tolerance far superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. The excellent signal-to-noise performance is demonstrated by the device ability to separate the 6 keV 55Fe double peak at room temperature. To achieve high granularity (10-20 μm pitch pixels) over large detector areas maintaining high readout speed, a completely new compressing architecture has been devised. This architecture departs from the mainstream hybrid pixel sparsification approach, which uses in-pixel logic to reduce data, by using topological compression to minimize pixel area and power consumption.

  8. Preparing silica aerogel monoliths via a rapid supercritical extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Mary K; Anderson, Ann M; Gorka, Caroline A

    2014-02-28

    A procedure for the fabrication of monolithic silica aerogels in eight hours or less via a rapid supercritical extraction process is described. The procedure requires 15-20 min of preparation time, during which a liquid precursor mixture is prepared and poured into wells of a metal mold that is placed between the platens of a hydraulic hot press, followed by several hours of processing within the hot press. The precursor solution consists of a 1.0:12.0:3.6:3.5 x 10(-3) molar ratio of tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS):methanol:water:ammonia. In each well of the mold, a porous silica sol-gel matrix forms. As the temperature of the mold and its contents is increased, the pressure within the mold rises. After the temperature/pressure conditions surpass the supercritical point for the solvent within the pores of the matrix (in this case, a methanol/water mixture), the supercritical fluid is released, and monolithic aerogel remains within the wells of the mold. With the mold used in this procedure, cylindrical monoliths of 2.2 cm diameter and 1.9 cm height are produced. Aerogels formed by this rapid method have comparable properties (low bulk and skeletal density, high surface area, mesoporous morphology) to those prepared by other methods that involve either additional reaction steps or solvent extractions (lengthier processes that generate more chemical waste).The rapid supercritical extraction method can also be applied to the fabrication of aerogels based on other precursor recipes.

  9. Monolithic pixels on moderate resistivity substrate and sparsifying readout architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Giubilato, P; Snoeys, W; Bisello, D; Marchioro, A; Battaglia, M; Demaria, L; Mansuy, S C; Pantano, D; Rousset, J; Mattiazzo, S; Kloukinas, K; Potenza, A; Ikemoto, Y; Rivetti, A; Chalmet, P; Mugnier, H; Silvestrin, L

    2013-01-01

    The LePix projects aim realizing a new generation monolithic pixel detectors with improved performances at lesser cost with respect to both current state of the art monolithic and hybrid pixel sensors. The detector is built in a 90 nm CMOS process on a substrate of moderate resistivity. This allows charge collection by drift while maintaining the other advantages usually offered by MAPS, like having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line. The collection by drift mechanism, coupled to the low capacitance design of the collecting node made possible by the monolithic approach, provides an excellent signal to noise ratio straight at the pixel cell together with a radiation tolerance far superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. The excellent signal-to-noise performance is demonstrated by the device ability to separate the 6 keV Fe-55 double peak at room temperature. To achieve high granularity (10-20 mu m pitch pixels) over large detector areas maintaining high readout speed, a complet...

  10. Preparation and characterization of polystyrene-based monolith with ordered macroporous structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan Zhou Wu; Jian Feng He; Ji Ming Ou

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,polystyrene-based monoliths with highly ordered macroporous structure were synthesized by using SiO2 colloidal crystal as template.SEM observation shows that the macropores are highly ordered and are interconnected by small windows.The BET surface area of PS monolith is about 36.17 m2/g.The polymer monoliths can resist 5 MPa pressure,showing high mechanical and compressive strength.

  11. Photoinitiated grafting of porous polymer monoliths and thermoplastic polymers for microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frechet, Jean M. J.; Svec, Frantisek; Rohr, Thomas

    2008-10-07

    A microfluidic device preferably made of a thermoplastic polymer that includes a channel or a multiplicity of channels whose surfaces are modified by photografting. The device further includes a porous polymer monolith prepared via UV initiated polymerization within the channel, and functionalization of the pore surface of the monolith using photografting. Processes for making such surface modifications of thermoplastic polymers and porous polymer monoliths are set forth.

  12. Application of Monolithic Zirconia Ceramics in Dental Practice: A Case History Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Hun; Lee, Jai-Bong; Han, Jung-Suk; Yeo, In-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Monolithic zirconia restorations increasingly have been used in dental practice in recent years and demonstrate superior mechanical performance compared with porcelain-veneered zirconia restorations. Recent advances in manufacturing technology have made possible the fabrication of translucent monolithic zirconia ceramics. This case report describes three clinical examples of monolithic zirconia fixed dental prostheses being used in the anterior and posterior regions and exhibiting acceptable esthetic results.

  13. Feasibility evaluation of the monolithic braided ablative nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Director, Mark N.; McPherson, Douglass J., Sr.

    1992-02-01

    The feasibility of the monolithic braided ablative nozzle was evaluated as part of an independent research and development (IR&D) program complementary to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) Low-Cost, High-Reliability Case, Insulation and Nozzle for Large Solid Rocket Motors (LOCCIN) Program. The monolithic braided ablative nozzle is a new concept that utilizes a continuous, ablative, monolithic flame surface that extends from the nozzle entrance, through the throat, to the exit plane. The flame surface is fabricated using a Through-the-Thickness braided carbon-fiber preform, which is impregnated with a phenolic or phenolic-like resin. During operation, the braided-carbon fiber/resin material ablates, leaving the structural backside at temperatures which are sufficiently low to preclude the need for any additional insulative materials. The monolithic braided nozzle derives its potential for low life cycle cost through the use of automated processing, one-component fabrication, low material scrap, low process scrap, inexpensive raw materials, and simplified case attachment. It also has the potential for high reliability because its construction prevents delamination, has no nozzle bondlines or leak paths along the flame surface, is amenable to simplified analysis, and is readily inspectable. In addition, the braided construction has inherent toughness and is damage-tolerant. Two static-firing tests were conducted using subscale, 1.8 - 2.0-inch throat diameter, hardware. Tests were approximately 15 seconds in duration, using a conventional 18 percent aluminum/ammonium perchlorate propellant. The first of these tests evaluated the braided ablative as an integral backside insulator and exit cone; the second test evaluated the monolithic braided ablative as an integral entrance/throat/exit cone nozzle. Both tests met their objectives. Radial ablation rates at the throat were as predicted, approximately 0.017 in

  14. Comparison of perfusion media and monoliths for protein and virus-like particle chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yige; Abraham, Dicky; Carta, Giorgio

    2016-05-20

    Structural and performance characteristics of perfusion chromatography media (POROS HS 20 and 50) and those of a polymethacrylate monolith (CIM SO3-1 tube monolith column) are compared for protein and virus-like particle chromatography using 1mL columns. Axial flow columns are used for POROS while the monolith has a radial flow configuration, which provides comparable operating pressures. The POROS beads contain a bimodal distribution of pore sizes, some as large as 0.5μm, which allow a small fraction of the mobile phase to flow within the particles, while the monolith contains 1-2μm flow channels. For proteins (lysozyme and IgG), the dynamic binding capacity of the POROS columns is more than twice that of the monolith at longer residence times. While the DBC of the POROS HS 50 column decreases at shorter residence times, the DBC of the POROS HS 20 column for IgG remains nearly twice that of the monolith at residence times at least as low as 0.2min as a result of intraparticle convection. Protein recoveries are comparable for all three columns. For VLPs, however, the eluted peaks are broader and recovery is lower for the monolith than for the POROS columns and is dependent on the direction of flow in the monolith, which is attributed to denser layer observed by SEM at the inlet surface of the monolith that appears to trap VLPs when loading in the normal flow direction.

  15. Monolithic integration of InGaN segments emitting in the blue, green, and red spectral range in single ordered nanocolumns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E. [ISOM and Dept. Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kong, X.; Trampert, A. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoeperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-05-06

    This work reports on the selective area growth by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumnar heterostructures. The optimization of the In/Ga and total III/V ratios, as well as the growth temperature, provides control on the emission wavelength, either in the blue, green, or red spectral range. An adequate structure tailoring and monolithic integration in a single nanocolumnar heterostructure of three InGaN portions emitting in the red-green-blue colors lead to white light emission.

  16. Monolithic integration of InGaN segments emitting in the blue, green, and red spectral range in single ordered nanocolumns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Kong, X.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.; Trampert, A.

    2013-05-01

    This work reports on the selective area growth by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumnar heterostructures. The optimization of the In/Ga and total III/V ratios, as well as the growth temperature, provides control on the emission wavelength, either in the blue, green, or red spectral range. An adequate structure tailoring and monolithic integration in a single nanocolumnar heterostructure of three InGaN portions emitting in the red-green-blue colors lead to white light emission.

  17. Development of catalytic gas cleaning in gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P.; Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Hepola, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Gasification gas containing dust can be efficiently purified from tars and ammonia with a nickel monolith catalyst. Temperatures of >900 deg C and a residence time of about 1 s (SV 2 500 1/h) were needed at 5 bar pressure to achieve complete tar decomposition and 80 % ammonia conversion. Catalyst deactivation was not observed during test runs of 100 h. At lower pressures dolomites and limestones can also be applied for tar removal at about 900 deg C temperatures. (orig.) 12 refs.

  18. Sparse gallium arsenide to silicon metal waferbonding for heterogeneous monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Justin Robert

    Waferbonding is a technique that integrates different semiconductors together, in order to obtain hybrid structures that exploit the strengths of each material. Work was done at the University of California at San Diego to investigate the waferbonding of III/V compound semiconductors to silicon using a metal interface. GaAs and other III/V compound semiconductors surpass silicon in their ability to create high performance microwave devices, while silicon offers an inexpensive platform with a proven digital architecture that can interface with microwave devices and support passive components and driver circuitry. Intimate integration of the two will be required, as mixed RF/digital and optical/digital systems for communications devices such as cell phones, wi-fi, and optical communications systems are pushed smaller, faster, and to higher power. The metalbonding implementation of a proposed heterogeneous monolithic microwave integrated circuit (HMMIC) system was investigated, and was shown to extend the capabilities of existing homogeneous monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) systems. The main goals of this work were two-fold; first to implement a robust heterogeneous integration technique, and second, to show that this approach uniquely improves upon existing microwave integration technology. The metalbonding technique investigated sparsely integrated GaAs structures onto silicon, in pursuit of this HMMIC scheme. Both bottom-up and top-down fabrication methods were implemented. These approaches required the development of a myriad of meticulously designed fabrication procedures capable of avoiding the many incompatibilities between the compound semiconductor, bondmetal, and silicon materials. The bondmetal interface, provided by these techniques, broadens the scope of existing monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology design possibilities. Essential bond interface properties were measured to establish the performance of this heterogeneous

  19. Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Annual progress report, 1979-1980. Volume III. Data repository and reports published during fiscal year 1979-1980: production, unsponsored research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negus-De Wys, J.; Dixon, J. M.; Evans, M. A.; Lee, K. D.; Ruotsala, J. E.; Wilson, T. H.; Williams, R. T.

    1980-10-01

    This document consists of the following papers: inorganic geochemistry studies of the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field; lithology studies of upper Devonian well cuttings in the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field; possible effects of plate tectonics on the Appalachian Devonian black shale production in eastern Kentucky; preliminary depositional model for upper Devonian Huron age organic black shale in the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field; the anatomy of a large Devonian black shale gas field; the Cottageville (Mount Alto) Gas Field, Jackson County, West Virginia: a case study of Devonian shale gas production; the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field: a geological study of the relationships of Ohio Shale gas occurrences to structure, stratigraphy, lithology, and inorganic geochemical parameters; and a statistical analysis of geochemical data for the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field.

  20. A simple monolithic column electroelution for protein recovery from gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Qing; Shao, Jing; Guo, Chen-Gang; Dong, Jing-Yu; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi

    2012-11-01

    Protein recovery from gel electrophoresis plays an important role in functional genomics and proteomics but faces a series of issues (e.g., complex procedure, low recovery, long experimental time). In this study, a monolithic column electroelution (MCE) was developed for protein recovery from gel electrophoresis. With the model proteins of bovine serum albumin (BSA), hemoglobin (Hb), and myoglobin (Mb), the developed device and method were compared with common electroelution procedures in agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE). The comparative experiments revealed that (i) the protein recovery achieved with the developed device was greater than 83%, much higher than the 41% to 50% achieved with the common devices; (ii) the running time to obtain 70% recovery was approximately 15 min, evidently shorter than the 240 min with the common devices; and (iii) the device and procedure were simple and less time-consuming as compared with those of the common devices. It was observed that the serum protein bands cut from polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis could be transferred into solution in 15 to 30 min with 82% yield. The device, along with its relevant procedure, has potential use in protein extraction and proteomics as well as in DNA studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Optical spectroscopy of p-GaAs nanopillars on Si for monolithic integrated light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, J. S. D.; Gandan, S.; Ren, D.; Ochalski, Tomasz J.; Huffaker, Diana L.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we study the optical properties and emission dynamics of the novel nanostructure p-GaAs nanopillars (NPs) on Si. The integration of III-V optoelectronics on Si substrates is essential for next-generation high-speed communications. NPs on Si are good candidates as gain media in monolithically integrated small-scale lasers on silicon. In order to develop this technology, an in-depth knowledge of the NP structure is necessary to resolve its optimal optical properties. The optical characterization which has been carried out consists of the emission analysis for different NP geometries. We measured NPs with different combinations of pitch (of the order of a few μm) and diameter (of the order of tens of nm). A comparison of intensities for the various NPs provides us with the most efficient geometry. The quality of the crystal grown has been studied from temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL). A red shift and a significant reduction of the intensity of the NP emission are observed with an increase in temperature. The results also show the presence of two non-radiative recombination channels when the intensity peaks at different temperatures are analyzed with the activation energy function.

  2. Reprocessing of LEU U-Mo Dispersion and Monolithic Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Jerden, J.; Stepinski, D.C.; Figueroa, J.; Williamson, M.A.; Kleeck, M.A. Van; Blaskovitz, R.J.; Ziegler, A.J.; Maggos, L.E.; Swanson, J.; Fortner, J.; Bakel, A.J. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    For conversion of high-performance research reactors from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, a fuel material with a higher density than uranium aluminide is required. Development studies are underway to develop U-Mo dispersion and monolithic fuels for conversion of several high- performance reactors. For dispersion fuels, development is narrowing down to a composition of U-7Mo dispersed in an aluminium matrix containing {approx}5% silicon. For monolithic fuels to be used in high performance research reactors in the United States, a zirconium-bonded U-10Mo foil appears to be the fuel of choice. For conversion to be realized a back-end disposition path is required for both fuels; one disposition pathway is reprocessing. Argonne National Laboratory is developing a pyroprocess for reprocessing spent monolithic fuel. Pyroprocessing was chosen over conventional aqueous solvent extraction due to the necessity of adding fluoride to the fuel-dissolution solution in order to dissolve the zirconium bonding layer on the U-Mo fuel. The proposed flowsheet and development activities will be described. A literature survey points to the ability to reprocess U-Mo dispersion fuels by an aqueous process, but due to several special characteristics of the fuel, the solvent-extraction flowsheets will be a departure from that normally used for the reprocessing of power reactor fuel. Special concerns that must be addressed in reprocessing these fuels are, for example, the low solubilities of uranyl molybdate, molybdic acid, and silicic acid in nitric acid solutions. This paper will address these concerns and development activities required to overcome them. (author)

  3. 10Gbps monolithic silicon FTTH transceiver for PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Liow, T. Y.; Lo, G. Q.; Kwong, D. L.

    2010-05-01

    We propose a new passive optical network (PON) configuration and a novel silicon photonic transceiver architecture for optical network unit (ONU), eliminating the need for an internal laser source in ONU. We adopt dual fiber network configuration. The internal light source in each of the ONUs is eliminated. Instead, an extra seed laser source in the optical line termination (OLT) operates in continuous wave mode to serve the ONUs in the PON as a shared and centralized laser source. λ1 from OLT Tx and λ2 from the seed laser are combined by using a WDM combiner and connected to serve the multiple ONUs through the downstream fibers. The ONUs receive the data in λ1. Meanwhile, the ONUs encode and transmit data in λ2, which are sent back to OLT. The monolithic ONU transceiver contains a wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) filter component, a silicon modulator and a Ge photo-detector. The WDM in ONU selectively guides λ1 to the Ge-PD where the data in λ1 are detected and converted to electrical signals, and λ2 to the transmitter where the light is modulated by upstream data. The modulated optical signals in λ2 from ONUs are connected back to OLT through upstream fibers. The monolithic ONU transceiver chip size is only 2mm by 4mm. The crosstalk between the Tx and Rx is measured to be less than -20dB. The transceiver chip is integrated on a SFP+ transceiver board. Both Tx and Rx demonstrated data rate capabilities of up to 10Gbps. By implementing this scheme, the ONU transceiver size can be significantly reduced and the assembly processes will be greatly simplified. The results demonstrate the feasibility of mass manufacturing monolithic silicon ONU transceivers via low cost

  4. W-band monolithic oscillator using InAlAs/InGaAs HEMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Y.; Pavlidis, D.; Tutt, M.; Ng, G. I.; Lai, R.

    1990-01-01

    A W-band monolithic integrated oscillator circuit was designed and fabricated using submicron HEMT technology. The oscillation frequency was around 81 GHz and the power was -7 dBm at the chip level. This is the first report of an InAlAs/InGaAs monolithic oscillator operating at the W-band.

  5. Recent advances in the preparation and application of monolithic capillary columns in separation science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tingting; Yang, Xi; Xu, Yujing [Department of Analytical Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009 (China); Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, 210009 (China); Ji, Yibing, E-mail: jiyibing@msn.com [Department of Analytical Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009 (China); Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, 210009 (China)

    2016-08-10

    Novel column technologies involving various materials and efficient reactions have been investigated for the fabrication of monolithic capillary columns in the field of analytical chemistry. In addition to the development of these miniaturized systems, a variety of microscale separation applications have achieved noteworthy results, providing a stepping stone for new types of chromatographic columns with improved efficiency and selectivity. Three novel strategies for the preparation of capillary monoliths, including ionic liquid-based approaches, nanoparticle-based approaches and “click chemistry”, are highlighted in this review. Furthermore, we present the employment of state-of-the-art capillary monolithic stationary phases for enantioseparation, solid-phase microextraction, mixed-mode separation and immobilized enzyme reactors. The review concludes with recommendations for future studies and improvements in this field of research. - Highlights: • Preparation of novel monolithic capillary columns have shown powerful potential in analytical chemistry field. • Various materials including ionic liquids and nanoparticles involved into capillary monolithic micro-devices are concluded. • Click chemistry strategy applied for preparing monolithic capillary columns is reviewed. • Recent strategies utilized in constructing different capillary monoliths for enantiomeric separation are summarized. • Advancement of capillary monoliths for complex samples analysis is comprehensively described.

  6. Preparation and applications of hybrid organic-inorganic monoliths: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Row, Kyung Ho

    2012-06-01

    This review presents an overview of the properties of hybrid organic-inorganic monolithic materials and summarizes the recent developments in the preparation and applications of these hybrid monolithic materials. Hybrid monolithic materials with porosities, surface functionalities, and fast dynamic transport have developed rapidly, and have been used in a wide range of applications owing to the low cost, good stability, and excellent performance. Basically, these materials can be divided into two major types according to the chemical composition: hybrid silica-based monolith (HSM) and hybrid polymer-based monolith (HPM). Compared to the HPM, HSM monolith has been attracting most wide attentions, and it is commonly synthesized by the sol-gel process. The conventional preparation procedures of two type's hybrid organic-inorganic monoliths are addressed. Applications of hybrid organic-inorganic monoliths in optical devices, capillary microextraction (CME), capillary electrochromatography (CEC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and chiral separation are also reviewed. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Preparation of a zeolite-modified polymer monolith for identification of synthetic colorants in lipsticks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huiqi; Li, Zheng [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Niu, Qian [Jilin Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Changchun 130062 (China); Ma, Jiutong [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Jia, Qiong, E-mail: jiaqiong@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: Poly(methacrylic acid-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic column embedded with zeolites was prepared and employed for the polymer monolith microextraction of colorants combined with HPLC. - Highlights: • Zeolite, as a kind of mesoporous material, was firstly combined with PMME. • Zeolite@poly(MAA-EDMA) monolith columns were prepared for the enrichment of colorants. • Zeolite@poly(MAA-EDMA) monolith columns demonstrated relatively high extraction capacity. - Abstract: A novel zeolite-modified poly(methacrylic acid-ethylenedimethacrylate) (zeolite@poly(MAA-EDMA)) monolithic column was prepared with the in situ polymerization method and employed in polymer monolith microextraction for the separation and preconcentration of synthetic colorants combined with high performance liquid chromatography. The polymer was characterized by scanning electronmicroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions, we obtained acceptable linearities, low limits of detection, and good intra-day/inter-day relative standard deviations. The method was applied to the determination of synthetic colorants in lipsticks with recoveries ranged from 70.7% to 109.7%. Compared with conventional methacrylic acid-based monoliths, the developed monolith exhibited high enrichment capacity because of the introduction of zeolites into the preparation process. The extraction efficiency followed the order: zeolite@poly(MAA-EDMA) > poly(MAA-EDMA) > direct HPLC analysis.

  8. Hydrophobic polymer monoliths as novel phase separators: Application in continuous liquid-liquid extraction systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peroni, D.; Vanhoutte, D.; Vilaplana, F.; Schoenmakers, P.; de Koning, S.; Janssen, H.-G.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrophobic macroporous polymer monoliths are shown to be interesting materials for the construction of "selective solvent gates". With the appropriate surface chemistry and porous properties the monoliths can be made permeable only for apolar organic solvents and not for water. Different poly(butyl

  9. Functionalization of hybrid monolithic columns via thiol-ene click reaction for proteomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongshan; Liu, Jing; Liu, Zheyi; Wang, Hongwei; Ou, Junjie; Ye, Mingliang; Zou, Hanfa

    2017-05-19

    The vinyl-functionalized hybrid monolithic columns (75 and 150μm i.d.) were prepared via sol-gel chemistry of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS). The content of accessible vinyl groups was further improved after the monolithic column was post-treated with vinyldimethylethoxysilane (VDMES). The surface properties of monolithic columns were tailored via thiol-ene click reaction by using 1-octadecanethiol, sodium 3-mercapto-1-propanesulfonate and 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)diethanethiol/vinylphosphonic acid, respectively. The preparing octadecyl-functionalized monolithic columns were adopted for proteomics analysis in cLC-MS/MS. A 37-cm-long×75-μm-i.d. monolithic column could identify 3918 unique peptides and 1067 unique proteins in the tryptic digest of proteins from HeLa cells. When a 90-cm-long×75-μm-i.d. monolithic column was used, the numbers of unique peptides and proteins were increased by 82% and 32%, respectively. Furthermore, strong cation exchange (SCX) monolithic columns (4cm in length×150μm i.d.) were also prepared and coupled with the 37-cm-long×75-μm-i.d. octadecyl-functionalized monolithic column for two-dimensional SCX-RPLC-MS/MS analysis, which could identify 17114 unique peptides and 3211 unique proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fast analysis of glycosides based on HKUST-1-coated monolith solid-phase microextraction and direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianjiang; Wang, Xin; Ma, Wen; Ai, Wanpeng; Bai, Yu; Ding, Li; Liu, Huwei

    2017-04-01

    Glycosides are a kind of highly important natural aromatic precursors in tobacco leaves. In this study, a novel HKUST-1-coated monolith dip-it sampler was designed for the fast and sensitive analysis of trace glycosides using direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry. This device was prepared in two steps: in situ polymerization of monolith in a glass capillary of dip-it and layer-by-layer growth of HKUST-1 on the surface of monolith. Sufficient extraction was realized by immersing the tip to solution and in situ desorption was carried out by plasma direct analysis in real time. Compared with traditional solid-phase microextraction protocols, sample desorption was not needed anymore, and only extraction conditions were needed to be optimized in this method, including the gas temperature of direct analysis in real time, extraction time, and CH3 COONH4 additive concentration. This method enabled the simultaneous detection of six kinds of glycosides with the limits of detection of 0.02-0.05 μg/mL and the linear ranges covering two orders of magnitude with the limits of quantitation of 0.05-0.1 μg/mL. Moreover, the developed method was applied for the glycosides analysis of three tobacco samples, which only took about 2 s for every sample.

