WorldWideScience

Sample records for monolithically integrated semiconductor

  1. Monolithic integration of microfluidic channels and semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cran-McGreehin, Simon J.; Dholakia, Kishan; Krauss, Thomas F.

    2006-08-01

    We present a fabrication method for the monolithic integration of microfluidic channels into semiconductor laser material. Lasers are designed to couple directly into the microfluidic channel, allowing submerged particles pass through the output beams of the lasers. The interaction between particles in the channel and the lasers, operated in either forward or reverse bias, allows for particle detection, and the optical forces can be used to trap and move particles. Both interrogation and manipulation are made more amenable for lab-on-a-chip applications through monolithic integration. The devices are very small, they require no external optical components, have perfect intrinsic alignment, and can be created with virtually any planar configuration of lasers in order to perform a variety of tasks. Their operation requires no optical expertise and only low electrical power, thus making them suitable for computer interfacing and automation. Insulating the pn junctions from the fluid is the key challenge, which is overcome by using photo-definable SU8-2000 polymer.

  2. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical modulator with Semiconductor optical amplifier for short-range optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2015-04-01

    A monolithically integrated quantum dot (QD) optical gain modulator (OGM) with a QD semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was successfully developed. Broadband QD optical gain material was used to achieve Gbps-order high-speed optical data transmission, and an optical gain change as high as approximately 6-7 dB was obtained with a low OGM voltage of 2.0 V. Loss of optical power due to insertion of the device was also effectively compensated for by the SOA section. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the QD-OGM/SOA device helped achieve 6.0-Gbps error-free optical data transmission over a 2.0-km-long photonic crystal fiber. We also successfully demonstrated generation of Gbps-order, high-speed, and error-free optical signals in the >5.5-THz broadband optical frequency bandwidth larger than the C-band. These results suggest that the developed monolithically integrated QD-OGM/SOA device will be an advantageous and compact means of increasing the usable optical frequency channels for short-reach communications.

  3. Monolithic integration of a resonant tunneling diode and a quantum well semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grave, I.; Kan, S. C.; Griffel, G.; Wu, S. W.; Sa'Ar, A.

    1991-01-01

    A monolithic integration of a double barrier AlAs/GaAs resonant tunneling diode and a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well laser is reported. Negative differential resistance and negative differential optical response are observed at room temperature. The device displays bistable electrical and optical characteristics which are voltage controlled. Operation as a two-state optical memory is demonstrated.

  4. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical modulator with semiconductor optical amplifier for thousand and original band optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    A monolithically integrated quantum dot (QD) optical gain modulator (OGM) with a QD semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was successfully developed with T-band (1.0 µm waveband) and O-band (1.3 µm waveband) QD optical gain materials for Gbps-order, high-speed optical data generation. The insertion loss due to coupling between the device and the optical fiber was effectively compensated for by the SOA section. It was also confirmed that the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device enabled >4.8 Gbps optical data generation with a clear eye opening in the T-band. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated error-free 4.8 Gbps optical data transmissions in each of the six wavelength channels over a 10-km-long photonic crystal fiber using the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device in multiple O-band wavelength channels, which were generated by the single QD gain chip. These results suggest that the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device will be advantageous in ultra-broadband optical frequency systems that utilize the T+O-band for short- and medium-range optical communications.

  5. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical gain modulator with semiconductor optical amplifier for 10-Gb/s photonic transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    Short-range interconnection and/or data center networks require high capacity and a large number of channels in order to support numerous connections. Solutions employed to meet these requirements involve the use of alternative wavebands to increase the usable optical frequency range. We recently proposed the use of the T- and O-bands (Thousand band: 1000-1260 nm, Original band: 1260-1360 nm) as alternative wavebands because large optical frequency resources (>60 THz) can be easily employed. In addition, a simple and compact Gb/s-order high-speed optical modulator is a critical photonic device for short-range communications. Therefore, to develop an optical modulator that acts as a highfunctional photonic device, we focused on the use of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) as a three-dimensional (3D) confined structure because QD structures are highly suitable for realizing broadband optical gain media in the T+O bands. In this study, we use the high-quality broadband QD optical gain to develop a monolithically integrated QD optical gain modulator (QD-OGM) device that has a semiconductor optical amplifier (QD-SOA) for Gb/s-order highspeed optical data generation in the 1.3-μm waveband. The insertion loss of the device can be compensated through the SOA, and we obtained an optical gain change of up to ~7 dB in the OGM section. Further, we successfully demonstrate a 10-Gb/s clear eye opening using the QD-OGM/SOA device with a clock-data recovery sequence at the receiver end. These results suggest that the monolithic QD-EOM/SOA is suitable for increasing the number of wavelength channels for smart short-range communications.

  6. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit with integral array antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, R.J.; Munson, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A monolithic microwave integrated circuit including an integral array antenna. The system includes radiating elements, feed network, phasing network, active and/or passive semiconductor devices, digital logic interface circuits and a microcomputer controller simultaneously incorporated on a single substrate by means of a controlled fabrication process sequence

  7. Monolithic Integrated Ceramic Waveguide Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, IC; Sandhu, MY

    2014-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled TEM filters with the same unloaded Q-Factor. Designs for both chebyshev and asymmetric generalized chebyshev filter are presented, with experimental results for an 1800 MHz chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  8. Material Engineering for Monolithic Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkova, Irina

    This thesis is devoted to the materials engineering for semiconductor monolithic passively mode-locked lasers (MLLs) as a compact energy-efficient source of ultrashort optical pulses. Up to the present day, the achievement of low-noise sub-picosecond pulse generation has remained a challenge...

  9. Monolithic optoelectronic integrated broadband optical receiver with graphene photodetectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chuantong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical receivers with potentially high operation bandwidth and low cost have received considerable interest due to rapidly growing data traffic and potential Tb/s optical interconnect requirements. Experimental realization of 65 GHz optical signal detection and 262 GHz intrinsic operation speed reveals the significance role of graphene photodetectors (PDs in optical interconnect domains. In this work, a novel complementary metal oxide semiconductor post-backend process has been developed for integrating graphene PDs onto silicon integrated circuit chips. A prototype monolithic optoelectronic integrated optical receiver has been successfully demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, this is a firstly reported broadband optical receiver benefiting from natural broadband light absorption features of graphene material. This work is a perfect exhibition of the concept of monolithic optoelectronic integration and will pave way to monolithically integrated graphene optoelectronic devices with silicon ICs for three-dimensional optoelectronic integrated circuit chips.

  10. Monolithic optoelectronic integrated broadband optical receiver with graphene photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chuantong; Huang, Beiju; Mao, Xurui; Zhang, Zanyun; Zhang, Zan; Geng, Zhaoxin; Xue, Ping; Chen, Hongda

    2017-07-01

    Optical receivers with potentially high operation bandwidth and low cost have received considerable interest due to rapidly growing data traffic and potential Tb/s optical interconnect requirements. Experimental realization of 65 GHz optical signal detection and 262 GHz intrinsic operation speed reveals the significance role of graphene photodetectors (PDs) in optical interconnect domains. In this work, a novel complementary metal oxide semiconductor post-backend process has been developed for integrating graphene PDs onto silicon integrated circuit chips. A prototype monolithic optoelectronic integrated optical receiver has been successfully demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, this is a firstly reported broadband optical receiver benefiting from natural broadband light absorption features of graphene material. This work is a perfect exhibition of the concept of monolithic optoelectronic integration and will pave way to monolithically integrated graphene optoelectronic devices with silicon ICs for three-dimensional optoelectronic integrated circuit chips.

  11. Monolithically integrated 8-channel WDM reflective modulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stopinski, S.T.; Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R.; Smit, M.K.; Leijtens, X.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the design and characterization of a monolithically integrated photonic circuit acting as a reflective modulator for eight WDM channels is presented. The chip was designed and fabricated in a generic integration technology

  12. Monolithic integration of a silicon nanowire field-effect transistors array on a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor chip for biochemical sensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livi, Paolo; Kwiat, Moria; Shadmani, Amir; Pevzner, Alexander; Navarra, Giulio; Rothe, Jörg; Stettler, Alexander; Chen, Yihui; Patolsky, Fernando; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2015-10-06

    We present a monolithic complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based sensor system comprising an array of silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) and the signal-conditioning circuitry on the same chip. The silicon nanowires were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition methods and then transferred to the CMOS chip, where Ti/Pd/Ti contacts had been patterned via e-beam lithography. The on-chip circuitry measures the current flowing through each nanowire FET upon applying a constant source-drain voltage. The analog signal is digitized on chip and then transmitted to a receiving unit. The system has been successfully fabricated and tested by acquiring I-V curves of the bare nanowire-based FETs. Furthermore, the sensing capabilities of the complete system have been demonstrated by recording current changes upon nanowire exposure to solutions of different pHs, as well as by detecting different concentrations of Troponin T biomarkers (cTnT) through antibody-functionalized nanowire FETs.

  13. Thermal measurement a requirement for monolithic microwave integrated circuit design

    OpenAIRE

    Hopper, Richard; Oxley, C. H.

    2008-01-01

    The thermal management of structures such as Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMICs) is important, given increased circuit packing densities and RF output powers. The paper will describe the IR measurement technology necessary to obtain accurate temperature profiles on the surface of semiconductor devices. The measurement procedure will be explained, including the device mounting arrangement and emissivity correction technique. The paper will show how the measurement technique has be...

  14. Monolithic Inorganic ZnO/GaN Semiconductors Heterojunction White Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seonghoon; Oh, Seung Kyu; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Song, Keun Man; Kim, Hyunsoo

    2018-01-31

    Monolithic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that can generate white color at the one-chip level without the wavelength conversion through packaged phosphors or chip integration for photon recycling are of particular importance to produce compact, cost-competitive, and smart lighting sources. In this study, monolithic white LEDs were developed based on ZnO/GaN semiconductor heterojunctions. The electroluminescence (EL) wavelength of the ZnO/GaN heterojunction could be tuned by a post-thermal annealing process, causing the generation of an interfacial Ga 2 O 3 layer. Ultraviolet, violet-bluish, and greenish-yellow broad bands were observed from n-ZnO/p-GaN without an interfacial layer, whereas a strong greenish-yellow band emission was the only one observed from that with an interfacial layer. By controlled integration of ZnO/GaN heterojunctions with different postannealing conditions, monolithic white LED was demonstrated with color coordinates in the range (0.3534, 0.3710)-(0.4197, 0.4080) and color temperatures of 4778-3349 K in the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage 1931 chromaticity diagram. Furthermore, the monolithic white LED produced approximately 2.1 times higher optical output power than a conventional ZnO/GaN heterojunction due to the carrier confinement effect at the Ga 2 O 3 /n-ZnO interface.

  15. Monolithically Integrated Ge-on-Si Active Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Monolithically integrated, active photonic devices on Si are key components in Si-based large-scale electronic-photonic integration for future generations of high-performance, low-power computation and communication systems. Ge has become an interesting candidate for active photonic devices in Si photonics due to its pseudo-direct gap behavior and compatibility with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS processing. In this paper, we present a review of the recent progress in Ge-on-Si active photonics materials and devices for photon detection, modulation, and generation. We first discuss the band engineering of Ge using tensile strain, n-type doping, Sn alloying, and separate confinement of Γ vs. L electrons in quantum well (QW structures to transform the material towards a direct band gap semiconductor for enhancing optoelectronic properties. We then give a brief overview of epitaxial Ge-on-Si materials growth, followed by a summary of recent investigations towards low-temperature, direct growth of high crystallinity Ge and GeSn alloys on dielectric layers for 3D photonic integration. Finally, we review the most recent studies on waveguide-integrated Ge-on-Si photodetectors (PDs, electroabsorption modulators (EAMs, and laser diodes (LDs, and suggest possible future research directions for large-scale monolithic electronic-photonic integrated circuits on a Si platform.

  16. Package Holds Five Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysoor, Narayan R.; Decker, D. Richard; Olson, Hilding M.

    1996-01-01

    Packages protect and hold monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) chips while providing dc and radio-frequency (RF) electrical connections for chips undergoing development. Required to be compact, lightweight, and rugged. Designed to minimize undesired resonances, reflections, losses, and impedance mismatches.

  17. Temperature Characteristics of Monolithically Integrated Wavelength-Selectable Light Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Liang-Shun; Zhu Hong-Liang; Zhang Can; Ma Li; Liang Song; Wang Wei

    2013-01-01

    The temperature characteristics of monolithically integrated wavelength-selectable light sources are experimentally investigated. The wavelength-selectable light sources consist of four distributed feedback (DFB) lasers, a multimode interferometer coupler, and a semiconductor optical amplifier. The oscillating wavelength of the DFB laser could be modulated by adjusting the device operating temperature. A wavelength range covering over 8.0nm is obtained with stable single-mode operation by selecting the appropriate laser and chip temperature. The thermal crosstalk caused by the lateral heat spreading between lasers operating simultaneously is evaluated by oscillating-wavelength shift. The thermal crosstalk approximately decreases exponentially as the increasing distance between lasers

  18. A monolithic integrated photonic microwave filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandiño, Javier S.; Muñoz, Pascual; Doménech, David; Capmany, José

    2017-02-01

    Meeting the increasing demand for capacity in wireless networks requires the harnessing of higher regions in the radiofrequency spectrum, reducing cell size, as well as more compact, agile and power-efficient base stations that are capable of smoothly interfacing the radio and fibre segments. Fully functional microwave photonic chips are promising candidates in attempts to meet these goals. In recent years, many integrated microwave photonic chips have been reported in different technologies. To the best of our knowledge, none has monolithically integrated all the main active and passive optoelectronic components. Here, we report the first demonstration of a tunable microwave photonics filter that is monolithically integrated into an indium phosphide chip. The reconfigurable radiofrequency photonic filter includes all the necessary elements (for example, lasers, modulators and photodetectors), and its response can be tuned by means of control electric currents. This is an important step in demonstrating the feasibility of integrated and programmable microwave photonic processors.

  19. Novel WSi/Au T-shaped gate GaAs metal-semiconductor field-effect-transistor fabrication process for super low-noise microwave monolithic integrated circuit amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, H.; Hosogi, K.; Kato, T.

    1995-01-01

    A fully ion-implanted self-aligned T-shaped gate Ga As metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MESFET) with high frequency and extremely low-noise performance has been successfully fabricated for super low-noise microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifiers. A subhalf-micrometer gate structure composed of WSi/Ti/Mo/Au is employed to reduce gate resistance effectively. This multilayer gate structure is formed by newly developed dummy SiON self-alignment technology and a photoresist planarization process. At an operating frequency of 12 GHz, a minimum noise figure of 0.87 dB with an associated gain of 10.62 dB has been obtained. Based on the novel FET process, a low-noise single-stage MMIC amplifier with an excellent low-noise figure of 1.2 dB with an associated gain of 8 dB in the 14 GHz band has been realized. This is the lowest noise figure ever reported at this frequency for low-noise MMICs based on ion-implanted self-aligned gate MESFET technology. 14 refs., 9 figs

  20. Deep-red semiconductor monolithic mode-locked lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, L.; Bajek, D.; White, S. E.; Forrest, A. F.; Cataluna, M. A.; Wang, H. L.; Pan, J. Q.; Wang, X. L.; Cui, B. F.; Ding, Y.

    2014-01-01

    A deep-red semiconductor monolithic mode-locked laser is demonstrated. Multi-section laser diodes based on an AlGaAs multi-quantum-well structure were passively mode-locked, enabling the generation of picosecond optical pulses at 752 nm, at pulse repetition rates of 19.37 GHz. An investigation of the dependence of the pulse duration as a function of reverse bias revealed a predominantly exponential decay trend of the pulse duration, varying from 10.5 ps down to 3.5 ps, which can be associated with the concomitant reduction of absorption recovery time with increasing applied field. A 30-MHz-tunability of the pulse repetition rate with bias conditions is also reported. The demonstration of such a compact, efficient and versatile ultrafast laser in this spectral region paves the way for its deployment in a wide range of applications such as biomedical microscopy, pulsed terahertz generation as well as microwave and millimeter-wave generation, with further impact on sensing, imaging and optical communications

  1. Monolithic integration of SOI waveguide photodetectors and transimpedance amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuxia; Tarr, N. Garry; Ye, Winnie N.

    2018-02-01

    In the absence of commercial foundry technologies offering silicon-on-insulator (SOI) photonics combined with Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) transistors, monolithic integration of conventional electronics with SOI photonics is difficult. Here we explore the implementation of lateral bipolar junction transistors (LBJTs) and Junction Field Effect Transistors (JFETs) in a commercial SOI photonics technology lacking MOS devices but offering a variety of n- and p-type ion implants intended to provide waveguide modulators and photodetectors. The fabrication makes use of the commercial Institute of Microelectronics (IME) SOI photonics technology. Based on knowledge of device doping and geometry, simple compact LBJT and JFET device models are developed. These models are then used to design basic transimpedance amplifiers integrated with optical waveguides. The devices' experimental current-voltage characteristics results are reported.

  2. Design of Semiconductor-Based Back Reflectors for High Voc Monolithic Multijunction Solar Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, I.; Geisz, J.; Steiner, M.; Olson, J.; Friedman, D.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-06-01

    State-of-the-art multijunction cell designs have the potential for significant improvement before going to higher number of junctions. For example, the Voc can be substantially increased if the photon recycling taking place in the junctions is enhanced. This has already been demonstrated (by Alta Devices) for a GaAs single-junction cell. For this, the loss of re-emitted photons by absorption in the underlying layers or substrate must be minimized. Selective back surface reflectors are needed for this purpose. In this work, different architectures of semiconductor distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) are assessed as the appropriate choice for application in monolithic multijunction solar cells. Since the photon re-emission in the photon recycling process is spatially isotropic, the effect of the incident angle on the reflectance spectrum is of central importance. In addition, the DBR structure must be designed taking into account its integration into the monolithic multijunction solar cells, concerning series resistance, growth economics, and other issues. We analyze the tradeoffs in DBR design complexity with all these requirements to determine if such a reflector is suitable to improve multijunction solar cells.

  3. Semiconductor integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, A.E.; Schwenker, R.O.; Ziegler, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    An improved method involving ion implantation to form non-epitaxial semiconductor integrated circuits. These are made by forming a silicon substrate of one conductivity type with a recessed silicon dioxide region extending into the substrate and enclosing a portion of the silicon substrate. A beam of ions of opposite conductivity type impurity is directed at the substrate at an energy and dosage level sufficient to form a first region of opposite conductivity within the silicon dioxide region. This impurity having a concentration peak below the surface of the substrate forms a region of the one conductivity type which extends from the substrate surface into the first opposite type region to a depth between the concentration peak and the surface and forms a second region of opposite conductivity type. The method, materials and ion beam conditions are detailed. Vertical bipolar integrated circuits can be made this way when the first opposite type conductivity region will function as a collector. Also circuits with inverted bipolar devices when this first region functions as a 'buried'' emitter region. (U.K.)

  4. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit water vapor radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukamto, L. M.; Cooley, T. W.; Janssen, M. A.; Parks, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    A proof of concept Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) is under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). WVR's are used to remotely sense water vapor and cloud liquid water in the atmosphere and are valuable for meteorological applications as well as for determination of signal path delays due to water vapor in the atmosphere. The high cost and large size of existing WVR instruments motivate the development of miniature MMIC WVR's, which have great potential for low cost mass production. The miniaturization of WVR components allows large scale deployment of WVR's for Earth environment and meteorological applications. Small WVR's can also result in improved thermal stability, resulting in improved calibration stability. Described here is the design and fabrication of a 31.4 GHz MMIC radiometer as one channel of a thermally stable WVR as a means of assessing MMIC technology feasibility.

  5. Multi-wavelength laser based on an arrayed waveguide grating and Sagnac loop reflectors monolithically integrated on InP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz, P.; García-Olcina, R.; Doménech, J.D.; Rius, M.; Capmany, J.; Chen, L.R.; Habib, C.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Vries, de T.; Heck, M.J.R.; Augustin, L.M.; Nötzel, R.; Robbins, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-wavelength laser monolithically integrated on InP is presented. A linear laser cavity is built between two integrated Sagnac loop reflectors, with an Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) as frequency selective device, and Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (SOA) as gain sections. The

  6. Microwaves integrated circuits: hybrids and monolithics - fabrication technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha Pinto, J.K. da

    1983-01-01

    Several types of microwave integrated circuits are presented together with comments about technologies and fabrication processes; advantages and disadvantages in their utilization are analysed. Basic structures, propagation modes, materials used and major steps in the construction of hybrid thin film and monolithic microwave integrated circuits are described. Important technological applications are revised and main activities of the microelectronics lab. of the University of Sao Paulo (Brazil) in the field of hybrid and monolithic microwave integrated circuits are summarized. (C.L.B.) [pt

  7. Monolithic integration of a micromachined piezoresistive flow sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dan; Zhao, Tao; Yang, Zhenchuan; Zhang, Dacheng

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a monolithic integrated piezoresistive flow sensor is presented, which was fabricated with an intermediate CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) MEMS (micro electro mechanical system) process compatible with integrated pressure sensors. Four symmetrically arranged silicon diaphragms with piezoresistors on them were used to sense the drag force induced by the input gas flow. A signal conditioning CMOS circuit with a temperature compensation module was designed and fabricated simultaneously on the same chip with an increase of the total chip area by only 35%. An extra step of boron implantation and annealing was inserted into the standard CMOS process to form the piezoresistors. KOH anisotropic etching from the backside and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) from the front side were combined to realize the silicon diaphragms. The integrated flow sensor was packaged and tested. The testing results indicated that the addition of piezoresistor formation and structure releasing did not significantly change any of the circuitry characteristics. The measured sensor output has a quadratic relation with the input flow rate of the fluid as predicted. The tested resolution of the sensor is less than 0.1 L min −1 with a measurement range of 0.1–5 L min −1 and the sensitivity is better than 40 mV per (L min −1 ) with a measurement range of 4–5 L min −1 . The measured noise floor of the sensor is 21.7 µV rtHz −1 .

  8. Indium phosphide-based monolithically integrated PIN waveguide photodiode readout for resonant cantilever sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siwak, N. P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Laboratory for the Physical Sciences, 8050 Greenmead Drive, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Fan, X. Z.; Ghodssi, R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Kanakaraju, S.; Richardson, C. J. K. [Laboratory for the Physical Sciences, 8050 Greenmead Drive, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)

    2014-10-06

    An integrated photodiode displacement readout scheme for a microelectromechanical cantilever waveguide resonator sensing platform is presented. III-V semiconductors are used to enable the monolithic integration of passive waveguides with active optical components. This work builds upon previously demonstrated results by measuring the displacement of cantilever waveguide resonators with on-chip waveguide PIN photodiodes. The on-chip integration of the readout provides an additional 70% improvement in mass sensitivity compared to off-chip photodetector designs due to measurement stability and minimized coupling loss. In addition to increased measurement stability, reduced packaging complexity is achieved due to the simplicity of the readout design. We have fabricated cantilever waveguides with integrated photodetectors and experimentally characterized these cantilever sensors with monolithically integrated PIN photodiodes.

  9. Inherent polarization entanglement generated from a monolithic semiconductor chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Rolf T.; Kolenderski, Piotr; Kang, Dongpeng

    2013-01-01

    Creating miniature chip scale implementations of optical quantum information protocols is a dream for many in the quantum optics community. This is largely because of the promise of stability and scalability. Here we present a monolithically integratable chip architecture upon which is built...... a photonic device primitive called a Bragg reflection waveguide (BRW). Implemented in gallium arsenide, we show that, via the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion, the BRW is capable of directly producing polarization entangled photons without additional path difference compensation, spectral...... as a serious contender on which to build large scale implementations of optical quantum processing devices....

  10. A 1.5 Gb/s monolithically integrated optical receiver in the standard CMOS process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Xindong; Mao Luhong; Yu Changliang; Zhang Shilin; Xie Sheng, E-mail: xxd@tju.edu.c [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A monolithically integrated optical receiver, including the photodetector, has been realized in Chartered 0.35 {mu}m EEPROM CMOS technology for 850 nm optical communication. The optical receiver consists of a differential photodetector, a differential transimpedance amplifier, three limiting amplifiers and an output circuit. The experiment results show that the receiver achieves an 875 MHz 3 dB bandwidth, and a data rate of 1.5 Gb/s is achieved at a bit-error-rate of 10{sup -9}. The chip dissipates 60 mW under a single 3.3 V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  11. A 1.5 Gb/s monolithically integrated optical receiver in the standard CMOS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Xindong; Mao Luhong; Yu Changliang; Zhang Shilin; Xie Sheng

    2009-01-01

    A monolithically integrated optical receiver, including the photodetector, has been realized in Chartered 0.35 μm EEPROM CMOS technology for 850 nm optical communication. The optical receiver consists of a differential photodetector, a differential transimpedance amplifier, three limiting amplifiers and an output circuit. The experiment results show that the receiver achieves an 875 MHz 3 dB bandwidth, and a data rate of 1.5 Gb/s is achieved at a bit-error-rate of 10 -9 . The chip dissipates 60 mW under a single 3.3 V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  12. Integration trends in monolithic power ICs: Application and technology challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, M.; Bergveld, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights the general trend towards further monolithic integration in power applications by enabling power management and interfacing solutions in advanced CMOS nodes. The need to combine high-density digital circuits, power-management circuits, and robust interfaces in a single

  13. Laser semiconductor diode integrated with frequency doubler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighineanu, I.; Dorogan, V.; Suruceanu, G.

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to the technology of optoelectronic semiconductor devices and may be used in the production of laser semiconductor diodes integrated with optical nonlinear elements. The laser semiconductor diode integrated with frequency doubler includes a semiconductor substrate, a laser structure with waveguide. metal contacts in the waveguide of the laser structure it is formed a nanostructured field so that the nanostructure provides for the fulfillment of the phase synchronism conditions

  14. Monolithic Ge-on-Si lasers for large-scale electronic-photonic integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jifeng; Kimerling, Lionel C.; Michel, Jurgen

    2012-09-01

    A silicon-based monolithic laser source has long been envisioned as a key enabling component for large-scale electronic-photonic integration in future generations of high-performance computation and communication systems. In this paper we present a comprehensive review on the development of monolithic Ge-on-Si lasers for this application. Starting with a historical review of light emission from the direct gap transition of Ge dating back to the 1960s, we focus on the rapid progress in band-engineered Ge-on-Si lasers in the past five years after a nearly 30-year gap in this research field. Ge has become an interesting candidate for active devices in Si photonics in the past decade due to its pseudo-direct gap behavior and compatibility with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) processing. In 2007, we proposed combing tensile strain with n-type doping to compensate the energy difference between the direct and indirect band gap of Ge, thereby achieving net optical gain for CMOS-compatible diode lasers. Here we systematically present theoretical modeling, material growth methods, spontaneous emission, optical gain, and lasing under optical and electrical pumping from band-engineered Ge-on-Si, culminated by recently demonstrated electrically pumped Ge-on-Si lasers with >1 mW output in the communication wavelength window of 1500-1700 nm. The broad gain spectrum enables on-chip wavelength division multiplexing. A unique feature of band-engineered pseudo-direct gap Ge light emitters is that the emission intensity increases with temperature, exactly opposite to conventional direct gap semiconductor light-emitting devices. This extraordinary thermal anti-quenching behavior greatly facilitates monolithic integration on Si microchips where temperatures can reach up to 80 °C during operation. The same band-engineering approach can be extended to other pseudo-direct gap semiconductors, allowing us to achieve efficient light emission at wavelengths previously

  15. Monolithic Ge-on-Si lasers for large-scale electronic–photonic integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jifeng; Kimerling, Lionel C; Michel, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    A silicon-based monolithic laser source has long been envisioned as a key enabling component for large-scale electronic–photonic integration in future generations of high-performance computation and communication systems. In this paper we present a comprehensive review on the development of monolithic Ge-on-Si lasers for this application. Starting with a historical review of light emission from the direct gap transition of Ge dating back to the 1960s, we focus on the rapid progress in band-engineered Ge-on-Si lasers in the past five years after a nearly 30-year gap in this research field. Ge has become an interesting candidate for active devices in Si photonics in the past decade due to its pseudo-direct gap behavior and compatibility with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) processing. In 2007, we proposed combing tensile strain with n-type doping to compensate the energy difference between the direct and indirect band gap of Ge, thereby achieving net optical gain for CMOS-compatible diode lasers. Here we systematically present theoretical modeling, material growth methods, spontaneous emission, optical gain, and lasing under optical and electrical pumping from band-engineered Ge-on-Si, culminated by recently demonstrated electrically pumped Ge-on-Si lasers with >1 mW output in the communication wavelength window of 1500–1700 nm. The broad gain spectrum enables on-chip wavelength division multiplexing. A unique feature of band-engineered pseudo-direct gap Ge light emitters is that the emission intensity increases with temperature, exactly opposite to conventional direct gap semiconductor light-emitting devices. This extraordinary thermal anti-quenching behavior greatly facilitates monolithic integration on Si microchips where temperatures can reach up to 80 °C during operation. The same band-engineering approach can be extended to other pseudo-direct gap semiconductors, allowing us to achieve efficient light emission at wavelengths previously

  16. A Monolithically-Integrated μGC Chemical Sensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Copic

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography (GC is used for organic and inorganic gas detection with a range of applications including screening for chemical warfare agents (CWA, breath analysis for diagnostics or law enforcement purposes, and air pollutants/indoor air quality monitoring of homes and commercial buildings. A field-portable, light weight, low power, rapid response, micro-gas chromatography (μGC system is essential for such applications. We describe the design, fabrication and packaging of mGC on monolithically-integrated Si dies, comprised of a preconcentrator (PC, μGC column, detector and coatings for each of these components. An important feature of our system is that the same mechanical micro resonator design is used for the PC and detector. We demonstrate system performance by detecting four different CWA simulants within 2 min. We present theoretical analyses for cost/power comparisons of monolithic versus hybrid μGC systems. We discuss thermal isolation in monolithic systems to improve overall performance. Our monolithically-integrated μGC, relative to its hybrid cousin, will afford equal or slightly lower cost, a footprint that is 1/2 to 1/3 the size and an improved resolution of 4 to 25%.

  17. Monolithic Chip-Integrated Absorption Spectrometer from 3-5 microns, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A monolithically integrated indium phosphide (InP) to silicon-on-sapphire (SoS) platform is being proposed for a monolithic portable or handheld spectrometer between...

  18. Magneto-Optical Thin Films for On-Chip Monolithic Integration of Non-Reciprocal Photonic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Lei; Hu, Juejun; Jiang, Peng; Kim, Hyun Suk; Kim, Dong Hun; Onbasli, Mehmet Cengiz; Dionne, Gerald F; Ross, Caroline A

    2013-11-08

    Achieving monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on semiconductor substrates has been long sought by the photonics research society. One way to achieve this goal is to deposit high quality magneto-optical oxide thin films on a semiconductor substrate. In this paper, we review our recent research activity on magneto-optical oxide thin films toward the goal of monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on silicon. We demonstrate high Faraday rotation at telecommunication wavelengths in several novel magnetooptical oxide thin films including Co substituted CeO₂ -δ , Co- or Fe-substituted SrTiO 3- δ , as well as polycrystalline garnets on silicon. Figures of merit of 3~4 deg/dB and 21 deg/dB are achieved in epitaxial Sr(Ti 0.2 Ga 0.4 Fe 0.4 )O 3- δ and polycrystalline (CeY₂)Fe₅O 12 films, respectively. We also demonstrate an optical isolator on silicon, based on a racetrack resonator using polycrystalline (CeY₂)Fe₅O 12 /silicon strip-loaded waveguides. Our work demonstrates that physical vapor deposited magneto-optical oxide thin films on silicon can achieve high Faraday rotation, low optical loss and high magneto-optical figure of merit, therefore enabling novel high-performance non-reciprocal photonic devices monolithically integrated on semiconductor substrates.

  19. Magneto-Optical Thin Films for On-Chip Monolithic Integration of Non-Reciprocal Photonic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Cengiz Onbasli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Achieving monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on semiconductor substrates has been long sought by the photonics research society. One way to achieve this goal is to deposit high quality magneto-optical oxide thin films on a semiconductor substrate. In this paper, we review our recent research activity on magneto-optical oxide thin films toward the goal of monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on silicon. We demonstrate high Faraday rotation at telecommunication wavelengths in several novel magnetooptical oxide thin films including Co substituted CeO2−δ, Co- or Fe-substituted SrTiO3−δ, as well as polycrystalline garnets on silicon. Figures of merit of 3~4 deg/dB and 21 deg/dB are achieved in epitaxial Sr(Ti0.2Ga0.4Fe0.4O3−δ and polycrystalline (CeY2Fe5O12 films, respectively. We also demonstrate an optical isolator on silicon, based on a racetrack resonator using polycrystalline (CeY2Fe5O12/silicon strip-loaded waveguides. Our work demonstrates that physical vapor deposited magneto-optical oxide thin films on silicon can achieve high Faraday rotation, low optical loss and high magneto-optical figure of merit, therefore enabling novel high-performance non-reciprocal photonic devices monolithically integrated on semiconductor substrates.

  20. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits: Interconnections and packaging considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Downey, A. N.; Ponchak, G. E.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Anzic, G.; Connolly, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's) above 18 GHz were developed because of important potential system benefits in cost reliability, reproducibility, and control of circuit parameters. The importance of interconnection and packaging techniques that do not compromise these MMIC virtues is emphasized. Currently available microwave transmission media are evaluated to determine their suitability for MMIC interconnections. An antipodal finline type of microstrip waveguide transition's performance is presented. Packaging requirements for MMIC's are discussed for thermal, mechanical, and electrical parameters for optimum desired performance.

  1. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology for advanced space communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1988-01-01

    Future Space Communications subsystems will utilize GaAs Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMIC's) to reduce volume, weight, and cost and to enhance system reliability. Recent advances in GaAs MMIC technology have led to high-performance devices which show promise for insertion into these next generation systems. The status and development of a number of these devices operating from Ku through Ka band will be discussed along with anticipated potential applications.

  2. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits: Interconnections and packaging considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Downey, A. N.; Ponchak, G. E.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Anzic, G.; Connolly, D. J.

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's) above 18 GHz were developed because of important potential system benefits in cost reliability, reproducibility, and control of circuit parameters. The importance of interconnection and packaging techniques that do not compromise these MMIC virtues is emphasized. Currently available microwave transmission media are evaluated to determine their suitability for MMIC interconnections. An antipodal finline type of microstrip waveguide transition's performance is presented. Packaging requirements for MMIC's are discussed for thermal, mechanical, and electrical parameters for optimum desired performance.

  3. Simultaneous all-optical add and drop multiplexing of 40-Gbit/s OTDM signals using monolithically integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Stokholm; Mikkelsen, Benny; Vaa, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Simultaneous all-optical add and drop multiplexing of a 40-Gbit/s OTDM signal using a monolithically integrated semiconductor optical amplifier/Mach Zehnder interferometer (SOA-MZI) is demonstrated. While maintaining a penalty of 1.3 dB for the add operation the sensitivity for the demultiplexed ...... signal is -34.4 dBm...

  4. Development of the multiwavelength monolithic integrated fiber optics terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, C. R.; Bryan, D. A.; Powers, J. K.; Rice, R. R.; Nettle, V. H.; Dalke, E. A.; Reed, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Multiwavelength Monolithic Integrated Fiber Optic Terminal (MMIFOT) for the NASA Johnson Space Center. The program objective is to utilize guided wave optical technology to develop wavelength-multiplexing and -demultiplexing units, using a single mode optical fiber for transmission between terminals. Intensity modulated injection laser diodes, chirped diffraction gratings and thin film lenses are used to achieve the wavelength-multiplexing and -demultiplexing. The video and audio data transmission test of an integrated optical unit with a Luneburg collimation lens, waveguide diffraction grating and step index condensing lens is described.

  5. Radiation effects in semiconductors: technologies for hardened integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlot, J.M.

    1983-09-01

    Various technologies are used to manufacture integrated circuits for electronic systems. But for specific applications, including those with radiation environment, it is necessary to choose an appropriate technologie or to improve a specific one in order to reach a definite hardening level. The aim of this paper is to present the main effects induced by radiation (neutrons and gamma rays) into the basic semiconductor devices, to explain some physical degradation mechanisms and to propose solutions for hardened integrated circuit fabrication. The analysis involves essentially the monolithic structure of the integrated circuits and the isolation technology of active elements. In conclusion, the advantages of EPIC and SOS technologies are described and the potentialities of new technologies (GaAs and SOI) are presented

  6. Radiation effects in semiconductors: technologies for hardened integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlot, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Various technologies are used to manufacture integrated circuits for electronic systems. But for specific applications, including those with radiation environment, it is necessary to choose an appropriate technology or to improve a specific one in order to reach a definite hardening level. The aim of this paper is to present the main effects induced by radiation (neutrons and gamma rays) into the basic semiconductor devices, to explain some physical degradation mechanisms and to propose solutions for hardened integrated circuit fabrication. The analysis involves essentially the monolithic structure of the integrated circuits and the isolation technology of active elements. In conclusion, the advantages of EPIC and SOS technologies are described and the potentialities of new technologies (GaAs and SOI) are presented. (author)

  7. Heterogeneous Monolithic Integration of Single-Crystal Organic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Sun; Baek, Jangmi; Park, Yoonkyung; Lee, Lynn; Hyon, Jinho; Koo Lee, Yong-Eun; Shrestha, Nabeen K; Kang, Youngjong; Sung, Myung Mo

    2017-02-01

    Manufacturing high-performance organic electronic circuits requires the effective heterogeneous integration of different nanoscale organic materials with uniform morphology and high crystallinity in a desired arrangement. In particular, the development of high-performance organic electronic and optoelectronic devices relies on high-quality single crystals that show optimal intrinsic charge-transport properties and electrical performance. Moreover, the heterogeneous integration of organic materials on a single substrate in a monolithic way is highly demanded for the production of fundamental organic electronic components as well as complex integrated circuits. Many of the various methods that have been designed to pattern multiple heterogeneous organic materials on a substrate and the heterogeneous integration of organic single crystals with their crystal growth are described here. Critical issues that have been encountered in the development of high-performance organic integrated electronics are also addressed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This book deals with process and measurement of semiconductor. It contains 20 chapters, which goes as follows; semiconductor industry, introduction of semiconductor manufacturing, yield of semiconductor process, materials, crystal growth and a wafer forming, PN, control pollution, oxidation, photomasking photoresist chemistry, photomasking technologies, diffusion and ion injection, chemical vapor deposition, metallization, wafer test and way of evaluation, semiconductor elements, integrated circuit and semiconductor circuit technology.

  9. Monolithically integrated Helmholtz coils by 3-dimensional printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Longguang [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B., E-mail: yellen@duke.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, P.O. Box 90300, Hudson Hall, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2014-06-23

    3D printing technology is of great interest for the monolithic fabrication of integrated systems; however, it is a challenge to introduce metallic components into 3D printed molds to enable broader device functionality. Here, we develop a technique for constructing a multi-axial Helmholtz coil by injecting a eutectic liquid metal Gallium Indium alloy (EGaIn) into helically shaped orthogonal cavities constructed in a 3D printed block. The tri-axial solenoids each carry up to 3.6 A of electrical current and produce magnetic field up to 70 G. Within the central section of the coil, the field variation is less than 1% and is in agreement with theory. The flow rates and critical pressures required to fill the 3D cavities with liquid metal also agree with theoretical predictions and provide scaling trends for filling the 3D printed parts. These monolithically integrated solenoids may find future applications in electronic cell culture platforms, atomic traps, and miniaturized chemical analysis systems based on nuclear magnetic resonance.

  10. Monolithically integrated Helmholtz coils by 3-dimensional printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Longguang; Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    2014-01-01

    3D printing technology is of great interest for the monolithic fabrication of integrated systems; however, it is a challenge to introduce metallic components into 3D printed molds to enable broader device functionality. Here, we develop a technique for constructing a multi-axial Helmholtz coil by injecting a eutectic liquid metal Gallium Indium alloy (EGaIn) into helically shaped orthogonal cavities constructed in a 3D printed block. The tri-axial solenoids each carry up to 3.6 A of electrical current and produce magnetic field up to 70 G. Within the central section of the coil, the field variation is less than 1% and is in agreement with theory. The flow rates and critical pressures required to fill the 3D cavities with liquid metal also agree with theoretical predictions and provide scaling trends for filling the 3D printed parts. These monolithically integrated solenoids may find future applications in electronic cell culture platforms, atomic traps, and miniaturized chemical analysis systems based on nuclear magnetic resonance.

  11. Monolithically Integrated Flexible Black Phosphorus Complementary Inverter Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanda; Ang, Kah-Wee

    2017-07-25

    Two-dimensional (2D) inverters are a fundamental building block for flexible logic circuits which have previously been realized by heterogeneously wiring transistors with two discrete channel materials. Here, we demonstrate a monolithically integrated complementary inverter made using a homogeneous black phosphorus (BP) nanosheet on flexible substrates. The digital logic inverter circuit is demonstrated via effective threshold voltage tuning within a single BP material, which offers both electron and hole dominated conducting channels with nearly symmetric pinch-off and current saturation. Controllable electron concentration is achieved by accurately modulating the aluminum (Al) donor doping, which realizes BP n-FET with a room-temperature on/off ratio >10 3 . Simultaneously, work function engineering is employed to obtain a low Schottky barrier contact electrode that facilities hole injection, thus enhancing the current density of the BP p-FET by 9.4 times. The flexible inverter circuit shows a clear digital logic voltage inversion operation along with a larger-than-unity direct current voltage gain, while exhibits alternating current dynamic signal switching at a record high frequency up to 100 kHz and remarkable electrical stability upon mechanical bending with a radii as small as 4 mm. Our study demonstrates a practical monolithic integration strategy for achieving functional logic circuits on one material platform, paving the way for future high-density flexible electronic applications.

  12. Integrating magnetism into semiconductor electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharchenya, Boris P; Korenev, Vladimir L [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2005-06-30

    The view of a ferromagnetic-semiconducting hybrid structure as a single tunable system is presented. Based on an analysis of existing experiments it is shown that, contrary to a 'common sense', a nonmagnetic semiconductor is capable of playing an important role in controlling ferromagnetism. Magnetic properties of a hybrid (the hysteresis loop and the spatial orientation of magnetization) can be tuned both optically and electrically by utilizing semiconductor-making the hybrid an electronic-write-in and electronic-read-out elementary storage unit. (methodological notes)

  13. Integrating magnetism into semiconductor electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharchenya, Boris P; Korenev, Vladimir L

    2005-01-01

    The view of a ferromagnetic-semiconducting hybrid structure as a single tunable system is presented. Based on an analysis of existing experiments it is shown that, contrary to a 'common sense', a nonmagnetic semiconductor is capable of playing an important role in controlling ferromagnetism. Magnetic properties of a hybrid (the hysteresis loop and the spatial orientation of magnetization) can be tuned both optically and electrically by utilizing semiconductor-making the hybrid an electronic-write-in and electronic-read-out elementary storage unit. (methodological notes)

  14. Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) technology for space communications applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Denis J.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Future communications satellites are likely to use gallium arsenide (GaAs) monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) technology in most, if not all, communications payload subsystems. Multiple-scanning-beam antenna systems are expected to use GaAs MMIC's to increase functional capability, to reduce volume, weight, and cost, and to greatly improve system reliability. RF and IF matrix switch technology based on GaAs MMIC's is also being developed for these reasons. MMIC technology, including gigabit-rate GaAs digital integrated circuits, offers substantial advantages in power consumption and weight over silicon technologies for high-throughput, on-board baseband processor systems. For the more distant future pseudomorphic indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) and other advanced III-V materials offer the possibility of MMIC subsystems well up into the millimeter wavelength region. All of these technology elements are in NASA's MMIC program. Their status is reviewed.

  15. Degradation of Side-Mode Suppression Ratio in a DFB Laser Integrated With a Semiconductor Optical Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Champagne, A.; Lestrade, Michel; Camel, Jérôme

    2004-01-01

    The degradation of the side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) in a monolithically integrated distributed feedback laser and semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) cavity is investigated. An expression is derived that gives the degradation of the SMSR in the case of a perfectly antireflection-coated SO...

  16. Large current MOSFET on photonic silicon-on-insulator wafers and its monolithic integration with a thermo-optic 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, G W; Matsukawa, T; Chiba, T; Tadokoro, H; Yanagihara, M; Ohno, M; Kawashima, H; Kuwatsuka, H; Igarashi, Y; Masahara, M; Ishikawa, H

    2013-03-25

    n-channel body-tied partially depleted metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) were fabricated for large current applications on a silicon-on-insulator wafer with photonics-oriented specifications. The MOSFET can drive an electrical current as large as 20 mA. We monolithically integrated this MOSFET with a 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical switch having thermo-optic phase shifters. The static and dynamic performances of the integrated device are experimentally evaluated.

  17. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit devices for active array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittra, R.

    1984-01-01

    Two different aspects of active antenna array design were investigated. The transition between monolithic microwave integrated circuits and rectangular waveguides was studied along with crosstalk in multiconductor transmission lines. The boundary value problem associated with a discontinuity in a microstrip line is formulated. This entailed, as a first step, the derivation of the propagating as well as evanescent modes of a microstrip line. The solution is derived to a simple discontinuity problem: change in width of the center strip. As for the multiconductor transmission line problem. A computer algorithm was developed for computing the crosstalk noise from the signal to the sense lines. The computation is based on the assumption that these lines are terminated in passive loads.

  18. Large microwave tunability of GaAs-based multiferroic heterostructure for applications in monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yajie; Gao Jinsheng; Vittoria, C; Harris, V G; Heiman, D

    2010-01-01

    Microwave magnetoelectric coupling in a ferroelectric/ferromagnetic/semiconductor multiferroic (MF) heterostructure, consisting of a Co 2 MnAl epitaxial film grown on a GaAs substrate bonded to a lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) crystal, is reported. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements were carried out at X-band under the application of electric fields. Results indicate a frequency tuning of 125 MHz for electric field strength of 8 kV cm -1 resulting in a magnetoelectric coupling coefficient of 3.4 Oe cm kV -1 . This work explores the potential of electronically controlled MF devices for use in future monolithic microwave integrated circuits.

  19. A Differential Monolithically Integrated Inductive Linear Displacement Measurement Microsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Podhraški

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An inductive linear displacement measurement microsystem realized as a monolithic Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC is presented. The system comprises integrated microtransformers as sensing elements, and analog front-end electronics for signal processing and demodulation, both jointly fabricated in a conventional commercially available four-metal 350-nm CMOS process. The key novelty of the presented system is its full integration, straightforward fabrication, and ease of application, requiring no external light or magnetic field source. Such systems therefore have the possibility of substituting certain conventional position encoder types. The microtransformers are excited by an AC signal in MHz range. The displacement information is modulated into the AC signal by a metal grating scale placed over the microsystem, employing a differential measurement principle. Homodyne mixing is used for the demodulation of the scale displacement information, returned by the ASIC as a DC signal in two quadrature channels allowing the determination of linear position of the target scale. The microsystem design, simulations, and characterization are presented. Various system operating conditions such as frequency, phase, target scale material and distance have been experimentally evaluated. The best results have been achieved at 4 MHz, demonstrating a linear resolution of 20 µm with steel and copper scale, having respective sensitivities of 0.71 V/mm and 0.99 V/mm.

  20. Monolithic integration of nanoscale tensile specimens and MEMS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Kysar, Jeffrey W

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale materials often have stochastic material properties due to a random distribution of material defects and an insufficient number of defects to ensure a consistent average mechanical response. Current methods to measure the mechanical properties employ MEMS-based actuators. The nanoscale specimens are typically mounted manually onto the load platform, so the boundary conditions have random variations, complicating the experimental measurement of the intrinsic stochasticity of the material properties. Here we show methods for monolithic integration of a nanoscale specimen co-fabricated with the loading platform. The nanoscale specimen is gold with dimensions of ∼40 nm thickness, 350 ± 50 nm width, and 7 μm length and the loading platform is an interdigitated electrode electrostatic actuator. The experiment is performed in a scanning electron microscope and digital image correlation is employed to measure displacements to determine stress and strain. The ultimate tensile strength of the nanocrystalline nanoscale specimen approaches 1 GPa, consistent with measurements made by other nanometer scale sample characterization methods on other material samples at the nanometer scale, as well as gold samples at the nanometer scale. The batch-compatible microfabrication method can be used to create nominally identical nanoscale specimens and boundary conditions for a broad range of materials. (paper)

  1. Semiconductors integrated circuit design for manufacturability

    CERN Document Server

    Balasinki, Artur

    2011-01-01

    Because of the continuous evolution of integrated circuit manufacturing (ICM) and design for manufacturability (DfM), most books on the subject are obsolete before they even go to press. That's why the field requires a reference that takes the focus off of numbers and concentrates more on larger economic concepts than on technical details. Semiconductors: Integrated Circuit Design for Manufacturability covers the gradual evolution of integrated circuit design (ICD) as a basis to propose strategies for improving return-on-investment (ROI) for ICD in manufacturing. Where most books put the spotl

  2. A multiply-add engine with monolithically integrated 3D memristor crossbar/CMOS hybrid circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, B; Lastras-Montaño, M A; Adam, G; Prezioso, M; Hoskins, B; Payvand, M; Madhavan, A; Ghofrani, A; Theogarajan, L; Cheng, K-T; Strukov, D B

    2017-02-14

    Silicon (Si) based complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has been the driving force of the information-technology revolution. However, scaling of CMOS technology as per Moore's law has reached a serious bottleneck. Among the emerging technologies memristive devices can be promising for both memory as well as computing applications. Hybrid CMOS/memristor circuits with CMOL (CMOS + "Molecular") architecture have been proposed to combine the extremely high density of the memristive devices with the robustness of CMOS technology, leading to terabit-scale memory and extremely efficient computing paradigm. In this work, we demonstrate a hybrid 3D CMOL circuit with 2 layers of memristive crossbars monolithically integrated on a pre-fabricated CMOS substrate. The integrated crossbars can be fully operated through the underlying CMOS circuitry. The memristive devices in both layers exhibit analog switching behavior with controlled tunability and stable multi-level operation. We perform dot-product operations with the 2D and 3D memristive crossbars to demonstrate the applicability of such 3D CMOL hybrid circuits as a multiply-add engine. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a functional 3D CMOL hybrid circuit.

  3. Ultrasensitive mass sensor fully integrated with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuitry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsén, Esko Sebastian; Abadal, G.; Ghatnekar-Nilsson, S.

    2005-01-01

    Nanomechanical resonators have been monolithically integrated on preprocessed complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) chips. Fabricated resonator systems have been designed to have resonance frequencies up to 1.5 MHz. The systems have been characterized in ambient air and vacuum conditions...... and display ultrasensitive mass detection in air. A mass sensitivity of 4 ag/Hz has been determined in air by placing a single glycerine drop, having a measured weight of 57 fg, at the apex of a cantilever and subsequently measuring a frequency shift of 14.8 kHz. CMOS integration enables electrostatic...

  4. Field-effect piezoresistors for vibration detection of nanobeams by using monolithically integrated MOS capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Haitao; Yang, Heng; Li, XinXin; Wang, Yuelin

    2013-01-01

    A novel piezoresistive sensing method is presented herein for the detection of nanobeam resonator based on a monolithically integrated MOS (metal–oxide–semiconductor) capacitor structure. The bottom layer of the nanobeam located beneath the MOS capacitor is utilized as a piezoresistor for the detection of internal stress resulting from nanobeam deformation, and therefore the challenging process of ultra-shallow junction doping is avoided. When a bias voltage applied on the MOS gate exceeds the threshold, the depletion layer width is built up to the maximum, and the piezoresistive cancellation effect beside the neutral plane is eliminated. Based on a conventional microelectromechanical (MEMS) process, an MOS capacitor is fabricated at the terminal of a double-clamped nanobeam with dimensions of 46 µm × 7 µm × 149 nm. The measured R–V curve of this MOS structure presents a 64.7 nm thick piezoresistor which closely agrees with the design. This double-clamped nanobeam is excited into mechanical resonance by mounting it on a piezoelectric ceramic, and the amplitude–frequency response is measured by a network analyzer. The measured resonant frequency is 3.97 MHz and the quality (Q)-factor is 82 in atmosphere environment. Besides, this piezoresistive sensing method is verified by a laser-Doppler vibrometry. (paper)

  5. A monolithically fabricated gas chromatography separation column with an integrated high sensitivity thermal conductivity detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaanta, Bradley C; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Hua

    2010-01-01

    The monolithic integration of a high sensitivity detector with a gas chromatography (GC) separation column creates many potential advantages over the discrete components of a traditional chromatography system. In miniaturized high-speed GC systems, component interconnections can cause crucial errors and loss of fidelity during detection and analysis. A monolithically integrated device would eliminate the need to create helium-tight interconnections, which are bulky and labor intensive. Additionally, batch fabrication of integrated devices that no longer require expensive and fragile detectors can decrease the cost of micro GC systems through economies of scale. We present the design, fabrication and operation of a monolithic GC separation column and detector. Our device is able to separate nitrogen, methane and carbon dioxide within 30 s. This method of device integration could be applied to the existing wealth of column geometries and chemistries designed for specialized applications.

