WorldWideScience

Sample records for monolithically integrated semiconductor

  1. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical modulator with Semiconductor optical amplifier for short-range optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2015-04-01

    A monolithically integrated quantum dot (QD) optical gain modulator (OGM) with a QD semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was successfully developed. Broadband QD optical gain material was used to achieve Gbps-order high-speed optical data transmission, and an optical gain change as high as approximately 6-7 dB was obtained with a low OGM voltage of 2.0 V. Loss of optical power due to insertion of the device was also effectively compensated for by the SOA section. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the QD-OGM/SOA device helped achieve 6.0-Gbps error-free optical data transmission over a 2.0-km-long photonic crystal fiber. We also successfully demonstrated generation of Gbps-order, high-speed, and error-free optical signals in the >5.5-THz broadband optical frequency bandwidth larger than the C-band. These results suggest that the developed monolithically integrated QD-OGM/SOA device will be an advantageous and compact means of increasing the usable optical frequency channels for short-reach communications.

  2. Fabrication of Tunable Sampled Grating DBR Laser Integrated Monolithically with Optical Semiconductor Amplifier Using Planar Buried Heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Su Hwan; Lee, Ji-Myon; Kim, Soo; Ko, Hyunsung; Lee, Chul-Wook; Park, Sahnggi; Park, Moon-Ho

    2004-10-01

    We have demonstrated a high-power widely tunable sampled grating (SG) DBR laser integrated monolithically with optical semiconductor amplifier (SOA), using planar buried heterostructure (PBH). The measured threshold current was 5 mA on average with 60 chips randomly selected which is lowest among the typical average values. Fiber-coupled output power was 12.4 dBm and the output power variation was ˜1 dB for the whole tuning range.

  3. Physical and chemical sensing using monolithic semiconductor optical transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappe, Hans P.; Hofstetter, Daniel; Maisenhoelder, Bernd; Moser, Michael; Riel, Peter; Kunz, Rino E.

    1997-09-01

    We present two monolithically integrated optical sensor systems based on semiconductor photonic integrated circuits. These compact, robust and highly functional transducers perform all necessary optical and electro-optical functions on-chip; extension to multi-sensor arrays is easily envisaged. A monolithic Michelson interferometer for high-resolution displacement measurement and a monolithic Mach-Zehnder interferometer for refractometry are discussed.

  4. Electroabsorption modulated semiconductor optical amplifier monolithically integrated with spot-size converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lianping; Zhu, Hongliang; Zhou, Fan; Wang, Baojun; Bian, Jing; Wang, Wei

    2006-02-01

    We have demonstrated an electroabsorption modulator (EAM) and semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) monolithically integrated with novel dual-waveguide spot-size converters (SSCs) at the input and output ports for low-loss coupling to planar light-guide circuit silica waveguide or cleaved single-mode optical fiber. The device is fabricated by means of selective-area MOVPE growth (SAG), quantum well intermixing (QWI) and asymmetric twin waveguide (ATG) technologies with only three steps low-pressure MOVPE growth. For the device structure, in SOA/EAM section, double ridge structure was employed to reduce the EAM capacitances and enable high bit-rate operation. In the SSC sections, buried ridge stripe (BRS) were incorporated. Such a combination of ridge, ATG and BRS structure is reported for the first time in which it can take advantage of both easy processing of ridge structure and the excellent mode characteristic of BRS. At the wavelength range of 1550-1600 nm, lossless operation with extinction ratios of 25 dB DC and more than 10 GHz 3-dB bandwidth is successfully achieved. The beam divergence angles of the input and output ports of the device are as small as 8.0°×12.6°, resulting in 3.0 dB coupling loss with cleaved single-mode optical fiber.

  5. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical modulator with semiconductor optical amplifier for thousand and original band optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    A monolithically integrated quantum dot (QD) optical gain modulator (OGM) with a QD semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was successfully developed with T-band (1.0 µm waveband) and O-band (1.3 µm waveband) QD optical gain materials for Gbps-order, high-speed optical data generation. The insertion loss due to coupling between the device and the optical fiber was effectively compensated for by the SOA section. It was also confirmed that the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device enabled >4.8 Gbps optical data generation with a clear eye opening in the T-band. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated error-free 4.8 Gbps optical data transmissions in each of the six wavelength channels over a 10-km-long photonic crystal fiber using the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device in multiple O-band wavelength channels, which were generated by the single QD gain chip. These results suggest that the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device will be advantageous in ultra-broadband optical frequency systems that utilize the T+O-band for short- and medium-range optical communications.

  6. Complex coupled distributed feedback laser monolithically integrated with electroabsorption modulator and semiconductor optical amplifier at 1.3-micrometer wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Philipp; Peschke, Martin; Wenger, Thomas; Saravanan, Brem K.; Hanke, Christian; Lorch, Steffen; Michalzik, Rainer

    2006-04-01

    We report on the design and experimental results of monolithically integrated optoelectronic devices containing distributed feedback (DFB) laser, electroabsorption modulator (EAM), and semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). Common InGaAlAs multiple quantum well (MQW) layers are used in all device sections. The incorporation of local lateral metal gratings in the DFB section enables device fabrication by single-step epitaxial growth. The emission wavelength is λ=1.3 micrometer. More than 2 mW single-mode fiber-coupled output power as well as 10 dB/2 V static extinction ratio have been achieved. Modulation experiments clearly show 10 Gbit/s capability.

  7. Monolithic integration of widely tunable sampled grating DBR laser with tilted semiconductor optical amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Nan; Liu, Yang; Wang, BaoJun; Zhou, DaiBing; Pang, JiaoQing; Zhao, LingJuan; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    More than 11mW output powers for all wavelengths from the fiber and over 49 nm range tuning in sampled grating distributed Bragg reflector laser with an integrated semiconductor optical amplifier which is enabling access to 110 ITU 50GHz channels is demonstrated. Tilted amplifier and anti-reflection facet coating are used to suppress reflection.

  8. CdSe colloidal nanocrystals monolithically integrated in a pseudomorphic semiconductor epilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larramendi, Erick M. [Physics Faculty-ICTM, University of Havana, Colina Universitaria, C.P. 10400 Havana (Cuba); Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Department Physik, Center for Optoelectronics and Photonics Paderborn (CeOPP), Universitaet Paderborn, Warburger Strasse 100, D-33098 Paderborn (Germany); Schoeps, Oliver; Woggon, Ulrike [Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Artemyev, Mikhail V. [Institute for Physico-Chemical Problems, Belarussian State University, Minsk 220080 (Belarus); Schikora, Detlef; Lischka, Klaus [Department Physik, Center for Optoelectronics and Photonics Paderborn (CeOPP), Universitaet Paderborn, Warburger Strasse 100, D-33098 Paderborn (Germany)

    2013-01-14

    As optically active emitters in a semiconductor matrix, core/shell and bare CdSe colloidal nanocrystals (CNCs) were monolithically incorporated in ZnSe pseudomorphic epilayers by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). A suspension of wet chemically synthesized CNCs was sprayed ex-situ over a pseudomorphic ZnSe/GaAs(001) heterostructure using a nebulizer. Subsequently, the matrix material growth was resumed to form a capping layer by a slow MBE growth mode. Structural investigations show high crystalline quality and pseudomorphic epitaxial character of the whole hybrid CNC-matrix structure. The core/shell CNCs remain optically active following the embedding process. Their emission is blue shifted without a significant change on the spectral shape, and shows the same temperature dependence as that of the free exciton peak energy in zinc-blende CdSe at temperatures above 80 K. Our optical characterization of the samples showed that the embedded CNCs were stable and that the structure of the host was preserved. These results are encouraging for the fabrication of more complex optoelectronic devices based on CNCs.

  9. Monolithic integration of widely tunable sampled grating DBR laser with tilted semiconductor optical amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yang; Ye Nan; Wang Baojun; Zhou Daibing; An Xin; Bian Jing; Pan Jiaoqing; Zhao Lingjuan; Wang Wei, E-mail: matsu@semi.ac.c [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2010-07-15

    High output powers and wide range tuning have been achieved in a sampled grating distributed Bragg reflector laser with an integrated semiconductor optical amplifier. Tilted amplifier and anti-reflection facet coating are used to suppress reflection. We have demonstrated sampled grating DBR laser with a tuning range over 38 nm, good wavelength coverage and peak output powers of more than 9 mW for all wavelengths.

  10. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical gain modulator with semiconductor optical amplifier for 10-Gb/s photonic transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    Short-range interconnection and/or data center networks require high capacity and a large number of channels in order to support numerous connections. Solutions employed to meet these requirements involve the use of alternative wavebands to increase the usable optical frequency range. We recently proposed the use of the T- and O-bands (Thousand band: 1000-1260 nm, Original band: 1260-1360 nm) as alternative wavebands because large optical frequency resources (>60 THz) can be easily employed. In addition, a simple and compact Gb/s-order high-speed optical modulator is a critical photonic device for short-range communications. Therefore, to develop an optical modulator that acts as a highfunctional photonic device, we focused on the use of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) as a three-dimensional (3D) confined structure because QD structures are highly suitable for realizing broadband optical gain media in the T+O bands. In this study, we use the high-quality broadband QD optical gain to develop a monolithically integrated QD optical gain modulator (QD-OGM) device that has a semiconductor optical amplifier (QD-SOA) for Gb/s-order highspeed optical data generation in the 1.3-μm waveband. The insertion loss of the device can be compensated through the SOA, and we obtained an optical gain change of up to ~7 dB in the OGM section. Further, we successfully demonstrate a 10-Gb/s clear eye opening using the QD-OGM/SOA device with a clock-data recovery sequence at the receiver end. These results suggest that the monolithic QD-EOM/SOA is suitable for increasing the number of wavelength channels for smart short-range communications.

  11. Monolithically integrated optoelectronic down-converter (MIOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoi, Efrim L.; Venus, G. B.; Khazan, A. A.; Gorfinkel, Vera B.; Kompa, Guenter; Avrutin, Evgenii A.; Thayne, Iain G.; Barrow, David A.; Marsh, John H.

    1995-06-01

    Optoelectronic down-conversion of very high-frequency amplitude-modulated signals using a semiconductor laser simultaneously as a local oscillator and a mixer is proposed. Three possible constructions of a monolithically integrated down-converter are considered theoretically: a four-terminal semiconductor laser with dual pumping current/modal gain control, and both a passively mode-locked and a passively Q-switched semiconductor laser monolithically integrated with an electroabsorption or pumping current modulator. Experimental verification of the feasibility of the concept of down conversion in a laser diode is presented.

  12. Monolithically integrated semiconductor optical amplifier and electroabsorption modulator with dual-waveguide spot-size converter input and output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lianping; Zhu, Hongliang; Zhou, Fan; Wang, Lufeng; Bian, Jing; Wang, Wei

    2005-09-01

    We have demonstrated an electroabsorption modulator and semiconductor optical amplifier monolithically integrated with novel dual-waveguide spot-size converters (SSC) at the input and output ports for low-loss coupling to a planar light-guide circuit silica waveguide or cleaved single-mode optical fibre. The device was fabricated by means of selective-area MOVPE growth, quantum well intermixing and asymmetric twin waveguide technologies with only a three-step low-pressure MOVPE growth. For the device structure, in the SOA/EAM section, a double ridge structure was employed to reduce the EAM capacitances and enable high bit-rate operation. In the SSC sections, buried ridge structure (BRS) was incorporated. Such a combination of ridge, ATG and BRS structure is reported for the first time in which it can take advantage of easy processing of the ridge structure and the excellent mode characteristic of BRS. At the wavelength range of 1550-1600 nm, lossless operation with extinction ratios of 25 dB dc and more than 10 GHz 3 dB bandwidth is successfully achieved. The beam divergence angles of the input and output ports of the device are as small as 8.0° × 12.6°, resulting in 3.0 dB coupling loss with a cleaved single-mode optical fibre.

  13. Semiconductor optical amplifier monolithically integrated with an electroabsorption modulator and dual-waveguide spot-size converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lianping; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Baojun; Zhou, Fan; Wang, Lufeng; Bian, Jing; Wang, Wei

    2005-09-01

    We have demonstrated an electroabsorption modulator and semiconductor optical amplifier monolithically integrated with novel dual-waveguide spot-size converters (SSC) at the input and output ports for low-loss coupling to planar light-guide circuit silica waveguide or cleaved single-mode optical fiber. The device was fabricated by means of selective-area MOVPE growth, quantum well intermixing and asymmetric twin waveguide technologies with only a three steps low-pressure MOVPE growth. For the device structure, in SOA/EAM section, double ridge structure was employed to reduce the EAM capacitances and enable high bit-rate operation. In the SSC sections, buried ridge structure (BRS) were incorporated. Such combination of ridge, ATG and BRS structure is reported for the first time in which it can take advantage of easy processing of ridge structure and the excellent mode characteristic of BRS. At the wavelength range of 1550~1600nm, lossless operation with extinction ratios of 25 dB dc and more than 10 GHz 3-dB bandwidth is successfully achieved. The beam divergence angles of the input and output ports of the device are as small as 8.0°×12.6°, resulting in 3.0 dB coupling loss with cleaved single-mode optical fiber.

  14. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucel, R. A.

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), a new microwave technology which is expected to exert a profound influence on microwave circuit designs for future military systems as well as for the commercial and consumer markets, is discussed. The book contains an historical discussion followed by a comprehensive review presenting the current status in the field. The general topics of the volume are: design considerations, materials and processing considerations, monolithic circuit applications, and CAD, measurement, and packaging techniques. All phases of MMIC technology are covered, from design to testing.

  15. Efficient regenerative wavelength conversion at 10Gbit/s over C- and L-band (80nm span) using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with monolithically integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dülk, M.; Fischer, St.; Gamper, E.;

    2000-01-01

    A demonstration is presented of 10Gbit/s 2R regenerative wavelength up- and down-conversion within the C-band as well as up-conversion to the L-band using a monolithically integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer module with semiconductor optical amplifiers (MZI-SOAs). The converted output signals ...

  16. Monolithically integrated interferometer for optical displacement measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Daniel; Zappe, Hans P.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the fabrication of a monolithically integrated optical displacement sensors using III-V semiconductor technology. The device is configured as a Michelson interferometer and consists of a distributed Bragg reflector laser, a photodetector and waveguides forming a directional coupler. Using this interferometer, displacements in the 100 nm range could be measured at distances of up to 45 cm. We present fabrication, device results and characterization of the completed interferometer, problems, limitations and future applications will also be discussed.

  17. Integrated optics approach for advanced semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Yasuharu; Arai, Shigehisa

    1987-11-01

    Recent advances in the field of semiconductor integrated optics are reviewed from the point of view of monolithic integration of semiconductor lasers and other optical components and/or devices. Emphasis is placed on dynamic-single-mode (DSM) lasers, such as DFB and DBR lasers, intended for highly stable single-wavelength light sources for such monolithic integration. The realization of high-performance DSM lasers and the fabrication techniques of monolithically integrated optical devices and circuits are briefly reviewed. A variety of potential applications is discussed.

  18. Multiple Quantum Well (MQW) Devices For Monolithic Integrated Optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Thomas H.

    1988-05-01

    Semiconductor MQWs represent a new technology for opto-electronics. These MQWs have an electroabsorption effect approximately 50 times larger than conventional semiconductors. They are compatible with existing source and detector material systems and produce devices that are compact and high speed, which makes them useful for monolithic integrated optoelectronic devices.

  19. Stationary Optical Concentrator Designs and Wafer Scale Monolithic Integration of Semiconductor Devices for Next Generation Photovoltaic Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Min

    A major barrier in utilizing solar energy for large scale deployment is the cost of the photovoltaic (PV) systems. Several approaches have been used for the cost reduction such as by modifying PV system designs in addition to enhancing the efficiency of solar cells. Due to the high cost of materials, minimizing the use of solar cells such as in concentrator type systems is highly attractive for reducing the cost of the PV modules by focusing the incident light onto the PV cell. However concentrator PV systems (CPV) require constant tracking of the sun and hence are complex in design and expensive to operate, except in limited situations such as large scale PV power plants. It is desirable to design new concentrator type systems that do not require continuous tracking of the sun. These systems could ultimately reduce the PV system cost to a minimum while maximizing the power conversion efficiency. In this thesis we propose a simple design for a stationary concentrator photovoltaic (SCPV) system that could significantly reduce the cost of generating electricity using PV devices. Using optical ray tracing simulations, we have been able to design SCPV systems that could reduce the PV module cost by 2--10 times without compromising on the power conversion efficiency of the system. Another alternative approach for sustainable high efficiency PV system design is to develop low cost PV cells for terrestrial applications. To meet the demands of low cost and large scale production, larger and thinner (or flexible) substrates are required. We demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating monolithic interconnected PV devices at the wafer scale (2 inch wafers). In this study, GaSb PV cells grown on semi-insulating GaAs were used as the model material. Crucial device fabrication steps such as a selective etching process have been developed that is necessary for isolating individual devices on the wafer and interconnecting them with sub-micron scale accuracy. Selective etching of

  20. Planar, monolithically integrated coil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Reefman, D.; Klootwijk, J.H.; Tiemeijer, L.F.; Ruigrok, J.

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides a means to integrate planar coils on silicon, while providing a high inductance. This high inductance is achieved through a special back- and front sided shielding of a material. In many applications, high-value inductors are a necessity. In particular, this holds for

  1. Active mode locking at 50 GHz repetition frequency by half-frequency modulation of monolithic semiconductor lasers integrated with electroabsorption modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kenji; Kotaka, Isamu; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Mitsuo

    1996-10-01

    Active mode locking achieved at a 50 GHz repetition frequency by modulation at half (25 GHz) the cavity resonance frequency using a monolithic mode-locked InGaAsP laser integrated with an electroabsorption modulator is described. A pulse width of around 3 ps and a high suppression ratio of more than 33 dB of the intensity modulation at the driving frequency are obtained.

  2. Monolithically Integrated Ge-on-Si Active Photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Jifeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Monolithically integrated, active photonic devices on Si are key components in Si-based large-scale electronic-photonic integration for future generations of high-performance, low-power computation and communication systems. Ge has become an interesting candidate for active photonic devices in Si photonics due to its pseudo-direct gap behavior and compatibility with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) processing. In this paper, we present a review of the recent progress in Ge-on...

  3. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  4. Monolithic integration of a silicon nanowire field-effect transistors array on a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor chip for biochemical sensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livi, Paolo; Kwiat, Moria; Shadmani, Amir; Pevzner, Alexander; Navarra, Giulio; Rothe, Jörg; Stettler, Alexander; Chen, Yihui; Patolsky, Fernando; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2015-10-06

    We present a monolithic complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based sensor system comprising an array of silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) and the signal-conditioning circuitry on the same chip. The silicon nanowires were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition methods and then transferred to the CMOS chip, where Ti/Pd/Ti contacts had been patterned via e-beam lithography. The on-chip circuitry measures the current flowing through each nanowire FET upon applying a constant source-drain voltage. The analog signal is digitized on chip and then transmitted to a receiving unit. The system has been successfully fabricated and tested by acquiring I-V curves of the bare nanowire-based FETs. Furthermore, the sensing capabilities of the complete system have been demonstrated by recording current changes upon nanowire exposure to solutions of different pHs, as well as by detecting different concentrations of Troponin T biomarkers (cTnT) through antibody-functionalized nanowire FETs.

  5. Monolithically integrated Ge CMOS laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Aguilera, Rodolfo

    2014-02-01

    Ge-on-Si devices are explored for photonic integration. Through the development of better growth techniques, monolithic integration, laser design and prototypes, it was possible to probe Ge light emitters with emphasis on lasers. Preliminary worked shows thermal photonic behavior capable of enhancing lamination at high temperatures. Increase luminescence is observed up to 120°C from L-band contribution. Higher temperatures show contribution from Δ -band. The increase carrier thermal contribution suggests high temperature applications for Ge light emitters. A Ge electrically pumped laser was probed under 0.2% biaxial strain and doping concentration ~4.5×1019cm-3 n-type. Ge pnn lasers exhibit a gain >1000cm-1 with 8mW power output, presenting a spectrum range of over 200nm, making Ge the ideal candidate for Si photonics. Large temperatures fluctuations and process limit the present device. Theoretically a gain of >4000cm- gain is possible with a threshold of as low as 1kA/cm2. Improvements in Ge work

  6. Monolithic Time Delay Integrated APD Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the proposed program by Epitaxial Technologies is to develop monolithic time delay integrated avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays with sensitivity...