  11. A monolithically integrated torsional CMOS-MEMS relay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riverola, M.; Sobreviela, G.; Torres, F.; Uranga, A.; Barniol, N.

    2016-11-01

    We report experimental demonstrations of a torsional microelectromechanical (MEM) relay fabricated using the CMOS-MEMS approach (or intra-CMOS) which exploits the full foundry inherent characteristics enabling drastic reduction of the fabrication costs and batch production. In particular, the relay is monolithically integrated in the back end of line of a commercial standard CMOS technology (AMS 0.35 μm) and released by means of a simple one-step mask-less wet etching. The fabricated torsional relay exhibits an extremely steep switching behaviour symmetrical about both contact sides with an on-state contact resistance in the k Ω -range throughout the on-off cycling test.

  12. Inherent polarization entanglement generated from a monolithic semiconductor chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Rolf T.; Kolenderski, Piotr; Kang, Dongpeng

    2013-01-01

    Creating miniature chip scale implementations of optical quantum information protocols is a dream for many in the quantum optics community. This is largely because of the promise of stability and scalability. Here we present a monolithically integratable chip architecture upon which is built...... a photonic device primitive called a Bragg reflection waveguide (BRW). Implemented in gallium arsenide, we show that, via the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion, the BRW is capable of directly producing polarization entangled photons without additional path difference compensation, spectral...... as a serious contender on which to build large scale implementations of optical quantum processing devices....

  13. A Monolithic Filter Cavity for Experiments in Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Palittapongarnpim, Pantita; Lvovsky, A I

    2012-01-01

    By applying a high-reflectivity dielectric coating on both sides of a commercial plano-convex lens, we produce a stable monolithic Fabry-Perot cavity suitable for use as a narrow band filter in quantum optics experiments. The resonant frequency is selected by means of thermal expansion. Owing to the long term mechanical stability, no optical locking techniques are required. We characterize the cavity performance as an optical filter, obtaining a 45 dB suppression of unwanted modes while maintaining a transmission of 60%.

  14. A novel carbon fiber based porous carbon monolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, T.D.; Klett, J.W.; Weaver, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    A novel porous carbon material based on carbon fibers has been developed. The material, when activated, develops a significant micro- or mesopore volume dependent upon the carbon fiber type utilized (isotropic pitch or polyacrylonitrile). The materials will find applications in the field of fluid separations or as a catalyst support. Here, the manufacture and characterization of our porous carbon monoliths are described. A novel adsorbent carbon composite material has been developed comprising carbon fibers and a binder. The material, called carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS), was developed through a joint research program between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research (UKCAER).

  15. Rapid Preparation of Monolithic Columns for Capillary Electrochromatography Separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Jun GONG; Yi Jun ZHANG; Yu Ping ZHANG; Seong Ho CHOI

    2006-01-01

    Fritless packed silica gel columns were prepared using sol-gel technology. The part of a75 μm i.d. capillary was filled with a mixture of methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, toluene and hydrochloric acid. Four different photoinitiators such as benzoin methyl ether, Irgacure 819,Irgacure 1700 and irgacure 1800 were added in the presence or absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate during the polymerization process. The above eight solutions were irradiated at 365 nm about5-10 min to prepare the porous monolithic sol-gel columns by a one-step process.

  16. 1060-nm Tunable Monolithic High Index Contrast Subwavelength Grating VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor; Chung, Il-Sug; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2013-01-01

    We present the first tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) where the top distributed Bragg reflector has been completely substituted by an air-cladded high-index-contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) mirror. In this way, an extended cavity design can be realized by reducing...... the reflection at the semiconductor #x2013;air interface using an anti-reflective coating (ARC). We demonstrate how the ARC can be integrated in a monolithic structure by oxidizing AlGaAs with high Al-content. The HCG VCSEL has the potential to achieve polarization stable single-mode output with high tuning...

  17. Preparation of a biomimetic polyphosphorylcholine monolithic column for immobilized artificial membrane chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, XiangLong; Chen, WeiJia; Zhou, ZhengYin; Wang, QiQin; Liu, ZhengHua; Moaddel, Ruin; Jiang, ZhengJin

    2015-08-14

    The present work aims to prepare a novel phosphatidylcholine functionalized monolithic stationary phase by in situ co-polymerization of 12-methacryloyl dodecylphosphocholine (MDPC) and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) for immobilized artificial membrane chromatography. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, pore size distribution analysis, ζ-potential analysis and micro-HPLC were used to evaluate the monolithic structure and physicochemical properties. Satisfactory morphology, high mechanical stability, good permeability and chromatographic performance were obtained on the optimized monolithic columns. A typical reverse-phase retention mechanism was observed over a wide range of organic solvent content (acetonitrilecolumn (IAM.PC.DD2) and poly(MDPC-co-EDMA) monolith. This novel poly(MDPC-co-EDMA) monolith exhibited good potential for studying the drug-membrane interaction.

  18. Synthesis and methane storage of binder-free porous graphene monoliths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoqing Ning; Hao Wang; Xiaoxin Zhang; Chenggen Xu; Guangjin Chen; Jinsen Gao

    2013-01-01

    Nanomesh graphene (NMG) obtained by template chemical vapor deposition was used to synthesize the binder-free graphene monoliths by simple tablet pressing.The stacking manner of the NMG sheets was crucial to the cohesion interaction between the graphene sheets,only the NMG materials with a loosely stacking manner could be pressed into binder-free monoliths.At the tableting pressure of 2-8 MPa,both the bulk densities and the specific surface areas of the monoliths keep nearly constant as the tableting pressure increases,indicating that the NMG monoliths have obvious elasticity and a porous structure due to the large corrugations and the mesh structures of the graphene sheets.As a result,an extraordinary methane storage capacity of 236 (v/v) at 9MPa was obtained in the graphene monolith prepared by tableting at 4 MPa.

  19. Monitoring catalysts at work in their final form: spectroscopic investigations on a monolithic catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren B.; Bañares, Miguel A.; Bazin, Philippe;

    2012-01-01

    A monolithic vanadia–titania based catalyst has been subjected to studies with in situ FTIR spectroscopy coupled with mass spectrometry, during the SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) reaction. A device based on a transmission reactor cell for monolithic samples was constructed, dedicated to the ...... with other surface or bulk sensitive techniques, e.g. Raman and UV-vis spectroscopy.......A monolithic vanadia–titania based catalyst has been subjected to studies with in situ FTIR spectroscopy coupled with mass spectrometry, during the SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) reaction. A device based on a transmission reactor cell for monolithic samples was constructed, dedicated....... The observations reported here serve as a demonstration of the great potential for the application of operando spectroscopy on monolithic systems. This cross disciplinary approach aims to identify reaction pathways, active sites, intermediate- and spectator-species for catalytic reactions under truly industrial...

  20. New 3-D microarray platform based on macroporous polymer monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rober, M; Walter, J; Vlakh, E; Stahl, F; Kasper, C; Tennikova, T

    2009-06-30

    Polymer macroporous monoliths are widely used as efficient sorbents in different, mostly dynamic, interphase processes. In this paper, monolithic materials strongly bound to the inert glass surface are suggested as operative matrices at the development of three-dimensional (3-D) microarrays. For this purpose, several rigid macroporous copolymers differed by reactivity and hydrophobic-hydrophilic properties were synthesized and tested: (1) glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate (poly(GMA-co-EDMA)), (2) glycidyl methacrylate-co-glycerol dimethacrylate (poly(GMA-co-GDMA)), (3) N-hydroxyphthalimide ester of acrylic acid-co-glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate (poly(HPIEAA-co-GMA-co-EDMA)), (4) 2-cyanoethyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate (poly(CEMA-co-EDMA)), and (5) 2-cyanoethyl methacrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate (poly(CEMA-co-HEMA-co-EDMA)). The constructed devices were used as platforms for protein microarrays construction and model mouse IgG-goat anti-mouse IgG affinity pair was used to demonstrate the potential of developed test-systems, as well as to optimize microanalytical conditions. The offered microarray platforms were applied to detect the bone tissue marker osteopontin directly in cell culture medium.

  1. Methacrylate-based monolithic layers for planar chromatography of polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, E F; Vlakh, E G; Tennikova, T B

    2011-04-29

    A series of macroporous monolithic methacrylate-based materials was synthesized by in situ free radical UV-initiated copolymerization of functional monomers, such as glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), butyl methacrylate (BuMA), 2-aminoethyl methacrylate (AEMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and 2-cyanoethyl methacrylate (CEMA), with crosslinking agent, namely, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA). The materials obtained were applied as the stationary phases in simple and robust technique - planar chromatography (PLC). The method of separation layer fabrication representing macroporous polymer monolith bound to the specially prepared glass surface was developed and optimized. The GMA-EDMA and BuMA-EDMA matrixes were successfully applied for the separation of low molecular weight compounds (the mixture of several dies), as well as poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and polystyrene homopolymers of different molecular weights using reversed-phase mechanism. The materials based on copolymers AEMA-HEMA-EDMA and CEMA-HEMA-EDMA were used for normal-phase PLC separation of 2,4-dinitrophenyl amino acids and polystyrene standards.

  2. Squeezed light from a diamond-turned monolithic cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Brieussel, A; Campbell, G; Guccione, G; Janousek, J; Hage, B; Buchler, B C; Treps, N; Fabre, C; Fang, F Z; Li, X Y; Symul, T; Lam, P K

    2016-01-01

    For some crystalline materials, a regime can be found where continuous ductile cutting is feasible. Using precision diamond turning, such materials can be cut into complex optical components with high surface quality and form accuracy. In this work we use diamond-turning to machine a monolithic, square-shaped, doubly-resonant $LiNbO_3$ cavity with two flat and two convex facets. When additional mild polishing is implemented, the Q-factor of the resonator is found to be limited only by the material absorption loss. We show how our monolithic square resonator may be operated as an optical parametric oscillator that is evanescently coupled to free-space beams via birefringent prisms. The prism arrangement allows for independent and large tuning of the fundamental and second harmonic coupling rates. We measure $2.6\\pm0.5$ dB of vacuum squeezing at 1064 nm using our system. Potential improvements to obtain higher degrees of squeezing are discussed.

  3. Fabrication of Monolithic RERTR Fuels by Hot Isostatic Pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan-Fong Jue; Blair H. Park; Curtis R. Clark; Glenn A. Moore; Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.

    2010-11-01

    The RERTR (Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors) Program is developing advanced nuclear fuels for high-power test reactors. Monolithic fuel design provides higher uranium loading than that of the traditional dispersion fuel design. Hot isostatic pressing is a promising process for low-cost batch fabrication of monolithic RERTR fuel plates for these high-power reactors. Bonding U Mo fuel foil and 6061 Al cladding by hot isostatic press bonding was successfully developed at Idaho National Laboratory. Due to the relatively high processing temperature, the interaction between fuel meat and aluminum cladding is a concern. Two different methods were employed to mitigate this effect: (1) a diffusion barrier and (2) a doping addition to the interface. Both types of fuel plates have been fabricated by hot isostatic press bonding. Preliminary results show that the direct fuel/cladding interaction during the bonding process was eliminated by introducing a thin zirconium diffusion barrier layer between the fuel and the cladding. Fuel plates were also produced and characterized with a silicon-rich interlayer between fuel and cladding. This paper reports the recent progress of this developmental effort and identifies the areas that need further attention.

  4. Macroporous monoliths for trace metal extraction from seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Yanfeng; Mayes, Richard; Gill, Gary A.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Wood, Jordana R.; Binder, Andrew; Brown, Suree; Dai, Sheng

    2015-05-29

    The viability of seawater-based uranium recovery depends on the uranium adsorption rate and capacity, since the concentration of uranium in the oceans is relatively low (3.3 μgL⁻¹). An important consideration for a fast adsorption is to maximize the adsorption properties of adsorbents such as surface areas and pore structures, which can greatly improve the kinetics of uranium extraction and the adsorption capacity simultaneously. Following this consideration, macroporous monolith adsorbents were prepared from the copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and N,N’-methylenebis(acrylamide) (MBAAm) based on a cryogel method using both hydrophobic and hydrophilic monomers. The monolithic sorbents were tested with simulated seawater containing a high uranyl concentration (–6 ppm) and the uranium adsorption results showed that the adsorption capacities are strongly influenced by the ratio of monomer to the crosslinker, i.e., the density of the amidoxime groups. The preliminary seawater testing indicates the high salinity content of seawater does not hinder the adsorption of uranium.

  5. Monolithically Integrated Ge-on-Si Active Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Monolithically integrated, active photonic devices on Si are key components in Si-based large-scale electronic-photonic integration for future generations of high-performance, low-power computation and communication systems. Ge has become an interesting candidate for active photonic devices in Si photonics due to its pseudo-direct gap behavior and compatibility with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS processing. In this paper, we present a review of the recent progress in Ge-on-Si active photonics materials and devices for photon detection, modulation, and generation. We first discuss the band engineering of Ge using tensile strain, n-type doping, Sn alloying, and separate confinement of Γ vs. L electrons in quantum well (QW structures to transform the material towards a direct band gap semiconductor for enhancing optoelectronic properties. We then give a brief overview of epitaxial Ge-on-Si materials growth, followed by a summary of recent investigations towards low-temperature, direct growth of high crystallinity Ge and GeSn alloys on dielectric layers for 3D photonic integration. Finally, we review the most recent studies on waveguide-integrated Ge-on-Si photodetectors (PDs, electroabsorption modulators (EAMs, and laser diodes (LDs, and suggest possible future research directions for large-scale monolithic electronic-photonic integrated circuits on a Si platform.

  6. Monolithic integrated optic fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Esterkin, Yan; Kempen, Cornelia; Sun, Songjian

    2010-04-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are a mature sensing technology that has gained rapid acceptance in civil, aerospace, chemical and petrochemical, medicine, aviation and automotive industries. Fiber Bragg grating sensors can be use for a variety of measurements including strain, stress, vibration, acoustics, acceleration, pressure, temperature, moisture, and corrosion distributed at multiple locations within the structure using a single fiber element. The most prominent advantages of FBGs are: small size and light weight, multiple FBG transducers on a single fiber, and immunity to radio frequency interference. A major disadvantage of FBG technology is that conventional state-of-the-art fiber Bragg grating interrogation systems are typically bulky, heavy, and costly bench top instruments that are assembled from off-the-shelf fiber optic and optical components integrated with a signal electronics board into an instrument console. Based on the need for a compact FBG interrogation system, this paper describes recent progress towards the development of a miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-TransceiverTM) system based on multi-channel monolithic integrated optic sensor microchip technology. The integrated optic microchip technology enables the monolithic integration of all of the functionalities, both passive and active, of conventional bench top FBG sensor interrogators systems, packaged in a miniaturized, low power operation, 2-cm x 5-cm small form factor (SFF) package suitable for the long-term structural health monitoring in applications where size, weight, and power are critical for operation.

  7. Monolithic molecularly imprinted polymeric capillary columns for isolation of aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumski, Michał; Grzywiński, Damian; Prus, Wojciech; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2014-10-17

    Monolithic molecularly imprinted polymers extraction columns have been prepared in fused-silica capillaries by UV or thermal polymerization in a two-step process. First, a poly-(trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate) (polyTRIM) core monolith was synthesized either by UV or thermal polymerization. Then it was grafted with the mixture of methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer, ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) as a cross-linking agent, 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin (DMC) as an aflatoxin-mimicking template, toluene as a porogen solvent and 2,2-azobis-(2-methylpropionitrile) (AIBN) as an initiator of the polymerization reaction. Different thermal condition of the photografting and different concentrations of the grafting mixture were tested during polymerization. The extraction capillary columns were evaluated in the terms of their hydrodynamic and chromatographic properties. Retention coefficients for aflatoxin B1 and DMC were used for assessment of the selectivity and imprinting factor. The obtained results indicate that the temperature of photografting and concentration of the grafting mixture are key parameters that determine the quality of the prepared MIPs. From the MIP columns characterized by the highest permeability the column of the highest imprinting factor was applied for isolation of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 from the model aqueous sample followed by on-line chromatographic separation. The process was performed using a micro-MISPE-microLC-LIF system of a novel design, which allowed for detection of the eluates from the sample preparation part as well as from the chromatographic separation.

  8. Nitrogen and Phosphorous Co-Doped Graphene Monolith for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yangyang; Rufford, Thomas E; Hulicova-Jurcakova, Denisa; Wang, Lianzhou

    2016-03-08

    The co-doping of heteroatoms has been regarded as a promising approach to improve the energy-storage performance of graphene-based materials because of the synergetic effect of the heteroatom dopants. In this work, a single precursor melamine phosphate was used for the first time to synthesise nitrogen/phosphorus co-doped graphene (N/P-G) monoliths by a facile hydrothermal method. The nitrogen contents of 4.27-6.58 at% and phosphorus levels of 1.03-3.00 at% could be controlled by tuning the mass ratio of melamine phosphate to graphene oxide in the precursors. The N/P-G monoliths exhibited excellent electrochemical performances as electrodes for supercapacitors with a high specific capacitance of 183 F g(-1) at a current density of 0.05 A g(-1), good rate performance and excellent cycling performance. Additionally, the N/P-G electrode was stable at 1.6 V in 1 m H2 SO4 aqueous electrolyte and delivered a high energy density of 11.33 Wh kg(-1) at 1.6 V. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Monolithically integrated Helmholtz coils by 3-dimensional printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Longguang [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B., E-mail: yellen@duke.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, P.O. Box 90300, Hudson Hall, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2014-06-23

    3D printing technology is of great interest for the monolithic fabrication of integrated systems; however, it is a challenge to introduce metallic components into 3D printed molds to enable broader device functionality. Here, we develop a technique for constructing a multi-axial Helmholtz coil by injecting a eutectic liquid metal Gallium Indium alloy (EGaIn) into helically shaped orthogonal cavities constructed in a 3D printed block. The tri-axial solenoids each carry up to 3.6 A of electrical current and produce magnetic field up to 70 G. Within the central section of the coil, the field variation is less than 1% and is in agreement with theory. The flow rates and critical pressures required to fill the 3D cavities with liquid metal also agree with theoretical predictions and provide scaling trends for filling the 3D printed parts. These monolithically integrated solenoids may find future applications in electronic cell culture platforms, atomic traps, and miniaturized chemical analysis systems based on nuclear magnetic resonance.

  10. Monolithic crystals for PET devices: Optical coupling optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, A.J., E-mail: agonzalez@i3m.upv.es; Peiró, A.; Conde, P.; Hernández, L.; Moliner, L.; Orero, A.; Rodríguez-Álvarez, M.J.; Sánchez, F.; Soriano, A.; Vidal, L.F.; Benlloch, J.M.

    2013-12-11

    In this work we present a method to efficiently collect scintillation light when using monolithic scintillator crystals. The acceptance angle of the scintillation light has been reduced by means of optical devices reducing the border effect which typically affects continuous crystals. We have applied this procedure on gamma detectors for PET systems using both position sensitive PMTs and arrays of SiPMs. In the case of using SiPMs, this approach also helps to reduce the photosensor active area. We evaluated the method using PMTs with a variety of different crystals with thicknesses ranging from 10 to 24 mm. We found that our design allows the use of crystal blocks with a thickness of up to 18 mm without degrading the spatial resolution caused by edge effects and without a significant detriment to the energy resolution. These results were compared with simulated data. The first results of monolithic LYSO crystals coupled to an array of 256 SiPMs by means of individual optical light guides are also presented. -- Highlights: •Acceptance angle reduction decreases border effect in continuous crystals. •Experimental measurements with PMTs correlate well with simulated data. •Optical devices called faceplates serve to control the scintillation light angle. •Simulation on the light propagation for SiPMs requires exhaustive modeling.

  11. Green biodiesel production: a review on feedstock, catalyst, monolithic reactor, and supercritical fluid technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizo Edwin Gumba

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of alternative energy is primarily catalyzed by the negative environmental impacts and energy depletion caused by the excessive usage of fossil fuels. Biodiesel has emerged as a promising substitute to petrodiesel because it is biodegradable, less toxic, and reduces greenhouse gas emission. Apart from that, biodiesel can be used as blending component or direct replacements for diesel fuel in automotive engines. A diverse range of methods have been reported for the conversion of renewable feedstocks (vegetable oil or animal fat into biodiesel with transesterification being the most preferred method. Nevertheless, the cost of producing biodiesel is higher compared to fossil fuel, thus impeding its commercialization potentials. The limited source of reliable feedstock and the underdeveloped biodiesel production route have prevented the full-scale commercialization of biodiesel in many parts of the world. In a recent development, a new technology that incorporates monoliths as support matrices for enzyme immobilization in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 for continuous biodiesel production has been proposed to solve the problem. The potential of SC-CO2 system to be applied in enzymatic reactors is not well documented and hence the purpose of this review is to highlight the previous studies conducted as well as the future direction of this technology.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of monolithically integrated microchannel plates based on amorphous silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Andrea; Geissbühler, Jonas; Wyrsch, Nicolas; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-04-04

    Microchannel plates are vacuum-based electron multipliers for particle--in particular, photon--detection, with applications ranging from image intensifiers to single-photon detectors. Their key strengths are large signal amplification, large active area, micrometric spatial resolution and picosecond temporal resolution. Here, we present the first microchannel plate made of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) instead of lead glass. The breakthrough lies in the possibility of realizing amorphous silicon-based microchannel plates (AMCPs) on any kind of substrate. This achievement is based on mastering the deposition of an ultra-thick (80-120 μm) stress-controlled a-Si:H layer from the gas phase at temperatures of about 200 °C and micromachining the channels by dry etching. We fabricated AMCPs that are vertically integrated on metallic anodes of test structures, proving the feasibility of monolithic integration of, for instance, AMCPs on application-specific integrated circuits for signal processing. We show an electron multiplication factor exceeding 30 for an aspect ratio, namely channel length over aperture, of 12.5:1. This result was achieved for input photoelectron currents up to 100 pA, in the continuous illumination regime, which provides a first evidence of the a-Si:H effectiveness in replenishing the electrons dispensed in the multiplication process.

  13. The Effect of Cavity Design on Fracture Resistance and Failure Pattern in Monolithic Zirconia Partial Coverage Restorations - An In vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, Madhavareddy Sri; Babu, Mandava Ramesh; Leneena, Gudugunta; Krishna, Tejavath Sai; Divya, G

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Cavity preparations of posterior teeth have been frequently associated with decreased fracture strength of the teeth. Choosing the correct indirect restoration and the cavity design when restoring the posterior teeth i.e., premolars was difficult as it involves aesthetic, biomechanical and anatomical considerations. Aim To evaluate the fracture resistance and failure pattern of three different cavity designs restored with monolithic zirconia. Materials and Methods Human maxillary premolars atraumatically extracted for orthodontic reasons were chosen. A total of 40 teeth were selected and divided into four groups (n=10). Group I-Sound teeth (control with no preparation). Group II-MOD Inlay, Group III-Partial Onlay, Group IV-Complete Onlay. Restorations were fabricated with monolithic partially sintered zirconia CAD (SAGEMAX- NexxZr). All the 30 samples were cemented using Multilink Automix (Ivoclar) and subjected to fracture resistance testing using Universal Testing Machine (UTM) (Instron) with a steel ball of 3.5 mm diameter at crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. Stereomicroscope was used to evaluate the modes of failure of the fractured specimen. Fracture resistance was tested using parametric one way ANOVA test, unpaired t-test and Tukey test. Fracture patterns were assessed using non-parametric Chi-square test. Results Group IV (Complete Onlay) presented highest fracture resistance and showed statistical significant difference. Group II (MOD Inlay) and Group III (Partial Onlay) showed significantly lower values than the Group I (Sound teeth). However, Groups I, II and III presented no significant difference from each other. Coming to the modes of failure, Group II (MOD Inlay) and Group III (Partial Onlay) presented mixed type of failures; Group IV (Complete Onlay) demonstrated 70% Type I failures. Conclusion Of the three cavity designs evaluated, Complete Onlay had shown a significant increase in the fracture resistance than the Sound teeth. PMID

  14. Assessing gibberellins oxidase activity by anion exchange/hydrophobic polymer monolithic capillary liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Luan; Su, Xin; Xiong, Wei; Liu, Jiu-Feng; Wu, Yan; Feng, Yu-Qi; Yuan, Bi-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) play a key regulatory role in plant growth and development. In the biosynthesis of GAs, GA3-oxidase catalyzes the final step to produce bioactive GAs. Thus, the evaluation of GA3-oxidase activity is critical for elucidating the regulation mechanism of plant growth controlled by GAs. However, assessing catalytic activity of endogenous GA3-oxidase remains challenging. In the current study, we developed a capillary liquid chromatography--mass spectrometry (cLC-MS) method for the sensitive assay of in-vitro recombinant or endogenous GA3-oxidase by analyzing the catalytic substrates and products of GA3-oxidase (GA1, GA4, GA9, GA20). An anion exchange/hydrophobic poly([2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium-co-divinylbenzene-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate)(META-co-DVB-co-EDMA) monolithic column was successfully prepared for the separation of all target GAs. The limits of detection (LODs, Signal/Noise = 3) of GAs were in the range of 0.62-0.90 fmol. We determined the kinetic parameters (K m) of recombinant GA3-oxidase in Escherichia coli (E. coli) cell lysates, which is consistent with previous reports. Furthermore, by using isotope labeled substrates, we successfully evaluated the activity of endogenous GA3-oxidase that converts GA9 to GA4 in four types of plant samples, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report for the quantification of the activity of endogenous GA3-oxidase in plant. Taken together, the method developed here provides a good solution for the evaluation of endogenous GA3-oxidase activity in plant, which may promote the in-depth study of the growth regulation mechanism governed by GAs in plant physiology.