  6. Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Phased Array Demonstrated With ACTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) arrays developed by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Air Force Rome Laboratory were demonstrated in aeronautical terminals and in mobile or fixed Earth terminals linked with NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). Four K/Ka-band experimental arrays were demonstrated between May 1994 and May 1995. Each array had GaAs MMIC devices at each radiating element for electronic beam steering and distributed power amplification. The 30-GHz transmit array used in uplinks to ACTS was developed by Lewis and Texas Instruments. The three 20-GHz receive arrays used in downlinks from ACTS were developed in cooperation with the Air Force Rome Laboratory, taking advantage of existing Air Force integrated-circuit, active-phased-array development contracts with the Boeing Company and Lockheed Martin Corporation. Four demonstrations, each related to an application of high interest to both commercial and Department of Defense organizations, were conducted. The location, type of link, and the data rate achieved for each of the applications is shown. In one demonstration-- an aeronautical terminal experiment called AERO-X--a duplex voice link between an aeronautical terminal on the Lewis Learjet and ACTS was achieved. Two others demonstrated duplex voice links (and in one case, interactive video links as well) between ACTS and an Army high-mobility, multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV, or "humvee"). In the fourth demonstration, the array was on a fixed mount and was electronically steered toward ACTS. Lewis served as project manager for all demonstrations and as overall system integrator. Lewis engineers developed the array system including a controller for open-loop tracking of ACTS during flight and HMMWV motion, as well as a laptop data display and recording system used in all demonstrations. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory supported the AERO-X program, providing elements of the ACTS Mobile Terminal. The successful

  7. Fluorescence monitoring of capillary electrophoresis separation of biomolecules with monolithically integrated optical waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongre, C.; Dekker, R.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Martinez-Vazquez, R.; Osellame, R.; Ramponi, R.; Cerullo, G.; van Weeghel, R.; Besselink, G.A.J.; van den Vlekkert, H.H.; Pollnau, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Monolithic integration of optical waveguides in a commercial lab-on-a-chip by femtosecond-laser material processing enables arbitrary 3D geometries of optical sensing structures in combination with fluidic microchannels. Integrated fluorescence monitoring of molecular separation, as applicable in

  8. Development of readout electronics for monolithic integration with diode strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosticka, B.J.; Wrede, M.; Zimmer, G.; Kemmer, J.; Hofmann, R.; Lutz, G.

    1984-03-01

    Parallel in - serial out analog readout electronics integrated with silicon strip detectors will bring a reduction of two orders of magnitude in external electronics. The readout concept and the chosen CMOS technology solve the basic problem of low noise and low power requirements. A hybrid solution is an intermediate step towards the final goal of monolithic integration of detector and electronics. (orig.)

  9. Automation and Integration in Semiconductor Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Da-Yin

    2010-01-01

    Semiconductor automation originates from the prevention and avoidance of frauds in daily fab operations. As semiconductor technology and business continuously advance and grow, manufacturing systems must aggressively evolve to meet the changing technical and business requirements in this industry. Semiconductor manufacturing has been suffering pains from islands of automation. The problems associated with these systems are limited

  10. Wideband Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit Frequency Converters with GaAs mHEMT Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krozer, Viktor; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Djurhuus, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    We present monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) frequency converter, which can be used for up and down conversion, due to the large RF and IF port bandwidth. The MMIC converters are based on commercially available GaAs mHEMT technology and are comprised of a Gilbert mixer cell core...

  11. Label swapper device for spectral amplitude coded optical packet networks monolithically integrated on InP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz, P.; García-Olcina, R.; Habib, C.; Chen, L.R.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Vries, de T.; Robbins, D.J.; Capmany, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of an spectral amplitude coded (SAC) optical label swapper monolithically integrated on Indium Phosphide (InP) is presented. The device has a footprint of 4.8x1.5 mm2 and is able to perform label swapping operations required in

  12. Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits Based on GaAs Mesfet Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Inder J.

    Advanced military microwave systems are demanding increased integration, reliability, radiation hardness, compact size and lower cost when produced in large volume, whereas the microwave commercial market, including wireless communications, mandates low cost circuits. Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) technology provides an economically viable approach to meeting these needs. In this paper the design considerations for several types of MMICs and their performance status are presented. Multifunction integrated circuits that advance the MMIC technology are described, including integrated microwave/digital functions and a highly integrated transceiver at C-band.

  13. Atomic layer deposition of perovskite oxides and their epitaxial integration with Si, Ge, and other semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Martin D.; Ngo, Thong Q.; Hu, Shen; Ekerdt, John G., E-mail: ekerdt@utexas.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Posadas, Agham; Demkov, Alexander A. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a proven technique for the conformal deposition of oxide thin films with nanoscale thickness control. Most successful industrial applications have been with binary oxides, such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}. However, there has been much effort to deposit ternary oxides, such as perovskites (ABO{sub 3}), with desirable properties for advanced thin film applications. Distinct challenges are presented by the deposition of multi-component oxides using ALD. This review is intended to highlight the research of the many groups that have deposited perovskite oxides by ALD methods. Several commonalities between the studies are discussed. Special emphasis is put on precursor selection, deposition temperatures, and specific property performance (high-k, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, etc.). Finally, the monolithic integration of perovskite oxides with semiconductors by ALD is reviewed. High-quality epitaxial growth of oxide thin films has traditionally been limited to physical vapor deposition techniques (e.g., molecular beam epitaxy). However, recent studies have demonstrated that epitaxial oxide thin films may be deposited on semiconductor substrates using ALD. This presents an exciting opportunity to integrate functional perovskite oxides for advanced semiconductor applications in a process that is economical and scalable.

  14. Atomic layer deposition of perovskite oxides and their epitaxial integration with Si, Ge, and other semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, Martin D.; Ngo, Thong Q.; Hu, Shen; Ekerdt, John G.; Posadas, Agham; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a proven technique for the conformal deposition of oxide thin films with nanoscale thickness control. Most successful industrial applications have been with binary oxides, such as Al 2 O 3 and HfO 2 . However, there has been much effort to deposit ternary oxides, such as perovskites (ABO 3 ), with desirable properties for advanced thin film applications. Distinct challenges are presented by the deposition of multi-component oxides using ALD. This review is intended to highlight the research of the many groups that have deposited perovskite oxides by ALD methods. Several commonalities between the studies are discussed. Special emphasis is put on precursor selection, deposition temperatures, and specific property performance (high-k, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, etc.). Finally, the monolithic integration of perovskite oxides with semiconductors by ALD is reviewed. High-quality epitaxial growth of oxide thin films has traditionally been limited to physical vapor deposition techniques (e.g., molecular beam epitaxy). However, recent studies have demonstrated that epitaxial oxide thin films may be deposited on semiconductor substrates using ALD. This presents an exciting opportunity to integrate functional perovskite oxides for advanced semiconductor applications in a process that is economical and scalable

  15. Monolithic integration of DUV-induced waveguides into plastic microfluidic chip for optical manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury Arvelo, Maria; Vannahme, Christoph; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl

    2014-01-01

    A monolithic polymer optofluidic chip for manipulation of microbeads in flow is demonstrated. On this chip, polymer waveguides induced by Deep UV lithography are integrated with microfluidic channels. The optical propagation losses of the waveguides are measured to be 0.66±0.13 dB/mm at a wavelen......A monolithic polymer optofluidic chip for manipulation of microbeads in flow is demonstrated. On this chip, polymer waveguides induced by Deep UV lithography are integrated with microfluidic channels. The optical propagation losses of the waveguides are measured to be 0.66±0.13 d......B/mm at a wavelength of λ = 808 nm. An optimized bead tracking algorithm is implemented, allowing for determination of the optical forces acting on the particles. The algorithm features a spatio-temporal mapping of coordinates for uniting partial trajectories, without increased processing time. With an external laser...

  16. Continuous terahertz-wave generation using a monolithically integrated horn antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peytavit, E.; Beck, A.; Akalin, T.; Lampin, J.-F.; Hindle, F.; Yang, C.; Mouret, G.

    2008-09-01

    A transverse electromagnetic horn antenna is monolithically integrated with a standard ultrafast interdigitated electrode photodetector on low-temperature-grown GaAs. Continuous-wave terahertz radiation is generated at frequencies up to 2 THz with a maximum power of approximately 1 μW at 780 GHz. Experimental variations in the terahertz power as function of the frequency are explained by means of electromagnetic simulations of the antenna and the photomixer vicinity.

  17. Optical displacement measurement with GaAs/AlGaAs-based monolithically integrated Michelson interferometers

    OpenAIRE

    Hofstetter, Daniel; Zappe, H. P.; Dändliker, René

    2008-01-01

    Two monolithically integrated optical displacement sensors fabricated in the GaAs/AlGaAs material system are reported. These single-chip microsystems are configured as Michelson interferometers and comprise a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser, photodetectors, phase shifters, and waveguide couplers. While the use of a single Michelson interferometer allows measurement of displacement magnitude only, a double Michelson interferometer with two interferometer signals in phase quadrature als...

  18. Strain-tuning of the optical properties of semiconductor nanomaterials by integration onto piezoelectric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sánchez, Javier; Trotta, Rinaldo; Mariscal, Antonio; Serna, Rosalía; Piredda, Giovanni; Stroj, Sandra; Edlinger, Johannes; Schimpf, Christian; Aberl, Johannes; Lettner, Thomas; Wildmann, Johannes; Huang, Huiying; Yuan, Xueyong; Ziss, Dorian; Stangl, Julian; Rastelli, Armando

    2018-01-01

    The tailoring of the physical properties of semiconductor nanomaterials by strain has been gaining increasing attention over the last years for a wide range of applications such as electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. The ability to introduce deliberate strain fields with controlled magnitude and in a reversible manner is essential for fundamental studies of novel materials and may lead to the realization of advanced multi-functional devices. A prominent approach consists in the integration of active nanomaterials, in thin epitaxial films or embedded within carrier nanomembranes, onto Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3-based piezoelectric actuators, which convert electrical signals into mechanical deformation (strain). In this review, we mainly focus on recent advances in strain-tunable properties of self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in semiconductor nanomembranes and photonic structures. Additionally, recent works on other nanomaterials like rare-earth and metal-ion doped thin films, graphene and MoS2 or WSe2 semiconductor two-dimensional materials are also reviewed. For the sake of completeness, a comprehensive comparison between different procedures employed throughout the literature to fabricate such hybrid piezoelectric-semiconductor devices is presented. It is shown that unprocessed piezoelectric substrates (monolithic actuators) allow to obtain a certain degree of control over the nanomaterials’ emission properties such as their emission energy, fine-structure-splitting in self-assembled InAs QDs and semiconductor 2D materials, upconversion phenomena in BaTiO3 thin films or piezotronic effects in ZnS:Mn films and InAs QDs. Very recently, a novel class of micro-machined piezoelectric actuators have been demonstrated for a full control of in-plane stress fields in nanomembranes, which enables producing energy-tunable sources of polarization-entangled photons in arbitrary QDs. Future research directions and prospects are discussed.

  19. Four distributed feedback laser array integrated with multimode-interference and semiconductor optical amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Li; Zhu Hong-Liang; Liang Song; Zhao Ling-Juan; Chen Ming-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Monolithic integration of four 1.55-μm-range InGaAsP/InP distributed feedback (DFB) lasers using varied ridge width with a 4 × 1-multimode-interference (MMI) optical combiner and a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is demonstrated. The average output power and the threshold current are 1.8 mW and 35 mA, respectively, when the injection current of the SOA is 100 mA, with a side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) exceeding 40 dB. The four channels have a 1-nm average channel spacing and can operate separately or simultaneously. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  20. Label swapper device for spectral amplitude coded optical packet networks monolithically integrated on InP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, P; García-Olcina, R; Habib, C; Chen, L R; Leijtens, X J M; de Vries, T; Robbins, D; Capmany, J

    2011-07-04

    In this paper the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of an spectral amplitude coded (SAC) optical label swapper monolithically integrated on Indium Phosphide (InP) is presented. The device has a footprint of 4.8x1.5 mm2 and is able to perform label swapping operations required in SAC at a speed of 155 Mbps. The device was manufactured in InP using a multiple purpose generic integration scheme. Compared to previous SAC label swapper demonstrations, using discrete component assembly, this label swapper chip operates two order of magnitudes faster.

  1. Monolithic integration of micromachined sensors and CMOS circuits based on SOI technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaomei; Tang Yaquan; Zhang Haitao

    2008-01-01

    This note presents a novel way to monolithically integrate micro-cantilever sensors and signal conditioning circuits by combining SOI CMOS and SOI micromachining technologies. In order to improve the sensor performance and reduce the system volume, an integrated sensor system composed of a piezoresistive cantilever array, a temperature-compensation current reference, a digitally controlled multiplexer and an instrument amplifier is designed and finally fabricated. A post-SOI CMOS process is developed to realize the integrated sensor system which is based on a standard CMOS process with one more mask to define the cantilever structure at the end of the process. Measurements on the finished SOI CMOS devices and circuits show that the integration process has good compatibility both for the cantilever sensors and for the CMOS circuits, and the SOI CMOS integration process can decrease about 25% sequences compared with the bulk silicon CMOS process. (note)

  2. InGaAsP Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical modulator monolithically integrated with InGaAs driver MOSFET on a III-V CMOS photonics platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Kown; Takagi, Shinichi; Takenaka, Mitsuru

    2018-02-19

    We demonstrated the monolithic integration of a carrier-injection InGaAsP Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) optical modulator and InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) on a III-V-on-insulator (III-V-OI) wafer. A low-resistivity lateral PIN junction was formed along an InGaAsP rib waveguide by Zn diffusion and Ni-InGaAsP alloy, enabling direct driving of the InGaAsP optical modulator by the InGaAs MOSFET. A π phase shift of the InGaAsP optical modulator was obtained through the injection of a drain current from the InGaAs MOSFET with a gate voltage of approximately 1 V. This proof-of-concept demonstration of the monolithic integration of the InGaAsP optical modulator and InGaAs driver MOSFET will enable us to develop high-performance and low-power electronic-photonic integrated circuits on a III-V CMOS photonics platform.

  3. Design and application of multilayer monolithic microwave integrated circuit transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Economides, S.B

    1999-07-01

    fabricated on standard foundry processes. With careful modelling it is also feasible to integrate the two couplers into a single tri-filar transformer structure. This is a robust balun topology, which could be widely adopted. A push-pull MESFET amplifier with 8 dB gain demonstrated this at 12 GHz, using the balun chips connected to amplifier circuits. (author)

  4. METHODOLOGICAL NOTES: Integrating magnetism into semiconductor electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharchenya, Boris P.; Korenev, Vladimir L.

    2005-06-01

    The view of a ferromagnetic-semiconducting hybrid structure as a single tunable system is presented. Based on an analysis of existing experiments it is shown that, contrary to a 'common sense', a nonmagnetic semiconductor is capable of playing an important role in controlling ferromagnetism. Magnetic properties of a hybrid (the hysteresis loop and the spatial orientation of magnetization) can be tuned both optically and electrically by utilizing semiconductor—making the hybrid an electronic-write-in and electronic-read-out elementary storage unit.

  5. Monolithically Integrated, Mechanically Resilient Carbon-Based Probes for Scanning Probe Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Megerian, Krikor G.; Jennings, Andrew T.; Greer, Julia R.

    2010-01-01

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is an important tool for performing measurements at the nanoscale in imaging bacteria or proteins in biology, as well as in the electronics industry. An essential element of SPM is a sharp, stable tip that possesses a small radius of curvature to enhance spatial resolution. Existing techniques for forming such tips are not ideal. High-aspect-ratio, monolithically integrated, as-grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have been formed that show promise for SPM applications by overcoming the limitations present in wet chemical and separate substrate etching processes.

  6. A design concept for an MMIC (Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit) microstrip phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Smetana, Jerry; Acosta, Roberto

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual design for a microstrip phased array with monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplitude and phase controls is described. The MMIC devices used are 20 GHz variable power amplifiers and variable phase shifters recently developed by NASA contractors for applications in future Ka proposed design, which concept is for a general NxN element array of rectangular lattice geometry. Subarray excitation is incorporated in the MMIC phased array design to reduce the complexity of the beam forming network and the number of MMIC components required.

  7. High-performance packaging for monolithic microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkhauser, K. A.; Li, K.; Shih, Y. C.

    1992-01-01

    Packaging schemes are developed that provide low-loss, hermetic enclosure for enhanced monolithic microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuits. These package schemes are based on a fused quartz substrate material offering improved RF performance through 44 GHz. The small size and weight of the packages make them useful for a number of applications, including phased array antenna systems. As part of the packaging effort, a test fixture was developed to interface the single chip packages to conventional laboratory instrumentation for characterization of the packaged devices.

  8. Optically controlled phased array antenna concepts using GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunath, R. R.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1986-01-01

    The desire for rapid beam reconfigurability and steering has led to the exploration of new techniques. Optical techniques have been suggested as potential candidates for implementing these needs. Candidates generally fall into one of two areas: those using fiber optic Beam Forming Networks (BFNs) and those using optically processed BFNs. Both techniques utilize GaAs Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMICs) in the BFN, but the role of the MMIC for providing phase and amplitude variations is largely eliminated by some new optical processing techniques. This paper discusses these two types of optical BFN designs and provides conceptual designs of both systems.

  9. New Structure for a Six-Port Reflectometer in Monolithic Microwave Integrated-Circuit Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Wiedmann , Frank; Huyart , Bernard; Bergeault , Eric; Jallet , Louis

    1997-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a new structure for a six-port reflectometer which due to its simplicity can be implemented very easily in monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) technology. It uses nonmatched diode detectors with a high input impedance which are placed around a phase shifter in conjunction with a power divider for the reference detector. The circuit has been fabricated using the F20 GaAs process of the GEC–Marconi foundry and operates between 1.3 GHz and 3...

  10. Wideband Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit Frequency Converters with GaAs mHEMT Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Krozer, Viktor; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Djurhuus, Torsten; Vidkjær, Jens

    2005-01-01

    We present monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) frequency converter, which can be used for up and down conversion, due to the large RF and IF port bandwidth. The MMIC converters are based on commercially available GaAs mHEMT technology and are comprised of a Gilbert mixer cell core, baluns and combiners. Single ended and balanced configurations DC and AC coupled have been investigated. The instantaneous 3 dB bandwidth at both the RF and the IF port of the frequency converters is ∼ 2...

  11. Fully integrated monolithic opoelectronic transducer for real.time protein and DNA detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misiakos, Konstatinos; S. Petrou, Panagiota; E. Kakabakos, Sotirios

    2010-01-01

    The development and testing of a portable bioanalytical device which was capable for real-time monitoring of binding assays was demonstrated. The device was based on arrays of nine optoelectronic transducers monolithically integrated on silicon chips. The optocouplers consisted of nine silicon av...... by exploiting wavelength filtering on photonic crystal engineered waveguides. The proposed miniaturized sensing device with proper packaging and accompanied by a portable instrument can find wide application as a platform for reliable and cost effective point-of-care diagnosis....

  12. Monolithic photonic integration technology platform and devices at wavelengths beyond 2 μm for gas spectroscopy applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latkowski, S.; van Veldhoven, P.J.; Hänsel, A.; D'Agostino, D.; Rabbani-Haghighi, H.; Docter, B.; Bhattacharya, N.; Thijs, P.J.A.; Ambrosius, H.P.M.M.; Smit, M.K.; Williams, K.A.; Bente, E.A.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a generic monolithic photonic integration technology platform and tunable laser devices for gas sensing applications at 2 μm will be presented. The basic set of long wavelength optical functions which is fundamental for a generic photonic integration approach is realized using planar,

  13. Integration of semiconductor and ceramic superconductor devices for microwave applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klopman, B.B.G.; Klopman, B.B.G.; Wijers, H.W.; Gao, J.; Gao, J.; Gerritsma, G.J.; Rogalla, Horst

    1991-01-01

    Due to the very-low-loss properties of ceramic superconductors, high-performance microwave resonators and filters can be realized. The fact that these devices may be operated at liquid nitrogen temperature facilitates integration with semiconductor devices. Examples are bandpass amplifiers,

  14. Monolithic micro-electro-thermal actuator integrated with a lateral displacement sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yan; Choi, Young-Soo; Lee, Dong-Weon

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents monolithically fabricated horizontal thermal actuators integrated with piezoresistive sensors for in situ displacement sensing. The great advantage of a hybrid system is the use of closed feedback control for improving the transient response of a thermal actuator and positioning accuracy. It consists of two 'hot arms' made of doped silicon for Joule heating-induced thermal expansion when a current flow passes through them. The piezoresistor is embedded in the base of the 'cold arm' flexure for monitoring the tip deflection and for performance characterization. This 'cold arm' is not a part of the electrical circuit, which further improves the heat power efficiency and the measurement accuracy. Optimization is achieved mainly through modification of the geometry as well as the fabrication process. The fabricated micro-electro-thermal actuator with an integrated sensor is intended for use as a scanning cantilever in atomic force microscope or as a sample holder to drive the moving object through arrays configuration.

  15. Advances in gallium arsenide monolithic microwave integrated-circuit technology for space communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Connolly, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Future communications satellites are likely to use gallium arsenide (GaAs) monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) technology in most, if not all, communications payload subsystems. Multiple-scanning-beam antenna systems are expected to use GaAs MMIC's to increase functional capability, to reduce volume, weight, and cost, and to greatly improve system reliability. RF and IF matrix switch technology based on GaAs MMIC's is also being developed for these reasons. MMIC technology, including gigabit-rate GaAs digital integrated circuits, offers substantial advantages in power consumption and weight over silicon technologies for high-throughput, on-board baseband processor systems. In this paper, current developments in GaAs MMIC technology are described, and the status and prospects of the technology are assessed.

  16. Vertically integrated monolithic pixel sensors for charged particle tracking and biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratti, L.; Gaioni, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional monolithic pixel sensors have been designed following the same approach that was exploited for the development of the so-called deep N-well (DNW) MAPS in planar CMOS process. The new 3D design relies upon stacking two homogeneous layers fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS technology. One of the two tiers, which are face-to-face bonded, has to be thinned down to about 12μm to expose the through silicon vias connecting the circuits to the back-metal bond pads. As a consequence of the way the two parts of each single chip are designed and fabricated, the prototypes of the 3D monolithic detector will include both samples with a thick substrate underneath the collecting DNW electrode, suitable for charged particle tracking, and samples with a very thin (about 6μm) sensitive volume, which may be used to detect low energy particles in biomedical imaging applications. Device physics simulations have been performed to evaluate the collection properties and detection efficiency of the proposed vertically integrated structures.

  17. Vertically integrated monolithic pixel sensors for charged particle tracking and biomedical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratti, L., E-mail: lodovico.ratti@unipv.it [Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Gaioni, L. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G. [Universita di Bergamo, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Via Marconi 5, I-24044 Dalmine (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2011-10-01

    Three-dimensional monolithic pixel sensors have been designed following the same approach that was exploited for the development of the so-called deep N-well (DNW) MAPS in planar CMOS process. The new 3D design relies upon stacking two homogeneous layers fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS technology. One of the two tiers, which are face-to-face bonded, has to be thinned down to about 12{mu}m to expose the through silicon vias connecting the circuits to the back-metal bond pads. As a consequence of the way the two parts of each single chip are designed and fabricated, the prototypes of the 3D monolithic detector will include both samples with a thick substrate underneath the collecting DNW electrode, suitable for charged particle tracking, and samples with a very thin (about 6{mu}m) sensitive volume, which may be used to detect low energy particles in biomedical imaging applications. Device physics simulations have been performed to evaluate the collection properties and detection efficiency of the proposed vertically integrated structures.

  18. A novel prototyping method for die-level monolithic integration of MEMS above-IC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicek, Paul-Vahe; Zhang, Qing; Saha, Tanmoy; Mahdavi, Sareh; Allidina, Karim; Gamal, Mourad El; Nabki, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a convenient and versatile prototyping method for integrating surface-micromachined microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) directly above IC electronics, at the die level. Such localized implementation helps reduce development costs associated with the acquisition of full-sized semiconductor wafers. To demonstrate the validity of this method, variants of an IC-compatible surface-micromachining MEMS process are used to build different MEMS devices above a commercial transimpedance amplifier chip. Subsequent functional assessments for both the electronics and the MEMS indicate that the integration is successful, validating the prototyping methodology presented in this work, as well as the suitability of the selected MEMS technology for above-IC integration. (paper)

  19. Monolithic integration of collimating Fresnel lens for beam quality enhancement in tapered high-power laser diode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lau, F.K.; Tee, C.W.; Zhao, Xin; Williams, K.A.; Penty, R.V.; White, I.H.; Calligaro, M.; Lecomte, M.; Parillaud, O.; Michel, N.; Krakowski, M.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, a monolithic integrated lens for wide aperture gain-guided tapered laser beam quality enhancement by compensating the quadratic phase curvature. The 3mm long tapered laser with an output aperture of 170µm adopted in this design consists of a gain-guided tapered

  20. Monolithically integrated biophotonic lab-on-a-chip for cell culture and simultaneous pH monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munoz-Berbel, Xavier; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Rosalia; Vigues, Nuria; Demming, Stefanie; Mas, Jordi; Buettgenbach, Stephanus; Verpoorte, Elisabeth; Ortiz, Pedro; Llobera, Andreu

    2013-01-01

    A poly(dimethylsiloxane) biophotonic lab-on-a-chip (bioPhLoC) containing two chambers, an incubation chamber and a monitoring chamber for cell retention/proliferation and pH monitoring, respectively, is presented. The bioPhLoC monolithically integrates a filter with 3 mu m high size-exclusion

  1. A bit-rate flexible and power efficient all-optical demultiplexer realised by monolithically integrated Michelson interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaa, Michael; Mikkelsen, Benny; Jepsen, Kim Stokholm

    1996-01-01

    A novel bit-rate flexible and very power efficient all-optical demultiplexer using differential optical control of a monolithically integrated Michelson interferometer with MQW SOAs is demonstrated at 40 to 10 Gbit/s. Gain switched DFB lasers provide ultra stable data and control signals....

  2. A monolithically integrated detector-preamplifier on high-resistivity silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, S.; Spieler, H.

    1990-02-01

    A monolithically integrated detector-preamplifier on high-resistivity silicon has been designed, fabricated and characterized. The detector is a fully depleted p-i-n diode and the preamplifier is implemented in a depletion-mode PMOS process which is compatible with detector processing. The amplifier is internally compensated and the measured gain-bandwidth product is 30 MHz with an input-referred noise of 15 nV/√Hz in the white noise regime. Measurements with an Am 241 radiation source yield an equivalent input noise charge of 800 electrons at 200 ns shaping time for a 1.4 mm 2 detector with on-chip amplifier in an experimental setup with substantial external pickup

  3. Monolithic exploding foil initiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, Eric J; Vianco, Paul T; Headley, Paul S; Jarrell, Jason A; Garrity, J. Emmett; Shelton, Keegan P; Marley, Stephen K

    2012-10-23

    A monolithic exploding foil initiator (EFI) or slapper detonator and the method for making the monolithic EFI wherein the exploding bridge and the dielectric from which the flyer will be generated are integrated directly onto the header. In some embodiments, the barrel is directly integrated directly onto the header.

  4. Single-frequency, fully integrated, miniature DPSS laser based on monolithic resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzik, G.; Sotor, J.; Krzempek, K.; Soboń, G.; Abramski, K. M.

    2014-02-01

    We present a single frequency, stable, narrow linewidth, miniature laser sources operating at 532 nm (or 1064 nm) based on a monolithic resonators. Such resonators utilize birefringent filters formed by YVO4 beam displacer and KTP or YVO4 crystals to force single frequency operation at 532 nm or 1064 nm, respectively. In both configurations Nd:YVO4 gain crystal is used. The resonators dimensions are 1x1x10.5 mm3 and 1x1x8.5 mm3 for green and infrared configurations, respectively. Presented laser devices, with total dimensions of 40x52x120 mm3, are fully equipped with driving electronics, pump diode, optical and mechanical components. The highly integrated (36x15x65 mm3) low noise driving electronics with implemented digital PID controller was designed. It provides pump current and resonator temperature stability of ±30 μA@650 mA and ±0,003ºC, respectively. The laser parameters can be set and monitored via the USB interface by external application. The developed laser construction is universal. Hence, the other wavelengths can be obtained only by replacing the monolithic resonator. The optical output powers in single frequency regime was at the level of 42 mW@532 nm and 0.5 W@1064 nm with the long-term fluctuations of ±0.85 %. The linewidth and the passive frequency stability under the free running conditions were Δν < 100 kHz and 3ṡ10-9@1 s integration time, respectively. The total electrical power supply consumption of laser module was only 4 W. Presented compact, single frequency laser operating at 532 nm and 1064 nm may be used as an excellent source for laser vibrometry, interferometry or seed laser for fiber amplifiers.

  5. Monolithically integrated fiber-to-the-home diplexers and triplexers using a bilevel etched 2 x 2 optical coupler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Lei; He, Jian-Jun

    2009-09-01

    A novel design of monolithically integrated diplexers and triplexers for fiber-to-the-home applications is presented. A bilevel etched asymmetrical 2 x 2 optical coupler is analyzed for efficient couplings of both upstream and downstream signals. The design of the diplexer is extended to a triplexer by adding an etched diffraction grating as an additional downstream demultiplexing element. The total size of the integrated diplexer and triplexer is smaller than 500 microm x 500 microm.

  6. An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothberg, Jonathan M; Hinz, Wolfgang; Rearick, Todd M; Schultz, Jonathan; Mileski, William; Davey, Mel; Leamon, John H; Johnson, Kim; Milgrew, Mark J; Edwards, Matthew; Hoon, Jeremy; Simons, Jan F; Marran, David; Myers, Jason W; Davidson, John F; Branting, Annika; Nobile, John R; Puc, Bernard P; Light, David; Clark, Travis A; Huber, Martin; Branciforte, Jeffrey T; Stoner, Isaac B; Cawley, Simon E; Lyons, Michael; Fu, Yutao; Homer, Nils; Sedova, Marina; Miao, Xin; Reed, Brian; Sabina, Jeffrey; Feierstein, Erika; Schorn, Michelle; Alanjary, Mohammad; Dimalanta, Eileen; Dressman, Devin; Kasinskas, Rachel; Sokolsky, Tanya; Fidanza, Jacqueline A; Namsaraev, Eugeni; McKernan, Kevin J; Williams, Alan; Roth, G Thomas; Bustillo, James

    2011-07-20

    The seminal importance of DNA sequencing to the life sciences, biotechnology and medicine has driven the search for more scalable and lower-cost solutions. Here we describe a DNA sequencing technology in which scalable, low-cost semiconductor manufacturing techniques are used to make an integrated circuit able to directly perform non-optical DNA sequencing of genomes. Sequence data are obtained by directly sensing the ions produced by template-directed DNA polymerase synthesis using all-natural nucleotides on this massively parallel semiconductor-sensing device or ion chip. The ion chip contains ion-sensitive, field-effect transistor-based sensors in perfect register with 1.2 million wells, which provide confinement and allow parallel, simultaneous detection of independent sequencing reactions. Use of the most widely used technology for constructing integrated circuits, the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, allows for low-cost, large-scale production and scaling of the device to higher densities and larger array sizes. We show the performance of the system by sequencing three bacterial genomes, its robustness and scalability by producing ion chips with up to 10 times as many sensors and sequencing a human genome.

  7. Flexible, Photopatterned, Colloidal CdSe Semiconductor Nanocrystal Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, F. Scott

    As semiconductor manufacturing pushes towards smaller and faster transistors, a parallel goal exists to create transistors which are not nearly as small. These transistors are not intended to match the performance of traditional crystalline semiconductors; they are designed to be significantly lower in cost and manufactured using methods that can make them physically flexible for applications where form is more important than speed. One of the developing technologies for this application is semiconductor nanocrystals. We first explore methods to develop CdSe nanocrystal semiconducting "inks" into large-scale, high-speed integrated circuits. We demonstrate photopatterned transistors with mobilities of 10 cm2/Vs on Kapton substrates. We develop new methods for vertical interconnect access holes to demonstrate multi-device integrated circuits including inverting amplifiers with 7 kHz bandwidths, ring oscillators with NFC) link. The device draws its power from the NFC transmitter common on smartphones and eliminates the need for a fixed battery. This allows for the mass deployment of flexible, interactive displays on product packaging.

  8. Study of monolithic integrated solar blind GaN-based photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Zhang, Yan; Li, Xiaojuan; Xie, Jing; Wang, Jiqiang; Li, Xiangyang

    2018-02-01

    Monolithic integrated solar blind devices on the GaN-based epilayer, which can directly readout voltage signal, were fabricated and studied. Unlike conventional GaN-based photodiodes, the integrated devices can finish those steps: generation, accumulation of carriers and conversion of carriers to voltage. In the test process, the resetting voltage was square wave with the frequency of 15 and 110 Hz, its maximal voltage of ˜2.5 V. Under LEDs illumination, the maximum of voltage swing is about 2.5 V, and the rise time of voltage swing from 0 to 2.5 V is only about 1.6 ms. However, in dark condition, the node voltage between detector and capacitance nearly decline to zero with time when the resetting voltage was equal to zero. It is found that the leakage current in the circuit gives rise to discharge of the integrated charge. Storage mode operation can offer gain, which is advantage to detection of weak photo signal.

  9. Integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Ling-Xiu; Liu, Bo-Wen; Lv, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Huang, Yong-Zhen, E-mail: yzhuang@semi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-05-11

    We experimentally study the characteristics of an integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection through a connected optical waveguide. Based on the lasing spectra, four-wave mixing, injection locking, and period-two oscillation states are observed due to the mutually optical injection by adjusting the injected currents applied to the two microdisks. The enhanced 3 dB bandwidth is realized for the microdisk laser at the injection locking state, and photonic microwave is obtained from the electrode of the microdisk laser under the period-two oscillation state. The plentifully dynamical states similar as semiconductor lasers subject to external optical injection are realized due to strong optical interaction between the two microdisks.

  10. Suitability of integrated protection diodes from diverse semiconductor technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wanum, Maurice; Lebouille, Tom; Visser, Guido; van Vliet, Frank Edward

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this article diodes from three different semiconductor technologies are compared based on their suitability to protect a receiver. The semiconductor materials involved are silicon, gallium arsenide and gallium nitride. The diodes in the diverse semiconductor technologies themselves are

  11. The Integration of Bacteriorhodopsin Proteins with Semiconductor Heterostructure Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian

    2008-03-01

    Bioelectronics has emerged as one of the most rapidly developing fields among the active frontiers of interdisciplinary research. A major thrust in this field is aimed at the coupling of the technologically-unmatched performance of biological systems, such as neural and sensing functions, with the well developed technology of microelectronics and optoelectronics. To this end we have studied the integration of a suitably engineered protein, bacteriorhodopsin (BR), with semiconductor optoelectronic devices and circuits. Successful integration will potentially lead to ultrasensitive sensors with polarization selectivity and built-in preprocessing capabilities that will be useful for high speed tracking, motion and edge detection, biological detection, and artificial vision systems. In this presentation we will summarize our progresses in this area, which include fundamental studies on the transient dynamics of photo-induced charge shift in BR and the coupling mechanism at protein-semiconductor interface for effective immobilizing and selectively integrating light sensitive proteins with microelectronic devices and circuits, and the device engineering of BR-transistor-integrated optical sensors as well as their applications in phototransceiver circuits. Work done in collaboration with Pallab Bhattacharya, Jonghyun Shin, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; Robert R. Birge, Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269; and György V'ar'o, Institute of Biophysics, Biological Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Science, H-6701 Szeged, Hungary.

  12. Integration of semiconductor and ceramic superconductor devices for microwave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klopman, B.B.G.; Weijers, H.W.; Gao, J.; Gerritsma, G.J.; Rogalla, H.

    1991-01-01

    Due to the very low-loss properties of ceramic superconductors high-performance microwave resonators and filters can be realized. The fact that these devices may be operated at liquid nitrogen temperature, facilitates the integration with semiconductor devices. Examples are bandpass amplifiers, microwave-operated SQUIDs combined with GaAs preamplifiers, detectors, and MOSFET low-frequency amplifiers. This paper discusses the design of such circuits on a single one inch alumina substrate using surface mount techniques. Furthermore data on circuits that have been realized in our laboratory will be presented

  13. 75 FR 24742 - In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Semiconductor, Xiqing Integrated Semiconductor, Manufacturing Site, No. 15 Xinghua Road, Xiqing Economic... Malaysia Sdn. Bhd., NO. 2 Jalan SS 8/2, Free Industrial Zone, Sungai Way, 47300 Petaling Jaya, Selengor, Malaysia. Freescale Semiconductor Pte. Ltd., 7 Changi South Street 2, 03-00, Singapore 486415. Freescale...

  14. Ni-Cr thin film resistor fabrication for GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinayak, Seema; Vyas, H.P.; Muraleedharan, K.; Vankar, V.D.

    2006-01-01

    Different Ni-Cr alloys were sputter-deposited on silicon nitride-coated GaAs substrates and covered with a spin-coated polyimide layer to develop thin film metal resistors for GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs). The contact to the resistors was made through vias in the polyimide layer by sputter-deposited Ti/Au interconnect metal. The variation of contact resistance, sheet resistance (R S ) and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of the Ni-Cr resistors with fabrication process parameters such as polyimide curing thermal cycles and surface treatment given to the wafer prior to interconnect metal deposition has been studied. The Ni-Cr thin film resistors exhibited lower R S and higher TCR compared to the as-deposited Ni-Cr film that was not subjected to thermal cycles involved in the MMIC fabrication process. The change in resistivity and TCR values of Ni-Cr films during the MMIC fabrication process was found to be dependent on the Ni-Cr alloy composition

  15. A novel symmetrical microwave power sensor based on GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, De-bo; Liao, Xiao-ping

    2009-01-01

    A novel symmetrical microwave power sensor based on GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) technology is presented in this paper. In this power sensor, the left section inputs the microwave power, while the right section inputs the dc power. Because of the symmetrical structure, this power sensor is created to provide more accurate microwave power measurement capability without mismatch uncertainty and restrain temperature drift. The loss model is built and the loss voltage is 0.8 mV at 20 GHz when the input power is 100 mW. This power sensor is designed and fabricated using GaAs MMIC technology. And it is measured in the frequency range up to 20 GHz with the input power in the −20 dBm to 19 dBm range. Over the 19 dBm dynamic range, the sensitivity can achieve about 0.2 mV mW −1 . The difference between the input powers in the two sections is below 0.1% for equal output voltages. For an amplitude modulation measurement, the carrier frequency is the main factor to influence the measurement results. In short, the key aspect of this power sensor is that the microwave power measurement can be replaced by a dc power measurement with precise wideband

  16. An electro-magnetic micromachined actuator monolithically integrated with a vertical shutter for variable optical attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Shao Hsuan; Hsieh, Hsin-Ta; John Su, Guo-Dung

    2008-01-01

    The design, fabrication and test results of an electromagnetic-actuated micromachined variable optical attenuator (VOA) are reported in this paper. Optical attenuation is achieved by moving a shutter into the light path between a pair of single mode fiber collimators. The shutter, consisting of a 500 µm × 1200 µm vertical micromirror, is monolithically integrated with an actuation flap. The micromirror was made by tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) anisotropic wet etching with a sharp edge and a smooth reflecting surface. By arranging fiber collimators in different configurations, the reported VOA can be used as either normally-on or normally-off modes due to its relatively large shutter surface. The insertion loss of the VOA is 0.2 dB and 0.4 dB for normally-on and normally-off modes, respectively. Both optical and mechanical simulation models of the device were discussed, and the theoretical calculations based on these models offered an efficient way to predict the performance of the shutter-type VOA. The controllable attenuation range is approximately 40 dB with a driving voltage less than 0.5 V, and the driving power is less than 2 mW. A response time of 5 ms is achieved by applying proper driving waveform

  17. 75 FR 5804 - In the Matter of: Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuits and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... Semiconductor Integrated Circuits and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission Determination To Review in... importation of certain semiconductor integrated circuits and products containing same by reason of... (collectively ``Seagate''). Qimonda accuses of infringement certain LSI integrated circuits, as well as certain...

  18. Semiconductor Devices Inspired By and Integrated With Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, John [University of Illinois

    2012-04-25

    Biology is curved, soft and elastic; silicon wafers are not. Semiconductor technologies that can bridge this gap in form and mechanics will create new opportunities in devices that adopt biologically inspired designs or require intimate integration with the human body. This talk describes the development of ideas for electronics that offer the performance of state-of-the-art, wafer- based systems but with the mechanical properties of a rubber band. We explain the underlying materials science and mechanics of these approaches, and illustrate their use in (1) bio- integrated, ‘tissue-like’ electronics with unique capabilities for mapping cardiac and neural electrophysiology, and (2) bio-inspired, ‘eyeball’ cameras with exceptional imaging properties enabled by curvilinear, Petzval designs.

  19. Integration and test of the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Pernegger, H

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) will be a central part of the tracking system of the ATLAS experiment and is one of the major new silicon detector systems for LHC. The paper summarizes the system integration of the SCT from individual components to the completed tracker barrel and endcaps ready for installation in the pit. Particular attention will be given to the test results obtained during the different integration steps: from single barrels and disks to the final tests inside the ID before installation in the pit. The tests provided us with operational experience for a significant fraction of the full detector system and showed the very good performance of the final assembled detector.

  20. High-performance hybrid complementary logic inverter through monolithic integration of a MEMS switch and an oxide TFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong-Ha; Ahn, Sang-Joon Kenny; Kim, Min-Wu; Lee, Jeong-Oen; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Pi, Jae-Eun; Ko, Seung-Deok; Choi, Kwang-Wook; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Yoon, Jun-Bo

    2015-03-25

    A hybrid complementary logic inverter consisting of a microelectromechanical system switch as a promising alternative for the p-type oxide thin film transistor (TFT) and an n-type oxide TFT is presented for ultralow power integrated circuits. These heterogeneous microdevices are monolithically integrated. The resulting logic device shows a distinctive voltage transfer characteristic curve, very low static leakage, zero-short circuit current, and exceedingly high voltage gain. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. 77 FR 25747 - Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-840] Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit... States after importation of certain semiconductor integrated circuit devices and products containing same... No. 6,847,904 (``the '904 patent''). The complaint further alleges that an industry in the United...

  2. 77 FR 60721 - Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-840] Certain Semiconductor Integrated... certain semiconductor integrated circuit devices and products containing same by reason of infringement of...,783; and 6,847,904. The complaint further alleges the existence of a domestic industry. The Commission...

  3. Fabrication of an electro-absorption transceiver with a monolithically integrated optical amplifier for fiber transmission of 40–60 GHz radio signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Andy Zhenzhong; Wang, Qin; Fonjallaz, Pierre-Yves; Almqvist, Susanne; Karlsson, Stefan; Kjebon, Olle; Schatz, Richard; Chacinski, Marek; Thylén, Lars; Berggren, Jesper; Hammar, Mattias; Honecker, Jörg; Steffan, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of a monolithically integrated semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a reflective electro-absorption transceiver (EAT) for 40–60 GHz radio-over-fiber applications. The EAT can either function as a transmitter (reflective modulator) or as a receiver (photodetector) depending on operation mode. The SOA and the EAT sections are based on different InGaAsP multiple quantum-well active layers connected by a butt joint. Benzocyclobutene is used to reduce the capacitance beside the ridge mesa. Devices are designed to have a peaked response at the operating frequency through the design of microwave waveguides on top of the devices. The packaged device exhibits at 0.1 mW optical input power an amplified DC responsivity of 18.5 mA mW −1 and a modulation efficiency of 0.67 mW V −1 . The estimated radio frequency loss at 40 GHz of an optical link consisting of two SOA–EAT devices was 23 dB using an unmodulated optical input carrier to the transmitter of 0.94 mW

  4. Back End of Line Nanorelays for Ultra-low Power Monolithic Integrated NEMS-CMOS Circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Lechuga Aranda, Jesus Javier

    2016-05-01

    Since the introduction of Complementary-Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology, the chip industry has enjoyed many benefits of transistor feature size scaling, including higher speed and device density and improved energy efficiency. However, in the recent years, the IC designers have encountered a few roadblocks, namely reaching the physical limits of scaling and also increased device leakage which has resulted in a slow-down of supply voltage and power density scaling. Therefore, there has been an extensive hunt for alternative circuit architectures and switching devices that can alleviate or eliminate the current crisis in the semiconductor industry. The Nano-Electro-Mechanical (NEM) relay is a promising alternative switch that offers zero leakage and abrupt turn-on behaviour. Even though these devices are intrinsically slower than CMOS transistors, new circuit design techniques tailored for the electromechanical properties of such devices can be leveraged to design medium performance, ultra-low power integrated circuits. In this thesis, we deal with a new generation of such devices that is built in the back end of line (BEOL) CMOS process and is an ideal option for full integration with current CMOS transistor technology. Simulation and verification at the circuit and system level is a critical step in the design flow of microelectronic circuits, and this is especially important for new technologies that lack the standard design infrastructure and well-known verification platforms. Although most of the physical and electrical properties of NEM structures can be simulated using standard electronic automation software, there is no report of a reliable behavioural model for NEMS switches that enable large circuit simulations. In this work, we present an optimised model of a BEOL nano relay that encompasses all the electromechanical characteristics of the device and is robust and lightweight enough for VLSI applications that require simulation of thousands of

  5. Simplified Monolithic Flow Cytometer Chip With Three-Dimensional Hydrodyanmic Focusing And Integrated Fiber-Free Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Motosuke, Masahiro; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam; Zhuang, Guisheng

    2011-01-01

    A miniaturized flow cytometry incorporating both fluidic and optical systems has a great possibility for portable biochemical sensing or point-of-care diagnostics. This paper presents a simple microfluidic flow cytometer combining reliable 3D hydrodynamic focusing and optical detection without...... optical fibers in a monolithic architecture fabricated by a single photolithographic process. The vertical flow focusing is achieved by the optimized inlet geometry in a PDMS lid onto the substrate with detection channel and integrated optics. The simplified approach indicates the possibility...

  6. Monolithic integration of a silica AWG and Ge photodiodes on Si photonic platform for one-chip WDM receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Hidetaka; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Kou, Rai; Shinojima, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Takashi; Kimura, Hideaki; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko; Wada, Kazumi; Yamada, Koji

    2012-04-09

    On the silicon (Si) photonic platform, we monolithically integrated a silica-based arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) and germanium (Ge) photodiodes (PDs) using low-temperature fabrication technology. We confirmed demultiplexing by the AWG, optical-electrical signal conversion by Ge PDs, and high-speed signal detection at all channels. In addition, we mounted a multichannel transimpedance amplifier/limiting amplifier (TIA/LA) circuit on the fabricated AWG-PD device using flip-chip bonding technology. The results show the promising potential of our Si photonic platform as a photonics-electronics convergence.

  7. 18-THz-wide optical frequency comb emitted from monolithic passively mode-locked semiconductor quantum-well laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Mu-Chieh; Guzmán, Robinson; Ali, Muhsin; Santos, Rui; Augustin, Luc; Carpintero, Guillermo

    2017-10-01

    We report on an optical frequency comb with 14nm (~1.8 THz) spectral bandwidth at -3 dB level that is generated using a passively mode-locked quantum-well (QW) laser in photonic integrated circuits (PICs) fabricated through an InP generic photonic integration technology platform. This 21.5-GHz colliding-pulse mode-locked laser cavity is defined by on-chip reflectors incorporating intracavity phase modulators followed by an extra-cavity SOA as booster amplifier. A 1.8-THz-wide optical comb spectrum is presented with ultrafast pulse that is 0.35-ps-wide. The radio frequency beat note has a 3-dB linewidth of 450 kHz and 35-dB SNR.

  8. InP-based monolithically integrated 1310/1550nm diplexer/triplexer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfvenius, C.; Swillo, M.; Claesson, J.; Forsberg, E.; Akram, N.; Chacinski, M.; Thylén, L.

    2008-11-01

    Multiple streams of high definition television (HDTV) and improved home-working infrastructure are currently driving forces for potential fiber to the home (FTTH) customers [1]. There is an interest to reduce the cost and physical size of the FTTH equipment. The current fabrication methods have reached a cost minimum. We have addressed the costchallenge by developing 1310/(1490)/1550nm bidirectional diplexers, by monolithic seamless integration of lasers, photodiodes and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) couplers into one single InP-based device. A 250nm wide optical gain profile covers the spectrum from 1310 to 1550nm and is the principal building block. The device fabrication is basically based on the established configuration of using split-contacts on continuos waveguides. Optical and electrical cross-talks are further addressed by using a Y-configuration to physically separate the components from each other and avoid inline configurations such as when the incoming signal travels through the laser component or vice versa. By the eliminated butt-joint interfaces which can reflect light between components or be a current leakage path and by leaving optically absorbing (unpumped active) material to surround the components to absorb spontaneous emission and nonintentional reflections the devices are optically and electrically isolated from each other. Ridge waveguides (RWG) form the waveguides and which also maintain the absorbing material between them. The WDM functionality is designed for a large optical bandwidth complying with the wide spectral range in FTTH applications and also reducing the polarization dependence of the WDM-coupler. Lasing is achieved by forming facet-free, λ/4-shifted, DFB (distributed feedback laser) lasers emitting directly into the waveguide. The photodiodes are waveguide photo-diodes (WGPD). Our seamless technology is also able to array the single channel diplexers to 4 to 12 channel diplexer arrays with 250μm fiber port

  9. Integration of Magneto-Optical Materials for Novel Optical Devices & Magnetophotonic Crystals, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work proposes to capitalize on our Phase I success in monolithically integrating magneto-optic and magnetic materials with semiconductor platforms in order to...

  10. Integration of Solar Cells on Top of CMOS Chips - Part II: CIGS Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Liu, Wei; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Sun, Yun; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of deepsubmicrometer complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) microchips with copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) solar cells. Solar cells are manufactured directly on unpackaged CMOS chips. The microchips maintain comparable electronic performance,

  11. Fabrication and Characterisation of Low-noise Monolithic Mode-locked Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, David

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterisation of monolithic semiconductor mode-locked lasers for use in optical communication systems. Other foreseeable applications may be as sources in microwave photonics and optical sampling. The thesis also deals with the design and fabrication...... of intracavity monolithically integrated filters. The common dnominator among the diffrent parts of the thesis is how to achieve and measure the lowest possible noise. Achieving low noise has been pinpointed as one of the most important and difficult challenges for semiconductor mode-locked lasers. The main...... result of this thesis are a fabrication process of a monolithic and deeply etched distributed Bragg reflector and a characterisation system for measurement of quantum limitid timing noise at high repetition rates. The Bragg reflector is a key component in achieving transform limited pulses with low noise...

  12. Chemistry integrated circuit: chemical system on a complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazato, Kazuo

    2014-03-28

    By integrating chemical reactions on a large-scale integration (LSI) chip, new types of device can be created. For biomedical applications, monolithically integrated sensor arrays for potentiometric, amperometric and impedimetric sensing of biomolecules have been developed. The potentiometric sensor array detects pH and redox reaction as a statistical distribution of fluctuations in time and space. For the amperometric sensor array, a microelectrode structure for measuring multiple currents at high speed has been proposed. The impedimetric sensor array is designed to measure impedance up to 10 MHz. The multimodal sensor array will enable synthetic analysis and make it possible to standardize biosensor chips. Another approach is to create new functional devices by integrating molecular systems with LSI chips, for example image sensors that incorporate biological materials with a sensor array. The quantum yield of the photoelectric conversion of photosynthesis is 100%, which is extremely difficult to achieve by artificial means. In a recently developed process, a molecular wire is plugged directly into a biological photosynthetic system to efficiently conduct electrons to a gold electrode. A single photon can be detected at room temperature using such a system combined with a molecular single-electron transistor.