  7. 10 Gbps Colorless Optical Source in Wavelength-Division Multiplexed Passive Optical Networks for Monolithic Integration of Deep-Ridge Waveguide Electroabsorption Modulator with Planar Buried-Heterostructure Semiconductor Optical Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Churl; Kim, Ki Soo; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Byung-Seok; Kwon, O.-Kyun

    2012-05-01

    For the 10 Gbps colorless optical source in wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical networks (WDM-PONs), we have fabricated a semiconductor optical amplifier-reflective electorabsorption modulator (SOA-REAM) by monolithic integration of deep-ridge waveguide REAM (DRW-REAM) with planar buried-heterostructure (PBH) SOA using a PNP-current blocking layer. The SOA-REAM has a spot-size convertor for easy fiber coupling. Using a butterfly module with an SMA connector, we have packaged the SOA-REAM. At a -10 dBm input power of 1550 nm, the saturation output power is about 6 dBm. At 10.7 Gbps, we can obtain clear eye diagrams, and the power penalty at 10-9 bit-error rate (BER) after 20 km transmission is less than 1 dB over 35 nm.

  8. Hybrid and monolithic integration of planar lightwave circuits (PLCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ray T.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we review the status of monolithic and hybrid integration of planar lightwave circuits (PLCs). Building blocks needed for system integration based on polymeric materials, III-V semiconductor materials, LiNbO 3 and SOI on Silicon are summarized with pros and cons. Due to the maturity of silicon CMOS technology, silicon becomes the platform of choice for optical application specific integrated circuits (OASICs). However, the indirect bandgap of silicon makes the formation of electrically pumped silicon laser a remote plausibility which requires hybrid integration of laser sources made out of III-V compound semicouductor.

  9. Monolithically Integrated Ge-on-Si Active Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Monolithically integrated, active photonic devices on Si are key components in Si-based large-scale electronic-photonic integration for future generations of high-performance, low-power computation and communication systems. Ge has become an interesting candidate for active photonic devices in Si photonics due to its pseudo-direct gap behavior and compatibility with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS processing. In this paper, we present a review of the recent progress in Ge-on-Si active photonics materials and devices for photon detection, modulation, and generation. We first discuss the band engineering of Ge using tensile strain, n-type doping, Sn alloying, and separate confinement of Γ vs. L electrons in quantum well (QW structures to transform the material towards a direct band gap semiconductor for enhancing optoelectronic properties. We then give a brief overview of epitaxial Ge-on-Si materials growth, followed by a summary of recent investigations towards low-temperature, direct growth of high crystallinity Ge and GeSn alloys on dielectric layers for 3D photonic integration. Finally, we review the most recent studies on waveguide-integrated Ge-on-Si photodetectors (PDs, electroabsorption modulators (EAMs, and laser diodes (LDs, and suggest possible future research directions for large-scale monolithic electronic-photonic integrated circuits on a Si platform.

  10. Material Engineering for Monolithic Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkova, Irina

    This thesis is devoted to the materials engineering for semiconductor monolithic passively mode-locked lasers (MLLs) as a compact energy-efficient source of ultrashort optical pulses. Up to the present day, the achievement of low-noise sub-picosecond pulse generation has remained a challenge....... This work has considered the role of the combined ultrafast gain and absorption dynamics in MLLs as a main factor limiting laser performance. An independent optimization of MLL amplifier and saturable absorber active materials was performed. Two promising approaches were considered: quantum dot (QD...... application in MLLs. Improved QW laser performance was demonstrated using the asymmetric barrier layer approach. The analysis of the gain characteristics showed that the high population inversion beneficial for noise reduction cannot be achieved for 10 GHz QW MLLs and would have required lowering the modal...

  11. A monolithic integrated photonic microwave filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandiño, Javier S.; Muñoz, Pascual; Doménech, David; Capmany, José

    2016-12-01

    Meeting the increasing demand for capacity in wireless networks requires the harnessing of higher regions in the radiofrequency spectrum, reducing cell size, as well as more compact, agile and power-efficient base stations that are capable of smoothly interfacing the radio and fibre segments. Fully functional microwave photonic chips are promising candidates in attempts to meet these goals. In recent years, many integrated microwave photonic chips have been reported in different technologies. To the best of our knowledge, none has monolithically integrated all the main active and passive optoelectronic components. Here, we report the first demonstration of a tunable microwave photonics filter that is monolithically integrated into an indium phosphide chip. The reconfigurable radiofrequency photonic filter includes all the necessary elements (for example, lasers, modulators and photodetectors), and its response can be tuned by means of control electric currents. This is an important step in demonstrating the feasibility of integrated and programmable microwave photonic processors.

  12. Towards monolithic integration of germanium light sources on silicon chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shinichi; Zaher Al-Attili, Abdelrahman; Oda, Katsuya; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-01

    Germanium (Ge) is a group-IV indirect band gap semiconductor, and therefore bulk Ge cannot emit light efficiently. However, the direct band gap energy is close to the indirect one, and significant engineering efforts are being made to convert Ge into an efficient gain material monolithically integrated on a Si chip. In this article, we will review the engineering challenges of developing Ge light sources fabricated using nano-fabrication technologies compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor processes. In particular, we review recent progress in applying high-tensile strain to Ge to reduce the direct band gap. Another important technique is doping Ge with donor impurities to fill the indirect band gap valleys in the conduction band. Realization of carrier confinement structures and suitable optical cavities will be discussed. Finally, we will discuss possible applications of Ge light sources in potential photonics-electronics convergent systems.

  13. Monolithic Integration of GaN-based LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ao, Jin-Ping, E-mail: jpao@ee.tokushima-u.ac.jp [Institute of Technology and Science, University of Tokushima 2-1 Minami-Josanjima, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan)

    2011-02-01

    The technology of monolithically integrated GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is reported. First, the technology details to realize monolithic integration are described, including the circuit design for high-voltage and alternating current (AC) operation and the technologies for device isolation. The performances of the fabricated monolithic LED arrays are then demonstrated. A monolithic series array with totally 40 LEDs exhibited expected operation function under AC bias. The operation voltage of the array is 72 V when 20 LEDs were connected in series. Some modified circuit designs for high-voltage operation and other monolithic LED arrays are finally reviewed.

  14. Integration of functional oxides with semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Demkov, Alexander A

    2014-01-01

    This unique book describes the basic physical principles of the oxide/semiconductor epitaxy and offers a view of the current state of the field. It shows how this technology enables large-scale integration of oxide electronic and photonic devices, and describes possible hybrid semiconductor/oxide systems. The book incorporates both theoretical and experimental advances to explore the heteroepitaxy of tuned functional oxides and semiconductors to identify material, device and characterization challenges, and to present the incredible potential in the realization of multifunctional devices and monolithic integration of materials and devices. This book also: ·         Discusses why semiconductor substrates are an excellent integration platform for making hybrid logic/sensor devices ·         Provides a brief introduction to the methods accessible to non-experts, before going into details of interest to the experts ·         Includes a detailed glossary that explains the specialized ter...

  15. Monolithic Lumped Element Integrated Circuit (M2LEIC) Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    INTEGRATED CIRCUITS, *MONOLITHIC STRUCTURES(ELECTRONICS), *TRANSISTORS, CHIPS(ELECTRONICS), FABRICATION, EPITAXIAL GROWTH, ULTRAHIGH FREQUENCY, POLYSILICONS, PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY, RADIOFREQUENCY POWER, IMPEDANCE MATCHING .

  16. Design of Semiconductor-Based Back Reflectors for High Voc Monolithic Multijunction Solar Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, I.; Geisz, J.; Steiner, M.; Olson, J.; Friedman, D.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-06-01

    State-of-the-art multijunction cell designs have the potential for significant improvement before going to higher number of junctions. For example, the Voc can be substantially increased if the photon recycling taking place in the junctions is enhanced. This has already been demonstrated (by Alta Devices) for a GaAs single-junction cell. For this, the loss of re-emitted photons by absorption in the underlying layers or substrate must be minimized. Selective back surface reflectors are needed for this purpose. In this work, different architectures of semiconductor distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) are assessed as the appropriate choice for application in monolithic multijunction solar cells. Since the photon re-emission in the photon recycling process is spatially isotropic, the effect of the incident angle on the reflectance spectrum is of central importance. In addition, the DBR structure must be designed taking into account its integration into the monolithic multijunction solar cells, concerning series resistance, growth economics, and other issues. We analyze the tradeoffs in DBR design complexity with all these requirements to determine if such a reflector is suitable to improve multijunction solar cells.

  17. Inherent polarization entanglement generated from a monolithic semiconductor chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Rolf T.; Kolenderski, Piotr; Kang, Dongpeng

    2013-01-01

    Creating miniature chip scale implementations of optical quantum information protocols is a dream for many in the quantum optics community. This is largely because of the promise of stability and scalability. Here we present a monolithically integratable chip architecture upon which is built...... a photonic device primitive called a Bragg reflection waveguide (BRW). Implemented in gallium arsenide, we show that, via the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion, the BRW is capable of directly producing polarization entangled photons without additional path difference compensation, spectral...... as a serious contender on which to build large scale implementations of optical quantum processing devices....

  18. Design of Monolithic Integrator for Strain-to-Frequency Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan Mohd. Khairi Tuan Mat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Strain-to-Frequency converter (SFC is a one of the analog conditioner tools that converts any strain signal to the frequency signal. The basic concept of SFC is by detecting any changing of strains, then converting the strain to the voltage signal and converting the voltage signal to the frequency signal. This tool consists of 3 main  components which are strain gauge, differential integrator and comparator. This paper presents the designing and analysis of monolithic integrator that to be used in the Strain-toFrequency converter. The primary goal is to design and simulate the performance of monolithic integrator for SFC using GATEWAY Silvaco Electronic Design Automation (S EDA tools and EXPERT software. The performances of SFC using the designed monolithic integrator are also investigated.

  19. Controllable growth of dielectric/semiconductor integrated films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YangRong; ZHU Jun; LUO WenBo; LIU XingZhao; ZHANG WanLi

    2009-01-01

    Currently,electronic information systems are developing quickly towards further miniaturization and monolithic integration so as to realize smaller volume,higher velocity and lower power consumption.For this purpose,the integration of all sorts of active devices (mainly fabricated by semiconductors) with passive devices (fabricated by functional materials) is particularly important and impendent.Therefore,it is necessary to integrate multifunctional oxide dielectrics possessing electric,magnetic,acoustic,optical and thermal properties characterized by spontaneous polarization with semiconductors bearing the characters of carrier transportation to form artificial structures via deposition of solid films.This kind of integrated films may have two characters,i.e.,the all-in-one multifunction and modulation of electromagnetic properties by hetero-interface.This makes it possible to realize monolithic integration of detecting,processing,transmission,executing and storing of electronic information.Meanwhile,possible integrated coupling effects will be pursued instead of exploring the limited physical properties of the related materials.In this paper,we put forward a new direction of developing electronic devices with higher performances,and demonstrate some results concerning our recent research on the interface-controllable integrated growth of dielectrics and GaN.Recent progresses of the related research in the world are also reviewed.

  20. Fabrication and Measurement of a Suspended Nanochannel Microbridge Resonator Monolithically Integrated with CMOS Readout Circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Vidal-Álvarez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the fabrication and characterization of a suspended microbridge resonator with an embedded nanochannel. The suspended microbridge resonator is electrostatically actuated, capacitively sensed, and monolithically integrated with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS readout circuitry. The device is fabricated using the back end of line (BEOL layers of the AMS 0.35 μm commercial CMOS technology, interconnecting two metal layers with a contact layer. The fabricated device has a 6 fL capacity and has one of the smallest embedded channels so far. It is able to attain a mass sensitivity of 25 ag/Hz using a fully integrable electrical transduction.

  1. 2R-regeneration in a monolithically integrated four-section SOA-EA chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vivero, Tania; Calabretta, Nicola; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2009-01-01

    are measured. Results show that by cascading two-pairs of SOA–EAs a steep static transfer function is achieved. Dynamical measurements show large improvements in extinction ratio as well as a large improvement in the receiver-sensitivity when used as a regenerator for NRZ signals at 10 Gb/s.......Optical regeneration using a monolithically integrated chip formed by a cascade of semiconductor optical amplifiers and saturable absorbers is investigated. Static transfer functions, signal reshaping, extinction ratio enhancement, noise dynamics and device dependence on operation conditions...

  2. Design and Fabrication of a Monolithic Optoelectronic Integrated Circuit Chip Based on CMOS Compatible Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wei-Feng; ZHAO Yong; WANG Wan-Jun; SHAO Hai-Feng; YANG Jian-Yi; JIANG Xiao-Qing

    2012-01-01

    A monolithic optoelectronic integrated circuit chip on a silicon-on-insulator is designed and fabricated based on complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible technology.The chip integrates an optical Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) and a CMOS driving circuit with the amplification function.Test results show that the extinction ratio of the MZM is close to 20dB and the small-signal gain of the CMOS driving circuit is about 26.9dB.A 50m V 10 MHz sine wave signal is amplified by the driving circuit,and then drives the MZM successfully.%A monolithic optoelectronic integrated circuit chip on a silicon-on-insulator is designed and fabricated based on complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible technology. The chip integrates an optical Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) and a CMOS driving circuit with the amplification function. Test results show that the extinction ratio of the MZM is close to 20 dB and the small-signal gain of the CMOS driving circuit is about 26.9dB. A 50mV 10MHz sine wave signal is amplified by the driving circuit, and then drives the MZM successfully.

  3. Monolithic Ge-on-Si lasers for large-scale electronic-photonic integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jifeng; Kimerling, Lionel C.; Michel, Jurgen

    2012-09-01

    A silicon-based monolithic laser source has long been envisioned as a key enabling component for large-scale electronic-photonic integration in future generations of high-performance computation and communication systems. In this paper we present a comprehensive review on the development of monolithic Ge-on-Si lasers for this application. Starting with a historical review of light emission from the direct gap transition of Ge dating back to the 1960s, we focus on the rapid progress in band-engineered Ge-on-Si lasers in the past five years after a nearly 30-year gap in this research field. Ge has become an interesting candidate for active devices in Si photonics in the past decade due to its pseudo-direct gap behavior and compatibility with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) processing. In 2007, we proposed combing tensile strain with n-type doping to compensate the energy difference between the direct and indirect band gap of Ge, thereby achieving net optical gain for CMOS-compatible diode lasers. Here we systematically present theoretical modeling, material growth methods, spontaneous emission, optical gain, and lasing under optical and electrical pumping from band-engineered Ge-on-Si, culminated by recently demonstrated electrically pumped Ge-on-Si lasers with >1 mW output in the communication wavelength window of 1500-1700 nm. The broad gain spectrum enables on-chip wavelength division multiplexing. A unique feature of band-engineered pseudo-direct gap Ge light emitters is that the emission intensity increases with temperature, exactly opposite to conventional direct gap semiconductor light-emitting devices. This extraordinary thermal anti-quenching behavior greatly facilitates monolithic integration on Si microchips where temperatures can reach up to 80 °C during operation. The same band-engineering approach can be extended to other pseudo-direct gap semiconductors, allowing us to achieve efficient light emission at wavelengths previously

  4. Magneto-Optical Thin Films for On-Chip Monolithic Integration of Non-Reciprocal Photonic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Cengiz Onbasli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Achieving monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on semiconductor substrates has been long sought by the photonics research society. One way to achieve this goal is to deposit high quality magneto-optical oxide thin films on a semiconductor substrate. In this paper, we review our recent research activity on magneto-optical oxide thin films toward the goal of monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on silicon. We demonstrate high Faraday rotation at telecommunication wavelengths in several novel magnetooptical oxide thin films including Co substituted CeO2−δ, Co- or Fe-substituted SrTiO3−δ, as well as polycrystalline garnets on silicon. Figures of merit of 3~4 deg/dB and 21 deg/dB are achieved in epitaxial Sr(Ti0.2Ga0.4Fe0.4O3−δ and polycrystalline (CeY2Fe5O12 films, respectively. We also demonstrate an optical isolator on silicon, based on a racetrack resonator using polycrystalline (CeY2Fe5O12/silicon strip-loaded waveguides. Our work demonstrates that physical vapor deposited magneto-optical oxide thin films on silicon can achieve high Faraday rotation, low optical loss and high magneto-optical figure of merit, therefore enabling novel high-performance non-reciprocal photonic devices monolithically integrated on semiconductor substrates.

  5. Affinity Monolith-Integrated Microchips for Protein Purification and Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Changlu; Sun, Xiuhua; Wang, Huaixin; Qiao, Wei; Hu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Affinity chromatography is a valuable method to purify and concentrate minute amount of proteins. Monoliths with epoxy groups for affinity immobilization were prepared by direct in-situ photopolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in porogenic solvents consisting of 1-dodecanol and cyclohexanol. By integrating affinity monoliths onto a microfluidic system, targeted biomolecules can be captured and retained on affinity column, while other biomolecules having no specific interactions toward the immobilized ligands flow through the microchannel. Therefore, proteins which remain on the affinity column are purified and concentrated, and then eluted by appropriate solutions and finally, separated by microchip capillary electrophoresis. This integrated microfluidic device has been applied to the purification and separation of specific proteins (FITC-labeled human serum albumin and IgG) in a mixture.

  6. A Sampled Grating DBR Laser Monolithically Integrated by Using SOAs with 22 mW Output Power and 51 ITU 100 GHz Channels over 43 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Ye, Nan; Zhou, Dai-Bing; Wang, Bao-Jun; Pan, Jiao-Qing; Zhao, Ling-Juan; Wang, Wei

    2011-02-01

    A sampled grating distributed Bragg reflector (SG-DBR) laser monolithically integrated with semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), which has a tuning range over 43 nm from 1514.05 nm to 1557.4 nm covering 49 continuous and totally 51 ITU 100 GHz standard channels and an output power more than 22 mW for all output wavelengths, is successfully demonstrated.

  7. Monolithically integrated heterodyne optical phase-lock loop with RF XOR phase detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, Robert J; Pozzi, Francesca; Fice, Martyn J; Renaud, Cyril C; Rogers, David C; Lealman, Ian F; Moodie, David G; Cannard, Paul J; Lynch, Colm; Johnston, Lilianne; Robertson, Michael J; Cronin, Richard; Pavlovic, Leon; Naglic, Luka; Vidmar, Matjaz; Seeds, Alwyn J

    2011-10-10

    We present results for an heterodyne optical phase-lock loop (OPLL), monolithically integrated on InP with external phase detector and loop filter, which phase locks the integrated laser to an external source, for offset frequencies tuneable between 0.6 GHz and 6.1 GHz. The integrated semiconductor laser emits at 1553 nm with 1.1 MHz linewidth, while the external laser has a linewidth less than 150 kHz. To achieve high quality phase locking with lasers of these linewidths, the loop delay has been made less than 1.8 ns. Monolithic integration reduces the optical path delay between the laser and photodiode to less than 20 ps. The electronic part of the OPLL was implemented using a custom-designed feedback circuit with a propagation delay of ~1 ns and an open-loop bandwidth greater than 1 GHz. The heterodyne signal between the locked slave laser and master laser has phase noise below -90 dBc/Hz for frequency offsets greater than 20 kHz and a phase error variance in 10 GHz bandwidth of 0.04 rad2.

  8. Multiport InP monolithically integrated all-optical wavelength router.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiu; Raz, Oded; Calabretta, Nicola; Zhao, Dan; Lu, Rongguo; Liu, Yong

    2016-08-15

    An indium phosphide-based monolithically integrated wavelength router is demonstrated in this Letter. The wavelength router has four input ports and four output ports, which integrate four wavelength converters and a 4×4 arrayed-waveguide grating router. Each wavelength converter is achieved based on cross-gain modulation and cross-phase modulation effects in a semiconductor optical amplifier. Error-free wavelength switching for a non-return-to-zero 231-1 ps eudorandom binary sequence at 40 Gb/s data rate is performed. Both 1×4 and 3×1 all-optical routing functions of this chip are demonstrated for the first time with power penalties as low as 3.2 dB.