  15. Assessing gibberellins oxidase activity by anion exchange/hydrophobic polymer monolithic capillary liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Luan Chen

    Full Text Available Bioactive gibberellins (GAs play a key regulatory role in plant growth and development. In the biosynthesis of GAs, GA3-oxidase catalyzes the final step to produce bioactive GAs. Thus, the evaluation of GA3-oxidase activity is critical for elucidating the regulation mechanism of plant growth controlled by GAs. However, assessing catalytic activity of endogenous GA3-oxidase remains challenging. In the current study, we developed a capillary liquid chromatography--mass spectrometry (cLC-MS method for the sensitive assay of in-vitro recombinant or endogenous GA3-oxidase by analyzing the catalytic substrates and products of GA3-oxidase (GA1, GA4, GA9, GA20. An anion exchange/hydrophobic poly([2-(methacryloyloxyethyl]trimethylammonium-co-divinylbenzene-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate(META-co-DVB-co-EDMA monolithic column was successfully prepared for the separation of all target GAs. The limits of detection (LODs, Signal/Noise = 3 of GAs were in the range of 0.62-0.90 fmol. We determined the kinetic parameters (K m of recombinant GA3-oxidase in Escherichia coli (E. coli cell lysates, which is consistent with previous reports. Furthermore, by using isotope labeled substrates, we successfully evaluated the activity of endogenous GA3-oxidase that converts GA9 to GA4 in four types of plant samples, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report for the quantification of the activity of endogenous GA3-oxidase in plant. Taken together, the method developed here provides a good solution for the evaluation of endogenous GA3-oxidase activity in plant, which may promote the in-depth study of the growth regulation mechanism governed by GAs in plant physiology.

  16. Analysis of Adsorbed Natural Gas Tank Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Ernest; Schultz, Conrad; Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Stalla, David; Gillespie, Andrew; Sweany, Mark; Seydel, Florian; Pfeifer, Peter

    With gasoline being an ever decreasing finite resource and with the desire to reduce humanity's carbon footprint, there has been an increasing focus on innovation of alternative fuel sources. Natural gas burns cleaner, is more abundant, and conforms to modern engines. However, storing compressed natural gas (CNG) requires large, heavy gas cylinders, which limits space and fuel efficiency. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) technology allows for much greater fuel storage capacity and the ability to store the gas at a much lower pressure. Thus, ANG tanks are much more flexible in terms of their size, shape, and weight. Our ANG tank employs monolithic nanoporous activated carbon as its adsorbent material. Several different configurations of this Flat Panel Tank Assembly (FPTA) along with a Fuel Extraction System (FES) were examined to compare with the mass flow rate demands of an engine.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of hierarchically porous metal, metal oxide, and carbon monoliths with highly ordered nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grano, Amy Janine

    Hierarchically porous materials are of great interest in such applications as catalysis, separations, fuel cells, and advanced batteries. One such way of producing these materials is through the process of nanocasting, in which a sacrificial template is replicated and then removed to form a monolithic replica. This replica consists of mesopores, which can be ordered or disordered, and bicontinuous macropores, which allow flow throughout the length of the monolith. Hierarchically porous metal oxide and carbon monoliths with an ordered mesopores system are synthesized for the first time via nanocasting. These replicas were used as supports for the deposition of silver particles and the catalytic efficiency was evaluated. The ordered silica template used in producing these monoliths was also used for an in-situ TEM study involving metal nanocasting, and an observation of the destruction of the silica template during nanocasting made. Two new methods of removing the silica template were developed and applied to the synthesis of copper, nickel oxide, and zinc oxide monoliths. Finally, hollow fiber membrane monoliths were examined via x-ray tomography in an attempt to establish the presence of this structure throughout the monolith.

  18. Effect of III-V on insulator structure on quantum well intermixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Seiya; Ikku, Yuki; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2016-04-01

    To achieve the monolithic active/passive integration on the III-V CMOS photonics platform, quantum well intermixing (QWI) on III-V on insulator (III-V-OI) is studied for fabricating multi-bandgap III-V-OI wafers. By optimizing the QWI condition for a 250-nm-thick III-V layer, which contains a five-layer InGaAsP-based multi-quantum well (MQW) with 80-nm-thick indium phosphide (InP) cladding layers, we have successfully achieved a photoluminescence (PL) peak shift of over 100 nm on the III-V-OI wafer. We have also found that the progress of QWI on the III-V-OI wafer is slower than that on the InP bulk wafer regardless of the buried oxide (BOX) thickness, bonding interface materials, and handle wafers. We have also found that the progress of QWI on the III-V-OI wafer is slower than that on the InP bulk wafer regardless of the buried oxide (BOX) thickness, bonding interface materials, and bulk support wafers on which the III-V-OI structure is formed (handle wafers). By comparing between the measured PL shift and simulated diffusions of phosphorus vacancies and interstitials during QWI, we have found that the slow QWI progress in the III-V-OI wafer is probably attributed to the enhanced recombination of vacancies and interstitials by the diffusion blocking of vacancies and interstitials at the BOX interface.

  19. Natural gas; Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carlos A.; Moraes, Claudia C.D. [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S.A. (ELETROPAULO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Carlos H.F. [Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Clecio Fabricio da; Alves, Ricardo P. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sposito, Edivaldo Soares; Hulle, Lutero [Espirito Santo Centrais Eletricas S.A. (ESCELSA), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); S. Martins, Icaro da [Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brasil S.A. (ELETRONORTE), Belem, PA (Brazil); Vilhena, Joao Luiz S. de [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fagundes, Zaluar Aquino [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    An increase in the consumption of natural gas in Brazil is an expected fact in what concerns energetic planning. This work presents the existing situation in what concerns natural gas utilization in the main world economies, as well as an analysis of the participation of this fuel among the energy final consumption per sources. The Brazilian consumption of natural gas is also analysed as well as the international agreement between Brazil and Bolivia for natural gas commercialization. Some legal, institutional and political aspects related to natural gas commercialization are also discussed. Finally, several benefits to be brought by the utilization of natural gas are presented 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Wideband monolithically integrated front-end subsystems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mruk, Joseph Rene

    This thesis presents the analysis, design, and measurements of passive, monolithically integrated, wideband recta-coax and printed circuit board front-end components. Monolithic fabrication of antennas, impedance transformers, filters, and transitions lowers manufacturing costs by reducing assembly time and enhances performance by removing connectors and cabling between the devices. Computational design, fabrication, and measurements are used to demonstrate the capabilities of these front-end assemblies. Two-arm wideband planar log-periodic antennas fed using a horizontal feed that allows for filters and impedance transformers to be readily fabricated within the radiating region of the antenna are demonstrated. At microwave frequencies, low-cost printed circuit board processes are typically used to produce planar devices. A 1.8 to 11 GHz two-arm planar log-periodic antenna is designed with a monolithically integrated impedance transformer. Band rejection methods based on modifying the antenna aperture, use of an integrated filter, and the application of both methods are investigated with realized gain suppressions of over 25 dB achieved. The ability of standard circuit board technology to fabricate millimeter-wave devices up to 110 GHz is severely limited. Thin dielectrics are required to prevent the excitation of higher order modes in the microstrip substrate. Fabricating the thin line widths required for the antenna aperture also becomes prohibitively challenging. Surface micro-machining typically used in the fabrication of MEMS devices is capable of producing the extremely small features that can be used to fabricate antennas extending through W-band. A directly RF fed 18 to 110 GHz planar log-periodic antenna is developed. The antenna is fabricated with an integrated impedance transformer and additional transitions for measurement characterization. Singly terminated low-loss wideband millimeter-wave filters operating over V- and W- band are developed. High

  1. Conversion of methanol to gasoline-range hydrocarbons in a ZSM-5 coated monolithic reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antia, J.E.; Govind, R. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1995-01-01

    Novel reactor configurations featuring catalysts supported on monolithic or honeycomb structures are being increasingly used for a number of applications. In this work, a zeolite-coated monolithic reactor is employed for the conversion of methanol to gasoline-range hydrocarbons. Experimental results show that the conversion and hydrocarbon product distribution compare favorably with data reported for fixed and fluid beds. Mathematical modeling shows that the conversion here is controlled by diffusion in the molecule-sized intracrystalline pores of the zeolite structure. This finding is of considerable important because it demonstrates that monolithic reactors are well-suited to zeolite-based catalytic processes.

  2. Recent Accomplishments in the Irradiation Testing of Engineering-Scale Monolithic Fuel Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; D.M. Wachs; M.K. Meyer; H.W. Glunz; R.B. Nielson

    2012-10-01

    The US fuel development team is focused on qualification and demonstration of the uranium-molybdenum monolithic fuel including irradiation testing of engineering-scale specimens. The team has recently accomplished the successful irradiation of the first monolithic multi-plate fuel element assembly within the AFIP-7 campaign. The AFIP-6 MKII campaign, while somewhat truncated by hardware challenges, exhibited successful irradiation of a large-scale monolithic specimen under extreme irradiation conditions. The channel gap and ultrasonic data are presented for AFIP-7 and AFIP-6 MKII, respectively. Finally, design concepts are summarized for future irradiations such as the base fuel demonstration and design demonstration experiment campaigns.

  3. Data in support of preparation and functionalization of a clickable polycarbonate monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanrong Xin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This data article provides supplementary figures to the research article entitled, “Phase separation approach to a reactive polycarbonate monolith for “click” modifications” (Xin et al., Polymer, 2015, doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2015.04.008. Here, the nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms of the prepared porous polycarbonate monolith are shown to classify its inner structure and calculate the specific surface area. The monoliths were modified by using the thiol-ene click chemistry and the olefin metathesis, which was examined by contact angle measurements, FT-IR, solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy as well as thermogravimetric analysis.

  4. Stanley Kubrick and B.F. Skinner : Is a Teaching Machine a Monolith ?

    OpenAIRE

    浜野, 保樹; ハマノ, ヤスキ; Yasuki, Hamano

    1990-01-01

    The teaching machine invented by B.F. Skinner was recog-nized as one of few clear achievements of scientific pedagogy and even appeared in SF. Arthur C. Clarke who wrote the script of the SF movie "2001: A Space Odyssey" with Stanley Kubrick wanted to scientifically define a monolith to be a God who had given intelligence to our ancestors. In other words, he wanted to describe a monolith as a teaching machine as well as a God. However Kubrick did not want to make clear about what a monolith i...

  5. Failure analysis of various monolithic posterior aesthetic dental crowns using finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porojan, Liliana; Topală, Florin

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of material stiffness and load on the biomechanical performance of the monolithic full-coverage posterior aesthetic dental crowns using finite element analysis. Three restorative materials for monolithic dental crowns were selected for the study: zirconia; lithium disilicate glass-ceramic, and resin-based composite. Stresses were calculated in the crowns for all materials and in the teeth structures, under different load values. The experiments show that dental crowns made from all this new aesthetic materials processed by CAD/CAM technologies would be indicated as monolithic dental crowns for posterior areas.

  6. Yttria-stabilized zirconia solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells: Monolithic solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    The monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) is currently under development for a variety of applications including coal-based power generation. The MSOFC is a design concept that places the thin components of a solid oxide fuel cell in lightweight, compact, corrugated structure, and so achieves high efficiency and excellent performance simultaneously with high power density. The MSOFC can be integrated with coal gasification plants and is expected to have high overall efficiency in the conversion of the chemical energy of coal to electrical energy. This report describes work aimed at: (1) assessing manufacturing costs for the MSOFC and system costs for a coal-based plant; (2) modifying electrodes and electrode/electrolyte interfaces to improve the electrochemical performance of the MSOFC; and (3) testing the performance of the MSOFC on hydrogen and simulated coal gas. Manufacturing costs for both the coflow and crossflow MSOFC's were assessed based on the fabrication flow charts developed by direct scaleup of tape calendering and other laboratory processes. Integrated coal-based MSOFC systems were investigated to determine capital costs and costs of electricity. Design criteria were established for a coal-fueled 200-Mw power plant. Four plant arrangements were evaluated, and plant performance was analyzed. Interfacial modification involved modification of electrodes and electrode/electrolyte interfaces to improve the MSOFC electrochemical performance. Work in the cathode and cathode/electrolyte interface was concentrated on modification of electrode porosity, electrode morphology, electrode material, and interfacial bonding. Modifications of the anode and anode/electrolyte interface included the use of additives and improvement of nickel distribution. Single cells have been tested for their electrochemical performance. Performance data were typically obtained with humidified H2 or simulated coal gas and air or oxygen.

  7. Monolithic active pixel radiation detector with shielding techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W.

    2016-09-06

    A monolithic active pixel radiation detector including a method of fabricating thereof. The disclosed radiation detector can include a substrate comprising a silicon layer upon which electronics are configured. A plurality of channels can be formed on the silicon layer, wherein the plurality of channels are connected to sources of signals located in a bulk part of the substrate, and wherein the signals flow through electrically conducting vias established in an isolation oxide on the substrate. One or more nested wells can be configured from the substrate, wherein the nested wells assist in collecting charge carriers released in interaction with radiation and wherein the nested wells further separate the electronics from the sensing portion of the detector substrate. The detector can also be configured according to a thick SOA method of fabrication.

  8. Highly tailorable thiol-ene based emulsion-templated monoliths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, J. P.; Kutter, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    The attractive surface properties of thiol-ene polymers combined with their ease of processing make them ideal substrates in many bioanalytical applications. We report the synthesis of highly tailorable emulsion-templated porous polymers and beads in microfluidic devices based on off-stoichiometr......The attractive surface properties of thiol-ene polymers combined with their ease of processing make them ideal substrates in many bioanalytical applications. We report the synthesis of highly tailorable emulsion-templated porous polymers and beads in microfluidic devices based on off......-stoichiometry thiolene chemistry. The method allows monolith synthesis and anchoring inside thiol-ene microchannels in a single step. Variations in the monomer stoichiometric ratios and/or amount of porogen used allow for the creation of extremely varied polymer morphologies, from foam-like materials to dense networks...

  9. Monolithic growth of partly cured polydimethylsiloxane thin film layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2014-01-01

    The demand for monolithic structures in many applications has increased to enable more reliable and optimized performances such as for dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAPs). For the layers of the elements to grow efficiently together, it is first of all required that the layers adhere together...... as thermal stabilities of the bilayer elastomer films are observed to change with the curing time of the monolayers before lamination. The objective of this work is to create adhesion of two layers without destroying the original viscoelastic properties of the PDMS films, and hence enable, for example......, adhesion of two microstructured films which is currently a crucial step in the large-scale production of DEAPs. © 2014 The Society of Polymer Science, Japan (SPSJ) All rights reserved....

  10. Material Engineering for Monolithic Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkova, Irina

    This thesis is devoted to the materials engineering for semiconductor monolithic passively mode-locked lasers (MLLs) as a compact energy-efficient source of ultrashort optical pulses. Up to the present day, the achievement of low-noise sub-picosecond pulse generation has remained a challenge....... This work has considered the role of the combined ultrafast gain and absorption dynamics in MLLs as a main factor limiting laser performance. An independent optimization of MLL amplifier and saturable absorber active materials was performed. Two promising approaches were considered: quantum dot (QD...... application in MLLs. Improved QW laser performance was demonstrated using the asymmetric barrier layer approach. The analysis of the gain characteristics showed that the high population inversion beneficial for noise reduction cannot be achieved for 10 GHz QW MLLs and would have required lowering the modal...

  11. Development of highly sensitive monolithic interferometer for infrared planet search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang P.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the design, fabrication and testing of a highly sensitive monolithic interferometer for InfraRed Exoplanet Tracker (IR-ET. This interferometer is field-compensated, thermal-stable for working in the wavelength range between 0.8 and 1.35 μm. Two arms of the interferometer creates a fixed delay of 18.0 mm, which is optimized to have the best sensitivity for radial velocity measurements of slow-rotating M dwarfs for planet detection. IR-ET is aiming to reach 3–20 m/s Doppler precision for J<10 M dwarfs in less than 15 min exposures. We plan to conduct a planet survey around hundreds of nearby M dwarfs through collaborations with Astrophysical Research Consortium scientists in 2011–2014.

  12. Design of ultra-lightweight concrete: towards monolithic concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Qing Liang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the development of ultra-lightweight concrete. A moderate strength and an excellent thermal conductivity of the lightweight concrete are set as the design targets. The designed lightweight aggregates concrete is targeted to be used in monolithic concrete façade structure, performing as both load bearing element and thermal insulator. The developed lightweight concrete shows excellent thermal properties, with a low thermal conductivity of about 0.12 W/(m·K; and moderate mechanical properties, with 28-day compressive strengths of about 10-12 N/mm . This combination of values exceeds, to the researchers’ knowledge, the performance of all other lightweight building materials. Furthermore, the developed lightweight concrete possesses excellent durability properties.

  13. An Energy Preserving Monolithic Eulerian Fluid-Structure Numerical Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Pironneau, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The conservation laws of continuum mechanic written in an Eulerian frame make no difference between fluids and solids except in the expression of the stress tensors, usually with Newton's hypothesis for the fluids and Helmholtz potentials of energy for hyperelastic solids. By taking the velocities as unknown , monolithic methods for fluid structure interactions (FSI) are built. In this article such a formulation is analyzed when the fluid is compressible and the fluid is incompressible. The idea is not new but the progress of mesh generators and numerical schemes like the Characteristics-Galerkin method render this approach feasible and reasonably robust. In this article the method and its discretization are presented, stability is discussed by through an energy estimate. A numerical section discusses implementation issues and presents a few simple tests.

  14. A monolithic time stretcher for precision time recording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varner, Gary S.

    2007-04-20

    Identifying light mesons which contain only up/down quarks (pions) from those containing a strange quark (kaons) over the typical meter length scales of a particle physics detector requires instrumentation capable of measuring flight times with a resolution on the order of 20ps. In the last few years a large number of inexpensive, multi-channel Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) chips have become available. These devices typically have timing resolution performance in the hundreds of ps regime. A technique is presented that is a monolithic version of ``time stretcher'' solution adopted for the Belle Time-Of-Flight system to address this gap between resolution need and intrinsic multi-hit TDC performance.

  15. Monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs) for thermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, David; Wehrer, Rebecca; Palmisiano, Marc; Wanlass, Mark; Murray, Christopher

    2003-05-01

    Monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs) are under development for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion applications. MIM devices are typified by series-interconnected photovoltaic cells on a common, semi-insulating substrate and generally include rear-surface infrared (IR) reflectors. The MIM architecture is being implemented in InGaAsSb materials without semi-insulating substrates through the development of alternative isolation methodologies. Motivations for developing the MIM structure include: reduced resistive losses, higher output power density than for systems utilizing front surface spectral control, improved thermal coupling and ultimately higher system efficiency. Numerous design and material changes have been investigated since the introduction of the MIM concept in 1994. These developments as well as the current design strategies are addressed.

  16. Reconfigurable optical switches with monolithic electrical-to-optical interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J.; Zhou, P. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for High Technology Materials; Zolper, J.C.; Lear, K.L.; Vawter, G.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Leibenguth, R.E.; Adams, A.C. [AT and T Bell Labs., Breinigsville, PA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) can be integrated with heterojunction phototransistors (HPTs) and heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) on the same wafer to form high speed optical and optoelectronic switches, respectively, that can be optically or electrically addressed. This permits the direct communication and transmission of data between distributed electronic processors through an optical switching network. The experimental demonstration of an integrated optoelectronic HBT/VCSEL switch combining a GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) with a VCSEL is described below, using the same epilayer structure upon which binary HPT/VCSEL optical switches are also built. The monolithic HBT/VCSEL switch has high current gain, low power dissipation, and a high optical to electrical conversion efficiency. Its modulation has been measured and modeled.

  17. Analysis of monolithic integrated master oscillator power amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehuys, David; Welch, David F.; Waarts, Robert G.; Parke, Ross; Hardy, Amos; Streifer, William

    1991-07-01

    An analysis of a novel, monolithic integrated master oscillator power amplifier (M-MOPA) is presented. The M-MOPA consists of a DBR master oscillator which injects power into a linear chain of amplifiers and detuned second-order grating output couplers. The analysis self-consistently includes amplified spontaneous emission buildup and residual reflections throughout the amplifier stages. It predicts that output powers in excess of 1 W can be expected from a single-lateral-mode waveguide multistage amplifier less than 1 cm in length, injected with less than 15 mW of input power. In addition to the signal gain of more than 25 dB, the signal-to-noise ratio at 1-W output exceeds 15 dB. Because of the small reflections associated with the grating output couplers, and gain saturation by the injected signal, the amplifier self-oscillation threshold is suppressed to current densities above 15 kA/sq cm.

  18. Minicircle DNA purification using a CIM® DEAE-1 monolithic support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantino, Tatiana; Pereira, Patrícia; Queiroz, João A; Sousa, Ângela; Sousa, Fani

    2016-09-01

    Minicircle DNA is a new biotechnological product with beneficial therapeutic perspectives for gene therapy because it is constituted only by the eukaryotic transcription unit. These features improve minicircle DNA safety and increase its therapeutic effect. However, being a recently developed product, there is a need to establish efficient purification methodologies, enabling the recovery of the supercoiled minicircle DNA isoform. Thus, this work describes the minicircle DNA purification using an anion exchange monolithic support. The results show that with this column it is possible to achieve a good selectivity, which allows the isolation of the supercoiled minicircle DNA isoform from impurities. Overall, this study shows a promising approach to obtain the minicircle DNA sample with adequate quality for future therapeutic applications.

  19. Heterogeneous Monolithic Integration of Single-Crystal Organic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Sun; Baek, Jangmi; Park, Yoonkyung; Lee, Lynn; Hyon, Jinho; Koo Lee, Yong-Eun; Shrestha, Nabeen K; Kang, Youngjong; Sung, Myung Mo

    2017-02-01

    Manufacturing high-performance organic electronic circuits requires the effective heterogeneous integration of different nanoscale organic materials with uniform morphology and high crystallinity in a desired arrangement. In particular, the development of high-performance organic electronic and optoelectronic devices relies on high-quality single crystals that show optimal intrinsic charge-transport properties and electrical performance. Moreover, the heterogeneous integration of organic materials on a single substrate in a monolithic way is highly demanded for the production of fundamental organic electronic components as well as complex integrated circuits. Many of the various methods that have been designed to pattern multiple heterogeneous organic materials on a substrate and the heterogeneous integration of organic single crystals with their crystal growth are described here. Critical issues that have been encountered in the development of high-performance organic integrated electronics are also addressed.

  20. Optical displacement measurement using a monolithic Michelson interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Daniel; Zappe, Hans P.

    1997-04-01

    Contactless optical displacement measurement has the potential for a variety of industrial and scientific applications. For highly accurate displacement measurements at distances below 1 m, interferometric methods are preferred over most other methods. This is mainly because of the good resolution and the possibility of doing the measurements in real-time. Furthermore, the use of direct bandgap semiconductor materials also enables the fabrication of a compact interferometer-based device which unites all necessary components, including the light emitter, on a single chip. In this paper, a monolithically integrated optical displacement sensor fabricated in the GaAs/AlGaAs material system is reported. This single chip microsystem is configured as a double Michelson interferometer and comprises a distributed Bragg reflector laser, photodetectors, phase shifters and waveguide couplers. In the course of this paper, we will also briefly discuss possible scientific and industrial applications of such devices.