  13. Microwave monolithic integrated circuit development for future spaceborne phased array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzic, G.; Kascak, T. J.; Downey, A. N.; Liu, D. C.; Connolly, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    The development of fully monolithic gallium arsenide (GaAs) receive and transmit modules suitable for phased array antenna applications in the 30/20 gigahertz bands is presented. Specifications and various design approaches to achieve the design goals are described. Initial design and performance of submodules and associated active and passive components are presented. A tradeoff study summary is presented, highlighting the advantages of a distributed amplifier approach compared to the conventional single power source designs. Previously announced in STAR as N84-13399

  14. Microwave monolithic integrated circuit development for future spaceborne phased array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzic, G.; Kascak, T. J.; Downey, A. N.; Liu, D. C.; Connolly, D. J.

    The development of fully monolithic gallium arsenide (GaAs) receive and transmit modules suitable for phased array antenna applications in the 30/20 gigahertz bands is presented. Specifications and various design approaches to achieve the design goals are described. Initial design and performance of submodules and associated active and passive components are presented. A tradeoff study summary is presented, highlighting the advantages of a distributed amplifier approach compared to the conventional single power source designs. Previously announced in STAR as N84-13399

  15. The use of a new PMOS monolithic integrated circuit for the electronic equipment of a large multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareyre, P.; Borgeaud, P.; Poinsignon, J.; Billion, B.

    1975-01-01

    A new monolithic 8-channel PMOS integrated circuit has been developed for an experiment to be carried out on the CERN 300 GeV accelerator. The circuit, read-out electronics and tests performed on 12 large MWPCs (total of 48 000 channels) are described and the results are presented. (Auth.)

  16. Monolithic spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajic, Slobodan (Knoxville, TN); Egert, Charles M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kahl, William K. (Knoxville, TN); Snyder, Jr., William B. (Knoxville, TN); Evans, III, Boyd M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlar, Troy A. (Knoxville, TN); Cunningham, Joseph P. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays.

  17. Single frequency semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zujie; Chen, Gaoting; Qu, Ronghui

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the single frequency semiconductor laser, which is widely used in many vital advanced technologies, such as the laser cooling of atoms and atomic clock, high-precision measurements and spectroscopy, coherent optical communications, and advanced optical sensors. It presents both the fundamentals and characteristics of semiconductor lasers, including basic F-P structure and monolithic integrated structures; interprets laser noises and their measurements; and explains mechanisms and technologies relating to the main aspects of single frequency lasers, including external cavity lasers, frequency stabilization technologies, frequency sweeping, optical phase locked loops, and so on. It paints a clear, physical picture of related technologies and reviews new developments in the field as well. It will be a useful reference to graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the field.

  18. Development of an integrated response generator for Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odaka, Hirokazu; Sugimoto, Soichiro; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Katsuta, Junichiro; Koseki, Yuu; Fukuyama, Taro; Saito, Shinya; Sato, Rie; Sato, Goro; Watanabe, Shin

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an integrated response generator based on Monte Carlo simulation for Compton cameras composed of silicon (Si) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) semiconductor detectors. In order to construct an accurate detector response function, the simulation is required to include a comprehensive treatment of the semiconductor detector devices and the data processing system in addition to simulating particle tracking. Although CdTe is an excellent semiconductor material for detection of soft gamma rays, its ineffective charge transport property distorts its spectral response. We investigated the response of CdTe pad detectors in the simulation and present our initial results here. We also performed the full simulation of prototypes of Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton cameras and report on the reproducibility of detection efficiencies and angular resolutions of the cameras, both of which are essential performance parameters of astrophysical instruments.

  19. Semiconductor tracker final integration and commissioning in the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree

    2008-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is part of the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It is located between the Pixel detector and the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT). During 2006 and 2007, the SCT was installed in its final position inside the ATLAS detector. The SCT barrel was lowered in 2006 and was tested for connectivity and noise. Common tests with the TRT to look for pick-up noise and grounding issues were also performed. The SCT end-caps were installed during summer 2007 and will undergo similar checks. The results from the various tests done before and after installation will be presented here.

  20. CMOS-NEMS Copper Switches Monolithically Integrated Using a 65 nm CMOS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Muñoz-Gamarra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates the feasibility to obtain copper nanoelectromechanical (NEMS relays using a commercial complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS technology (ST 65 nm following an intra CMOS-MEMS approach. We report experimental demonstration of contact-mode nano-electromechanical switches obtaining low operating voltage (5.5 V, good ION/IOFF (103 ratio, abrupt subthreshold swing (4.3 mV/decade and minimum dimensions (3.50 μm × 100 nm × 180 nm, and gap of 100 nm. With these dimensions, the operable Cell area of the switch will be 3.5 μm (length × 0.2 μm (100 nm width + 100 nm gap = 0.7 μm2 which is the smallest reported one using a top-down fabrication approach.

  1. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits for sensors, radar, and communications systems; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 2-4, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Regis F. (Editor); Bhasin, Kul B. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to MMICs for airborne phased arrays, monolithic GaAs integrated circuit millimeter wave imaging sensors, accurate design of multiport low-noise MMICs up to 20 GHz, an ultralinear low-noise amplifier technology for space communications, variable-gain MMIC module for space applications, a high-efficiency dual-band power amplifier for radar applications, a high-density circuit approach for low-cost MMIC circuits, coplanar SIMMWIC circuits, recent advances in monolithic phased arrays, and system-level integrated circuit development for phased-array antenna applications. Consideration is also given to performance enhancement in future communications satellites with MMIC technology insertion, application of Ka-band MMIC technology for an Orbiter/ACTS communications experiment, a space-based millimeter wave debris tracking radar, low-noise high-yield octave-band feedback amplifiers to 20 GHz, quasi-optical MESFET VCOs, and a high-dynamic-range mixer using novel balun structure.

  2. A fully integrated, monolithic, cryogenic charge sensitive preamplifier using N-channel JFETs and polysilicon resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, T.S.; Guckel, H.; Seefeldt, J.; Ott, G.; Ahn, Y.C.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, an integrated charge preamplifier to be used with small (10--30 mm 2 ) Si(Li) and Ge(Li) X-ray detectors is described. The preamplifier is designed to operate at cryogenic temperatures (∼100 K to 160 K) for the best performance. An N-channel JFET process technology for integrated charge sensitive preamplifiers has been developed. The process integrates multiple pinch-off voltage JFETs fabricated in an n-type epitaxial layer on a low resistivity p-type substrate. The process also incorporates polysilicon resistors integrated on the same die as the JFETs. The optimized polysilicon resistors exhibit 1/f noise nearly as good as metal film resistors at the same current. Results for integrated amplifier are discussed

  3. High gain semiconductor optical amplifier — Laser diode at visible wavelength

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao; Lee, Changmin; Ng, Tien Khee; Nakamura, Shuji; Speck, James S.; DenBaars, Steven P.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; El-Desouki, Munir M.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    We reported on the first experimental demonstration of a two-section semipolar InGaN-based laser diode with monolithically integrated semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA-LD). The onset of amplification effect was measured at 4V SOA bias (VSOA). The SOA-LD shows a large gain of 5.32 dB at Vsoa = 6 V.

  4. High gain semiconductor optical amplifier — Laser diode at visible wavelength

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2017-02-07

    We reported on the first experimental demonstration of a two-section semipolar InGaN-based laser diode with monolithically integrated semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA-LD). The onset of amplification effect was measured at 4V SOA bias (VSOA). The SOA-LD shows a large gain of 5.32 dB at Vsoa = 6 V.

  5. 75 FR 75694 - Certain Semiconductor Integration Circuits Using Tungsten Metallization and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-648] Certain Semiconductor Integration... Dismiss the Investigation as Moot AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has determined to issue an order...

  6. Imaging and chemical surface analysis of biomolecular functionalization of monolithically integrated on silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometric immunosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajos, Katarzyna; Angelopoulou, Michailia; Petrou, Panagiota; Awsiuk, Kamil; Kakabakos, Sotirios; Haasnoot, Willem; Bernasik, Andrzej; Rysz, Jakub; Marzec, Mateusz M.; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Ioannis; Budkowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization of probe immobilization with robotic spotter printing overlapping spots. • In-situ inspection of microstructured surfaces of biosensors integrated on silicon. • Imaging and chemical analysis of immobilization, surface blocking and immunoreaction. • Insight with molecular discrimination into step-by-step sensor surface modifications. • Optimized biofunctionalization improves sensor sensitivity and response repeatability. - Abstract: Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (imaging, micro-analysis) has been employed to evaluate biofunctionalization of the sensing arm areas of Mach-Zehnder interferometers monolithically integrated on silicon chips for the immunochemical (competitive) detection of bovine κ-casein in goat milk. Biosensor surfaces are examined after: modification with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, application of multiple overlapping spots of κ-casein solutions, blocking with 100-times diluted goat milk, and reaction with monoclonal mouse anti-κ-casein antibodies in blocking solution. The areas spotted with κ-casein solutions of different concentrations are examined and optimum concentration providing homogeneous coverage is determined. Coverage of biosensor surfaces with biomolecules after each of the sequential steps employed in immunodetection is also evaluated with TOF-SIMS, supplemented by Atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Uniform molecular distributions are observed on the sensing arm areas after spotting with optimum κ-casein concentration, blocking and immunoreaction. The corresponding biomolecular compositions are determined with a Principal Component Analysis that distinguished between protein amino acids and milk glycerides, as well as between amino acids characteristic for Mabs and κ-casein, respectively. Use of the optimum conditions (κ-casein concentration) for functionalization of chips with arrays of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers provided on-chips assays

  7. Imaging and chemical surface analysis of biomolecular functionalization of monolithically integrated on silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometric immunosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajos, Katarzyna, E-mail: kasia.fornal@uj.edu.pl [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Angelopoulou, Michailia; Petrou, Panagiota [Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Awsiuk, Kamil [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Kakabakos, Sotirios [Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Haasnoot, Willem [RIKILT Wageningen UR, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB Wageningen (Netherlands); Bernasik, Andrzej [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Rysz, Jakub [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Marzec, Mateusz M. [Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Misiakos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Ioannis [Department of Microelectronics, Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Budkowski, Andrzej [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Optimization of probe immobilization with robotic spotter printing overlapping spots. • In-situ inspection of microstructured surfaces of biosensors integrated on silicon. • Imaging and chemical analysis of immobilization, surface blocking and immunoreaction. • Insight with molecular discrimination into step-by-step sensor surface modifications. • Optimized biofunctionalization improves sensor sensitivity and response repeatability. - Abstract: Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (imaging, micro-analysis) has been employed to evaluate biofunctionalization of the sensing arm areas of Mach-Zehnder interferometers monolithically integrated on silicon chips for the immunochemical (competitive) detection of bovine κ-casein in goat milk. Biosensor surfaces are examined after: modification with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, application of multiple overlapping spots of κ-casein solutions, blocking with 100-times diluted goat milk, and reaction with monoclonal mouse anti-κ-casein antibodies in blocking solution. The areas spotted with κ-casein solutions of different concentrations are examined and optimum concentration providing homogeneous coverage is determined. Coverage of biosensor surfaces with biomolecules after each of the sequential steps employed in immunodetection is also evaluated with TOF-SIMS, supplemented by Atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Uniform molecular distributions are observed on the sensing arm areas after spotting with optimum κ-casein concentration, blocking and immunoreaction. The corresponding biomolecular compositions are determined with a Principal Component Analysis that distinguished between protein amino acids and milk glycerides, as well as between amino acids characteristic for Mabs and κ-casein, respectively. Use of the optimum conditions (κ-casein concentration) for functionalization of chips with arrays of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers provided on-chips assays

  8. MeV He microbeam analysis of a semiconductor integrated circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Peiran; Liu Jiarui; Zhang Jinping; Yin Shiduan

    1989-01-01

    An MeV He + microbeam has been used to analyse a microscale semiconductor structure. The 2 MeV He + ion beam is limited to 25 μm diameter by a set of diaphragms and is further focused by a quadrupole quadruplet to 3μm diameter. The incident beam current on the sample is about 0.3 nA. The Rutherford backscattering (RBS) technique is applied to the measurement of the composition and depth profile in the near-surface region of a semiconductor integrated circuit. (author)

  9. Integrated semiconductor optical sensors for chronic, minimally-invasive imaging of brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas T; Levi, Ofer; Cang, Jianhua; Kaneko, Megumi; Stryker, Michael P; Smith, Stephen J; Shenoy, Krishna V; Harris, James S

    2006-01-01

    Intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging is a widely accepted technique for imaging brain activity. We propose an integrated device consisting of interleaved arrays of gallium arsenide (GaAs) based semiconductor light sources and detectors operating at telecommunications wavelengths in the near-infrared. Such a device will allow for long-term, minimally invasive monitoring of neural activity in freely behaving subjects, and will enable the use of structured illumination patterns to improve system performance. In this work we describe the proposed system and show that near-infrared IOS imaging at wavelengths compatible with semiconductor devices can produce physiologically significant images in mice, even through skull.

  10. MeV He microbeam analysis of a semiconductor integrated circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Peiran; Liu Jiarui; Zhang Jinping; Yin Shiduan

    1989-01-01

    An MeV He/sup +/ microbeam has been used to analyse a microscale semiconductor structure. The 2 MeV He/sup +/ ion beam is limited to 25 /mu/m diameter by a set of diaphragms and is further focused by a quadrupole quadruplet to 3/mu/m diameter. The incident beam current on the sample is about 0.3 nA. The Rutherford backscattering (RBS) technique is applied to the measurement of the composition and depth profile in the near-surface region of a semiconductor integrated circuit.

  11. Organic Optical Sensor Based on Monolithic Integration of Organic Electronic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoi Lam Tam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel organic optical sensor that integrates a front organic light-emitting diode (OLED and an organic photodiode (OPD is demonstrated. The stripe-shaped cathode is used in the OLED components to create light signals, while the space between the stripe-shaped cathodes serves as the detection window for integrated OPD units. A MoO3 (5 nm/Ag (15 nm bi-layer inter-electrode is interposed between the vertically stacked OLED and OPD units, serving simultaneously as the cathode for the front OLED and an anode for the upper OPD units in the sensor. In the integrated sensor, the emission of the OLED units is confined by the area of the opaque stripe-shaped cathodes, optimized to maximize the reflected light passing through the window space for detection by the OPD components. This can ensure high OLED emission output, increasing the signal/noise ratio. The design and fabrication flexibility of an integrated OLED/OPD device also has low cost benefits, and is light weight and ultra-thin, making it possible for application in wearable units, finger print identification, image sensors, smart light sources, and compact information systems.

  12. InP monolithically integrated label swapper device for spectral amplitude coded optical packet networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz, P.; García-Olcina, R.; Doménech, J.D.; Rius, M.; Sancho, J.C.; Capmany, J.; Chen, L.R.; Habib, C.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Vries, de T.; Heck, M.J.R.; Augustin, L.M.; Nötzel, R.; Robbins, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a label swapping device, for spectral amplitude coded optical packet networks, fully integrated using InP technology is presented. Compared to previous demonstrations using discrete component assembly, the device footprint is reduced by a factor of 105 and the operation speed is

  13. Near-IR Spectral Imaging of Semiconductor Absorption Sites in Integrated Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Samson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We derive spectral maps of absorption sites in integrated circuits (ICs by varying the wavelength of the optical probe within the near-IR range. This method has allowed us to improve the contrast of the acquired images by revealing structures that have a different optical absorption from neighboring sites. A false color composite image from those acquired at different wavelengths is generated from which the response of each semiconductor structure can be deduced. With the aid of the spectral maps, nonuniform absorption was also observed in a semiconductor structure located near an electrical overstress defect. This method may prove important in failure analysis of ICs by uncovering areas exhibiting anomalous absorption, which could improve localization of defective edifices in the semiconductor parts of the microchip

  14. Development of integrated semiconductor optical sensors for functional brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas T.

    Optical imaging of neural activity is a widely accepted technique for imaging brain function in the field of neuroscience research, and has been used to study the cerebral cortex in vivo for over two decades. Maps of brain activity are obtained by monitoring intensity changes in back-scattered light, called Intrinsic Optical Signals (IOS), that correspond to fluctuations in blood oxygenation and volume associated with neural activity. Current imaging systems typically employ bench-top equipment including lamps and CCD cameras to study animals using visible light. Such systems require the use of anesthetized or immobilized subjects with craniotomies, which imposes limitations on the behavioral range and duration of studies. The ultimate goal of this work is to overcome these limitations by developing a single-chip semiconductor sensor using arrays of sources and detectors operating at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. A single-chip implementation, combined with wireless telemetry, will eliminate the need for immobilization or anesthesia of subjects and allow in vivo studies of free behavior. NIR light offers additional advantages because it experiences less absorption in animal tissue than visible light, which allows for imaging through superficial tissues. This, in turn, reduces or eliminates the need for traumatic surgery and enables long-term brain-mapping studies in freely-behaving animals. This dissertation concentrates on key engineering challenges of implementing the sensor. This work shows the feasibility of using a GaAs-based array of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) and PIN photodiodes for IOS imaging. I begin with in-vivo studies of IOS imaging through the skull in mice, and use these results along with computer simulations to establish minimum performance requirements for light sources and detectors. I also evaluate the performance of a current commercial VCSEL for IOS imaging, and conclude with a proposed prototype sensor.

  15. Optical Sensitivity of a Monolithic Integrated InP PIN-HEMT-HBT Transimpedance Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Matiss, A.; Janssen, G.; Bertenburg, R. M.; Brockerhoff, W.; Tegude, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    To improve sensitivity of optical receivers, a special integration concept is chosen that includes a pinphotodiode, high-electron mobility transistors (HEMT) and heterostructure bipolar transistors (HBT) on a single substrate. This work focuses on the optimization of the amplifier design to achieve lowest input noise currents of a transimpedance amplifier, and thus highest receiver sensitivity. The respective advantages of the components used are investigated with respect...

  16. Comparison of the noise performance of 10 GHz repetition rate quantum-dot and quantum well monolithic mode-locked semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpintero, G.; Thompson, M. G.; Yvind, Kresten

    2011-01-01

    fabricated with different material gain systems, one quantum well and the other quantum dot (QD), both with a monolithic all-active two-section mode-locked structure. Two important factors are identified as having a significant effect on the noise performance, the RF linewidth of the first harmonic......Mode-locked lasers are commonly used in carrier-wave signal generation systems because of their excellent phase noise performance. Owing to the importance of this key parameter, this study presents a like-for-like comparison of the noise performance of the passive mode-locked regime of two devices...... and the shape of the noise pedestals, both depending on the passive mode-locked bias conditions. Nevertheless, the dominant contribution of the RF linewidth to the phase noise, which is significantly narrower for the QD laser, makes this material more suitable for optical generation of low-noise millimetre...

  17. Computer-aided engineering of semiconductor integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, J. D.; Dutton, R. W.; Gibbons, J. F.; Helms, C. R.; Plummer, J. D.; Tiller, W. A.; Ho, C. P.; Saraswat, K. C.; Deal, B. E.; Kamins, T. I.

    1980-07-01

    Economical procurement of small quantities of high performance custom integrated circuits for military systems is impeded by inadequate process, device and circuit models that handicap low cost computer aided design. The principal objective of this program is to formulate physical models of fabrication processes, devices and circuits to allow total computer-aided design of custom large-scale integrated circuits. The basic areas under investigation are (1) thermal oxidation, (2) ion implantation and diffusion, (3) chemical vapor deposition of silicon and refractory metal silicides, (4) device simulation and analytic measurements. This report discusses the fourth year of the program.

  18. Plastic lab-on-a-chip for fluorescence excitation with integrated organic semiconductor lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Klinkhammer, Sönke; Lemmer, Uli; Mappes, Timo

    2011-04-25

    Laser light excitation of fluorescent markers offers highly sensitive and specific analysis for bio-medical or chemical analysis. To profit from these advantages for applications in the field or at the point-of-care, a plastic lab-on-a-chip with integrated organic semiconductor lasers is presented here. First order distributed feedback lasers based on the organic semiconductor tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) doped with the laser dye 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyril)-4H-pyrane (DCM), deep ultraviolet induced waveguides, and a nanostructured microfluidic channel are integrated into a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate. A simple and parallel fabrication process is used comprising thermal imprint, DUV exposure, evaporation of the laser material, and sealing by thermal bonding. The excitation of two fluorescent marker model systems including labeled antibodies with light emitted by integrated lasers is demonstrated.

  19. Monolithic nanoscale photonics-electronics integration in silicon and other group IV elements

    CERN Document Server

    Radamson, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Silicon technology is evolving rapidly, particularly in board-to-board or chip-to chip applications. Increasingly, the electronic parts of silicon technology will carry out the data processing, while the photonic parts take care of the data communication. For the first time, this book describes the merging of photonics and electronics in silicon and other group IV elements. It presents the challenges, the limitations, and the upcoming possibilities of these developments. The book describes the evolution of CMOS integrated electronics, status and development, and the fundamentals of silicon p

  20. Monolithic integration of optical waveguides for absorbance detection in microfabricated electrophoresis devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Petersen, Nickolaj Jacob; Hübner, Jörg

    2001-01-01

    . The waveguides on the device were connected to optical fibers, which enabled alignment free operation due to the absence of free-space optics. A 750 mum long U-shaped detection cell was used to facilitate longitudinal absorption detection. To minimize geometrically induced band broadening at the turn in the U......The fabrication and performance of an electrophoretic separation chip with integrated of optical waveguides for absorption detection is presented. The device was fabricated on a silicon substrate by standard microfabrication techniques with the use of two photolithographic mask steps...

  1. Piezoelectric strained layer semiconductor lasers and integrated modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The properties, benefits and limitations of strained InGaAs/GaAs quantum well lasers and modulators grown on (111)B GaAs have been studied. Particular interest in this material system arose from the predicted increase in critical layer thickness, which would facilitate semiconductor lasers emitting beyond 1 μm. However, the recent discovery of a new type of misfit dislocation indicates that the critical layer thickness in this system is closer to that of (001) orientated structures. Photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy presented in this study support this predicted reduction of the critical layer thickness and the resulting limitations on the emission wavelength. The absence of 3D growth in this system may however be advantageous when high reproducibility and reliable lasing operation beyond 1 μm are required. The piezoelectric field originating from strained growth on substrate orientations other than (001) was studied and its influence on transition energies and absorptive behaviour were investigated. The piezoelectric constant was found to show significant temperature dependence and, as also indicated in earlier studies, its value is smaller then the linearly interpolated value. When the effects of indium segregation on the transition energies is considered, the reduction is significantly smaller. Good agreement between theory and experiment was obtained using 86% of the value linearly interpolated between the binaries at room temperature and 82% at low temperature. Broad area lasers were fabricated emitting at lasing wavelengths of up to 1.08 μm with threshold current densities as low as 80 A/cm 2 at room temperature under continuous wave operation. Increasing the indium composition and strain within the limit of strain relaxation was demonstrated to improve device performance significantly. Furthermore, ridge waveguide lasers were fabricated exhibiting monomode emission at wavelengths up to 1.07 μm with a threshold current of 19 mA at

  2. Monolithic photonic integrated circuit with a GaN-based bent waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wei; Qin, Chuan; Zhang, Shuai; Yuan, Jialei; Zhang, Fenghua; Wang, Yongjin

    2018-06-01

    Integration of a transmitter, waveguide and receiver into a single chip can generate a multicomponent system with multiple functionalities. Here, we fabricate and characterize a GaN-based photonic integrated circuit (PIC) on a GaN-on-silicon platform. With removal of the silicon and back wafer thinning of the epitaxial film, ultrathin membrane-type devices and highly confined suspended GaN waveguides were formed. Two suspended-membrane InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well diodes (MQW-diodes) served as an MQW light-emitting diode (MQW-LED) to emit light and an MQW photodiode (MQW-PD) to sense light. The optical interconnects between the MQW-LED and MQW-PD were achieved using the GaN bent waveguide. The GaN-based PIC consisting of an MQW-LED, waveguides and an MQW-PD forms an in-plane light communication system with a data transmission rate of 70 Mbps.

  3. Monolithic beam steering in a mid-infrared, surface-emitting, photonic integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slivken, Steven; Wu, Donghai; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2017-08-16

    The mid-infrared (2.5 < λ < 25 μm) spectral region is utilized for many purposes, such as chemical/biological sensing, free space communications, and illuminators/countermeasures. Compared to near-infrared optical systems, however, mid-infrared component technology is still rather crude, with isolated components exhibiting limited functionality. In this manuscript, we make a significant leap forward in mid-infrared technology by developing a platform which can combine functions of multiple mid-infrared optical elements, including an integrated light source. In a single device, we demonstrate wide wavelength tuning (240 nm) and beam steering (17.9 degrees) in the mid-infrared with a significantly reduced beam divergence (down to 0.5 degrees). The architecture is also set up to be manufacturable and testable on a wafer scale, requiring no cleaved facets or special mirror coating to function.

  4. MEMS capacitive pressure sensor monolithically integrated with CMOS readout circuit by using post CMOS processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Munseon; Yun, Kwang-Seok

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we presents a MEMS pressure sensor integrated with a readout circuit on a chip for an on-chip signal processing. The capacitive pressure sensor is formed on a CMOS chip by using a post-CMOS MEMS processes. The proposed device consists of a sensing capacitor that is square in shape, a reference capacitor and a readout circuitry based on a switched-capacitor scheme to detect capacitance change at various environmental pressures. The readout circuit was implemented by using a commercial 0.35 μm CMOS process with 2 polysilicon and 4 metal layers. Then, the pressure sensor was formed by wet etching of metal 2 layer through via hole structures. Experimental results show that the MEMS pressure sensor has a sensitivity of 11 mV/100 kPa at the pressure range of 100-400 kPa.

  5. Process Optimization for Monolithic Integration of Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor and MOSFET Amplifier with SOI Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V Vinoth; Dasgupta, A; Bhat, K N; KNatarajan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present the design and process optimization for fabricating piezoresitive pressure sensor and MOSFET Differential Amplifier simultaneously on the same chip. Silicon On Insulator approach has been used for realizing the membrane as well as the electronics on the same chip. The amplifier circuit has been configured in the common source connection and it has been designed with PSPICE simulation to achieve a voltage gain of about 5. In the initial set of experiments the Pressure sensor and the amplifier were fabricated on separate chips to optimize the process steps and tested in the hybrid mode. In the next set of experiments, SOI wafer having the SOI layer thickness of about 11 microns was used for realizing the membrane by anisotropic etching from the backside. The piezo-resistive pressure sensor was realized on this membrane by connecting the polysilicon resistors in the form of a Wheatstone bridge. The MOSFET source follower amplifier was also fabricated on the same SOI wafer by tailoring the process steps to suit the requirement of simultaneous fabrication of piezoresistors and the amplifier for achieving MOSFET Integrated Pressure Sensor. Reproducible results have been achieved on the SOI wafers, with the process steps developed in the laboratory. Sensitivity of 270 mV /Bar/10V, with the on chip amplifier gain of 4.5, has been achieved with this process

  6. Integrated Design Software Predicts the Creep Life of Monolithic Ceramic Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Significant improvements in propulsion and power generation for the next century will require revolutionary advances in high-temperature materials and structural design. Advanced ceramics are candidate materials for these elevated-temperature applications. As design protocols emerge for these material systems, designers must be aware of several innate features, including the degrading ability of ceramics to carry sustained load. Usually, time-dependent failure in ceramics occurs because of two different, delayedfailure mechanisms: slow crack growth and creep rupture. Slow crack growth initiates at a preexisting flaw and continues until a critical crack length is reached, causing catastrophic failure. Creep rupture, on the other hand, occurs because of bulk damage in the material: void nucleation and coalescence that eventually leads to macrocracks which then propagate to failure. Successful application of advanced ceramics depends on proper characterization of material behavior and the use of an appropriate design methodology. The life of a ceramic component can be predicted with the NASA Lewis Research Center's Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures (CARES) integrated design programs. CARES/CREEP determines the expected life of a component under creep conditions, and CARES/LIFE predicts the component life due to fast fracture and subcritical crack growth. The previously developed CARES/LIFE program has been used in numerous industrial and Government applications.

  7. Monolithic integration of InGaAs/InP multiple quantum wells on SOI substrates for photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhibo; Wang, Mengqi; Fang, Xin; Li, Yajie; Zhou, Xuliang; Yu, Hongyan; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Wei; Pan, Jiaoqing

    2018-02-01

    A direct epitaxy of III-V nanowires with InGaAs/InP multiple quantum wells on v-shaped trenches patterned silicon on insulator (SOI) substrates was realized by combining the standard semiconductor fabrication process with the aspect ratio trapping growth technique. Silicon thickness as well as the width and gap of each nanowire were carefully designed to accommodate essential optical properties and appropriate growth conditions. The III-V element ingredient, crystalline quality, and surface topography of the grown nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and scanning electron microscope. Geometrical details and chemical information of multiple quantum wells were revealed by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Numerical simulations confirmed that the optical guided mode supported by one single nanowire was able to propagate 50 μm with ˜30% optical loss. This proposed integration scheme opens up an alternative pathway for future photonic integrations of III-V devices on the SOI platform at nanoscale.

  8. The role of contacts in semiconductor gamma radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachish, U.

    1998-01-01

    It is proposed that the operation of semiconductor gamma radiation detectors, equipped with ohmic contacts, which allow free electron flow between the contacts and bulk material, will not be sensitive to low hole mobility, hole collection efficiency, or hole trapping. Such fast-operating detectors may be readily integrated into monolithic arrays. The detection mechanism and various material aspects are discussed and compared to those of blocking contact detectors. Some suggestions for detector realization are presented. (orig.)

  9. Superconducting detectors for semiconductor quantum photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reithmaier, Guenther M.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we present the first successful on-chip detection of quantum light, thereby demonstrating the monolithic integration of superconducting single photon detectors with individually addressable semiconductor quantum dots in a prototypical quantum photonic circuit. Therefore, we optimized both the deposition of high quality superconducting NbN thin films on GaAs substrates and the fabrication of superconducting detectors and successfully integrated these novel devices with GaAs/AlGaAs ridge waveguides loaded with self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots.

  10. 77 FR 19032 - Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same Notice of Receipt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ...Notice is hereby given that the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same, DN 2888; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint or complainant's filing under section 210.8(b) of the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure (19 CFR 210.8(b)).

  11. Tests and final integration of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Mikulec, Bettina

    2005-01-01

    The Silicon Tracker (SCT) is part of the Inner Detector at the ATLAS experiment at CERN. Its basic building blocks are 5 different types of silicon strip modules. In total more than 15000 p-on-n single-sided silicon strip sensors of an area of about 61 m2 were used to produce 4088 SCT modules. An overall module production yield of 92% could be achieved, where the silicon modules comply with the tight electrical, thermal and mechanical specifications. The macro-assembly of 2112 barrel modules to the four barrel support cylinders was successfully carried out. The nine disks of one endcap are fully populated with 988 modules, and for the second endcap more than 50% of the modules are already mounted. Test results operating complete barrels will be presented as well as a description of the test setup. The different integration steps of the SCT with the surrounding Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) will be explained. The installation of SCT and TRT into the ATLAS pit will happen during 2006.

  12. An Ultrathin Single Crystalline Relaxor Ferroelectric Integrated on a High Mobility Semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghadam, Reza M. [Department; Xiao, Zhiyong [Department; Ahmadi-Majlan, Kamyar [Department; Grimley, Everett D. [Department; Bowden, Mark [Environmental; amp, Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Ong, Phuong-Vu [Physical; amp, Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Chambers, Scott A. [Physical; amp, Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Lebeau, James M. [Department; Hong, Xia [Department; Sushko, Peter V. [Physical; amp, Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Ngai, Joseph H. [Department

    2017-09-13

    The epitaxial growth of multifunctional oxides on semiconductors has opened a pathway to introduce new functionalities to semiconductor device technologies. In particular, ferroelectric materials integrated on semiconductors could lead to low-power field-effect devices that can be used for logic or memory. Essential to realizing such field-effect devices is the development of ferroelectric metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors, in which the polarization of a ferroelectric gate is coupled to the surface potential of a semiconducting channel. Here we demonstrate that ferroelectric MOS capacitors can be realized using single crystalline SrZrxTi1-xO3 (x= 0.7) that has been epitaxially grown on Ge. We find that the ferroelectric properties of SrZrxTi1-xO3 are exceptionally robust, as gate layers as thin as 5 nm give rise to hysteretic capacitance-voltage characteristics that are 2 V in width. The development of ferroelectric MOS capacitors with gate thicknesses that are technologically relevant opens a pathway to realize scalable ferroelectric field-effect devices.

  13. A G-band terahertz monolithic integrated amplifier in 0.5-μm InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ou-Peng; Zhang Yong; Xu Rui-Min; Cheng Wei; Wang Yuan; Niu Bing; Lu Hai-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Design and characterization of a G-band (140–220 GHz) terahertz monolithic integrated circuit (TMIC) amplifier in eight-stage common-emitter topology are performed based on the 0.5-μm InGaAs/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT). An inverted microstrip line is implemented to avoid a parasitic mode between the ground plane and the InP substrate. The on-wafer measurement results show that peak gains are 20 dB at 140 GHz and more than 15-dB gain at 140–190 GHz respectively. The saturation output powers are −2.688 dBm at 210 GHz and −2.88 dBm at 220 GHz, respectively. It is the first report on an amplifier operating at the G-band based on 0.5-μm InP DHBT technology. Compared with the hybrid integrated circuit of vacuum electronic devices, the monolithic integrated circuit has the advantage of reliability and consistency. This TMIC demonstrates the feasibility of the 0.5-μm InGaAs/InP DHBT amplifier in G-band frequencies applications. (paper)

  14. The Study of an Integrated Rating System for Supplier Quality Performance in the Semiconductor Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Cheng; Yen, Tieh-Min; Tsai, Chih-Hung

    This study provides an integrated model of Supplier Quality Performance Assesment (SQPA) activity for the semiconductor industry through introducing the ISO 9001 management framework, Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) Supplier Quality Performance Assesment and Taguchi`s Signal-to-Noise Ratio (S/N) techniques. This integrated model provides a SQPA methodology to create value for all members under mutual cooperation and trust in the supply chain. This method helps organizations build a complete SQPA framework, linking organizational objectives and SQPA activities to optimize rating techniques to promote supplier quality improvement. The techniques used in SQPA activities are easily understood. A case involving a design house is illustrated to show our model.

  15. Probing the exciton density of states in semiconductor nanocrystals using integrated photoluminescence spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Filonovich, S A; Vasilevskiy, M I; Rolo, A G; Gomes, M J M; Artemiev, M V; Talapin, D V; Rogach, A L

    2002-01-01

    We present the results of a comparative analysis of the absorption and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra vs. integrated photoluminescence (IPL) measured as a function of the excitation wavelength for a number of samples containing II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) produced by different techniques. The structure of the absorption and PL spectra due to excitons confined in NCs and difficulties with the correct interpretation of the transmittance and PLE results are discussed. It is shown that, compared to the conventional PLE, the IPL intensity plotted against the excitation wavelength (IPLE spectra) reproduce better the structure of the absorption spectra. Therefore, IPLE spectroscopy can be successfully used for probing the quantized electron-hole (e-h) transitions in semiconductor nanocrystals. (author)

  16. Selective epitaxial growth of monolithically integrated GaN-based light emitting diodes with AlGaN/GaN driving transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhaojun; Ma, Jun; Huang, Tongde; Liu, Chao; May Lau, Kei

    2014-01-01

    In this Letter, we report selective epitaxial growth of monolithically integrated GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) drivers. A comparison of two integration schemes, selective epitaxial removal (SER), and selective epitaxial growth (SEG) was made. We found the SER resulted in serious degradation of the underlying LEDs in a HEMT-on-LED structure due to damage of the p-GaN surface. The problem was circumvented using the SEG that avoided plasma etching and minimized device degradation. The integrated HEMT-LEDs by SEG exhibited comparable characteristics as unintegrated devices and emitted modulated blue light by gate biasing

  17. All-optical SR flip-flop based on SOA-MZI switches monolithically integrated on a generic InP platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitris, St.; Vagionas, Ch.; Kanellos, G. T.; Kisacik, R.; Tekin, T.; Broeke, R.; Pleros, N.

    2016-03-01

    At the dawning of the exaflop era, High Performance Computers are foreseen to exploit integrated all-optical elements, to overcome the speed limitations imposed by electronic counterparts. Drawing from the well-known Memory Wall limitation, imposing a performance gap between processor and memory speeds, research has focused on developing ultra-fast latching devices and all-optical memory elements capable of delivering buffering and switching functionalities at unprecedented bit-rates. Following the master-slave configuration of electronic Flip-Flops, coupled SOA-MZI based switches have been theoretically investigated to exceed 40 Gb/s operation, provided a short coupling waveguide. However, this flip-flop architecture has been only hybridly integrated with silica-on-silicon integration technology exhibiting a total footprint of 45x12 mm2 and intra-Flip-Flop coupling waveguide of 2.5cm, limited at 5 Gb/s operation. Monolithic integration offers the possibility to fabricate multiple active and passive photonic components on a single chip at a close proximity towards, bearing promises for fast all-optical memories. Here, we present for the first time a monolithically integrated all-optical SR Flip-Flop with coupled master-slave SOA-MZI switches. The photonic chip is integrated on a 6x2 mm2 die as a part of a multi-project wafer run using library based components of a generic InP platform, fiber-pigtailed and fully packaged on a temperature controlled ceramic submount module with electrical contacts. The intra Flip-Flop coupling waveguide is 5 mm long, reducing the total footprint by two orders of magnitude. Successful flip flop functionality is evaluated at 10 Gb/s with clear open eye diagram, achieving error free operation with a power penalty of 4dB.

  18. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits for sensors, radar, and communications systems; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 2-4, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Regis F.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    Consideration is given to MMICs for airborne phased arrays, monolithic GaAs integrated circuit millimeter wave imaging sensors, accurate design of multiport low-noise MMICs up to 20 GHz, an ultralinear low-noise amplifier technology for space communications, variable-gain MMIC module for space applications, a high-efficiency dual-band power amplifier for radar applications, a high-density circuit approach for low-cost MMIC circuits, coplanar SIMMWIC circuits, recent advances in monolithic phased arrays, and system-level integrated circuit development for phased-array antenna applications. Consideration is also given to performance enhancement in future communications satellites with MMIC technology insertion, application of Ka-band MMIC technology for an Orbiter/ACTS communications experiment, a space-based millimeter wave debris tracking radar, low-noise high-yield octave-band feedback amplifiers to 20 GHz, quasi-optical MESFET VCOs, and a high-dynamic-range mixer using novel balun structure. (For individual items see A93-25777 to A93-25814)

  19. A new approximation of Fermi-Dirac integrals of order 1/2 for degenerate semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQurashi, Ahmed; Selvakumar, C. R.

    2018-06-01

    There had been tremendous growth in the field of Integrated circuits (ICs) in the past fifty years. Scaling laws mandated both lateral and vertical dimensions to be reduced and a steady increase in doping densities. Most of the modern semiconductor devices have invariably heavily doped regions where Fermi-Dirac Integrals are required. Several attempts have been devoted to developing analytical approximations for Fermi-Dirac Integrals since numerical computations of Fermi-Dirac Integrals are difficult to use in semiconductor devices, although there are several highly accurate tabulated functions available. Most of these analytical expressions are not sufficiently suitable to be employed in semiconductor device applications due to their poor accuracy, the requirement of complicated calculations, and difficulties in differentiating and integrating. A new approximation has been developed for the Fermi-Dirac integrals of the order 1/2 by using Prony's method and discussed in this paper. The approximation is accurate enough (Mean Absolute Error (MAE) = 0.38%) and easy enough to be used in semiconductor device equations. The new approximation of Fermi-Dirac Integrals is applied to a more generalized Einstein Relation which is an important relation in semiconductor devices.

  20. Integrated Materials Design of Organic Semiconductors for Field-Effect Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jianguo

    2013-05-08

    The past couple of years have witnessed a remarkable burst in the development of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), with a number of organic semiconductors surpassing the benchmark mobility of 10 cm2/(V s). In this perspective, we highlight some of the major milestones along the way to provide a historical view of OFET development, introduce the integrated molecular design concepts and process engineering approaches that lead to the current success, and identify the challenges ahead to make OFETs applicable in real applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  1. Integrated materials design of organic semiconductors for field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jianguo; Diao, Ying; Appleton, Anthony L; Fang, Lei; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-05-08

    The past couple of years have witnessed a remarkable burst in the development of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), with a number of organic semiconductors surpassing the benchmark mobility of 10 cm(2)/(V s). In this perspective, we highlight some of the major milestones along the way to provide a historical view of OFET development, introduce the integrated molecular design concepts and process engineering approaches that lead to the current success, and identify the challenges ahead to make OFETs applicable in real applications.

  2. Flexible Electronics: Integration Processes for Organic and Inorganic Semiconductor-Based Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio F. Vidor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Flexible and transparent electronics have been studied intensively during the last few decades. The technique establishes the possibility of fabricating innovative products, from flexible displays to radio-frequency identification tags. Typically, large-area polymeric substrates such as polypropylene (PP or polyethylene terephthalate (PET are used, which produces new requirements for the integration processes. A key element for flexible and transparent electronics is the thin-film transistor (TFT, as it is responsible for the driving current in memory cells, digital circuits or organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs. In this paper, we discuss some fundamental concepts of TFT technology. Additionally, we present a comparison between the use of the semiconducting organic small-molecule pentacene and inorganic nanoparticle semiconductors in order to integrate TFTs suitable for flexible electronics. Moreover, a technique for integration with a submicron resolution suitable for glass and foil substrates is presented.

  3. Monoliths in Bioprocess Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignesh Rajamanickam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic columns are a special type of chromatography column, which can be used for the purification of different biomolecules. They have become popular due to their high mass transfer properties and short purification times. Several articles have already discussed monolith manufacturing, as well as monolith characteristics. In contrast, this review focuses on the applied aspect of monoliths and discusses the most relevant biomolecules that can be successfully purified by them. We describe success stories for viruses, nucleic acids and proteins and compare them to conventional purification methods. Furthermore, the advantages of monolithic columns over particle-based resins, as well as the limitations of monoliths are discussed. With a compilation of commercially available monolithic columns, this review aims at serving as a ‘yellow pages’ for bioprocess engineers who face the challenge of purifying a certain biomolecule using monoliths.

  4. Automatic and integrated micro-enzyme assay (AIμEA) platform for highly sensitive thrombin analysis via an engineered fluorescence protein-functionalized monolithic capillary column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lihua; Liu, Shengquan; Nie, Zhou; Chen, Yingzhuang; Lei, Chunyang; Wang, Zhen; Yin, Chao; Hu, Huiping; Huang, Yan; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2015-04-21

    Nowadays, large-scale screening for enzyme discovery, engineering, and drug discovery processes require simple, fast, and sensitive enzyme activity assay platforms with high integration and potential for high-throughput detection. Herein, a novel automatic and integrated micro-enzyme assay (AIμEA) platform was proposed based on a unique microreaction system fabricated by a engineered green fluorescence protein (GFP)-functionalized monolithic capillary column, with thrombin as an example. The recombinant GFP probe was rationally engineered to possess a His-tag and a substrate sequence of thrombin, which enable it to be immobilized on the monolith via metal affinity binding, and to be released after thrombin digestion. Combined with capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF), all the procedures, including thrombin injection, online enzymatic digestion in the microreaction system, and label-free detection of the released GFP, were integrated in a single electrophoretic process. By taking advantage of the ultrahigh loading capacity of the AIμEA platform and the CE automatic programming setup, one microreaction column was sufficient for many times digestion without replacement. The novel microreaction system showed significantly enhanced catalytic efficiency, about 30 fold higher than that of the equivalent bulk reaction. Accordingly, the AIμEA platform was highly sensitive with a limit of detection down to 1 pM of thrombin. Moreover, the AIμEA platform was robust and reliable to detect thrombin in human serum samples and its inhibition by hirudin. Hence, this AIμEA platform exhibits great potential for high-throughput analysis in future biological application, disease diagnostics, and drug screening.

  5. Integrating sphere based reflectance measurements for small-area semiconductor samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylan, S.; Howells, C. T.; Dahlem, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    This article describes a method that enables reflectance spectroscopy of small semiconductor samples using an integrating sphere, without the use of additional optical elements. We employed an inexpensive sample holder to measure the reflectance of different samples through 2-, 3-, and 4.5-mm-diameter apertures and applied a mathematical formulation to remove the bias from the measured spectra caused by illumination of the holder. Using the proposed method, the reflectance of samples fabricated using expensive or rare materials and/or low-throughput processes can be measured. It can also be incorporated to infer the internal quantum efficiency of small-area, research-level solar cells. Moreover, small samples that reflect light at large angles and develop scattering may also be measured reliably, by virtue of an integrating sphere insensitive to directionalities.

  6. Monolithic Integration of Sampled Grating DBR with Electroabsorption Modulator by Combining Selective-Area-Growth MOCVD and Quantum-Well Intermixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Bo, Liu; Ling-Juan, Zhao; Jiao-Qing, Pan; Hong-Liang, Zhu; Fan, Zhou; Bao-Jun, Wang; Wei, Wang

    2008-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of a sampled-grating distributed Bragg reflector (SG-DBR) laser with a quantum-well electroabsorption modulator (QW-EAM) by combining ultra-low-pressure (55mbar) selective-area-growth (SAG) metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) and quantum-well intermixing (QWI) for the first time. The QW-EAM and the gain section can be grown simultaneously by using SAG MOCVD technology. Meanwhile, the QWI technology offers an abrupt band-gap change between two functional sections, which reduces internal absorption loss. The experimental results show that the threshold current Ith = 62 mA, and output power reaches 3.6mW. The wavelength tuning range covers 30nm, and all the corresponding side mode suppression ratios are over 30 dB. The extinction ratios at available wavelength channels can reach more than 14 dB with bias of -5 V

  7. A Monolithic CMOS Magnetic Hall Sensor with High Sensitivity and Linearity Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiyun; Wang, Dejun; Xu, Yue

    2015-10-27

    This paper presents a fully integrated linear Hall sensor by means of 0.8 μm high voltage complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. This monolithic Hall sensor chip features a highly sensitive horizontal switched Hall plate and an efficient signal conditioner using dynamic offset cancellation technique. An improved cross-like Hall plate achieves high magnetic sensitivity and low offset. A new spinning current modulator stabilizes the quiescent output voltage and improves the reliability of the signal conditioner. The tested results show that at the 5 V supply voltage, the maximum Hall output voltage of the monolithic Hall sensor microsystem, is up to ±2.1 V and the linearity of Hall output voltage is higher than 99% in the magnetic flux density range from ±5 mT to ±175 mT. The output equivalent residual offset is 0.48 mT and the static power consumption is 20 mW.

  8. Vertically integrated, three-dimensional nanowire complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, SungWoo; Jiang, Xiaocheng; Xiong, Qihua; Ham, Donhee; Lieber, Charles M

    2009-12-15

    Three-dimensional (3D), multi-transistor-layer, integrated circuits represent an important technological pursuit promising advantages in integration density, operation speed, and power consumption compared with 2D circuits. We report fully functional, 3D integrated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits based on separate interconnected layers of high-mobility n-type indium arsenide (n-InAs) and p-type germanium/silicon core/shell (p-Ge/Si) nanowire (NW) field-effect transistors (FETs). The DC voltage output (V(out)) versus input (V(in)) response of vertically interconnected CMOS inverters showed sharp switching at close to the ideal value of one-half the supply voltage and, moreover, exhibited substantial DC gain of approximately 45. The gain and the rail-to-rail output switching are consistent with the large noise margin and minimal static power consumption of CMOS. Vertically interconnected, three-stage CMOS ring oscillators were also fabricated by using layer-1 InAs NW n-FETs and layer-2 Ge/Si NW p-FETs. Significantly, measurements of these circuits demonstrated stable, self-sustained oscillations with a maximum frequency of 108 MHz, which represents the highest-frequency integrated circuit based on chemically synthesized nanoscale materials. These results highlight the flexibility of bottom-up assembly of distinct nanoscale materials and suggest substantial promise for 3D integrated circuits.

  9. Integrated Broadband Quantum Cascade Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Kamjou (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A broadband, integrated quantum cascade laser is disclosed, comprising ridge waveguide quantum cascade lasers formed by applying standard semiconductor process techniques to a monolithic structure of alternating layers of claddings and active region layers. The resulting ridge waveguide quantum cascade lasers may be individually controlled by independent voltage potentials, resulting in control of the overall spectrum of the integrated quantum cascade laser source. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  10. Micromachining of semiconductor by femtosecond laser for integrated circuit defect analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbwax, M.; Sarnet, T.; Hermann, J.; Delaporte, Ph.; Sentis, M.; Fares, L.; Haller, G.

    2007-01-01

    The latest International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) has highlighted the detection and analysis of defects in Integrated Circuits (IC) as a major challenge faced by the semiconductor industry. Advanced tools used today for defect cross sectioning include dual beams (focused ion- and electron-beam technologies) with resolution down to the sub-Angstrom level. However ion milling an IC with a FIB is time consuming because of the need to open wide cavities in front of the cross-sections that need to be analyzed. Therefore the use of a femtosecond laser as a tool for direct material removal is discussed in this paper. Experiments were performed on IC structures to reveal the different layers of fabrication: selective or total ablation can occur depending on the laser energy density, without delamination of the layers. Different laser irradiation conditions like pressure (air, vacuum), polarization, beam shaping, and scanning parameters have been used to produce different types of cavities. The femtosecond laser engraving of silicon-based structures could be useful for cross-sectioning devices but also for other applications like direct-write lithography, photomask repair, maskless implantation or reverse engineering/restructuring

  11. Micromachining of semiconductor by femtosecond laser for integrated circuit defect analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbwax, M. [Laboratoire LP3 CNRS UMR 6182, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, Case 917, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13009 Marseille (France); Sarnet, T. [Laboratoire LP3 CNRS UMR 6182, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, Case 917, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13009 Marseille (France)], E-mail: sarnet@lp3.univ-mrs.fr; Hermann, J.; Delaporte, Ph.; Sentis, M. [Laboratoire LP3 CNRS UMR 6182, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, Case 917, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13009 Marseille (France); Fares, L.; Haller, G. [STMicroelectronics, 190 Avenue Celestin Coq, ZI, 13106 Rousset Cedex (France)

    2007-12-15

    The latest International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) has highlighted the detection and analysis of defects in Integrated Circuits (IC) as a major challenge faced by the semiconductor industry. Advanced tools used today for defect cross sectioning include dual beams (focused ion- and electron-beam technologies) with resolution down to the sub-Angstrom level. However ion milling an IC with a FIB is time consuming because of the need to open wide cavities in front of the cross-sections that need to be analyzed. Therefore the use of a femtosecond laser as a tool for direct material removal is discussed in this paper. Experiments were performed on IC structures to reveal the different layers of fabrication: selective or total ablation can occur depending on the laser energy density, without delamination of the layers. Different laser irradiation conditions like pressure (air, vacuum), polarization, beam shaping, and scanning parameters have been used to produce different types of cavities. The femtosecond laser engraving of silicon-based structures could be useful for cross-sectioning devices but also for other applications like direct-write lithography, photomask repair, maskless implantation or reverse engineering/restructuring.