  9. Monolithically integrated 4x4 SOA switch fabricated using quantum well intermixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Ronald; Hinzer, Karin; Hall, Trevor; Poirier, Maxime; Schriemer, Henry

    2009-02-01

    Monolithically-integrated semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) have the potential for enabling high-speed and low-crosstalk optical switches in reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexers (ROADMs). Using integrated 4x4 switches as the building blocks for large-scale ROADMs, instead of 2x2 switches, will reduce alignment issues and assembly steps during manufacturing. The switch is based on SOAs, quantum well intermixed (QWI) passive 1x4 MMI splitters/combiners, and total internal reflection mirrors. We present the results of the 4x4 switch design, for a switch of 5.3 mm x 3.5 mm in size, with estimated total excess on-chip losses of 23 dB.

  10. Heterogeneous Monolithic Integration of Single-Crystal Organic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Sun; Baek, Jangmi; Park, Yoonkyung; Lee, Lynn; Hyon, Jinho; Koo Lee, Yong-Eun; Shrestha, Nabeen K; Kang, Youngjong; Sung, Myung Mo

    2017-02-01

    Manufacturing high-performance organic electronic circuits requires the effective heterogeneous integration of different nanoscale organic materials with uniform morphology and high crystallinity in a desired arrangement. In particular, the development of high-performance organic electronic and optoelectronic devices relies on high-quality single crystals that show optimal intrinsic charge-transport properties and electrical performance. Moreover, the heterogeneous integration of organic materials on a single substrate in a monolithic way is highly demanded for the production of fundamental organic electronic components as well as complex integrated circuits. Many of the various methods that have been designed to pattern multiple heterogeneous organic materials on a substrate and the heterogeneous integration of organic single crystals with their crystal growth are described here. Critical issues that have been encountered in the development of high-performance organic integrated electronics are also addressed.

  11. Semiconductor laser. Halbleiterlaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuenstel, K.; Gohla, B.; Tegude, F.; Luz, G.; Hildebrand, O.

    1987-08-27

    A highly modulable semiconductor laser and a process for its manufacture are described. The semiconductor laser has a substrate, a stack of semiconductor layers and electrical contacts. To reduce the capacity, the width of the stack of semiconductor layers is reduced at the sides by anisotropic etching. The electrical contacts are situated on the same side of the substrate and are applied in the same stage of the process. The semiconductor laser is suitable for monolithic integration in other components.

  12. Monolithic integrated optic fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Esterkin, Yan; Kempen, Cornelia; Sun, Songjian

    2010-04-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are a mature sensing technology that has gained rapid acceptance in civil, aerospace, chemical and petrochemical, medicine, aviation and automotive industries. Fiber Bragg grating sensors can be use for a variety of measurements including strain, stress, vibration, acoustics, acceleration, pressure, temperature, moisture, and corrosion distributed at multiple locations within the structure using a single fiber element. The most prominent advantages of FBGs are: small size and light weight, multiple FBG transducers on a single fiber, and immunity to radio frequency interference. A major disadvantage of FBG technology is that conventional state-of-the-art fiber Bragg grating interrogation systems are typically bulky, heavy, and costly bench top instruments that are assembled from off-the-shelf fiber optic and optical components integrated with a signal electronics board into an instrument console. Based on the need for a compact FBG interrogation system, this paper describes recent progress towards the development of a miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-TransceiverTM) system based on multi-channel monolithic integrated optic sensor microchip technology. The integrated optic microchip technology enables the monolithic integration of all of the functionalities, both passive and active, of conventional bench top FBG sensor interrogators systems, packaged in a miniaturized, low power operation, 2-cm x 5-cm small form factor (SFF) package suitable for the long-term structural health monitoring in applications where size, weight, and power are critical for operation.

  13. Sparse gallium arsenide to silicon metal waferbonding for heterogeneous monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Justin Robert

    Waferbonding is a technique that integrates different semiconductors together, in order to obtain hybrid structures that exploit the strengths of each material. Work was done at the University of California at San Diego to investigate the waferbonding of III/V compound semiconductors to silicon using a metal interface. GaAs and other III/V compound semiconductors surpass silicon in their ability to create high performance microwave devices, while silicon offers an inexpensive platform with a proven digital architecture that can interface with microwave devices and support passive components and driver circuitry. Intimate integration of the two will be required, as mixed RF/digital and optical/digital systems for communications devices such as cell phones, wi-fi, and optical communications systems are pushed smaller, faster, and to higher power. The metalbonding implementation of a proposed heterogeneous monolithic microwave integrated circuit (HMMIC) system was investigated, and was shown to extend the capabilities of existing homogeneous monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) systems. The main goals of this work were two-fold; first to implement a robust heterogeneous integration technique, and second, to show that this approach uniquely improves upon existing microwave integration technology. The metalbonding technique investigated sparsely integrated GaAs structures onto silicon, in pursuit of this HMMIC scheme. Both bottom-up and top-down fabrication methods were implemented. These approaches required the development of a myriad of meticulously designed fabrication procedures capable of avoiding the many incompatibilities between the compound semiconductor, bondmetal, and silicon materials. The bondmetal interface, provided by these techniques, broadens the scope of existing monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology design possibilities. Essential bond interface properties were measured to establish the performance of this heterogeneous

  14. A monolithically integrated torsional CMOS-MEMS relay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riverola, M.; Sobreviela, G.; Torres, F.; Uranga, A.; Barniol, N.

    2016-11-01

    We report experimental demonstrations of a torsional microelectromechanical (MEM) relay fabricated using the CMOS-MEMS approach (or intra-CMOS) which exploits the full foundry inherent characteristics enabling drastic reduction of the fabrication costs and batch production. In particular, the relay is monolithically integrated in the back end of line of a commercial standard CMOS technology (AMS 0.35 μm) and released by means of a simple one-step mask-less wet etching. The fabricated torsional relay exhibits an extremely steep switching behaviour symmetrical about both contact sides with an on-state contact resistance in the k Ω -range throughout the on-off cycling test.

  15. GaAs-based nanoneedle light emitting diode and avalanche photodiode monolithically integrated on a silicon substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Linus C; Sedgwick, Forrest G; Chen, Roger; Ko, Wai Son; Moewe, Michael; Ng, Kar Wei; Tran, Thai-Truong D; Chang-Hasnain, Connie

    2011-02-09

    Monolithic integration of III-V compound semiconductor devices with silicon CMOS integrated circuits has been hindered by large lattice mismatches and incompatible processing due to high III-V epitaxy temperatures. We report the first GaAs-based avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and light emitting diodes, directly grown on silicon at a very low, CMOS-compatible temperature and fabricated using conventional microfabrication techniques. The APDs exhibit an extraordinarily large multiplication factor at low voltage resulting from the unique needle shape and growth mode.

  16. Degradation of Side-Mode Suppression Ratio in a DFB Laser Integrated With a Semiconductor Optical Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Champagne, A.; Lestrade, Michel; Camel, Jérôme

    2004-01-01

    The degradation of the side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) in a monolithically integrated distributed feedback laser and semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) cavity is investigated. An expression is derived that gives the degradation of the SMSR in the case of a perfectly antireflection-coated SOA...

  17. Monolithically integrated Helmholtz coils by 3-dimensional printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Longguang [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B., E-mail: yellen@duke.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, P.O. Box 90300, Hudson Hall, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2014-06-23

    3D printing technology is of great interest for the monolithic fabrication of integrated systems; however, it is a challenge to introduce metallic components into 3D printed molds to enable broader device functionality. Here, we develop a technique for constructing a multi-axial Helmholtz coil by injecting a eutectic liquid metal Gallium Indium alloy (EGaIn) into helically shaped orthogonal cavities constructed in a 3D printed block. The tri-axial solenoids each carry up to 3.6 A of electrical current and produce magnetic field up to 70 G. Within the central section of the coil, the field variation is less than 1% and is in agreement with theory. The flow rates and critical pressures required to fill the 3D cavities with liquid metal also agree with theoretical predictions and provide scaling trends for filling the 3D printed parts. These monolithically integrated solenoids may find future applications in electronic cell culture platforms, atomic traps, and miniaturized chemical analysis systems based on nuclear magnetic resonance.

  18. Wideband monolithically integrated front-end subsystems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mruk, Joseph Rene

    This thesis presents the analysis, design, and measurements of passive, monolithically integrated, wideband recta-coax and printed circuit board front-end components. Monolithic fabrication of antennas, impedance transformers, filters, and transitions lowers manufacturing costs by reducing assembly time and enhances performance by removing connectors and cabling between the devices. Computational design, fabrication, and measurements are used to demonstrate the capabilities of these front-end assemblies. Two-arm wideband planar log-periodic antennas fed using a horizontal feed that allows for filters and impedance transformers to be readily fabricated within the radiating region of the antenna are demonstrated. At microwave frequencies, low-cost printed circuit board processes are typically used to produce planar devices. A 1.8 to 11 GHz two-arm planar log-periodic antenna is designed with a monolithically integrated impedance transformer. Band rejection methods based on modifying the antenna aperture, use of an integrated filter, and the application of both methods are investigated with realized gain suppressions of over 25 dB achieved. The ability of standard circuit board technology to fabricate millimeter-wave devices up to 110 GHz is severely limited. Thin dielectrics are required to prevent the excitation of higher order modes in the microstrip substrate. Fabricating the thin line widths required for the antenna aperture also becomes prohibitively challenging. Surface micro-machining typically used in the fabrication of MEMS devices is capable of producing the extremely small features that can be used to fabricate antennas extending through W-band. A directly RF fed 18 to 110 GHz planar log-periodic antenna is developed. The antenna is fabricated with an integrated impedance transformer and additional transitions for measurement characterization. Singly terminated low-loss wideband millimeter-wave filters operating over V- and W- band are developed. High

  19. Interferometric wavelength converter operating at 10 Gb/s based on a monolithic-integrated photonic circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, C.; Coriasso, C.; Campi, D.; Stano, A.; Cacciatore, C.; Re, D.; Fornuto, G.; Soldani, D.; De Franceschi, R.; Ghiglieno, F.; Vallone, M.; Valenti, P.; Zucchelli, L.; Lupo, S.; Gambini, P.

    2000-02-01

    In this work we present a wavelength converter based on a Michelson interferometer. It is obtained by monolithic integration of two-semiconductor optical amplifiers with a passive waveguided X-coupler, incorporating turning mirrors. It operates in the 1.55 μm spectral window and allows the wavelength conversion of data streams up to 10 Gb/s, showing open-eye diagrams and extinction-ratio regeneration capabilities. Comparison of two structures with different active layers and their influence on the polarization sensitivity is also presented.

  20. Synthesis of monolithic graphene – graphite integrated electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jang-Ung; Nam, SungWoo; Lee, Mi-Sun; Lieber, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Encoding electronic functionality into nanoscale elements during chemical synthesis has been extensively explored over the past decade as the key to developing integrated nanosystems1 with functions defined by synthesis2-6. Graphene7-12 has been recently explored as a two-dimensional nanoscale material, and has demonstrated simple device functions based on conventional top-down fabrication13-20. However, the synthetic approach to encoding electronic functionality and thus enabling an entire integrated graphene electronics in a chemical synthesis had not previously been demonstrated. Here we report an unconventional approach for the synthesis of monolithically-integrated electronic devices based on graphene and graphite. Spatial patterning of heterogeneous catalyst metals permits the selective growth of graphene and graphite, with controlled number of graphene layers. Graphene transistor arrays with graphitic electrodes and interconnects were formed from synthesis. These functional, all-carbon structures were transferrable onto a variety of substrates. The integrated transistor arrays were used to demonstrate real-time, multiplexed chemical sensing, and more significantly, multiple carbon layers of the graphene-graphite device components were vertically assembled to form a three-dimensional flexible structure which served as a top-gate transistor array. These results represent a substantial progress towards encoding electronic functionality via chemical synthesis and suggest future promise for one-step integration of graphene-graphite based electronics. PMID:22101813

  1. Synthesis of monolithic graphene-graphite integrated electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jang-Ung; Nam, SungWoo; Lee, Mi-Sun; Lieber, Charles M

    2011-11-20

    Encoding electronic functionality into nanoscale elements during chemical synthesis has been extensively explored over the past decade as the key to developing integrated nanosystems with functions defined by synthesis. Graphene has been recently explored as a two-dimensional nanoscale material, and has demonstrated simple device functions based on conventional top-down fabrication. However, the synthetic approach to encoding electronic functionality and thus enabling an entire integrated graphene electronics in a chemical synthesis had not previously been demonstrated. Here we report an unconventional approach for the synthesis of monolithically integrated electronic devices based on graphene and graphite. Spatial patterning of heterogeneous metal catalysts permits the selective growth of graphene and graphite, with a controlled number of graphene layers. Graphene transistor arrays with graphitic electrodes and interconnects were formed from the synthesis. These functional, all-carbon structures were transferable onto a variety of substrates. The integrated transistor arrays were used to demonstrate real-time, multiplexed chemical sensing and more significantly, multiple carbon layers of the graphene-graphite device components were vertically assembled to form a three-dimensional flexible structure which served as a top-gate transistor array. These results represent substantial progress towards encoding electronic functionality through chemical synthesis and suggest the future promise of one-step integration of graphene-graphite based electronics.

  2. Analysis of monolithic integrated master oscillator power amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehuys, David; Welch, David F.; Waarts, Robert G.; Parke, Ross; Hardy, Amos; Streifer, William

    1991-07-01

    An analysis of a novel, monolithic integrated master oscillator power amplifier (M-MOPA) is presented. The M-MOPA consists of a DBR master oscillator which injects power into a linear chain of amplifiers and detuned second-order grating output couplers. The analysis self-consistently includes amplified spontaneous emission buildup and residual reflections throughout the amplifier stages. It predicts that output powers in excess of 1 W can be expected from a single-lateral-mode waveguide multistage amplifier less than 1 cm in length, injected with less than 15 mW of input power. In addition to the signal gain of more than 25 dB, the signal-to-noise ratio at 1-W output exceeds 15 dB. Because of the small reflections associated with the grating output couplers, and gain saturation by the injected signal, the amplifier self-oscillation threshold is suppressed to current densities above 15 kA/sq cm.

  3. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit devices for active array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittra, R.

    1984-01-01

    Two different aspects of active antenna array design were investigated. The transition between monolithic microwave integrated circuits and rectangular waveguides was studied along with crosstalk in multiconductor transmission lines. The boundary value problem associated with a discontinuity in a microstrip line is formulated. This entailed, as a first step, the derivation of the propagating as well as evanescent modes of a microstrip line. The solution is derived to a simple discontinuity problem: change in width of the center strip. As for the multiconductor transmission line problem. A computer algorithm was developed for computing the crosstalk noise from the signal to the sense lines. The computation is based on the assumption that these lines are terminated in passive loads.

  4. Monolithic narrow-linewidth InGaAsP semiconductor laser for coherent optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palfrey, S. L.; Enstrom, R. E.; Longeway, P. A.

    1989-09-01

    A design for a monolithic narrow-linewidth InGaAsP diode laser has been developed using a multiple-quantum-well (MQW) extended-passive-cavity distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) laser design. Theoretical results indicate that this structure has the potential for a linewidth of 100 kHz or less. To realize this device, a number of the fabrication techniques required to integrate low-loss passive waveguides with active regions have been developed using a DBR laser structure. In addition, the MOCVD growth of InGaAs MQW laser structures has been developed, and threshold current densities as low as 1.6 kA/sq cm have been obtained from broad-stripe InGaAs/InGaAsP separate-confinement-heterostructure MQW lasers.

  5. Monolithic narrow-linewidth InGaAsP semiconductor laser for coherent optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palfrey, S. L.; Enstrom, R. E.; Longeway, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    A design for a monolithic narrow-linewidth InGaAsP diode laser has been developed using a multiple-quantum-well (MQW) extended-passive-cavity distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) laser design. Theoretical results indicate that this structure has the potential for a linewidth of 100 kHz or less. To realize this device, a number of the fabrication techniques required to integrate low-loss passive waveguides with active regions have been developed using a DBR laser structure. In addition, the MOCVD growth of InGaAs MQW laser structures has been developed, and threshold current densities as low as 1.6 kA/sq cm have been obtained from broad-stripe InGaAs/InGaAsP separate-confinement-heterostructure MQW lasers.

  6. A Sampled Grating DBR Laser Monolithically Integrated by Using SOAs with 22mW Output Power and 51 ITU 100 GHz Channels over 43 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yang; YE Nan; ZHOU Dai-Bing; WANG Bao-Jun; PAN Jiao-Qing; ZHAO Ling-Juan; WANG Wei

    2011-01-01

    @@ A sampled grating distributed Bragg reflector (SG-DBR) laser monolithically integrated with semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), which has a tuning range over 43nm from 1514.05 nm to 1557.4 nm covering 49 continuous and totally 51 ITU 100 GHz standard channels and an output power more than 22 mW for all output wavelengths, is successfully demonstrated.%A sampled grating distributed Bragg reflector (SG-DBR) laser monolithically integrated with semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), which has a tuning range over 43nm from 1514.05nm to 1557.4 nm covering 49 continuous and totally 51 ITU 100 GHz standard channels and an output power more than 22 m W for all output wavelengths,is successfully demonstrated.

  7. Monolithic Integration of GaAs-Based Resonant Tunneling Diode and High Electron Mobility Transistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The resonant tunneling diode (RTD) is a kind of novel ultra-high speed and ultra-high frequency negative differential resistance nanoelectronic device. Integration of RTD and other three-terminal compound semiconductor devices is one important direction of high speed integrated circuit development. In this paper, monolithic integration technology of RTD and high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) based on GaAs substrate was discussed. A top-RTD and bottom-HEMT material structure was proposed and epitaxyed. Based on wet chemical etching, electron beam lithography,metal lift-off and air bridge technology, RTD and HEMT were fabricated on the same wafer. The peak-to-valley current ratio of RTD is 4 and the peak voltage is 0.5 V. The maximal transconductance is 120 mS/mm for a 0.25 μm gate length depletion mode HEMT. Current levels of two devices are basically suited. The results validate the feasibility of the designed integration process.

  8. A Differential Monolithically Integrated Inductive Linear Displacement Measurement Microsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Podhraški

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An inductive linear displacement measurement microsystem realized as a monolithic Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC is presented. The system comprises integrated microtransformers as sensing elements, and analog front-end electronics for signal processing and demodulation, both jointly fabricated in a conventional commercially available four-metal 350-nm CMOS process. The key novelty of the presented system is its full integration, straightforward fabrication, and ease of application, requiring no external light or magnetic field source. Such systems therefore have the possibility of substituting certain conventional position encoder types. The microtransformers are excited by an AC signal in MHz range. The displacement information is modulated into the AC signal by a metal grating scale placed over the microsystem, employing a differential measurement principle. Homodyne mixing is used for the demodulation of the scale displacement information, returned by the ASIC as a DC signal in two quadrature channels allowing the determination of linear position of the target scale. The microsystem design, simulations, and characterization are presented. Various system operating conditions such as frequency, phase, target scale material and distance have been experimentally evaluated. The best results have been achieved at 4 MHz, demonstrating a linear resolution of 20 µm with steel and copper scale, having respective sensitivities of 0.71 V/mm and 0.99 V/mm.

  9. A Differential Monolithically Integrated Inductive Linear Displacement Measurement Microsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhraški, Matija; Trontelj, Janez

    2016-03-17

    An inductive linear displacement measurement microsystem realized as a monolithic Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is presented. The system comprises integrated microtransformers as sensing elements, and analog front-end electronics for signal processing and demodulation, both jointly fabricated in a conventional commercially available four-metal 350-nm CMOS process. The key novelty of the presented system is its full integration, straightforward fabrication, and ease of application, requiring no external light or magnetic field source. Such systems therefore have the possibility of substituting certain conventional position encoder types. The microtransformers are excited by an AC signal in MHz range. The displacement information is modulated into the AC signal by a metal grating scale placed over the microsystem, employing a differential measurement principle. Homodyne mixing is used for the demodulation of the scale displacement information, returned by the ASIC as a DC signal in two quadrature channels allowing the determination of linear position of the target scale. The microsystem design, simulations, and characterization are presented. Various system operating conditions such as frequency, phase, target scale material and distance have been experimentally evaluated. The best results have been achieved at 4 MHz, demonstrating a linear resolution of 20 µm with steel and copper scale, having respective sensitivities of 0.71 V/mm and 0.99 V/mm.