  1. Monolithic interferometer for high precision radial velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Ge, Jian; Wang, Ji; Lee, Brian

    2009-08-01

    In high precision radial velocity (RV) measurements for extrasolar planets searching and studies, a stable wide field Michelson interferometer is very critical in Exoplanet Tracker (ET) instruments. Adopting a new design, monolithic interferometers are homogenous and continuous in thermal expansion, and field compensation and thermal compensation are both satisfied. Interferometer design and fabrication are decrypted in details. In performance evaluations, field angle is typically 22° and thermal sensitivity is typically -1.7 x 10-6/°C, which corresponds to ~500 m/s /°C in RV scale. In interferometer stability monitoring using a wavelength stabilized laser source, phase shift data was continuously recorded for nearly seven days. Appling a frequent calibration every 30 minutes as in typical star observations, the interferometer instability contributes less than 1.4 m/s in RV error, in a conservative estimation.

  2. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit devices for active array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittra, R.

    1984-01-01

    Two different aspects of active antenna array design were investigated. The transition between monolithic microwave integrated circuits and rectangular waveguides was studied along with crosstalk in multiconductor transmission lines. The boundary value problem associated with a discontinuity in a microstrip line is formulated. This entailed, as a first step, the derivation of the propagating as well as evanescent modes of a microstrip line. The solution is derived to a simple discontinuity problem: change in width of the center strip. As for the multiconductor transmission line problem. A computer algorithm was developed for computing the crosstalk noise from the signal to the sense lines. The computation is based on the assumption that these lines are terminated in passive loads.

  3. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER (FBSR) PRODUCT: MONOLITH FORMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C

    2006-09-13

    The most important requirement for Hanford's low activity waste (LAW) form for shallow land disposal is the chemical durability of the product. A secondary, but still essential specification, is the compressive strength of the material with regards to the strength of the material under shallow land disposal conditions, e.g. the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations, because the term ''near-surface disposal'' indicates disposal in the uppermost portion, or approximately the top 30 meters, of the earth's surface. The THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) mineral waste form for LAW is granular in nature because it is formed by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). As a granular product it has been shown to be as durable as Hanford's LAW glass during testing with ASTM C-1285-02 known as the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and with the Single Pass Flow Through Test (SPFT). Hanford Envelope A and Envelope C simulants both performed well during PCT and SPFT testing and during subsequent performance assessment modeling. This is partially due to the high aluminosilicate content of the mineral product which provides a natural aluminosilicate buffering mechanism that inhibits leaching and is known to occur in naturally occurring aluminosilicate mineral analogs. In order for the TTT Na-Al-Si (NAS) granular mineral product to meet the compressive strength requirements (ASTM C39) for a Hanford waste form, the granular product needs to be made into a monolith or disposed of in High Integrity Containers (HIC's). Additionally, the Hanford intruder scenario for disposal in the Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) trench is mitigated as there is reduced intruder exposure when a waste form is in a monolithic form. During the preliminary testing of a monolith binder for TTT's FBSR mineral product, four parameters were monitored: (1) waste loading (not optimized for each waste form tested); (2) density

  4. Analysis of the performance of the MONOLITH prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Bari, G; D'Incecco, M; De Deo, M; Garbini, M; Giusti, P; Gustavino, C; Lindozzi, M; Menghetti, H; Sartorelli, G; Satta, G; Selvi, M

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the study for a large magnetic detector suitable for the physics at a neutrino factory, the data collected with the MONOLITH prototype at the T7-PS facility at CERN has been analyzed. The hadron shower angular resolution for pions followed a 10.4/ root E(GeV) + 10.1/E law for orthogonally incident particles. For a baseline of 732 km, this performance would allow the rejection of wrong sign muon background at the level of 10**-**6, and a capability to measure sintheta//1//3 down to 10**-**3. A preliminary analysis of about 10**6 downward going muons collected at LNGS is also presented. The readout system upgrade allowed the monitoring of each glass RPC with a granularity of 1 cm**2.

  5. Monolithic active pixel radiation detector with shielding techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W.

    2016-09-06

    A monolithic active pixel radiation detector including a method of fabricating thereof. The disclosed radiation detector can include a substrate comprising a silicon layer upon which electronics are configured. A plurality of channels can be formed on the silicon layer, wherein the plurality of channels are connected to sources of signals located in a bulk part of the substrate, and wherein the signals flow through electrically conducting vias established in an isolation oxide on the substrate. One or more nested wells can be configured from the substrate, wherein the nested wells assist in collecting charge carriers released in interaction with radiation and wherein the nested wells further separate the electronics from the sensing portion of the detector substrate. The detector can also be configured according to a thick SOA method of fabrication.

  6. Resonant-cavity based monolithic white light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lirong; Huang, Dexiu; Wen, Feng

    2007-11-01

    We propose a new scheme of resonant-cavity (RC) based monolithic white LED, it relaxes the hard requirement of high internal quantum efficiency of yellow multi-quantum (MQW) and offers an easy way to obtain high luminous efficacy white light emission. In the proposed white LED, the blue MQW and yellow MQW active layer are embedded in a resonant-cavity defined by the bottom distributed Bragg reflector(DBR) and top DBR. For a optimal design of RC-based white LED, the extraction efficiency for yellow light is enhanced, while that for blue light is suppressed, thus intensity ratio of yellow light in the emitting light is increased, which not only helps to obtain white emission in spite of the low internal quantum efficiency of yellow light, but also doubles luminous efficacy. The color coordinates and luminous flux of the emitting light from RC-based white LED are calculated and the performance dependence on directionality is investigated.

  7. A nanofabricated, monolithic, path-separated electron interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Akshay; Hobbs, Richard; van Dyck, Dirk; Berggren, Karl K

    2016-01-01

    We report a self-aligned, monolithic electron interferometer, consisting of two 45 nm thick silicon layers separated by 20 $\\mu$m. This interferometer was fabricated from a single crystal silicon cantilever on a transmission electron microscope grid by gallium focused ion-beam milling. Using this interferometer, we demonstrate beam path-separation, and obtain interference fringes in a Mach-Zehnder geometry, in an unmodified 200 kV transmission electron microscope. The fringes have a period of 0.32 nm, which corresponds to the $\\left[\\bar{1}\\bar{1}1\\right]$ lattice planes of silicon, and a maximum contrast of 15 %. This design can potentially be scaled to millimeter-scale, and used in electron holography. It can also be applied to perform fundamental physics experiments, such as interaction-free measurement with electrons.

  8. Monolithic single mode interband cascade lasers with wide wavelength tunability

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Edlinger, M.; Weih, R.; Scheuermann, J.; Nähle, L.; Fischer, M.; Koeth, J.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.

    2016-11-01

    Monolithic two-section interband cascade lasers offering a wide wavelength tunability in the wavelength range around 3.7 μm are presented. Stable single mode emission in several wavelength channels was realized using the concept of binary superimposed gratings and two-segment Vernier-tuning. The wavelength selective elements in the two segments were based on specially designed lateral metal grating structures defined by electron beam lithography. A dual-step dry etch process provided electrical separation between the segments. Individual current control of the segments allowed wavelength channel selection as well as continuous wavelength tuning within channels. A discontinuous tuning range extending over 158 nm in up to six discrete wavelength channels was achieved. Mode hop free wavelength tuning up to 14 nm was observed within one channel. The devices can be operated in continuous wave mode up to 30 °C with the output powers of 3.5 mW around room temperature.

  9. Cost and Potential of Monolithic CIGS Photovoltaic Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey; Woodhouse, Michael

    2015-06-17

    A bottom-up cost analysis of monolithic, glass-glass Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) modules is presented, illuminating current cost drivers for this technology and possible pathways to reduced cost. At 14% module efficiency, for the case of U.S. manufacturing, a manufacturing cost of $0.56/WDC and a minimum sustainable price of $0.72/WDC were calculated. Potential for reduction in manufacturing costs to below $0.40/WDC in the long-term may be possible if module efficiency can be increased without significant increase in $/m2 costs. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in Phoenix, AZ under different conditions is assessed and compared to standard c-Si.

  10. Nondestructive characterization methods for monolithic solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    Monolithic solid oxide fuel cells (MSOFCS) represent a potential breakthrough in fuel cell technology, provided that reliable fabrication methods can be developed. Fabrication difficulties arise in several steps of the processing: First is the fabrication of uniform thin (305 {mu}m) single-layer and trilayer green tapes (the trilayer tapes of anode/electrolyte/cathode and anode/interconnect/cathode must have similar coefficients of thermal expansion to sinter uniformly and to have the necessary electrochemical properties); Second is the development of fuel and oxidant channels in which residual stresses are likely to develop in the tapes; Third is the fabrication of a ``complete`` cell for which the bond quality between layers and the quality of the trilayers must be established; and Last, attachment of fuel and oxidant manifolds and verification of seal integrity. Purpose of this report is to assess nondestructive characterization methods that could be developed for application to laboratory, prototype, and full-scale MSOFCs.

  11. GaN Monolithic Power Amplifiers for Microwave Backhaul Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Quaglia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gallium nitride integrated technology is very promising not only for wireless applications at mobile frequencies (below 6 GHz but also for network backhaul radiolink deployment, now under deep revision for the incoming 5G generation of mobile communications. This contribution presents three linear power amplifiers realized on 0.25 μ m Gallium Nitride on Silicon Carbide monolithic integrated circuits for microwave backhaul applications: two combined power amplifiers working in the backhaul band around 7 GHz, and a more challenging third one working in the higher 15 GHz band. Architectures and main design steps are described, highlighting the pros and cons of Gallium Nitride with respect to the reference technology which, for these applications, is represented by gallium arsenide.

  12. Radiation hardness studies on CMOS monolithic pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, Marco [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bisello, Dario [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Contarato, Devis, E-mail: DContarato@lbl.go [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Denes, Peter; Doering, Dionisio [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Giubilato, Piero [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Sung Kim, Tae [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mattiazzo, Serena [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Radmilovic, Velimir [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Zalusky, Sarah [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-12-11

    This paper presents irradiation studies performed on a CMOS monolithic pixel sensor prototype implementing different optimizations of the pixel cell aimed at a superior radiation tolerance. Irradiations with 200 keV electrons up to a total dose of 1.1 Mrad have been performed in view of the utilization of such a design in Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) applications. Comparative irradiations were performed with 29 MeV protons up to a 2 Mrad total dose and with 1-14 MeV neutrons up to fluences in excess of 10{sup 13} n{sub eq} cm{sup -2}. Experimental results show an improved performance of pixels designed with Enclosed Layout Transistor (ELT) rules and an optimized layout of the charge collecting diodes.

  13. Monolithic carbide-derived carbon films for micro-supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiola, John; Largeot, Celine; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Simon, Patrice; Gogotsi, Yury

    2010-04-23

    Microbatteries with dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers that are produced by common microfabrication techniques are poised to provide integration of power sources onto electronic devices, but they still suffer from poor cycle lifetime, as well as power and temperature range of operation issues that are alleviated with the use of supercapacitors. There have been a few reports on thin-film and other micro-supercapacitors, but they are either too thin to provide sufficient energy or the technology is not scalable. By etching supercapacitor electrodes into conductive titanium carbide substrates, we demonstrate that monolithic carbon films lead to a volumetric capacity exceeding that of micro- and macroscale supercapacitors reported thus far, by a factor of 2. This study also provides the framework for integration of high-performance micro-supercapacitors onto a variety of devices.

  14. Fast preparation of photopolymerized monolithic columns for capillary electrochromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Wen-jun; XU Guang-ri; ZHANG Yi-jun; ZHANG Yu-ping; CHOI Seong-ho; LEE Kwang-pill

    2008-01-01

    Photopolymerized sol-gel(PSG) columns were prepared using methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane as the monomer,toluene as the porogen and hydrochloric acid as the catalyst. Four different photoinitiators such as benzoin methyl ether, Irgacure 819,lrgacure 1700 and Irgacure 1800 were comparatively used in the reaction solution in the presence and absence of sodium dodecylsulfate. The above eight solutions were respectively irradiated at 365 um for 5-10 min in each capillary (75 μm inside diameter) toprepare the porous monolithic sol-gel column by a one-step, in situ, process. The chromatographic behavior of the eight PSGcolumns were comparatively studied, all of which exhibit reversed-phase character. Using these columns, several neutral compounds,namely thiourea, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, biphenyl and naphthalene can be separated from mixtures with a largest columnefficiency of 74 470 plate/column for thiourea. Addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate in the polymerization process has a significantinfluence on the morphology and migration time.

  15. Monolithic optofluidic ring resonator lasers created by femtosecond laser nanofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrahalim, Hengky; Chen, Qiushu; Said, Ali A; Dugan, Mark; Fan, Xudong

    2015-05-21

    We designed, fabricated, and characterized a monolithically integrated optofluidic ring resonator laser that is mechanically, thermally, and chemically robust. The entire device, including the ring resonator channel and sample delivery microfluidics, was created in a block of fused-silica glass using a 3-dimensional femtosecond laser writing process. The gain medium, composed of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) dissolved in quinoline, was flowed through the ring resonator. Lasing was achieved at a pump threshold of approximately 15 μJ mm(-2). Detailed analysis shows that the Q-factor of the optofluidic ring resonator is 3.3 × 10(4), which is limited by both solvent absorption and scattering loss. In particular, a Q-factor resulting from the scattering loss can be as high as 4.2 × 10(4), suggesting the feasibility of using a femtosecond laser to create high quality optical cavities.

  16. Towards monolithic integration of germanium light sources on silicon chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shinichi; Zaher Al-Attili, Abdelrahman; Oda, Katsuya; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-01

    Germanium (Ge) is a group-IV indirect band gap semiconductor, and therefore bulk Ge cannot emit light efficiently. However, the direct band gap energy is close to the indirect one, and significant engineering efforts are being made to convert Ge into an efficient gain material monolithically integrated on a Si chip. In this article, we will review the engineering challenges of developing Ge light sources fabricated using nano-fabrication technologies compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor processes. In particular, we review recent progress in applying high-tensile strain to Ge to reduce the direct band gap. Another important technique is doping Ge with donor impurities to fill the indirect band gap valleys in the conduction band. Realization of carrier confinement structures and suitable optical cavities will be discussed. Finally, we will discuss possible applications of Ge light sources in potential photonics-electronics convergent systems.

  17. Population III stars around the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Komiya, Yutaka; Fujimoto, Masayuki Y

    2016-01-01

    We explore the possibility of observing Population III (Pop~III) stars, born of the primordial gas. Pop~III stars with masses below $0.8 M_\\odot$ should survive to date though are not observed yet, but the existence of stars with low metallicity as [Fe/H]$ < -5$ in the Milky Way halo suggests the surface pollution of Pop~III stars with accreted metals from the interstellar gas after birth. In this paper, we investigate the runaway of Pop~III stars from their host mini-halos, considering the ejection of secondary members from binary systems when their massive primaries explode as supernovae. These stars save them from the surface pollution. By computing the star formation and chemical evolution along with the hierarchical structure formation based on the extended Press--Schechter merger trees, we demonstrate that several hundreds to tens of thousands of low-mass Pop~III stars escape from the building blocks of the Milky Way. The second and later generations of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars are also escap...

  18. CyberStorm III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; et al

    2010-01-01

    Projectteam Cyber Storm III - De Verenigde Staten organiseerden de afgelopen jaren een reeks grootschalige ICT-crisisoefeningen met de naam Cyber Storm. Cyber Storm III is de derde oefening in de reeks. Het scenario van Cyber Storm III staat in het teken van grootschalige ICT-verstoringen, waarbij n

  19. A High Resolution Monolithic Crystal, DOI, MR Compatible, PET Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S Miyaoka

    2012-03-06

    The principle objective of this proposal is to develop a positron emission tomography (PET) detector with depth-of-interaction (DOI) positioning capability that will achieve state of the art spatial resolution and sensitivity performance for small animal PET imaging. When arranged in a ring or box detector geometry, the proposed detector module will support <1 mm3 image resolution and >15% absolute detection efficiency. The detector will also be compatible with operation in a MR scanner to support simultaneous multi-modality imaging. The detector design will utilize a thick, monolithic crystal scintillator readout by a two-dimensional array of silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) devices using a novel sensor on the entrance surface (SES) design. Our hypothesis is that our single-ended readout SES design will provide an effective DOI positioning performance equivalent to more expensive dual-ended readout techniques and at a significantly lower cost. Our monolithic crystal design will also lead to a significantly lower cost system. It is our goal to design a detector with state of the art performance but at a price point that is affordable so the technology can be disseminated to many laboratories. A second hypothesis is that using SiPM arrays, the detector will be able to operate in a MR scanner without any degradation in performance to support simultaneous PET/MR imaging. Having a co-registered MR image will assist in radiotracer localization and may also be used for partial volume corrections to improve radiotracer uptake quantitation. The far reaching goal of this research is to develop technology for medical research that will lead to improvements in human health care.

  20. Initial results for the silicon monolithically interconnected solar cell product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinetta, L. C.; Shreve, K. P.; Cotter, J. E.; Barnett, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    This proprietary technology is based on AstroPower's electrostatic bonding and innovative silicon solar cell processing techniques. Electrostatic bonding allows silicon wafers to be permanently attached to a thermally matched glass superstrate and then thinned to final thicknesses less than 25 micron. These devices are based on the features of a thin, light-trapping silicon solar cell: high voltage, high current, light weight (high specific power) and high radiation resistance. Monolithic interconnection allows the fabrication costs on a per watt basis to be roughly independent of the array size, power or voltage, therefore, the cost effectiveness to manufacture solar cell arrays with output powers ranging from milliwatts up to four watts and output voltages ranging from 5 to 500 volts will be similar. This compares favorably to conventionally manufactured, commercial solar cell arrays, where handling of small parts is very labor intensive and costly. In this way, a wide variety of product specifications can be met using the same fabrication techniques. Prototype solar cells have demonstrated efficiencies greater than 11%. An open-circuit voltage of 5.4 volts, fill factor of 65%, and short-circuit current density of 28 mA/sq cm at AM1.5 illumination are typical. Future efforts are being directed to optimization of the solar cell operating characteristics as well as production processing. The monolithic approach has a number of inherent advantages, including reduced cost per interconnect and increased reliability of array connections. These features make this proprietary technology an excellent candidate for a large number of consumer products.

  1. Global Positioning System III (GPS III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Military Operations in Urban Terrain; Defense-Wide Mission Support; Air Mobility; and Space Launch Orbital Support. For military users, the GPS III...program provides Precise Positioning Service (PPS) to military operations and force enhancement. It also provides increased anti-jam power to the earth ...to be modified . On January 31, 2016, USD(AT&L) signed the GPS III revised APB. This Change 1 to the APB was due to both cost and schedule breaches

  2. Synthesis of novel hierarchical ZSM-5 monoliths and their application in trichloroethylene removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    João Pires; Ana C.Fernandes; Divakar Duraiswami

    2014-01-01

    A self-supporting ZSM-5 monolith with a hierarchical porosity was prepared using polyurethane foam (PUF) as a structural template and a hydrothermal synthesis procedure. The synthesized monolith was characterized and investigated towards the adsorption and catalytic oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE). Adsorption of TCE was studied gravimetrically and oxidation of TCE was studied using a vapor-phase down-flow reactor. Monolithic ZSM-5 displayed good sorption proper-ties and completely oxidized TCE. Conversion levels of 50%and 90%were achieved at reduced temperatures (by~50 °C) when compared with the conversion temperatures obtained from the powder counterparts. Besides the activity of the monolith towards TCE adsorption and oxidation, it was stable and enhanced diffusion, thereby reducing pressure drops to a great extent owing to its hierarchical porous nature.

  3. Monolithically integrated AlN/GaN electronics for harsh environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recently, resonant-tunneling-diode (RTD) based circuits employing monolithically-integrated RTD on high electron mobility (HEMT) structures have been developed in a...

  4. Single step synthesis of carbohydrate monolithic capillary columns for affinity chromatography of lectins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetala, K.K.R.; Chen, B.; Visser, G.M.; Beek, van T.A.

    2007-01-01

    Carbohydrate monolithic beds were synthesized in a single step in capillary columns to study affinity chromatography of lectins. In this method, carbohydrates (-galactose, -glucose, and -mannose) with an easy to synthesize alkene terminated tetraethylene glycol spacer were used as functional

  5. Broadband EM Performance Characteristics of Single Square Loop FSS Embedded Monolithic Radome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raveendranath U. Nair

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A monolithic half-wave radome panel, centrally loaded with aperture-type single square loop frequency selective surface (SSL-FSS, is proposed here for broadband airborne radome applications. Equivalent transmission line method in conjunction with equivalent circuit model (ECM is used for modeling the SSL-FSS embedded monolithic half-wave radome panel and evaluating radome performance parameters. The design parameters of the SSL-FSS are optimized at different angles of incidence such that the new radome wall configuration offers superior EM performance from L-band to X-band as compared to the conventional monolithic half-wave slab of identical material and thickness. The superior EM performance of SSL-FSS embedded monolithic radome wall makes it suitable for the design of normal incidence and streamlined airborne radomes.

  6. Convective Interaction Media (CIM)--short layer monolithic chromatographic stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgornik, Ales; Strancar, Ales

    2005-01-01

    Modern downstream processing requires fast and highly effective methods to obtain large quantities of highly pure substances. Commonly applied method for this purpose is chromatography. However, its main drawback is its throughput since purification, especially of large molecules, requires long process time. To overcome this problem several new stationary phases were introduced, among which short layer monoliths show superior properties for many applications. The purpose of this review is to give an overview about short methacrylate monolithic columns commercialised under the trademark Convective Interaction Media (CIM). Their unique properties are described from different perspectives, explaining reasons for their application on various areas. Approaches to prepare large volume methacrylate monolithic column are discussed and optimal solutions are given. Different examples of CIM monolithic column implementation are summarised in the last part of the article to give the reader an idea about their advantages.

  7. Monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system on aerogel or nanotube scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C; Stadermann, Michael

    2013-11-12

    A monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system is provided on an aerogel or nanotube scaffold. An anode, separator, cathode, and cathodic current collector are deposited on the aerogel or nanotube scaffold.

  8. New monolithic enzymatic micro-reactor for the fast production and purification of oligogalacturonides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delattre, C; Michaud, P; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2008-01-15

    Fast production and purification of alpha-(1,4)-oligogalacturonides was investigated using a new enzymatic reactor composed of a monolithic matrix. Pectin lyase from Aspergillus japonicus (Sigma) was immobilized on CIM-disk epoxy monolith. Studies were performed on free pectin lyase and immobilized pectin lyase to compare the optimum temperature, optimum pH, and thermal stability. It was determined that optimum temperature for free pectin lyase and immobilized pectin lyase on monolithic support is 30 degrees C, and optimum pH is 5. Monolithic CIM-disk chromatography is one of the fastest liquid chromatographic method used for separation and purification of biomolecules due to high mass transfer rate. In this context, online one step production and purification of oligogalacturonides was investigated associating CIM-disk pectin lyase and CIM-disk DEAE. This efficient enzymatic bioreactor production of uronic oligosaccharides from polygalacturonic acid (PGA) constitutes an original fast process to generate bioactive oligouronides.

  9. Monolithic distributed Bragg reflector cavities in Al2O3 with quality factors exceeding one million

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhardi, Edward; van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; Worhoff, Kerstin; de Ridder, R.M.; Pollnau, Markus

    Monolithic distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) cavities with quality factors exceeding one million have been realized in aluminum oxide channel waveguides. This technology enabled the successful demonstration of the first DBR laser in this waveguide platform.

  10. Recycle Adsorption of Cu2+ on Amine-functionalized Mesoporous Silica Monolithic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Da-zhou; JING Shu-bo; XU Jia-ning; YANG Hong; ZHENG Wei; SONG Tian-you; ZHANG Ping

    2013-01-01

    3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane functionalized worm-like mesoporous silica monolithic(WMSM-NH2) was prepared and used as a new regenerable adsorbent for the removal of Cu2+ ions.The analysis results show that the WMSM-NH2 monolithic had a high efficiency value of 99.3% for Cu2+ remediation when the Cu2+ solution was at an initial concentration of 10.32 mg/L.The regeneration study of the WMSM-NH2 monolithic presented that the adsorption efficiency of 89.0% was remained and a mass of 92.0% was left after seven adsorption-desorption cycles were executed.The monolithic material with high resistance to the acid and good mechanical stability can facilitate the operations of adsorption and regeneration of the adsorbent.