  12. Optoelectronic integrated circuits utilising vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, S D; Fyodorov, V B; Tsvetkov, V V

    1999-01-01

    Optoelectronic integrated circuits with additional optical inputs/outputs, in which vertical-cavity surface-emitting (VCSE) lasers perform the data transfer functions, are considered. The mutual relationship and the 'affinity' between optical means for data transfer and processing, on the one hand, and the traditional electronic component base, on the other, are demonstrated in the case of implementation of three-dimensional interconnects with a high transmission capacity. Attention is drawn to the problems encountered when semiconductor injection lasers are used in communication lines. It is shown what role can be played by VCSE lasers in solving these problems. A detailed analysis is made of the topics relating to possible structural and technological solutions in the fabrication of single lasers and of their arrays, and also of the problems hindering integrating of lasers into emitter arrays. Considerable attention is given to integrated circuits with optoelectronic smart pixels. Various technological methods for vertical integration of GaAs VCSE lasers with the silicon substrate of a microcircuit (chip) are discussed. (review)

  13. Chaos-based communications using semiconductor lasers subject to feedback from an integrated double cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronciu, V Z; Mirasso, Claudio R; Colet, Pere

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of numerical investigations of the dynamical behaviour of an integrated device composed of a semiconductor laser and a double cavity that provides optical feedback. Due to the influence of the feedback, under the appropriate conditions, the system displays chaotic behaviour appropriate for chaos-based communications. The optimal conditions for chaos generation are identified. It is found that the double cavity feedback requires lower feedback strengths for developing high complexity chaos when compared with a single cavity. The synchronization of two unidirectional coupled (master-slave) systems and the influence of parameters mismatch on the synchronization quality are also studied. Finally, examples of message encoding and decoding are presented and discussed

  14. Progress in complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor silicon photonics and optoelectronic integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hongda; Zhang Zan; Huang Beiju; Mao Luhong; Zhang Zanyun

    2015-01-01

    Silicon photonics is an emerging competitive solution for next-generation scalable data communications in different application areas as high-speed data communication is constrained by electrical interconnects. Optical interconnects based on silicon photonics can be used in intra/inter-chip interconnects, board-to-board interconnects, short-reach communications in datacenters, supercomputers and long-haul optical transmissions. In this paper, we present an overview of recent progress in silicon optoelectronic devices and optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs) based on a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor-compatible process, and focus on our research contributions. The silicon optoelectronic devices and OEICs show good characteristics, which are expected to benefit several application domains, including communication, sensing, computing and nonlinear systems. (review)

  15. High-Performance WSe2 Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Technology and Integrated Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lili; Zubair, Ahmad; Santos, Elton J G; Zhang, Xu; Lin, Yuxuan; Zhang, Yuhao; Palacios, Tomás

    2015-08-12

    Because of their extraordinary structural and electrical properties, two-dimensional materials are currently being pursued for applications such as thin-film transistors and integrated circuit. One of the main challenges that still needs to be overcome for these applications is the fabrication of air-stable transistors with industry-compatible complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate a novel high performance air-stable WSe2 CMOS technology with almost ideal voltage transfer characteristic, full logic swing and high noise margin with different supply voltages. More importantly, the inverter shows large voltage gain (∼38) and small static power (picowatts), paving the way for low power electronic system in 2D materials.

  16. Monolithic multinozzle emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daojing [Daly City, CA; Yang, Peidong [Kensington, CA; Kim, Woong [Seoul, KR; Fan, Rong [Pasadena, CA

    2011-09-20

    Novel and significantly simplified procedures for fabrication of fully integrated nanoelectrospray emitters have been described. For nanofabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (NM.sup.2 emitters), a bottom up approach using silicon nanowires on a silicon sliver is used. For microfabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (M.sup.3 emitters), a top down approach using MEMS techniques on silicon wafers is used. The emitters have performance comparable to that of commercially-available silica capillary emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry.

  17. The integration and engineering of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker Barrel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdesselam, A; Barr, A J [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Allport, P P; Austin, N [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Anastopoulos, C [University of Sheffield, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Anderson, B; Attree, D J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London (United Kingdom); Andricek, L; Bangert, A [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Anghinolfi, F [CERN, CH - 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Apsimon, R; Barclay, P; Batchelor, L E [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Atkinson, T [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Barbier, G [Universite de Geneve, Section de Physique, 24 rue Ernest Ansermet, CH - 1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland); Bates, R L; Bell, W H [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Batley, J R [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Beck, G A [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Bell, P J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)] (and others)

    2008-10-15

    The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) was built in three sections: a barrel and two end-caps. This paper describes the design, construction and final integration of the barrel section. The barrel is constructed around four nested cylinders that provide a stable and accurate support structure for the 2112 silicon modules and their associated services. The emphasis of this paper is directed at the aspects of engineering design that turned a concept into a fully-functioning detector, as well as the integration and testing of large sub-sections of the final SCT barrel detector. The paper follows the chronology of the construction. The main steps of the assembly are described with the results of intermediate tests. The barrel service components were developed and fabricated in parallel so that a flow of detector modules, cooling loops, opto-harnesses and Frequency-Scanning-Interferometry (FSI) alignment structures could be assembled onto the four cylinders. Once finished, each cylinder was conveyed to the next site for the mounting of modules to form a complete single barrel. Extensive electrical and thermal function tests were carried out on the completed single barrels. In the next stage, the four single barrels and thermal enclosures were combined into the complete SCT barrel detector so that it could be integrated with the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) barrel to form the central part of the ATLAS inner detector. Finally, the completed SCT barrel was tested together with the TRT barrel in noise tests and using cosmic rays.

  18. 125 GHz sine wave gating InGaAs/InP single-photon detector with a monolithically integrated readout circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen-Hao; Liu, Jian-Hong; Liu, Yin; Jin, Ge; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-12-01

    InGaAs/InP single-photon detectors (SPDs) are the key devices for applications requiring near-infrared single-photon detection. Gating mode is an effective approach to synchronous single-photon detection. Increasing gating frequency and reducing module size are important challenges for the design of such detector system. Here we present for the first time an InGaAs/InP SPD with 1.25 GHz sine wave gating using a monolithically integrated readout circuit (MIRC). The MIRC has a size of 15 mm * 15 mm and implements the miniaturization of avalanche extraction for high-frequency sine wave gating. In the MIRC, low-pass filters and a low-noise radio frequency amplifier are integrated based on the technique of low temperature co-fired ceramic, which can effectively reduce the parasitic capacitance and extract weak avalanche signals. We then characterize the InGaAs/InP SPD to verify the functionality and reliability of MIRC, and the SPD exhibits excellent performance with 27.5 % photon detection efficiency, 1.2 kcps dark count rate, and 9.1 % afterpulse probability at 223 K and 100 ns hold-off time. With this MIRC, one can further design miniaturized high-frequency SPD modules that are highly required for practical applications.

  19. 1.25  GHz sine wave gating InGaAs/InP single-photon detector with a monolithically integrated readout circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen-Hao; Liu, Jian-Hong; Liu, Yin; Jin, Ge; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-12-15

    InGaAs/InP single-photon detectors (SPDs) are the key devices for applications requiring near-infrared single-photon detection. The gating mode is an effective approach to synchronous single-photon detection. Increasing gating frequency and reducing the module size are important challenges for the design of such a detector system. Here we present for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, an InGaAs/InP SPD with 1.25 GHz sine wave gating (SWG) using a monolithically integrated readout circuit (MIRC). The MIRC has a size of 15  mm×15  mm and implements the miniaturization of avalanche extraction for high-frequency SWG. In the MIRC, low-pass filters and a low-noise radio frequency amplifier are integrated based on the technique of low temperature co-fired ceramic, which can effectively reduce the parasitic capacitance and extract weak avalanche signals. We then characterize the InGaAs/InP SPD to verify the functionality and reliability of the MIRC, and the SPD exhibits excellent performance with 27.5% photon detection efficiency, a 1.2 kcps dark count rate, and 9.1% afterpulse probability at 223 K and 100 ns hold-off time. With this MIRC, one can further design miniaturized high-frequency SPD modules that are highly required for practical applications.

  20. Toward printed integrated circuits based on unipolar or ambipolar polymer semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeg, Kang-Jun; Caironi, Mario; Noh, Yong-Young

    2013-08-21

    For at least the past ten years printed electronics has promised to revolutionize our daily life by making cost-effective electronic circuits and sensors available through mass production techniques, for their ubiquitous applications in wearable components, rollable and conformable devices, and point-of-care applications. While passive components, such as conductors, resistors and capacitors, had already been fabricated by printing techniques at industrial scale, printing processes have been struggling to meet the requirements for mass-produced electronics and optoelectronics applications despite their great potential. In the case of logic integrated circuits (ICs), which constitute the focus of this Progress Report, the main limitations have been represented by the need of suitable functional inks, mainly high-mobility printable semiconductors and low sintering temperature conducting inks, and evoluted printing tools capable of higher resolution, registration and uniformity than needed in the conventional graphic arts printing sector. Solution-processable polymeric semiconductors are the best candidates to fulfill the requirements for printed logic ICs on flexible substrates, due to their superior processability, ease of tuning of their rheology parameters, and mechanical properties. One of the strongest limitations has been mainly represented by the low charge carrier mobility (μ) achievable with polymeric, organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). However, recently unprecedented values of μ ∼ 10 cm(2) /Vs have been achieved with solution-processed polymer based OFETs, a value competing with mobilities reported in organic single-crystals and exceeding the performances enabled by amorphous silicon (a-Si). Interestingly these values were achieved thanks to the design and synthesis of donor-acceptor copolymers, showing limited degree of order when processed in thin films and therefore fostering further studies on the reason leading to such improved charge

  1. 76 FR 14688 - In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... existence of a domestic industry. The Commission's notice of investigation named several respondents...; Freescale Semiconductor Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. of Malaysia; Freescale Semiconductor Pte. Ltd. of Singapore; Mouser Electronics, Inc. of Mansfield, Texas; and Motorola Inc. of Schaumburg, Illinois. On August 16...

  2. Uricase-free on-demand colorimetric biosensing of uric acid enabled by integrated CoP nanosheet arrays as a monolithic peroxidase mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanfang; Qi, Fei; Niu, Xiangheng; Zhang, Wenchi; Zhang, Xifeng; Pan, Jianming

    2018-08-27

    In clinical diagnosis, monitoring of uric acid (UA) is generally realized by combining uricase with natural peroxidase. The use of bio-enzymes, however, shadows some highlights of these methods due to their vulnerable activities against environments. Herein, we report a novel biosensor for the natural enzyme-free colorimetric detection of UA by using CoP nanosheet arrays grown on Ni foam (NF) as a monolithic peroxidase mimic. The integrated nanozyme can be put into and taken out from reaction systems conveniently with only tweezers, making it possible for on-demand analysis. As demonstrated, the obtained CoP/NF exhibits outstanding peroxidase-like activity to trigger the oxidation reaction of colorless 3,3'5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) to a blue product (TMBox) mediated by H 2 O 2 . It is found that the blue TMBox can be reduced to colorless TMB again by UA selectively, thus the presence of UA in solutions will suppress the color reaction of TMB. Based on this principle, an uricase-free biosensor is developed for the photometric determination of UA, providing a wide detection range of 1-200 μM and a limit of detection down to 1.0 μM. In addition, the fabricated biosensor can be applied for measuring UA in clinical samples with merits of simple operation and good reliability, exhibiting its great promise in clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel integrated circuit for semiconductor radiation detectors with sparse readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yacong; Chen Zhognjian; Lu Wengao; Zhao Baoying; Ji Lijiu

    2008-01-01

    A novel fully integrated CMOS readout circuit for semiconductor radiation detector with sparse readout is presented. The new sparse scheme is: when one channel is being read out, the trigger signal from other channels is delayed and then processed. Therefore, the dead time is reduced and so is the error rate. Besides sparse readout, sequential readout is also allowed, which means the analog voltages and addresses of all the channels are read out sequentially once there is a channel triggered. The circuit comprises Charge Sensitive Amplifier (CSA), pulse shaper, peak detect and hold circuit, and digital logic. A test chip of four channels designed in a 0.5 μ DPTM CMOS technology has been taped out. The results of post simulation indicate that the gain is 79.3 mV/fC with a linearity of 99.92%. The power dissipation is 4 mW per channel. Theory analysis and calculation shows that the error probability is approximately 2.5%, which means a reduction of about 37% is obtained compared with the traditional scanning scheme, assuming a 16-channel system with a particle rate of 100 k/s per channel. (authors)

  4. Integration of Solar Cells on Top of CMOS Chips Part I: a-Si Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; van der Werf, Karine H.M.; Schropp, Ruud E.I.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of deepsubmicrometer complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) microchips with a-Si:H solar cells. Solar cells are manufactured directly on the CMOS chips. The microchips maintain comparable electronic performance, and the solar cells show efficiency values

  5. Crystal growth of hexaferrite architecture for magnetoelectrically tunable microwave semiconductor integrated devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bolin

    Hexaferrites (i.e., hexagonal ferrites), discovered in 1950s, exist as any one of six crystallographic structural variants (i.e., M-, X-, Y-, W-, U-, and Z-type). Over the past six decades, the hexaferrites have received much attention owing to their important properties that lend use as permanent magnets, magnetic data storage materials, as well as components in electrical devices, particularly those operating at RF frequencies. Moreover, there has been increasing interest in hexaferrites for new fundamental and emerging applications. Among those, electronic components for mobile and wireless communications especially incorporated with semiconductor integrated circuits at microwave frequencies, electromagnetic wave absorbers for electromagnetic compatibility, random-access memory (RAM) and low observable technology, and as composite materials having low dimensions. However, of particular interest is the magnetoelectric (ME) effect discovered recently in the hexaferrites such as SrScxFe12-xO19 (SrScM), Ba2--xSrxZn 2Fe12O22 (Zn2Y), Sr4Co2Fe 36O60 (Co2U) and Sr3Co2Fe 24O41 (Co2Z), demonstrating ferroelectricity induced by the complex internal alignment of magnetic moments. Further, both Co 2Z and Co2U have revealed observable magnetoelectric effects at room temperature, representing a step toward practical applications using the ME effect. These materials hold great potential for applications, since strong magnetoelectric coupling allows switching of the FE polarization with a magnetic field (H) and vice versa. These features could lead to a new type of storage devices, such as an electric field-controlled magnetic memory. A nanoscale-driven crystal growth of magnetic hexaferrites was successfully demonstrated at low growth temperatures (25--40% lower than the temperatures required often for crystal growth). This outcome exhibits thermodynamic processes of crystal growth, allowing ease in fabrication of advanced multifunctional materials. Most importantly, the

  6. Monolithically integrated enhancement/depletion-mode AlGaN/GaN HEMT D flip-flop using fluorine plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yuanbin; Quan Si; Ma Xiaohua; Zhang Jincheng; Li Qingmin; Hao Yue

    2011-01-01

    Depletion-mode and enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN HEMTs using fluorine plasma treatment were integrated on one wafer. Direct-coupled FET logic circuits, such as an E/D HEMT inverter, NAND gate and D flip-flop, were fabricated on an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure. The D flip-flop and NAND gate are demonstrated in a GaN system for the first time. The dual-gate AlGaN/GaN E-HEMT substitutes two single-gate E-HEMTs for simplifying the NAND gate and shrinking the area, integrating with a conventional AlGaN/GaN D-HEMT and demonstrating a NAND gate. E/D-mode D flip-flop was fabricated by integrating the inverters and the NAND gate on the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure. At a supply voltage of 2 V, the E/D inverter shows an output logic swing of 1.7 V, a logic-low noise margin of 0.49 V and a logic-high noise margin of 0.83 V. The NAND gate and D flip-flop showed correct logic function demonstrating promising potential for GaN-based digital ICs. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  7. Process-Based Cost Modeling of Photonics Manufacture: The Cost Competitiveness of Monolithic Integration of a 1550-nm DFB Laser and an Electroabsorptive Modulator on an InP Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Erica R. H.; Bruce, E. J.; Ram, R. J.; Kirchain, Randolph E.

    2006-08-01

    The monolithic integration of components holds promise to increase network functionality and reduce packaging expense. Integration also drives down yield due to manufacturing complexity and the compounding of failures across devices. Consensus is lacking on the economically preferred extent of integration. Previous studies on the cost feasibility of integration have used high-level estimation methods. This study instead focuses on accurate-to-industry detail, basing a process-based cost model of device manufacture on data collected from 20 firms across the optoelectronics supply chain. The model presented allows for the definition of process organization, including testing, as well as processing conditions, operational characteristics, and level of automation at each step. This study focuses on the cost implications of integration of a 1550-nm DFB laser with an electroabsorptive modulator on an InP platform. Results show the monolithically integrated design to be more cost competitive over discrete component options regardless of production scale. Dominant cost drivers are packaging, testing, and assembly. Leveraging the technical detail underlying model projections, component alignment, bonding, and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are identified as processes where technical improvements are most critical to lowering costs. Such results should encourage exploration of the cost advantages of further integration and focus cost-driven technology development.

  8. Monolithic photonic integration for visible and short near-infrared wavelengths: technologies and platforms for bio and life science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, Marco A. G.; Artundo, Iñigo; Domenech, J. David; Geuzebroek, Douwe; Sunarto, Rino; Hoofman, Romano

    2018-04-01

    This tutorial aims to provide a general overview on the state-of-the-art of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) in the visible and short near-infrared (NIR) wavelength ranges, mostly focusing in silicon nitride (SiN) substrates, and a guide to the necessary steps in the design toward the fabrication of such PICs. The focus is put on bio- and life sciences, given the adequacy and, thus, a large number of applications in this field.

  9. Monolithic integration of AlGaInP laser diodes on SiGe/Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, O.; Boeckl, J. J.; Lee, M. L.; Pitera, A. J.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Ringel, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    Room temperature operation of visible AlGaInP laser diodes epitaxially integrated on Si was demonstrated. Compressively strained laser heterostructures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on low dislocation density SiGe/Si substrates, where the threading dislocation density of the top relaxed Ge layers was measured in the range of 2x10 6 cm -2 . A threshold current density of J th ∼1.65 kA/cm 2 for the as-cleaved, gain-guided AlGaInP laser grown on SiGe/Si was obtained at the peak emission wavelength of 680 nm under pulsed mode current injection. These results show that not only can high quality AlGaInP materials grown by MBE be achieved on Si via relaxed SiGe interlayers, but the prototype demonstration of laser diode operation on Si illustrates that very defect sensitive optoelectronics in the III-P system can indeed be integrated with Si substrates by heteroepitaxial methods

  10. On the Integration of Wide Band-gap Semiconductors in Single Phase Boost PFC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos

    Power semiconductor technology has dominated the evolution of switched mode power supplies (SMPS). Advances in silicon (Si) technology, as the introduction of metal oxide field effect transistor (MOSFET), isolated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT), superjunction vertical structures and Schottky...... diodes, or the introduction of silicon carbide (SiC) diodes, provided large steps in miniaturization and efficiency improvement of switched mode power converters. Gallium nitride (GaN) and SiC semiconductor devices have already been around for some years. The first one proliferated due to the necessity...... of high frequency operation in optoelectronics applications. On the other hand, Schottky SiC power diodes were introduced in 2001 as an alternative to eliminate reverse recovery issues in Si rectifiers. Wide band-gap semiconductors offer an increased electrical field strength and electron mobility...

  11. Monolithic JFET preamplifier for ionization chamber calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; Rescia, S.; Manfredi, P.F.; Speziali, V.

    1990-10-01

    A monolithic charge sensitive preamplifier using exclusively n-channel diffused JFETs has been designed and is now being fabricated by INTERFET Corp. by means of a dielectrically isolated process which allows preserving as much as possible the technology upon which discrete JFETs are based. A first prototype built by means of junction isolated process has been delivered. The characteristics of monolithically integrated JFETs compare favorably with discrete devices. First results of tests of a preamplifier which uses these devices are reported. 4 refs

  12. Technology development for SOI monolithic pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczewski, J.; Domanski, K.; Grabiec, P.; Grodner, M.; Jaroszewicz, B.; Kociubinski, A.; Kucharski, K.; Tomaszewski, D.; Caccia, M.; Kucewicz, W.; Niemiec, H.

    2006-01-01

    A monolithic detector of ionizing radiation has been manufactured using silicon on insulator (SOI) wafers with a high-resistivity substrate. In our paper the integration of a standard 3 μm CMOS technology, originally designed for bulk devices, with fabrication of pixels in the bottom wafer of a SOI substrate is described. Both technological sequences have been merged minimizing thermal budget and providing suitable properties of all the technological layers. The achieved performance proves that fully depleted monolithic active pixel matrix might be a viable option for a wide spectrum of future applications

  13. Integrated Materials Design of Organic Semiconductors for Field-Effect Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jianguo; Diao, Ying; Appleton, Anthony L.; Fang, Lei; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-01-01

    The past couple of years have witnessed a remarkable burst in the development of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), with a number of organic semiconductors surpassing the benchmark mobility of 10 cm2/(V s). In this perspective, we highlight

  14. Linewidth broadening in a distributed feedback laser integrated with a semiconductor optical amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Champagne, A.; Camel, J.; Maciejko, R.

    2002-01-01

    The problem of the linewidth degradation in systems using distributed-feedback lasers together with strained-layer multi-quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) is examined. A modified expression for the linewidth in the case of antireflection-coated SOA output facets is derived and ...

  15. Design of integrated optics all-optical label swappers for spectral amplitude code label swapping optical packet networks on active/passive InP technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, C.; Munoz, P.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Chen, Lawrence; Smit, M.K.; Capmany, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the designs of optical label swapper devices, for spectral amplitude coded labels, monolithically integrated on InP active/passive technology are pre sented. The devices are based on cross-gain modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier. Multi-wavelength operation is enabled by

  16. Room-Temperature Quantum Ballistic Transport in Monolithic Ultrascaled Al-Ge-Al Nanowire Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistani, Masiar; Staudinger, Philipp; Greil, Johannes; Holzbauer, Martin; Detz, Hermann; Bertagnolli, Emmerich; Lugstein, Alois

    2017-08-09

    Conductance quantization at room temperature is a key requirement for the utilizing of ballistic transport for, e.g., high-performance, low-power dissipating transistors operating at the upper limit of "on"-state conductance or multivalued logic gates. So far, studying conductance quantization has been restricted to high-mobility materials at ultralow temperatures and requires sophisticated nanostructure formation techniques and precise lithography for contact formation. Utilizing a thermally induced exchange reaction between single-crystalline Ge nanowires and Al pads, we achieved monolithic Al-Ge-Al NW heterostructures with ultrasmall Ge segments contacted by self-aligned quasi one-dimensional crystalline Al leads. By integration in electrostatically modulated back-gated field-effect transistors, we demonstrate the first experimental observation of room temperature quantum ballistic transport in Ge, favorable for integration in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor platform technology.

  17. Synthesis of Porous Carbon Monoliths Using Hard Templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepel, Olaf; Danneberg, Nina; Dräger, Matti; Erlitz, Marcel; Taubert, Michael

    2016-03-21

    The preparation of porous carbon monoliths with a defined shape via template-assisted routes is reported. Monoliths made from porous concrete and zeolite were each used as the template. The porous concrete-derived carbon monoliths exhibited high gravimetric specific surface areas up to 2000 m²·g -1 . The pore system comprised macro-, meso-, and micropores. These pores were hierarchically arranged. The pore system was created by the complex interplay of the actions of both the template and the activating agent as well. On the other hand, zeolite-made template shapes allowed for the preparation of microporous carbon monoliths with a high volumetric specific surface area. This feature could be beneficial if carbon monoliths must be integrated into technical systems under space-limited conditions.

  18. Monolithic integrated photoreceiver for 1.3--1.55-μm wavelengths: Association of a Schottky photodiode and a field-effect transistor on GaInP-GaInAs heteroepitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therani, A.H.; Decoster, D.; Vilcot, J.P.; Razeghi, M.

    1988-01-01

    We present a monolithic integrated circuit associating a Schottky photodiode and a field-effect transistor which has been fabricated, for the first time, on Ga/sub 0.49/In/sub 0.51/P/Ga/sub 0.47/In/sub 0.53/As strained heteroepitaxial material. Static, dynamic, and noise properties of the Schottky photodiode, the field-effect transistor, and the integrated circuit have been investigated and are reported. As an example, dynamic responsivity up to 50 A/W can be achieved at 1.3-μm wavelength for the integrated photoreceiver. The performance of the device is discussed, taking into account the integrated circuit design and the main characteristics of the material

  19. Path-integral calculation of the density of states in heavily doped strongly compensated semiconductors in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koinov, Z.G.; Yanchev, I.Y.

    1981-09-01

    The density of states in heavily doped strongly compansated semiconductors in a strong magnetic field is calculated by using the path-integral method. The case is considered when correlation exists in the impurity positions owing to the Coulomb interactions between the charged donors and acceptors during the high-temperature preparation of the samples. The semiclassical formula is rederived and corrections to it due to the long-range character of the potential and its short-range fluctuations are obtained. The density of states in the tail is studied and analytical results are given in the classical and quantum cases. (author)

  20. Analysis of bovine milk caseins on organic monolithic columns: an integrated capillary liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry approach for the study of time-dependent casein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierri, Giuseppe; Kotoni, Dorina; Simone, Patrizia; Villani, Claudio; Pepe, Giacomo; Campiglia, Pietro; Dugo, Paola; Gasparrini, Francesco

    2013-10-25

    Casein proteins constitute approximately 80% of the proteins present in bovine milk and account for many of its nutritional and technological properties. The analysis of the casein fraction in commercially available pasteurized milk and the study of its time-dependent degradation is of considerable interest in the agro-food industry. Here we present new analytical methods for the study of caseins in fresh and expired bovine milk, based on the use of lab-made capillary organic monolithic columns. An integrated capillary high performance liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry (Cap-LC-HRMS) approach was developed, exploiting the excellent resolution, permeability and biocompatibility of organic monoliths, which is easily adaptable to the analysis of intact proteins. The resolution obtained on the lab-made Protein-Cap-RP-Lauryl-γ-Monolithic column (270 mm × 0.250 mm length × internal diameter, L × I.D.) in the analysis of commercial standard caseins (αS-CN, β-CN and κ-CN) through Cap-HPLC-UV was compared to the one observe using two packed capillary C4 columns, the ACE C4 (3 μm, 150 mm × 0.300 mm, L × I.D.) and the Jupiter C4 column (5 μm, 150 mm × 0.300 mm, L × I.D.). Thanks to the higher resolution observed, the monolithic capillary column was chosen for the successive degradation studies of casein fractions extracted from bovine milk 1-4 weeks after expiry date. The comparison of the UV chromatographic profiles of skim, semi-skim and whole milk showed a major stability of whole milk towards time-dependent degradation of caseins, which was further sustained by high-resolution analysis on a 50-cm long monolithic column using a 120-min time gradient. Contemporarily, the exact monoisotopic and average molecular masses of intact αS-CN and β-CN protein standards were obtained through high resolution mass spectrometry and used for casein identification in Cap-LC-HRMS analysis. Finally, the proteolytic degradation of β-CN in skim milk

  1. Optical Regeneration and Noise in Semiconductor Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip

    2005-01-01

    In this report all-optical 2R-regeneration in optical communication systems is investigated. A simple regenerator device based on concatenated semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) and electro absorbers (EAs) is introduced and examined. Experiments show that the monolithic SOA-EA 2R-regenerator......In this report all-optical 2R-regeneration in optical communication systems is investigated. A simple regenerator device based on concatenated semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) and electro absorbers (EAs) is introduced and examined. Experiments show that the monolithic SOA-EA 2R...

  2. A monolithic RF transceiver for DC-OFDM UWB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yunfeng; Li Wei; Fu Haipeng; Gao Ting; Chen Danfeng; Zhou Feng; Cai Deyun; Li Dan; Niu Yangyang; Zhou Hanchao; Zhu Ning; Li Ning; Ren Junyan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a first monolithic RF transceiver for DC-OFDM UWB applications. The proposed direct-conversion transceiver integrates all the building blocks including two receiver (Rx) cores, two transmitter (Tx) cores and a dual-carrier frequency synthesizer (DC-FS) as well as a 3-wire serial peripheral interface (SPI) to set the operating status of the transceiver. The ESD-protected chip is fabricated by a TSMC 0.13-μm RF CMOS process with a die size of 4.5 × 3.6 mm 2 . The measurement results show that the wideband Rx achieves an NF of 5–6.2 dB, a max gain of 76–84 dB with 64-dB variable gain, an in-/out-of-band IIP3 of −6/+4 dBm and an input loss S 11 of < −10 in all bands. The Tx achieves an LOLRR/IMGRR of −34/-33 dBc, a typical OIP3 of +6 dBm and a maximum output power of −5 dBm. The DC-FS outputs two separate carriers simultaneously with an inter-band hopping time of < 1.2 ns. The full chip consumes a maximum current of 420 mA under a 1.2-V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  3. Fibrous monolithic ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovar, D.; King, B.H.; Trice, R.W.; Halloran, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Fibrous monolithic ceramics are an example of a laminate in which a controlled, three-dimensional structure has been introduced on a submillimeter scale. This unique structure allows this all-ceramic material to fail in a nonbrittle manner. Materials have been fabricated and tested with a variety of architectures. The influence on mechanical properties at room temperature and at high temperature of the structure of the constituent phases and the architecture in which they are arranged are discussed. The elastic properties of these materials can be effectively predicted using existing models. These models also can be extended to predict the strength of fibrous monoliths with an arbitrary orientation and architecture. However, the mechanisms that govern the energy absorption capacity of fibrous monoliths are unique, and experimental results do not follow existing models. Energy dissipation occurs through two dominant mechanisms--delamination of the weak interphases and then frictional sliding after cracking occurs. The properties of the constituent phases that maximize energy absorption are discussed. In this article, the authors examine the structure of Si 3 N 4 -BN fibrous monoliths from the submillimeter scale of the crack-deflecting cell-cell boundary features to the nanometer scale of the BN cell boundaries

  4. Standardization of Schwarz-Christoffel transformation for engineering design of semiconductor and hybrid integrated-circuit elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashin, A. A.

    1985-04-01

    A semiconductor or hybrid structure into a calculable two-dimensional region mapped by the Schwarz-Christoffel transformation and a universal algorithm can be constructed on the basis of Maxwell's electro-magnetic-thermal similarity principle for engineering design of integrated-circuit elements. The design procedure involves conformal mapping of the original region into a polygon and then the latter into a rectangle with uniform field distribution, where conductances and capacitances are calculated, using tabulated standard mapping functions. Subsequent synthesis of a device requires inverse conformal mapping. Devices adaptable as integrated-circuit elements are high-resistance film resistors with periodic serration, distributed-resistance film attenuators with high transformation ratio, coplanar microstrip lines, bipolar transistors, directional couplers with distributed coupling to microstrip lines for microwave bulk devices, and quasirregular smooth matching transitions from asymmetric to coplanar microstrip lines.

  5. Metal contact engineering and registration-free fabrication of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor integrated circuits using aligned carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Ryu, Koungmin; Badmaev, Alexander; Zhang, Jialu; Zhou, Chongwu

    2011-02-22

    Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) operation is very desirable for logic circuit applications as it offers rail-to-rail swing, larger noise margin, and small static power consumption. However, it remains to be a challenging task for nanotube-based devices. Here in this paper, we report our progress on metal contact engineering for n-type nanotube transistors and CMOS integrated circuits using aligned carbon nanotubes. By using Pd as source/drain contacts for p-type transistors, small work function metal Gd as source/drain contacts for n-type transistors, and evaporated SiO(2) as a passivation layer, we have achieved n-type transistor, PN diode, and integrated CMOS inverter with an air-stable operation. Compared with other nanotube n-doping techniques, such as potassium doping, PEI doping, hydrazine doping, etc., using low work function metal contacts for n-type nanotube devices is not only air stable but also integrated circuit fabrication compatible. Moreover, our aligned nanotube platform for CMOS integrated circuits shows significant advantage over the previously reported individual nanotube platforms with respect to scalability and reproducibility and suggests a practical and realistic approach for nanotube-based CMOS integrated circuit applications.

  6. Pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} on amorphous dielectric layers towards monolithic 3D photonic integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haofeng; Brouillet, Jeremy; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng, E-mail: Jifeng.Liu@dartmouth.edu [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2014-11-17

    We demonstrate pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} crystallized on amorphous layers at <450 °C towards 3D Si photonic integration. We developed two approaches to seed the lateral single crystal growth: (1) utilize the Gibbs-Thomson eutectic temperature depression at the tip of an amorphous GeSn nanotaper for selective nucleation; (2) laser-induced nucleation at one end of a GeSn strip. Either way, the crystallized Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} is dominated by a single grain >18 μm long that forms optoelectronically benign twin boundaries with others grains. These pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} patterns are suitable for monolithic 3D integration of active photonic devices on Si.

  7. Study of various n-type organic semiconductors on ultraviolet detective and electroluminescent properties of optoelectronic integrated device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chaoxu; Shao, Bingyao; Zhao, Dan; Zhou, Dianli; Yu, Junsheng

    2017-11-01

    Organic optoelectronic integrated device (OID) with both ultraviolet (UV) detective and electroluminescent (EL) properties was fabricated by using a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) semiconductor of (4s, 6s)-2,4,5,6-tetra(9H-carbazol-9-yl)isophthalonitrile (4CzIPN) as an emitter. The effect of five kinds of n-type organic semiconductors (OSCs) on the enhancement of UV detective and EL properties of OID was systematically studied. The result shows that two orders of magnitude in UV detectivity from 109 to 1011 Jones and 3.3 folds of luminance from 2499 to 8233 cd m-2 could be achieved. The result shows that not only the difference of lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) between active layer and OSC but also the variety of electron mobility have a significant effect on the UV detective and EL performance through adjusting electron injection/transport. Additionally, the optimized OSC thickness is beneficial to confine the leaking of holes from the active layer to cathode, leading to the decrease of dark current for high detective performance. This work provides a useful method on broadening OSC material selection and device architecture construction for the realization of high performance OID.

  8. 75 FR 16514 - Maxim Integrated Products, Formerly Known as Dallas Semiconductor, Dallas, TX; Amended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70,291] Maxim Integrated Products... Worker Adjustment Assistance on July 8th, 2009, applicable to workers of Maxim Integrated Products.... The workers produced integrated circuits (analog and mixed signal). Information shows that Maxim...

  9. Market survey of semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackintosh, I.M.; Diegel, D.; Brown, A.; Brinker, C.S. den

    1977-06-01

    Examination of technology and product trends over the range of current and future products in integrated circuits and optoelectronic displays. Analysis and forecast of major economic influences that affect the production costs of integrated circuits and optoelectronic displays. Forecast of the applications and markets for integrated circuits up to 1985 in West Europe, the USA and Japan. Historic development of the semiconductor industry and the prevailing tendencies - factors which influence success in the semiconductor industry. (orig.) [de

  10. Monolith electroplating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarrwal, Rajev R.

    2001-01-01

    An electroplating process for preparing a monolith metal layer over a polycrystalline base metal and the plated monolith product. A monolith layer has a variable thickness of one crystal. The process is typically carried in molten salts electrolytes, such as the halide salts under an inert atmosphere at an elevated temperature, and over deposition time periods and film thickness sufficient to sinter and recrystallize completely the nucleating metal particles into one single crystal or crystals having very large grains. In the process, a close-packed film of submicron particle (20) is formed on a suitable substrate at an elevated temperature. The temperature has the significance of annealing particles as they are formed, and substrates on which the particles can populate are desirable. As the packed bed thickens, the submicron particles develop necks (21) and as they merge into each other shrinkage (22) occurs. Then as micropores also close (23) by surface tension, metal density is reached and the film consists of unstable metal grain (24) that at high enough temperature recrystallize (25) and recrystallized grains grow into an annealed single crystal over the electroplating time span. While cadmium was used in the experimental work, other soft metals may be used.

  11. Test of the TRAPPISTe monolithic detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soung Yee, L.; Álvarez, P.; Martin, E.; Cortina, E.; Ferrer, C.

    2013-12-01

    A monolithic pixel detector named TRAPPISTe-2 has been developed in Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) technology. A p-n junction is implanted in the bottom handle wafer and connected to readout electronics integrated in the top active layer. The two parts are insulated from each other by a buried oxide layer resulting in a monolithic detector. Two small pixel matrices have been fabricated: one containing a 3-transistor readout and a second containing a charge sensitive amplifier readout. These two readout structures have been characterized and the pixel matrices were tested with an infrared laser source. The readout circuits are adversely affected by the backgate effect, which limits the voltage that can be applied to the metal back plane to deplete the sensor, thus narrowing the depletion width of the sensor. Despite the low depletion voltages, the integrated pixel matrices were able to respond to and track a laser source.

  12. Semiconductor radiation detection systems

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Covers research in semiconductor detector and integrated circuit design in the context of medical imaging using ionizing radiation. This book explores other applications of semiconductor radiation detection systems in security applications such as luggage scanning, dirty bomb detection and border control.

  13. Novel design of low-jitter 10 GHz all-active monolithic mode-locked lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, David; Yvind, Kresten; Christiansen, Lotte Jin

    2004-01-01

    Using a novel design, we have fabricated 10 GHz all-active monolithic mode-locked semiconductor lasers that generate 1.4 ps pulses with record-low timing jitter. The dynamical properties of lasers with 1 and 2 QWs are compared.......Using a novel design, we have fabricated 10 GHz all-active monolithic mode-locked semiconductor lasers that generate 1.4 ps pulses with record-low timing jitter. The dynamical properties of lasers with 1 and 2 QWs are compared....

  14. Hyperentangled photon sources in semiconductor waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Dongpeng; Helt, L. G.; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    We propose and analyze the performance of a technique to generate mode and polarization hyperentangled photons in monolithic semiconductor waveguides using two concurrent type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) processes. These two SPDC processes are achieved by waveguide engineering...

  15. A Monolithic CMOS Magnetic Hall Sensor with High Sensitivity and Linearity Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyun Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fully integrated linear Hall sensor by means of 0.8 μm high voltage complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS technology. This monolithic Hall sensor chip features a highly sensitive horizontal switched Hall plate and an efficient signal conditioner using dynamic offset cancellation technique. An improved cross-like Hall plate achieves high magnetic sensitivity and low offset. A new spinning current modulator stabilizes the quiescent output voltage and improves the reliability of the signal conditioner. The tested results show that at the 5 V supply voltage, the maximum Hall output voltage of the monolithic Hall sensor microsystem, is up to ±2.1 V and the linearity of Hall output voltage is higher than 99% in the magnetic flux density range from ±5 mT to ±175 mT. The output equivalent residual offset is 0.48 mT and the static power consumption is 20 mW.

  16. Molecular beam epitaxy of InP single junction and InP/In0.53Ga0.47As monolithically integrated tandem solar cells using solid phosphorous source material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaney, A.; Chin, K.; Street, S.; Newman, F.; Aguilar, L.; Ignatiev, A.; Monier, C.; Velela, M.; Freundlich, A.

    1998-01-01

    This work reports the first InP solar cells, InP/In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As tandem solar cells and InP tunnel junctions to be grown using a solid phosphorous source cracker cell in a molecular beam epitaxy system. High p-type doping achieved with this system allowed for the development of InP tunnel junctions. These junctions which allow for improved current matching in subsequent monolithically integrated tandem devices also do not absorb photons which can be utilized in the InGaAs structure. Photocurrent spectral responses compared favorably to devices previously grown in a chemical beam epitaxy system. High resolution x-ray scans demonstrated good lattice matching between constituent parts of the tandem cell. AM0 efficiencies of both InP and InP/InGaAs tandem cells are reported

  17. Metal semiconductor contacts and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Simon S; Einspruch, Norman G

    1986-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 13: Metal-Semiconductor Contacts and Devices presents the physics, technology, and applications of metal-semiconductor barriers in digital integrated circuits. The emphasis is placed on the interplay among the theory, processing, and characterization techniques in the development of practical metal-semiconductor contacts and devices.This volume contains chapters that are devoted to the discussion of the physics of metal-semiconductor interfaces and its basic phenomena; fabrication procedures; and interface characterization techniques, particularl

  18. Functional integrity of flexible n-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors on a reversibly bistable platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaraj, Nasir; Hussain, Aftab M.; Torres Sevilla, Galo A.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Rojas, Jhonathan P.; Hussain, Muhammad M., E-mail: MuhammadMustafa.Hussain@kaust.edu.sa [Integrated Nanotechnology Laboratory, Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Aljedaani, Abdulrahman B. [High-Speed Fluids Imaging Laboratory, Physical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-10-26

    Flexibility can bring a new dimension to state-of-the-art electronics, such as rollable displays and integrated circuit systems being transformed into more powerful resources. Flexible electronics are typically hosted on polymeric substrates. Such substrates can be bent and rolled up, but cannot be independently fixed at the rigid perpendicular position necessary to realize rollable display-integrated gadgets and electronics. A reversibly bistable material can assume two stable states in a reversible way: flexibly rolled state and independently unbent state. Such materials are used in cycling and biking safety wristbands and a variety of ankle bracelets for orthopedic healthcare. They are often wrapped around an object with high impulsive force loading. Here, we study the effects of cumulative impulsive force loading on thinned (25 μm) flexible silicon-based n-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor devices housed on a reversibly bistable flexible platform. We found that the transistors have maintained their high performance level up to an accumulated 180 kN of impact force loading. The gate dielectric layers have maintained their reliability, which is evidenced by the low leakage current densities. Also, we observed low variation in the effective electron mobility values, which manifests that the device channels have maintained their carrier transport properties.

  19. Functional integrity of flexible n-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors on a reversibly bistable platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaraj, Nasir; Hussain, Aftab M.; Torres Sevilla, Galo A.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Rojas, Jhonathan P.; Hussain, Muhammad M.; Aljedaani, Abdulrahman B.

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility can bring a new dimension to state-of-the-art electronics, such as rollable displays and integrated circuit systems being transformed into more powerful resources. Flexible electronics are typically hosted on polymeric substrates. Such substrates can be bent and rolled up, but cannot be independently fixed at the rigid perpendicular position necessary to realize rollable display-integrated gadgets and electronics. A reversibly bistable material can assume two stable states in a reversible way: flexibly rolled state and independently unbent state. Such materials are used in cycling and biking safety wristbands and a variety of ankle bracelets for orthopedic healthcare. They are often wrapped around an object with high impulsive force loading. Here, we study the effects of cumulative impulsive force loading on thinned (25 μm) flexible silicon-based n-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor devices housed on a reversibly bistable flexible platform. We found that the transistors have maintained their high performance level up to an accumulated 180 kN of impact force loading. The gate dielectric layers have maintained their reliability, which is evidenced by the low leakage current densities. Also, we observed low variation in the effective electron mobility values, which manifests that the device channels have maintained their carrier transport properties

  20. Functional integrity of flexible n-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors on a reversibly bistable platform

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir; Hussain, Aftab M.; Torres Sevilla, Galo A.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Aljedaani, Abdulrahman B.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility can bring a new dimension to state-of-the-art electronics, such as rollable displays and integrated circuit systems being transformed into more powerful resources. Flexible electronics are typically hosted on polymeric substrates. Such substrates can be bent and rolled up, but cannot be independently fixed at the rigid perpendicular position necessary to realize rollable display-integrated gadgets and electronics. A reversibly bistable material can assume two stable states in a reversible way: flexibly rolled state and independently unbent state. Such materials are used in cycling and biking safety wristbands and a variety of ankle bracelets for orthopedic healthcare. They are often wrapped around an object with high impulsive force loading. Here, we study the effects of cumulative impulsive force loading on thinned (25 μm) flexible silicon-based n-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor devices housed on a reversibly bistable flexible platform. We found that the transistors have maintained their high performance level up to an accumulated 180 kN of impact force loading. The gate dielectric layers have maintained their reliability, which is evidenced by the low leakage current densities. Also, we observed low variation in the effective electron mobility values, which manifests that the device channels have maintained their carrier transport properties.

  1. Functional integrity of flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors on a reversibly bistable platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaraj, Nasir; Hussain, Aftab M.; Torres Sevilla, Galo A.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Rojas, Jhonathan P.; Aljedaani, Abdulrahman B.; Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2015-10-01

    Flexibility can bring a new dimension to state-of-the-art electronics, such as rollable displays and integrated circuit systems being transformed into more powerful resources. Flexible electronics are typically hosted on polymeric substrates. Such substrates can be bent and rolled up, but cannot be independently fixed at the rigid perpendicular position necessary to realize rollable display-integrated gadgets and electronics. A reversibly bistable material can assume two stable states in a reversible way: flexibly rolled state and independently unbent state. Such materials are used in cycling and biking safety wristbands and a variety of ankle bracelets for orthopedic healthcare. They are often wrapped around an object with high impulsive force loading. Here, we study the effects of cumulative impulsive force loading on thinned (25 μm) flexible silicon-based n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor devices housed on a reversibly bistable flexible platform. We found that the transistors have maintained their high performance level up to an accumulated 180 kN of impact force loading. The gate dielectric layers have maintained their reliability, which is evidenced by the low leakage current densities. Also, we observed low variation in the effective electron mobility values, which manifests that the device channels have maintained their carrier transport properties.

  2. Porous polymer monolithic col

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Terborg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new approach has been developed for the preparation of mixed-mode stationary phases to separate proteins. The pore surface of monolithic poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate capillary columns was functionalized with thiols and coated with gold nanoparticles. The final mixed mode surface chemistry was formed by attaching, in a single step, alkanethiols, mercaptoalkanoic acids, and their mixtures on the free surface of attached gold nanoparticles. Use of these mixtures allowed fine tuning of the hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance. The amount of attached gold nanoparticles according to thermal gravimetric analysis was 44.8 wt.%. This value together with results of frontal elution enabled calculation of surface coverage with the alkanethiol and mercaptoalkanoic acid ligands. Interestingly, alkanethiols coverage in a range of 4.46–4.51 molecules/nm2 significantly exceeded that of mercaptoalkanoic acids with 2.39–2.45 molecules/nm2. The mixed mode character of these monolithic stationary phases was for the first time demonstrated in the separations of proteins that could be achieved in the same column using gradient elution conditions typical of reverse phase (using gradient of acetonitrile in water and ion exchange chromatographic modes (applying gradient of salt in water, respectively.

  3. Analysis of the capability to effectively design complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, M. L.

    1984-12-01

    A complete CMOS/BULK design cycle has been implemented and fully tested to evaluate its effectiveness and a viable set of computer-aided design tools for the layout, verification, and simulation of CMOS/BULK integrated circuits. This design cycle is good for p-well, n-well, or twin-well structures, although current fabrication technique available limit this to p-well only. BANE, an integrated layout program from Stanford, is at the center of this design cycle and was shown to be simple to use in the layout of CMOS integrated circuits (it can be also used to layout NMOS integrated circuits). A flowchart was developed showing the design cycle from initial layout, through design verification, and to circuit simulation using NETLIST, PRESIM, and RNL from the University of Washington. A CMOS/BULK library was designed and includes logic gates that were designed and completely tested by following this flowchart. Also designed was an arithmetic logic unit as a more complex test of the CMOS/BULK design cycle.

  4. Foundry fabricated photonic integrated circuit optical phase lock loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bałakier, Katarzyna; Fice, Martyn J; Ponnampalam, Lalitha; Graham, Chris S; Wonfor, Adrian; Seeds, Alwyn J; Renaud, Cyril C

    2017-07-24

    This paper describes the first foundry-based InP photonic integrated circuit (PIC) designed to work within a heterodyne optical phase locked loop (OPLL). The PIC and an external electronic circuit were used to phase-lock a single-line semiconductor laser diode to an incoming reference laser, with tuneable frequency offset from 4 GHz to 12 GHz. The PIC contains 33 active and passive components monolithically integrated on a single chip, fully demonstrating the capability of a generic foundry PIC fabrication model. The electronic part of the OPLL consists of commercially available RF components. This semi-packaged system stabilizes the phase and frequency of the integrated laser so that an absolute frequency, high-purity heterodyne signal can be generated when the OPLL is in operation, with phase noise lower than -100 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset from the carrier. This is the lowest phase noise level ever demonstrated by monolithically integrated OPLLs.

  5. Single-event phenomena on recent semiconductor devices. Charge-type multiple-bit upsets in high integrated memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makihara, Akiko; Shindou, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Norio; Kuboyama, Satoshi; Matsuda, Sumio; Ohshima, Takeshi; Hirao, Toshio; Itoh, Hisayoshi

    2001-01-01

    High integrated memories are used in solid state data recorder (SSDR) of the satellite for accumulating observation data. Single event upset phenomena which turn over an accumulated data in the memory cells are caused by heavy ion incidence. Studies on single-bit upset and multiple-bit upset phenomena in the high integrated memory cells are in progress recently. 16 Mbit DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memories) and 64 Mbit DRAM are irradiated by heavy ion species, such as iodine, bromine and nickel, in comparison with the irradiation damage in the cosmic environment. Data written on the memory devices are read out after the irradiation. The memory cells in three kinds of states, all of charged state, all of discharged state, and an alternative state of charge and discharge, are irradiated for sorting out error modes caused by heavy ion incidence. The soft error in a single memory cells is known as a turn over from charged state to discharged state. Electrons in electron-hole pair generated by heavy ion incidence are captured in a diffusion region between capacitor electrodes of semiconductor. The charged states in the capacitor electrodes before the irradiation are neutralized and changed to the discharged states. According to high integration of the memories, many of the cells are affected by a single ion incidence. The multiple-bit upsets, however, are generated in the memory cells of discharged state before the irradiation, also. The charge-type multiple-bit upsets is considered as that error data are written on the DRAM during refresh cycle of a sense-up circuit and a pre-charge circuit which control the DRAM. (M. Suetake)

  6. Extended Leach Testing of Simulated LAW Cast Stone Monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Benjamin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jung, H. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-09

    This report describes the results from long-term laboratory leach tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the release of key constituents from monoliths of Cast Stone prepared with four simulated low-activity waste (LAW) liquid waste streams. Specific objectives of the Cast Stone long-term leach tests described in this report focused on four activities: 1. Extending the leaching times for selected ongoing EPA-1315 tests on monoliths made with LAW simulants beyond the conventional 63-day time period up to 609 days reported herein (with some tests continuing that will be documented later) in an effort to evaluate long-term leaching properties of Cast Stone to support future performance assessment activities. 2. Starting new EPA-1315 leach tests on archived Cast Stone monoliths made with four LAW simulants using two leachants (deionized water [DIW] and simulated Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Site vadose zone pore water [VZP]). 3. Evaluating the impacts of varying the iodide loading (starting iodide concentrations) in one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) Average) by manufacturing new Cast Stone monoliths and repeating the EPA-1315 leach tests using DIW and the VZP leachants. 4. Evaluating the impacts of using a non-pertechnetate form of Tc that is present in some Hanford tanks. In this activity one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na HTWOS Average) was spiked with a Tc(I)-tricarbonyl gluconate species and then solidified into Cast Stone monoliths. Cured monoliths were leached using the EPA-1315 leach protocol with DIW and VZP. The leach results for the Tc-Gluconate Cast Stone monoliths were compared to Cast Stone monoliths pertechnetate.

  7. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY: TaN wet etch for application in dual-metal-gate integration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongliang, Li; Qiuxia, Xu

    2009-12-01

    Wet-etch etchants and the TaN film method for dual-metal-gate integration are investigated. Both HF/HN O3/H2O and NH4OH/H2O2 solutions can etch TaN effectively, but poor selectivity to the gate dielectric for the HF/HNO3/H2O solution due to HF being included in HF/HNO3/H2O, and the fact that TaN is difficult to etch in the NH4OH/H2O2 solution at the first stage due to the thin TaOxNy layer on the TaN surface, mean that they are difficult to individually apply to dual-metal-gate integration. A two-step wet etching strategy using the HF/HNO3/H2O solution first and the NH4OH/H2O2 solution later can fully remove thin TaN film with a photo-resist mask and has high selectivity to the HfSiON dielectric film underneath. High-k dielectric film surfaces are smooth after wet etching of the TaN metal gate and MOSCAPs show well-behaved C-V and Jg-Vg characteristics, which all prove that the wet etching of TaN has little impact on electrical performance and can be applied to dual-metal-gate integration technology for removing the first TaN metal gate in the PMOS region.