  10. A Differential Monolithically Integrated Inductive Linear Displacement Measurement Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhraški, Matija; Trontelj, Janez

    2016-01-01

    An inductive linear displacement measurement microsystem realized as a monolithic Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is presented. The system comprises integrated microtransformers as sensing elements, and analog front-end electronics for signal processing and demodulation, both jointly fabricated in a conventional commercially available four-metal 350-nm CMOS process. The key novelty of the presented system is its full integration, straightforward fabrication, and ease of application, requiring no external light or magnetic field source. Such systems therefore have the possibility of substituting certain conventional position encoder types. The microtransformers are excited by an AC signal in MHz range. The displacement information is modulated into the AC signal by a metal grating scale placed over the microsystem, employing a differential measurement principle. Homodyne mixing is used for the demodulation of the scale displacement information, returned by the ASIC as a DC signal in two quadrature channels allowing the determination of linear position of the target scale. The microsystem design, simulations, and characterization are presented. Various system operating conditions such as frequency, phase, target scale material and distance have been experimentally evaluated. The best results have been achieved at 4 MHz, demonstrating a linear resolution of 20 µm with steel and copper scale, having respective sensitivities of 0.71 V/mm and 0.99 V/mm. PMID:26999146

  11. Semiconductors integrated circuit design for manufacturability

    CERN Document Server

    Balasinki, Artur

    2011-01-01

    Because of the continuous evolution of integrated circuit manufacturing (ICM) and design for manufacturability (DfM), most books on the subject are obsolete before they even go to press. That's why the field requires a reference that takes the focus off of numbers and concentrates more on larger economic concepts than on technical details. Semiconductors: Integrated Circuit Design for Manufacturability covers the gradual evolution of integrated circuit design (ICD) as a basis to propose strategies for improving return-on-investment (ROI) for ICD in manufacturing. Where most books put the spotl

  12. Monolithically integrated AlN/GaN electronics for harsh environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recently, resonant-tunneling-diode (RTD) based circuits employing monolithically-integrated RTD on high electron mobility (HEMT) structures have been developed in a...

  13. A multiply-add engine with monolithically integrated 3D memristor crossbar/CMOS hybrid circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, B.; Lastras-Montaño, M. A.; Adam, G.; Prezioso, M.; Hoskins, B.; Cheng, K.-T.; Strukov, D. B.

    2017-02-01

    Silicon (Si) based complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has been the driving force of the information-technology revolution. However, scaling of CMOS technology as per Moore’s law has reached a serious bottleneck. Among the emerging technologies memristive devices can be promising for both memory as well as computing applications. Hybrid CMOS/memristor circuits with CMOL (CMOS + “Molecular”) architecture have been proposed to combine the extremely high density of the memristive devices with the robustness of CMOS technology, leading to terabit-scale memory and extremely efficient computing paradigm. In this work, we demonstrate a hybrid 3D CMOL circuit with 2 layers of memristive crossbars monolithically integrated on a pre-fabricated CMOS substrate. The integrated crossbars can be fully operated through the underlying CMOS circuitry. The memristive devices in both layers exhibit analog switching behavior with controlled tunability and stable multi-level operation. We perform dot-product operations with the 2D and 3D memristive crossbars to demonstrate the applicability of such 3D CMOL hybrid circuits as a multiply-add engine. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a functional 3D CMOL hybrid circuit.

  14. A multiply-add engine with monolithically integrated 3D memristor crossbar/CMOS hybrid circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, B.; Lastras-Montaño, M. A.; Adam, G.; Prezioso, M.; Hoskins, B.; Cheng, K.-T.; Strukov, D. B.

    2017-01-01

    Silicon (Si) based complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has been the driving force of the information-technology revolution. However, scaling of CMOS technology as per Moore’s law has reached a serious bottleneck. Among the emerging technologies memristive devices can be promising for both memory as well as computing applications. Hybrid CMOS/memristor circuits with CMOL (CMOS + “Molecular”) architecture have been proposed to combine the extremely high density of the memristive devices with the robustness of CMOS technology, leading to terabit-scale memory and extremely efficient computing paradigm. In this work, we demonstrate a hybrid 3D CMOL circuit with 2 layers of memristive crossbars monolithically integrated on a pre-fabricated CMOS substrate. The integrated crossbars can be fully operated through the underlying CMOS circuitry. The memristive devices in both layers exhibit analog switching behavior with controlled tunability and stable multi-level operation. We perform dot-product operations with the 2D and 3D memristive crossbars to demonstrate the applicability of such 3D CMOL hybrid circuits as a multiply-add engine. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a functional 3D CMOL hybrid circuit. PMID:28195239

  15. 75 FR 51843 - In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products Containing the Same... certain large scale integrated circuit semiconductor chips and products containing same by reason of... including the following: Freescale Semiconductor Xiqing Integrated Semiconductor Manufacturing...

  16. The role of monolithic integration in advanced laser products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John H.

    2006-02-01

    The design and performance of single-mode high-power (>100 mW) semiconductor lasers suitable for integration into large arrays are reported. In 830 nm lasers, quantum well intermixing (QWI) has been used to increase the bandgap of the waveguide in the facet region by 120 meV, and the catastrophic optical damage threshold of uncoated devices increased by a factor of >3 as a result. The passive waveguides are relatively cool, bringing high reliability, improving the single-mode waveguide stability and enabling high-temperature operation. Furthermore, the passive waveguides relax the cleaving and packaging alignment tolerances, giving a high yield process suitable for manufacture. A far-field reduction layer is included in the lasers giving a fast axis divergence of <20° FWHM. Arrays in which each emitter operates at several 100 mW, have excellent uniformity of laser parameters such as kink power, operating power and optical beam profile.

  17. Four distributed feedback laser array integrated with multimode-interference and semiconductor optical amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Li; Zhu Hong-Liang; Liang Song; Zhao Ling-Juan; Chen Ming-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Monolithic integration of four 1.55-μm-range InGaAsP/InP distributed feedback (DFB) lasers using varied ridge width with a 4 × 1-multimode-interference (MMI) optical combiner and a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is demonstrated.The average output power and the threshold current are 1.8 mW and 35 mA,respectively,when the injection current of the SOA is 100 mA,with a side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) exceeding 40 dB.The four channels have a 1-nm average channel spacing and can operate separately or simultaneously.

  18. Computer Aided Engineering of Semiconductor Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    transistor opera tion; (4) theoretical invest! jations of carrifr mobli *!;y *"« inversion layer of an MOSFET; (5) mathematical investigations for high...satisfactory greLnt «Lh experiment. In time, the rapid groWth of se.r- oonduotor integrated circuit (IC, technology created ^ ^ °n" £or which this theory was...and Technology of Semiconductor Devices, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., N.Y. (1967). [2] S. K. Ghandi, The Theory and Practice of

  19. Garnet-free optical circulators monolithically integrated on spatially modified III-V quantum wells

    CERN Document Server

    Aleahmad, Parinaz; Christodoulides, Demetrios; LiKamWa, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Optical circulators are indispensable components in photonic networks that are aimed to route information in a unidirectional way among their N-ports1,2. In general, these devices rely on magneto-optical garnets3 with appreciable Verdet constants that are utilized in conjunction with other elements like permanent magnets, wave-plates, birefringent crystals and/or beam splitters. Consequently, these arrangements are typically bulky and hence not conducive to on-chip photonic integration4-6. Of interest would be to devise strategies through which miniaturized optical circulators can be monolithically fabricated on light-emitting semiconductor platforms by solely relying on physical properties that are indigenous to the material itself. By exploiting the interplay between non-Hermiticity and nonlinearity, here we demonstrate a new class of chip-scale circulators on spatially modified III-V quantum well systems. These garnet-free unidirectional structures are broadband (over 2.5 THz) at 1550 nm, effectively loss-...

  20. Advanced indium phosphide based monolithic integration using quantum well intermixing and MOCVD regrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raring, James W.

    The proliferation of the internet has fueled the explosive growth of telecommunications over the past three decades. As a result, the demand for communication systems providing increased bandwidth and flexibility at lower cost continues to rise. Lightwave communication systems meet these demands. The integration of multiple optoelectronic components onto a single chip could revolutionize the photonics industry. Photonic integrated circuits (PIC) provide the potential for cost reduction, decreased loss, decreased power consumption, and drastic space savings over conventional fiber optic communication systems comprised of discrete components. For optimal performance, each component within the PIC may require a unique epitaxial layer structure, band-gap energy, and/or waveguide architecture. Conventional integration methods facilitating such flexibility are increasingly complex and often result in decreased device yield, driving fabrication costs upward. It is this trade-off between performance and device yield that has hindered the scaling of photonic circuits. This dissertation presents high-functionality PICs operating at 10 and 40 Gb/s fabricated using novel integration technologies based on a robust quantum-well-intermixing (QWI) method and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) regrowth. We optimize the QWI process for the integration of high-performance quantum well electroabsorption modulators (QW-EAM) with sampled-grating (SG) DBR lasers to demonstrate the first widely-tunable negative chirp 10 and 40 Gb/s EAM based transmitters. Alone, QWI does not afford the integration of high-performance semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) and photodetectors with the transmitters. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a novel high-flexibility integration scheme combining MOCVD regrowth with QWI to merge low optical confinement factor SOAs and 40 Gb/s uni-traveling carrier (UTC) photodiodes on the same chip as the QW-EAM based transmitters. These high

  1. Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Phased Array Demonstrated With ACTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) arrays developed by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Air Force Rome Laboratory were demonstrated in aeronautical terminals and in mobile or fixed Earth terminals linked with NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). Four K/Ka-band experimental arrays were demonstrated between May 1994 and May 1995. Each array had GaAs MMIC devices at each radiating element for electronic beam steering and distributed power amplification. The 30-GHz transmit array used in uplinks to ACTS was developed by Lewis and Texas Instruments. The three 20-GHz receive arrays used in downlinks from ACTS were developed in cooperation with the Air Force Rome Laboratory, taking advantage of existing Air Force integrated-circuit, active-phased-array development contracts with the Boeing Company and Lockheed Martin Corporation. Four demonstrations, each related to an application of high interest to both commercial and Department of Defense organizations, were conducted. The location, type of link, and the data rate achieved for each of the applications is shown. In one demonstration-- an aeronautical terminal experiment called AERO-X--a duplex voice link between an aeronautical terminal on the Lewis Learjet and ACTS was achieved. Two others demonstrated duplex voice links (and in one case, interactive video links as well) between ACTS and an Army high-mobility, multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV, or "humvee"). In the fourth demonstration, the array was on a fixed mount and was electronically steered toward ACTS. Lewis served as project manager for all demonstrations and as overall system integrator. Lewis engineers developed the array system including a controller for open-loop tracking of ACTS during flight and HMMWV motion, as well as a laptop data display and recording system used in all demonstrations. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory supported the AERO-X program, providing elements of the ACTS Mobile Terminal. The successful

  2. Monolithically Integrated Reconfigurable Filters for Microwave Photonic Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Erik J.

    For the purposes of commercial communication and military electronic warfare and radar alike, there is an increasing interest in RF systems that can handle very wide instantaneous bandwidths at high center frequencies. Optical signal processing has the capability to reduce latency, improve size, weight and power (SwAP) performance, and overcome the inherent bandwidth limitations of electronic counterparts. By rapidly pre-filtering wide bandwidth microwave signals in the optical domain, the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) and subsequent digital signal processing (DSP) can be significantly relieved. Compared to channelizing and add/drop filters for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) applications, the microwave filter application is much more challenging as it requires a more versatile filter, ideally with tunability in both frequency and bandwidth. In this work such a filter was developed using integrated photonics. By integrating the filter on a single InP chip, the stability required for coherent filtering is met, while the active integration platform offers a flexible filter design and higher tolerance in the coupler and fabrication specifications. Using an entirely deep etched fabrication with a single blanket regrowth, a simple fabrication with high yield is achieved. The reconfigurable filter is designed as an array of uncoupled filter stages with each filter stage reconfigurable as a filter pole or zero with arbitrary magnitude and phase. This gives rise to a flexible ffilter synthesis, much like an optical version of DSP filters. Flat-topped bandpass filters are demonstrated with frequency tunability over 30 GHz, bandwidth adjustable between 1.9 and 5.4 GHz, and stopband rejection >32 dB. In order to meet the stringent spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) requirements of the microwave application, a novel epitaxial layer integration platform is developed. Optimized for high optical saturation power and low propagation loss, it produces semiconductor

  3. Widely tunable narrow-linewidth 1.5 μm light source based on a monolithically integrated quantum dot laser array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A.; Sichkovskyi, V.; Bjelica, M.; Rippien, A.; Schnabel, F.; Kaiser, M.; Eyal, O.; Witzigmann, B.; Eisenstein, G.; Reithmaier, J. P.

    2017-05-01

    A monolithically integrated widely tunable narrow-linewidth light source was realized on an InP-based quantum dot (QD) gain material. The quasi zero-dimensional nature of QDs and the resulting low linewidth enhancement factor enabled standalone distributed feedback (DFB) lasers with intrinsic linewidths as low as 110 kHz. An integrated device comprising four DFB lasers with on-chip micro-heaters, a 3 dB-coupler network, and a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), which covers the entire C+ telecom band, exhibits a linewidth of below 200 kHz independent of the SOA operation current.

  4. Widely tunable frequency conversion in monolithic semiconductor waveguides at 2.4  μm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolghasem, Payam; Kang, Dongpeng; Logan, Dylan F; Lungwitz, Mandy; Helmy, Amr S

    2014-06-15

    We report on the generation of continuous-wave widely tunable light between 2360 and 2530 nm using difference-frequency generation with a pump tuned between 938 and 952 nm and a signal tuned between 1490 and 1590 nm in a type-II phase-matched monolithic semiconductor waveguide. The device internal conversion efficiency is estimated to be 0.29%  W(-1)  cm(-2). This design which uses a single-sided Bragg reflection waveguide has the potential for on-chip spectroscopy, as well as environmental monitoring applications, where a tunable source of coherent radiation tuned between 2 and 3 μm wavelength is desired.

  5. Monolithic semiconductor saturable absorber mirror with strain-compensated GaInAs/GaAsP quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, N.; Liu, H. F.; Kong, J.; Tang, D. Y.; Pessa, M.

    2007-04-01

    We report a monolithic broadband semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) operating for 1025-1100 nm wavelength range with strain-compensated GaInAs/GaAsP quantum wells (QWs). By introducing tensile-strained GaAsP barriers, the compressive strain caused by the GaInAs QWs can be compensated and good quality QWs are obtained. Strain-compensated GaInAs/GaAsP QWs are grown on top of a GaAs/AlAs distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) to form the SESAM structure. The SESAM has a broad high-reflective stopband of about 120 nm and has been successfully used in passively modelocking a Nd:Gd 0.64Y 0.36VO 4 solid-state laser operating at 1064 nm wavelength. Optical pulses as short as 4.5 ps are generated with a peak power of 3.7 kW.

  6. A monolithic integrated micro direct methanol fuel cell based on sulfo functionalized porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Lu, Y. X.; Liu, L. T.; Wang, X. H.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a monolithic integrated micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC) for the first time. The monolithic integrated μDMFC combines proton exchange membrane (PEM) and Pt nanocatalysts, in which PEM is achieved by the functionalized porous silicon membrane and 3D Pt nanoflowers being synthesized in situ on it as catalysts. Sulfo groups functionalized porous silicon membrane serves as a PEM and a catalyst support simultaneously. The μDMFC prototype achieves an open circuit voltage of 0.3 V, a maximum power density of 5.5 mW/cm2. The monolithic integrated μDMFC offers several desirable features such as compatibility with micro fabrication techniques, an undeformable solid PEM and the convenience of assembly.

  7. Large microwave tunability of GaAs-based multiferroic heterostructure for applications in monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yajie; Gao Jinsheng; Vittoria, C; Harris, V G [Center for Microwave Magnetic Materials and Integrated Circuits, and the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Heiman, D, E-mail: y.chen@neu.ed [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Microwave magnetoelectric coupling in a ferroelectric/ferromagnetic/semiconductor multiferroic (MF) heterostructure, consisting of a Co{sub 2}MnAl epitaxial film grown on a GaAs substrate bonded to a lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) crystal, is reported. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements were carried out at X-band under the application of electric fields. Results indicate a frequency tuning of 125 MHz for electric field strength of 8 kV cm{sup -1} resulting in a magnetoelectric coupling coefficient of 3.4 Oe cm kV{sup -1}. This work explores the potential of electronically controlled MF devices for use in future monolithic microwave integrated circuits.

  8. High pressure-resistant SU-8 microchannels for monolithic porous structure integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Julien; Chuda, Katarzyna; Arscott, Steve; Thomy, Vincent; Verbeke, Bernard; Coqueret, Xavier; Camart, Jean Christophe; Druon, Christian; Tabourier, Pierre

    2006-10-01

    Integrated lab-on-chip (LOC) microsystems dedicated to proteomic analysis require specific pretreatment steps such as protein trypsic digestion, concentration, desalting or separation of biological samples. These steps can be achieved thanks to porous monolithic polymers. This paper deals with the integration of such a polymer into SU-8 microchannels by using a multi-material technology (SU-8, Pyrex and silicon). A solution for the fabrication of complete polymer microchannels which are high pressure- and solvents-resistant is proposed. This technique uses the negative photoresist SU-8 which is compatible with the protein analysis performed here. Our process requires a novel technological step using a silane coupling agent. This modification of the SU-8/Pyrex interface leads to the fabrication of a 100 µm × 160 µm section microchannel (length of 3 cm), closed with a Pyrex® lid by SU-8 bonding resistant to 80 bar. An improvement of the SU-8/monolithic structure is also demonstrated thanks to a specific treatment of the polymer enabling good anchoring of the monolith in the microchannels, and the pressure-resistance tests were also achieved with the monolithic structure integrated in the microchannels. A digestion step of a protein sample of benzoylarginine ethyl ester in a SU-8 microchannel was achieved after the functionalization of a monolith anchored in the microchannel. Analysis by UV/VIS spectroscopy of this in situ digestion has been reported.

  9. 0.15-micron Gallium Nitride (GaN) Microwave Integrated Circuit Designs Submitted to TriQuint Semiconductor for Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    arsenide GaN gallium nitride LNA low-noise amplifier MMIC monolithic microwave integrated circuit PA power amplifier HEMT high electron mobility...0.15-µm Gallium Nitride ( GaN ) Microwave Integrated Circuit Designs Submitted to TriQuint Semiconductor for Fabrication by John Penn ARL...MD 20783-1197 ARL-TN-0496 September 2012 0.15-µm Gallium Nitride ( GaN ) Microwave Integrated Circuit Designs Submitted to TriQuint

  10. 77 FR 19032 - Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same Notice of Receipt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-7567] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2888] Certain Semiconductor Integrated... Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same, DN 2888; the Commission is... importation of certain semiconductor integrated circuit devices and products containing same. The...