  11. Monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system on aerogel or nanotube scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph Collin; Stadermann, Michael

    2014-07-15

    A monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system is provided on an aerogel or nanotube scaffold. An anode, separator, cathode, and cathodic current collector are deposited on the aerogel or nanotube scaffold.

  12. A Monolithic, Non-Field-Widened Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer for Solar System Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to produce a monolithic Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (a Fourier Transform Interferometer) for use in Solar System exploration. In...

  13. Fabrication of interfacial functionalized porous polymer monolith and its adsorption properties of copper ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiaxi; Du, Zhongjie; Zou, Wei; Li, Hangquan; Zhang, Chen

    2014-07-15

    The interfacial functionalized poly (glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) porous monolith was fabricated and applied as a novel porous adsorbent for copper ions (Cu(2+)). PGMA porous material with highly interconnected pore network was prepared by concentrated emulsion polymerization template. Then polyacrylic acid (PAA) was grafted onto the interface of the porous monolith by the reaction between the epoxy group on PGMA and a carboxyl group on PAA. Finally, the porous monolith was interfacial functionalized by rich amount of carboxyl groups and could adsorb copper ions effectively. The chemical structure and porous morphology of the porous monolith were measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, the effects of pore size distribution, pH value, co-existing ions, contacting time, and initial concentrations of copper ions on the adsorption capacity of the porous adsorbents were studied.

  14. Influence of the preparation design and artificial aging on the fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns

    OpenAIRE

    Mitov, Gergo; Anastassova-Yoshida, Yana; Nothdurft, Frank Phillip; von See, Constantin; Pospiech, Peter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance and fracture behavior of monolithic zirconia crowns in accordance with the preparation design and aging simulation method. MATERIALS AND METHODS An upper first molar was prepared sequentially with three different preparation designs: shoulderless preparation, 0.4 mm chamfer and 0.8 mm chamfer preparation. For each preparation design, 30 monolithic zirconia crowns were fabricated. After cementation on Cr-Co alloy dies, the f...

  15. Silica-based polypeptide-monolithic stationary phase for hydrophilic chromatography and chiral separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Licong; Yang, Limin; Wang, Qiuquan

    2016-05-13

    Glutathione (GSH)-, somatostatin acetate (ST)- and ovomucoid (OV)-functionalized silica-monolithic stationary phases were designed and synthesized for HILIC and chiral separation using capillary electrochromatography (CEC). GSH, ST and OV were covalently incorporated into the silica skeleton via the epoxy ring-opening reaction between their amino groups and the glycidyl moiety in γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) together with polycondensation and copolymerization of tetramethyloxysilane and GPTMS. Not only could the direction and electroosmotic flow magnitude on the prepared GSH-, ST- and OV-silica hybrid monolithic stationary phases be controlled by the pH of the mobile phase, but also a typical HILIC behavior was observed so that the nucleotides and HPLC peptide standard mixture could be baseline separated using an aqueous mobile phase without any acetonitrile during CEC. Moreover, the prepared monolithic columns had a chiral separation ability to separate dl-amino acids. The OV-silica hybrid monolithic column was most effective in chiral separation and could separate dl-glutamic acid (Glu) (the resolution R=1.07), dl-tyrosine (Tyr) (1.57) and dl-histidine (His) (1.06). Importantly, the chiral separation ability of the GSH-silica hybrid monolithic column could be remarkably enhanced when using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to fabricate an AuNP-mediated GSH-AuNP-GSH-silica hybrid monolithic column. The R of dl-Glu, dl-Tyr and dl-His reached 1.19, 1.60 and 2.03. This monolithic column was thus applied to separate drug enantiomers, and quantitative separation of all four R/S drug enantiomers were achieved with R ranging from 4.36 to 5.64. These peptide- and protein-silica monolithic stationary phases with typical HILIC separation behavior and chiral separation ability implied their promise for the analysis of not only the future metabolic studies, but also drug enantiomers recognition.

  16. Structure and properties of hybrid poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)/SiO2 monoliths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Xiangling; Jiang, Shichun; Qiu, Xuepeng

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: Hybrid poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA)/SiO2 monoliths were synthesized via a sol-gel process of the precursor tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and the in situ free-radical polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). The weight ratio of the starting chemicals, TEOS to ...... related to some degree of chemical crosslinking between the polymer and the silica moiety, which would greatly improve the thermal stability of such hybrid monoliths compared with a pure PHEMA....

  17. A Mathematical Model for Diffusion-Controlled Monolithic Matrix Coated with outer Membrane System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A release model for diffusion-controlled monolithic matrix coated with outer membrane system is proposed and solved by using the refined double integral method. The calculated results are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental release data. The present model can be well used to describe the release process for all cd/cs values. In addition, the release effects of the monolithic matrix coated with outer membrane system are discussed theoretically.

  18. Influence of Specimen Preparation and Test Methods on the Flexural Strength Results of Monolithic Zirconia Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Schatz; Monika Strickstrock; Malgorzata Roos; Daniel Edelhoff; Marlis Eichberger; Isabella-Maria Zylla; Bogna Stawarczyk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of specimen preparation and test method on the flexural strength results of monolithic zirconia. Different monolithic zirconia materials (Ceramill Zolid (Amann Girrbach, Koblach, Austria), Zenostar ZrTranslucent (Wieland Dental, Pforzheim, Germany), and DD Bio zx2 (Dental Direkt, Spenge, Germany)) were tested with three different methods: 3-point, 4-point, and biaxial flexural strength. Additionally, different specimen preparation methods wer...

  19. Influence of specimen preparation and test methods on the flexural strength results of monolithic zirconia materials

    OpenAIRE

    Schatz, Christine; Strickstrock, Monika; Roos, Malgorzata; Edelhoff, Daniel; Eichberger, Marlis; Zylla, Isabella-Maria; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of specimen preparation and test method on the flexural strength results of monolithic zirconia. Different monolithic zirconia materials (Ceramill Zolid (Amann Girrbach, Koblach, Austria), Zenostar ZrTranslucent (Wieland Dental, Pforzheim, Germany), and DD Bio zx2 (Dental Direkt, Spenge, Germany)) were tested with three different methods: 3-point, 4-point, and biaxial flexural strength. Additionally, different specimen preparation methods wer...

  20. New monolith technology for automated anion-exchange purification of nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, J R; Flook, K J; Woodruff, A; Rao, S; Pohl, C A

    2010-04-15

    Synthetic nucleic acid analysis often employs pellicular anion-exchange (AE) chromatography because it supports very high efficiency separations while offering means to control secondary structure, retention and resolution by readily modifiable chromatographic conditions. However, these pellicular anion-exchange (pAE) phases do not offer capacity sufficient for lab-scale oligonucleotide (ON) purification. In contrast, monolithic phases produce fast separations at capacities exceeding their pellicular counterparts, but do not exhibit capacities typical of fully porous, bead-based, anion-exchangers. In order to further increase monolith capacity and obtain the selectivity and mass transfer characteristics of pellicular phases, a surface-functionalized monolith was coated with pAE nanobeads (latexes) usually employed on the pellicular DNAPac phase. The nanobead-coated monolith exhibited chromatographic behaviors typical of polymer AE phases. Based on this observation the monolithic substrate surface porosity and latex diameters were co-optimized to produce a hybrid monolith harboring capacity similar to that of fully porous bead-based phases and peak shape approaching that of the pAE phases. We tested the hybrid monolith on a variety of previously developed pAE capabilities including control of ON selectivity, resolution of derivatized ONs, the ability to resolve RNA ONs harboring aberrant linkages at different positions in a single sequence and separation of phosphorothioate diastereoisomers. We compared the yield and purity of an 8 mg ON sample purified on both the new hybrid monolith and a benchmark AE column based on fully porous monodisperse beads. This comparison included an assessment of the relative selectivities of both columns. Finally, we demonstrated the ability to couple AE ON separations with ESI-MS using an automated desalting protocol. This protocol is also useful for preparing ONs for other assays, such as enzyme treatments, that may be sensitive to

  1. Preparation of Monolithic Column and Its Application in p-CEC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Jiao YANG; Kai ZHANG; Ru Yu GAO; Yu Kui ZHANG; Chao YAN

    2004-01-01

    A novel monolithic stationary phase having long alkyl chain ligands was introduced and evaluated in pressurized-capillary electrochromatography of small neutral and charged compounds.The monolithic column was prepared by the in situ copolymerization of ethylene dimethacrylate,1-hexadecene,allyl alcohol and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid in a quaternary porogenic solvent mixture consisting of 1,4-butanediol,cyclohexanol,dodecanol and water.

  2. THE CHANGE IN DEFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS OF CONCRETE MONOLITHIC HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Punahin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article results of studies of deformation features of concrete on actuate cement for monolithic high-altitude buildings are presented. It is shown that in construction of the high-altitude monolithic buildings in a summer period of a year one should take into account the character of changing the concrete elasticity and plasticity in time, which differs from the same indices for the concrete of normal hardening.

  3. An Inexpensive Field-Widened Monolithic Michelson Interferometer for Precision Radial Velocity Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Mahadevan, Suvrath; Ge, Jian; Fleming, Scott W.; Wan, Xiaoke; DeWitt, Curtis; van Eyken, Julian C.; McDavitt, Dan

    2008-01-01

    We have constructed a thermally compensated field-widened monolithic Michelson interferometer that can be used with a medium-resolution spectrograph to measure precise Doppler radial velocities of stars. Our prototype monolithic fixed-delay interferometer is constructed with off-the-shelf components and assembled using a hydrolysis bonding technique. We installed and tested this interferometer in the Exoplanet Tracker (ET) instrument at the Kitt Peak 2.1m telescope, an instrument built to dem...

  4. Two stage dual gate MESFET monolithic gain control amplifier for Ka-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, V.; Geddes, J.; Contolatis, A.

    A monolithic two stage gain control amplifier has been developed using submicron gate length dual gate MESFETs fabricated on ion implanted material. The amplifier has a gain of 12 dB at 30 GHz with a gain control range of over 30 dB. This ion implanted monolithic IC is readily integrable with other phased array receiver functions such as low noise amplifiers and phase shifters.

  5. Maxillary cement retained implant supported monolithic zirconia prosthesis in a full mouth rehabilitation: a clinical report

    OpenAIRE

    Sadid-Zadeh, Ramtin; Liu, Perng-Ru; Aponte-Wesson, Ruth; O'Neal, Sandra J

    2013-01-01

    This clinical report presents the reconstruction of a maxillary arch with a cement retained implant supported fixed prosthesis using a monolithic zirconia generated by CAD/CAM system on eight osseointegrated implants. The prosthesis was copy milled from an interim prosthesis minimizing occlusal adjustments on the definitive prosthesis at the time of delivery. Monolithic zirconia provides high esthetics and reduces the number of metal alloys used in the oral cavity.

  6. Maxillary cement retained implant supported monolithic zirconia prosthesis in a full mouth rehabilitation: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadid-Zadeh, Ramtin; Liu, Perng-Ru; Aponte-Wesson, Ruth; O'Neal, Sandra J

    2013-05-01

    This clinical report presents the reconstruction of a maxillary arch with a cement retained implant supported fixed prosthesis using a monolithic zirconia generated by CAD/CAM system on eight osseointegrated implants. The prosthesis was copy milled from an interim prosthesis minimizing occlusal adjustments on the definitive prosthesis at the time of delivery. Monolithic zirconia provides high esthetics and reduces the number of metal alloys used in the oral cavity.

  7. Polymer monolith microextraction using poly(butyl methacrylate-co-1,6-hexanediol ethoxylate diacrylate) monolithic sorbent for determination of phenylurea herbicides in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Ling; Wu, Yu-Ru; Fuh, Ming-Ren

    2016-01-15

    In this study, recently developed 1,6-hexanediol ethoxylate diacrylate (HEDA)-based polymeric monoliths were utilized as sorbents for efficient extraction of phenylurea herbicides (PUHs) from water samples. The HEDA-based monolithic sorbents were prepared in a fused silica capillary (0.7mm i.d., 4.5-cm long) for polymer monolith microextraction (PMME). The experimental parameters of PMME microextraction including sample loading speed, pH of sample solution, composition of elution solvent, and addition of salt were optimized to efficiently extract PUHs from environmental water samples. The extracted PUHs were determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with UV-photodiode array detection. The extraction recoveries for PUHs-spiked water samples were 91.1-108.1% with relative standard deviations lower than 5%. The linearity range was 0.025-25ngmL(-1) for each PUH and the detection limits of PUHs were estimated at 0.006-0.019ng mL(-1). In addition, good intra-day/inter-day precision (0.1-8.7%/0.2-8.9%) and accuracy (92.0-108.0%/96.5-105.2%) of the proposed method were obtained. The extraction capacity of the monolith-filled capillary was also determined to be approximately 1μg. Moreover, each monolith-filled capillary could be reused up to 8 times without carry-over. According to the European Union regulations, the allowed permissible limit of any single herbicide in drinking water is 0.1ng mL(-1). This permissible level fell in the linear range examined in this study. In addition, the proposed method provided detection limits lower than the allowed permissible level, which demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing the HEDA-based monolithic sorbent to perform PMME for determining contaminants, such as PUHs, in environmental application.

  8. The mass distribution of Population III stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, M.; Casey, A. R.; Gilmore, G.; Heger, A.; Chan, C.

    2017-06-01

    Extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars are uniquely informative on the nature of massive Population III stars. Modulo a few elements that vary with stellar evolution, the present-day photospheric abundances observed in EMP stars are representative of their natal gas cloud composition. For this reason, the chemistry of EMP stars closely reflects the nucleosynthetic yields of supernovae from massive Population III stars. Here we collate detailed abundances of 53 EMP stars from the literature and infer the masses of their Population III progenitors. We fit a simple initial mass function (IMF) to a subset of 29 of the inferred Population III star masses, and find that the mass distribution is well represented by a power-law IMF with exponent α = 2.35^{+0.29}_{-0.24}. The inferred maximum progenitor mass for supernovae from massive Population III stars is M_{max} = 87^{+13}_{-33} M⊙, and we find no evidence in our sample for a contribution from stars with masses above ˜120 M⊙. The minimum mass is strongly consistent with the theoretical lower mass limit for Population III supernovae. We conclude that the IMF for massive Population III stars is consistent with the IMF of present-day massive stars and there may well have formed stars much below the supernova mass limit that could have survived to the present day.

  9. Corrosion Issues for Ceramics in Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan; Opila, Elizabeth; Nickel, Klaus G.

    2004-01-01

    The requirements for hot-gas-path materials in gas turbine engines are demanding. These materials must maintain high strength and creep resistance in a particularly aggressive environment. A typical gas turbine environment involves high temperatures, rapid gas flow rates, high pressures, and a complex mixture of aggressive gases. Over the past forty years, a wealth of information on the behavior of ceramic materials in heat engine environments has been obtained. In the first part of the talk we summarize the behavior of monolithic SiC and Si3N4. These materials show excellent baseline behavior in clean, oxygen environments. However the aggressive components in a heat engine environment such as water vapor and salt deposits can be quite degrading. In the second part of the talk we discuss SiC-based composites. The critical issue with these materials is oxidation of the fiber coating. We conclude with a brief discussion of future directions in ceramic corrosion research.

  10. Corrosion Issues for Ceramics in Gas Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan; Opila, Elizabeth; Nickel, Klaus G.

    2004-01-01

    The requirements for hot-gas-path materials in gas turbine engines are demanding. These materials must maintain high strength and creep resistance in a particularly aggressive environment. A typical gas turbine environment involves high temperatures, rapid gas flow rates, high pressures, and a complex mixture of aggressive gases. Over the past forty years, a wealth of information on the behavior of ceramic materials in heat engine environments has been obtained. In the first part of the talk we summarize the behavior of monolithic SiC and Si3N4. These materials show excellent baseline behavior in clean, oxygen environments. However the aggressive components in a heat engine environment such as water vapor and salt deposits can be quite degrading. In the second part of the talk we discuss SiC-based composites. The critical issue with these materials is oxidation of the fiber coating. We conclude with a brief discussion of future directions in ceramic corrosion research.

  11. Effect of Silica on High-Temperature Interfacial Phenomena of Monolithic Refractories with Al Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Pramod; Gupta, Sushil; Sahajwalla, Veena; Edwards, Phil

    2008-04-01

    An experimental study was conducted to study the interfacial phenomena between monolithic refractories and Al alloy at 1250 °C. Dynamic contact angles of monolithic substrates with varying silica levels were measured using the sessile drop technique, while phases present in the preheated monolithic samples and interfacial reaction products were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). The contact angles in the Al alloy/silica system were found to change much more rapidly as compared to that of the alloy/alumina system, clearly demonstrating the high wetting tendency of silica. Under the tested conditions, the corundum phase forms at the interface while Mg was found to vaporize from the alloy and accumulate at the bottom of the monolithic substrate. Both these phenomena are shown to influence the intensity of contact angle variations with time and, thereby, the wetting behavior of monolithic substrates. Based on dynamic contact angles and equilibrium calculations, monolithic refractories are further classified into three groups, such that the wetting characteristics of those with compositions in the ranges of 0 to 25 pct, 25 to 45 pct, and >45 pct silica were shown to be dictated by the presence of corundum, mullite, and free silica, respectively, as the predominant phase.

  12. Preparation of porous polymer monoliths featuring enhanced surface coverage with gold nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Lv, Yongqin

    2012-10-01

    A new approach to the preparation of porous polymer monoliths with enhanced coverage of pore surface with gold nanoparticles has been developed. First, a generic poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith was reacted with cystamine followed by the cleavage of its disulfide bonds with tris(2-carboxylethyl)phosphine, which liberated the desired thiol groups. Dispersions of gold nanoparticles with sizes varying from 5 to 40. nm were then pumped through the functionalized monoliths. The materials were then analyzed using both energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. We found that the quantity of attached gold was dependent on the size of nanoparticles, with the maximum attachment of more than 60. wt% being achieved with 40. nm nanoparticles. Scanning electron micrographs of the cross sections of all the monoliths revealed the formation of a non-aggregated, homogenous monolayer of nanoparticles. The surface of the bound gold was functionalized with 1-octanethiol and 1-octadecanethiol, and these monolithic columns were used successfully for the separations of proteins in reversed phase mode. The best separations were obtained using monoliths modified with 15, 20, and 30. nm nanoparticles since these sizes produced the most dense coverage of pore surface with gold. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Ionic liquid-regenerated macroporous cellulose monolith: Fabrication, characterization and its protein chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Kaifeng

    2017-04-21

    Macroporous cellulose monolith as chromatographic support was successfully fabricated from an ionic liquid dissolved cellulose solution by an emulsification method and followed by the cross-linking reaction and DEAE modification. With the physical characterization, the cellulose monolith featured by both the interconnected macropores in range of 0.5-2.5μm and the diffusion pores centered at about 10nm. Given the bimodal pore system, the monolith possessed the specific surface area of 36.4m(2)g(-1) and the column permeability of about 7.45×10(-14)m(2). After the DEAE modification, the anion cellulose monolith was evaluated for its chromatography performances. It demonstrated that the static and dynamic adsorption capacity of BSA reached about 66.7mgmL(-1) and 43.9mgmL(-1) at 10% breakthrough point, respectively. The results were comparable to other chromatographic adsorbent. In addition, the proteins mixture with different pI was well separated at high flow velocity (611.0cmh(-1)) and high protein recovery (over 97%), proving the macroporous cellulose monolith had excellent separation performance. In this way, the prepared cellulose monolith with bimodal pores system is expected for the potential application in high-speed chromatography. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fracture Strength of Aged Monolithic and Bilayer Zirconia-Based Crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameira, Deborah Pacheco; Buarque e Silva, Wilkens Aurélio; Andrade e Silva, Frederico; De Souza, Grace M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of design and surface finishing on fracture strength of yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) crowns in monolithic (1.5 mm thickness) and bilayer (0.8 mm zirconia coping and 0.7 mm porcelain veneer) configuration after artificial aging. Bovine incisors received crown preparation and Y-TZP crowns were manufactured using CAD/CAM technique, according to the following groups (n = 10): Polished monolithic zirconia crowns (PM); Glazed monolithic zirconia crowns (GM); Bi-layer crowns (BL). Crowns were cemented with resin cement, submitted to artificial aging in a chewing simulator (2.5 million cycles/80 N/artificial saliva/37 °C), and tested for fracture strength. Two remaining crowns referring to PM and GM groups were submitted to a chemical composition analysis to measure the level of yttrium after aging. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (P = .05) indicated that monolithic zirconia crowns presented similar fracture strength (PM = 3476.2 N ± 791.7; GM = 3561.5 N ± 991.6), which was higher than bilayer crowns (2060.4 N ± 810.6). There was no difference in the yttrium content among the three surfaces evaluated in the monolithic crowns. Thus, monolithic zirconia crowns present higher fracture strength than bilayer veneered zirconia after artificial aging and surface finishing does not affect their fracture strength.

  15. Remotely detected NMR for the characterization of flow and fast chromatographic separations using organic polymer monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teisseyre, Thomas Z; Urban, Jiri; Halpern-Manners, Nicholas W; Chambers, Stuart D; Bajaj, Vikram S; Svec, Frantisek; Pines, Alexander

    2011-08-01

    An application of remotely detected magnetic resonance imaging is demonstrated for the characterization of flow and the detection of fast, small molecule separations within hypercrosslinked polymer monoliths. The hyper-cross-linked monoliths exhibited excellent ruggedness, with a transit time relative standard deviation of less than 2.1%, even after more than 300 column volumes were pumped through at high pressure and flow. Magnetic resonance imaging enabled high-resolution intensity and velocity-encoded images of mobile phase flow through the monolith. The images confirm that the presence of a polymer monolith within the capillary disrupts the parabolic laminar flow profile that is characteristic of mobile phase flow within an open tube. As a result, the mobile phase and analytes are equally distributed in the radial direction throughout the monolith. Also, in-line monitoring of chromatographic separations of small molecules at high flow rates is shown. The coupling of monolithic chromatography columns and NMR provides both real-time peak detection and chemical shift information for small aromatic molecules. These experiments demonstrate the unique power of magnetic resonance, both direct and remote, in studying chromatographic processes.

  16. Development of Monolithic Column Materials for the Separation and Analysis of Glycans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan J. Alla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic column materials offer great advantages as chromatographic media in bioseparations and as solid-supports in biocatalysis. These single-piece porous materials have an interconnected ligament structure that limits the void volume inside the column, thus increasing the efficiency without sacrificing the permeability. The preparation of monolithic materials is easy, reproducible and has available a wide range of chemistries to utilize. Complex, heterogeneous and isobaric glycan structures require preparation methods that may include glycan release, separation and enrichment prior to a comprehensive and site-specific glycosylation analysis. Monolithic column materials aid that demand, as shown by the results reported by the research works presented in this review. These works include selective capture of glycans and glycoproteins via their interactions with lectins, boronic acids, hydrophobic, and hydrophilic/polar functional groups on monolith surfaces. It also includes immobilization of enzymes trypsin and PNGase F on monoliths to digest and deglycosylate glycoproteins and glycopeptides, respectively. The use of monolithic capillary columns for glycan separations through nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC and capillary electrochromatography (CEC and coupling these columns to MS instruments to create multidimensional systems show the potential in the development of miniaturized, high-throughput and automated systems of glycan separation and analysis.

  17. Fabrication of interfacial functionalized porous polymer monolith and its adsorption properties of copper ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jiaxi; Du, Zhongjie; Zou, Wei; Li, Hangquan; Zhang, Chen, E-mail: zhangch@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Interface functionalized PGMA porous monolith was fabricated. • The adsorption capacity of Cu{sup 2+} was 35.3 mg/g. • The effects of porous structure on the adsorption of Cu{sup 2+} were studied. • The adsorption behaviors of porous monolith were studied. - Abstract: The interfacial functionalized poly (glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) porous monolith was fabricated and applied as a novel porous adsorbent for copper ions (Cu{sup 2+}). PGMA porous material with highly interconnected pore network was prepared by concentrated emulsion polymerization template. Then polyacrylic acid (PAA) was grafted onto the interface of the porous monolith by the reaction between the epoxy group on PGMA and a carboxyl group on PAA. Finally, the porous monolith was interfacial functionalized by rich amount of carboxyl groups and could adsorb copper ions effectively. The chemical structure and porous morphology of the porous monolith were measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, the effects of pore size distribution, pH value, co-existing ions, contacting time, and initial concentrations of copper ions on the adsorption capacity of the porous adsorbents were studied.