  8. Integration of near infrared and visible organic photodiodes on a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible backplane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnel, M.; Thomschke, M.; Fehse, K.; Vogel, U. [Fraunhofer-Institute for Organische Elektronik, Elektronenstrahl-und Plasmatechnik FEP, 01199 Dresden (Germany); An, J.D.; Park, H. [Konkuk University-Fraunhofer Next Generation Solar Cell Research Center (KFnSC), Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Leo, K. [Fraunhofer-Institute for Organische Elektronik, Elektronenstrahl-und Plasmatechnik FEP, 01199 Dresden (Germany); Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden (TUD), 01062 Dresden (Germany); Im, C. [Konkuk University-Fraunhofer Next Generation Solar Cell Research Center (KFnSC), Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports about the integration of polymer-based bulk heterojunction organic photo diodes (OPDs) onto complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) compatible electrode materials. The fabrication and performance of four absorber systems in indium tin oxide-free OPDs for sensing applications have been studied. These are based on the following polymer–fullerene blends: Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):[6,6]Phenyl C{sub 61} Butyric Acid Methyl Ester and Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5 diyl):Di[1,4] methanonaphthaleno [1,2:2′,3′;56,60:2″,3″] [5,6]fullerene-C60-Ih, 1′,1″,4′,4″-tetrahydro-, indene-C60 bisadduct to detect light in the visible range and Poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl] [3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl] thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  9. Integration of near infrared and visible organic photodiodes on a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible backplane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnel, M.; Thomschke, M.; Fehse, K.; Vogel, U.; An, J.D.; Park, H.; Leo, K.; Im, C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports about the integration of polymer-based bulk heterojunction organic photo diodes (OPDs) onto complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) compatible electrode materials. The fabrication and performance of four absorber systems in indium tin oxide-free OPDs for sensing applications have been studied. These are based on the following polymer–fullerene blends: Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):[6,6]Phenyl C_6_1 Butyric Acid Methyl Ester and Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5 diyl):Di[1,4] methanonaphthaleno [1,2:2′,3′;56,60:2″,3″] [5,6]fullerene-C60-Ih, 1′,1″,4′,4″-tetrahydro-, indene-C60 bisadduct to detect light in the visible range and Poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl] [3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl] thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  10. Adsorption-controlled growth of BiFeO3 by MBE and integration with wide band gap semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon F; Tian, Wei; Liu, Zi-Kui; Doolittle, W Alan; Bernhagen, Margitta; Reiche, Peter; Uecker, Reinhard; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Schlom, Darrell G

    2009-08-01

    BiFeO3 thin films have been deposited on (001) SrTiO3, (101) DyScO3, (011) DyScO3, (0001) AlGaN/GaN, and (0001) 6H-SiC single crystal substrates by reactive molecular beam epitaxy in an adsorption-controlled growth regime. This is achieved by supplying a bismuth over-pressure and utilizing the differential vapor pressures between bismuth oxides and BiFeO3 to control stoichiometry in accordance with thermodynamic calculations. Four-circle x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reveal phase-pure, epitaxial films with rocking curve full width at half maximum values as narrow as 7.2 arc seconds (0.002 degrees). Epitaxial growth of (0001)-oriented BiFeO3 thin films on (0001) GaN, including AlGaN HEMT structures, and (0001) SiC has been realized using intervening epitaxial (111) SrTiO3 / (100) TiO2 buffer layers. The epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films have 2 in-plane orientations: [1120] BiFeO3 || [1120] GaN (SiC) plus a twin variant related by a 180 degrees in-plane rotation. This epitaxial integration of the ferroelectric with the highest known polarization, BiFeO3, with high bandgap semiconductors is an important step toward novel field-effect devices.

  11. Ultrasonic fingerprint sensor using a piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer array integrated with complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Y.; Fung, S.; Wang, Q.; Horsley, D. A. [Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tang, H.; Boser, B. E. [Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tsai, J. M.; Daneman, M. [InvenSense, Inc., 1745 Technology Drive, San Jose, California 95110 (United States)

    2015-06-29

    This paper presents an ultrasonic fingerprint sensor based on a 24 × 8 array of 22 MHz piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers (PMUTs) with 100 μm pitch, fully integrated with 180 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry through eutectic wafer bonding. Each PMUT is directly bonded to a dedicated CMOS receive amplifier, minimizing electrical parasitics and eliminating the need for through-silicon vias. The array frequency response and vibration mode-shape were characterized using laser Doppler vibrometry and verified via finite element method simulation. The array's acoustic output was measured using a hydrophone to be ∼14 kPa with a 28 V input, in reasonable agreement with predication from analytical calculation. Pulse-echo imaging of a 1D steel grating is demonstrated using electronic scanning of a 20 × 8 sub-array, resulting in 300 mV maximum received amplitude and 5:1 contrast ratio. Because the small size of this array limits the maximum image size, mechanical scanning was used to image a 2D polydimethylsiloxane fingerprint phantom (10 mm × 8 mm) at a 1.2 mm distance from the array.

  12. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S

    1987-01-01

    In-depth exploration of the implications of carrier populations and Fermi energies examines distribution of electrons in energy bands and impurity levels of semiconductors. Also: kinetics of semiconductors containing excess carriers, particularly in terms of trapping, excitation, and recombination.

  13. Tailoring the graphene/silicon carbide interface for monolithic wafer-scale electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, S; Waldmann, D; Jobst, J; Albert, A; Albrecht, M; Reshanov, S; Schöner, A; Krieger, M; Weber, H B

    2012-07-17

    Graphene is an outstanding electronic material, predicted to have a role in post-silicon electronics. However, owing to the absence of an electronic bandgap, graphene switching devices with high on/off ratio are still lacking. Here in the search for a comprehensive concept for wafer-scale graphene electronics, we present a monolithic transistor that uses the entire material system epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide (0001). This system consists of the graphene layer with its vanishing energy gap, the underlying semiconductor and their common interface. The graphene/semiconductor interfaces are tailor-made for ohmic as well as for Schottky contacts side-by-side on the same chip. We demonstrate normally on and normally off operation of a single transistor with on/off ratios exceeding 10(4) and no damping at megahertz frequencies. In its simplest realization, the fabrication process requires only one lithography step to build transistors, diodes, resistors and eventually integrated circuits without the need of metallic interconnects.

  14. Semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Böer, Karl W

    2018-01-01

    This handbook gives a complete survey of the important topics and results in semiconductor physics. It addresses every fundamental principle and most research topics and areas of application in the field of semiconductor physics. Comprehensive information is provided on crystalline bulk and low-dimensional as well as amporphous semiconductors, including optical, transport, and dynamic properties.

  15. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A high performance 90 nm CMOS SAR ADC with hybrid architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingyuan, Tong; Jianming, Chen; Zhangming, Zhu; Yintang, Yang

    2010-01-01

    A 10-bit 2.5 MS/s SAR A/D converter is presented. In the circuit design, an R-C hybrid architecture D/A converter, pseudo-differential comparison architecture and low power voltage level shifters are utilized. Design challenges and considerations are also discussed. In the layout design, each unit resistor is sided by dummies for good matching performance, and the capacitors are routed with a common-central symmetry method to reduce the nonlin-earity error. This proposed converter is implemented based on 90 nm CMOS logic process. With a 3.3 V analog supply and a 1.0 V digital supply, the differential and integral nonlinearity are measured to be less than 0.36 LSB and 0.69 LSB respectively. With an input frequency of 1.2 MHz at 2.5 MS/s sampling rate, the SFDR and ENOB are measured to be 72.86 dB and 9.43 bits respectively, and the power dissipation is measured to be 6.62 mW including the output drivers. This SAR A/D converter occupies an area of 238 × 214 μm2. The design results of this converter show that it is suitable for multi-supply embedded SoC applications.

  16. Site-Controlled Growth of Monolithic InGaAs/InP Quantum Well Nanopillar Lasers on Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Fabian; Kapraun, Jonas; Malheiros-Silveira, Gilliard N; Deshpande, Saniya; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J

    2017-04-12

    In this Letter, we report the site-controlled growth of InP nanolasers on a silicon substrate with patterned SiO 2 nanomasks by low-temperature metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, compatible with silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) post-processing. A two-step growth procedure is presented to achieve smooth wurtzite faceting of vertical nanopillars. By incorporating InGaAs multiquantum wells, the nanopillar emission can be tuned over a wide spectral range. Enhanced quality factors of the intrinsic InP nanopillar cavities promote lasing at 0.87 and 1.21 μm, located within two important optical telecommunication bands. This is the first demonstration of a site-controlled III-V nanolaser monolithically integrated on silicon with a silicon-transparent emission wavelength, paving the way for energy-efficient on-chip optical links at typical telecommunication wavelengths.

  17. Silicon CMOS optical receiver circuits with integrated thin-film compound semiconductor detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Martin A.; Lee, Myunghee; Jokerst, Nan Marie; Camperi-Ginestet, C.

    1995-04-01

    While many circuit designers have tackled the problem of CMOS digital communications receiver design, few have considered the problem of circuitry suitable for an all CMOS digital IC fabrication process. Faced with a high speed receiver design the circuit designer will soon conclude that a high speed analog-oriented fabrication process provides superior performance advantages to a digital CMOS process. However, for applications where there are overwhelming reasons to integrate the receivers on the same IC as large amounts of conventional digital circuitry, the low yield and high cost of the exotic analog-oriented fabrication is no longer an option. The issues that result from a requirement to use a digital CMOS IC process cut across all aspects of receiver design, and result in significant differences in circuit design philosophy and topology. Digital ICs are primarily designed to yield small, fast CMOS devices for digital logic gates, thus no effort is put into providing accurate or high speed resistances, or capacitors. This lack of any reliable resistance or capacitance has a significant impact on receiver design. Since resistance optimization is not a prerogative of the digital IC process engineer, the wisest option is thus to not use these elements, opting instead for active circuitry to replace the functions normally ascribed to resistance and capacitance. Depending on the application receiver noise may be a dominant design constraint. The noise performance of CMOS amplifiers is different than bipolar or GaAs MESFET circuits, shot noise is generally insignificant when compared to channel thermal noise. As a result the optimal input stage topology is significantly different for the different technologies. It is found that, at speeds of operation approaching the limits of the digital CMOS process, open loop designs have noise-power-gain-bandwidth tradeoff performance superior to feedback designs. Furthermore, the lack of good resisters and capacitors

  18. Broadband image sensor array based on graphene-CMOS integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Stijn; Navickaite, Gabriele; Monasterio, Carles; Gupta, Shuchi; Piqueras, Juan José; Pérez, Raúl; Burwell, Gregory; Nikitskiy, Ivan; Lasanta, Tania; Galán, Teresa; Puma, Eric; Centeno, Alba; Pesquera, Amaia; Zurutuza, Amaia; Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Koppens, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Integrated circuits based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) are at the heart of the technological revolution of the past 40 years, enabling compact and low-cost microelectronic circuits and imaging systems. However, the diversification of this platform into applications other than microcircuits and visible-light cameras has been impeded by the difficulty to combine semiconductors other than silicon with CMOS. Here, we report the monolithic integration of a CMOS integrated circuit with graphene, operating as a high-mobility phototransistor. We demonstrate a high-resolution, broadband image sensor and operate it as a digital camera that is sensitive to ultraviolet, visible and infrared light (300-2,000 nm). The demonstrated graphene-CMOS integration is pivotal for incorporating 2D materials into the next-generation microelectronics, sensor arrays, low-power integrated photonics and CMOS imaging systems covering visible, infrared and terahertz frequencies.

  19. A 60-GHz rectenna for monolithic wireless sensor tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Johannsen, U.; Matters - Kammerer, M.; Milosevic, D.; Smolders, A.B.; Roermund, van A.H.M.; Baltus, P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a 60-GHz rectenna with an on-chip antenna and rectifier in 65nm CMOS technology. The rectenna is often the bottleneck in realizing a fully-integrated monolithic wireless sensor tag. In this paper, problems of the mm-wave rectifier are discussed, and the

  20. Monolitni katalizatori i reaktori: osnovne značajke, priprava i primjena (Monolith catalysts and reactors: preparation and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašić, V.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic (honeycomb catalysts are continuous unitary structures containing many narrow, parallel and usually straight channels (or passages. Catalytically active components are dispersed uniformly over the whole porous ceramic monolith structure (so-called incorporated monolithic catalysts or are in a layer of porous material that is deposited on the walls of channels in the monolith's structure (washcoated monolithic catalysts. The material of the main monolithic construction is not limited to ceramics but includes metals, as well. Monolithic catalysts are commonly used in gas phase catalytic processes, such as treatment of automotive exhaust gases, selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides, catalytic removal of volatile organic compounds from industrial processes, etc. Monoliths continue to be the preferred support for environmental applications due to their high geometric surface area, different design options, low pressure drop, high temperature durability, mechanical strength, ease of orientation in a reactor and effectiveness as a support for a catalytic washcoat. As known, monolithic catalysts belong to the class of the structured catalysts and/or reactors (in some cases the distinction between "catalyst" and "reactor" has vanished. Structured catalysts can greatly intensify chemical processes, resulting in smaller, safer, cleaner and more energy efficient technologies. Monolith reactors can be considered as multifunctional reactors, in which chemical conversion is advantageously integrated with another unit operation, such as separation, heat exchange, a secondary reaction, etc. Finally, structured catalysts and/or reactors appear to be one of the most significant and promising developments in the field of heterogeneous catalysis and chemical engineering of the recent years. This paper gives a description of the background and perspectives for application and development of monolithic materials. Different methods and techniques

  1. Data quality objectives summary report for the 105-N monolith off-gas issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarcik, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The 105-N Basin hardware waste with radiation exposure rates high enough to make above-water handling and packaging impractical has been designated high exposure rate hardware (HERH) waste. This material, consisting primarily of irradiated reactor components, is packaged underwater for subsequent disposal as a grout-encapsulated solid monolith. The third HERH waste package that was created (Monolith No. 3) was not immediately removed from the basin because of administrative delays. During a routine facility walkdown, Monolith No. 3 was observed to be emitting bubbles. Mass spectroscopic analysis of a gas sample from Monolith No. 3 indicated that the gas was 85.2% hydrogen along with a trace of fission gases (stable isotopes of xenon). Gamma energy analysis of a gas sample from Monolith No. 3 also identified trace quantities of 85 Kr. The monolith off-gas Data Quality Objective (DQO) process concluded the following: Monolith No. 3 and similar monoliths can be safely transported following installation of spacers between the lids of the L3-181 transport cask to vent the hydrogen gas; The 85 Kr does not challenge personnel or environmental safety; Fumaroles in the surface of gassing monoliths renders them incompatible with Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria requirements unless placed in a qualified high integrity container overpack; and Gassing monoliths do meet Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria requirements. This DQO Summary Report is both an account of the Monolith Off-Gas DQO Process and a means of documenting the concurrence of each of the stakeholder organizations

  2. Horizontal integration in markets for complementary components and vertical product differentiation: A case-based analysis in the semiconductor industry

    OpenAIRE

    Westbrock, B.

    2005-01-01

    Observations of recent mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in the semiconductor and computer industry indicate that activities concentrate on the technology leaders in this market. The author examines the influence of players’ heterogeneous product technologies on their involvement in M&A. He provides a rationale for the influence with the help of a case study and a two-stage non cooperative game. The case is about an acquisition wave between suppliers in two semiconductor component markets. Exe...

  3. Acoustic of monolithic dome structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Refat Ismail

    2018-03-01

    The interior of monolithic domes have perfect, concave shapes to ensure that sound travels through the dome and perfectly collected at different vocal points. These dome structures are utilized for domestic use because the scale allows the focal points to be positioned across daily life activities, thereby affecting the sonic comfort of the internal space. This study examines the various acoustic treatments and parametric configurations of monolithic dome sizes. A geometric relationship of acoustic treatment and dome radius is established to provide architects guidelines on the correct selection of absorption needed to maintain the acoustic comfort of these special spaces.

  4. A CMOS-compatible large-scale monolithic integration of heterogeneous multi-sensors on flexible silicon for IoT applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2017-02-07

    We report CMOS technology enabled fabrication and system level integration of flexible bulk silicon (100) based multi-sensors platform which can simultaneously sense pressure, temperature, strain and humidity under various physical deformations. We also show an advanced wearable version for body vital monitoring which can enable advanced healthcare for IoT applications.

  5. A CMOS-compatible large-scale monolithic integration of heterogeneous multi-sensors on flexible silicon for IoT applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.; Sevilla, Galo T.; Velling, Seneca J.; Cordero, Marlon D.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    We report CMOS technology enabled fabrication and system level integration of flexible bulk silicon (100) based multi-sensors platform which can simultaneously sense pressure, temperature, strain and humidity under various physical deformations. We also show an advanced wearable version for body vital monitoring which can enable advanced healthcare for IoT applications.

  6. Horizontal integration in markets for complementary components and vertical product differentiation: A case-based analysis in the semiconductor industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westbrock, B.

    2005-01-01

    Observations of recent mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in the semiconductor and computer industry indicate that activities concentrate on the technology leaders in this market. The author examines the influence of players’ heterogeneous product technologies on their involvement in M&A. He provides a

  7. Output power PDF of a saturated semiconductor optical amplifier: Second-order noise contributions by path integral method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Mørk, Jesper; Tromborg, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a second-order small-signal model for describing the nonlinear redistribution of noise in a saturated semiconductor optical amplifier. In this paper, the details of the model are presented. A numerical example is used to compare the model to statistical simulations. We show that...

  8. David Adler Lectureship Award Talk: III-V Semiconductor Nanowires on Silicon for Future Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riel, Heike

    Bottom-up grown nanowires are very attractive materials for direct integration of III-V semiconductors on silicon thus opening up new possibilities for the design and fabrication of nanoscale devices for electronic, optoelectronic as well as quantum information applications. Template-Assisted Selective Epitaxy (TASE) allows the well-defined and monolithic integration of complex III-V nanostructures and devices on silicon. Achieving atomically abrupt heterointerfaces, high crystal quality and control of dimension down to 1D nanowires enabled the demonstration of FETs and tunnel devices based on In(Ga)As and GaSb. Furthermore, the strong influence of strain on nanowires as well as results on quantum transport studies of InAs nanowires with well-defined geometry will be presented.

  9. Monolithic fiber optic sensor assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Scott

    2015-02-10

    A remote sensor element for spectrographic measurements employs a monolithic assembly of one or two fiber optics to two optical elements separated by a supporting structure to allow the flow of gases or particulates therebetween. In a preferred embodiment, the sensor element components are fused ceramic to resist high temperatures and failure from large temperature changes.

  10. Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Sun

    2001-02-01

    This book deals with semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is comprised of nine chapters, which are manufacturing process of semiconductor device, history of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, kinds and role of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, construction and method of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, introduction of various semiconductor manufacturing equipment, spots of semiconductor manufacturing, technical elements of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, road map of technology of semiconductor manufacturing equipment and semiconductor manufacturing equipment in the 21st century.

  11. Protective Skins for Aerogel Monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Johnston, James C.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Meador, Ann B.

    2007-01-01

    A method of imparting relatively hard protective outer skins to aerogel monoliths has been developed. Even more than aerogel beads, aerogel monoliths are attractive as thermal-insulation materials, but the commercial utilization of aerogel monoliths in thermal-insulation panels has been inhibited by their fragility and the consequent difficulty of handling them. Therefore, there is a need to afford sufficient protection to aerogel monoliths to facilitate handling, without compromising the attractive bulk properties (low density, high porosity, low thermal conductivity, high surface area, and low permittivity) of aerogel materials. The present method was devised to satisfy this need. The essence of the present method is to coat an aerogel monolith with an outer polymeric skin, by painting or spraying. Apparently, the reason spraying and painting were not attempted until now is that it is well known in the aerogel industry that aerogels collapse in contact with liquids. In the present method, one prevents such collapse through the proper choice of coating liquid and process conditions: In particular, one uses a viscous polymer precursor liquid and (a) carefully controls the amount of liquid applied and/or (b) causes the liquid to become cured to the desired hard polymeric layer rapidly enough that there is not sufficient time for the liquid to percolate into the aerogel bulk. The method has been demonstrated by use of isocyanates, which, upon exposure to atmospheric moisture, become cured to polyurethane/polyurea-type coats. The method has also been demonstrated by use of commercial epoxy resins. The method could also be implemented by use of a variety of other resins, including polyimide precursors (for forming high-temperature-resistant protective skins) or perfluorinated monomers (for forming coats that impart hydrophobicity and some increase in strength).

  12. Semiconductor spintronics

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Jianbai; Chang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor Spintronics, as an emerging research discipline and an important advanced field in physics, has developed quickly and obtained fruitful results in recent decades. This volume is the first monograph summarizing the physical foundation and the experimental results obtained in this field. With the culmination of the authors' extensive working experiences, this book presents the developing history of semiconductor spintronics, its basic concepts and theories, experimental results, and the prospected future development. This unique book intends to provide a systematic and modern foundation for semiconductor spintronics aimed at researchers, professors, post-doctorates, and graduate students, and to help them master the overall knowledge of spintronics.

  13. 3D heteroepitaxy of mismatched semiconductors on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falub, Claudiu V.; Kreiliger, Thomas; Isa, Fabio; Taboada, Alfonso G.; Meduňa, Mojmír; Pezzoli, Fabio; Bergamaschini, Roberto; Marzegalli, Anna; Müller, Elisabeth; Chrastina, Daniel; Isella, Giovanni; Neels, Antonia; Niedermann, Philippe; Dommann, Alex; Miglio, Leo; Känel, Hans von

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for monolithically integrating mismatched semiconductor materials with Si, coined three-dimensional (3D) heteroepitaxy. The method comprises the replacement of conventional, continuous epilayers by dense arrays of strain- and defect-free, micron-sized crystals. The crystals are formed by a combination of deep-patterning of the Si substrates and self-limited lateral expansion during the epitaxial growth. Consequently, the longstanding issues of crack formation and wafer bowing can be avoided. Moreover, threading dislocations can be eliminated by appropriately choosing pattern sizes, layer thicknesses and surface morphology, the latter being dependent on the growth temperature. We show this approach to be valid for various material combinations, pattern geometries and substrate orientations. We demonstrate that Ge crystals evolve into perfect structures away from the heavily dislocated interface with Si, by using a synchrotron X-ray beam focused to a spot a few hundred nanometers in size and by recording 3D reciprocal space maps along their height. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) experiments reveal that the interband integrated PL intensity of the Ge crystals is enhanced by almost three orders of magnitude with respect to that of Ge epilayers directly grown on flat Si substrates. Electrical measurements performed on single heterojunction diodes formed between 3D Ge crystals and the Si substrate exhibit rectifying behavior with dark currents of the order of 1 mA/cm 2 . For GaAs the thermal strain relaxation as a function of pattern size is similar to that found for group IV materials. Significant differences exist, however, in the evolution of crystal morphology with pattern size, which more and more tends to a pyramidal shape defined by stable {111} facets with decreasing width of the Si pillars. - Highlights: • Νew method for integrating mismatched semiconductors • Arrays of three-dimensional epitaxial Ge and GaAs crystals on Si

  14. Determining leach rates of monolithic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Dole, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    The ANS 16.1 Leach Procedure provides a conservative means of predicting long-term release from monolithic waste forms, offering a simple and relatively quick means of determining effective solid diffusion coefficients. As presented here, these coefficients can be used in a simple model to predict maximum release rates or be used in more complex site-specific models to predict actual site performance. For waste forms that pass the structural integrity test, this model also allows the prediction of EP-Tox leachate concentrations from these coefficients. Thus, the results of the ANS 16.1 Leach Procedure provide a powerful tool that can be used to predict the waste concentration limits in order to comply with the EP-Toxicity criteria for characteristically nonhazardous waste. 12 refs., 3 figs

  15. Monolithic fuel injector and related manufacturing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve [Greenville, SC; Johnson, Thomas Edward [Greenville, SC; Lacy, Benjamin [Greenville, SC; York, William David [Greenville, SC; Stevenson, Christian Xavier [Greenville, SC

    2012-05-22

    A monolithic fuel injection head for a fuel nozzle includes a substantially hollow vesicle body formed with an upstream end face, a downstream end face and a peripheral wall extending therebetween, an internal baffle plate extending radially outwardly from a downstream end of the bore, terminating short of the peripheral wall, thereby defining upstream and downstream fuel plenums in the vesicle body, in fluid communication by way of a radial gap between the baffle plate and the peripheral wall. A plurality of integral pre-mix tubes extend axially through the upstream and downstream fuel plenums in the vesicle body and through the baffle plate, with at least one fuel injection hole extending between each of the pre-mix tubes and the upstream fuel plenum, thereby enabling fuel in the upstream plenum to be injected into the plurality of pre-mix tubes. The fuel injection head is formed by direct metal laser sintering.

  16. Semiconductor spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, J.; Abiague, A.M.; Ertler, Ch.; Stano, P.; Zutic, I.

    2007-01-01

    Spintronics refers commonly to phenomena in which the spin of electrons in a solid state environment plays the determining role. In a more narrow sense spintronics is an emerging research field of electronics: spintronics devices are based on a spin control of electronics, or on an electrical and optical control of spin of magnetism. While metal spintronics has already found its niche in the computer industry - giant magnetoresistance systems are used as hard disk read heads - semiconductor spintronics is vet demonstrate its full potential. This review presents selected themes of semiconductor spintronics, introducing important concepts in spin transport, spin transport, spin injection. Silsbee-Johnson spin-charge coupling, and spin-dependent tunneling, as well as spin relaxation and spin dynamics. The most fundamental spin-dependent interaction in nonmagnetic semiconductors is spin-orbit coupling. Depending on the crystal symmetries of the material, as well as on the structural properties of semiconductor based heterostructures, the spin-orbit coupling takes on different functional forms, giving a nice playground of effective spin-orbit Hamiltonians. The effective Hamiltonians for the most relevant classes of materials and heterostructures are derived here from realistic electronic band structure descriptions. Most semiconductor device systems are still theoretical concepts, waiting for experimental demonstrations. A review of selected proposed, and a few demonstrated devices is presented, with detailed description of two important classes: magnetic resonant tunnel structures and bipolar magnetic diodes and transistors. In view of the importance of ferromagnetic semiconductor material, a brief discussion of diluted magnetic semiconductors is included. In most cases the presentation is of tutorial style, introducing the essential theoretical formalism at an accessible level, with case-study-like illustrations of actual experimental results, as well as with brief

  17. LDMOS Channel Thermometer Based on a Thermal Resistance Sensor for Balancing Temperature in Monolithic Power ICs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingyou Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of thermal balancing for monolithic power integrated circuits (ICs. An on-chip temperature monitoring sensor that consists of a poly resistor strip in each of multiple parallel MOSFET banks is developed. A temperature-to-frequency converter (TFC is proposed to quantize on-chip temperature. A pulse-width-modulation (PWM methodology is developed to balance the channel temperature based on the quantization. The modulated PWM pulses control the hottest of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET bank to reduce its power dissipation and heat generation. A test chip with eight parallel MOSFET banks is fabricated in TSMC 0.25 μm HV BCD processes, and total area is 900 × 914 μm2. The maximal temperature variation among the eight banks can reduce to 2.8 °C by the proposed thermal balancing system from 9.5 °C with 1.5 W dissipation. As a result, our proposed system improves the lifetime of a power MOSFET by 20%.

  18. Oxide semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Svensson, Bengt G; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. Originally widely known as the ""Willardson and Beer"" Series, it has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. The series publishes timely, highly relevant volumes intended for long-term impact and reflecting the truly interdisciplinary nature of the field. The volumes in Semiconductors and Semimetals have been and will continue to be of great interest to physicists, chemists, materials scientists, and device engineers in academia, scient

  19. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S

    1962-01-01

    Semiconductor Statistics presents statistics aimed at complementing existing books on the relationships between carrier densities and transport effects. The book is divided into two parts. Part I provides introductory material on the electron theory of solids, and then discusses carrier statistics for semiconductors in thermal equilibrium. Of course a solid cannot be in true thermodynamic equilibrium if any electrical current is passed; but when currents are reasonably small the distribution function is but little perturbed, and the carrier distribution for such a """"quasi-equilibrium"""" co

  20. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A quasi-3-dimensional simulation method for a high-voltage level-shifting circuit structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jizhi, Liu; Xingbi, Chen

    2009-12-01

    A new quasi-three-dimensional (quasi-3D) numeric simulation method for a high-voltage level-shifting circuit structure is proposed. The performances of the 3D structure are analyzed by combining some 2D device structures; the 2D devices are in two planes perpendicular to each other and to the surface of the semiconductor. In comparison with Davinci, the full 3D device simulation tool, the quasi-3D simulation method can give results for the potential and current distribution of the 3D high-voltage level-shifting circuit structure with appropriate accuracy and the total CPU time for simulation is significantly reduced. The quasi-3D simulation technique can be used in many cases with advantages such as saving computing time, making no demands on the high-end computer terminals, and being easy to operate.

  1. Wafer-scale laser pantography: Fabrication of n-metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors and small-scale integrated circuits by direct-write laser-induced pyrolytic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliams, B.M.; Herman, I.P.; Mitlitsky, F.; Hyde, R.A.; Wood, L.L.

    1983-01-01

    A complete set of processes sufficient for manufacture of n-metal-oxide-semiconductor (n-MOS) transistors by a laser-induced direct-write process has been demonstrated separately, and integrated to yield functional transistors. Gates and interconnects were fabricated of various combinations of n-doped and intrinsic polysilicon, tungsten, and tungsten silicide compounds. Both 0.1-μm and 1-μm-thick gate oxides were micromachined with and without etchant gas, and the exposed p-Si [100] substrate was cleaned and, at times, etched. Diffusion regions were doped by laser-induced pyrolytic decomposition of phosphine followed by laser annealing. Along with the successful manufacture of working n-MOS transistors and a set of elementary digital logic gates, this letter reports the successful use of several laser-induced surface reactions that have not been reported previously

  2. Electronic structure of semiconductor interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, F

    1983-02-01

    The study of semiconductor interfaces is one of the most active and exciting areas of current semiconductor research. Because interfaces play a vital role in modern semiconductor technology (integrated circuits, heterojunction lasers, solar cells, infrared detectors, etc.), there is a strong incentive to understand interface properties at a fundamental level and advance existing technology thereby. At the same time, technological advances such as molecular beam epitaxy have paved the way for the fabrication of semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices of novel design which exhibit unusual electronic, optical, and magnetic properties and offer unique opportunities for fundamental scientific research. A general perspective on this subject is offered treating such topics as the atomic and electronic structure of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces; oxidation and oxide layers; semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices; rectifying metal-semiconductor contacts; and interface reactions. Recent progress is emphasized and some future directions are indicated. In addition, the role that large-scale scientific computation has played in furthering our theoretical understanding of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces is discussed. Finally, the nature of theoretical models, and the role they play in describing the physical world is considered.

  3. Electronic structure of semiconductor interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, F.

    1983-01-01

    The study of semiconductor interfaces is one of the most active and exciting areas of current semiconductor research. Because interfaces play a vital role in modern semiconductor technology (integrated circuits, heterojunction lasers, solar cells, infrared detectors, etc.), there is a strong incentive to understand interface properties at a fundamental level and advance existing technology thereby. At the same time, technological advances such as molecular beam epitaxy have paved the way for the fabrication of semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices of novel design which exhibit unusual electronic, optical, and magnetic properties and offer unique opportunities for fundamental scientific research. A general perspective on this subject is offered treating such topics as the atomic and electronic structure of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces; oxidation and oxide layers; semiconductor heterojunctions and superlattices; rectifying metal-semiconductor contacts; and interface reactions. Recent progress is emphasized and some future directions are indicated. In addition, the role that large-scale scientific computation has played in furthering our theoretical understanding of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces is discussed. Finally, the nature of theoretical models, and the role they play in describing the physical world is considered. (Author) [pt

  4. Semiconductor Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina, E.

    2007-01-01

    Particle detectors based on semiconductor materials are among the few devices used for particle detection that are available to the public at large. In fact we are surrounded by them in our daily lives: they are used in photoelectric cells for opening doors, in digital photographic and video camera, and in bar code readers at supermarket cash registers. (Author)

  5. A monolithic silicon detector telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardella, G.; Amorini, F.; Cabibbo, M.; Di Pietro, A.; Fallica, G.; Franzo, G.; Figuera, P.; Papa, M.; Pappalardo, G.; Percolla, G.; Priolo, F.; Privitera, V.; Rizzo, F.; Tudisco, S.

    1996-01-01

    An ultrathin silicon detector (1 μm) thick implanted on a standard 400 μm Si-detector has been built to realize a monolithic telescope detector for simultaneous charge and energy determination of charged particles. The performances of the telescope have been tested using standard alpha sources and fragments emitted in nuclear reactions with different projectile-target colliding systems. An excellent charge resolution has been obtained for low energy (less than 5 MeV) light nuclei. A multi-array lay-out of such detectors is under construction to charge identify the particles emitted in reactions induced by low energy radioactive beams. (orig.)

  6. Imaging monolithic silicon detector telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorini, F.; Sipala, V.; Cardella, G.; Boiano, C.; Carbone, B.; Cosentino, L.; Costa, E.; Di Pietro, A.; Emanuele, U.; Fallica, G.; Figuera, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; La Guidara, E.; Marchetta, C.; Pappalardo, A.; Piazza, A.; Randazzo, N.; Rizzo, F.; Russo, G.V.; Russotto, P.

    2008-01-01

    We show the results of some test beams performed on a new monolithic strip silicon detector telescope developed in collaboration with the INFN and ST-microelectronics. Using an appropriate design, the induction on the ΔE stages, generated by the charge released in the E stage, was used to obtain the position of the detected particle. The position measurement, together with the low threshold for particle charge identification, allows the new detector to be used for a large variety of applications due to its sensitivity of only a few microns measured in both directions

  7. A linear 180 nm SOI CMOS antenna switch module using integrated passive device filters for cellular applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Jie; Chen Lei; Liu Yi; Zhao Peng; Niu Xu

    2014-01-01

    A broadband monolithic linear single pole, eight throw (SP8T) switch has been fabricated in 180 nm thin film silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS technology with a quad-band GSM harmonic filter in integrated passive devices (IPD) technology, which is developed for cellular applications. The antenna switch module (ASM) features 1.2 dB insertion loss with filter on 2G bands and 0.4 dB insertion loss in 3G bands, less than −45 dB isolation and maximum −103 dB intermodulation distortion for mobile front ends by applying distributed architecture and adaptive supply voltage generator. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  8. Semiconductor sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor sensors have been around since the 1950s and today, every high energy physics experiment has one in its repertoire. In Lepton as well as Hadron colliders, silicon vertex and tracking detectors led to the most amazing physics and will continue doing so in the future. This contribution tries to depict the history of these devices exemplarily without being able to honor all important developments and installations. The current understanding of radiation damage mechanisms and recent R and D topics demonstrating the future challenges and possible technical solutions for the SLHC detectors are presented. Consequently semiconductor sensor candidates for an LHC upgrade and a future linear collider are also briefly introduced. The work presented here is a collage of the work of many individual silicon experts spread over several collaborations across the world.

  9. Semiconductor Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Klingshirn, Claus F

    2012-01-01

    This updated and enlarged new edition of Semiconductor Optics provides an introduction to and an overview of semiconductor optics from the IR through the visible to the UV, including linear and nonlinear optical properties, dynamics, magneto and electrooptics, high-excitation effects and laser processes, some applications, experimental techniques and group theory. The mathematics is kept as elementary as possible, sufficient for an intuitive understanding of the experimental results and techniques treated. The subjects covered extend from physics to materials science and optoelectronics. Significantly updated chapters add coverage of current topics such as electron hole plasma, Bose condensation of excitons and meta materials. Over 120 problems, chapter introductions and a detailed index make it the key textbook for graduate students in physics. The mathematics is kept as elementary as possible, sufficient for an intuitive understanding of the experimental results and techniques treated. The subjects covered ...

  10. Recent progress in low-temperature-process monolithic three dimension technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Chao; Hsieh, Tung-Ying; Huang, Wen-Hsien; Shen, Chang-Hong; Shieh, Jia-Min; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Wu, Meng-Chyi

    2018-04-01

    Monolithic three-dimension (3D) integration is an ultimate alternative method of fabricating high density, high performance, and multi-functional integrated circuits. It offers the promise of being a new approach to increase system performance. How to manage the thermal impact of multi-tiered processes, such as dopant activation, source/drain silicidation, and channel formation, and to prevent the degradation of pre-existing devices/circuits become key challenges. In this paper, we provide updates on several important monolithic 3D works, particularly in sequentially stackable channels, and our recent achievements in monolithic 3D integrated circuit (3D-IC). These results indicate that the advanced 3D architecture with novel design tools enables ultrahigh-density stackable circuits to have superior performance and low power consumption for future artificial intelligence (AI) and internet of things (IoTs) application.

  11. Semiconductor annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.M.; Scovell, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    A process for annealing crystal damage in ion implanted semiconductor devices in which the device is rapidly heated to a temperature between 450 and 900 0 C and allowed to cool. It has been found that such heating of the device to these relatively low temperatures results in rapid annealing. In one application the device may be heated on a graphite element mounted between electrodes in an inert atmosphere in a chamber. (author)

  12. Si-Based Germanium Tin Semiconductor Lasers for Optoelectronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kabi, Sattar H. Sweilim

    Silicon-based materials and optoelectronic devices are of great interest as they could be monolithically integrated in the current Si complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processes. The integration of optoelectronic components on the CMOS platform has long been limited due to the unavailability of Si-based laser sources. A Si-based monolithic laser is highly desirable for full integration of Si photonics chip. In this work, Si-based germanium-tin (GeSn) lasers have been demonstrated as direct bandgap group-IV laser sources. This opens a completely new avenue from the traditional III-V integration approach. In this work, the material and optical properties of GeSn alloys were comprehensively studied. The GeSn films were grown on Ge-buffered Si substrates in a reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition system with low-cost SnCl4 and GeH4 precursors. A systematic study was done for thin GeSn films (thickness 400 nm) with Sn composition 5 to 17.5%. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra were measured that showed a gradual shift of emission peaks towards longer wavelength as Sn composition increases. Strong PL intensity and low defect density indicated high material quality. Moreover, the PL study of n-doped samples showed bandgap narrowing compared to the unintentionally p-doped (boron) thin films with similar Sn compositions. Finally, optically pumped GeSn lasers on Si with broad wavelength coverage from 2 to 3 mum were demonstrated using high-quality GeSn films with Sn compositions up to 17.5%. The achieved maximum Sn composition of 17.5% broke the acknowledged Sn incorporation limit using similar deposition chemistry. The highest lasing temperature was measured at 180 K with an active layer thickness as thin as 270 nm. The unprecedented lasing performance is due to the achievement of high material quality and a robust fabrication process. The results reported in this work show a major advancement towards Si-based electrically pumped mid

  13. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Anson V; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay V

    2014-04-22

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  14. Detachable strong cation exchange monolith, integrated with capillary zone electrophoresis and coupled with pH gradient elution, produces improved sensitivity and numbers of peptide identifications during bottom-up analysis of complex proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenbin; Yan, Xiaojing; Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Dovichi, Norman J

    2015-04-21

    A detachable sulfonate-silica hybrid strong cation-exchange monolith was synthesized in a fused silica capillary, and used for solid phase extraction with online pH gradient elution during capillary zone electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CZE-MS/MS) proteomic analysis. Tryptic digests were prepared in 50 mM formic acid and loaded onto the strong cation-exchange monolith. Fractions were eluted using a series of buffers with lower concentration but higher pH values than the 50 mM formic acid background electrolyte. This combination of elution and background electrolytes results in both sample stacking and formation of a dynamic pH junction and allows use of relatively large elution buffer volumes while maintaining reasonable peak efficiency and resolution. A series of five pH bumps were applied to elute E. coli tryptic peptides from the monolith, followed by analysis using CZE coupled to an LTQ-Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer; 799 protein groups and 3381 peptides were identified from 50 ng of the digest in a 2.5 h analysis, which approaches the identification rate for this organism that was obtained with an Orbitrap Fusion. We attribute the improved numbers of peptide and protein identifications to the efficient fractionation by the online pH gradient elution, which decreased the complexity of the sample in each elution step and improved the signal intensity of low abundance peptides. We also performed a comparative analysis using a nanoACQUITY UltraPerformance LCH system. Similar numbers of protein and peptide identifications were produced by the two methods. Protein identifications showed significant overlap between the two methods, whereas peptide identifications were complementary.

  15. All-Optical Regenerative OTDM Add-Drop Multiplexing at 40 Gb/s using Monolithic InP Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, St.; Dülk, M.; Gamper, E.

    2000-01-01

    We present a novel method for all-optical add-drop multiplexing having regenerative capability for 40-Gb/s optical time-division multiplexed (OTDM) data using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) based, monolithic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). Simultaneous dropping of one 10-Gb/s channel ...

  16. Design of 5.8 GHz Integrated Antenna on 180nm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, A. H. A.; Shamsuddin, M. I. A.; Idros, M. F. M.; Halim, A. K.; Ahmad, A.; Junid, S. A. M. Al

    2018-03-01

    This project discusses the design and simulation performances of integrated loop antenna. Antenna is one of the main parts in any wireless radio frequency integrated circuit (RFIC). Naturally, antenna is the bulk in any RFIC design. Thus, this project aims to implement an integrated antenna on a single chip making the end product more compact. This project targets 5.8 GHz as the operating frequency of the integrated antenna for a transceiver module based on Silterra CMOS 180nm technology. The simulation of the antenna was done by using High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS). This software is industrial standard software that been used to simulate all electromagnetic effect including antenna simulation. This software has ability to simulate frequency at range of 100 MHz to 4 THz. The simulation set up in 3 dimension structure with driven terminal. The designed antenna has 1400um of diameter and placed on top metal layer. Loop configuration of the antenna has been chosen as the antenna design. From the configuration, it is able to make the chip more compact. The simulation shows that the antenna has single frequency band at center frequency 5.8 GHz with -48.93dB. The antenna radiation patterns shows, the antenna radiate at omnidirectional. From the simulation result, it could be concluded that the antenna have a good radiation pattern and propagation for wireless communication.

  17. Water quality assessment by an integrated multi-sensor based on semiconductor RuO2 nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuiykov, Serge; O'Brien, David; Best, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A multi-sensor based on a nanostructured semiconductor ruthenium oxide (RuO 2 ) sensing electrode (RuO 2 -SE) deposited on an alumina substrate and capable of being coupled with a simple turbidity sensor has been evaluated for long-term pH stability during a 12-month non-stop trial. The multi-sensor is designed to detect the main parameters of water quality: pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature, conductivity and turbidity over a temperature range of 9–30 °C. The morphology of the film SE used in the sensor structure was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray-analysis at the beginning of the trial and after 12 months of service. It was found that both morphology and surface compositions of nanostructured RuO 2 -SEs did not change significantly. They keep their high sensitivity to adsorption of superoxide ions (O 2 − ) despite heavy depositions of bio-fouling. The sensors with a RuO 2 -SE have demonstrated a stable Nernstian response to pH from 2.0 to 13.0 and were also capable of measuring DO in the range of 0.6–8.0 ppm. The measurement results show very good linearity, and excellent reproducibility was obtained during the trial. The Nernstian slope was approximately 58 mV pH −1 at a temperature of 23 °C. Although RuO 2 -SEs have been shown to exhibit very good response time for pH changes, within a few seconds at a temperature of 23 °C, as the water temperature cooled down, the sensor response time increased significantly and was about 8–10 min or longer at a temperature of 9 °C. The influence of hydrogen ion (H + ) diffusion in nanostructured RuO 2 films on the output emf drift during pH measurements was also investigated. Additional turbidity and conductivity measurements revealed that the multi-sensor is capable of measuring both high and low ranges at different temperatures, exhibiting a high linearity of characteristics

  18. A Ferrite LTCC-Based Monolithic SIW Phased Antenna Array

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Ahmed

    2016-11-17

    In this work, we present a novel configuration for realizing monolithic SIW-based phased antenna arrays using Ferrite LTCC technology. Unlike the current common schemes for realizing SIW phased arrays that rely on surface-mount component (p-i-n diodes, etc) for controlling the phase of the individual antenna elements, here the phase is tuned by biasing of the ferrite filling of the SIW. This approach eliminates the need for mounting of any additional RF components and enables seamless monolithic integration of phase shifters and antennas in SIW technology. As a proof of concept, a two-element slotted SIW-based phased array is designed, fabricated and measured. The prototype exhibits a gain of 4.9 dBi at 13.2 GHz and a maximum E-plane beam-scanning of 28 degrees using external windings for biasing the phase shifters. Moreover, the array can achieve a maximum beam-scanning of 19 degrees when biased with small windings that are embedded in the package. This demonstration marks the first time a fully monolithic SIW-based phased array is realized in Ferrite LTCC technology and paves the way for future larger-size implementations.

  19. A Ferrite LTCC-Based Monolithic SIW Phased Antenna Array

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Ahmed A.; Ghaffar, Farhan A.; Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad; Shamim, Atif

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel configuration for realizing monolithic SIW-based phased antenna arrays using Ferrite LTCC technology. Unlike the current common schemes for realizing SIW phased arrays that rely on surface-mount component (p-i-n diodes, etc) for controlling the phase of the individual antenna elements, here the phase is tuned by biasing of the ferrite filling of the SIW. This approach eliminates the need for mounting of any additional RF components and enables seamless monolithic integration of phase shifters and antennas in SIW technology. As a proof of concept, a two-element slotted SIW-based phased array is designed, fabricated and measured. The prototype exhibits a gain of 4.9 dBi at 13.2 GHz and a maximum E-plane beam-scanning of 28 degrees using external windings for biasing the phase shifters. Moreover, the array can achieve a maximum beam-scanning of 19 degrees when biased with small windings that are embedded in the package. This demonstration marks the first time a fully monolithic SIW-based phased array is realized in Ferrite LTCC technology and paves the way for future larger-size implementations.

  20. Compound semiconductor device modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Compound semiconductor devices form the foundation of solid-state microwave and optoelectronic technologies used in many modern communication systems. In common with their low frequency counterparts, these devices are often represented using equivalent circuit models, but it is often necessary to resort to physical models in order to gain insight into the detailed operation of compound semiconductor devices. Many of the earliest physical models were indeed developed to understand the 'unusual' phenomena which occur at high frequencies. Such was the case with the Gunn and IMPATI diodes, which led to an increased interest in using numerical simulation methods. Contemporary devices often have feature sizes so small that they no longer operate within the familiar traditional framework, and hot electron or even quantum­ mechanical models are required. The need for accurate and efficient models suitable for computer aided design has increased with the demand for a wider range of integrated devices for operation at...

  1. Heterogeneous integration of thin film compound semiconductor lasers and SU8 waveguides on SiO2/Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Sabarni; Kirch, Jeremy; Mawst, Luke; Kuech, Thomas; Jokerst, Nan Marie

    2010-02-01

    We present the heterogeneous integration of a 3.8 μm thick InGaAs/GaAs edge emitting laser that was metal-metal bonded to SiO2/Si and end-fire coupled into a 2.8 μm thick tapered SU8 polymer waveguide integrated on the same substrate. The system was driven in pulsed mode and the waveguide output was captured on an IR imaging array to characterize the mode. The waveguide output was also coupled into a multimode fiber, and into an optical head and spectrum analyzer, indicating lasing at ~997 nm and a threshold current density of 250 A/cm2.

  2. Semiconductor annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.M.; Scovell, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    A process for annealing crystal damage in ion implanted semiconductor devices is described in which the device is rapidly heated to a temperature between 450 and 600 0 C and allowed to cool. It has been found that such heating of the device to these relatively low temperatures results in rapid annealing. In one application the device may be heated on a graphite element mounted between electrodes in an inert atmosphere in a chamber. The process may be enhanced by the application of optical radiation from a Xenon lamp. (author)

  3. Monolithic solid-state lasers for spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Stephen, Mark A.; Merritt, Scott; Glebov, Leonid; Glebova, Larissa; Ryasnyanskiy, Aleksandr; Smirnov, Vadim; Mu, Xiaodong; Meissner, Stephanie; Meissner, Helmuth

    2015-02-01

    A new solution for building high power, solid state lasers for space flight is to fabricate the whole laser resonator in a single (monolithic) structure or alternatively to build a contiguous diffusion bonded or welded structure. Monolithic lasers provide numerous advantages for space flight solid-state lasers by minimizing misalignment concerns. The closed cavity is immune to contamination. The number of components is minimized thus increasing reliability. Bragg mirrors serve as the high reflector and output coupler thus minimizing optical coatings and coating damage. The Bragg mirrors also provide spectral and spatial mode selection for high fidelity. The monolithic structure allows short cavities resulting in short pulses. Passive saturable absorber Q-switches provide a soft aperture for spatial mode filtering and improved pointing stability. We will review our recent commercial and in-house developments toward fully monolithic solid-state lasers.

  4. Properties of glass-bonded zeolite monoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.A.; Fischer, D.F.; Murphy, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    It has been shown that mineral waste forms can be used to immobilize waste salt generated during the pyrochemical processing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). Solid, leach resistant monoliths were formed by hot-pressing mixtures of salt-occluded zeolite A powders and glass frit at 990 K and 28 MPa. Additional samples have now been fabricated and tested. Normalized release rates for all elements, including iodide and chloride, were less than 1 g/m 2 d in 28-day tests in deionized water and in brine at 363 K (90 degrees C). Preliminary results indicate that these rates fall with time with both leachants and that the zeolite phase in the glass-bonded zeolite does not function as an ion exchanger. Some material properties were measured. The Poisson ratio and Young's modulus were slightly smaller in glass-bonded zeolite than in borosilicate glass. Density depended on zeolite fraction. The glass-bonded zeolite represents a promising mineral waste form for IFR salt

  5. Magnetic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bihler, Christoph

    2009-04-15

    In this thesis we investigated in detail the properties of Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As, Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}P, and Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}N dilute magnetic semiconductor thin films with a focus on the magnetic anisotropy and the changes of their properties upon hydrogenation. We applied two complementary spectroscopic techniques to address the position of H in magnetic semiconductors: (i) Electron paramagnetic resonance, which provides direct information on the symmetry of the crystal field of the Mn{sup 2+} atoms and (ii) x-ray absorption fine structure analysis which allows to probe the local crystallographic neighborhood of the absorbing Mn atom via analysing the fine structure at the Mn K absorption edge. Finally, we discussed the obstacles that have to be overcome to achieve Curie temperatures above the current maximum in Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As of 185 K. Here, we outlined in detail the generic problem of the formation of precipitates at the example of Ge:MN. (orig.)

  6. Monolithic CMOS imaging x-ray spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenter, Almus; Kraft, Ralph; Gauron, Thomas; Murray, Stephen S.

    2014-07-01

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in collaboration with SRI/Sarnoff is developing monolithic CMOS detectors optimized for x-ray astronomy. The goal of this multi-year program is to produce CMOS x-ray imaging spectrometers that are Fano noise limited over the 0.1-10keV energy band while incorporating the many benefits of CMOS technology. These benefits include: low power consumption, radiation "hardness", high levels of integration, and very high read rates. Small format test devices from a previous wafer fabrication run (2011-2012) have recently been back-thinned and tested for response below 1keV. These devices perform as expected in regards to dark current, read noise, spectral response and Quantum Efficiency (QE). We demonstrate that running these devices at rates ~> 1Mpix/second eliminates the need for cooling as shot noise from any dark current is greatly mitigated. The test devices were fabricated on 15μm, high resistivity custom (~30kΩ-cm) epitaxial silicon and have a 16 by 192 pixel format. They incorporate 16μm pitch, 6 Transistor Pinned Photo Diode (6TPPD) pixels which have ~40μV/electron sensitivity and a highly parallel analog CDS signal chain. Newer, improved, lower noise detectors have just been fabricated (October 2013). These new detectors are fabricated on 9μm epitaxial silicon and have a 1k by 1k format. They incorporate similar 16μm pitch, 6TPPD pixels but have ~ 50% higher sensitivity and much (3×) lower read noise. These new detectors have undergone preliminary testing for functionality in Front Illuminated (FI) form and are presently being prepared for back thinning and packaging. Monolithic CMOS devices such as these, would be ideal candidate detectors for the focal planes of Solar, planetary and other space-borne x-ray astronomy missions. The high through-put, low noise and excellent low energy response, provide high dynamic range and good time resolution; bright, time varying x-ray features could be temporally and

  7. Semiconductor micropattern pixel detectors: a review of the beginnings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijne, E.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    The innovation in monolithic and hybrid semiconductor 'micropattern' or 'reactive' pixel detectors for tracking in particle physics was actually to fit logic and pulse processing electronics with μW power on a pixel area of less than 0.04 mm 2 , retaining the characteristics of a traditional nuclear amplifier chain. The ns timing precision in conjunction with local memory and logic operations allowed event selection at >10 MHz rates with unambiguous track reconstruction even at particle multiplicities >10 cm -2 . The noise in a channel was ∼100e - rms and enabled binary operation with random noise 'hits' at a level -8 . Rectangular pixels from 75 μmx500 μm down to 34 μmx125 μm have been used by different teams. In binary mode a tracking precision from 6 to 14 μm was obtained, and using analog interpolation one came close to 1 μm. Earlier work, still based on charge integrating imaging circuits, provided a starting point. Two systems each with more than 1 million sensor + readout channels have been built, for WA97-NA57 and for the Delphi very forward tracker. The use of 0.5 μm and 0.25 μm CMOS and enclosed geometry for the transistors in the pixel readout chips resulted in radiation hardness of ∼2 Mrad, respectively, >30 Mrad

  8. Transferrable monolithic III-nitride photonic circuit for multifunctional optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zheng; Gao, Xumin; Yuan, Jialei; Zhang, Shuai; Jiang, Yan; Zhang, Fenghua; Jiang, Yuan; Zhu, Hongbo; Wang, Yongjin

    2017-12-01

    A monolithic III-nitride photonic circuit with integrated functionalities was implemented by integrating multiple components with different functions into a single chip. In particular, the III-nitride-on-silicon platform is used as it integrates a transmitter, a waveguide, and a receiver into a suspended III-nitride membrane via a wafer-level procedure. Here, a 0.8-mm-diameter suspended device architecture is directly transferred from silicon to a foreign substrate by mechanically breaking the support beams. The transferred InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well diode (MQW-diode) exhibits a turn-on voltage of 2.8 V with a dominant electroluminescence peak at 453 nm. The transmitter and receiver share an identical InGaN/GaN MQW structure, and the integrated photonic circuit inherently works for on-chip power monitoring and in-plane visible light communication. The wire-bonded monolithic photonic circuit on glass experimentally demonstrates in-plane data transmission at 120 Mb/s, paving the way for diverse applications in intelligent displays, in-plane light communication, flexible optical sensors, and wearable III-nitride optoelectronics.