  11. Technological and Physical Compatibilities in Hybrid Integration of Laser and Monolithic Integration of Waveguide, Photodetector and CMOS Circuits on Silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, M.J.; Ikkink, T.; Chalmers, J.; Kranenburg, H. van; Albers, H.; Holleman, J.; Lambeck, P.V.; Joppe, J.L.; Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Krijger, A.J.T. de

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, technological and physical compatibilities in hybrid integration of AlInGaP laser and monolithic integration of ZnO monomode waveguide, pin-photodetector, CMOS circuits for laser power control and signal amplification on silicon substrate are studied. Prospective problems and their po

  12. Technological and physical compatibilities in hybrid integration of laser and monolithic integration of waveguide, photodetector and CMOS circuits on silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Ming-Jiang; Ikkink, Ton; Chalmers, John; Kranenburg, van Herma; Albers, Hans; Holleman, Jisk; Lambeck, Paul; Joppe, Jan Leendert; Bekman, Herman; Krijger, de Ton; Lambeck, P.V.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, technological and physical compatibilities in hybrid integration of AlInGaP laser and monolithic integration of ZnO monomode waveguide, pin-photodetector, CMOS circuits for laser power control and signal amplification on silicon substrate are studied. Prospective problems and their po

  13. Detection of ochratoxin A in beer samples with a label-free monolithically integrated optoelectronic biosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagkali, Varvara; Petrou, Panagiota S.; Salapatas, Alexandros; Makarona, Eleni; Peters, Jeroen; Haasnoot, Willem; Jobst, Gerhard; Economou, Anastasios; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Ioannis; Kakabakos, Sotirios E.

    2016-01-01

    An optical biosensor for label-free detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in beer samples is presented. The biosensor consists of an array of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) monolithically integrated along with their respective broad-band silicon light sources on the same Si chip (37mm2

  14. Monolithic integration of DUV-induced waveguides into plastic microfluidic chip for optical manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury Arvelo, Maria; Vannahme, Christoph; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl

    2014-01-01

    A monolithic polymer optofluidic chip for manipulation of microbeads in flow is demonstrated. On this chip, polymer waveguides induced by Deep UV lithography are integrated with microfluidic channels. The optical propagation losses of the waveguides are measured to be 0.66±0.13 d...

  15. Detection of ochratoxin A in beer samples with a label-free monolithically integrated optoelectronic biosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagkali, Varvara; Petrou, Panagiota S.; Salapatas, Alexandros; Makarona, Eleni; Peters, Jeroen; Haasnoot, Willem; Jobst, Gerhard; Economou, Anastasios; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Ioannis; Kakabakos, Sotirios E.

    2017-01-01

    An optical biosensor for label-free detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in beer samples is presented. The biosensor consists of an array of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) monolithically integrated along with their respective broad-band silicon light sources on the same Si chip (37mm2

  16. Fully integrated monolithic opoelectronic transducer for real.time protein and DNA detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misiakos, Konstatinos; S. Petrou, Panagiota; E. Kakabakos, Sotirios

    2010-01-01

    The development and testing of a portable bioanalytical device which was capable for real-time monitoring of binding assays was demonstrated. The device was based on arrays of nine optoelectronic transducers monolithically integrated on silicon chips. The optocouplers consisted of nine silicon av...

  17. 5Gb/s optical logic AND operations using by monolithically integrated photodiode and electroabsorption modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. X.; Zhao, L. J.; Niu, B.; Pan, J. Q.; Wang, W.

    2010-05-01

    A novel EAM/PD monolithically-integrated optical logic element is presented. 5Gb/s optical logic AND gate operations at about -2 V for non-return-to-zero (NRZ) signals with8.4dB extinction ratio and16mW absorbed optical power was demonstrated.

  18. Integrated on-chip mass spectrometry reaction monitoring in microfluidic devices containing porous polymer monolithic columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, C; Schulze, S; Ohla, S; Gilmore, K; Seeberger, P H; Belder, D

    2016-09-21

    Chip-based microfluidics enable the seamless integration of different functions into single devices. Here, we present microfluidic chips containing porous polymer monolithic columns as a means to facilitate chemical transformations as well as both downstream chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric analysis. Rapid liquid phase lithography prototyping creates the multifunctional device economically.

  19. Low-Loss 256-Channel AWG Module with Monolithically Integrated Spot-Size Converters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Itoh; S. Kamei; M. Ishii; Y. Hida; T. Shibata; Y. Hibino

    2003-01-01

    We developed a compact fiber-pigtailed 256-channel AWG module with 1.5% △ waveguides.By monolithically integrating spot-size converters with input/output waveguides, we achieved a lowinsertion loss of 2.6-4.1 dB with a low background crosstalk of -40 dB.

  20. Low-Loss 256-Channel AWG Module with Monolithically Integrated Spot-Size Converters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.; Itoh; S.; Kamei; M.; Ishii; Y.; Hida; T.; Shibata; Y.; Hibino

    2003-01-01

    We developed a compact fiber-pigtailed 256-channel AWG module with 1.5% A waveguides. By monolithically integrating spot-size converters with input/output waveguides, we achieved a low insertion loss of 2.6-4.1 dB with a low background crosstalk of-40 dB.

  1. Monolithic integration of electroabsorption modulators and tunnel injection distributed feedback lasers using quantum well intermixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Pan, Jiao-Qing; Zhao, Ling-Juan; Zhu, Hong-Liang; Wang, Wei

    2010-12-01

    Electroabsorption modulators combining Franz-Keldysh effect and quantum confined Stark effect have been monolithically integrated with tunnel-injection quantum-well distributed feedback lasers using a quantum well intermixing method. Superior characteristics such as extinction ratio and temperature insensitivity have been demonstrated at wide temperature ranges.

  2. Monolithic ionizing particle detector based on active matrix of functionally integrated structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murashev, V.N. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS” (Russian Federation); Legotin, S.A., E-mail: serlego@mail.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS” (Russian Federation); Karmanov, D.E. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (MSU SINP) (Russian Federation); Baryshnikov, F.M.; Didenko, S.I. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS” (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • A new type of monolithic silicon position detector is presented. • An operating principle, design and technology of the detector are described. • Calculated estimations of the detecting efficiency are carried out. • Experimental results of alpha-particle and electron detection are shown. -- Abstract: An operating principle, design and technology of a new type of the monolithic silicon position detector (MSPD) for registration of ionizing particles and photons are described. The detector represents a specialized monolithic silicon VLSI that contains a two-dimensional detecting matrix of active functionally integrated bipolar structures and peripheral electronic circuitry for signal amplification and processing. This paper presents experimental results of α-particles and electrons detection with position accuracy and operation speed better than 12.5 μm and 1 ns, respectively. The given estimations show the capabilities of this detector and its advantages in comparison with analogs.

  3. 75 FR 75694 - Certain Semiconductor Integration Circuits Using Tungsten Metallization and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Integration Circuits Using Tungsten Metallization and Products Containing... United States after importation of certain semiconductor integrated circuits using tungsten metallization... following six respondents ] remained in the investigation: Tower Semiconductor, Ltd. of Israel;...

  4. Monolithic integration of erbium-doped amplifiers with silicon-on-insulator waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agazzi, Laura; Bradley, Jonathan D B; Dijkstra, Meindert; Ay, Feridun; Roelkens, Gunther; Baets, Roel; Wörhoff, Kerstin; Pollnau, Markus

    2010-12-20

    Monolithic integration of Al2O3:Er3+ amplifier technology with passive silicon-on-insulator waveguides is demonstrated. A signal enhancement of >7 dB at 1533 nm wavelength is obtained. The straightforward wafer-scale fabrication process, which includes reactive co-sputtering and subsequent reactive ion etching, allows for parallel integration of multiple amplifier and laser sections with silicon or other photonic circuits on a chip.

  5. Atomic layer deposition of perovskite oxides and their epitaxial integration with Si, Ge, and other semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Martin D.; Ngo, Thong Q.; Hu, Shen; Posadas, Agham; Demkov, Alexander A.; Ekerdt, John G.

    2015-12-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a proven technique for the conformal deposition of oxide thin films with nanoscale thickness control. Most successful industrial applications have been with binary oxides, such as Al2O3 and HfO2. However, there has been much effort to deposit ternary oxides, such as perovskites (ABO3), with desirable properties for advanced thin film applications. Distinct challenges are presented by the deposition of multi-component oxides using ALD. This review is intended to highlight the research of the many groups that have deposited perovskite oxides by ALD methods. Several commonalities between the studies are discussed. Special emphasis is put on precursor selection, deposition temperatures, and specific property performance (high-k, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, etc.). Finally, the monolithic integration of perovskite oxides with semiconductors by ALD is reviewed. High-quality epitaxial growth of oxide thin films has traditionally been limited to physical vapor deposition techniques (e.g., molecular beam epitaxy). However, recent studies have demonstrated that epitaxial oxide thin films may be deposited on semiconductor substrates using ALD. This presents an exciting opportunity to integrate functional perovskite oxides for advanced semiconductor applications in a process that is economical and scalable.

  6. Atomic layer deposition of perovskite oxides and their epitaxial integration with Si, Ge, and other semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Martin D.; Ngo, Thong Q.; Hu, Shen; Ekerdt, John G., E-mail: ekerdt@utexas.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Posadas, Agham; Demkov, Alexander A. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a proven technique for the conformal deposition of oxide thin films with nanoscale thickness control. Most successful industrial applications have been with binary oxides, such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}. However, there has been much effort to deposit ternary oxides, such as perovskites (ABO{sub 3}), with desirable properties for advanced thin film applications. Distinct challenges are presented by the deposition of multi-component oxides using ALD. This review is intended to highlight the research of the many groups that have deposited perovskite oxides by ALD methods. Several commonalities between the studies are discussed. Special emphasis is put on precursor selection, deposition temperatures, and specific property performance (high-k, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, etc.). Finally, the monolithic integration of perovskite oxides with semiconductors by ALD is reviewed. High-quality epitaxial growth of oxide thin films has traditionally been limited to physical vapor deposition techniques (e.g., molecular beam epitaxy). However, recent studies have demonstrated that epitaxial oxide thin films may be deposited on semiconductor substrates using ALD. This presents an exciting opportunity to integrate functional perovskite oxides for advanced semiconductor applications in a process that is economical and scalable.

  7. Monolithic photonic integration of suspended light emitting diode, waveguide and photodetector

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yongjin; Gao, Xumin; Cai, Wei; Xu, Yin; Yuan, Jialei; Zhu, Guixia; Yang, Yongchao; Cao, Xun; Zhu, Hongbo; Gruenberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We report here a monolithic photonic integration of light emitting diode (LED) with waveguide and photodetector to build a highly-integrated photonic system to perform functionalities on the GaN-on-silicon platform. Suspended p-n junction InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) are used for device fabrication. Part of the LED emission is coupled into suspended waveguide and then, the guided light laterally propagates along the waveguide and is finally sensed by the photodetector. Planar optical communication experimentally demonstrates that the proof-of-concept monolithic photonic integration system can achieve the on-chip optical interconnects. This work paves the way towards novel active electro-optical sensing system and planar optical communication in the visible range.

  8. Progress toward a monolithically integrated coherent diode laser array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, G. A.; Garmire, E. M.; Stoll, H. M.; Osmer, J. A.; Soady, W. E.; Lee, A. B.; Ziegler, M. P.

    1981-02-01

    Progress toward the design and fabrication of a GaAlAs semiconductor laser array capable of high average power levels (0.1 to 1.0 watt) and low (approx 1 millirad) beam divergence is reported. A large optical cavity (LOC) configuration is grown by liquid phase epitaxy. The LOC structure is characterized by photoluminescence scans, ion microprobe mass analysis (IMMA), and optical waveguiding measurements. Fabry-Perot, active-passive, and DBR lasers are fabricated using chemical and ion beam etching. Gratings formed using holographic and ion beam etching techniques provide third order feedback for the DBR lasers, and are also used as distributed beam deflectors (DBDs) and output couplers. Comparisons of the results of experiments performed on DBR lasers, DBDs, and coupled lasers are made with theoretical models. Details of the material growth, material characterization, device fabrication, experiments, and theoretical models are presented in this report.

  9. Monolithic integration of germanium-on-insulator p-i-n photodetector on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ju Hyung; Afshinmanesh, Farzaneh; Nam, Donguk; Jung, Woo Shik; Kamins, Theodore I; Brongersma, Mark L; Saraswat, Krishna C

    2015-06-15

    A germanium-on-insulator (GOI) p-i-n photodetector, monolithically integrated on a silicon (Si) substrate, is demonstrated. GOI is formed by lateral-overgrowth (LAT-OVG) of Ge on silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) through windows etched in SiO(2) on Si. The photodetector shows excellent diode characteristics with high on/off ratio (6 × 10(4)), low dark current, and flat reverse current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. Enhanced light absorption up to 1550 nm is observed due to the residual biaxial tensile strain induced during the epitaxial growth of Ge caused by cooling after the deposition. This truly Si-compatible Ge photodetector using monolithic integration enables new opportunities for high-performance GOI based photonic devices on Si platform.

  10. Monolithic Silicon Photodetector - Detector of Ionizing Radiation Based on Functional Integrated MOS Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Legotin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the principle of operation, construction, architecture and fabrication of a new type of monolithic silicon coordinate photodetector - detector of optical and ionizing radiation (MSCP on the basis of functional integrated MOS structures. The analytical estimation of electrophysical characteristics MSCP is given. It is shown that MSCP is a specialized monolithic silicon VLSI containing two-dimensional pixel array with high and low voltage functionally integrated structures (FIS and peripheral electronic circuits of amplification and signal processing matrix. Estimations and presents comparative characteristics are presented. They show potential MSCP possibilities for registration of optical and ionizing radiation. Experimental results of α-particles and electrons registration. The possible areas of application, with the possibility of its use in a wide X-ray panels medical supplies, X-rays, etc are considered.

  11. Smart Sensing Strip Using Monolithically Integrated Flexible Flow Sensor for Noninvasively Monitoring Respiratory Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Zhao, Shuai; Zhu, Rong

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents a smart sensing strip for noninvasively monitoring respiratory flow in real time. The monitoring system comprises a monolithically-integrated flexible hot-film flow sensor adhered on a molded flexible silicone case, where a miniaturized conditioning circuit with a Bluetooth4.0 LE module are packaged, and a personal mobile device that wirelessly acquires respiratory data transmitted from the flow sensor, executes extraction of vital signs, and performs medical diagnosis. The system serves as a wearable device to monitor comprehensive respiratory flow while avoiding use of uncomfortable nasal cannula. The respiratory sensor is a flexible flow sensor monolithically integrating four elements of a Wheatstone bridge on single chip, including a hot-film resistor, a temperature-compensating resistor, and two balancing resistors. The monitor takes merits of small size, light weight, easy operation, and low power consumption. Experiments were conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of monitoring and diagnosing respiratory diseases using the proposed system.

  12. Technology challenges for monolithically integrated waveguide demultiplexers Invited Paper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lech Wosinski; Liu Liu; Ning Zhu; Lars Thylen

    2009-01-01

    A short overview of integrated waveguide demultiplexers for different applications in future highly inte- grated optical communication systems is presented. Some fabricated devices based on amorphous silicon nanowire technology are described.

  13. An in-situ monitoring technique for optimizing antireflection coatings using a monolithic integrated photodetector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saini, Vikram; Yvind, Kresten; Larsson, David

    2006-01-01

    A very low reflectivity of the order of 10-4 is demonstrated for dual-layer anti-reflection coatings on normal facet semiconductor lasers, by integrated in situ monitoring. The method has been tested on three and eight quantum-well InGaAsP ridge lasers that consist of a gain section and an integr...

  14. 75 FR 16514 - Maxim Integrated Products, Formerly Known as Dallas Semiconductor, Dallas, TX; Amended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Maxim Integrated Products, Formerly Known as Dallas Semiconductor...). Information shows that Maxim Integrated Products was formerly known as Dallas Semiconductor. Some workers... insurance (UI) tax accounts under the names Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. and Dallas...

  15. Monolithic CMUT-on-CMOS integration for intravascular ultrasound applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorian, Jaime; Hochman, Michael; Xu, Toby; Satir, Sarp; Gurun, Gokce; Karaman, Mustafa; Degertekin, F Levent

    2011-12-01

    One of the most important promises of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) technology is integration with electronics. This approach is required to minimize the parasitic capacitances in the receive mode, especially in catheter-based volumetric imaging arrays, for which the elements must be small. Furthermore, optimization of the available silicon area and minimized number of connections occurs when the CMUTs are fabricated directly above the associated electronics. Here, we describe successful fabrication and performance evaluation of CMUT arrays for intravascular imaging on custom-designed CMOS receiver electronics from a commercial IC foundry. The CMUT-on-CMOS process starts with surface isolation and mechanical planarization of the CMOS electronics to reduce topography. The rest of the CMUT fabrication is achieved by modifying a low-temperature micromachining process through the addition of a single mask and developing a dry etching step to produce sloped sidewalls for simple and reliable CMUT-to-CMOS interconnection. This CMUT-to-CMOS interconnect method reduced the parasitic capacitance by a factor of 200 when compared with a standard wire-bonding method. Characterization experiments indicate that the CMUT-on-CMOS elements are uniform in frequency response and are similar to CMUTs simultaneously fabricated on standard silicon wafers without electronics integration. Ex- periments on a 1.6-mm-diameter dual-ring CMUT array with a center frequency of 15 MHz show that both the CMUTs and the integrated CMOS electronics are fully functional. The SNR measurements indicate that the performance is adequate for imaging chronic total occlusions located 1 cm from the CMUT array.

  16. Novel electroabsorption modulator monolithically integrated with spot-size converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianping Hou; Wei Wang; Hongliang Zhu

    2005-01-01

    @@ A novel 1.55-μm spot-size converter integrated electroabsorption modulator was designed with conventional photolithography and chemical wet etching process. A ridge double-core structure was employed for the modulator, and a buried ridge double-core structure was incorporated for the spot-size converter. The passive waveguide was optically combined with a laterally tapered active waveguide to control the mode size. The figure of merit is 4.1667 dB/V(/100μm) and the beam divergence angles in the horizontal and vertical directions were as small as 11.2° and 13.0°, respectively.

  17. Novel electroabsorption modulator monolithically integrated with spot-size converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lianping; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Hongliang

    2005-01-01

    A novel 1.55-?m spot-size converter integrated electroabsorption modulator was designed with conventional photolithography and chemical wet etching process. A ridge double-core structure was employed for the modulator, and a buried ridge double-core structure was incorporated for the spot-size converter. The passive waveguide was optically combined with a laterally tapered active waveguide to control the mode size. The figure of merit is 4.1667 dB/V(/100 ?m) and the beam divergence angles in the horizontal and vertical directions were as small as 11.2 deg. and 13.0 deg., respectively.

  18. Development and fabrication of monolithically integrated optical packet switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanson, Dan A.; Silver, Mark; Vassalli, Omar; Campbell, Margaret; Masterton, Graeme; McDougall, Stewart D.; Marsh, John H.

    2007-02-01

    We report development activities towards realization of fully integrated 1x2, 2x2, and 4x4 cross-point optical switches for WDM-packet-based data networking. Two enabling technologies, quantum-well intermixing and etched turning mirrors, are developed and demonstrated in InGaAs/InAlGaAs InP-based material at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. We describe the use of both technologies to fabricate switch chips with different port counts.

  19. Monolithic strained-InGaAsP multiple-quantum-well lasers with integrated electroabsorption modulators for active mode locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kenji; Wakita, Koichi; Kotaka, Isamu; Kondo, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Mitsuo; Takada, Atsushi

    1994-07-01

    Active mode locking by monolithic lasers with integrated electroabsorption modulators using strained-InGaAsP multiple quantum wells is described. The electroabsorption modulator acts as a short optical gate when a sinusoidal voltage is driven at a deep bias point. Pulse widths as short as 2 ps have been obtained at a repetition rate of 16.3 GHz for a 2.5-mm-long monolithic laser.

  20. Monolithically integrated self-rolled-up microtube-based vertical coupler for three-dimensional photonic integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xin; Arbabi, Ehsan; Goddard, Lynford L.; Li, Xiuling; Chen, Xiaogang, E-mail: oxgchen@illinois.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    We demonstrate a self-rolled-up microtube-based vertical photonic coupler monolithically integrated on top of a ridge waveguide to achieve three-dimensional (3D) photonic integration. The fabrication process is fully compatible with standard planar silicon processing technology. Strong light coupling between the vertical coupler and the ridge waveguide was observed experimentally, which may provide an alternative route for 3D heterogeneous photonic integration. The highest extinction ratio observed in the transmission spectrum passing through the ridge waveguide was 23 dB.