  18. Bench-Scale Monolith Autothermal Reformer Catalyst Screening Evaluations in a Micro-Reactor With Jet-A Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.; Yen, Judy C.H.; Budge, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell systems used in the aerospace or commercial aviation environment require a compact, light-weight and highly durable catalytic fuel processor. The fuel processing method considered here is an autothermal reforming (ATR) step. The ATR converts Jet-A fuel by a reaction with steam and air forming hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) to be used for production of electrical power in the fuel cell. This paper addresses the first phase of an experimental catalyst screening study, looking at the relative effectiveness of several monolith catalyst types when operating with untreated Jet-A fuel. Six monolith catalyst materials were selected for preliminary evaluation and experimental bench-scale screening in a small 0.05 kWe micro-reactor test apparatus. These tests were conducted to assess relative catalyst performance under atmospheric pressure ATR conditions and processing Jet-A fuel at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 3.5, a value higher than anticipated to be run in an optimized system. The average reformer efficiencies for the six catalysts tested ranged from 75 to 83 percent at a constant gas-hourly space velocity of 12,000 hr 1. The corresponding hydrocarbon conversion efficiency varied from 86 to 95 percent during experiments run at reaction temperatures between 750 to 830 C. Based on the results of the short-duration 100 hr tests reported herein, two of the highest performing catalysts were selected for further evaluation in a follow-on 1000 hr life durability study in Phase II.

  19. FIBROUS MONOLITH WEAR RESISTANT COMPONENTS FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark J. Rigali

    2001-10-01

    Published mechanical and thermal properties data on a variety of materials was gathered, with focus on materials that have potential with respect to developing wear resistant and damage tolerant composite for mining industry applications. Preliminary core materials of interest include but are not limited to: Diamond, Tungsten Carbide and Cemented Tungsten Carbides, Carbides of Boron, Silicon, Titanium and Aluminum, Diboride of Titanium and Aluminum, Nitrides of Aluminum, Silicon, Titanium, and Boron, Aluminum Oxide, Tungsten, Titanium, Iron, Cobalt and Metal Alloys. Preliminary boundary materials of interest include but are not limited to: W metal, WC-Co, W-Co, WFeNi, and Mo metal and alloys. Several FM test coupons were fabricated with various compositions using the above listed materials. These coupons were consolidated to varying degrees by uniaxial hot pressing, then cut and ground to expose the FM cell structure. One promising system, WC-Co core and WFeNi boundary, was consolidated to 97% of theoretical density, and demonstrates excellent hardness. Data on standard mechanical tests was gathered, and tests will begin on the consolidated test coupons during the upcoming reporting period. The program statements of work for ACR Inc. and its subcontractors, as well as the final contract negotiations, were finalized during the current reporting period. The program start date was February 22nd, 2001. In addition to the current subcontractors, Kennametal Inc., a major manufacturer of cutting tools and wear resistant tooling for the mining industry, expressed considerable interest in ACR's Fibrous Monolith composites for both machine and mining applications. At the request of Kennametal, ARC Inc fabricated and delivered several Fibrous Monolith coupons and components for testing and evaluation in the mining and machine tool applications. Additional samples of Diamond/Tungsten Carbide-6%Cobalt Fibrous Monolith were fabricated and delivered for testing Kennametal

  20. Fabrication of stainless steel clad tubing. [gas pressure bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of producing stainless steel clad carbon steel tubing by a gas pressure bonding process was evaluated. Such a tube product could provide substantial chromium savings over monolithic stainless tubing in the event of a serious chromium shortage. The process consists of the initial assembly of three component tubesets from conventionally produced tubing, the formation of a strong metallurgical bond between the three components by gas pressure bonding, and conventional cold draw and anneal processing to final size. The quality of the tubes produced was excellent from the standpoint of bond strength, mechanical, and forming properties. The only significant quality problem encountered was carburization of the stainless clad by the carbon steel core which can be overcome by further refinement through at least three different approaches. The estimated cost of clad tubing produced by this process is greater than that for monolithic stainless tubing, but not so high as to make the process impractical as a chromium conservation method.

  1. Metallothionein (MT)-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Giralt, M; Molinero, A

    1999-01-01

    Metallothionein-III is a low molecular weight, heavy-metal binding protein expressed mainly in the central nervous system. First identified as a growth inhibitory factor (GIF) of rat cortical neurons in vitro, it has subsequently been shown to be a member of the metallothionein (MT) gene family...... and renamed as MT-III. In this study we have raised polyclonal antibodies in rabbits against recombinant rat MT-III (rMT-III). The sera obtained reacted specifically against recombinant zinc-and cadmium-saturated rMT-III, and did not cross-react with native rat MT-I and MT-II purified from the liver of zinc...... injected rats. The specificity of the antibody was also demonstrated in immunocytochemical studies by the elimination of the immunostaining by preincubation of the antibody with brain (but not liver) extracts, and by the results obtained in MT-III null mice. The antibody was used to characterize...

  2. Pt-based Bi-metallic Monolith Catalysts for Partial Upgrading of Microalgae Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawal, Adeniyi [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States); Manganaro, James [Anasyn LLC, Princeton, NJ (United States); Goodall, Brian [Valicor Renewables LLC, Dexter, MI (United States); Farrauto, Robert [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2015-03-24

    Valicor’s proprietary wet extraction process in conjunction with thermochemical pre-treatment was performed on algal biomass from two different algae strains, Nannochloropsis Salina (N.S.) and Chlorella to produce algae oils. Polar lipids such as phospholipids were hydrolyzed, and metals and metalloids, known catalyst poisons, were separated into the aqueous phase, creating an attractive “pre-refined” oil for hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) upgrading by Stevens. Oil content and oil extraction efficiency of approximately 30 and 90% respectively were achieved. At Stevens, we formulated a Pt-based bi-metallic catalyst which was demonstrated to be effective in the hydro-treating of the algae oils to produce ‘green’ diesel. The bi-metallic catalyst was wash-coated on a monolith, and in conjunction with a high throughput high pressure (pilot plant) reactor system, was used in hydrotreating algae oils from N.S. and Chlorella. Mixtures of these algae oils and refinery light atmospheric gas oil (LAGO) supplied by our petroleum refiner partner, Marathon Petroleum Corporation, were co-processed in the pilot plant reactor system using the Pt-based bi-metallic monolith catalyst. A 26 wt% N.S. algae oil/74 wt % LAGO mixture hydrotreated in the reactor system was subjected to the ASTM D975 Diesel Fuel Specification Test and it met all the important requirements, including a cetane index of 50.5. An elemental oxygen analysis performed by an independent and reputable lab reported an oxygen content of trace to none found. The successful co-processing of a mixture of algae oil and LAGO will enable integration of algae oil as a refinery feedstock which is one of the goals of DOE-BETO. We have presented experimental data that show that our precious metal-based catalysts consume less hydrogen than the conventional hydrotreating catalyst NiMo Precious metal catalysts favor the hydrodecarbonylation/hydrodecarboxylation route of HDO over the dehydration route preferred by base metal

  3. ADVANCED HOT GAS FILTER DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.S. Connolly; G.D. Forsythe

    1998-12-22

    Advanced, coal-based power plants will require durable and reliable hot gas filtration systems to remove particulate contaminants from the gas streams to protect downstream components such as turbine blades from erosion damage. It is expected that the filter elements in these systems will have to be made of ceramic materials to withstand goal service temperatures of 1600 F or higher. Recent demonstration projects and pilot plant tests have indicated that the current generation of ceramic hot gas filters (cross-flow and candle configurations) are failing prematurely. Two of the most promising materials that have been extensively evaluated are clay-bonded silicon carbide and alumina-mullite porous monoliths. These candidates, however, have been found to suffer progressive thermal shock fatigue damage, as a result of rapid cooling/heating cycles. Such temperature changes occur when the hot filters are back-pulsed with cooler gas to clean them, or in process upset conditions, where even larger gas temperature changes may occur quickly and unpredictably. In addition, the clay-bonded silicon carbide materials are susceptible to chemical attack of the glassy binder phase that holds the SiC particles together, resulting in softening, strength loss, creep, and eventual failure.

  4. Fragmentation of vertically stratified gaseous layers: monolithic or coalescence-driven collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnbier, František; Wünsch, Richard; Whitworth, Anthony P.; Palouš, Jan

    2016-12-01

    We investigate, using 3D hydrodynamic simulations, the fragmentation of pressure-confined, vertically stratified, self-gravitating gaseous layers. The confining pressure is either thermal pressure acting on both surfaces, or thermal pressure acting on one surface and ram-pressure on the other. In the linear regime of fragmentation, the dispersion relation we obtain agrees well with that derived by Elmegreen & Elmegreen (1978), and consequently deviates from the dispersion relations based on the thin shell approximation (Vishniac 1983) or pressure assisted gravitational instability (Wünsch et al. 2010). In the non-linear regime, the relative importance of the confining pressure to the self-gravity is a crucial parameter controlling the qualitative course of fragmentation. When confinement of the layer is dominated by external pressure, self-gravitating condensations are delivered by a two-stage process: first the layer fragments into gravitationally bound but stable clumps, and then these clumps coalesce until they assemble enough mass to collapse. In contrast, when external pressure makes a small contribution to confinement of the layer, the layer fragments monolithically into gravitationally unstable clumps and there is no coalescence. This dichotomy persists whether the external pressure is thermal or ram. We apply these results to fragments forming in a shell swept up by an expanding H II region, and find that, unless the swept up gas is quite hot or the surrounding medium has low density, the fragments have low-mass (⪉ 3 M_{_⊙}), and therefore they are unlikely to spawn stars that are sufficiently massive to promote sequential self-propagating star formation.

  5. Carbon-fiber composite molecular sieves for gas separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagtoyen, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kimber, G.; Fei, Y.Q. [Univ. of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The progress of research in the development of novel, rigid, monolithic adsorbent carbon fiber composites is described. Carbon fiber composites are produced at ORNL and activated at the CAER using steam or CO{sub 2} under different conditions, with the aims of producing a uniform degree of activation through the material, and of closely controlling pore structure and adsorptive properties The principal focus of the work to date has been to produce materials with narrow porosity for use in gas separations.

  6. A Differential Monolithically Integrated Inductive Linear Displacement Measurement Microsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Podhraški

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An inductive linear displacement measurement microsystem realized as a monolithic Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC is presented. The system comprises integrated microtransformers as sensing elements, and analog front-end electronics for signal processing and demodulation, both jointly fabricated in a conventional commercially available four-metal 350-nm CMOS process. The key novelty of the presented system is its full integration, straightforward fabrication, and ease of application, requiring no external light or magnetic field source. Such systems therefore have the possibility of substituting certain conventional position encoder types. The microtransformers are excited by an AC signal in MHz range. The displacement information is modulated into the AC signal by a metal grating scale placed over the microsystem, employing a differential measurement principle. Homodyne mixing is used for the demodulation of the scale displacement information, returned by the ASIC as a DC signal in two quadrature channels allowing the determination of linear position of the target scale. The microsystem design, simulations, and characterization are presented. Various system operating conditions such as frequency, phase, target scale material and distance have been experimentally evaluated. The best results have been achieved at 4 MHz, demonstrating a linear resolution of 20 µm with steel and copper scale, having respective sensitivities of 0.71 V/mm and 0.99 V/mm.

  7. Monolithic oxide-metal composite thermoelectric generators for energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funahashi, Shuichi; Nakamura, Takanori; Kageyama, Keisuke; Ieki, Hideharu

    2011-06-01

    Monolithic oxide-metal composite thermoelectric generators (TEGs) were fabricated using multilayer co-fired ceramic technology. These devices consisted of Ni0.9Mo0.1 and La0.035Sr0.965TiO3 as p- and n-type thermoelectric materials, and Y0.03Zr0.97O2 was used as an insulator, sandwiched between p- and n-type layers. To co-fire dissimilar materials, p-type layers contained 20 wt. % La0.035Sr0.965TiO3; thus, these were oxide-metal composite layers. The fabricated device had 50 pairs of p-i-n junctions of 5.9 mm × 7.0 mm × 2.6 mm. The calculated maximum value of the electric power output from the device was 450 mW/cm2 at ΔT = 360 K. Furthermore, this device generated 100 μW at ΔT = 10 K and operated a radio frequency (RF) transmitter circuit module assumed to be a sensor network system.

  8. A Differential Monolithically Integrated Inductive Linear Displacement Measurement Microsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhraški, Matija; Trontelj, Janez

    2016-03-17

    An inductive linear displacement measurement microsystem realized as a monolithic Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is presented. The system comprises integrated microtransformers as sensing elements, and analog front-end electronics for signal processing and demodulation, both jointly fabricated in a conventional commercially available four-metal 350-nm CMOS process. The key novelty of the presented system is its full integration, straightforward fabrication, and ease of application, requiring no external light or magnetic field source. Such systems therefore have the possibility of substituting certain conventional position encoder types. The microtransformers are excited by an AC signal in MHz range. The displacement information is modulated into the AC signal by a metal grating scale placed over the microsystem, employing a differential measurement principle. Homodyne mixing is used for the demodulation of the scale displacement information, returned by the ASIC as a DC signal in two quadrature channels allowing the determination of linear position of the target scale. The microsystem design, simulations, and characterization are presented. Various system operating conditions such as frequency, phase, target scale material and distance have been experimentally evaluated. The best results have been achieved at 4 MHz, demonstrating a linear resolution of 20 µm with steel and copper scale, having respective sensitivities of 0.71 V/mm and 0.99 V/mm.

  9. A Differential Monolithically Integrated Inductive Linear Displacement Measurement Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhraški, Matija; Trontelj, Janez

    2016-01-01

    An inductive linear displacement measurement microsystem realized as a monolithic Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is presented. The system comprises integrated microtransformers as sensing elements, and analog front-end electronics for signal processing and demodulation, both jointly fabricated in a conventional commercially available four-metal 350-nm CMOS process. The key novelty of the presented system is its full integration, straightforward fabrication, and ease of application, requiring no external light or magnetic field source. Such systems therefore have the possibility of substituting certain conventional position encoder types. The microtransformers are excited by an AC signal in MHz range. The displacement information is modulated into the AC signal by a metal grating scale placed over the microsystem, employing a differential measurement principle. Homodyne mixing is used for the demodulation of the scale displacement information, returned by the ASIC as a DC signal in two quadrature channels allowing the determination of linear position of the target scale. The microsystem design, simulations, and characterization are presented. Various system operating conditions such as frequency, phase, target scale material and distance have been experimentally evaluated. The best results have been achieved at 4 MHz, demonstrating a linear resolution of 20 µm with steel and copper scale, having respective sensitivities of 0.71 V/mm and 0.99 V/mm. PMID:26999146

  10. Synthesis of monolithic graphene – graphite integrated electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jang-Ung; Nam, SungWoo; Lee, Mi-Sun; Lieber, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Encoding electronic functionality into nanoscale elements during chemical synthesis has been extensively explored over the past decade as the key to developing integrated nanosystems1 with functions defined by synthesis2-6. Graphene7-12 has been recently explored as a two-dimensional nanoscale material, and has demonstrated simple device functions based on conventional top-down fabrication13-20. However, the synthetic approach to encoding electronic functionality and thus enabling an entire integrated graphene electronics in a chemical synthesis had not previously been demonstrated. Here we report an unconventional approach for the synthesis of monolithically-integrated electronic devices based on graphene and graphite. Spatial patterning of heterogeneous catalyst metals permits the selective growth of graphene and graphite, with controlled number of graphene layers. Graphene transistor arrays with graphitic electrodes and interconnects were formed from synthesis. These functional, all-carbon structures were transferrable onto a variety of substrates. The integrated transistor arrays were used to demonstrate real-time, multiplexed chemical sensing, and more significantly, multiple carbon layers of the graphene-graphite device components were vertically assembled to form a three-dimensional flexible structure which served as a top-gate transistor array. These results represent a substantial progress towards encoding electronic functionality via chemical synthesis and suggest future promise for one-step integration of graphene-graphite based electronics. PMID:22101813

  11. Synthesis of monolithic graphene-graphite integrated electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jang-Ung; Nam, SungWoo; Lee, Mi-Sun; Lieber, Charles M

    2011-11-20

    Encoding electronic functionality into nanoscale elements during chemical synthesis has been extensively explored over the past decade as the key to developing integrated nanosystems with functions defined by synthesis. Graphene has been recently explored as a two-dimensional nanoscale material, and has demonstrated simple device functions based on conventional top-down fabrication. However, the synthetic approach to encoding electronic functionality and thus enabling an entire integrated graphene electronics in a chemical synthesis had not previously been demonstrated. Here we report an unconventional approach for the synthesis of monolithically integrated electronic devices based on graphene and graphite. Spatial patterning of heterogeneous metal catalysts permits the selective growth of graphene and graphite, with a controlled number of graphene layers. Graphene transistor arrays with graphitic electrodes and interconnects were formed from the synthesis. These functional, all-carbon structures were transferable onto a variety of substrates. The integrated transistor arrays were used to demonstrate real-time, multiplexed chemical sensing and more significantly, multiple carbon layers of the graphene-graphite device components were vertically assembled to form a three-dimensional flexible structure which served as a top-gate transistor array. These results represent substantial progress towards encoding electronic functionality through chemical synthesis and suggest the future promise of one-step integration of graphene-graphite based electronics.

  12. Monolithic subwavelength high refractive-index-contrast grating VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebski, Marcin; Dems, Maciej; Lott, James A.; Czyszanowski, Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present optical design and simulation results of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) that incorporate monolithic subwavelength high refractive-index-contrast grating (MHCG) mirrors - a new variety of HCG mirror that is composed of high index material surrounded only on one side by low index material. We show the impact of an MHCG mirror on the performance of 980 nm VCSELs designed for high bit rate and energy-efficient optical data communications. In our design, all or part of the all-semiconductor top coupling distributed Bragg reflector mirror is replaced by an undoped gallium-arsenide MHCG. We show how the optical field intensity distribution of the VCSEL's fundamental mode is controlled by the combination of the number of residual distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror periods and the physical design of the topmost gallium-arsenide MHCG. Additionally, we numerically investigate the confinement factors of our VCSELs and show that this parameter for the MHCG DBR VCSELs may only be properly determined in two or three dimensions due to the periodic nature of the grating mirror.

  13. A symmetric positive definite formulation for monolithic fluid structure interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Robinson-Mosher, Avi

    2011-02-01

    In this paper we consider a strongly coupled (monolithic) fluid structure interaction framework for incompressible flow, as opposed to a loosely coupled (partitioned) method. This requires solving a single linear system that combines the unknown velocities of the structure with the unknown pressures of the fluid. In our previous work, we were able to obtain a symmetric formulation of this coupled system; however, it was also indefinite, making it more difficult to solve. In fact in practice there have been cases where we have been unable to invert the system. In this paper we take a novel approach that consists of factoring the damping matrix of deformable structures and show that this can be used to obtain a symmetric positive definite system, at least to the extent that the uncoupled systems were symmetric positive definite. We use a traditional MAC grid discretization of the fluid and a fully Lagrangian discretization of the structures for the sake of exposition, noting that our procedure can be generalized to other scenarios. For the special case of rigid bodies, where there are no internal damping forces, we exactly recover the system of Batty et al. (2007) [4]. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  14. Sausage Waves in Transversely Nonuniform Monolithic Coronal Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopin, I.; Nagorny, I.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate fast sausage waves in a monolithic coronal magnetic tube, modeled as a local density inhomogeneity with a continuous radial profile. This work is a natural extension of our previous results, obtained for a slab loop model for the case of cylindrical geometry. Using Kneser’s oscillating theorem, we provided the criteria for the existence of trapped and leaky wave regimes as a function of the profile features. For a number of density profiles there are only trapped modes for the entire range of longitudinal wave numbers. The phase speed of these modes tends toward the external Alfvén speed in the long wavelength limit. The generalized results were supported by the analytic solution of the wave equation for the specific density profiles. The approximate Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin solutions allowed us to obtain the desired dispersion relations and to study their properties as a function of the profile parameters. The multicomponent quasi-periodic pulsations in flaring loops, observed on 2001 May 2 and 2002 July 3, are interpreted in terms of the transversely fundamental trapped fast sausage mode with several longitudinal harmonics in a smooth coronal waveguide.

  15. Gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ok Ryong

    2004-01-15

    This book introduces gas turbine cycle explaining general thing of gas turbine, full gas turbine cycle, Ericson cycle and Brayton cycle, practical gas turbine cycle without pressure loss, multiaxial type gas turbine cycle and special gas turbine cycle, application of basic theory on a study on suction-cooling gas turbine cycle with turbo-refrigerating machine using the bleed air, and general performance characteristics of the suction-cooling gas turbine cycle combined with absorption-type refrigerating machine.

  16. Monolithic stationary phases with incorporated fumed silica nanoparticles. Part I. Polymethacrylate-based monolithic column with incorporated bare fumed silica nanoparticles for hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğan, Cemil; El Rassi, Ziad

    2016-05-01

    Fumed silica nanoparticles (FSNPs), were incorporated for the first time into a polymethacrylate monolithic column containing glyceryl monomethacrylate (GMM) and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) in order to develop a new monolithic column for hydrophilic interaction high performance liquid chromatography (HILIC). When compared to poly(GMM-EDMA) monolithic column without FSNPs, the same monolithic column with incorporated FSNPs yielded important effects on HILIC separations. The effects of monomers and FSNPs content of the polymerization mixture on the performance of the monolithic column were examined in details, and the optimized stationary phase was investigated over a wide range of mobile phase composition with polar acidic, weakly basic and neutral analytes including hydroxy benzoic acids, nucleotides, nucleosides, dimethylformamide, formamide and thiourea. The retention of these analytes was mainly controlled by hydrophilic interactions with the FSNPs and electrostatic repulsion from the negatively charged silica surface in the case of hydroxy benzoic acids and nucleotides. The electrostatic repulsion was minimized by decreasing the pH of the aqueous component of the mobile phase, which in turn enhanced the retention of acidic solutes. Nucleotides were best separated using step gradient elution at decreasing pH as well as ACN concentration in the mobile phase. Improved peak shape and faster analysis of nucleosides were attained by a fast linear gradient elution with a shallow decrease in the ACN content of the ACN-rich mobile phase. The run-to-run and column-to-column reproducibility were satisfactory. The percent relative standard deviations (%RSDs) for the retention times of tested solutes were lower than 2.5% under isocratic conditions and lower than 3.5 under gradient conditions.

  17. Monolithic stationary phases with incorporated fumed silica nanoparticles. Part II. Polymethacrylate-based monolithic column with "covalently" incorporated modified octadecyl fumed silica nanoparticles for reversed-phase chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğan, Cemil; El Rassi, Ziad

    2016-05-01

    This study is concerned with the incorporation of surface modified fumed silica nanoparticles (FSNPs) into polymethacrylate based monolithic columns for use in reversed phase chromatography (RPC) of small solutes and proteins. First, FSNPs were modified with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propylmethacrylate (TMSPM) to yield the "hybrid" methacryloyl fumed silica nanoparticle (MFSNP) monomer. The resulting MFSNP was then mixed with glyceryl monomethacrylate (GMM) and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) in a binary porogenic solvent composed of cyclohexanol and dodecanol, and the in situ copolymerization of MFSNP, GMM and EDMA was performed in a stainless steel column of 4.6 mm i.d. The silanol groups of the hybrid monolith thus obtained were grafted with octadecyl ligands by perfusing the hybrid monolithic column with a solution of 4% w/v of dimethyloctadecylchlorosilane (DODCS) in toluene while the column was maintained at 110°C for 6h (in a heated HPLC oven). One of the originalities of this study was to demonstrate MFSNP as a novel derivatized "hybrid monomer" in making RPC monolithic columns with surface bound octadecyl ligands. In this respect, the RPC behavior of the monolithic column with "covalently" incorporated FNSPs having surface grafted octadecyl ligands was evaluated with alkylbenzenes, aniline derivatives and phenolic compounds. The results showed that the hybrid poly(GMA-EDMA-MFSNP) having surface bound octadecyl ligands exhibited hydrophobic interactions under reversed phase elution conditions. Furthermore, six standard proteins were baseline separated on the column using a 10min linear gradient elution at increasing ACN concentration in the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min using a 10 cm×4.6mm i.d. column. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for the retention times of the tested solutes were lower than 2.1% and 2.4% under isocratic elution and gradient elution conditions, respectively.