  9. Decomposition of monolithic web application to microservices

    OpenAIRE

    Zaymus, Mikulas

    2017-01-01

    Solteq Oyj has an internal Wellbeing project for massage reservations. The task of this thesis was to transform the monolithic architecture of this application to microservices. The thesis starts with a detailed comparison between microservices and monolithic application. It points out the benefits and disadvantages microservice architecture can bring to the project. Next, it describes the theory and possible strategies that can be used in the process of decomposition of an existing monoli...

  10. Miniature semiconductor detectors for in vivo dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, A. B.; Cutajar, D.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Takacs, G.; Cornelius, I. M.; Yudelev, M.; Zaider, M.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon mini-semiconductor detectors are found in wide applications for in vivo personal dosimetry and dosimetry and Micro-dosimetry of different radiation oncology modalities. These applications are based on integral and spectroscopy modes of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor and silicon p-n junction detectors. The advantages and limitations of each are discussed. (authors)

  11. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  12. Activated Carbon Fiber Monoliths as Supercapacitor Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelines Moreno-Fernandez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers (ACF are interesting candidates for electrodes in electrochemical energy storage devices; however, one major drawback for practical application is their low density. In the present work, monoliths were synthesized from two different ACFs, reaching 3 times higher densities than the original ACFs’ apparent densities. The porosity of the monoliths was only slightly decreased with respect to the pristine ACFs, the employed PVDC binder developing additional porosity upon carbonization. The ACF monoliths are essentially microporous and reach BET surface areas of up to 1838 m2 g−1. SEM analysis reveals that the ACFs are well embedded into the monolith structure and that their length was significantly reduced due to the monolith preparation process. The carbonized monoliths were studied as supercapacitor electrodes in two- and three-electrode cells having 2 M H2SO4 as electrolyte. Maximum capacitances of around 200 F g−1 were reached. The results confirm that the capacitance of the bisulfate anions essentially originates from the double layer, while hydronium cations contribute with a mixture of both, double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance.

  13. Novel swirl-flow reactor for kinetic studies of semiconductor photocatalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray, A.K; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1997-01-01

    A new two-phase swirl-flow monolithic-type reactor was designed to study the kinetics of heterogeneous photocatalytic processes on immobilized semiconductor catalysts. True kinetic rate constants for destruction of a textile dye were measured as a function of wavelength of light intensity and angle

  14. Design and evaluation of modelocked semiconductor lasers for low noise and high stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten; Larsson, David; Christiansen, Lotte Jin

    2005-01-01

    We present work on design of monolithic mode-locked semiconductor lasers with focus on the gain medium. The use of highly inverted quantum wells in a low-loss waveguide enables both low quantum noise, low-chirped pulses and a large stability region. Broadband noise measurements are performed...

  15. Single-mode very wide tunability in laterally coupled semiconductor lasers with electrically controlled reflectivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffel, Giora; Chen, Howard Z.; Grave, Ilan; Yariv, Amnon

    1991-04-01

    The operation of a novel multisection structure comprised of laterally coupled gain-guided semiconductor lasers is demonstrated. It is shown that tunable single longitudinal mode operation can be achieved with a high degree of frequency selectivity. The device has a tuning range of 14.5 nm, the widest observed to date in a monolithic device.

  16. Synthesis Methods, Microscopy Characterization and Device Integration of Nanoscale Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Gas Sensing in Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.; Kulis, Michael J.; Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Evans, Laura J.

    2009-01-01

    A comparison is made between SnO2, ZnO, and TiO2 single-crystal nanowires and SnO2 polycrystalline nanofibers for gas sensing. Both nanostructures possess a one-dimensional morphology. Different synthesis methods are used to produce these materials: thermal evaporation-condensation (TEC), controlled oxidation, and electrospinning. Advantages and limitations of each technique are listed. Practical issues associated with harvesting, purification, and integration of these materials into sensing devices are detailed. For comparison to the nascent form, these sensing materials are surface coated with Pd and Pt nanoparticles. Gas sensing tests, with respect to H2, are conducted at ambient and elevated temperatures. Comparative normalized responses and time constants for the catalyst and noncatalyst systems provide a basis for identification of the superior metal-oxide nanostructure and catalyst combination. With temperature-dependent data, Arrhenius analyses are made to determine an activation energy for the catalyst-assisted systems.

  17. Semiconductor detectors in the low countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijne, Erik H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Several milestones in the development of semiconductor radiation imaging detectors are attributed to scientists from the Low Countries, the Netherlands and Belgium, and a few historical details will be highlighted. The very first usable semiconductor nuclear detector was made in Utrecht, around 1943, in the form of an AgCl crystal. The earliest large-scale application of monolithic, double-sided silicon strip detectors was in the BOL experiment around 1968 at IKO, now NIKHEF, in Amsterdam. The technology developed and patented by Philips and IKO was adapted by the author and coworkers in 1980 to produce the first silicon microstrip detector used for the reconstruction of events in a CERN fixed target experiment. An avalanche of developments then led to worldwide use of silicon microstrip detectors in elementary particle physics, motivated by the capability to reconstruct particles with lifetime ∼10 -12 s, which decay on sub-millimeter scale. The intensive activity in silicon detector R and D culminated in 1991 in the construction of fine-grained 2D monolithic and hybrid pixel detectors that incorporate sophisticated electronic functions in each microscopic detection element, with typical dimensions of 25-100 μm. Besides being a powerful high intensity tracker for particle physics, this device can also be designed as a new X-ray imager, which allows selective counting of individual photons in each pixel at MHz frequency

  18. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  19. Uncooled monolithic ferroelectric IRFPA technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, James F.; Hanson, Charles M.; Beratan, Howard R.; Udayakumar, K. R.; Soch, Kevin L.

    1998-10-01

    Once relegated to expensive military platforms, occasionally to civilian platforms, and envisioned for individual soldiers, uncooled thermal imaging affords cost-effective solutions for police cars, commercial surveillance, driving aids, and a variety of other industrial and consumer applications. System prices are continuing to drop, and swelling production volume will soon drive prices substantially lower. The impetus for further development is to improve performance. Hybrid barium strontium titanate (BST) detectors currently in production are relatively inexpensive, but have limited potential for improved performance. The MTF at high frequencies is limited by thermal conduction through the optical coating. Microbolometer arrays in development at Raytheon have recently demonstrated performance superior to hybrid detectors. However, microbolometer technology lacks a mature, low-cost system technology and an abundance of upgradable, deployable system implementations. Thin-film ferroelectric (TFFE) detectors have all the performance potential of microbolometers. They are also compatible with numerous fielded and planned system implementations. Like the resistive microbolometer, the TFFE detector is monolithic; i.e., the detector material is deposited directly on the readout IC rather than being bump bonded to it. Imaging arrays of 240 X 320 pixels have been produced, demonstrating the feasibility of the technology.

  20. Semiconductor radiation detectors: device physics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lutz, Gerhard

    1999-01-01

    ..., including nuclear physics, elementary particle physics, optical and x-ray astronomy, medicine, and materials testing - and the number of applications is growing continually. Closely related, and initiated by the application of semiconductors, is the development of low-noise low-power integrated electronics for signal readout. The success of semicond...

  1. System analysis and energy model for radio-triggered battery-less monolithic wireless sensor receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Wu, Y.; Matters - Kammerer, M.; Roermund, van Arthur; Baltus, P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Monolithic wireless sensors with integrated antenna, on-chip transceiving, sensing and energy scavenging are low-cost and robust, thus very suitable for mass production and deployment. The design of such a sensor node requires a proper architecture with careful trade-offs and joint considerations

  2. A Monolithic Interconnected module with a tunnel Junction for Enhanced Electrical and Optical Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Christopher Sean; Wilt, David Morgan

    1999-06-30

    An improved thermophotovoltaic (TPV) n/p/n device is provided. Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIMs), semiconductor devices converting infrared radiation to electricity, have been developed with improved electrical and optical performance. The structure is an n-type emitter on a p-type base with an n-type lateral conduction layer. The incorporation of a tunnel junction and the reduction in the amount of p-type material used results in negligible parasitic absorption, decreased series resistance, increased voltage and increased active area. The novel use of a tunnel junction results in the potential for a TPV device with efficiency greater than 24%.

  3. Semiconductor laser shearing interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Hai; Li Ming; Chen Nong; Xie Jiaping

    1988-03-01

    The application of semiconductor laser on grating shearing interferometry is studied experimentally in the present paper. The method measuring the coherence of semiconductor laser beam by ion etching double frequency grating is proposed. The experimental result of lens aberration with semiconductor laser shearing interferometer is given. Talbot shearing interferometry of semiconductor laser is also described. (author). 2 refs, 9 figs

  4. Analysis of a Statistical Relationship Between Dose and Error Tallies in Semiconductor Digital Integrated Circuits for Application to Radiation Monitoring Over a Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colins, Karen; Li, Liqian; Liu, Yu

    2017-05-01

    Mass production of widely used semiconductor digital integrated circuits (ICs) has lowered unit costs to the level of ordinary daily consumables of a few dollars. It is therefore reasonable to contemplate the idea of an engineered system that consumes unshielded low-cost ICs for the purpose of measuring gamma radiation dose. Underlying the idea is the premise of a measurable correlation between an observable property of ICs and radiation dose. Accumulation of radiation-damage-induced state changes or error events is such a property. If correct, the premise could make possible low-cost wide-area radiation dose measurement systems, instantiated as wireless sensor networks (WSNs) with unshielded consumable ICs as nodes, communicating error events to a remote base station. The premise has been investigated quantitatively for the first time in laboratory experiments and related analyses performed at the Canadian Nuclear Laboratories. State changes or error events were recorded in real time during irradiation of samples of ICs of different types in a 60Co gamma cell. From the error-event sequences, empirical distribution functions of dose were generated. The distribution functions were inverted and probabilities scaled by total error events, to yield plots of the relationship between dose and error tallies. Positive correlation was observed, and discrete functional dependence of dose quantiles on error tallies was measured, demonstrating the correctness of the premise. The idea of an engineered system that consumes unshielded low-cost ICs in a WSN, for the purpose of measuring gamma radiation dose over wide areas, is therefore tenable.

  5. Quantum dash based single section mode locked lasers for photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Siddharth; Calò, Cosimo; Chimot, Nicolas; Radziunas, Mindaugas; Arkhipov, Rostislav; Barbet, Sophie; Accard, Alain; Ramdane, Abderrahim; Lelarge, Francois

    2014-05-05

    We present the first demonstration of an InAs/InP Quantum Dash based single-section frequency comb generator designed for use in photonic integrated circuits (PICs). The laser cavity is closed using a specifically designed Bragg reflector without compromising the mode-locking performance of the self pulsating laser. This enables the integration of single-section mode-locked laser in photonic integrated circuits as on-chip frequency comb generators. We also investigate the relations between cavity modes in such a device and demonstrate how the dispersion of the complex mode frequencies induced by the Bragg grating implies a violation of the equi-distance between the adjacent mode frequencies and, therefore, forbids the locking of the modes in a classical Bragg Device. Finally we integrate such a Bragg Mirror based laser with Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) to demonstrate the monolithic integration of QDash based low phase noise sources in PICs.

  6. Organic semiconductors in sensor applications

    CERN Document Server

    Malliaras, George; Owens, Róisín

    2008-01-01

    Organic semiconductors offer unique characteristics such as tunability of electronic properties via chemical synthesis, compatibility with mechanically flexible substrates, low-cost manufacturing, and facile integration with chemical and biological functionalities. These characteristics have prompted the application of organic semiconductors and their devices in physical, chemical, and biological sensors. This book covers this rapidly emerging field by discussing both optical and electrical sensor concepts. Novel transducers based on organic light-emitting diodes and organic thin-film transistors, as well as systems-on-a-chip architectures are presented. Functionalization techniques to enhance specificity are outlined, and models for the sensor response are described.

  7. High mobility emissive organic semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Hantang; Dong, Huanli; Meng, Lingqiang; Jiang, Longfeng; Jiang, Lang; Wang, Ying; Yu, Junsheng; Sun, Yanming; Hu, Wenping; Heeger, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of high charge carrier mobility and high luminescence in an organic semiconductor is challenging. However, there is need of such materials for organic light-emitting transistors and organic electrically pumped lasers. Here we show a novel organic semiconductor, 2,6-diphenylanthracene (DPA), which exhibits not only high emission with single crystal absolute florescence quantum yield of 41.2% but also high charge carrier mobility with single crystal mobility of 34 cm2 V−1 s−1. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on DPA give pure blue emission with brightness up to 6,627 cd m−2 and turn-on voltage of 2.8 V. 2,6-Diphenylanthracene OLED arrays are successfully driven by DPA field-effect transistor arrays, demonstrating that DPA is a high mobility emissive organic semiconductor with potential in organic optoelectronics. PMID:26620323

  8. Fire resistance of prefabricated monolithic slab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravit Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A prefabricated monolithic slab (PMS has a number of valuable advantages, they allow to significantly decrease the weight of construction keeping the necessary structural-load capacity, to speed up and cheapen work conduction, to increase the heat isolating properties of an enclosure structure [1]. In order to create a design method of prefabricated monolithic slab fire-resistance, it's necessary to perform a series of PMS testing, one of which is being described in this article. Subjected to the test is a fragment of prefabricated monolithic slab with polystyrene concrete inserts along the beams with bent metal profile 250 mm thick, with a 2.7 m span loaded with evenly spread load equal to 600 kg/m2. After 3 hour testing for fire-resistance [2] no signs of construction ultimate behavior were detected.

  9. Semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marstein Erik Stensrud

    2003-07-01

    This thesis presents a study of two material systems containing semiconductor nanocrystals, namely porous silicon (PSi) films and germanium (Ge) nanocrystals embedded in silicon dioxide (SiO2) films. The PSi films were made by anodic etching of silicon (Si) substrates in an electrolyte containing hydrofluoric acid. The PSi films were doped with erbium (Er) using two different doping methods. electrochemical doping and doping by immersing the PSi films in a solution containing Er. The resulting Er concentration profiles were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEN1) combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). The main subject of the work on PSi presented in this thesis was investigating and comparing these two doping methods. Ge nanocrystals were made by implanting Ge ions into Si02 films that were subsequently annealed. However. nanocrystal formation occurred only for certain sets of processing parameters. The dependence of the microstructure of the Ge implanted Si02 films on the processing parameters were therefore investigated. A range of methods were employed for these investigations, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with EDS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The observed structures, ranging from Ge nanocrystals to voids with diameters of several tens of nanometers and Ge rich Si02 films without any nanocrystals is described. A model explaining the void formation is also presented. For certain sets of processing parameters. An accumulation of Ge at the Si-Si02 interface was observed. The effect of this accumulation on the electrical properties of MOS structures made from Ge implanted SiO2 films was investigated using CV-measurements. (Author)

  10. 10Gbps monolithic silicon FTTH transceiver for PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Liow, T. Y.; Lo, G. Q.; Kwong, D. L.

    2010-05-01

    We propose a new passive optical network (PON) configuration and a novel silicon photonic transceiver architecture for optical network unit (ONU), eliminating the need for an internal laser source in ONU. We adopt dual fiber network configuration. The internal light source in each of the ONUs is eliminated. Instead, an extra seed laser source in the optical line termination (OLT) operates in continuous wave mode to serve the ONUs in the PON as a shared and centralized laser source. λ1 from OLT Tx and λ2 from the seed laser are combined by using a WDM combiner and connected to serve the multiple ONUs through the downstream fibers. The ONUs receive the data in λ1. Meanwhile, the ONUs encode and transmit data in λ2, which are sent back to OLT. The monolithic ONU transceiver contains a wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) filter component, a silicon modulator and a Ge photo-detector. The WDM in ONU selectively guides λ1 to the Ge-PD where the data in λ1 are detected and converted to electrical signals, and λ2 to the transmitter where the light is modulated by upstream data. The modulated optical signals in λ2 from ONUs are connected back to OLT through upstream fibers. The monolithic ONU transceiver chip size is only 2mm by 4mm. The crosstalk between the Tx and Rx is measured to be less than -20dB. The transceiver chip is integrated on a SFP+ transceiver board. Both Tx and Rx demonstrated data rate capabilities of up to 10Gbps. By implementing this scheme, the ONU transceiver size can be significantly reduced and the assembly processes will be greatly simplified. The results demonstrate the feasibility of mass manufacturing monolithic silicon ONU transceivers via low cost

  11. Increased thermal conductivity monolithic zeolite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, James; Klett, Lynn; Kaufman, Jonathan

    2008-11-25

    A monolith comprises a zeolite, a thermally conductive carbon, and a binder. The zeolite is included in the form of beads, pellets, powders and mixtures thereof. The thermally conductive carbon can be carbon nano-fibers, diamond or graphite which provide thermal conductivities in excess of about 100 W/mK to more than 1,000 W/mK. A method of preparing a zeolite monolith includes the steps of mixing a zeolite dispersion in an aqueous colloidal silica binder with a dispersion of carbon nano-fibers in water followed by dehydration and curing of the binder is given.

  12. Analysis and simulation of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Selberherr, Siegfried

    1984-01-01

    The invention of semiconductor devices is a fairly recent one, considering classical time scales in human life. The bipolar transistor was announced in 1947, and the MOS transistor, in a practically usable manner, was demonstrated in 1960. From these beginnings the semiconductor device field has grown rapidly. The first integrated circuits, which contained just a few devices, became commercially available in the early 1960s. Immediately thereafter an evolution has taken place so that today, less than 25 years later, the manufacture of integrated circuits with over 400.000 devices per single chip is possible. Coincident with the growth in semiconductor device development, the literature concerning semiconductor device and technology issues has literally exploded. In the last decade about 50.000 papers have been published on these subjects. The advent of so called Very-Large-Scale-Integration (VLSI) has certainly revealed the need for a better understanding of basic device behavior. The miniaturization of the s...

  13. Development of semiconductor electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, John.

    1977-01-01

    In 1931, Wilson applied Block's theory about the energy bands for the motion of electrons in a crystal lattice to semiconductors and showed that conduction can take place in two different ways, by electrons and by holes. Not long afterwards Frenkel showed that these carriers can flow by diffusion in a concentration gradient as well as under the influence of an electric field and wrote down equations for the current flow. The third major contribution, in the late 1930's was the explanation of rectification at a metalsemiconductor contact by Mott and more completely by Schottky. In late 1947 the first transistor of the point contact type was invented by Brattin, Shockley and Bardeen. Then after single crystals of Ge were grown, the junction transistor was developed by the same group. The first silicon transistors appeared in 1954. Then an important step was discovery of the planar transistor by Hoenri in 1960 which led to development of integrated circuits by 1962. Many transistors are produced by batch processing on a slice of silicon. Then in 1965 Mos (Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) transistor and in 1968 LSI (Large Scale Intergration circuits) were developed. Aside from electronic circuits, there are many other applications of semiconductors, including junction power rectifiers, junction luminescence (including lasers), solar batteries, radiation detectors, microwave oscillators and charged-coupled devices for computer memories and devices. One of the latest developments is a microprocessor with thousands of transistors and associated circuitry on a single small chip of silicon. It can be programmed to provide a variety of circuit functions, thus it is not necessary to go through the great expense of LSI's for each desired function, but to use standard microprocessors and program to do the job

  14. Microwave integrated circuits for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Regis F.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC), which incorporate all the elements of a microwave circuit on a single semiconductor substrate, offer the potential for drastic reductions in circuit weight and volume and increased reliability, all of which make many new concepts in electronic circuitry for space applications feasible, including phased array antennas. NASA has undertaken an extensive program aimed at development of MMICs for space applications. The first such circuits targeted for development were an extension of work in hybrid (discrete component) technology in support of the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS). It focused on power amplifiers, receivers, and switches at ACTS frequencies. More recent work, however, focused on frequencies appropriate for other NASA programs and emphasizes advanced materials in an effort to enhance efficiency, power handling capability, and frequency of operation or noise figure to meet the requirements of space systems.

  15. Fundamentals of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lindmayer, Joseph

    1965-01-01

    Semiconductor properties ; semiconductor junctions or diodes ; transistor fundamentals ; inhomogeneous impurity distributions, drift or graded-base transistors ; high-frequency properties of transistors ; band structure of semiconductors ; high current densities and mechanisms of carrier transport ; transistor transient response and recombination processes ; surfaces, field-effect transistors, and composite junctions ; additional semiconductor characteristics ; additional semiconductor devices and microcircuits ; more metal, insulator, and semiconductor combinations for devices ; four-pole parameters and configuration rotation ; four-poles of combined networks and devices ; equivalent circuits ; the error function and its properties ; Fermi-Dirac statistics ; useful physical constants.

  16. Monolithic Carbide-Derived Carbon Films for Micro-Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiola, John; Largeot, Celine; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Simon, Patrice; Gogotsi, Yury

    2010-04-01

    Microbatteries with dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers that are produced by common microfabrication techniques are poised to provide integration of power sources onto electronic devices, but they still suffer from poor cycle lifetime, as well as power and temperature range of operation issues that are alleviated with the use of supercapacitors. There have been a few reports on thin-film and other micro-supercapacitors, but they are either too thin to provide sufficient energy or the technology is not scalable. By etching supercapacitor electrodes into conductive titanium carbide substrates, we demonstrate that monolithic carbon films lead to a volumetric capacity exceeding that of micro- and macroscale supercapacitors reported thus far, by a factor of 2. This study also provides the framework for integration of high-performance micro-supercapacitors onto a variety of devices.

  17. WOCSDICE󈧇 The 27th Workshop on Compound Semiconductor Devices and Integrated Circuits Held in Europe May 26 - 28, 2003 Forigen, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-28

    Rodrigues-Girones, M. Saglam, A. Megej, H.L. Hartnagel vi Recent Advances, Remaining Challenges in Wide Bandgap Semiconductors Colin ...R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, Science, 299, pp. 1881-1884, 2003. 19. C. J. Drury , C. M. J. Mutsaers, C. M. Hart, M. Matters, and D. M. de Leeuw

  18. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER MONOLITH FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C

    2006-01-01

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as an alternative technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of aqueous high sodium containing radioactive wastes at various DOE facilities in the United States. The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants converts aqueous Low Activity Wastes (LAW) to a granular or ''mineralized'' waste form while converting organic components to CO 2 and steam, and nitrate/nitrite components, if any, to N 2 . The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like structures that atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and anions such as SO 4 , I, F, and Cl. The granular product has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Shallow land burial requires that the mineralized waste form be able to sustain the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations. The strength requirement necessitates binding the granular product into a monolith. FBSR mineral products were formulated into a variety of monoliths including various cements, Ceramicrete, and hydroceramics. All but one of the nine monoliths tested met the 2 durability specification for Na and Re (simulant for Tc-99) when tested using the Product Consistency Test (PCT; ASTM C1285). Of the nine monoliths tested the cements produced with 80-87 wt% FBSR product, the Ceramicrete, and the hydroceramic produced with 83.3 wt% FBSR product, met the compressive strength and durability requirements for an LAW waste form

  19. A monolithic 3.1-4.8 GHz MB-OFDM UWB transceiver in 0.18-μm CMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Renliang; Jiang Xudong; Yao Wang; Yang Guang; Yin Jiangwei; Zheng Jianqin; Ren Junyan; Li Wei; Li Ning

    2010-01-01

    A monolithic RF transceiver for an MB-OFDM UWB system in 3.1-4.8 GHz is presented. The transceiver adopts direct-conversion architecture and integrates all building blocks including a gain controllable wideband LNA, a I/Q merged quadrature mixer, a fifth-order Gm-C bi-quad Chebyshev LPF/VGA, a fast-settling frequency synthesizer with a poly-phase filter, a linear broadband up-conversion quadrature modulator, an active D2S converter and a variable-gain power amplifier. The ESD protected transceiver is fabricated in Jazz Semiconductor's 0.18-μm RF CMOS with an area of 6.1 mm 2 and draws a total current of 221 mA from 1.8-V supply. The receiver achieves a maximum voltage gain of 68 dB with a control range of 42 dB in 6 dB/step, noise figures of 5.5-8.8 dB for three sub-bands, and an in-band/out-band IIP3 better than -4 dBm/+9 dBm. The transmitter achieves an output power ranging from -10.7 to -3 dBm with gain control, an output P 1dB better than -7.7 dBm, a sideband rejection about 32.4 dBc, and LO suppression of 31.1 dBc. The hopping time among sub-bands is less than 2.05 ns. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  20. A monolithic 3.1-4.8 GHz MB-OFDM UWB transceiver in 0.18-{mu}m CMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Renliang; Jiang Xudong; Yao Wang; Yang Guang; Yin Jiangwei; Zheng Jianqin; Ren Junyan; Li Wei; Li Ning, E-mail: jyren@fudan.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2010-06-15

    A monolithic RF transceiver for an MB-OFDM UWB system in 3.1-4.8 GHz is presented. The transceiver adopts direct-conversion architecture and integrates all building blocks including a gain controllable wideband LNA, a I/Q merged quadrature mixer, a fifth-order Gm-C bi-quad Chebyshev LPF/VGA, a fast-settling frequency synthesizer with a poly-phase filter, a linear broadband up-conversion quadrature modulator, an active D2S converter and a variable-gain power amplifier. The ESD protected transceiver is fabricated in Jazz Semiconductor's 0.18-{mu}m RF CMOS with an area of 6.1 mm{sup 2} and draws a total current of 221 mA from 1.8-V supply. The receiver achieves a maximum voltage gain of 68 dB with a control range of 42 dB in 6 dB/step, noise figures of 5.5-8.8 dB for three sub-bands, and an in-band/out-band IIP3 better than -4 dBm/+9 dBm. The transmitter achieves an output power ranging from -10.7 to -3 dBm with gain control, an output P{sub 1dB} better than -7.7 dBm, a sideband rejection about 32.4 dBc, and LO suppression of 31.1 dBc. The hopping time among sub-bands is less than 2.05 ns. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  1. CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors for high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoeys, W., E-mail: walter.snoeys@cern.ch

    2014-11-21

    Monolithic pixel detectors integrating sensor matrix and readout in one piece of silicon are only now starting to make their way into high energy physics. Two major requirements are radiation tolerance and low power consumption. For the most extreme radiation levels, signal charge has to be collected by drift from a depletion layer onto a designated collection electrode without losing the signal charge elsewhere in the in-pixel circuit. Low power consumption requires an optimization of Q/C, the ratio of the collected signal charge over the input capacitance [1]. Some solutions to combine sufficient Q/C and collection by drift require exotic fabrication steps. More conventional solutions up to now require a simple in-pixel readout circuit. Both high voltage CMOS technologies and Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) technologies with high resistivity epitaxial layers offer high voltage diodes. The choice between the two is not fundamental but more a question of how much depletion can be reached and also of availability and cost. This paper tries to give an overview.

  2. III-Vs on Si for photonic applications-A monolithic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhechao, E-mail: Zhechao.Wang@intec.ugent.be [School of ICT, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, Isafjordsgatan 22, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Junesand, Carl; Metaferia, Wondwosen; Hu, Chen; Wosinski, Lech [School of ICT, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, Isafjordsgatan 22, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Lourdudoss, Sebastian, E-mail: slo@kth.se [School of ICT, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, Isafjordsgatan 22, 164 40 Kista (Sweden)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monolithic evanescently coupled silicon laser (MECSL) structure treated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical mode profiles and thermal resistivity of MECSL optimized by simulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MECSL through epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) of InP on Si exemplified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Passive waveguide in MECSL also acts as the defect filtering mask in ELOG. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth of dislocation free thin InP layer on Si by ELOG for MECSL demonstrated. - Abstract: Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) technology is demonstrated as a viable technology to realize monolithic integration of III-Vs on silicon. As an alternative to wafer-to-wafer bonding and die-to-wafer bonding, ELOG provides an attractive platform for fabricating discrete and integrated components in high volume at low cost. A possible route for monolithic integration of III-Vs on silicon for silicon photonics is exemplified by the case of a monolithic evanescently coupled silicon laser (MECSL) by combining InP on Si/SiO{sub 2} through ELOG. Passive waveguide in MECSL also acts as the defect filtering mask in ELOG. The structural design of a monolithic evanescently coupled silicon laser (MECSL) and its thermal resistivity are established through simulations. Material studies to realize the above laser through ELOG are undertaken by studying appropriate ELOG pattern designs to achieve InP on narrow regions of silicon. We show that defect-free InP can be obtained on SiO{sub 2} as the first step which paves the way for realizing active photonic devices on Si/SiO{sub 2} waveguides, e.g. an MECSL.

  3. III–Vs on Si for photonic applications—A monolithic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhechao; Junesand, Carl; Metaferia, Wondwosen; Hu, Chen; Wosinski, Lech; Lourdudoss, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Monolithic evanescently coupled silicon laser (MECSL) structure treated. ► Optical mode profiles and thermal resistivity of MECSL optimized by simulation. ► MECSL through epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) of InP on Si exemplified. ► Passive waveguide in MECSL also acts as the defect filtering mask in ELOG. ► Growth of dislocation free thin InP layer on Si by ELOG for MECSL demonstrated. - Abstract: Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) technology is demonstrated as a viable technology to realize monolithic integration of III-Vs on silicon. As an alternative to wafer-to-wafer bonding and die-to-wafer bonding, ELOG provides an attractive platform for fabricating discrete and integrated components in high volume at low cost. A possible route for monolithic integration of III–Vs on silicon for silicon photonics is exemplified by the case of a monolithic evanescently coupled silicon laser (MECSL) by combining InP on Si/SiO 2 through ELOG. Passive waveguide in MECSL also acts as the defect filtering mask in ELOG. The structural design of a monolithic evanescently coupled silicon laser (MECSL) and its thermal resistivity are established through simulations. Material studies to realize the above laser through ELOG are undertaken by studying appropriate ELOG pattern designs to achieve InP on narrow regions of silicon. We show that defect-free InP can be obtained on SiO 2 as the first step which paves the way for realizing active photonic devices on Si/SiO 2 waveguides, e.g. an MECSL.

  4. Integration of functional complex oxide nanomaterials on silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel eVila-Fungueiriño

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The combination of standard wafer-scale semiconductor processing with the properties of functional oxides opens up to innovative and more efficient devices with high value applications that can be produced at large scale. This review uncovers the main strategies that are successfully used to monolithically integrate functional complex oxide thin films and nanostructures on silicon: the chemical solution deposition approach (CSD and the advanced physical vapor deposition techniques such as oxide molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Special emphasis will be placed on complex oxide nanostructures epitaxially grown on silicon using the combination of CSD and MBE. Several examples will be exposed, with a particular stress on the control of interfaces and crystallization mechanisms on epitaxial perovskite oxide thin films, nanostructured quartz thin films, and octahedral molecular sieve nanowires. This review enlightens on the potential of complex oxide nanostructures and the combination of both chemical and physical elaboration techniques for novel oxide-based integrated devices.

  5. Methacrylate monolithic columns functionalized with epinephrine for capillary electrochromatography applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Correa, Enrique Javier; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel

    2013-07-12

    Epinephrine-bonded polymeric monoliths for capillary electrochromatography (CEC) were developed by nucleophilic substitution reaction of epoxide groups of poly(glycidyl-methacrylate-co-ethylenedimethacrylate) (poly(GMA-co-EDMA)) monoliths using epinephrine as nucleophilic reagent. The ring opening reaction under dynamic conditions was optimized. Successful chemical modification of the monolith surface was ascertained by in situ Raman spectroscopy characterization. In addition, the amount of epinephrine groups that was bound to the monolith surface was evaluated by oxidation of the catechol groups with Ce(IV), followed by spectrophotometric measurement of unreacted Ce(IV). About 9% of all theoretical epoxide groups of the parent monolith were bonded to epinephrine. The chromatographic behavior of the epinephrine-bonded monolith in CEC conditions was assessed with test mixtures of alkyl benzenes, aniline derivatives and substituted phenols. In comparison to the poly(GMA-co-EDMA) monoliths, the epinephrine-bonded monoliths exhibited a much higher retention and slight differences in selectivity. The epinephrine-bonded monolith was further modified by oxidation with a Ce(IV) solution and compared with the epinephrine-bonded monoliths. The resulting monolithic stationary phases were evaluated in terms of reproducibility, giving RSD values below 9% in the parameters investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Solid spectroscopy: semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.E.T.G. da

    1983-01-01

    Photoemission as technique of study of the semiconductor electronic structure is shortly discussed. Homogeneous and heterogeneous semiconductors, where volume and surface electronic structure, core levels and O and H chemisorption in GaAs, Schottky barrier are treated, respectively. Amorphous semiconductors are also discussed. (L.C.) [pt

  7. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  8. Transferrable monolithic multicomponent system for near-ultraviolet optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chuan; Gao, Xumin; Yuan, Jialei; Shi, Zheng; Jiang, Yuan; Liu, Yuhuai; Wang, Yongjin; Amano, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    A monolithic near-ultraviolet multicomponent system is implemented on a 0.8-mm-diameter suspended membrane by integrating a transmitter, waveguide, and receiver into a single chip. Two identical InGaN/Al0.10Ga0.90N multiple-quantum well (MQW) diodes are fabricated using the same process flow, which separately function as a transmitter and receiver. There is a spectral overlap between the emission and detection spectra of the MQW diodes. Therefore, the receiver can respond to changes in the emission of the transmitter. The multicomponent system is mechanically transferred from silicon, and the wire-bonded transmitter on glass experimentally demonstrates spatial light transmission at 200 Mbps using non-return-to-zero on–off keying modulation.

  9. Monolithic optofluidic ring resonator lasers created by femtosecond laser nanofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrahalim, Hengky; Chen, Qiushu; Said, Ali A; Dugan, Mark; Fan, Xudong

    2015-05-21

    We designed, fabricated, and characterized a monolithically integrated optofluidic ring resonator laser that is mechanically, thermally, and chemically robust. The entire device, including the ring resonator channel and sample delivery microfluidics, was created in a block of fused-silica glass using a 3-dimensional femtosecond laser writing process. The gain medium, composed of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) dissolved in quinoline, was flowed through the ring resonator. Lasing was achieved at a pump threshold of approximately 15 μJ mm(-2). Detailed analysis shows that the Q-factor of the optofluidic ring resonator is 3.3 × 10(4), which is limited by both solvent absorption and scattering loss. In particular, a Q-factor resulting from the scattering loss can be as high as 4.2 × 10(4), suggesting the feasibility of using a femtosecond laser to create high quality optical cavities.

  10. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER MONOLITH FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C

    2006-12-22

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as an alternative technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of aqueous high sodium containing radioactive wastes at various DOE facilities in the United States. The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants converts aqueous Low Activity Wastes (LAW) to a granular or ''mineralized'' waste form while converting organic components to CO{sub 2} and steam, and nitrate/nitrite components, if any, to N{sub 2}. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like structures that atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The granular product has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Shallow land burial requires that the mineralized waste form be able to sustain the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations. The strength requirement necessitates binding the granular product into a monolith. FBSR mineral products were formulated into a variety of monoliths including various cements, Ceramicrete, and hydroceramics. All but one of the nine monoliths tested met the <2g/m{sup 2} durability specification for Na and Re (simulant for Tc-99) when tested using the Product Consistency Test (PCT; ASTM C1285). Of the nine monoliths tested the cements produced with 80-87 wt% FBSR product, the Ceramicrete, and the hydroceramic produced with 83.3 wt% FBSR product, met the compressive strength and durability requirements for an LAW waste form.

  11. Concrete pedestals for high-performance semiconductor production equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogen, Wayne; Franklin, Craig L.; Morneault, Joseph

    1999-09-01

    Concrete pedestals have many vibration and stiffness characteristics that make them a superior choice for sensitive semiconductor production equipment including scanners, scanning electron microscopes, focused ion beam millers and optical inspection equipment. Among the advantages of concrete pedestals are high inherent damping, monolithic construction that eliminates low stiffness joints common in steep pedestals, ability to reuse and ease of installation. Steel pedestals that have plates attached to the top of the frame are easily excited by acoustic excitation, especially in the range from 50 Hertz to 400 Hertz. Concrete pedestals do not suffer from this phenomenon because of the high mass and damping of the top surface.

  12. Semiconductor micropattern pixel detectors a review of the beginnings

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M

    2001-01-01

    The innovation in monolithic and hybrid semiconductor 'micropattern' or 'reactive' pixel detectors for tracking in particle physics was actually to fit logic and pulse processing electronics with µW power on a pixel area of less than 0.04 mm2, retaining the characteristics of a traditional nuclear amplifier chain. The ns timing precision in conjunction with local memory and logic operations allowed event selection at > 10 MHz rates with unambiguous track reconstruction even at particle multiplicities > 10 cm-2. The noise in a channel was ~100 e- r.m.s. and enabled binary operation with random noise 'hits' at a level 30 Mrad, respectively.

  13. An overview of monolithic zirconia in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Malkondu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zirconia restorations have been used successfully for years in dentistry owing to their biocompatibility and good mechanical properties. Because of their lack of translucency, zirconia cores are generally veneered with porcelain, which makes restorations weaker due to failure of the adhesion between the two materials. In recent years, all-ceramic zirconia restorations have been introduced in the dental sector with the intent to solve this problem. Besides the elimination of chipping, the reduced occlusal space requirement seems to be a clear advantage of monolithic zirconia restorations. However, scientific evidence is needed to recommend this relatively new application for clinical use. This mini-review discusses the current scientific literature on monolithic zirconia restorations. The results of in vitro studies suggested that monolithic zirconia may be the best choice for posterior fixed partial dentures in the presence of high occlusal loads and minimal occlusal restoration space. The results should be supported with much more in vitro and particularly in vivo studies to obtain a final conclusion.

  14. Characterization of SOI monolithic detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Rengifo, P. L.; Soung Yee, L.; Martin, E.; Cortina, E.; Ferrer, C.

    2013-12-01

    A monolithic active pixel sensor for charged particle tracking was developed. This research is performed within the framework of an R&D project called TRAPPISTe (Tracking Particles for Physics Instrumentation in SOI Technology) whose aim is to evaluate the feasibility of developing a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) with Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) technology. Two chips were fabricated: TRAPPISTe-1 and TRAPPISTe-2. TRAPPISTe-1 was produced at the WINFAB facility at the Université catholique de Louvain (UCL), Belgium, in a 2 μm fully depleted (FD-SOI) CMOS process. TRAPPISTe-2 was fabricated with the LAPIS 0.2 μm FD-SOI CMOS process. The electrical characterization on single transistor test structures and of the electronic readout for the TRAPPISTe series of monolithic pixel detectors was carried out. The behavior of the prototypes’ electronics as a function of the back voltage was studied. Results showed that both readout circuits exhibited sensitivity to the back voltage. Despite this unwanted secondary effect, the responses of TRAPPISTe-2 amplifiers can be improved by a variation in the circuit parameters.

  15. Metal oxide nanorod arrays on monolithic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Pu-Xian; Guo, Yanbing; Ren, Zheng

    2018-01-02

    A metal oxide nanorod array structure according to embodiments disclosed herein includes a monolithic substrate having a surface and multiple channels, an interface layer bonded to the surface of the substrate, and a metal oxide nanorod array coupled to the substrate surface via the interface layer. The metal oxide can include ceria, zinc oxide, tin oxide, alumina, zirconia, cobalt oxide, and gallium oxide. The substrate can include a glass substrate, a plastic substrate, a silicon substrate, a ceramic monolith, and a stainless steel monolith. The ceramic can include cordierite, alumina, tin oxide, and titania. The nanorod array structure can include a perovskite shell, such as a lanthanum-based transition metal oxide, or a metal oxide shell, such as ceria, zinc oxide, tin oxide, alumina, zirconia, cobalt oxide, and gallium oxide, or a coating of metal particles, such as platinum, gold, palladium, rhodium, and ruthenium, over each metal oxide nanorod. Structures can be bonded to the surface of a substrate and resist erosion if exposed to high velocity flow rates.

  16. Fracture-resistant monolithic dental crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Mai, Zhisong; Barani, Amir; Bush, Mark; Lawn, Brian

    2016-03-01

    To quantify the splitting resistance of monolithic zirconia, lithium disilicate and nanoparticle-composite dental crowns. Fracture experiments were conducted on anatomically-correct monolithic crown structures cemented to standard dental composite dies, by axial loading of a hard sphere placed between the cusps. The structures were observed in situ during fracture testing, and critical loads to split the structures were measured. Extended finite element modeling (XFEM), with provision for step-by-step extension of embedded cracks, was employed to simulate full failure evolution. Experimental measurements and XFEM predictions were self-consistent within data scatter. In conjunction with a fracture mechanics equation for critical splitting load, the data were used to predict load-sustaining capacity for crowns on actual dentin substrates and for loading with a sphere of different size. Stages of crack propagation within the crown and support substrate were quantified. Zirconia crowns showed the highest fracture loads, lithium disilicate intermediate, and dental nanocomposite lowest. Dental nanocomposite crowns have comparable fracture resistance to natural enamel. The results confirm that monolithic crowns are able to sustain high bite forces. The analysis indicates what material and geometrical properties are important in optimizing crown performance and longevity. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  17. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. K.; Park, S. H.; Lee, W. G.; Ha, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    In 1945, Van Heerden measured α, β and γ radiations with the cooled AgCl crystal. It was the first radiation measurement using the compound semiconductor detector. Since then the compound semiconductor has been extensively studied as radiation detector. Generally the radiation detector can be divided into the gas detector, the scintillator and the semiconductor detector. The semiconductor detector has good points comparing to other radiation detectors. Since the density of the semiconductor detector is higher than that of the gas detector, the semiconductor detector can be made with the compact size to measure the high energy radiation. In the scintillator, the radiation is measured with the two-step process. That is, the radiation is converted into the photons, which are changed into electrons by a photo-detector, inside the scintillator. However in the semiconductor radiation detector, the radiation is measured only with the one-step process. The electron-hole pairs are generated from the radiation interaction inside the semiconductor detector, and these electrons and charged ions are directly collected to get the signal. The energy resolution of the semiconductor detector is generally better than that of the scintillator. At present, the commonly used semiconductors as the radiation detector are Si and Ge. However, these semiconductor detectors have weak points. That is, one needs thick material to measure the high energy radiation because of the relatively low atomic number of the composite material. In Ge case, the dark current of the detector is large at room temperature because of the small band-gap energy. Recently the compound semiconductor detectors have been extensively studied to overcome these problems. In this paper, we will briefly summarize the recent research topics about the compound semiconductor detector. We will introduce the research activities of our group, too

  18. Semiconductor apparatus and method of fabrication for a semiconductor apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a semiconductor apparatus (1) and a method of fabrication for a semiconductor apparatus (1), wherein the semiconductor apparatus (1) comprises a semiconductor layer (2) and a passivation layer (3), arranged on a surface of the semiconductor layer (2), for passivating the

  19. Real-Time and Label-Free Chemical Sensor-on-a-chip using Monolithic Si-on-BaTiO3 Mid-Infrared waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tiening; Li, Leigang; Zhang, Bruce; Lin, Hao-Yu Greg; Wang, Haiyan; Lin, Pao Tai

    2017-07-19

    Chip-scale chemical detection is demonstrated by using mid-Infrared (mid-IR) photonic circuits consisting of amorphous silicon (a-Si) waveguides on an epitaxial barium titanate (BaTiO 3 , BTO) thin film. The highly c-axis oriented BTO film was grown by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method and it exhibits a broad transparent window from λ = 2.5 μm up to 7 μm. The waveguide structure was fabricated by the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process and a sharp fundamental waveguide mode has been observed. By scanning the spectrum within the characteristic absorption regime, our mid-IR waveguide successfully perform label-free monitoring of various organic solvents. The real-time heptane detection is accomplished by measuring the intensity attenuation at λ = 3.0-3.2 μm, which is associated with -CH absorption. While for methanol detection, we track the -OH absorption at λ = 2.8-2.9 μm. Our monolithic Si-on-BTO waveguides establish a new sensor platform that enables integrated photonic device for label-free chemical detection.

  20. Dry etching technology for semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Nojiri, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    This book is a must-have reference to dry etching technology for semiconductors, which will enable engineers to develop new etching processes for further miniaturization and integration of semiconductor integrated circuits.  The author describes the device manufacturing flow, and explains in which part of the flow dry etching is actually used. The content is designed as a practical guide for engineers working at chip makers, equipment suppliers and materials suppliers, and university students studying plasma, focusing on the topics they need most, such as detailed etching processes for each material (Si, SiO2, Metal etc) used in semiconductor devices, etching equipment used in manufacturing fabs, explanation of why a particular plasma source and gas chemistry are used for the etching of each material, and how to develop etching processes.  The latest, key technologies are also described, such as 3D IC Etching, Dual Damascene Etching, Low-k Etching, Hi-k/Metal Gate Etching, FinFET Etching, Double Patterning ...

  1. Semiconductor Physical Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Semiconductor Physical Electronics, Second Edition, provides comprehensive coverage of fundamental semiconductor physics that is essential to an understanding of the physical and operational principles of a wide variety of semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. This text presents a unified and balanced treatment of the physics, characterization, and applications of semiconductor materials and devices for physicists and material scientists who need further exposure to semiconductor and photonic devices, and for device engineers who need additional background on the underlying physical principles. This updated and revised second edition reflects advances in semicondutor technologies over the past decade, including many new semiconductor devices that have emerged and entered into the marketplace. It is suitable for graduate students in electrical engineering, materials science, physics, and chemical engineering, and as a general reference for processing and device engineers working in the semicondi...

  2. Monolithic circuits for barium fluoride detectors used in nuclear physics experiments. CRADA final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varner, R.L.; Blankenship, J.L.; Beene, J.R.; Todd, R.A.

    1998-02-01

    Custom monolithic electronic circuits have been developed recently for large detector applications in high energy physics where subsystems require tens of thousands of channels of signal processing and data acquisition. In the design and construction of these enormous detectors, it has been found that monolithic circuits offer significant advantages over discrete implementations through increased performance, flexible packaging, lower power and reduced cost per channel. Much of the integrated circuit design for the high energy physics community is directly applicable to intermediate energy heavy-ion and electron physics. This STTR project conducted in collaboration with researchers at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, sought to develop a new integrated circuit chip set for barium fluoride (BaF 2 ) detector arrays based upon existing CMOS monolithic circuit designs created for the high energy physics experiments. The work under the STTR Phase 1 demonstrated through the design, simulation, and testing of several prototype chips the feasibility of using custom CMOS integrated circuits for processing signals from BaF 2 detectors. Function blocks including charge-sensitive amplifiers, comparators, one shots, time-to-amplitude converters, analog memory circuits and buffer amplifiers were implemented during Phase 1 effort. Experimental results from bench testing and laboratory testing with sources were documented

  3. Mechanical design of a single-axis monolithic accelerometer for advanced seismic attenuation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Pisa and INFM, Largo Pontecorvo 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy) and LIGO Project, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)]. E-mail: alessandro.bertolini@desy.de; DeSalvo, Riccardo [LIGO Project, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fidecaro, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Pisa and INFM, Largo Pontecorvo 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Francesconi, Mario [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Pisa and INFM, Largo Pontecorvo 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Marka, Szabolcs [Department of Physics, Columbia University, 538 W. 120th St., New York, NY 10027 (United States); Sannibale, Virginio [LIGO Project, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Simonetti, Duccio [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Pisa and INFM, Largo Pontecorvo 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Takamori, Akiteru [LIGO Project, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Tariq, Hareem [LIGO Project, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2006-01-15

    The design and mechanics for a new very-low noise low frequency horizontal accelerometer is presented. The sensor has been designed to be integrated in an advanced seismic isolation system for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. The motion of a small monolithic folded-pendulum (FP) is monitored by a high resolution capacitance displacement sensor; a feedback force actuator keeps the mass at the equilibrium position. The feedback signal is proportional to the ground acceleration in the frequency range 0-150Hz. The very high mechanical quality factor, Q{approx}3000 at a resonant frequency of 0.5Hz, reduces the Brownian motion of the proof mass of the accelerometer below the resolution of the displacement sensor. This scheme enables the accelerometer to detect the inertial displacement of a platform with a root-mean-square noise less than 1nm, integrated over the frequency band from 0.01 to 150Hz. The FP geometry, combined with the monolithic design, allows the accelerometer to be extremely directional. A vertical-horizontal coupling ranging better than 10{sup -3} has been achieved. A detailed account of the design and construction of the accelerometer is reported here. The instrument is fully ultra-high vacuum compatible and has been tested and approved for integration in seismic attenuation system of japanese TAMA 300 gravitational wave detector. The monolithic design also makes the accelerometer suitable for cryogenic operation.

  4. Contacts to semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tove, P.A.

    1975-08-01

    Contacts to semiconductors play an important role in most semiconductor devices. These devices range from microelectronics to power components, from high-sensitivity light or radiation detectors to light-emitting of microwave-generating components. Silicon is the dominating material but compound semiconductors are increasing in importance. The following survey is an attempt to classify contact properties and the physical mechanisms involved, as well as fabrication methods and methods of investigation. The main interest is in metal-semiconductor type contacts where a few basic concepts are dealt with in some detail. (Auth.)

  5. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  6. Semiconductor detectors in the low countries

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M

    2003-01-01

    Several milestones in the development of semiconductor radiation imaging detectors are attributed to scientists from the Low Countries, the Netherlands and Belgium, and a few historical details will be highlighted. The very first usable semiconductor nuclear detector was made in Utrecht, around 1943, in the form of an AgCl crystal. The earliest large-scale application of monolithic, double- sided silicon strip detectors was in the BOL experiment around 1968 at IKO, now NIKHEF, in Amsterdam. The technology developed and patented by Philips and IKO was adapted by the author and coworkers in 1980 to produce the first silicon microstrip detector used for the reconstruction of events in a CERN fixed target experiment. An avalanche of developments then led to worldwide use of silicon microstrip detectors in elementary particle physics, motivated by the capability to reconstruct particles with lifetime similar to 10**- **1**2s, which decay on sub-millimeter scale. The intensive activity in silicon detector R&D c...

  7. Selective oxidation of cyclohexene through gold functionalized silica monolith microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Mohammed T.; Taylor, Martin J.; Liu, Dan; Beaumont, Simon K.; Kyriakou, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Two simple, reproducible methods of preparing evenly distributed Au nanoparticle containing mesoporous silica monoliths are investigated. These Au nanoparticle containing monoliths are subsequently investigated as flow reactors for the selective oxidation of cyclohexene. In the first strategy, the silica monolith was directly impregnated with Au nanoparticles during the formation of the monolith. The second approach was to pre-functionalize the monolith with thiol groups tethered within the silica mesostructure. These can act as evenly distributed anchors for the Au nanoparticles to be incorporated by flowing a Au nanoparticle solution through the thiol functionalized monolith. Both methods led to successfully achieving even distribution of Au nanoparticles along the length of the monolith as demonstrated by ICP-OES. However, the impregnation method led to strong agglomeration of the Au nanoparticles during subsequent heating steps while the thiol anchoring procedure maintained the nanoparticles in the range of 6.8 ± 1.4 nm. Both Au nanoparticle containing monoliths as well as samples with no Au incorporated were tested for the selective oxidation of cyclohexene under constant flow at 30 °C. The Au free materials were found to be catalytically inactive with Au being the minimum necessary requirement for the reaction to proceed. The impregnated Au-containing monolith was found to be less active than the thiol functionalized Au-containing material, attributable to the low metal surface area of the Au nanoparticles. The reaction on the thiol functionalized Au-containing monolith was found to depend strongly on the type of oxidant used: tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) was more active than H2O2, likely due to the thiol induced hydrophobicity in the monolith.