  1. Monolithic CMOS-MEMS integration for high-g accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Vinayak; Li, Holden; Tan, Chuan Seng

    2014-10-01

    This paper highlights work-in-progress towards the conceptualization, simulation, fabrication and initial testing of a silicon-germanium (SiGe) integrated CMOS-MEMS high-g accelerometer for military, munition, fuze and shock measurement applications. Developed on IMEC's SiGe MEMS platform, the MEMS offers a dynamic range of 5,000 g and a bandwidth of 12 kHz. The low noise readout circuit adopts a chopper-stabilization technique implementing the CMOS through the TSMC 0.18 µm process. The device structure employs a fully differential split comb-drive set up with two sets of stators and a rotor all driven separately. Dummy structures acting as protective over-range stops were designed to protect the active components when under impacts well above the designed dynamic range.

  2. Monolithic integration of enhancement-mode vertical driving transistorson a standard InGaN/GaN light emitting diode structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xing; Liu, Chao; Jiang, Huaxing; Zou, Xinbo; Zhang, Anping; Lau, Kei May

    2016-08-01

    In this letter, monolithic integration of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) with vertical metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (VMOSFET) drivers have been proposed and demonstrated. The VMOSFET was achieved by simply regrowing a p- and n-GaN bilayer on top of a standard LED structure. After fabrication, the VMOSFET is connected with the LED through the conductive n-GaN layer, with no need of extra metal interconnections. The junction-based VMOSFET is inherently an enhancement-mode (E-mode) device with a threshold voltage of 1.6 V. By controlling the gate bias of the VMOSFET, the light intensity emitted from the integrated VMOSFET-LED device could be well modulated, which shows great potential for various applications, including solid-state lighting, micro-displays, and visible light communications.

  3. 76 FR 14688 - In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products... semiconductor chips and products containing same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent Nos... Semiconductor Xiqing Integrated Semiconductor Manufacturing Site (``Freescale Xiqing'') of China;...

  4. Femtosecond laser fabrication of monolithically integrated microfluidic sensors in glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Liao, Yang; Lin, Jintian; Song, Jiangxin; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya; Sugioka, Koji

    2014-10-17

    Femtosecond lasers have revolutionized the processing of materials, since their ultrashort pulse width and extremely high peak intensity allows high-quality micro- and nanofabrication of three-dimensional (3D) structures. This unique capability opens up a new route for fabrication of microfluidic sensors for biochemical applications. The present paper presents a comprehensive review of recent advancements in femtosecond laser processing of glass for a variety of microfluidic sensor applications. These include 3D integration of micro-/nanofluidic, optofluidic, electrofluidic, surface-enhanced Raman-scattering devices, in addition to fabrication of devices for microfluidic bioassays and lab-on-fiber sensors. This paper describes the unique characteristics of femtosecond laser processing and the basic concepts involved in femtosecond laser direct writing. Advanced spatiotemporal beam shaping methods are also discussed. Typical examples of microfluidic sensors fabricated using femtosecond lasers are then highlighted, and their applications in chemical and biological sensing are described. Finally, a summary of the technology is given and the outlook for further developments in this field is considered.

  5. Femtosecond Laser Fabrication of Monolithically Integrated Microfluidic Sensors in Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei He

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond lasers have revolutionized the processing of materials, since their ultrashort pulse width and extremely high peak intensity allows high-quality micro- and nanofabrication of three-dimensional (3D structures. This unique capability opens up a new route for fabrication of microfluidic sensors for biochemical applications. The present paper presents a comprehensive review of recent advancements in femtosecond laser processing of glass for a variety of microfluidic sensor applications. These include 3D integration of micro-/nanofluidic, optofluidic, electrofluidic, surface-enhanced Raman-scattering devices, in addition to fabrication of devices for microfluidic bioassays and lab-on-fiber sensors. This paper describes the unique characteristics of femtosecond laser processing and the basic concepts involved in femtosecond laser direct writing. Advanced spatiotemporal beam shaping methods are also discussed. Typical examples of microfluidic sensors fabricated using femtosecond lasers are then highlighted, and their applications in chemical and biological sensing are described. Finally, a summary of the technology is given and the outlook for further developments in this field is considered.

  6. Wafer Fusion for Integration of Semiconductor Materials and Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choquette, K.D.; Geib, K.M.; Hou, H.Q.; Allerman, A.A.; Kravitz, S.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Hindi, J.J.

    1999-05-01

    We have developed a wafer fusion technology to achieve integration of semiconductor materials and heterostructures with widely disparate lattice parameters, electronic properties, and/or optical properties for novel devices not now possible on any one substrate. Using our simple fusion process which uses low temperature (400-600 C) anneals in inert N{sub 2} gas, we have extended the scope of this technology to examine hybrid integration of dissimilar device technologies. As a specific example, we demonstrate wafer bonding vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) to transparent AlGaAs and GaP substrates to fabricate bottom-emitting short wavelength VCSELs. As a baseline fabrication technology applicable to many semiconductor systems, wafer fusion will revolutionize the way we think about possible semiconductor devices, and enable novel device configurations not possible by epitaxial growth.

  7. Metal oxide-based monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor gas sensor microsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Markus; Barrettino, Diego; Taschini, Stefano; Hagleitner, Christoph; Hierlemann, Andreas; Baltes, Henry

    2004-08-01

    A fully integrated gas sensor microsystem is presented, which comprises for the first time a micro hot plate as well as advanced analog and digital circuitry on a single chip. The micro hot plate is coated with a nanocrystalline SnO2 thick film. The sensor chip is produced in an industrial 0.8-microm CMOS process with subsequent micromachining steps. A novel circular micro hot plate, which is 500 x 500 microm(2) in size, features an excellent temperature homogeneity of +/-2% over the heated area (300-microm diameter) and a high thermal efficiency of 6.0 degrees C/mW. A robust prototype package was developed, which relies on standard microelectronic packaging methods. Apart from a microcontroller board for managing chip communication and providing power supply and reference signals, no additional measurement equipment is needed. The on-chip digital temperature controller can accurately adjust the membrane temperature between 170 and 300 degrees C with an error of +/-2 degrees C. The on-chip logarithmic converter covers a wide measurement range between 1 kOmega and 10 MOmega. CO concentrations in the sub-parts-per-million range are detectable, and a resolution of +/-0.1 ppm CO was achieved, which renders the sensor capable of measuring CO concentrations at threshold levels.

  8. Multi-channel monolithic integrated optic fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Esterkin, Yan; Kempen, Cornelia; Sun, Zongjian

    2011-09-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is a mature sensing technology for the measurement of strain, vibration, acoustics, acceleration, pressure, temperature, moisture, and corrosion. It has gained rapid acceptance in civil, aerospace, chemical and petrochemical, medicine, aviation and automotive industries. The most prominent advantages of FBG are: small size and light weight, distributed array of FBG transducers on a single fiber, and immunity to radio frequency interference. However, a major disadvantage of FBG technology is that conventional state-of-the-art FBG interrogation system is typically bulky, heavy, and costly bench top instruments that are typically assembled from off-the-shelf fiber optic and optical components integrated with a signal electronics board into an instrument console. Based on the industrial need for a compact FBG interrogation system, this paper describes recent progress towards the development of miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver™) system based on multi-channel monolithic integrated optic sensor microchip technology. The integrated optic microchip technology enables monolithic integration of all functionalities, both passive and active, of conventional bench top FBG sensor interrogator system, packaged in a miniaturized, low power operation, 2 cm×5 cm small form factor (SFF) package suitable for long-term structural health monitoring in applications where size, weight, and power are critical for operation.

  9. A Monolithically Integrated 12V/5V Switch-Capacitor DC-DC Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿莉; 陈治明; 刘先锋

    2000-01-01

    A monolithically integrated 12V/SV switch capacitor DC-DC converter with structure-simplified main circuit and control circuit is presented. Its topological circuit and basic operating principle are discussed in detail. It is shown that elevated operating frequency, increased capacitance and reduced turn-on voltage of the diodes can make the converter's output characteristics improved. Reducing resistance of the equivalent resistors and other parasitic parameters can make the operation frequency higher. As a feasible efficient method to fabricate monolithically integrated converter with high frequency and high output power, several basic circuits are parallelly combined where the serial-parallel capacitance is optimized for the maximum output power. The device selection and its fabrication method are presented. A feasible integration process and its corresponding layout are designed. All active devices including switching transistors and diodes are integrated together with all passive cells including capacitors and resistor on a single chip based on BiMOS process,as has been verified to be correct and practical by simulation and chip test.

  10. Design and application of multilayer monolithic microwave integrated circuit transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Economides, S.B

    1999-07-01

    fabricated on standard foundry processes. With careful modelling it is also feasible to integrate the two couplers into a single tri-filar transformer structure. This is a robust balun topology, which could be widely adopted. A push-pull MESFET amplifier with 8 dB gain demonstrated this at 12 GHz, using the balun chips connected to amplifier circuits. (author)

  11. III-V semiconductor devices integrated with silicon III-V semiconductor devices integrated with silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, Mark; Martin, Trevor; Smowton, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The integration of III-V semiconductor devices with silicon is one of the most topical challenges in current electronic materials research. The combination has the potential to exploit the unique optical and electronic functionality of III-V technology with the signal processing capabilities and advanced low-cost volume production techniques associated with silicon. Key industrial drivers include the use of high mobility III-V channel materials (InGaAs, InAs, InSb) to extend the performance of Si CMOS, the unification of electronics and photonics by combining photonic components (GaAs, InP) with a silicon platform for next-generation optical interconnects and the exploitation of large-area silicon substrates and high-volume Si processing capabilities to meet the challenges of low-cost production, a challenge which is particularly important for GaN-based devices in both power management and lighting applications. The diverse nature of the III-V and Si device approaches, materials technologies and the distinct differences between industrial Si and III-V processing have provided a major barrier to integration in the past. However, advances over the last decade in areas such as die transfer, wafer fusion and epitaxial growth have promoted widespread renewed interest. It is now timely to bring some of these topics together in a special issue covering a range of approaches and materials providing a snapshot of recent progress across the field. The issue opens a paper describing a strategy for the epitaxial integration of photonic devices where Kataria et al describe progress in the lateral overgrowth of InP/Si. As an alternative, Benjoucef and Reithmaier report on the potential of InAs quantum dots grown direct onto Si surfaces whilst Sandall et al describe the properties of similar InAs quantum dots as an optical modulator device. As an alternative to epitaxial integration approaches, Yokoyama et al describe a wafer bonding approach using a buried oxide concept, Corbett

  12. A design concept for an MMIC (Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit) microstrip phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Smetana, Jerry; Acosta, Roberto

    1987-02-01

    A conceptual design for a microstrip phased array with monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplitude and phase controls is described. The MMIC devices used are 20 GHz variable power amplifiers and variable phase shifters recently developed by NASA contractors for applications in future Ka proposed design, which concept is for a general NxN element array of rectangular lattice geometry. Subarray excitation is incorporated in the MMIC phased array design to reduce the complexity of the beam forming network and the number of MMIC components required.

  13. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic flow focusing in a microfluidic platform featuring a monolithic integrated glass micronozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifan; Shen, Yusheng; Duan, Lian; Yobas, Levent

    2016-10-01

    Two-dimensional hydrodynamic flow focusing is demonstrated through a microfluidic device featuring a monolithic integrated glass micronozzle inside a flow-focusing geometry. Such a coaxial configuration allows simple one-step focusing of a sample fluid stream, jetted from the micronozzle tip, in both in-plane and out-of-plane directions. The width of the focused filament can be precisely controlled and further scaled down to the submicrometer regime to facilitate rapid hydrodynamic mixing. Fluorescence quenching experiments reveal ultra-fast microsecond mixing of the denaturant into the focused filament. This device offers new possibilities to a set of applications such as the study of protein folding kinetics.

  14. A 1.55-μm laser array monolithically integrated with an MMI combiner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Li; Zhu Hongliang; Liang Song; Wang Baojun; Zhang Can; Zhao Lingjuan; Bian Jing

    2013-01-01

    The monolithic integration of four 1.55-μm range InGaAsP/InP distributed feedback lasers with a 4 × 1multimode-interference (MMI) optical combiner using the varied width ridge method is proposed and demonstrated.The average output power is 1.5 mW when the current of LD is 100 mA and the threshold current is 30-35 mA at 25 ℃.The lasing wavelength is 1.55-μm range and 40 dB sidemode suppression ratio is obtained.The four channels can operate separately or simultaneously.

  15. A design concept for an MMIC (Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit) microstrip phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Smetana, Jerry; Acosta, Roberto

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual design for a microstrip phased array with monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplitude and phase controls is described. The MMIC devices used are 20 GHz variable power amplifiers and variable phase shifters recently developed by NASA contractors for applications in future Ka proposed design, which concept is for a general NxN element array of rectangular lattice geometry. Subarray excitation is incorporated in the MMIC phased array design to reduce the complexity of the beam forming network and the number of MMIC components required.

  16. Monolithically integrated DBR laser, detector, and transparent waveguide fabricated in a single growth step

    OpenAIRE

    Hofstetter, Daniel; Zappe, H. P.; Epler, J. E.; van Riel, P

    2008-01-01

    The monolithic integration of a GaAs-AlGaAs distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser with a nonabsorbing grating section, a transparent waveguide, and an absorbing photodetector is reported. Transparent and absorbing segments were defined after growth by vacancy-enhanced quantum-well disordering (VED). Laser output power was 5 mW with a threshold current of 22 mA. Detector current was linearly dependent on the laser output power and the emission from the grating side of the laser could be dire...

  17. Monolithically Integrated, Mechanically Resilient Carbon-Based Probes for Scanning Probe Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Megerian, Krikor G.; Jennings, Andrew T.; Greer, Julia R.

    2010-01-01

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is an important tool for performing measurements at the nanoscale in imaging bacteria or proteins in biology, as well as in the electronics industry. An essential element of SPM is a sharp, stable tip that possesses a small radius of curvature to enhance spatial resolution. Existing techniques for forming such tips are not ideal. High-aspect-ratio, monolithically integrated, as-grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have been formed that show promise for SPM applications by overcoming the limitations present in wet chemical and separate substrate etching processes.

  18. Wideband Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit Frequency Converters with GaAs mHEMT Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krozer, Viktor; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Djurhuus, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    We present monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) frequency converter, which can be used for up and down conversion, due to the large RF and IF port bandwidth. The MMIC converters are based on commercially available GaAs mHEMT technology and are comprised of a Gilbert mixer cell core......, baluns and combiners. Single ended and balanced configurations DC and AC coupled have been investigated. The instantaneous 3 dB bandwidth at both the RF and the IF port of the frequency converters is ∼ 20 GHz with excellent amplitude and phase linearity. The predicted conversion gain is around 10 d...

  19. Highly efficient coupling between a monolithically integrated photonic crystal cavity and a bus waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Kapil; Welna, Karl; Ferrera, Marcello; Deasy, Kieran; Lidzey, David; Krauss, Thomas F.; O'Faolain, Liam

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a new optical filter design comprising of a photonic crystal cavity and a low index bus waveguide which are monolithically integrated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. We have fabricated oxide clad PhC cavities with a silicon nitride waveguide positioned directly above, such that there is an overlap between the evanescent tails of the two modes. We have realised an extinction ratio of 7.5dB for cavities with total Q of 50,000.

  20. Optoelectronic Devices and Related Physical Phenomena in Thin Film Semiconductor Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    Robinson, W. K. Marshall, J. Katz, J. S. Smith, and A. Yariv, " Monolithically Integrated Array of GaAlAs Electroabsorption Modulators," Electron... monolithic array of GaAlAs electroabsorption modulator has been demonstrated by reverse bias operation of the separate contact array. This device may be...Katz, C. Lindsey, S. Margalit, A. Yariv, "Control of Mutual Phase Locking of Monolithically Integrated Semiconductor Lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett., 43

  1. 77 FR 39510 - Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same; Determination Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same; Determination Not... the sale within the United States after importation of certain semiconductor integrated...

  2. 75 FR 5804 - In the Matter of: Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuits and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuits and Products Containing Same; Notice... importation, and sale within the United States after importation of certain semiconductor integrated...

  3. A monolithic integrated low-voltage deep brain stimulator with wireless power and data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhang; Ye, Tan; Jianmin, Zeng; Xu, Han; Xin, Cheng; Guangjun, Xie

    2016-09-01

    A monolithic integrated low-voltage deep brain stimulator with wireless power and data transmission is presented. Data and power are transmitted to the stimulator by mutual inductance coupling, while the in-vitro controller encodes the stimulation parameters. The stimulator integrates the digital control module and can generate the bipolar current with equal amplitude in four channels. In order to reduce power consumption, a novel controlled threshold voltage cancellation rectifier is proposed in this paper to provide the supply voltage of the stimulator. The monolithic stimulator was fabricated in a SMIC 0.18 μm 1-poly 6-metal mixed-signal CMOS process, occupying 0.23 mm2, and consumes 180 μW on average. Compared with previously published stimulators, this design has advantages of large stimulated current (0-0.8 mA) with the double low-voltage supply (1.8 and 3.3 V), and high-level integration. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61404043, 61401137), the Key Laboratory of Infrared Imaging Materials and Detectors, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Nos. IIMDKFJJ-13-06, IIMDKFJJ-14-03), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2015HGZX0026).

  4. 77 FR 25747 - Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same; Institution of... the sale within the United States after importation of certain semiconductor integrated circuit... semiconductor integrated circuit devices and products containing same that infringe one or more of claims 1,...

  5. Monolithically Integrated Microelectromechanical Systems for On-Chip Strain Engineering of Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Yan; Mietschke, Michael; Zhang, Long; Yuan, Feifei; Abel, Stefan; Hühne, Ruben; Nielsch, Kornelius; Fompeyrine, Jean; Ding, Fei; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2016-09-14

    Elastic strain fields based on single crystal piezoelectric elements represent an effective way for engineering the quantum dot (QD) emission with unrivaled precision and technological relevance. However, pioneering researches in this direction were mainly based on bulk piezoelectric substrates, which prevent the development of chip-scale devices. Here, we present a monolithically integrated Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device with great potential for on-chip quantum photonic applications. High-quality epitaxial PMN-PT thin films have been grown on SrTiO3 buffered Si and show excellent piezoelectric responses. Dense arrays of MEMS with small footprints are then fabricated based on these films, forming an on-chip strain tuning platform. After transferring the QD-containing nanomembranes onto these MEMS, the nonclassical emissions (e.g., single photons) from single QDs can be engineered by the strain fields. We envision that the strain tunable QD sources on the individually addressable and monolithically integrated MEMS pave the way toward complex quantum photonic applications on chip.

  6. Investigation of Microwave Monolithic Integrated Circuit (MMIC) non-reciprocal millimeterwave components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talisa, S. H.; Krishnaswamy, S. V.; Adam, J. D.; Yoo, K. C.; Doyle, N. J.

    1991-09-01

    Two ferrite film deposition techniques were investigated in this program for possible use in the monolithic integration of Gallium Arsenide electronic and magnetic millimeter-wave devices; (1) spin-spray plating (SSP) of nickel zinc ferrite films, and (2) sputtering of barium hexaferrites with C-axis oriented normally to the film plane. The SSP technique potential for this application was demonstrated. Film structural characteristics were studied, as well as their adhesions to other substrates and the conditions for growth of thicker films. Multilayers totalling 25 microns in thickness were grown on semiconducting substrates. The SSP process occurs at about 100 C and was experimentally demonstrated not to damage Gallium arsenide MMIC devices. The magnetic characteristics of these films were comparable to ceramic materials. A scheme for the monolithic integration of magnetic and Gallium arsenide electronic devices was proposed and its feasibility experimentally demonstrated. The films showed higher dielectric loss than was desirable, possibly owing to high water content. A better drying technique is required. Barium ferrite films with C-axis texture were reproducibly grown on sapphire. Magnetic measurements yielded acceptable saturation magnetization and anisotrophy field. Ferromagnetic resonance was not observed, possibly due to broad linewidths.