  18. Catalytic hot gas cleaning of gasification gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simell, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this work was to study the catalytic cleaning of gasification gas from tars and ammonia. In addition, factors influencing catalytic activity in industrial applications were studied, as well as the effects of different operation conditions and limits. Also the catalytic reactions of tar and ammonia with gasification gas components were studied. The activities of different catalyst materials were measured with laboratory-scale reactors fed by slip streams taken from updraft and fluid bed gasifiers. Carbonate rocks and nickel catalysts proved to be active tar decomposing catalysts. Ammonia decomposition was in turn facilitated by nickel catalysts and iron materials like iron sinter and iron dolomite. Temperatures over 850 deg C were required at 2000{sup -1} space velocity at ambient pressure to achieve almost complete conversions. During catalytic reactions H{sub 2} and CO were formed and H{sub 2}O was consumed in addition to decomposing hydrocarbons and ammonia. Equilibrium gas composition was almost achieved with nickel catalysts at 900 deg C. No deactivation by H{sub 2}S or carbon took place in these conditions. Catalyst blocking by particulates was avoided by using a monolith type of catalyst. The apparent first order kinetic parameters were determined for the most active materials. The activities of dolomite, nickel catalyst and reference materials were measured in different gas atmospheres using laboratory apparatus. This consisted of nitrogen carrier, toluene as tar model compound, ammonia and one of the components H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O or CO+CO{sub 2}. Also synthetic gasification gas was used. With the dolomite and nickel catalyst the highest toluene decomposition rates were measured with CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In gasification gas, however, the rate was retarded due to inhibition by reaction products (CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}). Tar decomposition over dolomite was modelled by benzene reactions with CO{sub 2}, H

  19. Influence of the preparation design and artificial aging on the fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassova-Yoshida, Yana; Nothdurft, Frank Phillip; von See, Constantin; Pospiech, Peter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance and fracture behavior of monolithic zirconia crowns in accordance with the preparation design and aging simulation method. MATERIALS AND METHODS An upper first molar was prepared sequentially with three different preparation designs: shoulderless preparation, 0.4 mm chamfer and 0.8 mm chamfer preparation. For each preparation design, 30 monolithic zirconia crowns were fabricated. After cementation on Cr-Co alloy dies, the following artificial aging procedures were performed: (1) thermal cycling and mechanical loading (TCML): 5000 cycles of thermal cycling 5℃–55℃ and chewing simulation (1,200,000 cycles, 50 N); (2) Low Temperature Degradation simulation (LTD): autoclave treatment at 137℃, 2 bar for 3 hours and chewing simulation; and (3) no pre-treatment (control group). After artificial aging, the crowns were loaded until fracture. RESULTS The mean values of fracture resistance varied between 3414 N (LTD; 0.8 mm chamfer preparation) and 5712 N (control group; shoulderless preparation). Two-way ANOVA analysis showed a significantly higher fracture loads for the shoulderless preparation, whereas no difference was found between the chamfer preparations. In contrast to TCML, after LTD simulation the fracture strength of monolithic zirconia crowns decreased significantly. CONCLUSION The monolithic crowns tested in this study showed generally high fracture load values. Preparation design and LTD simulation had a significant influence on the fracture strength of monolithic zirconia crowns. PMID:26949485

  20. Surface characteristics and antibacterial activity of a silver-doped carbon monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Vukčević et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A carbon monolith with a silver coating was prepared and its antimicrobial behaviour in a flow system was examined. The functional groups on the surface of the carbon monolith were determined by temperature-programmed desorption and Boehm's method, and the point of zero charge was determined by mass titration. The specific surface area was examined by N2 adsorption using the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET method. As a test for the surface activity, the deposition of silver from an aqueous solution of a silver salt was used. The morphology and structure of the silver coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The resistance to the attrition of the silver deposited on the carbon monolith was tested. The antimicrobial activity of the carbon monolith with a silver coating was determined using standard microbiological methods. Carbon monolith samples with a silver coating showed good antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, and are therefore suitable for water purification, particularly as personal disposable water filters with a limited capacity.

  1. Solvers for large-displacement fluid structure interaction problems: segregated versus monolithic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Matthias; Hazel, Andrew L.; Boyle, Jonathan

    2008-12-01

    We compare the relative performance of monolithic and segregated (partitioned) solvers for large- displacement fluid structure interaction (FSI) problems within the framework of oomph-lib, the object-oriented multi-physics finite-element library, available as open-source software at http://www.oomph-lib.org . Monolithic solvers are widely acknowledged to be more robust than their segregated counterparts, but are believed to be too expensive for use in large-scale problems. We demonstrate that monolithic solvers are competitive even for problems in which the fluid solid coupling is weak and, hence, the segregated solvers converge within a moderate number of iterations. The efficient monolithic solution of large-scale FSI problems requires the development of preconditioners for the iterative solution of the linear systems that arise during the solution of the monolithically coupled fluid and solid equations by Newton’s method. We demonstrate that recent improvements to oomph-lib’s FSI preconditioner result in mesh-independent convergence rates under uniform and non-uniform (adaptive) mesh refinement, and explore its performance in a number of two- and three-dimensional test problems involving the interaction of finite-Reynolds-number flows with shell and beam structures, as well as finite-thickness solids.

  2. Monolithic precolumns as efficient tools for guiding the design of nanoparticulate drug-delivery formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatschelhofer, Christina; Prasch, Agnes; Buchmeiser, Michael R; Zimmer, Andreas; Wernig, Karin; Griesbacher, Martin; Pieber, Thomas R; Sinner, Frank M

    2012-09-01

    The development of nanomedicines for improved diagnosis and treatment of diseases is pushing current analytical methods to their limits. More efficient, quantitative high-throughput screening methods are needed to guide the optimization of promising nanoparticulate drug delivery formulations. In response to this need, we present herein a novel approach using monolithic separation media. The unique porosity of our capillary monolithic precolumns allows the direct injection and online removal of protamine-oligonucleotide nanoparticles ("proticles") without column clogging, thus avoiding the need for time-consuming off-line sample workup. Furthermore, ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP)-derived monoliths show equivalent preconcentration efficiency for the target drug vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) as conventional particle-packed precolumns. The performance of the ROMP-derived monolithic precolumns was constant over at least 100 injections of crude proticle-containing and 300 injections of highly acidic samples. Applying a validated LC-MS/MS capillary monolithic column switching method, we demonstrate the rapid determination of both drug load and in vitro drug release kinetics of proticles within the critical first 2 h and investigate the stability of VIP-loaded proticles in aqueous storage medium intended for inhalation therapy.

  3. Comparison of Membrane Chromatography and Monolith Chromatography for Lactoferrin and Bovine Serum Albumin Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalore Teepakorn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available These last few decades, membranes and monoliths have been increasingly used as stationary phases for chromatography. Their fast mass transfer is mainly based on convection, which leads to reduced diffusion, which is usually observed in resins. Nevertheless, poor flow distribution, which causes inefficient binding, remains a major challenge for the development of both membrane and monolith devices. Moreover, the comparison of membranes and monoliths for biomolecule separation has been very poorly investigated. In this paper, the separation of two proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA and lactoferrin (LF, with similar sizes, but different isoelectric points, was investigated at a pH of 6.0 with a BSA-LF concentration ratio of 2/1 (2.00 mg·mL−1 BSA and 1.00 mg·mL−1 LF solution using strong cation exchange membranes and monoliths packed in the same housing, as well as commercialized devices. The feeding flow rate was operated at 12.0 bed volume (BV/min for all devices. Afterward, bound LF was eluted using a phosphate-buffered saline solution with 2.00 M NaCl. Using membranes in a CIM housing from BIA Separations (Slovenia with porous frits before and after the membrane bed, higher binding capacities, sharper breakthrough curves, as well as sharper and more symmetric elution peaks were obtained. The monolith and commercialized membrane devices showed lower LF binding capacity and broadened and non-symmetric elution peaks.

  4. A monolithic lipase reactor for biodiesel production by transesterification of triacylglycerides into fatty acid methyl esters

    KAUST Repository

    Urban, Jiří T.

    2011-09-26

    An enzymatic reactor with lipase immobilized on a monolithic polymer support has been prepared and used to catalyze the transesterification of triacylglycerides into the fatty acid methyl esters commonly used for biodiesel. A design of experiments procedure was used to optimize the monolithic reactor with variables including control of the surface polarity of the monolith via variations in the length of the hydrocarbon chain in alkyl methacrylate monomer, time of grafting of 1-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone used to activate the monolith, and time used for the immobilization of porcine lipase. Optimal conditions involved the use of a poly(stearyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith, grafted first with vinylazlactone, then treated with lipase for 2h to carry out the immobilization of the enzyme. Best conditions for the transesterification of glyceryl tributyrate included a temperature of 37°C and a 10min residence time of the substrate in the bioreactor. The reactor did not lose its activity even after pumping through it a solution of substrate equaling 1,000 reactor volumes. This enzymatic reactor was also used for the transesterification of triacylglycerides from soybean oil to fatty acid methyl esters thus demonstrating the ability of the reactor to produce biodiesel. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. High pressure-resistant SU-8 microchannels for monolithic porous structure integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Julien; Chuda, Katarzyna; Arscott, Steve; Thomy, Vincent; Verbeke, Bernard; Coqueret, Xavier; Camart, Jean Christophe; Druon, Christian; Tabourier, Pierre

    2006-10-01

    Integrated lab-on-chip (LOC) microsystems dedicated to proteomic analysis require specific pretreatment steps such as protein trypsic digestion, concentration, desalting or separation of biological samples. These steps can be achieved thanks to porous monolithic polymers. This paper deals with the integration of such a polymer into SU-8 microchannels by using a multi-material technology (SU-8, Pyrex and silicon). A solution for the fabrication of complete polymer microchannels which are high pressure- and solvents-resistant is proposed. This technique uses the negative photoresist SU-8 which is compatible with the protein analysis performed here. Our process requires a novel technological step using a silane coupling agent. This modification of the SU-8/Pyrex interface leads to the fabrication of a 100 µm × 160 µm section microchannel (length of 3 cm), closed with a Pyrex® lid by SU-8 bonding resistant to 80 bar. An improvement of the SU-8/monolithic structure is also demonstrated thanks to a specific treatment of the polymer enabling good anchoring of the monolith in the microchannels, and the pressure-resistance tests were also achieved with the monolithic structure integrated in the microchannels. A digestion step of a protein sample of benzoylarginine ethyl ester in a SU-8 microchannel was achieved after the functionalization of a monolith anchored in the microchannel. Analysis by UV/VIS spectroscopy of this in situ digestion has been reported.

  6. β-Cyclodextrin functionalized polystyrene porous monoliths for separating phenol from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiaxi; Xie, Kaijun; Du, Zhongjie; Zou, Wei; Zhang, Chen

    2015-04-20

    A β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) functionalized polystyrene porous monolith was prepared by the following procedure: First, β-CD was modified with allyl bromide leading to allyl-β-cyclodextrin (allyl-β-CD); then a concentrated emulsion was prepared using a mixture of allyl-β-CD, styrene, and divinyl benzene as the continuous phase and water as the dispersed phase. In the third step, a β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) functionalized polystyrene porous monolith was obtained by copolymerization of allyl-β-CD and styrene followed by removal of the water phase. Since the allyl-β-CD contained both hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, it tended to move towards the water/oil interface. As a result, the internal surfaces of the porous monolith were enriched with β-CD. This enrichment was indicated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization. The high content of β-CD and the high specific surface area of the porous monolith both contributed to a high adsorption capacity. For example, the maximum adsorption of phenol was 5.74 mg/g. Importantly, the porous monolith could be easily regenerated and recycled through desorption with ethanol and it was found that the adsorption properties remained stable for at least five adsorption/desorption cycles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Facile synthesis of gradient mesoporous carbon monolith based on polymerization-induced phase separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shunjian; Luo, Yufeng; Zhong, Wei; Xiao, Zonghu; Luo, Yongping; Ou, Hui; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a gradient mesoporous carbon (GMC) monolith derived from the mixtures of phenolic resin (PF) and ethylene glycol (EG) was prepared by a facile route based on polymerization-induced phase separation under temperature gradient (TG). A graded biphasic structure of PF-rich and EG-rich phases was first formed in preform under a TG, and then the preform was pyrolyzed to obtain the GMC monolith. The TG is mainly induced by the thermal resistance of the preferential phase separation layer at high temperature region. The pore structure of the monolith changes gradually along the TG direction. When the TG varies from 58°C to 29°C, the pore size, apparent porosity and specific surface area of the monolith range respectively from 18 nm to 83 nm, from 32% to 39% and from 140.5 m2/g to 515.3 m2/g. The gradient porous structure of the monolith is inherited from that of the preform, which depends on phase separation under TG in the resin mixtures. The pyrolysis mainly brings about the contraction of the pore size and wall thickness as well as the transformation of polymerized PF into glassy carbon.

  8. A monolithic lipase reactor for biodiesel production by transesterification of triacylglycerides into fatty acid methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Jiri; Svec, Frantisek; Fréchet, Jean M J

    2012-02-01

    An enzymatic reactor with lipase immobilized on a monolithic polymer support has been prepared and used to catalyze the transesterification of triacylglycerides into the fatty acid methyl esters commonly used for biodiesel. A design of experiments procedure was used to optimize the monolithic reactor with variables including control of the surface polarity of the monolith via variations in the length of the hydrocarbon chain in alkyl methacrylate monomer, time of grafting of 1-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone used to activate the monolith, and time used for the immobilization of porcine lipase. Optimal conditions involved the use of a poly(stearyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith, grafted first with vinylazlactone, then treated with lipase for 2 h to carry out the immobilization of the enzyme. Best conditions for the transesterification of glyceryl tributyrate included a temperature of 37°C and a 10 min residence time of the substrate in the bioreactor. The reactor did not lose its activity even after pumping through it a solution of substrate equaling 1,000 reactor volumes. This enzymatic reactor was also used for the transesterification of triacylglycerides from soybean oil to fatty acid methyl esters thus demonstrating the ability of the reactor to produce biodiesel.

  9. Development of an epoxy-based monolith used for the affinity capturing of Escherichia coli bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskoller, Caroline; Niessner, Reinhard; Seidel, Michael

    2009-05-01

    An epoxy-based monolith has been developed for use as hydrophilic support in bioseparation. This monolith is produced by self-polymerization of polyglycerol-3-glycidyl ether in organic solvents as porogens at room temperature within 1 h. One receives a highly cross-linked structure that provides useful mechanical properties. The porosity and pore diameter can be controlled by varying the composition of the porogen. In this work, an epoxy-based monolith with a high porosity (79%) and large pore size (22 microm) is prepared and used in affinity capturing of bacterial cells. These features allow the passage of bacterial cells through the column. As affinity ligand polymyxin B is used, which allows the binding of gram-negative bacteria. The efficiency of the monolithic affinity column is studied with Escherichia coli spiked in water. Bacterial cells are concentrated on the column at pH 4 and eluted with a recovery of 97+/-3% in 200 microL by changing the pH value without impairing viability of bacteria. The dynamic capacity for the monolithic column is nearly independent of the flow rate (4x10(9)cells/column). Thereby, it is possible to separate and enrich gram-negative bacterial cells, such as E. coli, with high flow rates (10 mL/min) and low back pressure (<1 bar) in a volume as low as 200 microL compatible for real-time polymerase chain reaction, microarray formats, and biosensors.

  10. Extraction of genomic DNA using a new amino silica monolithic column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijia; Yu, Shengbing; Yang, Shuixian; Zhou, Ping; Hu, Jiming; Zhang, Yibing

    2009-08-01

    A new amino silica monolithic column was developed for DNA extraction in a miniaturized format. The monolithic column was prepared in situ by polymerization of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and N-(beta-aminoethyl)-gamma-aminopropylmethyldimethoxysilane (AEAPMDMS). DNA was loaded in 50 mM tris(hydroxylmethyl)aminomethane-EDTA buffer at pH 7.0 and eluted with 300 mM potassium phosphate solution at pH 10.0. Under optimal condition, a 6.0-cm monolithic column provided a capacity of 56 ng DNA with an extraction efficiency of 71 +/- 5.2% (X +/- RSD). When the amino silica monolithic column was applied to extract genomic DNA from the whole blood of crucian carp, an extraction efficiency of 52 +/- 5.6% (X +/- RSD) was obtained by three extractions. Since the chaotropic-based sample loading and organic solvent wash steps were avoided in this procedure, the purified DNA was suitable for downstream processes such as PCR. This amino silica monolithic column was demonstrated to allow rapid and efficient DNA purification in microscale.

  11. Recent Advances and Uses of Monolithic Columns for the Analysis of Residues and Contaminants in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Díaz-Bao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic columns are gaining interest as excellent substitutes to conventional particle-packed columns. These columns show higher permeability and lower flow resistance than conventional liquid chromatography columns, providing high-throughput performance, resolution and separation in short run times. Monoliths possess also great potential for the clean-up and preparation of complex mixtures. In situ polymerization inside appropriate supports allows the development of several microextraction formats, such as in-tube solid-phase and pipette tip-based extractions. These techniques using porous monoliths offer several advantages, including miniaturization and on-line coupling with analytical instruments. Additionally, monoliths are ideal support media for imprinting template-specific sites, resulting in the so-called molecularly-imprinted monoliths, with ultra-high selectivity. In this review, time-saving LC columns and preparative applications applied to the analysis of residues and contaminants in food in 2010–2014 are described, focusing on recent improvements in design and with emphasis in automated on-line systems and innovative materials and formats.

  12. Comparison of various silica-based monoliths for the analysis of large biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuignier, Karine; Fekete, Szabolcs; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, three types of silica-based monoliths, i.e. the first and second generations of commercial silica monolithic columns and a wide-pore prototype monolith were compared for the analysis of large biomolecules. These molecules possess molecular weights between 1 and 66 kDa. The gradient kinetic performance of the first-generation monolith was lower than that of the second generation, for large biomolecules (>14 kDa) but very close with smaller ones (1.3-5.8 kDa). In contrast, the wide-pore prototype column was particularly attractive with proteins larger than 19 kDa (higher peak capacity). Among these three columns, the selectivity and retention remained quite similar but a possible larger number of accessible and charged residual silanols was noticed on the wide-pore prototype material, which led to unpredicted small changes in selectivity and slightly broader peaks than expected. The peak shapes attained with the addition of 0.1% formic acid in the mobile phase remained acceptable for MS coupling, particularly for biomolecules of less than 6 kDa. It was found that one of the major issues with all of these silica-based monoliths is the possible poor recovery of large biomolecules (principally with monoclonal antibody fragments of more than 25 kDa).

  13. Fabrication of Porous Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate Monoliths via Thermally Induced Phase Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Tsujimoto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the fabrication of biodegradable porous materials from bacterial polyester, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate (P3HB3HHx, via thermally induced phase separation. P3HB3HHx monoliths with topological porous structure were prepared by dissolution of P3HB3HHx in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO at 85 °C and subsequent quenching. The microstructure of the resulting P3HB3HHx monoliths was changed by the P3HB3HHx concentration of the polymer solution. Differential scanning calorimetry and polarized optical microscope analysis revealed that the P3HB3HHx monoliths crystallized during phase separation and the subsequent aging. The mechanical properties, such as compression modulus and stress, of the monoliths depended on the 3-hydroxyhexanoate content of P3HB3HHx. Furthermore, the P3HB3HHx monolith absorbed linseed oil in preference to water in a plant oil–water mixture. In combination with the biodegradable character of P3HB3HHx, the present study is expected to contribute to the development of bio-based materials.

  14. One-pot preparation of a novel monolith for high performance liquid chromatography applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xiaoyan; Shen, Shigang; Shi, Tiesheng

    2015-12-15

    Various novel porous organic-based monoliths with the mode of hydrophobicity were synthesized by in situ free-radical crosslinking copolymerization and optimized for the separations of small molecules and high-performance reversed-phase chromatography (RP-chromatography). These monoliths contained co-polymers based on glycidyl methacrylate (GMA)/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA)/tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA) or EDMA/TPGDA. A mixture of cetanol, methanol and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) was used as the porogen, with the ratio of these solvents being varied along with the polymerization temperature to generate a library of monoliths. The conditions were optimized and the resulting poly (GMA-co-TPGDA-co-EDMA) monolith was investigated by infrared spectrometer (IR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), respectively. The column performance was assessed by the separation of a series of neutral solutes of benzene derivatives. The result demonstrated that the prepared monolith exhibited an RP-chromatographic behavior and relatively homogeneous structure, good permeability and separation performance. Moreover, the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the retention factor values for benzene derivatives were less than 1.5% (n=7, column-to-column). The approach used in this study was extended to the separation of anilines.

  15. Effect of endodontic access cavity preparation on monolithic and ceramic veneered zirconia restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobecker-Karl, Tanja; Christian, Mirko; Karl, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Due to the high chipping rates observed in veneered zirconia ceramic restorations, the use of monolithic zirconia restorations has been recommended. This study tried to compare veneered and monolithic zirconia fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with respect to the amount of damage induced by endodontic access preparation. Monolithic and ceramic veneered (n = 10) three-unit restorations (retainers: first premolar and first molar; pontic: second premolar) were subject to endodontic access cavity preparation in both retainers using a diamond rotary instrument under continuous water cooling. The number of chipping fractures and microfractures detected using the fluorescent penetrant method were recorded. Statistical analysis was based on Wilcoxon rank sum tests with Bonferroni correction (level of significance α = .05). Only one microfracture could be identified in the group of monolithic FDPs while a maximum of seven microfractures and three chipping fractures per retainer crown were recorded in the group of veneered restorations. At the premolar site, the veneered restorations showed significantly more microfractures (P = .0055) and chipping fractures (P = .0008). At the molar site, no significant difference with respect to microfractures could be detected (P = .0767), while significantly more chipping fractures occurred in the veneered samples (P = .0293). Monolithic zirconia restorations seem to be less susceptible to damage when endodontic access cavities have to be prepared as compared to veneered zirconia reconstructions. However, no conclusions can be drawn on the long-term performance of a specific restoration based on this study.

  16. Methacrylate-bonded covalent-organic framework monolithic columns for high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Hua; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2017-01-06

    Covalent-organic frameworks (COFs) are a newfangled class of intriguing microporous materials. Considering their unique properties, COFs should be promising as packing materials for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). However, the irregular shape and sub-micrometer size of COFs synthesized via the traditional methods render the main obstacles for the application of COFs in HPLC. Herein, we report the preparation of methacrylate-bonded COF monolithic columns for HPLC to overcome the above obstacles. The prepared COF bonded monolithic columns not only show good homogeneity and permeability, but also give high column efficiency, good resolution and precision for HPLC separation of small molecules including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, anilines, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and benzothiophenes. Compared with the bare polymer monolithic column, the COF bonded monolithic columns show enhanced hydrophobic, π-π and hydrogen bond interactions in reverse phase HPLC. The results reveal the great potential of COF bonded monoliths for HPLC and COFs in separation sciences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of polymer monoliths containing embedded nanoparticles by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrua, R Dario; Hitchcock, Adam P; Hon, Wei Boon; West, Marcia; Hilder, Emily F

    2014-03-18

    The structural and chemical homogeneity of monolithic columns is a key parameter for high efficiency stationary phases in liquid chromatography. Improved characterization techniques are needed to better understand the polymer morphology and its optimization. Here the analysis of polymer monoliths by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) is presented for the first time. Poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate) [poly(BuMA-co-EDMA)] monoliths containing encapsulated divinylbenzene (DVB) nanoparticles were characterized by STXM, which gives a comprehensive, quantitative chemical analysis of the monolith at a spatial resolution of 30 nm. The results are compared with other methods commonly used for the characterization of polymer monoliths [scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), mercury porosimetry, and nitrogen adsorption]. The technique permitted chemical identification and mapping of the nanoparticles within the polymeric scaffold. Residual surfactant, which was used during the manufacture of the nanoparticles, was also detected. We show that STXM can give more in-depth chemical information for these types of materials and therefore lead to a better understanding of the link between polymer morphology and chromatographic performance.