  8. Carrier concentration induced ferromagnetism in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Story, T.

    2007-01-01

    In semiconductor spintronics the key materials issue concerns ferromagnetic semiconductors that would, in particular, permit an integration (in a single multilayer heterostructure) of standard electronic functions of semiconductors with magnetic memory function. Although classical semiconductor materials, such as Si or GaAs, are nonmagnetic, upon substitutional incorporation of magnetic ions (typically of a few atomic percents of Mn 2+ ions) and very heavy doping with conducting carriers (at the level of 10 20 - 10 21 cm -3 ) a ferromagnetic transition can be induced in such diluted magnetic semiconductors (also known as semimagnetic semiconductors). In the lecture the spectacular experimental observations of carrier concentration induced ferromagnetism will be discussed for three model semiconductor crystals. p - Ga 1-x Mn x As currently the most actively studied and most perspective ferromagnetic semiconductor of III-V group, in which ferromagnetism appears due to Mn ions providing both local magnetic moments and acting as acceptor centers. p - Sn 1-x Mn x Te and p - Ge 1-x Mn x Te classical diluted magnetic semiconductors of IV-VI group, in which paramagnet-ferromagnet and ferromagnet-spin glass transitions are found for very high hole concentration. n - Eu 1-x Gd x Te mixed magnetic crystals, in which the substitution of Gd 3+ ions for Eu 2+ ions creates very high electron concentration and transforms antiferromagnetic EuTe (insulating compound) into ferromagnetic n-type semiconductor alloy. For each of these materials systems the key physical features will be discussed concerning: local magnetic moments formation, magnetic phase diagram as a function of magnetic ions and carrier concentration as well as Curie temperature and magnetic anisotropy engineering. Various theoretical models proposed to explain the effect of carrier concentration induced ferromagnetism in semiconductors will be briefly discussed involving mean field approaches based on Zener and RKKY

  9. Evolution of the Novalux extended cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser (NECSEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, John G.

    2016-03-01

    Novalux Inc was an enterprise founded by Aram Mooradian in 1998 to commercialise a novel electrically pumped vertical extended cavity semiconductor laser platform, initially aiming to produce pump lasers for optical fiber telecommunication networks. Following successful major investment in 2000, the company developed a range of single- and multi-mode 980 nm pump lasers emitting from 100-500 mW with excellent beam quality and efficiency. This rapid development required solution of several significant problems in chip and external cavity design, substrate and DBR mirror optimization, thermal engineering and mode selection. Output coupling to single mode fiber was exceptional. Following the collapse of the long haul telecom market in late 2001, a major reorientation of effort was undertaken, initially to develop compact 60-100 mW hybrid monolithically integrated pumplets for metro/local amplified networks, then to frequency-doubled blue light emitters for biotech, reprographics and general scientific applications. During 2001-3 I worked at Novalux on a career break from University College Cork, first as R&D Director managing a small group tasked with producing new capabilities and product options based on the NECSEL platform, including high power, pulsed and frequency doubled versions, then in 2002 as Director of New Product Realization managing the full engineering team, leading the transition to frequency doubled products.

  10. Semiconductors data handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Madelung, Otfried

    2004-01-01

    This volume Semiconductors: Data Handbook contains frequently used data from the corresponding larger Landolt-Börnstein handbooks in a low price book for the individual scientist working in the laboratory. The Handbook contain important information about a large number of semiconductors

  11. Spin physics in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Dyakonov, Mikhail I

    2008-01-01

    This book describes beautiful optical and transport phenomena related to the electron and nuclear spins in semiconductors with emphasis on a clear presentation of the physics involved. Recent results on quantum wells and quantum dots are reviewed. The book is intended for students and researchers in the fields of semiconductor physics and nanoelectronics.

  12. Safety characteristics of the monolithic CFC divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.; Merola, M.; Matera, R.

    1994-01-01

    The main distinguishing feature of the monolithic CFC divertor is the use of a single material, a carbon fibre reinforced carbon, for the protective armour, the heat sink and the cooling channels. This removes joint interface problems which are one of the most important concerns related to the reference solutions of the ITER CDA divertor. An activation analysis of the different coolant options for this concept is presented. It turns out that neither short-term nor long-term activation are a concern for any coolants investigated. Therefore the proposed concept proves to be attractive from a safety stand-point also. ((orig.))

  13. Safety characteristics of the monolithic CFC divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchetti, M.; Merola, M.; Matera, R.

    1994-09-01

    The main distinguishing feature of the monolithic CFC divertor is the use of a single material, a carbon fibre reinforced carbon, for the protective armour, the heat sink and the cooling channels. This removes joint interface problems which are one of the most important concerns related to the reference solutions of the ITER CDA divertor. An activation analysis of the different coolant options for this concept is presented. It turns out that neither short-term nor long-term activation are a concern for any coolants investigated. Therefore the proposed concept proves to be attractive from a safety stand-point also.

  14. Integration of a nonmetallic electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber for improved removal of particles and corrosive gas cleaning in semiconductor manufacturing industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Joon; Han, Bangwoo; Kim, Yong-Jin; Yoa, Seok-Jun; Oda, Tetsuji

    2012-08-01

    To remove particles in corrosive gases generated by semiconductor industries, we have developed a novel non-metallic, two-stage electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Carbon brush electrodes and grounded carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) form the ionization stage, and polyvinyl chloride collection plates are used in the collection stage of the ESP The collection performance of the ESP downstream of a wet scrubber was evaluated with KC1, silica, and mist particles (0.01-10 pm), changing design and operation parameters such as the ESP length, voltage, and flow rate. A long-term and regeneration performance (12-hr) test was conducted at the maximum operation conditions of the scrubber and ESP and the performance was then demonstrated for 1 month with exhaust gases from wet scrubbers at the rooftop of a semiconductor manufacturing plant in Korea. The results showed that the electrical and collection performance of the ESP (16 channels, 400x400 mm2) was maintained with different grounded plate materials (stainless steel and CFRP) and different lengths of the ionization stage. The collection efficiency of the ESP at high air velocity was enhanced with increases in applied voltages and collection plate lengths. The ESP (16 channels with 100 mm length, 400x400 mm2x540 mm with a 10-mm gap) removed more than 90% of silica and mistparticles with 10 and 12 kV applied to the ESPat the air velocity of 2 m/s and liquid-to-gas ratio of 3.6 L/m3. Decreased performance after 13 hours ofcontinuous operation was recovered to the initial performance level by 5 min of water washing. Moreover during the 1-month operation at the demonstration site, the ESP showed average collection efficiencies of 97% based on particle number and 92% based on total particle mass, which were achieved with a much smaller specific corona power of 0.28 W/m3/hr compared with conventional ESPs.

  15. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  16. Terahertz semiconductor nonlinear optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In this proceedings we describe our recent results on semiconductor nonlinear optics, investigated using single-cycle THz pulses. We demonstrate the nonlinear absorption and self-phase modulation of strong-field THz pulses in doped semiconductors, using n-GaAs as a model system. The THz...... nonlinearity in doped semiconductors originates from the near-instantaneous heating of free electrons in the ponderomotive potential created by electric field of the THz pulse, leading to ultrafast increase of electron effective mass by intervalley scattering. Modification of effective mass in turn leads...... to a decrease of plasma frequency in semiconductor and produces a substantial modification of THz-range material dielectric function, described by the Drude model. As a result, the nonlinearity of both absorption coefficient and refractive index of the semiconductor is observed. In particular we demonstrate...

  17. Organic semiconductor crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengliang; Dong, Huanli; Jiang, Lang; Hu, Wenping

    2018-01-22

    Organic semiconductors have attracted a lot of attention since the discovery of highly doped conductive polymers, due to the potential application in field-effect transistors (OFETs), light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and photovoltaic cells (OPVs). Single crystals of organic semiconductors are particularly intriguing because they are free of grain boundaries and have long-range periodic order as well as minimal traps and defects. Hence, organic semiconductor crystals provide a powerful tool for revealing the intrinsic properties, examining the structure-property relationships, demonstrating the important factors for high performance devices and uncovering fundamental physics in organic semiconductors. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular packing, morphology and charge transport features of organic semiconductor crystals, the control of crystallization for achieving high quality crystals and the device physics in the three main applications. We hope that this comprehensive summary can give a clear picture of the state-of-art status and guide future work in this area.

  18. A novel photocatalytic monolith reactor for multiphase heterogeneous photocatalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, P.; Carneiro, J.T.; Moulijn, J.A.; Mul, Guido

    2008-01-01

    A novel reactor for multi-phase photocatalysis is presented, the so-called internally illuminated monolith reactor (IIMR). In the concept of the IIMR, side light emitting fibers are placed inside the channels of a ceramic monolith, equipped with a TiO2 photocatalyst coated on the wall of each

  19. Immobilisation of shredded soft waste in cement monolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.J.; Dalton, M.J.; Smith, D.L.

    1983-04-01

    A grouting process for the immobilisation of shredded contaminated laboratory waste in a cement monolith is being developed at the Atomic Energy Establishment Winfrith. The objective is to produce a 'monolithic' type package which is acceptable both for sea and land disposal. The work carried out on this project in the period April 1982 - March 1983 is summarised in this report. (author)

  20. Fabrication of mesoporous polymer monolith: a template-free approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Keisuke; Nandi, Mahasweta; Maruyama, Jun; Oka, Tatsuya; Tsujimoto, Takashi; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2011-07-14

    Mesoporous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) monolith has been fabricated by a template-free approach using the unique affinity of PAN towards a water/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixture. A newly developed Thermally Induced Phase Separation Technique (TIPS) has been used to obtain the polymer monoliths and their microstructures have been controlled by optimizing the concentration and cooling temperature.

  1. Creating deep soil core monoliths: Beyond the solum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil monoliths serve as useful teaching aids in the study of the Earth’s critical zone where rock, soil, water, air, and organisms interact. Typical monolith preparation has so far been confined to the 1 to 2-m depth of the solum. Critical ecosystem services provided by soils include materials from ...

  2. A Monolithic Perovskite Structure for Use as a Magnetic Regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini; Clemens, Frank; Menon, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    A La0.67Ca0.26Sr0.07Mn1.05O3 (LCSM) perovskite was prepared for the first time as a ceramic monolithic regenerator used in a regenerative magnetic refrigeration device. The parameters influencing the extrusion process and the performance of the regenerator, such as the nature of the monolith paste...

  3. Fine-grain concrete from mining waste for monolithic construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesovik, R. V.; Ageeva, M. S.; Lesovik, G. A.; Sopin, D. M.; Kazlitina, O. V.; Mitrokhin, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    The technology of a monolithic construction is a well-established practice among most Russian real estate developers. The strong points of the technology are low cost of materials and lower demand for qualified workers. The monolithic construction uses various types of reinforced slabs and foamed concrete, since they are easy to use and highly durable; they also need practically no additional treatment.

  4. Energy Absorption of Monolithic and Fibre Reinforced Aluminium Cylinders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kanter, J.L.C.G.

    2006-01-01

    Summary accompanying the thesis: Energy Absorption of Monolithic and Fibre Reinforced Aluminium Cylinders by Jens de Kanter This thesis presents the investigation of the crush behaviour of both monolithic aluminium cylinders and externally fibre reinforced aluminium cylinders. The research is based

  5. Media Presentation Synchronisation for Non-monolithic Rendering Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Vaishnavi (Ishan); D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); B. Gao (Bo)

    2007-01-01

    htmlabstractNon-monolithic renderers are physically distributed media playback engines. Non-monolithic renderers may use a number of different underlying network connection types to transmit media items belonging to a presentation. There is therefore a need for a media based and inter-network- type

  6. Regional waste treatment facilities with underground monolith disposal for all low-heat-generating nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    An alternative system for treatment and disposal of all ''low-heat-generating'' nuclear wastes from all sources is proposed. The system, Regional Waste Treatment Facilities with Underground Monolith Disposal (RWTF/UMD), integrates waste treatment and disposal operations into single facilities at regional sites. Untreated and/or pretreated wastes are transported from generation sites such as reactors, hospitals, and industries to regional facilities in bulk containers. Liquid wastes are also transported in bulk after being gelled for transport. The untreated and pretreated wastes are processed by incineration, crushing, and other processes at the RWTF. The processed wastes are mixed with cement. The wet concrete mixture is poured into large low-cost, manmade caverns or deep trenches. Monolith dimensions are from 15 to 25 m wide, and 20 to 60 m high and as long as required. This alternative waste system may provide higher safety margins in waste disposal at lower costs

  7. Application of the monolithic solid oxide fuel cell to space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myles, K.M.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    The monolithic solid-oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) is a promising electrochemical power generation device that is currently under development at Argonne National Laboratory. The extremely high power density of the MSOFC leads to MSOFC systems that have sufficiently high energy densities that they are excellent candidates for a number of space missions. The fuel cell can also be operated in reverse, if it can be coupled to an external power source, to regenerate the fuel and oxidant from the water product. This feature further enhances the potential mission applications of the MSOFC. In this paper, the current status of the fuel cell development is presented---the focus being on fabrication and currently achievable performance. In addition, a specific example of a space power system, featuring a liquid metal cooled fast spectrum nuclear reactor and a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, is presented to demonstrate the features of an integrated system

  8. Application of the monolithic solid oxide fuel cell to space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Kevin M.; Bhattacharyya, Samit K.

    1991-01-01

    The monolithic solid-oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) is a promising electrochemical power generation device that is currently under development at Argonne National Laboratory. The extremely high power density of the MSOFC leads to MSOFC systems that have sufficiently high energy densities that they are excellent candidates for a number of space missions. The fuel cell can also be operated in reverse, if it can be coupled to an external power source, to regenerate the fuel and oxidant from the water product. This feature further enhances the potential mission applications of the MSOFC. In this paper, the current status of the fuel cell development is presented—the focus being on fabrication and currently achievable performance. In addition, a specific example of a space power system, featuring a liquid metal cooled fast spectrum nuclear reactor and a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, is presented to demonstrate the features of an integrated system.

  9. Test beam results of a depleted monolithic active pixel sensor (DMAPS) prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obermann, Theresa; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Bonn Univ. (Germany); Schwenker, Benjamin [Goettingen Univ. (Germany); Collaboration: ATLAS Pixel-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    New monolithic detector concepts are currently being explored for future particle physics experiments, in particular for the upgrade of the ATLAS detector. Common to monolithic pixel detectors is the integration of the front-end circuitry and the sensor on the same silicon substrate. The DMAPS concept makes use of high resistive silicon as substrate. It enables the application of a high bias voltage to create a drift field for the charge collection in the sensor part as well as the full usage of CMOS logic in the same piece of silicon. DMAPS prototypes from several foundries are available since three years and have been extensively characterized in the lab. In this talk, results of test beam campaigns, with neutron irradiated prototypes implemented in the ESPROS process, are presented.

  10. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER (FBSR) PRODUCT: MONOLITH FORMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C

    2006-01-01

    The most important requirement for Hanford's low activity waste (LAW) form for shallow land disposal is the chemical durability of the product. A secondary, but still essential specification, is the compressive strength of the material with regards to the strength of the material under shallow land disposal conditions, e.g. the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations, because the term ''near-surface disposal'' indicates disposal in the uppermost portion, or approximately the top 30 meters, of the earth's surface. The THOR(reg s ign) Treatment Technologies (TTT) mineral waste form for LAW is granular in nature because it is formed by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). As a granular product it has been shown to be as durable as Hanford's LAW glass during testing with ASTM C-1285-02 known as the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and with the Single Pass Flow Through Test (SPFT). Hanford Envelope A and Envelope C simulants both performed well during PCT and SPFT testing and during subsequent performance assessment modeling. This is partially due to the high aluminosilicate content of the mineral product which provides a natural aluminosilicate buffering mechanism that inhibits leaching and is known to occur in naturally occurring aluminosilicate mineral analogs. In order for the TTT Na-Al-Si (NAS) granular mineral product to meet the compressive strength requirements (ASTM C39) for a Hanford waste form, the granular product needs to be made into a monolith or disposed of in High Integrity Containers (HIC's). Additionally, the Hanford intruder scenario for disposal in the Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) trench is mitigated as there is reduced intruder exposure when a waste form is in a monolithic form. During the preliminary testing of a monolith binder for TTT's FBSR mineral product, four parameters were monitored: (1) waste loading (not optimized for each waste form tested); (2) density; (3) compressive strength; and (4

  11. Semiconductor high-energy radiation scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastalsky, A.; Luryi, S.; Spivak, B.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new scintillation-type detector in which high-energy radiation generates electron-hole pairs in a direct-gap semiconductor material that subsequently recombine producing infrared light to be registered by a photo-detector. The key issue is how to make the semiconductor essentially transparent to its own infrared light, so that photons generated deep inside the semiconductor could reach its surface without tangible attenuation. We discuss two ways to accomplish this, one based on doping the semiconductor with shallow impurities of one polarity type, preferably donors, the other by heterostructure bandgap engineering. The proposed semiconductor scintillator combines the best properties of currently existing radiation detectors and can be used for both simple radiation monitoring, like a Geiger counter, and for high-resolution spectrography of the high-energy radiation. An important advantage of the proposed detector is its fast response time, about 1 ns, essentially limited only by the recombination time of minority carriers. Notably, the fast response comes without any degradation in brightness. When the scintillator is implemented in a qualified semiconductor material (such as InP or GaAs), the photo-detector and associated circuits can be epitaxially integrated on the scintillator slab and the structure can be stacked-up to achieve virtually any desired absorption capability

  12. Growth techniques for monolithic YBCO solenoidal magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scruggs, S.J.; Putman, P.T.; Fang, H.; Alessandrini, M.; Salama, K.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of growing large single domain YBCO solenoids by the use of a large seed has been investigated. There are two known methods for producing a similar solenoid. This first is a conventional top seeded melt growth process followed by a post processing machining step to create the bore. The second involves using multiple seeds spaced around the magnet bore. The appeal of the new technique lies in decreasing processing time compared to the single seed technique, while avoiding alignment problems found in the multiple seeding technique. By avoiding these problems, larger diameter monoliths can be produced. Large diameter monoliths are beneficial because the maximum magnetic field produced by a trapped field magnet is proportional to the radius of the sample. Furthermore, the availability of trapped field magnets with large diameter could enable their use in applications that traditionally have been considered to require wound electromagnets, such as beam bending magnets for particle accelerators or electric propulsion. A comparison of YBCO solenoids grown by the use of a large seed and grown by the use of two small seeds simulating multiple seeding is made. Trapped field measurements as well as microstructure evaluation were used in characterization of each solenoid. Results indicate that high quality growth occurs only in the vicinity of the seeds for the multiple seeded sample, while the sample with the large seeded exhibited high quality growth throughout the entire sample

  13. Growth techniques for monolithic YBCO solenoidal magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scruggs, S.J. [Texas Center for Superconductivity at University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)]. E-mail: Sscruggs2@uh.edu; Putman, P.T. [Texas Center for Superconductivity at University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Fang, H. [Texas Center for Superconductivity at University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Alessandrini, M. [Texas Center for Superconductivity at University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Salama, K. [Texas Center for Superconductivity at University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2006-10-01

    The possibility of growing large single domain YBCO solenoids by the use of a large seed has been investigated. There are two known methods for producing a similar solenoid. This first is a conventional top seeded melt growth process followed by a post processing machining step to create the bore. The second involves using multiple seeds spaced around the magnet bore. The appeal of the new technique lies in decreasing processing time compared to the single seed technique, while avoiding alignment problems found in the multiple seeding technique. By avoiding these problems, larger diameter monoliths can be produced. Large diameter monoliths are beneficial because the maximum magnetic field produced by a trapped field magnet is proportional to the radius of the sample. Furthermore, the availability of trapped field magnets with large diameter could enable their use in applications that traditionally have been considered to require wound electromagnets, such as beam bending magnets for particle accelerators or electric propulsion. A comparison of YBCO solenoids grown by the use of a large seed and grown by the use of two small seeds simulating multiple seeding is made. Trapped field measurements as well as microstructure evaluation were used in characterization of each solenoid. Results indicate that high quality growth occurs only in the vicinity of the seeds for the multiple seeded sample, while the sample with the large seeded exhibited high quality growth throughout the entire sample.

  14. Integrated MMIC for Phase-Locked Oscillators and Frequency Synthesizers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microwave Monolithic Integrated Circuits (MMIC) provide the technology base for miniaturization of microwave payloads in spacecraft. While MMIC chips are widely...

  15. On-chip multi-wavelength laser sources fabricated using generic photonic integration technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latkowski, S.; Williams, K.A.; Bente, E.A.J.M.

    Generic photonic integration technology platforms allow for design and fabrication of large complexity application specific photonic integrated circuits. Monolithic active-passive integration on indium phosphide substrate naturally enables a reliable co-integration of optical gain elements and

  16. Plasmonic finite-thickness metal-semiconductor-metal waveguide as ultra-compact modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We propose a plasmonic waveguide with semiconductor gain material for optoelectronic integrated circuits. We analyze properties of a finite-thickness metal-semiconductor-metal (F-MSM) waveguide to be utilized as an ultra-compact and fast plasmonic modulator. The InP-based semiconductor core allows...

  17. Application-specific architectures of CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szelezniak, Michal [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France)]. E-mail: michal.szelezniak@ires.in2p3.fr; Besson, Auguste [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Claus, Gilles; Colledani, Claude; [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Degerli, Yavuz [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Deptuch, Grzegorz [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Deveaux, Michael [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); GSI, Planckstrasse 1, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); Dorokhov, Andrei [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Dulinski, Wojciech [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Fourches, Nicolas [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Goffe, Mathieu [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Grandjean, Damien; Guilloux, Fabrice [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Heini, Sebastien [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France)]|[GSI, Planckstrasse 1, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); Himmi, Abdelkader [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Hu, Christine [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Jaaskelainen, Kimmo; Li, Yan; Lutz, Pierre; Orsini, Fabienne [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Pellicioli, Michel; Shabetai, Alexandre; Valin, Isabelle; Winter, Marc [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France)

    2006-11-30

    Several development directions intended to adapt and optimize monolithic active pixel sensors for specific applications are presented in this work. The first example, compatible with the STAR microvertex upgrade, is based on a simple two-transistor pixel circuitry. It is suited for a long integration time, room-temperature operation and minimum power dissipation. In another approach for this application, a specific readout method is proposed, allowing optimization of the integration time independently of the full frame-readout time. The circuit consists of an in-pixel front-end voltage amplifier, with a gain on the order of five, followed by two analog memory cells. The extended version of this scheme, based on the implementation of more memory cells per pixel, is the solution considered for the outer layers of a microvertex detector at the international linear collider. For the two innermost layers, a circuit allowing fast frame scans together with on-line, on-chip data sparsification is proposed. The first results of this prototype demonstrate that the fixed pattern dispersion is reduced below a noise level of 15 e{sup -}, allowing the use of a single comparator or a low-resolution ADC per pixel column. A common element for most of the mentioned readout schemes is a low-noise, low power consumption, layout efficient in-pixel amplifier. A review of possible solutions for this element together with some experimental results is presented.

  18. Defects in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, C.A.F.

    1983-01-01

    Some problems openned in the study of defects in semiconductors are presented. In particular, a review is made of the more important problems in Si monocrystals of basic and technological interest: microdefects and the presence of oxigen and carbon. The techniques usually utilized in the semiconductor material characterization are emphatized according its potentialities. Some applications of x-ray techniques in the epitaxial shell characterization in heterostructures, importants in electronic optics, are shown. The increase in the efficiency of these defect analysis methods in semiconductor materials with the use of synchrotron x-ray sources is shown. (L.C.) [pt

  19. Introduction to Semiconductor Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Kevin F.

    2005-03-01

    This volume offers a solid foundation for understanding the most important devices used in the hottest areas of electronic engineering today, from semiconductor fundamentals to state-of-the-art semiconductor devices in the telecommunications and computing industries. Kevin Brennan describes future approaches to computing hardware and RF power amplifiers, and explains how emerging trends and system demands of computing and telecommunications systems influence the choice, design and operation of semiconductor devices. In addition, he covers MODFETs and MOSFETs, short channel effects, and the challenges faced by continuing miniaturization. His book is both an excellent senior/graduate text and a valuable reference for practicing engineers and researchers.

  20. Spin physics in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book offers an extensive introduction to the extremely rich and intriguing field of spin-related phenomena in semiconductors. In this second edition, all chapters have been updated to include the latest experimental and theoretical research. Furthermore, it covers the entire field: bulk semiconductors, two-dimensional semiconductor structures, quantum dots, optical and electric effects, spin-related effects, electron-nuclei spin interactions, Spin Hall effect, spin torques, etc. Thanks to its self-contained style, the book is ideally suited for graduate students and researchers new to the field.

  1. Physics of semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Mroziewicz, B; Nakwaski, W

    2013-01-01

    Written for readers who have some background in solid state physics but do not necessarily possess any knowledge of semiconductor lasers, this book provides a comprehensive and concise account of fundamental semiconductor laser physics, technology and properties. The principles of operation of these lasers are therefore discussed in detail with the interrelations between their design and optical, electrical and thermal properties. The relative merits of a large number of laser structures and their parameters are described to acquaint the reader with the various aspects of the semiconductor l

  2. Semiconductors bonds and bands

    CERN Document Server

    Ferry, David K

    2013-01-01

    As we settle into this second decade of the twenty-first century, it is evident that the advances in micro-electronics have truly revolutionized our day-to-day lifestyle. The technology is built upon semiconductors, materials in which the band gap has been engineered for special values suitable to the particular application. This book, written specifically for a one semester course for graduate students, provides a thorough understanding of the key solid state physics of semiconductors. It describes how quantum mechanics gives semiconductors unique properties that enabled the micro-electronics revolution, and sustain the ever-growing importance of this revolution.

  3. Defects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Lucia; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2015-01-01

    This volume, number 91 in the Semiconductor and Semimetals series, focuses on defects in semiconductors. Defects in semiconductors help to explain several phenomena, from diffusion to getter, and to draw theories on materials' behavior in response to electrical or mechanical fields. The volume includes chapters focusing specifically on electron and proton irradiation of silicon, point defects in zinc oxide and gallium nitride, ion implantation defects and shallow junctions in silicon and germanium, and much more. It will help support students and scientists in their experimental and theoret

  4. A Microwave Photonic Interference Canceller: Architectures, Systems, and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Matthew P.

    This thesis is a comprehensive portfolio of work on a Microwave Photonic Self-Interference Canceller (MPC), a specialized optical system designed to eliminate interference from radio-frequency (RF) receivers. The novelty and value of the microwave photonic system lies in its ability to operate over bandwidths and frequencies that are orders of magnitude larger than what is possible using existing RF technology. The work begins, in 2012, with a discrete fiber-optic microwave photonic canceller, which prior work had demonstrated as a proof-of-concept, and culminates, in 2017, with the first ever monolithically integrated microwave photonic canceller. With an eye towards practical implementation, the thesis establishes novelty through three major project thrusts. (Fig. 1): (1) Extensive RF and system analysis to develop a full understanding of how, and through what mechanisms, MPCs affect an RF receiver. The first investigations of how a microwave photonic canceller performs in an actual wireless environment and a digital radio are also presented. (2) New architectures to improve the performance and functionality of MPCs, based on the analysis performed in Thrust 1. A novel balanced microwave photonic canceller architecture is developed and experimentally demonstrated. The balanced architecture shows significant improvements in link gain, noise figure, and dynamic range. Its main advantage is its ability to suppress common-mode noise and reduce noise figure by increasing the optical power. (3) Monolithic integration of the microwave photonic canceller into a photonic integrated circuit. This thrust presents the progression of integrating individual discrete devices into their semiconductor equivalent, as well as a full functional and RF analysis of the first ever integrated microwave photonic canceller.

  5. Translucency and Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium-Oxide Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    Capt Todd D. Church APPROVED: Translucency and Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide Materials C~t) Kraig/[ Vandewalle Date...copyrighted material in the thesis/dissertation manuscript entitled: "Translucency arid Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide...Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide Materials Abstract Dental materials manufacturers have developed more translucent monolithic zirconium oxide

  6. Influence of different carbon monolith preparation parameters on pesticide adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukčević Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of carbon monolith for pesticide removal from water, and the mechanism of pesticide interaction with carbon surface were examined. Different carbon monolith samples were obtained by varying the carbonization and activation parameters. In order to examine the role of surface oxygen groups in pesticide adsorption, carbon monolith surface was functionalized by chemical treatment in HNO3, H2O2 and KOH. The surface properties of the obtained samples were investigated by BET surface area, pore size distribution and temperature-programmed desorption. Adsorption of pesticides from aqueous solution onto activated carbon monolith samples was studied by using five pesticides belonging to different chemical groups (acetamiprid, dimethoate, nicosulfuron, carbofuran and atrazine. Presented results show that higher temperature of carbonization and the amount of activating agent allow obtaining microporous carbon monolith with higher amount of surface functional groups. Adsorption properties of the activated carbon monolith were more readily affected by the amount of the surface functional groups than by specific surface area. Results obtained by carbon monolith functionalisation showed that π-π interactions were the main force for adsorption of pesticides with aromatic structure, while acidic groups play an important role in adsorption of pesticides with no aromatic ring in the chemical structure.

  7. Biomimetic small peptide functionalized affinity monoliths for monoclonal antibody purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangyu; Xia, Donghai; Han, Hai; Peng, Kun; Zhu, Peijie; Crommen, Jacques; Wang, Qiqin; Jiang, Zhengjin

    2018-08-09

    The rapid development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in therapeutic and diagnostic applications has necessitated the advancement of mAbs purification technologies. In this study, a biomimetic small peptide ligand 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid-Arg-Arg-Gly (DAAG) functionalized monolith was fabricated through a metal ion chelation-based multi-step approach. The resulting monolith showed good chromatographic performance. Compared with the Ni 2+ based IMAC monolith, the DAAG functionalized monolith exhibited not only excellent specificity but also higher dynamic binding capacity (DBC). The 10% DBC and 50% DBC for hIgG reached as high values as 26.0 and 34.6 mg/mL, respectively, at a ligand density of 8.8 μmol/mL, due to the high porosity and accessibility of the monolithic matrix. Moreover, the stability of the DAAG functionalized monolith in successive breakthrough experiments indicates that it has a promising potential for long-term use in mAbs purification. Finally, the DAAG functionalized monolith was successfully applied to the purification of trastuzumab or human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) from biological samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Properties and growth peculiarities of Si{sub 0.30}Ge{sub 0.70} stressor integrated in 14 nm fin-based p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikavyy, A., E-mail: Andriy.Hikavyy@imec.be; Rosseel, E.; Kubicek, S.; Mannaert, G.; Favia, P.; Bender, H.; Loo, R.; Horiguchi, N.

    2016-03-01

    Integration of Si{sub 0.30}Ge{sub 0.70} in the Source/Drain (S/D) areas of metal oxide semiconductor transistors built according to 14 nm technological node rules has been shown. SiGe properties and growth peculiarities are presented and elaborated. In order to preserve the fin structures during a pre-epitaxy surface preparation, the H{sub 2} bake pressure had to be increased to 19,998 Pa at 800 °C. Influence of this bake on the Si recess in the S/D areas is presented. Excellent quality of both the raised and the embedded Si{sub 0.30}Ge{sub 0.70} was demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy inspections. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurement showed two stages of SiGe growth for the embedded case: first with a lower Ge content at the beginning of the deposition until the (111) facets are formed, and second with a higher Ge content which is governed by the growth on (111) planes. Nano-beam diffraction analysis showed that SiGe grown in the S/D areas of p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor is fully elastically relaxed in the direction across the fin and partially strained along the fin. Finally, a strain accumulation effect in the chain of transistors has been observed. - Highlights: • Si{sub 0.30}Ge{sub 0.70} stressor has been implemented in the 14 nm technology node CMOS flow. • Embedded and raised variants have been investigated. • High Si{sub 0.30}Ge{sub 0.70} quality was confirmed. • Si{sub 0.30}Ge{sub 0.70} layer is elastically relaxed across the fin direction. • Partial stress presence and stress accumulation effect were observed.

  9. Biggest semiconductor installed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Scientists and technicians at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, commonly known by its French acronym CERN (Centre Europen pour la Recherche Nuclaire), have completed the installation of the largest semiconductor silicon detector.

  10. Compact semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Siyuan; Lourtioz, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together in a single volume a unique contribution by the top experts around the world in the field of compact semiconductor lasers to provide a comprehensive description and analysis of the current status as well as future directions in the field of micro- and nano-scale semiconductor lasers. It is organized according to the various forms of micro- or nano-laser cavity configurations with each chapter discussing key technical issues, including semiconductor carrier recombination processes and optical gain dynamics, photonic confinement behavior and output coupling mechanisms, carrier transport considerations relevant to the injection process, and emission mode control. Required reading for those working in and researching the area of semiconductors lasers and micro-electronics.

  11. Cryogenic semiconductor high-intensity radiation monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, V.G.; Bell, W.H.; Borer, K.; Casagrande, L.; Da Via, C.; Devine, S.R.H.; Dezillie, B.; Esposito, A.; Granata, V.; Hauler, F.; Jungermann, L.; Li, Z.; Lourenco, C.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Shea, V. O'; Ruggiero, G.; Sonderegger, P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a novel technique to monitor high-intensity particle beams by means of a semiconductor detector. It consists of cooling a semiconductor detector down to cryogenic temperature to suppress the thermally generated leakage current and to precisely measure the integrated ionization signal. It will be shown that such a device provides very good linearity and a dynamic range wider than is possible with existing techniques. Moreover, thanks to the Lazarus effect, extreme radiation hardness can be achieved providing in turn absolute intensity measurements against precise calibration of the device at low beam flux

  12. Radiation effects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to understand and combat potential radiation damage problems in semiconductor devices and circuits. Written by international experts, this book explains the effects of radiation on semiconductor devices, radiation detectors, and electronic devices and components. These contributors explore emerging applications, detector technologies, circuit design techniques, new materials, and innovative system approaches. The text focuses on how the technology is being used rather than the mathematical foundations behind it. It covers CMOS radiation-tolerant circuit implementations, CMOS pr

  13. Multi-layered hierarchical nanostructures for transparent monolithic dye-sensitized solar cell architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoni, Luca; Fumagalli, Francesco; Perego, Andrea; Bellani, Sebastiano; Mazzolini, Piero; Di Fonzo, Fabio

    2017-06-01

    Monolithic dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) architectures hold great potential for building-integrated photovoltaics applications. They indeed benefit from lower weight and manufacturing costs as they avoid the use of a transparent conductive oxide (TCO)-coated glass counter electrode. In this work, a transparent monolithic DSC comprising a hierarchical 1D nanostructure stack is fabricated by physical vapor deposition techniques. The proof of concept device comprises hyperbranched TiO2 nanostructures, sensitized by the prototypical N719, as photoanode, a hierarchical nanoporous Al2O3 spacer, and a microporous indium tin oxide (ITO) top electrode. An overall 3.12% power conversion efficiency with 60% transmittance outside the dye absorption spectral window is demonstrated. The introduction of a porous TCO layer allows an efficient trade-off between transparency and power conversion. The porous ITO exhibits submicrometer voids and supports annealing temperatures above 400 °C without compromising its optoelectronical properties. After thermal annealing at 500 °C, the resistivity, mobility, and carrier concentration of the 800 nm-thick porous ITO layer are found to be respectively 2.3 × 10-3 Ω cm-1, 11 cm2 V-1 s-1, and 1.62 × 1020 cm-3, resulting in a series resistance in the complete device architecture of 45 Ω. Electrochemical impedance and intensity-modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy give insight into the electronic charge dynamic within the hierarchical monolithic DSCs, paving the way for potential device architecture improvements.

  14. Regional waste treatment with monolith disposal for low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    An alternative system is proposed for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste. This system, called REgional Treatment with MOnolith Disposal (RETMOD), is based on integrating three commercial technologies: automated package warehousing, whole-barrel rotary kiln incineration, and cement-based grouts for radioactive waste disposal. In the simplified flowsheet, all the sludges, liquids, resins, and combustible wastes are transported to regional facilities where they are incinerated. The ash is then mixed with special cement-based grouts, and the resulting mixture is poured into trenches to form large waste-cement monoliths. Wastes that do not require treatment, such as damaged and discarded equipment, are prepositioned in the trenches with the waste-cement mixture poured on top. The RETMOD system may provide higher safety margins by conversion of wastes into a solidified low-leach form, creation of low-surface area waste-cement monoliths, and centralization of waste processing into a few specialized facilities. Institutional problems would be simplified by placing total responsibility for safe disposal on the disposal site operator. Lower costs may be realized through reduced handling costs, the economics of scale, simplified operations, and less restrictive waste packaging requirements

  15. Electronic properties of semiconductor heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einevoll, G.T.

    1991-02-01

    Ten papers on the electronic properties of semiconductors and semiconductor heterostructures constitute the backbone of this thesis. Four papers address the form and validity of the single-band effective mass approximation for semiconductor heterostructures. In four other papers properties of acceptor states in bulk semiconductors and semiconductor heterostructures are studied using the novel effective bond-orbital model. The last two papers deal with localized excitions. 122 refs

  16. Silver deposition on chemically treated carbon monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Zoran M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monolith was treated with HNO3, KOH and H2O2. Effects of these treatments on the surface functional groups and on the amount of silver deposited on the CM surface were studied by temperature programmed desorption (TPD and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. As a result of chemical treatment there was an increase in the amount of surface oxygen complexes. The increase in the amount of silver deposit is proportional to the amount of surface groups that produce CO under decomposition. However, the high amount of CO groups, decomposing above 600°C, induces the smaller Ag crystallite size. Therefore, the high temperature CO evolving oxides are, most likely, the initial centers for Ag deposition.

  17. Present status of the MONOLITH project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrukhin, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    MONOLITH is a proposed massive (34 kt) magnetized tracking calorimeter at the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, optimized for the detection of atmospheric muon neutrinos. The main goal is to establish (or reject) the neutrino oscillation hypothesis through an explicit observation of the full first oscillation swing. The Δm 2 sensitivity range for this measurement comfortably covers the complete Super-Kamiokande allowed region. Other measurements include studies of matter effects, the NC up/down ratio, ν bar / ν ratio, the study of cosmic ray muons in the multi-TeV range, and auxiliary measurements from the CERN to Gran Sasso neutrino beam. Depending on approval, data taking with the part of the detector could start towards the end of 2004

  18. Bioinspired Synthesis of Monolithic and Layered Aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Hassan, Khalil T; Harvey, Alan; Kulijer, Dejan; Oila, Adrian; Hunt, Michael R C; Šiller, Lidija

    2018-04-25

    Aerogels are the least dense and most porous materials known to man, with potential applications from lightweight superinsulators to smart energy materials. To date their use has been seriously hampered by their synthesis methods, which are laborious and expensive. Taking inspiration from the life cycle of the damselfly, a novel ambient pressure-drying approach is demonstrated in which instead of employing low-surface-tension organic solvents to prevent pore collapse during drying, sodium bicarbonate solution is used to generate pore-supporting carbon dioxide in situ, significantly reducing energy, time, and cost in aerogel production. The generic applicability of this readily scalable new approach is demonstrated through the production of granules, monoliths, and layered solids with a number of precursor materials. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Optical Biosensors Based on Semiconductor Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl J. Martín-Palma

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of semiconductor-based nanostructures with novel and unique properties has sparked widespread interest in their use in the field of biosensing. The precise control over the size, shape and composition of these nanostructures leads to the accurate control of their physico-chemical properties and overall behavior. Furthermore, modifications can be made to the nanostructures to better suit their integration with biological systems, leading to such interesting properties as enhanced aqueous solubility, biocompatibility or bio-recognition. In the present work, the most significant applications of semiconductor nanostructures in the field of optical biosensing will be reviewed. In particular, the use of quantum dots as fluorescent bioprobes, which is the most widely used application, will be discussed. In addition, the use of some other nanometric structures in the field of biosensing, including porous semiconductors and photonic crystals, will be presented.

  20. Effects of ambient temperature changes on integral bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Integral bridges (IBs) are jointless bridges whereby the deck is continuous and monolithic with abutment walls. IBs are outperforming their non-integral counterparts in economy and safety. Their principal advantages are derived from the absence of ex...

  1. Catalytic Oxidation of Cyanogen Chloride over a Monolithic Oxidation Catalyst

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    The catalytic oxidation of cyanogen chloride was evaluated over a monolithic oxidation catalyst at temperatures between 200 and 300 deg C in air employing feed concentrations between 100 and 10,000 ppm...

  2. Effect of accelerated aging on translucency of monolithic zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Abdelbary

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Thickness of zirconia has significant effect on translucency. Aging has significant effect on thinner sections of zirconia. More research is required on zirconia towards making the material more translucent for its potential use as esthetic monolithic restoration.

  3. Microchip-based monolithic column for high performance liquid chromatography

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have developed microchip based monolithic columns that can be used for liquid chromatography of small organic molecules, as well as, macromolecules such as...

  4. Monolithic Perovskite Silicon Tandem Solar Cells with Advanced Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Jan C.; Bett, Alexander J.; Bivour, Martin; Blasi, Benedikt; Eisenlohr, Johannes; Kohlstadt, Markus; Lee, Seunghun; Mastroianni, Simone; Mundt, Laura; Mundus, Markus; Ndione, Paul; Reichel, Christian; Schubert, Martin; Schulze, Patricia S.; Tucher, Nico; Veit, Clemens; Veurman, Welmoed; Wienands, Karl; Winkler, Kristina; Wurfel, Uli; Glunz, Stefan W.; Hermle, Martin

    2016-11-14

    For high efficiency monolithic perovskite silicon tandem solar cells, we develop low-temperature processes for the perovskite top cell, rear-side light trapping, optimized perovskite growth, transparent contacts and adapted characterization methods.

  5. Shear bond strength of indirect composite material to monolithic zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Fatih; Secilmis, Asli; Simsek, Irfan; Ozsevik, Semih

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of indirect composite material (Tescera Indirect Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The indirect composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD tests (α=.05). Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (Pcomposite material and monolithic zirconia.

  6. Reliability Analysis and Optimal Design of Monolithic Vertical Wall Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, Hans F.; Christiani, E.

    1994-01-01

    Reliability analysis and reliability-based design of monolithic vertical wall breakwaters are considered. Probabilistic models of the most important failure modes, sliding failure, failure of the foundation and overturning failure are described . Relevant design variables are identified...

  7. Plant oil-based shape memory polymer using acrylic monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tsujimoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the synthesis of a plant oil-based material using acrylic monolith. An acrylic monolith bearing oxirane groups was prepared via simple technique that involved the dissolution of poly(glycidyl methacrylate-comethyl methacrylate (PGMA in ethanolic – aqueous solution by heating and subsequent cooling. The PGMA monolith had topologically porous structure, which was attributed to the phase separation of the polymer solution. The PGMA monolith was impregnated by epoxidized soybean oil (ESO containing thermally-latent catalyst, and the subsequent curing produced a crosslinked material with relatively good transparency. The Young’s modulus and the tensile strength of polyESO/PGMA increased compared with the ESO homopolymer. The strain at break of polyESO/PGMA was larger than that of the ESO homopolymer and crosslinked PGMA. Furthermore, polyESO/PGMA exhibited good shape memory-recovery behavior.

  8. Irradiation performance of U-Mo monolithic fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M. K.; Gan, J.; Jue, J. F.; Keiser, D. D.; Perez, E.; Robinson, A.; Wachs, D. M.; Woolstenhulme, N. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.S.; Hofman, G. L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont (United States)

    2014-04-15

    High-performance research reactors require fuel that operates at high specific power to high fission density, but at relatively low temperatures. Research reactor fuels are designed for efficient heat rejection, and are composed of assemblies of thin-plates clad in aluminum alloy. The development of low-enriched fuels to replace high-enriched fuels for these reactors requires a substantially increased uranium density in the fuel to offset the decrease in enrichment. Very few fuel phases have been identified that have the required combination of very-high uranium density and stable fuel behavior at high burnup. U-Mo alloys represent the best known tradeoff in these properties. Testing of aluminum matrix U-Mo aluminum matrix dispersion fuel revealed a pattern of breakaway swelling behavior at intermediate burnup, related to the formation of a molybdenum stabilized high aluminum intermetallic phase that forms during irradiation. In the case of monolithic fuel, this issue was addressed by eliminating, as much as possible, the interfacial area between U-Mo and aluminum. Based on scoping irradiation test data, a fuel plate system composed of solid U-10Mo fuel meat, a zirconium diffusion barrier, and Al6061 cladding was selected for development. Developmental testing of this fuel system indicates that it meets core criteria for fuel qualification, including stable and predictable swelling behavior, mechanical integrity to high burnup, and geometric stability. In addition, the fuel exhibits robust behavior during power-cooling mismatch events under irradiation at high power.

  9. IRRADIATION PERFORMANCE OF U-Mo MONOLITHIC FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. MEYER

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available High-performance research reactors require fuel that operates at high specific power to high fission density, but at relatively low temperatures. Research reactor fuels are designed for efficient heat rejection, and are composed of assemblies of thin-plates clad in aluminum alloy. The development of low-enriched fuels to replace high-enriched fuels for these reactors requires a substantially increased uranium density in the fuel to offset the decrease in enrichment. Very few fuel phases have been identified that have the required combination of very-high uranium density and stable fuel behavior at high burnup. UMo alloys represent the best known tradeoff in these properties. Testing of aluminum matrix U-Mo aluminum matrix dispersion fuel revealed a pattern of breakaway swelling behavior at intermediate burnup, related to the formation of a molybdenum stabilized high aluminum intermetallic phase that forms during irradiation. In the case of monolithic fuel, this issue was addressed by eliminating, as much as possible, the interfacial area between U-Mo and aluminum. Based on scoping irradiation test data, a fuel plate system composed of solid U-10Mo fuel meat, a zirconium diffusion barrier, and Al6061 cladding was selected for development. Developmental testing of this fuel system indicates that it meets core criteria for fuel qualification, including stable and predictable swelling behavior, mechanical integrity to high burnup, and geometric stability. In addition, the fuel exhibits robust behavior during power-cooling mismatch events under irradiation at high power.

  10. Monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) in a VLSI CMOS technology

    CERN Document Server

    Turchetta, R; Manolopoulos, S; Tyndel, M; Allport, P P; Bates, R; O'Shea, V; Hall, G; Raymond, M

    2003-01-01

    Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) designed in a standard VLSI CMOS technology have recently been proposed as a compact pixel detector for the detection of high-energy charged particle in vertex/tracking applications. MAPS, also named CMOS sensors, are already extensively used in visible light applications. With respect to other competing imaging technologies, CMOS sensors have several potential advantages in terms of low cost, low power, lower noise at higher speed, random access of pixels which allows windowing of region of interest, ability to integrate several functions on the same chip. This brings altogether to the concept of 'camera-on-a-chip'. In this paper, we review the use of CMOS sensors for particle physics and we analyse their performances in term of the efficiency (fill factor), signal generation, noise, readout speed and sensor area. In most of high-energy physics applications, data reduction is needed in the sensor at an early stage of the data processing before transfer of the data to ta...

  11. Microwave monolithic filter and phase shifter using magnetic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Shehreen; Khanna, Manoj; Veenugopal, Veerakumar; Kuanr, Bijoy K.

    2018-05-01

    Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) have major impact on the development of microwave communication technology. Transition metal based ferromagnetic nano-wired (FMNWs) substrate are of special interest in order to fabricate these MMIC devices. Their saturation magnetization is comparatively higher than ferrites which makes them suitable for high frequency (>10 ˜ 40 GHz) operation at zero or a small applied magnetic field. The CoFeB nanowires in anodic alumina templates were synthesized using three-electrode electro-deposition system. After electro-deposition, 1μm thick Cu layer was sputtered on the top surface of FMNW substrate and lithography was done to design microstrip lines. These microstrip transmission lines were tested for band-stop filters and phase shifters based on ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) over a wide applied magnetic field (H) range. It was observed that attenuation and frequency increase with the increase of magnetic field (upto 5.3 kOe). For phase shifter, the influence of magnetic material was studied for two frequency regions: (i) below FMR and (ii) above FMR. These two frequency regions were suitable for many practical device applications as the insertion loss was very less in these regions in comparison to resonance frequency regions. In the high frequency region (at 35 GHz), the optimal differential phase shift increased significantly to ˜ 250 deg/cm and around low frequency region (at 24 GHz), the optimal differential phase shift is ˜175 deg/cm at the highest field (H) value.

  12. Microwave monolithic filter and phase shifter using magnetic nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehreen Aslam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC have major impact on the development of microwave communication technology. Transition metal based ferromagnetic nano-wired (FMNWs substrate are of special interest in order to fabricate these MMIC devices. Their saturation magnetization is comparatively higher than ferrites which makes them suitable for high frequency (>10 ∼ 40 GHz operation at zero or a small applied magnetic field. The CoFeB nanowires in anodic alumina templates were synthesized using three-electrode electro-deposition system. After electro-deposition, 1μm thick Cu layer was sputtered on the top surface of FMNW substrate and lithography was done to design microstrip lines. These microstrip transmission lines were tested for band-stop filters and phase shifters based on ferromagnetic resonance (FMR over a wide applied magnetic field (H range. It was observed that attenuation and frequency increase with the increase of magnetic field (upto 5.3 kOe. For phase shifter, the influence of magnetic material was studied for two frequency regions: (i below FMR and (ii above FMR. These two frequency regions were suitable for many practical device applications as the insertion loss was very less in these regions in comparison to resonance frequency regions. In the high frequency region (at 35 GHz, the optimal differential phase shift increased significantly to ∼ 250 deg/cm and around low frequency region (at 24 GHz, the optimal differential phase shift is ∼175 deg/cm at the highest field (H value.

  13. Monolithic approach for solid-state detector electronics: Design implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanstraelen, G.

    1990-01-01

    The monolithic integration is obtained using a p-well CMOS technology in which the p-channel devices are located in the high-resistivity silicon. The latter has enormous implications on their behavior, as compared to standard devices. In this paper it is shown for pMOS transistors on HR-Si that a real saturation operation is never reached, but that they keep operating in a quasi-linear mode, due to the 2-D nature of the potential profile. Based on an analytical current model for the quasi-linear mode, it is shown that if the p-channel length is not carefully chosen, the active operation of the device in analog circuits is lost completely due to the low output resistance. The second topic investigated is the p-channel noise behavior. Experiments lead to the conclusion that a low 1/f noise in on mode is only guaranteed if the surface current is much larger than the punch-through current. In off mode the device can be used as a low noise resistor. Furthermore it is found that the white noise is due to the substrate resistance, instead of the channel resistance

  14. A monolithic charge multiplexer with 0.5% accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.; McPherson, G.M.; Morrissey, M.C.; Thompson, J.C.; Tucker, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a 16 channel monolithic charge multiplexer providing a close tolerance, low cost, low power solution to the problem of handling the signals from detectors with large numbers of channels. Outputs may be wire-orred to increase the degree of multiplexing. A system designed with this chip and with suitable close tolerance processing downstream will have a gain match of ±0.5% and a front end chip cost of approximately $1 per channel. The chip is fabricated in CMOS technology and the test of a 1500 channel system has demonstrated the feasibility of CMOS in this context. The chip produces a prompt sum of the charges from the 16 signal sources and integrates and stores the individual charges for later serial readout. A single network provides amplifier bias and releases area to facilitate optimum noise performance and signal handling. Amplifier and bias network design together with p-well screens to isolate storage capacitors from the substrate provide the power line rejection essential in systems generating a trigger from large numbers of channels. (orig.)

  15. Monolithic array of 32 SPAD pixels for single-photon imaging at high frame rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisa, Simone; Guerrieri, Fabrizio; Zappa, Franco

    2009-01-01

    We present a single-chip monolithic array of 32 Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD) and associated electronics for imaging at high frame rates and high sensitivity. Photodetectors, front-end circuitry and control electronics used to manage the array are monolithically integrated on the same chip in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS high-voltage technology. The array is composed of 32 'smart' pixels working in photon counting mode and functioning in a parallel fashion. Every cell comprises of an integrated SPAD photodetector, a novel quenching circuit named as Variable Load Quenching Circuit (VLQC), counting electronics and a buffer memory. Proper ancillary electronics that perform the arbitration of photon counts between two consecutive frames is integrated as well. Thanks to the presence of in-pixel memory registers, the inter-frame dead time between subsequent frames is limited to few nanoseconds. Since integration and download are performed simultaneously and the array can be addressed like a standard digital memory, the achievable maximum frame rate is very high in the order of hundreds of thousands of frame/s.