  7. Cantilever RF-MEMS for monolithic integration with phased array antennas on a PCB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Armenta, C. J.; Porter, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the development and operation of a novel electrostatic metal-to-metal contact cantilever radio-frequency microelectromechanical system (RF-MEMS) switch for monolithic integration with microstrip phased array antennas (PAAs) on a printed circuit board. The switch is fabricated using simple photolithography techniques on a Rogers 4003c substrate, with a footprint of 200 µm × 100 µm, based on a 1 µm-thick copper cantilever. An alternative wet-etching technique for effectively releasing the cantilever is described. Electrostatic and electromagnetic measurements show that the RF-MEMS presents an actuation voltage of 90 V for metal-to-metal contact, an isolation of -8.7 dB, insertion loss of -2.5 dB and a return loss of -15 dB on a 50 Ω microstrip line at 12.5 GHz. For proof-of-concept, a beam-steering 2 × 2 microstrip PAA, based on two 1-bit phase shifters suitable for the monolithic integration of the RF-MEMS, has been designed and measured at 12.5 GHz. Measurements show that the beam-steering system presents effective radiation characteristics with scanning capabilities from broadside towards 29° in the H-plane.

  8. An implantable neural probe with monolithically integrated dielectric waveguide and recording electrodes for optogenetics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Stark, Eran; Im, Maesoon; Cho, Il-Joo; Yoon, Eui-Sung; Buzsáki, György; Wise, Kensall D.; Yoon, Euisik

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Optogenetics promises exciting neuroscience research by offering optical stimulation of neurons with unprecedented temporal resolution, cell-type specificity and the ability to excite as well as to silence neurons. This work provides the technical solution to deliver light to local neurons and record neural potentials, facilitating local circuit analysis and bridging the gap between optogenetics and neurophysiology research. Approach. We have designed and obtained the first in vivo validation of a neural probe with monolithically integrated electrodes and waveguide. High spatial precision enables optical excitation of targeted neurons with minimal power and recording of single-units in dense cortical and subcortical regions. Main results. The total coupling and transmission loss through the dielectric waveguide at 473 nm was 10.5 ± 1.9 dB, corresponding to an average output intensity of 9400 mW mm-2 when coupled to a 7 mW optical fiber. Spontaneous field potentials and spiking activities of multiple Channelrhodopsin-2 expressing neurons were recorded in the hippocampus CA1 region of an anesthetized rat. Blue light stimulation at intensity of 51 mW mm-2 induced robust spiking activities in the physiologically identified local populations. Significance. This minimally invasive, complete monolithic integration provides unmatched spatial precision and scalability for future optogenetics studies at deep brain regions with high neuronal density.

  9. Integrated superconducting detectors on semiconductors for quantum optics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniber, M.; Flassig, F.; Reithmaier, G.; Gross, R.; Finley, J. J.

    2016-05-01

    Semiconductor quantum photonic circuits can be used to efficiently generate, manipulate, route and exploit nonclassical states of light for distributed photon-based quantum information technologies. In this article, we review our recent achievements on the growth, nanofabrication and integration of high-quality, superconducting niobium nitride thin films on optically active, semiconducting GaAs substrates and their patterning to realize highly efficient and ultra-fast superconducting detectors on semiconductor nanomaterials containing quantum dots. Our state-of-the-art detectors reach external detection quantum efficiencies up to 20 % for ~4 nm thin films and single-photon timing resolutions <72 ps. We discuss the integration of such detectors into quantum dot-loaded, semiconductor ridge waveguides, resulting in the on-chip, time-resolved detection of quantum dot luminescence. Furthermore, a prototype quantum optical circuit is demonstrated that enabled the on-chip generation of resonance fluorescence from an individual InGaAs quantum dot, with a linewidth <15 μeV displaced by 1 mm from the superconducting detector on the very same semiconductor chip. Thus, all key components required for prototype quantum photonic circuits with sources, optical components and detectors on the same chip are reported.

  10. Silicon-on-insulator-based complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated optoelectronic platform for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujeeb-U-Rahman, Muhammad; Scherer, Axel

    2016-12-01

    Microscale optical devices enabled by wireless power harvesting and telemetry facilitate manipulation and testing of localized biological environments (e.g., neural recording and stimulation, targeted delivery to cancer cells). Design of integrated microsystems utilizing optical power harvesting and telemetry will enable complex in vivo applications like actuating a single nerve, without the difficult requirement of extreme optical focusing or use of nanoparticles. Silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based platforms provide a very powerful architecture for such miniaturized platforms as these can be used to fabricate both optoelectronic and microelectronic devices on the same substrate. Near-infrared biomedical optics can be effectively utilized for optical power harvesting to generate optimal results compared with other methods (e.g., RF and acoustic) at submillimeter size scales intended for such designs. We present design and integration techniques of optical power harvesting structures with complementary metal oxide semiconductor platforms using SOI technologies along with monolithically integrated electronics. Such platforms can become the basis of optoelectronic biomedical systems including implants and lab-on-chip systems.

  11. Improved breakdown characteristics of monolithically integrated III-nitride HEMT-LED devices using carbon doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Liu, Zhaojun; Huang, Tongde; Ma, Jun; May Lau, Kei

    2015-03-01

    We report selective growth of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) on InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) for monolithic integration of III-nitride HEMT and LED devices (HEMT-LED). To improve the breakdown characteristics of the integrated HEMT-LED devices, carbon doping was introduced in the HEMT buffer by controlling the growth pressure and V/III ratio. The breakdown voltage of the fabricated HEMTs grown on LEDs was enhanced, without degradation of the HEMT DC performance. The improved breakdown characteristics can be attributed to better isolation of the HEMT from the underlying conductive p-GaN layer of the LED structure.

  12. A novel method to increase quantum efficiency of the monolithically integrated PIN/HBT-receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hailin; Zhou, Shouli; Huang, Hui; Huang, Yongqing; Ren, Xiaomin

    2005-11-01

    Adding resonant cavity to increase quantum efficiency of the monolithically integrated PIN/HBT-Receiver is described. Between the InP buffer and device epitaxial structure, InP/InGaAsP quarter wavelength stack (QWS) are used to form DBR (Distributed Bragg Reflectors) mirror. The PIN-PD is integrated within a Fabry-Perot cavity and the incident light is reflected many times by the Fabry-Perot cavity and consequently absorbed many times by the absorption layer. Therefore, the quantum efficiency of this detector is enlarged, meanwhile other performances such as frequency response are not influenced. We discuss the method to fabricate the resonance cavity, make theory simulation, optimize design on it, and analyze the advantage of this device.

  13. Monolithically integrated reconfigurable add-drop multiplexer for mode-division-multiplexing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shipeng; Wu, Hao; Tsang, Hon Ki; Dai, Daoxin

    2016-11-15

    An integrated reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM) for mode-division-multiplexing systems is proposed and demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The present ROADM with four mode-channels is composed of a four-channel mode demultiplexer, four identical 2×2 thermo-optic Mach-Zehnder switches (MZSs), and a four-channel mode multiplexer, which are integrated monolithically on silicon. All the devices are designed for operation with TM polarization. The ROADM can add/drop any one of the mode channels freely by thermally turning on/off the corresponding MZS. For the added/dropped mode-channels, the excess loss is 1-5 dB, and the extinction ratio is 15-20 dB in the wavelength range of 1535-1565 nm.

  14. Monolithic integration of a quantum emitter with a compact on-chip beam-splitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prtljaga, N., E-mail: n.prtljaga@sheffield.ac.uk; Coles, R. J.; O' Hara, J.; Royall, B.; Fox, A. M.; Skolnick, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Clarke, E. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-09

    A fundamental component of an integrated quantum optical circuit is an on-chip beam-splitter operating at the single-photon level. Here, we demonstrate the monolithic integration of an on-demand quantum emitter in the form of a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot (QD) with a compact (>10 μm), air clad, free standing directional coupler acting as a beam-splitter for anti-bunched light. The device was tested by using single photons emitted by a QD embedded in one of the input arms of the device. We verified the single-photon nature of the QD signal by performing Hanbury Brown-Twiss measurements and demonstrated single-photon beam splitting by cross-correlating the signal from the separate output ports of the directional coupler.

  15. Advances in gallium arsenide monolithic microwave integrated-circuit technology for space communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Connolly, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Future communications satellites are likely to use gallium arsenide (GaAs) monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) technology in most, if not all, communications payload subsystems. Multiple-scanning-beam antenna systems are expected to use GaAs MMIC's to increase functional capability, to reduce volume, weight, and cost, and to greatly improve system reliability. RF and IF matrix switch technology based on GaAs MMIC's is also being developed for these reasons. MMIC technology, including gigabit-rate GaAs digital integrated circuits, offers substantial advantages in power consumption and weight over silicon technologies for high-throughput, on-board baseband processor systems. In this paper, current developments in GaAs MMIC technology are described, and the status and prospects of the technology are assessed.

  16. Monolithic integration of electroabsorption modulator and DFB laser for 10-Gb/s transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q.; Pan, J. Q.; Zhang, J.; Li, B. X.; Zhou, F.; Wang, B. J.; Wang, L. F.; Bian, J.; Zhao, L. J.; Wang, W.

    2006-04-01

    A strained InGaAsP-InP multiple-quantum-well DFB laser monolithically integrated with electroabsorption modulator by ultra-low-pressure (22 mbar) selective-area-growth is presented. The integrated chip exhibits superior characteristics, such as low threshold current of 19 mA, single-mode operation around 1550 nm range with side-mode suppression ratio over 40 dB, and larger than 16 dB extinction ratio when coupled into a single-mode fiber. More than 10 GHz modulation bandwidth is also achieved. After packaged in a compact module, the device successfully performs 10-Gb/s NRZ transmission experiments through 53.3 km of standard fiber with 8.7 dB dynamic extinction ratio. A receiver sensitivity of -18.9 dBm at bit-error-rate of 10-10 is confirmed.

  17. Optical 40 GHz pulse source module based on a monolithically integrated mode locked DBR laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettl, B.; Kaiser, R.; Kroh, M.; Schubert, C.; Jacumeit, G.; Heidrich, H.

    2005-11-01

    In this paper the performance characteristics of compact optical 40 GHz pulse laser modules consisting of a monolithic mode-locked MQW DBR laser on GaInAsP/InP are reported. The monolithic devices were fabricated as tunable multi-section buried heterostructure lasers. A DBR grating is integrated at the output port of an extended cavity in order to meet the standardized ITU wavelength channels allocated in the spectral window around 1.55 μm in optical high speed communication networks. The fabricated 40 GHz lasers modules not only emit short optical pulses (< 1.5 ps) with very low amplitude noise (<1.5 %) and phase noise levels (timing jitter: 50 fs) but also enable good pulse-to-pulse phase and long-term stability. A wavelength tuning range of 6 nm is possible and large locking bandwidths between 100 ... 260 MHz are observed. All data have been achieved by operating the lasers in a hybrid mode-locking scheme with a required minimum micro-wave power of only 12 dBm for pulse synchronization. Details on laser chip architecture and module performance are summarized and the results of a stable and error free module performance in first 160 Gb/s (4 x 40 Gb/s OTDM) RZ-DPSK transmission experiments are presented.

  18. Problems of Reliability of Semiconductor Integrated Circuits in Plastic Housings,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-24

    of PNP transistors in plastic housings (expressed in % per 1000 h) with the 90% confidence level as a function of the sum of temperature T (in oC) and...semiconductor integrated circuits are basically modified versions of transistor housings. The characteristic feature of that type of a housing is...utilization of well-mastered technological processes introduced directly from the transistor production. Those housings have been thoroughly studied and

  19. 75 FR 24742 - In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products... semiconductor chips and products containing same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent Nos... certain large scale integrated circuit semiconductor chips or products containing the same that...

  20. A bit-rate flexible and power efficient all-optical demultiplexer realised by monolithically integrated Michelson interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaa, Michael; Mikkelsen, Benny; Jepsen, Kim Stokholm;

    1996-01-01

    A novel bit-rate flexible and very power efficient all-optical demultiplexer using differential optical control of a monolithically integrated Michelson interferometer with MQW SOAs is demonstrated at 40 to 10 Gbit/s. Gain switched DFB lasers provide ultra stable data and control signals....

  1. 77 FR 60721 - Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain semiconductor...

  2. A monolithically integrated detector-preamplifier on high-resistivity silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, S.; Spieler, H.

    1990-02-01

    A monolithically integrated detector-preamplifier on high-resistivity silicon has been designed, fabricated and characterized. The detector is a fully depleted p-i-n diode and the preamplifier is implemented in a depletion-mode PMOS process which is compatible with detector processing. The amplifier is internally compensated and the measured gain-bandwidth product is 30 MHz with an input-referred noise of 15 nV/{radical}Hz in the white noise regime. Measurements with an Am{sup 241} radiation source yield an equivalent input noise charge of 800 electrons at 200 ns shaping time for a 1.4 mm{sup 2} detector with on-chip amplifier in an experimental setup with substantial external pickup.

  3. Fully integrated monolithic opoelectronic transducer for real.time protein and DNA detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misiakos, Konstatinos; S. Petrou, Panagiota; E. Kakabakos, Sotirios

    2010-01-01

    scheme through a board-to-board receptacle was developed and combined with a portable customized readout and control instrument. Real-time detection of deleterious mutations in BRCA1 gene related to predisposition to hereditary breast/ovarian cancer was performed with the instrument developed using PCR......The development and testing of a portable bioanalytical device which was capable for real-time monitoring of binding assays was demonstrated. The device was based on arrays of nine optoelectronic transducers monolithically integrated on silicon chips. The optocouplers consisted of nine silicon...... products. Detection was based on waveguided photons elimination through interaction with fluorescently labeled PCR products. Detection of single biomolecular binding events was also demonstrated using nanoparticles as labels. In addition, label-free monitoring of bioreactions in real time was achieved...

  4. Monolithically mode division multiplexing photonic integrated circuit for large-capacity optical interconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanyu; Yu, Yu; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    We propose and fabricate an on-chip mode division multiplexed (MDM) photonic interconnection system. Such a monolithically photonic integrated circuit (PIC) is composed of a grating coupler, two micro-ring modulators, mode multiplexer/demultiplexer, and two germanium photodetectors. The signals' generation, multiplexing, transmission, demultiplexing, and detection are successfully demonstrated on the same chip. Twenty Gb/s MDM signals are successfully processed with clear and open eye diagrams, validating the feasibility of the proposed circuit. The measured power penalties show a good performance of the MDM link. The proposed on-chip MDM system can be potentially used for large-capacity optical interconnection in future high-performance computers and big data centers.

  5. Laser diode monolithically integrated with an electroabsorption modulator and dual-waveguide spot-size converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lianping; Wang, Wei; Feng, Wen; Liang, Song; Zhu, Hongliang; Zhou, Fan; Wang, Lufeng; Bian, Jing

    2005-06-01

    A 1.60-µm laser diode and electroabsorption modulator monolithically integrated with a dual-waveguide spot-size converter output for low-loss coupling to cleaved single-mode optical fiber is demonstrated. The devices emit in a single transverse and quasi-single longitudinal mode with a side mode suppression ratio of 25.6 dB. These devices exhibit a 3-dB modulation bandwidth of 16.0 GHz, and modulator extinction ratios of 16.2 dB dc. The beam divergence angle is about 7.3×10.6 deg, resulting in 3.0-dB coupling loss with cleaved single-mode optical fiber.

  6. Diffraction coupled phase-locked arrays of quantum cascade lasers with monolithically integrated Talbot cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lei; Jia, Zhi-Wei; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Chuan-Wei; Liu, Ying-Hui; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Zhuo, Ning; Liu, Feng-Qi; Xu, Xian-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Diffraction coupled arrays of quantum cascade laser are presented. The phase-locked behavior is achieved through monolithic integration of a Talbot cavity at one side of the laser array. The principle is based on fractional Talbot effect. By controlling length of Talbot cavity to be a quarter of Talbot distance (Zt/4), in-phase mode operation is selected. Measured far-field radiation patterns reflect stable in-phase mode operation under different injection currents, from threshold current to full power current. Diffraction-limited performance is shown from the lateral far-field, where three peaks can be obtained and main peak and side peak interval is 10.5{\\deg}. The phase-locked arrays with in-phase mode operation may be a feasible solution to get higher output power and maintain well beam quality meanwhile.

  7. An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothberg, Jonathan M; Hinz, Wolfgang; Rearick, Todd M; Schultz, Jonathan; Mileski, William; Davey, Mel; Leamon, John H; Johnson, Kim; Milgrew, Mark J; Edwards, Matthew; Hoon, Jeremy; Simons, Jan F; Marran, David; Myers, Jason W; Davidson, John F; Branting, Annika; Nobile, John R; Puc, Bernard P; Light, David; Clark, Travis A; Huber, Martin; Branciforte, Jeffrey T; Stoner, Isaac B; Cawley, Simon E; Lyons, Michael; Fu, Yutao; Homer, Nils; Sedova, Marina; Miao, Xin; Reed, Brian; Sabina, Jeffrey; Feierstein, Erika; Schorn, Michelle; Alanjary, Mohammad; Dimalanta, Eileen; Dressman, Devin; Kasinskas, Rachel; Sokolsky, Tanya; Fidanza, Jacqueline A; Namsaraev, Eugeni; McKernan, Kevin J; Williams, Alan; Roth, G Thomas; Bustillo, James

    2011-07-20

    The seminal importance of DNA sequencing to the life sciences, biotechnology and medicine has driven the search for more scalable and lower-cost solutions. Here we describe a DNA sequencing technology in which scalable, low-cost semiconductor manufacturing techniques are used to make an integrated circuit able to directly perform non-optical DNA sequencing of genomes. Sequence data are obtained by directly sensing the ions produced by template-directed DNA polymerase synthesis using all-natural nucleotides on this massively parallel semiconductor-sensing device or ion chip. The ion chip contains ion-sensitive, field-effect transistor-based sensors in perfect register with 1.2 million wells, which provide confinement and allow parallel, simultaneous detection of independent sequencing reactions. Use of the most widely used technology for constructing integrated circuits, the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, allows for low-cost, large-scale production and scaling of the device to higher densities and larger array sizes. We show the performance of the system by sequencing three bacterial genomes, its robustness and scalability by producing ion chips with up to 10 times as many sensors and sequencing a human genome.

  8. Integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Ling-Xiu; Liu, Bo-Wen; Lv, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Huang, Yong-Zhen, E-mail: yzhuang@semi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-05-11

    We experimentally study the characteristics of an integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection through a connected optical waveguide. Based on the lasing spectra, four-wave mixing, injection locking, and period-two oscillation states are observed due to the mutually optical injection by adjusting the injected currents applied to the two microdisks. The enhanced 3 dB bandwidth is realized for the microdisk laser at the injection locking state, and photonic microwave is obtained from the electrode of the microdisk laser under the period-two oscillation state. The plentifully dynamical states similar as semiconductor lasers subject to external optical injection are realized due to strong optical interaction between the two microdisks.

  9. Three-dimensional (3D) monolithically integrated photodetector and WDM receiver based on bulk silicon wafer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Junfeng; Luo, Xianshu; Tu, Xiaoguang; Jia, Lianxi; Fang, Qing; Liow, Tsung-Yang; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guo-Qiang

    2014-08-11

    We propose a novel three-dimensional (3D) monolithic optoelectronic integration platform. Such platform integrates both electrical and photonic devices in a bulk silicon wafer, which eliminates the high-cost silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer and is more suitable for process requirements of electronic and photonic integrated circuits (ICs). For proof-of-concept, we demonstrate a three-dimensional photodetector and WDM receiver system. The Ge is grown on a 8-inch bulk silicon wafer while the optical waveguide is defined in a SiN layer which is deposited on top of it, with ~4 µm oxide sandwiched in between. The light is directed to the Ge photodetector from the SiN waveguide vertically by using grating coupler with a Aluminum mirror on top of it. The measured photodetector responsivity is ~0.2 A/W and the 3-dB bandwidth is ~2 GHz. Using such vertical-coupled photodetector, we demonstrated an 8-channel receiver by integrating a 1 × 8 arrayed waveguide grating (AWG). High-quality optical signal detection with up to 10 Gbit/s data rate is demonstrated, suggesting a 80 Gbit/s throughput. Such receiver can be applied to on-chip optical interconnect, DRAM interface, and telecommunication systems.