  18. Development of large-area monolithically integrated silicon-film{trademark} photovoltaic modules. Final subcontract report, May 1, 1991--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.B.; Rand, J.A.; Cotter, J.E. [AstroPower, Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this program is to develop Silicon Film{trademark} Product III into a low-cost, stable solar cell for large-scale terrestrial power applications. The Product III structure is a thin (<100 {mu}m) polycrystalline layer of silicon on a durable, insulating, ceramic substrate. The insulating substrate allows the silicon layer to be isolated and metallized to form a monolithically interconnected array of solar cells. High efficiency is achieved by the use of light trapping and passivated surfaces. This project focused on the development of five key technologies associated with the monolithic sub-module device structure: (1) development of the film deposition and growth processes; (2) development of the low-cost ceramic substrate; (3) development of a metallurgical barrier technology; (4) development of sub-element solar cell processing techniques; and (5) development of sub-module (isolation and interconnection) processes. This report covers the development approaches and results relating to these technologies. Significant progress has been made in the development of all of the related technologies. This is evidenced by the fabrication of a working 12.0 cm{sup 2} prototype sub-module consisting of 7 elements and testing with an open circuit voltage of 3.9 volts, a short circuit current of 35.2 mA and a fill factor of 63% and an overall efficiency of 7.3%. Another significant result achieved is a 13.4% (NREL verified), 1.0 cm{sup 2} solar cell fabricated from material deposited and grown on a graphite cloth substrate. The significant technological hurdle of the program was and remains the low quality of the photovoltaic layer which is caused by contamination of the photovoltaic layer from the low-cost ceramic substrate by trace impurities found in the substrate precursor materials. The ceramic substrate and metallurgical barrier are being developed specifically to solve this problem.

  19. Optical study of the ultrasonic formation process of noble metal nanoparticles dispersed inside the pores of monolithic mesoporous silica

    CERN Document Server

    Fu Gan Hua; Kan Cai Xia; Li Cun Cheng; Fang Qi

    2003-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles dispersed inside the pores of monolithic mesoporous silica were prepared by soaking the silica in a gold (III) ion solution and subsequent ultrasound irradiation. The formation process of gold nanoparticles in the pores of mesoporous silica was investigated based on optical measurements of wrapped and naked soaked silica after ultrasonic irradiation, and the reduction rate effect in solution and pre-soaking effect. It has been shown that acoustic cavitation cannot occur in nano-sized pores. The gold nanoparticles in silica are not formed in situ within the pores but produced mainly by diffusion of the gold clusters formed in the solution during irradiation into the pores. The radicals formed in solution are exhausted before entering the pores of silica. There exists a critical reduction rate in solution, at which the yield of gold nanoparticles in silica reaches a maximum, and above which there is a decrease in the yield. This is attributed to too quick a growth or aggregation of gold clust...

  20. Autothermal reforming of biogas over a monolithic catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadao Araki; Naoe Hino; Takuma Mori; Susumu Hikazudani

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on measurement of the autothermal reforming of biogas over a Ni based monolithic catalyst.The effects of the steam/CH4 (S/C) ratio,O2/CH4 (O2/C) ratio and temperature were investigated.The CH4 conversions were higher under all examined temperatures than the equilibrium conversion calculated using the blank outlet temperature,because the catalyst layer was heated by the exothermic catalytic partial oxidation reaction.The CH4 conversion increased with increasing O2/C ratio.Moreover,the CH4 conversion was higher than the equilibrium conversion calculated using the blank outlet temperature for O2/C>0.42 and reached about 100% at O2/C=0.55.However,the hydrogen concentration decreased for O2/C>0.45 because hydrogen was combusted to steam in the presence of excess oxygen.On the other hand,the hydrogen and CO2 concentrations increased and the CO concentration decreased with increasing S/C ratio.As a result,it was found that the highest hydrogen concentrations and CH4 conversions were attained at the O2/C ratios of 0.45-0.55 and the S/C ratios of 1.5-2.5.Moreover,the H2/CO ratio could also be controlled in the range from about 2 to 3.5 to give at least 90% CH4 conversion,by regulating the O2/C or S/C ratios.

  1. Groundwater recharge measurements in gravel sandy sediments with monolith lysimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracic Zeleznik, Branka; Souvent, Petra; Cencur Curk, Barbara; Zupanc, Vesna

    2013-04-01

    Ljubljana field aquifer is recharging through precipitation and the river Sava, which has the snow-rain flow regime. The sediments of the aquifer have high permeability and create fast flow as well as high regeneration of the dynamic reserves of the Ljubljana field groundwater resource. Groundwater recharge is vulnerable to climate change and it is very important for drinking water supply management. Water stored in the soil and less permeable layers is important for water availability under extreme weather conditions. Measurements of water percolation through the vadose zone provide important input for groundwater recharge assessment and estimation of contaminant migration from land surface to the groundwater. Knowledge of the processes governing groundwater recharge in the vadose zone is critical to understanding the overall hydrological cycle and quantifying the links between land uses and groundwater quantity and quality. To improve the knowledge on water balance for Ljubljana field aquifer we establish a lysimeter for measurements of processes in unsaturated zone in well field Kleče. The type of lysimeter is a scientific lysimeter designed to solve the water balance equation by measuring the mass of the lysimeter monolith as well as that of outflow tank with high accuracy and high temporal resolution. We evaluated short period data, however the chosen month demonstrates weather extremes of the local climate - relatively dry periods, followed by high precipitation amount. In time of high water usage of vegetation only subsequent substantial precipitation events directly results in water flow towards lower layers. At the same time, gravely layers of the deeper parts of the unsaturated zone have little or no capacity for water retention, and in the event that water line leaves top soil, water flow moves downwards fairly quickly. On one hand this confirms high recharge capacity of Ljubljana field aquifer from precipitation on green areas; on the other hand it

  2. Physical properties of monolithic U8 wt.%-Mo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstler, R. M.; Beck, L.; Breitkreutz, H.; Jarousse, C.; Jungwirth, R.; Petry, W.; Schmid, W.; Schneider, J.; Wieschalla, N.

    2010-07-01

    As a possible high density fuel for research reactors, monolithic U8 wt.%-Mo ("U8Mo") was examined with regard to its structural, thermal and electric properties. X-ray diffraction by the Bragg-Brentano method was used to reveal the tetragonal lattice structure of rolled U8Mo. The specific heat capacity of cast U8Mo was determined by differential scanning calorimetry, its thermal diffusivity was measured by the laser flash method and its mass density by Archimedes' principle. From these results, the thermal conductivity of U8Mo in the temperature range from 40 °C to 250 °C was calculated; in the measured temperature range, it is in good accordance with literature data for UMo with 8 and 9 wt.% Mo, is higher than for 10 wt.% Mo and lower than for 5 wt.% Mo. The electric conductivity of rolled and cast U8Mo was measured by a four-wire method and the electron based part of the thermal conductivity calculated by the Wiedemann-Frantz law. Rolled and cast U8Mo was irradiated at about 150 °C with 80 MeV 127I ions to receive the same iodine ion density in the damage peak region as the fission product density in the fuel of a typical high flux reactor after the targeted nuclear burn-up. XRD analysis of irradiated U8Mo showed a change of the lattice parameters as well as the creation of UO 2 in the superficial sample regions; however, a phase change by irradiation was not observed. The determination of the electron based part of the thermal conductivity of the irradiated samples failed due to high measurement errors which are caused by the low thickness of the damage region in the ion irradiated samples.

  3. Fabrication of the LSST monolithic primary-tertiary mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuell, Michael T.; Martin, Hubert M.; Burge, James H.; Ketelsen, Dean A.; Law, Kevin; Gressler, William J.; Zhao, Chunyu

    2012-09-01

    As previously reported (at the SPIE Astronomical Instrumentation conference of 2010 in San Diego1), the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) utilizes a three-mirror design in which the primary (M1) and tertiary (M3) mirrors are two concentric aspheric surfaces on one monolithic substrate. The substrate material is Ohara E6 borosilicate glass, in a honeycomb sandwich configuration, currently in production at The University of Arizona’s Steward Observatory Mirror Lab. We will provide an update to the status of the mirrors and metrology systems, which have advanced from concepts to hardware in the past two years. In addition to the normal requirements for smooth surfaces of the appropriate prescriptions, the alignment of the two surfaces must be accurately measured and controlled in the production lab, reducing the degrees of freedom needed to be controlled in the telescope. The surface specification is described as a structure function, related to seeing in excellent conditions. Both the pointing and centration of the two optical axes are important parameters, in addition to the axial spacing of the two vertices. This paper details the manufacturing process and metrology systems for each surface, including the alignment of the two surfaces. M1 is a hyperboloid and can utilize a standard Offner null corrector, whereas M3 is an oblate ellipsoid, so it has positive spherical aberration. The null corrector is a phase-etched computer-generated hologram (CGH) between the mirror surface and the center-of-curvature. Laser trackers are relied upon to measure the alignment and spacing as well as rough-surface metrology during looseabrasive grinding.

  4. Performance of a monolith biotrickling filter treating high concentrations of H2S from mimic biogas and elemental sulfur plugging control using pigging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xintong; Deshusses, Marc A

    2017-08-08

    A novel biotrickling filter using a 3D-printed honeycomb-monolith as its filter bed has been proposed and studied in this work and a solution to bed-clogging problems using pigging was demonstrated. The inlet H2S concentration in the mimic biogas was controlled around 1000 ppmv and the empty bed gas residence time (EBRT) was 41 s corresponding to a loading rate of 127 g S-H2S m(-3) h(-1). The influence of different H2S/O2 ratios on the removal performance and fate of sulfur end-products was investigated. The results indicated that at a H2S/O2 molar ratio of 1:2, an average removal efficiency of 95% and an elimination capacity of 122 g H2S m(-3) h(-1) was obtained. Under all conditions investigated, elemental sulfur (rather than sulfate) was the dominant end-product which mostly accumulated in the bed. However, the monolith bed design reduced the risk of clogging by elemental sulfur, while bed pigging was shown to be an effective means to remove excess biomass and elemental sulfur accumulated inside the bed and extend the life of the system indefinitely. Altogether, these findings could lead to significant process improvement for biological sweetening of biogas or for removing biomass in biotrickling filters at risk of plugging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation of boronate-functionalized molecularly imprinted monolithic column with polydopamine coating for glycoprotein recognition and enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zian; Wang, Juan; Tan, Xiaoqing; Sun, Lixiang; Yu, Ruifang; Yang, Huanghao; Chen, Guonan

    2013-12-06

    A novel imprinting strategy using reversible covalent complexation of glycoprotein was described for creating glycoprotein-specific recognition cavities on boronate-functionalized monolithic column. Based on it, a molecularly imprinted monolithic column was prepared by self-polymerization of dopamine (DA) on the surface of 4-vinylphenylboronic acid (VPBA)-based polymeric skeletons after reversible immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Due to the combination of boronate affinity and surface imprinting of DA, the stable and accessible recognition sites in the as-prepared imprinted monolith could be obtained after the removal of the template, which facilitated the rebinding of the template and provided good reproducibility and lifetime of use. The recognition behaviors of proteins on the bare VPBA-based, HRP-imprinted and nonimprinted monolithic columns were evaluated in detail and the results showed that the HRP-imprinted monolith exhibited higher recognition ability toward the template than another two monolithic columns. Not only nonglycoproteins but also glycoproteins can be well separated with the HRP-imprinted monolith. In addition, the feasibility of the HRP-imprinted monolith, adopted as an in-tube solid phase microextraction (in-tube SPME), was further assessed by selective extraction and enrichment of HRP from human serum. The good results demonstrated its potential in glycoproteome analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Importance of Pressure Sampling Frequency in Models for Determination of Critical Wave Loadings on Monolithic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Meinert, Palle

    2008-01-01

    Wave induced pressures on model scale monolithic structures like caissons and concrete superstructures on rubble mound breakwaters show very peaky variations, even in cases without impacts from slamming waves.......Wave induced pressures on model scale monolithic structures like caissons and concrete superstructures on rubble mound breakwaters show very peaky variations, even in cases without impacts from slamming waves....

  7. Measurement and Modeling of the Transfer Function of a Monolithic SOA-EA 2R-Regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lotte Jin; Öhman, Filip; Kjær, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    We have measured steep power transfer characteristics with tunable threshold for a monolithic 2R-regenerator combining amplifying and absorbing sections. Modeling results explain the basic characteristics.......We have measured steep power transfer characteristics with tunable threshold for a monolithic 2R-regenerator combining amplifying and absorbing sections. Modeling results explain the basic characteristics....

  8. Preparation and examination of monolithic in-needle extraction (MINE) device for the direct analysis of liquid samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrzyńska, Monika, E-mail: monikapietrzynska@gmail.com; Voelkel, Adam; Bielicka-Daszkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2013-05-07

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •MINE device for isolation of analytes from water samples. •Nine polymer poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) monoliths prepared in stainless steel needles. •High efficiency of in-needle extraction systems based on monolithic materials. •New possibilities in sample preparation area. -- Abstract: Combination of extraction and chromatographic techniques opens NEW possibilities in sample preparation area. Macroporous poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) (PS-DVB) monoliths were prepared by in situ polymerization in stainless steel needles. The surface of stainless steel needle was modified earlier by the silane coupling agent. Monolithic materials located inside needles were used as the in-needle extraction device. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were obtained for nine monoliths. Spectra of prepared materials were also performed with the use of two techniques: Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The new monolithic in-needle extraction (MINE) devices were used in the preparation of a series of test water samples for chromatographic analysis. The extraction of phenolic compounds from water samples was carried out by pumping liquid samples through the MINE device. Obtained results indicate a high efficiency of in-needle extraction systems based on monolithic materials. Breakthrough volume and the sorption efficiency of prepared monolithic in-needle extraction devices were determined experimentally. The achieved recovery was close to 90%, and determined LOQ values varied between 0.4 and 6 μg.

  9. Effect of the presence of an ordered micro-pillar array on the formation of silica monoliths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Detobel, Frederik; Eghbali, Hamed; De Bruyne, Selm; Terryn, Herman; Gardeniers, Han; Desmet, Gert

    2009-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of siloxane-based monoliths in the presence of a two-dimensional, perfectly ordered array of micro-pillars. Both methyltrimethoxysilane- and tetramethoxysilane-based monoliths were considered. The obtained structures were analyzed using scanning-electron microscopy and can

  10. Monolithic thermally bonded Er3+, Yb3+:glass/Co2+:MgAl2O4 microchip lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynczak, Jaroslaw; Belghachem, Nabil

    2015-12-01

    The highest ever reported 10 kW peak power in monolithic thermally bonded Er3+, Yb3+:glass/Co2+:MgAl2O4 microchip laser was achieved. To show the superiority of monolithic microchip lasers over those with external mirrors the laser generation characteristics of the same samples in both cases were compared.

  11. Design and evaluation of synthetic silica-based monolithic materials in shrinkable tube for efficient protein extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Eman; Welham, Kevin

    2011-10-21

    Sample pretreatment is a required step in proteomics in order to remove interferences and preconcentrate the samples. Much research in recent years has focused on porous monolithic materials since they are highly permeable to liquid flow and show high mass transport compared with more common packed beds. These features are due to the micro-structure within the monolithic silica column which contains both macropores that reduce the back pressure, and mesopores that give good interaction with analytes. The aim of this work was to fabricate a continuous porous silica monolithic rod inside a heat shrinkable tube and to compare this with the same material whose surface has been modified with a C(18) phase, in order to use them for preconcentration/extraction of proteins. The performance of the silica-based monolithic rod was evaluated using eight proteins; insulin, cytochrome C, lysozyme, myoglobin, β-lactoglobulin, ovalbumin, hemoglobin, and bovine serum albumin at a concentration of 60 μM. The results show that recovery of the proteins was achieved by both columns with variable yields; however, the C(18) modified silica monolith gave higher recoveries (92.7 to 109.7%) than the non-modified silica monolith (25.5 to 97.9%). Both silica monoliths can be used with very low back pressure indicating a promising approach for future fabrication of the silica monolith inside a microfluidic device for the extraction of proteins from biological media.

  12. Proton Conduction in Sulfonated Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Monoliths with Hierarchical Pore Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Lehr, Martin; Seidler, Christopher F; Taffa, Dereje H; Wark, Michael; Smarsly, Bernd M; Marschall, Roland

    2016-09-28

    Porous organic-inorganic hybrid monoliths with hierarchical porosity exhibiting macro- and mesopores are prepared via sol-gel process under variation of the mesopore size. Organic moieties in the pore walls are incorporated by substituting up to 10% of the silicon precursor tetramethylorthosilicate with bisilylated benzene molecules. After functionalization with sulfonic acid groups, the resulting sulfonated hybrid monoliths featuring a bimodal pore structure are investigated regarding proton conduction depending on temperature and relative humidity. The hierarchical pore system and controlled mesopore design turn out to be crucial for sulfonation and proton conduction. These sulfonated hybrid hierarchical monoliths containing only 10% organic precursor exhibit higher proton conduction at different relative humidities than sulfonated periodic mesoporous organosilica made of 100% bisilylated precursors exhibiting solely mesopores, even with a lower concentration of sulfonic acid groups.

  13. Development and Investigation of Evacuated Windows Based on Monolithic Silica Xerogel Spacers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    The objective of the project is to develop and investigate insulating glazings based on evacuated monolithic silica xerogel spacers. Since the starting date January 1, 1994 the project has been closely connected to the parallel project "Development and Investigation of Evacuated Windows based...... will be approximately 0.013 W/(m K) which is approximately 33% of the value for commonly used insulation materials, e.g. mineral wool. Monolithic silica xerogel is a highly porous material (pore volume up to 90%) with a solar transmittance of 50% (thickness = 20 mm). However, if the silica xerogel is not made...... and 3) application for insulating glazings.Scientific developments have made it possible to prepare low density monolithic silica xerogels, only from about 1990, and developments in both the production process as well as size of the samples are necessary for a commercial use of the material...

  14. Fabrication and Characterisation of Low-noise Monolithic Mode-locked Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, David

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterisation of monolithic semiconductor mode-locked lasers for use in optical communication systems. Other foreseeable applications may be as sources in microwave photonics and optical sampling. The thesis also deals with the design and fabrication...... of intracavity monolithically integrated filters. The common dnominator among the diffrent parts of the thesis is how to achieve and measure the lowest possible noise. Achieving low noise has been pinpointed as one of the most important and difficult challenges for semiconductor mode-locked lasers. The main...... result of this thesis are a fabrication process of a monolithic and deeply etched distributed Bragg reflector and a characterisation system for measurement of quantum limitid timing noise at high repetition rates. The Bragg reflector is a key component in achieving transform limited pulses with low noise...

  15. Monolithic formulation of electromechanical systems within the context of hybrid finite elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Manish; Jog, C. S.

    2017-03-01

    In electromechanical devices, a strong coupling exists between the electromagnetic and displacement field. Due to this strong interaction, a need arises to develop a robust, fully coupled scheme for modeling electromechanical phenomena. With this goal in view, we present a monolithic numerical scheme for modeling fully coupled electromechanical systems. It is shown in the literature that for structural problems, hybrid elements that are based on a two-field variational formulation are less susceptible to locking and provide a robust numerical strategy especially for shell-type structures. Hence, we extend our monolithic formulation to the hybrid finite element framework. Our monolithic formulation is based on a total Lagrangian framework, where the eddy current and structural equations are solved on the reference configuration. Consistent linearization is performed to ensure a quadratic rate of convergence. The efficacy of the presented algorithm, and especially that of the hybrid formulation is demonstrated with the help of numerical examples.

  16. An innovative monolithic column preparation for the isolation of 25 kilo base pairs DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongkudon, Clarence M; Pan, Sharadwata; Danquah, Michael K

    2013-11-29

    The use of large DNAs in preparing multivalent vaccines that will eventually give protective immunity against multiple pathogenic microbes is becoming a major debate nowadays. One of the important issues in ensuring the successful implementation of the new vaccine technology is the development of a chromatographic technique that can handle larger DNAs. This paper reports the development of a novel conical monolithic column format with pore and surface characteristics engineered for the isolation of 25 kbp DNA in a single step fashion. An effective method of eliminating wall channelling, a defect of most conventional monolithic chromatography systems which has caused significant loss of product, was applied to maximise DNA recovery. This method was based on a systematic reduction of wall channel size based on a predetermined correlation between column’s back pressure and wall channel size of a particular monolith pore size.

  17. Monolithic ionizing particle detector based on active matrix of functionally integrated structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murashev, V.N. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS” (Russian Federation); Legotin, S.A., E-mail: serlego@mail.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS” (Russian Federation); Karmanov, D.E. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (MSU SINP) (Russian Federation); Baryshnikov, F.M.; Didenko, S.I. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS” (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A new type of monolithic silicon position detector is presented. • An operating principle, design and technology of the detector are described. • Calculated estimations of the detecting efficiency are carried out. • Experimental results of alpha-particle and electron detection are shown. -- Abstract: An operating principle, design and technology of a new type of the monolithic silicon position detector (MSPD) for registration of ionizing particles and photons are described. The detector represents a specialized monolithic silicon VLSI that contains a two-dimensional detecting matrix of active functionally integrated bipolar structures and peripheral electronic circuitry for signal amplification and processing. This paper presents experimental results of α-particles and electrons detection with position accuracy and operation speed better than 12.5 μm and 1 ns, respectively. The given estimations show the capabilities of this detector and its advantages in comparison with analogs.

  18. Experimental characterization of the transport phenomena, adsorption, and elution in a protein A affinity monolithic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herigstad, M Omon; Dimartino, Simone; Boi, Cristiana; Sarti, Giulio C

    2015-08-14

    A commercially available convective interaction media (CIM) Protein A monolithic column was fully characterized in view of its application for the affinity capture of IgG in monoclonal antibody production processes. By means of moment analysis, the interstitial porosity and axial dispersion coefficient were determined. The frontal analysis method of characteristic points was employed, for the first time with monolithic media, to determine the dynamic binding capacity. The effects of the flow rate and pH on the total recovery of polyclonal IgG and elution profile were evaluated. A comparison with literature data for Protein A chromatography beads demonstrate the superior bed utilization of monolithic media, which gave better performance at lower residence times.

  19. High-density 3D graphene-based monolith and related materials, methods, and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Biener, Juergen; Charnvanichborikarn, Supakit; Kucheyev, Sergei; Montalvo, Elizabeth; Shin, Swanee; Tylski, Elijah

    2017-03-21

    A composition comprising at least one high-density graphene-based monolith, said monolith comprising a three-dimensional structure of graphene sheets crosslinked by covalent carbon bonds and having a density of at least 0.1 g/cm.sup.3. Also provided is a method comprising: preparing a reaction mixture comprising a suspension and at least one catalyst, said suspension selected from a graphene oxide (GO) suspension and a carbon nanotube suspension; curing the reaction mixture to produce a wet gel; drying the wet gel to produce a dry gel, said drying step is substantially free of supercritical drying and freeze drying; and pyrolyzing the dry gel to produce a high-density graphene-based monolith. Exceptional combinations of properties are achieved including high conductive and mechanical properties.

  20. An Inexpensive Field-Widened Monolithic Michelson Interferometer for Precision Radial Velocity Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, Suvrath; Fleming, Scott W; Wan, Xiaoke; DeWitt, Curtis; van Eyken, Julian C; McDavitt, Dan

    2008-01-01

    We have constructed a thermally compensated field-widened monolithic Michelson interferometer that can be used with a medium-resolution spectrograph to measure precise Doppler radial velocities of stars. Our prototype monolithic fixed-delay interferometer is constructed with off-the-shelf components and assembled using a hydrolysis bonding technique. We installed and tested this interferometer in the Exoplanet Tracker (ET) instrument at the Kitt Peak 2.1m telescope, an instrument built to demonstrate the principles of dispersed fixed delay interferometry. An iodine cell allows the interferometer drift to be accurately calibrated, relaxing the stability requirements on the interferometer itself. When using our monolithic interferometer, the ET instrument has no moving parts (except the iodine cell), greatly simplifying its operation. We demonstrate differential radial velocity precision of a few m s$^{-1}$ on well known radial velocity standards and planet bearing stars when using this interferometer. Such mon...