  16. Simulating characteristics of Si/Ge tandem monolithic solar cell with Si1-xGex buffer layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnilenko A. B.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of many efforts to propose new semiconductor materials and sophisticated constructions of solar cells, crystalline silicone remains the main photovoltaic material widely used up to now. There are various methods to enhance the efficiency of silicone solar cells. One of them is to combine silicone with an additional semiconductor material with the different bandgap to form a tandem construction. For example, the germanium sub-cell used as the bottom cascade for the silicone sub-cell in the tandem monolithic solar cell makes it possible to utilize the "red" sub-band of solar spectra increasing overall solar cell efficiency. The problem of the 4.2% mismatch in lattice constant between Si and Ge can be resolved in such a case by the use of SiGe buffer layer. In the paper the results of the computer simulation for Si/Ge tandem monolithic solar cell with Si1-xGex buffer layer are presented. In the solar cell under consideration, the step graded Si1-xGex buffer layer is located between the top silicone and the bottom germanium cascades to reduce the threading dislocation density in mismatched materials. The cascades are commutated by the use of the germanium tunnel diode between the bottom sub-cell and the buffer layer. For the solar cell modeling, the physically-based device simulator ATLAS of Silvaco TCAD software is employed to predict the electrical behavior of the semiconductor structure and to provide a deep insight into the internal physical processes. The voltage-current characteristic, photovoltaic parameters and the distribution of basic physical values are obtained for the investigated tandem solar cell. The influence of layer thicknesses on the photovoltaic parameters is studied. The calculated efficiency of the tandem solar cell reaches 13% which is a quarter more than the efficiency of a simple silicone solar cell with the same constructive parameters and under the same illumination conditions.

  17. Towards a Technique for Extracting Microservices from Monolithic Enterprise Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Levcovitz, Alessandra; Terra, Ricardo; Valente, Marco Tulio

    2016-01-01

    The idea behind microservices architecture is to develop a single large, complex application as a suite of small, cohesive, independent services. On the other way, monolithic systems get larger over the time, deviating from the intended architecture, and becoming risky and expensive to evolve. This paper describes a technique to identify and define microservices on monolithic enterprise systems. As the major contribution, our evaluation shows that our approach was able to identify relevant ca...

  18. Translucency and Strength of High Translucency Monolithic Zirconium Oxide Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-17

    Zirconium -Oxide Materials presented at/published to the Journal of General Dentistry with MDWI 41-108, and has been assigned local file #16208. 2...Zirconia-Oxide Materials 6. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED: Translucency and Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide...OBSOLETE 48. DATE Page 3 of 3 Pages Translucency and Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide Materials Abstract Dental materials

  19. Electroactive Ionic Soft Actuators with Monolithically Integrated Gold Nanocomposite Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yunsong; Santaniello, Tommaso; Bettini, Luca Giacomo; Minnai, Chloé; Bellacicca, Andrea; Porotti, Riccardo; Denti, Ilaria; Faraone, Gabriele; Merlini, Marco; Lenardi, Cristina; Milani, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    Electroactive ionic gel/metal nanocomposites are produced by implanting supersonically accelerated neutral gold nanoparticles into a novel chemically crosslinked ion conductive soft polymer. The ionic gel consists of chemically crosslinked poly(acrylic acid) and polyacrylonitrile networks, blended with halloysite nanoclays and imidazolium-based ionic liquid. The material exhibits mechanical properties similar to that of elastomers (Young's modulus ≈ 0.35 MPa) together with high ionic conductivity. The fabrication of thin (≈100 nm thick) nanostructured compliant electrodes by means of supersonic cluster beam implantation (SCBI) does not significantly alter the mechanical properties of the soft polymer and provides controlled electrical properties and large surface area for ions storage. SCBI is cost effective and suitable for the scaleup manufacturing of electroactive soft actuators. This study reports the high-strain electromechanical actuation performance of the novel ionic gel/metal nanocomposites in a low-voltage regime (from 0.1 to 5 V), with long-term stability up to 76 000 cycles with no electrode delamination or deterioration. The observed behavior is due to both the intrinsic features of the ionic gel (elasticity and ionic transport capability) and the electrical and morphological features of the electrodes, providing low specific resistance (<100 Ω cm -2 ), high electrochemical capacitance (≈mF g -1 ), and minimal mechanical stress at the polymer/metal composite interface upon deformation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. From VHF to UHF CMOS-MEMS Monolithically Integrated Resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teva, Jordi; Berini, Abadal Gabriel; Uranga, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of microresonators exhibiting resonance frequencies in the VHF and UHF bands, fabricated using the available layers of the standard and commercial CMOS technology, AMS-0.35mum. The resonators are released in a post-CMOS process cons...

  1. Method of doping a semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.Y.; Rapp, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    A method is disclosed for doping semiconductor material. An interface is established between a solid electrolyte and a semiconductor to be doped. The electrolyte is chosen to be an ionic conductor of the selected impurity and the semiconductor material and electrolyte are jointly chosen so that any compound formed from the impurity and the semiconductor will have a free energy no lower than the electrolyte. A potential is then established across the interface so as to allow the impurity ions to diffuse into the semiconductor. In one embodiment the semiconductor and electrolyte may be heated so as to increase the diffusion coefficient

  2. Nano-Doped Monolithic Materials for Molecular Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Acquah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoliths are continuous adsorbents that can easily be synthesised to possess tuneable meso-/macropores, convective fluid transport, and a plethora of chemistries for ligand immobilisation. They are grouped into three main classes: organic, inorganic, and hybrid, based on their chemical composition. These classes may also be differentiated by their unique morphological and physicochemical properties which are significantly relevant to their specific separation applications. The potential applications of monoliths for molecular separation have created the need to enhance their characteristic properties including mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, and chemical and thermal stability. An effective approach towards monolith enhancement has been the doping and/or hybridization with miniaturized molecular species of desirable functionalities and characteristics. Nanoparticles are usually preferred as dopants due to their high solid phase dispersion features which are associated with improved intermolecular adsorptive interactions. Examples of such nanomaterials include, but are not limited to, carbon-based, silica-based, gold-based, and alumina nanoparticles. The incorporation of these nanoparticles into monoliths via in situ polymerisation and/or post-modification enhances surface adsorption for activation and ligand immobilisation. Herein, insights into the performance enhancement of monoliths as chromatographic supports by nanoparticles doping are presented. In addition, the potential and characteristics of less common nanoparticle materials such as hydroxyapatite, ceria, hafnia, and germania are discussed. The advantages and challenges of nanoparticle doping of monoliths are also discussed.

  3. Mechanically stable, hierarchically porous Cu3(btc)2 (HKUST-1) monoliths via direct conversion of copper(II) hydroxide-based monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitra, Nirmalya; Fukumoto, Shotaro; Reboul, Julien; Sumida, Kenji; Zhu, Yang; Nakanishi, Kazuki; Furukawa, Shuhei; Kitagawa, Susumu; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi

    2015-02-28

    The synthesis of highly crystalline macro-meso-microporous monolithic Cu3(btc)2 (HKUST-1; btc(3-) = benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate) is demonstrated by direct conversion of Cu(OH)2-based monoliths while preserving the characteristic macroporous structure. The high mechanical strength of the monoliths is promising for possible applications to continuous flow reactors.

  4. Fundamentals of semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Numai, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    This book explains physics under the operating principles of semiconductor lasers in detail based on the experience of the author, dealing with the first manufacturing of phase-shifted DFB-LDs and recent research on transverse modes.   The book also bridges a wide gap between journal papers and textbooks, requiring only an undergraduate-level knowledge of electromagnetism and quantum mechanics, and helps readers to understand journal papers where definitions of some technical terms vary, depending on the paper. Two definitions of the photon density in the rate equations and two definitions of the phase-shift in the phase-shifted DFB-LD are explained, and differences in the calculated results are indicated, depending on the definitions.    Readers can understand the physics of semiconductor lasers and analytical tools for Fabry-Perot LDs, DFB-LDs, and VCSELs and will be stimulated to develop semiconductor lasers themselves.

  5. Coherent dynamics in semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1998-01-01

    enhanced in quantum confined lower-dimensional systems, where exciton and biexciton effects dominate the spectra even at room temperature. The coherent dynamics of excitons are at modest densities well described by the optical Bloch equations and a number of the dynamical effects known from atomic......Ultrafast nonlinear optical spectroscopy is used to study the coherent dynamics of optically excited electron-hole pairs in semiconductors. Coulomb interaction implies that the optical inter-band transitions are dominated, at least at low temperatures, by excitonic effects. They are further...... and molecular systems are found and studied in the exciton-biexciton system of semiconductors. At densities where strong exciton interactions, or many-body effects, become dominant, the semiconductor Bloch equations present a more rigorous treatment of the phenomena Ultrafast degenerate four-wave mixing is used...

  6. Hydrogen in semiconductors II

    CERN Document Server

    Nickel, Norbert H; Weber, Eicke R; Nickel, Norbert H

    1999-01-01

    Since its inception in 1966, the series of numbered volumes known as Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. The "Willardson and Beer" Series, as it is widely known, has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. Not only did many of these volumes make an impact at the time of their publication, but they continue to be well-cited years after their original release. Recently, Professor Eicke R. Weber of the University of California at Berkeley joined as a co-editor of the series. Professor Weber, a well-known expert in the field of semiconductor materials, will further contribute to continuing the series' tradition of publishing timely, highly relevant, and long-impacting volumes. Some of the recent volumes, such as Hydrogen in Semiconductors, Imperfections in III/V Materials, Epitaxial Microstructures, High-Speed Heterostructure Devices, Oxygen in Silicon, and others promise that this tradition ...

  7. Photoelectronic properties of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Bube, Richard H

    1992-01-01

    The interaction between light and electrons in semiconductors forms the basis for many interesting and practically significant properties. This book examines the fundamental physics underlying this rich complexity of photoelectronic properties of semiconductors, and will familiarise the reader with the relatively simple models that are useful in describing these fundamentals. The basic physics is also illustrated with typical recent examples of experimental data and observations. Following introductory material on the basic concepts, the book moves on to consider a wide range of phenomena, including photoconductivity, recombination effects, photoelectronic methods of defect analysis, photoeffects at grain boundaries, amorphous semiconductors, photovoltaic effects and photoeffects in quantum wells and superlattices. The author is Professor of Materials Science and Electrical Engineering at Stanford University, and has taught this material for many years. He is an experienced author, his earlier books having fo...

  8. EDITORIAL The 23rd Nordic Semiconductor Meeting The 23rd Nordic Semiconductor Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsson, Sveinn; Sveinbjörnsson, Einar

    2010-12-01

    A Nordic Semiconductor Meeting is held every other year with the venue rotating amongst the Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The focus of these meetings remains 'original research and science being carried out on semiconductor materials, devices and systems'. Reports on industrial activity have usually featured. The topics have ranged from fundamental research on point defects in a semiconductor to system architecture of semiconductor electronic devices. Proceedings from these events are regularly published as a topical issue of Physica Scripta. All of the papers in this topical issue have undergone critical peer review and we wish to thank the reviewers and the authors for their cooperation, which has been instrumental in meeting the high scientific standards and quality of the series. This meeting of the 23rd Nordic Semiconductor community, NSM 2009, was held at Háskólatorg at the campus of the University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, 14-17 June 2009. Support was provided by the University of Iceland. Almost 50 participants presented a broad range of topics covering semiconductor materials and devices as well as related material science interests. The conference provided a forum for Nordic and international scientists to present and discuss new results and ideas concerning the fundamentals and applications of semiconductor materials. The meeting aim was to advance the progress of Nordic science and thus aid in future worldwide technological advances concerning technology, education, energy and the environment. Topics Theory and fundamental physics of semiconductors Emerging semiconductor technologies (for example III-V integration on Si, novel Si devices, graphene) Energy and semiconductors Optical phenomena and optical devices MEMS and sensors Program 14 June Registration 13:00-17:00 15 June Meeting program 09:30-17:00 and Poster Session I 16 June Meeting program 09:30-17:00 and Poster Session II 17 June Excursion and dinner

  9. Detector block based on arrays of 144 SiPMs and monolithic scintillators: A performance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, A.J.; Conde, P.; Iborra, A.; Aguilar, A.; Bellido, P.; García-Olcina, R.; Hernández, L.; Moliner, L.; Rigla, J.P.; Rodríguez-Álvarez, M.J.; Sánchez, F.; Seimetz, M.; Soriano, A.; Torres, J.; Vidal, L.F.; Benlloch, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a detector block composed by a monolithic LYSO scintillator coupled to a custom made 12×12 SiPMs array. The design is mainly focused to applications such as Positron Emission Tomography. The readout electronics is based on 3 identical and scalable Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC). We have determined the main performance of the detector block namely spatial, energy, and time resolution but also the system capability to determine the photon depth of interaction, for different crystal surface treatments. Intrinsic detector spatial resolution values as good as 1.7 mm FWHM and energies of 15% for black painted crystals were measured

  10. Monte: A compact and versatile multidetector system based on monolithic telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorini, F.; Bonanno, A.; Cardella, G.; Di Pietro, A.; Fallica, G.; Figuera, P.; Morea, A.; Musumarra, A.; Papa, M.; Pappalardo, G.; Pinto, A.; Rizzo, F.; Tian, W.; Tudisco, S.; Valvo, G.

    2005-01-01

    We present the characteristics of a new multidetector based on monolithic silicon telescopes: MONTE. By using high-energy ion implantation techniques, the ΔE and residual energy stages of such telescopes have been integrated on the same silicon chip, obtaining extremely thin ΔE stages of the order of 1μm. This allowed one to obtain a very low charge identification energy threshold and a very good β background suppression in reactions induced by radioactive ion beams. The multidetector has a modular structure and can be assembled in different geometrical configurations according to experimental needs

  11. Semiconductor nanostructures for artificial photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong

    2012-02-01

    Nanowires, with their unique capability to bridge the nanoscopic and macroscopic worlds, have already been demonstrated as important materials for different energy conversion. One emerging and exciting direction is their application for solar to fuel conversion. The generation of fuels by the direct conversion of solar energy in a fully integrated system is an attractive goal, but no such system has been demonstrated that shows the required efficiency, is sufficiently durable, or can be manufactured at reasonable cost. One of the most critical issues in solar water splitting is the development of a suitable photoanode with high efficiency and long-term durability in an aqueous environment. Semiconductor nanowires represent an important class of nanostructure building block for direct solar-to-fuel application because of their high surface area, tunable bandgap and efficient charge transport and collection. Nanowires can be readily designed and synthesized to deterministically incorporate heterojunctions with improved light absorption, charge separation and vectorial transport. Meanwhile, it is also possible to selectively decorate different oxidation or reduction catalysts onto specific segments of the nanowires to mimic the compartmentalized reactions in natural photosynthesis. In this talk, I will highlight several recent examples in this lab using semiconductor nanowires and their heterostructures for the purpose of direct solar water splitting.

  12. Advances in semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Coleman, James J; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. Originally widely known as the ""Willardson and Beer"" Series, it has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. The series publishes timely, highly relevant volumes intended for long-term impact and reflecting the truly interdisciplinary nature of the field. The volumes in Semiconductors and Semimetals have been and will continue to be of great interest to physicists, chemists, materials scientists, and device engineers in academia, scien

  13. Superconductivity in doped semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustarret, E., E-mail: Etienne.bustarret@neel.cnrs.fr

    2015-07-15

    A historical survey of the main normal and superconducting state properties of several semiconductors doped into superconductivity is proposed. This class of materials includes selenides, tellurides, oxides and column-IV semiconductors. Most of the experimental data point to a weak coupling pairing mechanism, probably phonon-mediated in the case of diamond, but probably not in the case of strontium titanate, these being the most intensively studied materials over the last decade. Despite promising theoretical predictions based on a conventional mechanism, the occurrence of critical temperatures significantly higher than 10 K has not been yet verified. However, the class provides an enticing playground for testing theories and devices alike.

  14. Semiconductor opto-electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, TS; Ellis, B

    1972-01-01

    Semiconductor Opto-Electronics focuses on opto-electronics, covering the basic physical phenomena and device behavior that arise from the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and electrons in a solid. The first nine chapters of this book are devoted to theoretical topics, discussing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with solids, dispersion theory and absorption processes, magneto-optical effects, and non-linear phenomena. Theories of photo-effects and photo-detectors are treated in detail, including the theories of radiation generation and the behavior of semiconductor lasers a

  15. Ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Shay, J L; Pamplin, B R

    2013-01-01

    Ternary Chalcopyrite Semiconductors: Growth, Electronic Properties, and Applications covers the developments of work in the I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2 ternary chalcopyrite compounds. This book is composed of eight chapters that focus on the crystal growth, characterization, and applications of these compounds to optical communications systems. After briefly dealing with the status of ternary chalcopyrite compounds, this book goes on describing the crystal growth of II-IV-V2 and I-III-VI2 single crystals. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the energy band structure of these semiconductor compounds, illustrat

  16. Compound semiconductor device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    This book provides one of the most rigorous treatments of compound semiconductor device physics yet published. A complete understanding of modern devices requires a working knowledge of low-dimensional physics, the use of statistical methods, and the use of one-, two-, and three-dimensional analytical and numerical analysis techniques. With its systematic and detailed**discussion of these topics, this book is ideal for both the researcher and the student. Although the emphasis of this text is on compound semiconductor devices, many of the principles discussed will also be useful to those inter

  17. Introductory semiconductor device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Greg

    2004-01-01

    ATOMS AND BONDINGThe Periodic TableIonic BondingCovalent BondingMetallic bondingvan der Waals BondingStart a DatabaseENERGY BANDS AND EFFECTIVE MASSSemiconductors, Insulators and MetalsSemiconductorsInsulatorsMetalsThe Concept of Effective MassCARRIER CONCENTRATIONS IN SEMICONDUCTORSDonors and AcceptorsFermi-LevelCarrier Concentration EquationsDonors and Acceptors Both PresentCONDUCTION IN SEMICONDUCTORSCarrier DriftCarrier MobilitySaturated Drift VelocityMobility Variation with TemperatureA Derivation of Ohm's LawDrift Current EquationsSemiconductor Band Diagrams with an Electric Field Presen

  18. Tunable radiation emitting semiconductor device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    A tunable radiation emitting semiconductor device includes at least one elongated structure at least partially fabricated from one or more semiconductor materials exhibiting a bandgap characteristic including one or more energy transitions whose energies correspond to photon energies of light

  19. Co-integration of nano-scale vertical- and horizontal-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors for low power CMOS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min-Chul; Kim, Garam; Kim, Sang Wan; Kim, Hyun Woo; Kim, Hyungjin; Lee, Jong-Ho; Shin, Hyungcheol; Park, Byung-Gook

    2012-07-01

    In order to extend the conventional low power Si CMOS technology beyond the 20-nm node without SOI substrates, we propose a novel co-integration scheme to build horizontal- and vertical-channel MOSFETs together and verify the idea using TCAD simulations. From the fabrication viewpoint, it is highlighted that this scheme provides additional vertical devices with good scalability by adding a few steps to the conventional CMOS process flow for fin formation. In addition, the benefits of the co-integrated vertical devices are investigated using a TCAD device simulation. From this study, it is confirmed that the vertical device shows improved off-current control and a larger drive current when the body dimension is less than 20 nm, due to the electric field coupling effect at the double-gated channel. Finally, the benefits from the circuit design viewpoint, such as the larger midpoint gain and beta and lower power consumption, are confirmed by the mixed-mode circuit simulation study.

  20. Neutron spectrometry with a monolithic silicon telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosteo, S; D'Angelo, G; Fazzi, A; Para, A Foglio; Pola, A; Zotto, P

    2007-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer was set-up by coupling a polyethylene converter with a monolithic silicon telescope, consisting of a DeltaE and an E stage-detector (about 2 and 500 microm thick, respectively). The detection system was irradiated with monoenergetic neutrons at INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Legnaro, Italy). The maximum detectable energy, imposed by the thickness of the E stage, is about 8 MeV for the present detector. The scatter plots of the energy deposited in the two stages were acquired using two independent electronic chains. The distributions of the recoil-protons are well-discriminated from those due to secondary electrons for energies above 0.350 MeV. The experimental spectra of the recoil-protons were compared with the results of Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA code. An analytical model that takes into account the geometrical structure of the silicon telescope was developed, validated and implemented in an unfolding code. The capability of reproducing continuous neutron spectra was investigated by irradiating the detector with neutrons from a thick beryllium target bombarded with protons. The measured spectra were compared with data taken from the literature. Satisfactory agreement was found.

  1. Physical principles of semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micek, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    The general properties of semiconductors with respect to the possibilities of their use as the ionization radiation detectors are discussed. Some chosen types of semiconductor junctions and their characteristics are briefly presented. There are also discussed the physical phenomena connected with the formation of barriers in various types of semiconductor counters. Finally, the basic properties of three main types of semiconductor detectors are given. (author)

  2. Handbook of luminescent semiconductor materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, Leah

    2011-01-01

    Photoluminescence spectroscopy is an important approach for examining the optical interactions in semiconductors and optical devices with the goal of gaining insight into material properties. With contributions from researchers at the forefront of this field, Handbook of Luminescent Semiconductor Materials explores the use of this technique to study semiconductor materials in a variety of applications, including solid-state lighting, solar energy conversion, optical devices, and biological imaging. After introducing basic semiconductor theory and photoluminescence principles, the book focuses

  3. Vibration-tolerant narrow-linewidth semiconductor disk laser using novel frequency-stabilisation schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Craig R.; Jones, Brynmor E.; Schlosser, Peter; Sørensen, Simon Toft; Strain, Michael J.; McKnight, Loyd J.

    2018-02-01

    This paper will present developments in narrow-linewidth semiconductor-disk-laser systems using novel frequencystabilisation schemes for reduced sensitivity to mechanical vibrations, a critical requirement for mobile applications. Narrow-linewidth single-frequency lasers are required for a range of applications including metrology and highresolution spectroscopy. Stabilisation of the laser was achieved using a monolithic fibre-optic ring resonator with free spectral range of 181 MHz and finesse of 52 to act as passive reference cavity for the laser. Such a cavity can operate over a broad wavelength range and is immune to a wide band of vibrational frequency noise due to its monolithic implementation. The frequency noise of the locked system has been measured and compared to typical Fabry-Perotlocked lasers using vibration equipment to simulate harsh environments, and analysed here. Locked linewidths of portable, narrow-linewidth laser system for harsh environments that can be flexibly designed for a range of applications.

  4. Depletion field focusing in semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.W.J.; Gelder, Van A.P.

    1996-01-01

    We calculate the three-dimensional depletion field profile in a semiconductor, for a planar semiconductor material with a spatially varying potential upon the surface, and for a tip-shaped semiconductor with a constant surface potential. The nonuniform electric field gives rise to focusing or

  5. Nonlinear Elasticity of Doped Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2016-0206 NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS Mark Dykman and Kirill Moskovtsev Michigan State University...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-16-1-7600 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...vibration amplitude. 15. SUBJECT TERMS semiconductors , microresonators, microelectromechanical 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  6. Long-Wavelength InAs/GaAs Quantum-Dot Light Emitting Sources Monolithically Grown on Si Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siming Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Direct integration of III–V light emitting sources on Si substrates has attracted significant interest for addressing the growing limitations for Si-based electronics and allowing the realization of complex optoelectronics circuits. However, the high density of threading dislocations introduced by large lattice mismatch and incompatible thermal expansion coefficient between III–V materials and Si substrates have fundamentally limited monolithic epitaxy of III–V devices on Si substrates. Here, by using the InAlAs/GaAs strained layer superlattices (SLSs as dislocation filter layers (DFLs to reduce the density of threading dislocations. We firstly demonstrate a Si-based 1.3 µm InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD laser that lases up to 111 °C, with a low threshold current density of 200 A/cm2 and high output power over 100 mW at room temperature. We then demonstrate the operation of InAs/GaAs QD superluminescent light emitting diodes (SLDs monolithically grown on Si substrates. The fabricated two-section SLD exhibits a 3 dB linewidth of 114 nm, centered at ~1255 nm with a corresponding output power of 2.6 mW at room temperature. Our work complements hybrid integration using wafer bonding and represents a significant milestone for direct monolithic integration of III–V light emitters on Si substrates.

  7. Avalanche-mode silicon LEDs for monolithic optical coupling in CMOS technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, Satadal

    2017-01-01

    Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit (IC) technology is the most commercially successful platform in modern electronic and control systems. So called "smart power" technologies such as Bipolar CMOS DMOS (BCD), combine the computational power of CMOS with high voltage

  8. Semi-conductor rectifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for treating a semiconductor rectifier, comprising: heating the rectifier to a temperature in the range of 100 0 C to 500 0 C, irradiating the rectifier while maintaining its temperature within the said range, and then annealing the rectifier at a temperature of between 280 0 C and 350 0 C for between two and ten hours. (author)

  9. Semiconductor detector physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equer, B.

    1987-01-01

    Comprehension of semiconductor detectors follows comprehension of some elements of solid state physics. They are recalled here, limited to the necessary physical principles, that is to say the conductivity. P-n and MIS junctions are discussed in view of their use in detection. Material and structure (MOS, p-n, multilayer, ..) are also reviewed [fr

  10. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS A 10-bit 200-kS/s SAR ADC IP core for a touch screen SoC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingyuan, Tong; Yintang, Yang; Zhangming, Zhu; Wenfang, Sheng

    2010-10-01

    Based on a 5 MSBs (most-significant-bits)-plus-5 LSBs (least-significant-bits) C-R hybrid D/A conversion and low-offset pseudo-differential comparison approach, with capacitor array axially symmetric layout topology and resistor string low gradient mismatch placement method, an 8-channel 10-bit 200-kS/s SAR ADC (successive-approximation-register analog-to-digital converter) IP core for a touch screen SoC (system-on-chip) is implemented in a 0.18 μm 1P5M CMOS logic process. Design considerations for the touch screen SAR ADC are included. With a 1.8 V power supply, the DNL (differential non-linearity) and INL (integral non-linearity) of this converter are measured to be about 0.32 LSB and 0.81 LSB respectively. With an input frequency of 91 kHz at 200-kS/s sampling rate, the spurious-free dynamic range and effective-number-of-bits are measured to be 63.2 dB and 9.15 bits respectively, and the power is about 136 μW. This converter occupies an area of about 0.08 mm2. The design results show that it is very suitable for touch screen SoC applications.

  11. Stability of semiconductor memory characteristics in a radiation environment

    OpenAIRE

    Fetahović, I.; Vujisić, M.; Stanković, K.; Dolićanin, E.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation defects in electronic device can occur in a process of its fabrication or during use. Miniaturization trends in industry and increase in level of integration of electronic components have negative affect on component's behavior in a radiation environment. The aim of this paper is to analyze radiation effects in semiconductor memories and to establish how ionizing radiation influences characteristics and functionality of semiconductor memories. Both the experimental procedure and sim...

  12. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musich, Mark; Swanson, Michael; Dunham, Grant; Stanislowski, Joshua

    2010-10-05

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most

  13. ADVANCED GASIFICATION MERCURY/TRACE METAL CONTROL WITH MONOLITH TRAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Musich; Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Joshua J. Stanislowski

    2010-07-31

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m3 (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m3 (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most effective arsine

  14. Edge chipping and flexural resistance of monolithic ceramics☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Lee, James J.-W.; Srikanth, Ramanathan; Lawn, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Test the hypothesis that monolithic ceramics can be developed with combined esthetics and superior fracture resistance to circumvent processing and performance drawbacks of traditional all-ceramic crowns and fixed-dental-prostheses consisting of a hard and strong core with an esthetic porcelain veneer. Specifically, to demonstrate that monolithic prostheses can be produced with a much reduced susceptibility to fracture. Methods Protocols were applied for quantifying resistance to chipping as well as resistance to flexural failure in two classes of dental ceramic, microstructurally-modified zirconias and lithium disilicate glass–ceramics. A sharp indenter was used to induce chips near the edges of flat-layer specimens, and the results compared with predictions from a critical load equation. The critical loads required to produce cementation surface failure in monolithic specimens bonded to dentin were computed from established flexural strength relations and the predictions validated with experimental data. Results Monolithic zirconias have superior chipping and flexural fracture resistance relative to their veneered counterparts. While they have superior esthetics, glass–ceramics exhibit lower strength but higher chip fracture resistance relative to porcelain-veneered zirconias. Significance The study suggests a promising future for new and improved monolithic ceramic restorations, with combined durability and acceptable esthetics. PMID:24139756

  15. Preparation of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane based imprinted monolith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Chen, Xiu-Xiu; Huang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Zhao-Sheng

    2015-12-18

    Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) was successfully applied, for the first time, to prepare imprinted monolithic column with high porosity and good permeability. The imprinted monolithic column was synthesized with a mixture of PSS-(1-Propylmethacrylate)-heptaisobutyl substituted (MA 0702), naproxon (template), 4-vinylpyridine, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF4). The influence of synthesis parameters on the retention factor and imprinting effect, including the amount of MA 0702, the ratio of template to monomer, and the ratio of monomer to crosslinker, was investigated. The greatest imprinting factor on the imprinted monolithic column prepared with MA 0702 was 22, about 10 times higher than that prepared in absence of POSS. The comparisons between MIP monoliths synthesized with POSS and without POSS were made in terms of permeability, column efficiency, surface morphology and pore size distribution. In addition, thermodynamic and Van Deemter analysis were used to evaluate the POSS-based MIP monolith. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Aspartic acid incorporated monolithic columns for affinity glycoprotein purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armutcu, Canan; Bereli, Nilay; Bayram, Engin; Uzun, Lokman; Say, Rıdvan; Denizli, Adil

    2014-02-01

    Novel aspartic acid incorporated monolithic columns were prepared to efficiently affinity purify immunoglobulin G (IgG) from human plasma. The monolithic columns were synthesised in a stainless steel HPLC column (20 cm × 5 mm id) by in situ bulk polymerisation of N-methacryloyl-L-aspartic acid (MAAsp), a polymerisable derivative of L-aspartic acid, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). Monolithic columns [poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-L-aspartic acid) (PHEMAsp)] were characterised by swelling studies, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The monolithic columns were used for IgG adsorption/desorption from aqueous solutions and human plasma. The IgG adsorption depended on the buffer type, and the maximum IgG adsorption from aqueous solution in phosphate buffer was 0.085 mg/g at pH 6.0. The monolithic columns allowed for one-step IgG purification with a negligible capacity decrease after ten adsorption-desorption cycles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Monolithic View of Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Chiosi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We review and critically discuss the current understanding of galaxy formation and evolution limited to Early Type Galaxies (ETGs as inferred from the observational data and briefly contrast the hierarchical and quasi-monolithic paradigms of formation and evolution. Since in Cold Dark Matter (CDM cosmogony small scale structures typically collapse early and form low-mass haloes that subsequently can merge to assembly larger haloes, galaxies formed in the gravitational potential well of a halo are also expected to merge thus assembling their mass hierarchically. Mergers should occur all over the Hubble time and large mass galaxies should be in place only recently. However, recent observations of high redshift galaxies tell a different story: massive ETGs are already in place at high redshift. To this aim, we propose here a revision of the quasi-monolithic scenario as an alternative to the hierarchical one, in which mass assembling should occur in early stages of a galaxy lifetime and present recent models of ETGs made of Dark and Baryonic Matter in a Λ-CDM Universe that obey the latter scheme. The galaxies are followed from the detachment from the linear regime and Hubble flow at z ≥ 20 down to the stage of nearly complete assembly of the stellar content (z ∼ 2 − 1 and beyond.  It is found that the total mass (Mh = MDM + MBM and/or initial over-density of the proto-galaxy drive the subsequent star formation histories (SFH. Massive galaxies (Mh ~ _1012M⊙ experience a single, intense burst of star formation (with rates ≥ 103M⊙/yr at early epochs, consistently with observations, with a weak dependence on the initial over-density; intermediate mass haloes (Mh~_ 1010 − 1011M⊙ have star formation histories that strongly depend on their initial over-density; finally, low mass haloes (Mh ~_ 109M⊙ always have erratic, burst-like star forming histories. The present-day properties (morphology, structure, chemistry and photometry of the

  18. Architectures for Improved Organic Semiconductor Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jonathan H.

    Advancements in the microelectronics industry have brought increasing performance and decreasing prices to a wide range of users. Conventional silicon-based electronics have followed Moore's law to provide an ever-increasing integrated circuit transistor density, which drives processing power, solid-state memory density, and sensor technologies. As shrinking conventional integrated circuits became more challenging, researchers began exploring electronics with the potential to penetrate new applications with a low price of entry: "Electronics everywhere." The new generation of electronics is thin, light, flexible, and inexpensive. Organic electronics are part of the new generation of thin-film electronics, relying on the synthetic flexibility of carbon molecules to create organic semiconductors, absorbers, and emitters which perform useful tasks. Organic electronics can be fabricated with low energy input on a variety of novel substrates, including inexpensive plastic sheets. The potential ease of synthesis and fabrication of organic-based devices means that organic electronics can be made at very low cost. Successfully demonstrated organic semiconductor devices include photovoltaics, photodetectors, transistors, and light emitting diodes. Several challenges that face organic semiconductor devices are low performance relative to conventional devices, long-term device stability, and development of new organic-compatible processes and materials. While the absorption and emission performance of organic materials in photovoltaics and light emitting diodes is extraordinarily high for thin films, the charge conduction mobilities are generally low. Building highly efficient devices with low-mobility materials is one challenge. Many organic semiconductor films are unstable during fabrication, storage, and operation due to reactions with water, oxygen and hydroxide. A final challenge facing organic electronics is the need for new processes and materials for electrodes

  19. Thermodynamic concepts in semiconductor quantum dot technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchukin, V.

    2001-01-01

    Major trends of the modern civilization are related to the changing of the industrial society into an information and knowledge-based society. This transformation is to a large extent based on the modern information and communication technology. The nobel prize-2000 in physics is a remarkable recognition of an extremely high significance of this kind of technology. The nobel prize has been awarded with one half jointly to Zhores I. Alferov and Herbert Kroemer for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics and one half to Jack St. Clair Kilby for this part in the invention of the integrated circuit. The development of the semiconductor heterostructures technology requires a profound understanding of the basic growth mechanisms involved in any technological process, including any type of epitaxy, either the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE), or the metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE), or the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Starting from this pioneering works on semiconductor heterostructures till present time, Professor Zh. Alferov has always paid much attention to complex and comprehensive study of the subject. This covers the growth - as well as the post-growth technology including the theoretical modeling of the technology, the characterization of the heterostructures, and the device design. Such complex approach has master mined the scientific and technological success of Abraham loffe Institute in the area of semiconductor heterostructures, and later, nano structures. (Orig../A.B.)

  20. An absorptive single-pole four-throw switch using multiple-contact MEMS switches and its application to a monolithic millimeter-wave beam-forming network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sanghyo; Kim, Jong-Man; Kim, Yong-Kweon; Kwon, Youngwoo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new absorptive single-pole four-throw (SP4T) switch based on multiple-contact switching is proposed and integrated with a Butler matrix to demonstrate a monolithic beam-forming network at millimeter waves (mm waves). In order to simplify the switching driving circuit and reduce the number of unit switches in an absorptive SP4T switch, the individual switches were replaced with long-span multiple-contact switches using stress-free single-crystalline-silicon MEMS technology. This approach improves the mechanical stability as well as the manufacturing yield, thereby allowing successful integration into a monolithic beam former. The fabricated absorptive SP4T MEMS switch shows insertion loss less than 1.3 dB, return losses better than 11 dB at 30 GHz and wideband isolation performance higher than 39 dB from 20 to 40 GHz. The absorptive SP4T MEMS switch is integrated with a 4 × 4 Butler matrix on a single chip to implement a monolithic beam-forming network, directing beam into four distinct angles. Array factors from the measured data show that the proposed absorptive SPnT MEMS switch can be effectively used for high-performance mm-wave beam-switching systems. This work corresponds to the first demonstration of a monolithic beam-forming network using switched beams

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF MONOLITHIC FUEL FOIL PROPERTIES AND BOND STRENGTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D E Burkes; D D Keiser; D M Wachs; J S Larson; M D Chapple

    2007-01-01

    Understanding fuel foil mechanical properties, and fuel/cladding bond quality and strength in monolithic plates is an important area of investigation and quantification. Specifically, what constitutes an acceptable monolithic fuel--cladding bond, how are the properties of the bond measured and determined, and what is the impact of fabrication process or change in parameters on the level of bonding? Currently, non-bond areas are quantified employing ultrasonic determinations that are challenging to interpret and understand in terms of irradiation impact. Thus, determining mechanical properties of the fuel foil and what constitutes fuel/cladding non-bonds is essential to successful qualification of monolithic fuel plates. Capabilities and tests related to determination of these properties have been implemented at the INL and are discussed, along with preliminary results

  2. A poly(vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate blend monolith with nanoscale porous structure

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xiaoxia; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    A stimuli-responsive poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sodium alginate (SA) blend monolith with nanoscale porous (mesoporous) structure is successfully fabricated by thermally impacted non-solvent induced phase separation (TINIPS) method. The PVA/SA blend monolith with different SA contents is conveniently fabricated in an aqueous methanol without any templates. The solvent suitable for the fabrication of the present blend monolith by TINIPS is different with that of the PVA monolith. The nanostructu...

  3. Basic semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hamaguchi, Chihiro

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a detailed description of basic semiconductor physics. The text covers a wide range of important phenomena in semiconductors, from the simple to the advanced. Four different methods of energy band calculations in the full band region are explained: local empirical pseudopotential, non-local pseudopotential, KP perturbation and tight-binding methods. The effective mass approximation and electron motion in a periodic potential, Boltzmann transport equation and deformation potentials used for analysis of transport properties are discussed. Further, the book examines experiments and theoretical analyses of cyclotron resonance in detail. Optical and transport properties, magneto-transport, two-dimensional electron gas transport (HEMT and MOSFET) and quantum transport are reviewed, while optical transition, electron-phonon interaction and electron mobility are also addressed. Energy and electronic structure of a quantum dot (artificial atom) are explained with the help of Slater determinants. The...

  4. Semiconductor physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Seeger, Karlheinz

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor Physics - An Introduction - is suitable for the senior undergraduate or new graduate student majoring in electrical engineering or physics. It will also be useful to solid-state scientists and device engineers involved in semiconductor design and technology. The text provides a lucid account of charge transport, energy transport and optical processes, and a detailed description of many devices. It includes sections on superlattices and quantum well structures, the effects of deep-level impurities on transport, the quantum Hall effect and the calculation of the influence of a magnetic field on the carrier distribution function. This 6th edition has been revised and corrected, and new sections have been added to different chapters.

  5. Three dimensional strained semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Leao, Cedric Rocha; Shao, Qinghui

    2016-11-08

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and at least one thin film in contact with at least one exterior surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the three dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method includes forming a three dimensional structure comprising a semiconductor material, and depositing at least one thin film on at least one surface of the three dimensional structure for inducing a strain in the structure, the thin film being characterized as providing at least one of: an induced strain of at least 0.05%, and an induced strain in at least 5% of a volume of the structure.

  6. Optically coupled semiconductor device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagaya, Naoki

    1988-11-18

    This invention concerns an optically coupled semiconductor device using the light as input signal and a MOS transistor for the output side in order to control on-off of the output side by the input signal which is insulated from the output. Concerning this sort of element, when a MOS transistor and a load resistance are planned to be accumulated on the same chip, a resistor and control of impurity concentration of the channel, etc. become necessary despite that the only formation of a simple P-N junction is enough, for a solar cell, hence cost reduction thereof cannot be done. In order to remove this defect, this invention offers an optically coupled semiconductor device featuring that two solar cells are connected in reverse parallel between the gate sources of the output MOS transistors and an operational light emitting element is individually set facing a respective solar cell. 4 figs.

  7. A monolithic pixel sensor (TRAPPISTe-2) for particle physics instrumentation in OKI 0.2μm SOI technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soung Yee, L.; Alvarez, P.; Martin, E.; Cortina, E.; Ferrer, C.

    2012-12-01

    A monolithic active pixel sensor for charged particle tracking has been developed within the frame of a research and development project called TRAPPISTe (Tracking Particles for Physics Instrumentation in SOI Technology). TRAPPISTe aims to study the feasibility of developing a monolithic pixel sensor with SOI technology. TRAPPISTe-2 is the second prototype in this series and was fabricated with an OKI 0.20μm fully depleted (FD-SOI) CMOS process. This device contains test transistors and amplifiers, as well as two pixel matrices with integrated 3-transistor and amplifier readout electronics. The results presented are based on the first electrical measurements performed on the test structures and laser measurements on the pixel matrices.

  8. Random laser emission from a Rhodamine B-doped GPTS/TEOS-derived organic/silica monolithic xerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegão, Luis M. G.; Manoel, D. S.; Otuka, A. J. G.; Ferreira, P. H. D.; Vollet, D. R.; Donatti, D. A.; De Boni, L.; Mendonça, C. R.; De Vicente, F. S.; Rodrigues, J. J., Jr.; Alencar, M. A. R. C.

    2017-06-01

    A Rhodamine B-doped 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTS)/tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)-derived organic/silica monolithic xerogel with excellent optical properties was prepared and its potential as a random laser host investigated. This hybrid material has a non-porous organic/inorganic morphology with silica-rich nanoparticles of less than 10 nm in diameter homogeneously dispersed within the matrix. Random laser emission with incoherent feedback, centered at 618 nm, was observed from Rhodamine B incorporated into the monolithic xerogel when excited by a 532 nm pulsed laser. This hybrid system is shown to be very promising for the development of a new class of random laser-based integrated devices, with applications ranging from optical bio-imaging to sensing.

  9. Crystalline mesoporous tungsten oxide nanoplate monoliths synthesized by directed soft template method for highly sensitive NO2 gas sensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoa, Nguyen Duc; Duy, Nguyen Van; Hieu, Nguyen Van

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Mesoporous WO 3 nanoplate monoliths were obtained by direct templating synthesis. ► Enable effective accession of the analytic molecules for the sensor applications. ► The WO 3 sensor exhibited a high performance to NO 2 gas at low temperature. -- Abstract: Controllable synthesis of nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors with nanocrystalline size, porous structure, and large specific surface area is one of the key issues for effective gas sensor applications. In this study, crystalline mesoporous tungsten oxide nanoplate-like monoliths with high specific surface areas were obtained through instant direct-templating synthesis for highly sensitive nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) sensor applications. The copolymer soft template was converted into a solid carbon framework by heat treatment in an inert gas prior to calcinations in air to sustain the mesoporous structure of tungsten oxide. The multidirectional mesoporous structures of tungsten oxide with small crystalline size, large specific surface area, and superior physical characteristics enabled the rapid and effective accession of analytic gas molecules. As a result, the sensor response was enhanced and the response and recovery times were reduced, in which the mesoporous tungsten oxide based gas sensor exhibited a superior response of 21,155% to 5 ppm NO 2 . In addition, the developed sensor exhibited selective detection of low NO 2 concentration in ammonia and ethanol at a low temperature of approximately 150 °C.

  10. Doping of organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luessem, B.; Riede, M.; Leo, K. [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, TU Dresden (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    The understanding and applications of organic semiconductors have shown remarkable progress in recent years. This material class has been developed from being a lab curiosity to the basis of first successful products as small organic LED (OLED) displays; other areas of application such as OLED lighting and organic photovoltaics are on the verge of broad commercialization. Organic semiconductors are superior to inorganic ones for low-cost and large-area optoelectronics due to their flexibility, easy deposition, and broad variety, making tailor-made materials possible. However, electrical doping of organic semiconductors, i.e. the controlled adjustment of Fermi level that has been extremely important to the success of inorganic semiconductors, is still in its infancy. This review will discuss recent work on both fundamental principles and applications of doping, focused primarily to doping of evaporated organic layers with molecular dopants. Recently, both p- and n-type molecular dopants have been developed that lead to efficient and stable doping of organic thin films. Due to doping, the conductivity of the doped layers increases several orders of magnitude and allows for quasi-Ohmic contacts between organic layers and metal electrodes. Besides reducing voltage losses, doping thus also gives design freedom in terms of transport layer thickness and electrode choice. The use of doping in applications like OLEDs and organic solar cells is highlighted in this review. Overall, controlled molecular doping can be considered as key enabling technology for many different organic device types that can lead to significant improvements in efficiencies and lifetimes. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Images through semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Improved image processing techniques are constantly being developed for television and for scanners using X-rays or other radiation for industrial or medical applications, etc. As Erik Heijne of CERN explains here, particle physics too has its own special requirements for image processing. The increasing use of semiconductor techniques for handling measurements down to the level of a few microns provides another example of the close interplay between scientific research and technological development. (orig.).

  12. Muonium states in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    There is a brief summary of what is known about the muonium states isotropic, anisotropic and diamagnetic in diamond and zincblende semiconductors. The report deals with muonium spectroscopy, including the formation probabilities, hyperfine parameters and electronic g-factors of the states. The dynamics of the states is treated including a discussion of the transition from isotropic Mu to anisotropic Mu in diamond, temperature-dependent linewidthes in silicon and germanium and effects of daping and radiation damage

  13. Nonradiative recombination in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Abakumov, VN; Yassievich, IN

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, great progress has been made in the understandingof recombination processes controlling the number of excessfree carriers in semiconductors under nonequilibrium conditions. As a result, it is now possible to give a comprehensivetheoretical description of these processes. The authors haveselected a number of experimental results which elucidate theunderlying physical problems and enable a test of theoreticalmodels. The following topics are dealt with: phenomenological theory ofrecombination, theoretical models of shallow and deep localizedstates, cascade model of carrier captu

  14. Doping of organic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luessem, B.; Riede, M.; Leo, K.

    2013-01-01

    The understanding and applications of organic semiconductors have shown remarkable progress in recent years. This material class has been developed from being a lab curiosity to the basis of first successful products as small organic LED (OLED) displays; other areas of application such as OLED lighting and organic photovoltaics are on the verge of broad commercialization. Organic semiconductors are superior to inorganic ones for low-cost and large-area optoelectronics due to their flexibility, easy deposition, and broad variety, making tailor-made materials possible. However, electrical doping of organic semiconductors, i.e. the controlled adjustment of Fermi level that has been extremely important to the success of inorganic semiconductors, is still in its infancy. This review will discuss recent work on both fundamental principles and applications of doping, focused primarily to doping of evaporated organic layers with molecular dopants. Recently, both p- and n-type molecular dopants have been developed that lead to efficient and stable doping of organic thin films. Due to doping, the conductivity of the doped layers increases several orders of magnitude and allows for quasi-Ohmic contacts between organic layers and metal electrodes. Besides reducing voltage losses, doping thus also gives design freedom in terms of transport layer thickness and electrode choice. The use of doping in applications like OLEDs and organic solar cells is highlighted in this review. Overall, controlled molecular doping can be considered as key enabling technology for many different organic device types that can lead to significant improvements in efficiencies and lifetimes. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, Eugene E.

    2006-06-19

    The following article is an edited transcript based on the Turnbull Lecture given by Eugene E. Haller at the 2005 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting in Boston on November 29, 2005. The David Turnbull Lectureship is awarded to recognize the career of a scientist who has made outstanding contributions to understanding materials phenomena and properties through research, writing, and lecturing, as exemplified by the life work of David Turnbull. Haller was named the 2005 David Turnbull Lecturer for his 'pioneering achievements and leadership in establishing the field of isotopically engineered semiconductors; for outstanding contributions to materials growth, doping and diffusion; and for excellence in lecturing, writing, and fostering international collaborations'. The scientific interest, increased availability, and technological promise of highly enriched isotopes have led to a sharp rise in the number of experimental and theoretical studies with isotopically controlled semiconductor crystals. This article reviews results obtained with isotopically controlled semiconductor bulk and thin-film heterostructures. Isotopic composition affects several properties such as phonon energies, band structure, and lattice constant in subtle, but, for their physical understanding, significant ways. Large isotope-related effects are observed for thermal conductivity in local vibrational modes of impurities and after neutron transmutation doping. Spectacularly sharp photoluminescence lines have been observed in ultrapure, isotopically enriched silicon crystals. Isotope multilayer structures are especially well suited for simultaneous self- and dopant-diffusion studies. The absence of any chemical, mechanical, or electrical driving forces makes possible the study of an ideal random-walk problem. Isotopically controlled semiconductors may find applications in quantum computing, nanoscience, and spintronics.

  16. Survey of semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Böer, Karl W

    1992-01-01

    Any book that covers a large variety of subjects and is written by one author lacks by necessity the depth provided by an expert in his or her own field of specialization. This book is no exception. It has been written with the encouragement of my students and colleagues, who felt that an extensive card file I had accumulated over the years of teaching solid state and semiconductor physics would be helpful to more than just a few of us. This file, updated from time to time, contained lecture notes and other entries that were useful in my research and permitted me to give to my students a broader spectrum of information than is available in typical textbooks. When assembling this material into a book, I divided the top­ ics into material dealing with the homogeneous semiconductor, the subject of the previously published Volume 1, and the inhomoge­ neous semiconductor, the subject of this Volume 2. In order to keep the book to a manageable size, sections of tutorial character which can be used as text for a g...

  17. Semiconductor Ion Implanters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, Barry A.; Ruffell, John P.

    2011-01-01

    In 1953 the Raytheon CK722 transistor was priced at $7.60. Based upon this, an Intel Xeon Quad Core processor containing 820,000,000 transistors should list at $6.2 billion! Particle accelerator technology plays an important part in the remarkable story of why that Intel product can be purchased today for a few hundred dollars. Most people of the mid twentieth century would be astonished at the ubiquity of semiconductors in the products we now buy and use every day. Though relatively expensive in the nineteen fifties they now exist in a wide range of items from high-end multicore microprocessors like the Intel product to disposable items containing 'only' hundreds or thousands like RFID chips and talking greeting cards. This historical development has been fueled by continuous advancement of the several individual technologies involved in the production of semiconductor devices including Ion Implantation and the charged particle beamlines at the heart of implant machines. In the course of its 40 year development, the worldwide implanter industry has reached annual sales levels around $2B, installed thousands of dedicated machines and directly employs thousands of workers. It represents in all these measures, as much and possibly more than any other industrial application of particle accelerator technology. This presentation discusses the history of implanter development. It touches on some of the people involved and on some of the developmental changes and challenges imposed as the requirements of the semiconductor industry evolved.

  18. The Physics of Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Kevin F.

    1999-02-01

    Modern fabrication techniques have made it possible to produce semiconductor devices whose dimensions are so small that quantum mechanical effects dominate their behavior. This book describes the key elements of quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, and solid-state physics that are necessary in understanding these modern semiconductor devices. The author begins with a review of elementary quantum mechanics, and then describes more advanced topics, such as multiple quantum wells. He then disusses equilibrium and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. Following this introduction, he provides a thorough treatment of solid-state physics, covering electron motion in periodic potentials, electron-phonon interaction, and recombination processes. The final four chapters deal exclusively with real devices, such as semiconductor lasers, photodiodes, flat panel displays, and MOSFETs. The book contains many homework exercises and is suitable as a textbook for electrical engineering, materials science, or physics students taking courses in solid-state device physics. It will also be a valuable reference for practicing engineers in optoelectronics and related areas.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Fluid Dynamics in a Monolithic Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Yamamoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As for the measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC is used for PAH identification and densitometry. However, when a solvent containing a substance to be identified passes through a column of UPLC, a dedicated high-pressure-proof device is required. Recently, a liquid chromatography instrument using a monolithic column technology has been proposed to reduce the pressure of UPLC. The present study tested five types of monolithic columns produced in experiments. To simulate the flow field, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM was used. The velocity profile was discussed to decrease the pressure drop in the ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC system.

  20. Paladin Enterprises: Monolithic particle physics models global climate.

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Paladin Enterprises presents a monolithic particle model of the universe which will be used by them to build an economical fusion energy system. The model is an extension of the work done by James Clerk Maxwell. Essentially, gravity is unified with electro-magnetic forces and shown to be a product of a closed loop current system, i.e. a particle - monolithic or sub atomic. This discovery explains rapid global climate changes which are evident in the geological record and also provides an explanation for recent changes in the global climate.