  10. EML Array fabricated by SAG technique monolithically integrated with a buried ridge AWG multiplexer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junjie; Liang, Song; Zhang, Zhike; An, Junming; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Wei

    2017-06-01

    We report the fabrication of a ten channel electroabsorption modulated DFB laser (EML) array. Different emission wavelengths of the laser array are obtained by selective area growth (SAG) technique, which is also used for the integration of electroabsorption modulators (EAM) with the lasers. An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) combiner is integrated monolithically with the laser array by butt-joint regrowth (BJR) technique. A buried ridge waveguide structure is adopted for the AWG combiner. A self aligned fabrication procedure is adopted for the fabrication of the waveguide structure of the device to eliminate the misalignment between the laser active waveguide and the passive waveguide. A Ti thin film heater is integrated for each laser in the array. With the help of the heaters, ten laser emissions with 1.8 nm channel spacing are obtained. The integrated EAM has a larger than 11 dB static extinction ratios and larger than 8 GHz small signal modulation bandwidths. The light power collected in the output waveguide of the AWG is larger than -13 dBm for each wavelength.

  11. Novel planarization and passivation in the integration of III-V semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun-Fei; Hanberg, Peter J.; Demir, Hilmi V.; Sabnis, Vijit A.; Fidaner, Onur; Harris, James S., Jr.; Miller, David A. B.

    2004-06-01

    III-V semiconductor devices typically use structures grown layer-by-layer and require passivation of sidewalls by vertical etching to reduce leakage current. The passivation is conventionally achieved by sealing the sidewalls using polymer and the polymer needs to be planarized by polymer etch-back method to device top for metal interconnection. It is very challenging to achieve perfect planarization needed for sidewalls of all the device layers including the top layer to be completely sealed. We introduce a novel hard-mask-assisted self-aligned planarization process that allows the polymer in 1-3 μm vicinity of the devices to be planarized perfectly to the top of devices. The hard-mask-assisted process also allows self-aligned via formation for metal interconnection to device top of μm size. The hard mask is removed to expose a very clean device top surface for depositing metals for low ohmic contact resistance metal interconnection. The process is robust because it is insensitive to device height difference, spin-on polymer thickness variation, and polymer etch non-uniformity. We have demonstrated high yield fabrication of monolithically integrated optical switch arrays with mesa diodes and waveguide electroabsorption modulators on InP substrate with yield > 90%, high breakdown voltage of > 15 Volts, and low ohmic contact resistance of 10-20 Ω.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of monolithically integrated microchannel plates based on amorphous silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Andrea; Geissbühler, Jonas; Wyrsch, Nicolas; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-04-04

    Microchannel plates are vacuum-based electron multipliers for particle--in particular, photon--detection, with applications ranging from image intensifiers to single-photon detectors. Their key strengths are large signal amplification, large active area, micrometric spatial resolution and picosecond temporal resolution. Here, we present the first microchannel plate made of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) instead of lead glass. The breakthrough lies in the possibility of realizing amorphous silicon-based microchannel plates (AMCPs) on any kind of substrate. This achievement is based on mastering the deposition of an ultra-thick (80-120 μm) stress-controlled a-Si:H layer from the gas phase at temperatures of about 200 °C and micromachining the channels by dry etching. We fabricated AMCPs that are vertically integrated on metallic anodes of test structures, proving the feasibility of monolithic integration of, for instance, AMCPs on application-specific integrated circuits for signal processing. We show an electron multiplication factor exceeding 30 for an aspect ratio, namely channel length over aperture, of 12.5:1. This result was achieved for input photoelectron currents up to 100 pA, in the continuous illumination regime, which provides a first evidence of the a-Si:H effectiveness in replenishing the electrons dispensed in the multiplication process.

  13. Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electro-absorption modulators and photodetectors on a SOI platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jifeng; Pan, Dong; Jongthammanurak, Samerkhae; Wada, Kazumi; Kimerling, Lionel C.; Michel, Jurgen

    2007-01-01

    We present a design of monolithically integrated GeSi electroabsorption modulators and photodetectors for electronic-photonic integrated circuits on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. The GeSi electroabsorption modulator is based on the Franz-Keldysh effect, and the GeSi composition is chosen for optimal performance around 1550 nm. The designed modulator device is butt-coupled to Si(core)/SiO2(cladding) high index contrast waveguides, and has a predicted 3 dB bandwidth of >50 GHz and an extinction ratio of 10 dB. The same device structure can also be used for a waveguide-coupled photodetector with a predicted responsivity of > 1 A/W and a 3 dB bandwidth of > 35 GHz. Use of the same GeSi composition and device structure allows efficient monolithic process integration of the modulators and the photodetectors on an SOI platform.

  14. A monolithic, standard CMOS, fully differential optical receiver with an integrated MSM photodetector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Changliang; Mao Luhong; Xiao Xindong; Xie Sheng; Zhang Shilin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a realization of a silicon-based standard CMOS, fully differential optoelectronic inte grated receiver based on a metal-semiconductor-metal light detector (MSM photodetector). In the optical receiver, two MSM photodetectors are integrated to convert the incident light signal into a pair of fully differential photo generated currents. The optoelectronic integrated receiver was designed and implemented in a chartered 0.35 μm, 3.3 V standard CMOS process. For 850 nm wavelength, it achieves a 1 GHz 3 dB bandwidth due to the MSM pho todetector's low capacitance and high intrinsic bandwidth. In addition, it has a transimpedance gain of 98.75 dBΩ, and an equivalent input integrated referred noise current of 283 nA from 1 Hz up to -3 dB frequency.

  15. Monolithic integration of III-V nanowire with photonic crystal microcavity for vertical light emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrue, Alexandre; Wilhelm, Christophe; Vest, Gwenaelle; Combrié, Sylvain; de Rossi, Alfredo; Soci, Cesare

    2012-03-26

    A novel photonic structure formed by the monolithic integration of a vertical III-V nanowire on top of a L3 two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavity is proposed to enhance light emission from the nanowire. The impact on the nanowire spontaneous emission rate is evaluated by calculating the spontaneous emission factor β, and the material gain at threshold is used as a figure of merit of this vertical emitting nanolaser. An optimal design is identified for a GaAs nanowire geometry with r = 155 nm and L~1.1 μm, where minimum gain at threshold (gth~13×10³ cm⁻¹) and large spontaneous emission factor (β~0.3) are simultaneously achieved. Modification of the directivity of the L3 photonic crystal cavity via the band-folding principle is employed to further optimize the far-field radiation pattern and to increase the directivity of the device. These results lay the foundation for a new approach toward large-scale integration of vertical emitting nanolasers and may enable applications such as intra-chip optical interconnects.

  16. Optical spectroscopy of p-GaAs nanopillars on Si for monolithic integrated light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, J. S. D.; Gandan, S.; Ren, D.; Ochalski, Tomasz J.; Huffaker, Diana L.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we study the optical properties and emission dynamics of the novel nanostructure p-GaAs nanopillars (NPs) on Si. The integration of III-V optoelectronics on Si substrates is essential for next-generation high-speed communications. NPs on Si are good candidates as gain media in monolithically integrated small-scale lasers on silicon. In order to develop this technology, an in-depth knowledge of the NP structure is necessary to resolve its optimal optical properties. The optical characterization which has been carried out consists of the emission analysis for different NP geometries. We measured NPs with different combinations of pitch (of the order of a few μm) and diameter (of the order of tens of nm). A comparison of intensities for the various NPs provides us with the most efficient geometry. The quality of the crystal grown has been studied from temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL). A red shift and a significant reduction of the intensity of the NP emission are observed with an increase in temperature. The results also show the presence of two non-radiative recombination channels when the intensity peaks at different temperatures are analyzed with the activation energy function.

  17. Monolithic integration of AlGaInP-based red and InGaN-based green LEDs via adhesive bonding for multicolor emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-Mo; Kang, Seok-Jin; Mun, Seung-Hyun; Choi, Soo-Young; Min, Jung-Hong; Kim, Sanghyeon; Shim, Jae-Phil; Lee, Dong-Seon

    2017-09-04

    In general, to realize full color, inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are diced from respective red-green-blue (RGB) wafers consisting of inorganic crystalline semiconductors. Although this conventional method can realize full color, it is limited when applied to microdisplays requiring high resolution. Designing a structure emitting various colors by integrating both AlGaInP-based and InGaN-based LEDs onto one substrate could be a solution to achieve full color with high resolution. Herein, we introduce adhesive bonding and a chemical wet etching process to monolithically integrate two materials with different bandgap energies for green and red light emission. We successfully transferred AlGaInP-based red LED film onto InGaN-based green LEDs without any cracks or void areas and then separated the green and red subpixel LEDs in a lateral direction; the dual color LEDs integrated by the bonding technique were tunable from the green to red color regions (530-630 nm) as intended. In addition, we studied vertically stacked subpixel LEDs by deeply analyzing their light absorption and the interaction between the top and bottom pixels to achieve ultra-high resolution.

  18. Semiconductor Devices Inspired By and Integrated With Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, John [University of Illinois

    2012-04-25

    Biology is curved, soft and elastic; silicon wafers are not. Semiconductor technologies that can bridge this gap in form and mechanics will create new opportunities in devices that adopt biologically inspired designs or require intimate integration with the human body. This talk describes the development of ideas for electronics that offer the performance of state-of-the-art, wafer- based systems but with the mechanical properties of a rubber band. We explain the underlying materials science and mechanics of these approaches, and illustrate their use in (1) bio- integrated, ‘tissue-like’ electronics with unique capabilities for mapping cardiac and neural electrophysiology, and (2) bio-inspired, ‘eyeball’ cameras with exceptional imaging properties enabled by curvilinear, Petzval designs.

  19. A monolithically integrated dual-mode laser for photonic microwave generation and all-optical clock recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liqiang; Zhou, Daibing; Zhao, Lingjuan

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate a monolithically integrated dual-mode laser (DML) with narrow-beat-linewidth and wide-beat-tunability. Using a monolithic DFB laser subjected to amplified feedback, photonic microwave generation of up to 45 GHz is obtained with higher than 15 GHz beat frequency tunability. Thanks to the high phase correlation of the two modes and the narrow mode linewidth, a RF linewidth of lower than 50 kHz is measured. Simulations are also carried out to illustrate the dual-mode beat characteristic. Furthermore, using the DML, an all-optical clock recovery for 40  Gbaud NRZ-QPSK signals is demonstrated. Timing jitter of lower than 363 fs (integrated within a frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 GHz) is obtained.

  20. Diode multipliers for submillimeter-wave InAlAs/InGaAs heterostructure monolithic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Y.; Pavlidis, D.

    1991-01-01

    InAlAs/InGaAs heterostructures are studied as multiplier elements for submillimeter-wave monolithic integrated circuits. The designs considered for this purpose are based on the principle of conventional HEMT, HEMT with n+ bottom layer, and a new proposed scheme of quantum-confined modulated charge (QCMC). The QCMC diode is analyzed theoretically and experimentally showing its potential operation capability at 1.5 THz.

  1. Integration of monolithic porous polymer with droplet-based microfluidics on a chip for nano/picoliter volume sample analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin-Young; Chang, Soo-Ik; Andrew J deMello; O’Hare, Danny

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a porous polymer nanostructure has been integrated with droplet-based microfluidics in a single planar format. Monolithic porous polymer (MPP) was formed selectively within a microfluidic channel. The resulting analyte bands were sequentially comartmentalised into droplets. This device reduces band broadening and the effects of post-column dead volume by the combination of the two techniques. Moreover it offers the precise control of nano/picoliter volume samples.

  2. Self-Powered Ultrabroadband Photodetector Monolithically Integrated on a PMN-PT Ferroelectric Single Crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Huajing; Xu, Chao; Ding, Jie; Li, Qiang; Sun, Jia-Lin; Dai, Ji-Yan; Ren, Tian-Ling; Yan, Qingfeng

    2016-12-07

    Photodetectors capable of detecting two or more bands simultaneously with a single system have attracted extensive attentions because of their critical applications in image sensing, communication, and so on. Here, we demonstrate a self-powered ultrabroadband photodetector monolithically integrated on a 0.72Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.28PbTiO3 (PMN-28PT) single crystal. By combining the optothermal and pyroelectric effect, the multifunctional PMN-28PT single crystal can response to a wide wavelength range from UV to terahertz (THz). At room temperature, the photodetector could generate a pyroelectric current under the intermittent illumination of incident light in absence of external bias. A systematic study of the photoresponse was investigated. The pyroelectric current shows an almost linear relationship to illumination intensity. Benefiting from the excellent pyroelectric property of PMN-28PT single crystal and the optimized device architecture, the device exhibited a dramatic improvement in operation frequency up to 3 kHz without any obvious degradation in sensitivity. Such a self-powered photodetector with ultrabroadband response may open a window for the novel application of ferroelectric materials in optoelectronics.

  3. Monolithically integrated mid-infrared sensor using narrow mode operation and temperature feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristanic, Daniela; Schwarz, Benedikt; Reininger, Peter; Detz, Hermann; Zederbauer, Tobias; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    A method to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of a monolithically integrated mid-infrared sensor using a distributed feedback laser (DFB) is presented in this paper. The sensor is based on a quantum cascade laser/detector system built from the same epitaxial structure and with the same fabrication approach. The devices are connected via a dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide with a twofold function: it provides high light coupling efficiency and a strong interaction of the light with the environment (e.g., a surrounding fluid). The weakly coupled DFB quantum cascade laser emits narrow mode light with a FWHM of 2 cm-1 at 1586 cm-1. The room temperature laser threshold current density is 3 kA/cm2 and a pulsed output power of around 200 mW was measured. With the superior laser noise performance, due to narrow mode emission and the compensation of thermal fluctuations, the lower limit of detection was expanded by one order of magnitude to the 10 ppm range.

  4. ATR LEU Monolithic Foil-Type Fuel with Integral Cladding Burnable Absorber – Neutronics Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray Chang

    2012-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), currently operating in the United States, is used for material testing at very high neutron fluxes. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum thermal power rating of 250 MWth. Because of the large test volumes located in high flux areas, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting HEU driven reactor cores to low-enriched uranium (LEU) cores. The burnable absorber - 10B, was added in the inner and outer plates to reduce the initial excess reactivity, and to improve the peak ratio of the inner/outer heat flux. The present work investigates the LEU Monolithic foil-type fuel with 10B Integral Cladding Burnable Absorber (ICBA) design and evaluates the subsequent neutronics operating effects of this proposed fuel designs. The proposed LEU fuel specification in this work is directly related to both the RERTR LEU Development Program and the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) LEU Conversion Project at Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  5. Monolithically integrated two-axis microgripper for polarization maintaining in optical fiber assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianbin; Lu, Kangkang; Chen, Weihai; Jiang, Jun; Chen, Wenjie

    2015-02-01

    Polarization maintaining optical fiber (PMOF) is a kind of special optical fiber that is designed to transmit the linearly polarized light. Unlike the general optical fiber, it is critical to conduct the rotational alignment between two PMOFs to guarantee the efficiency of light transmission. Until now, this alignment task still cannot be addressed with an efficient and economical way. Hence, we propose a monolithically integrated two-axis flexure-based microgripper that has the grasping and rubbing functions. To achieve a compact structure, the microgripper is designed with an asymmetric architecture. In this paper, the pseudo-rigid body model approach and finite element analysis are conducted to provide the essential guideline to accomplish the theoretical design. The prototype is fabricated by wire electrical discharge machining, with which two experiments are conducted to validate the performance of the microgripper. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed microgripper can firmly grasp the optical fiber with the diameter of 250 μm and meanwhile can rub it more than 90° accurately and effectively, which indicate that it can satisfy the operating requirements well in the PMOF assembly.

  6. Analog characterization of a Franz-Keldysh electroabsorption modulator monolithically integrated with a DFB laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oennegren, Jan; Svedin, Jan; Sahlen, Olof; Jansson, Mats; Alping, Arne G.

    1995-10-01

    Electroabsorption modulators (EA) are attractive components for very high speed digital links (up to 40 Gbit/s). The objective of the present work has been to evaluate the analog performance and use of a Franz Keldysh modulator (FK) monolithically integrated with a DFB laser (DFB/FK-modulator) operating at 1550 nm. This DFB/FK-modulator is a combination of a directly modulated laser diode and an external modulator in one chip. The analog performance is therefore depending on both the modulator bias voltage and DFB-laser bias current. The normal optical output characteristic from an EA-modulator has a strongly nonlinear behavior. The modulator described in this paper shows for low bias voltage and/or high laser current a linear bahavior. This linear behavior is mainly due to the hole pile-up effect at the p/i-interface of the modulator. In digital transmission system this hole pile-up effect is a disadvantage, but in an analog transmission system it can be used to achieve better analog performance. Measurements (and simulations) on the DFB/FK-modulator show that its analog performance competes well with direct modulated FP and DFB lasers, especially if the modulator is biased for optimum analog performance.

  7. Design and performance of monolithic integrated electro-absorption modulated distributed feedback laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, YuanBing; Pan, JiaoQing; Zhou, Fan; Wang, BaoJun; Zhu, Hongliang; Zhao, Lingjuan; Wang, Wei

    2007-11-01

    High performance InGaAsP/InGaAsP strained compensated multiple-quantum-well (MQW) electroabsorption modulators (EAM) monolithically integrated with a DFB laser diode have been designed and realized by ultra low metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) based on a novel butt-joint scheme. The optimization thickness of upper SCH layer for DFB and EAM was obtained of the proposed MQW structure of the EAM through numerical simulation and experiment. The device containing 250 μm DFB and 170 μm EAM shows good material quality and exhibits a threshold current of 17mA, an extinction ratio of higher than 30 dB and a very high modulation efficiency (12dB/V) from 0V to 1V. By adopting a high-mesa ridge waveguide and buried polyimide, the capacitance of the modulator is reduced to about 0.30 pF corresponding to a 3dB bandwidth more than 20GHz.

  8. Ni-Cr thin film resistor fabrication for GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinayak, Seema [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Delhi-110054 (India)]. E-mail: seema_vinayak@rediffmail.com; Vyas, H.P. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Delhi-110054 (India); Muraleedharan, K. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad-500058 (India); Vankar, V.D. [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi- 110016 (India)

    2006-08-30

    Different Ni-Cr alloys were sputter-deposited on silicon nitride-coated GaAs substrates and covered with a spin-coated polyimide layer to develop thin film metal resistors for GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs). The contact to the resistors was made through vias in the polyimide layer by sputter-deposited Ti/Au interconnect metal. The variation of contact resistance, sheet resistance (R {sub S}) and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of the Ni-Cr resistors with fabrication process parameters such as polyimide curing thermal cycles and surface treatment given to the wafer prior to interconnect metal deposition has been studied. The Ni-Cr thin film resistors exhibited lower R {sub S} and higher TCR compared to the as-deposited Ni-Cr film that was not subjected to thermal cycles involved in the MMIC fabrication process. The change in resistivity and TCR values of Ni-Cr films during the MMIC fabrication process was found to be dependent on the Ni-Cr alloy composition.

  9. Monolithically integrated mid-infrared sensor using narrow mode operation and temperature feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristanic, Daniela; Schwarz, Benedikt, E-mail: benedikt.schwarz@tuwien.ac.at; Reininger, Peter; Detz, Hermann; Zederbauer, Tobias; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried [Institute for Solid State Electronics and Center for Micro- and Nanostructures, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, Vienna 1040 (Austria)

    2015-01-26

    A method to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of a monolithically integrated mid-infrared sensor using a distributed feedback laser (DFB) is presented in this paper. The sensor is based on a quantum cascade laser/detector system built from the same epitaxial structure and with the same fabrication approach. The devices are connected via a dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide with a twofold function: it provides high light coupling efficiency and a strong interaction of the light with the environment (e.g., a surrounding fluid). The weakly coupled DFB quantum cascade laser emits narrow mode light with a FWHM of 2 cm{sup −1} at 1586 cm{sup −1}. The room temperature laser threshold current density is 3 kA∕cm{sup 2} and a pulsed output power of around 200 mW was measured. With the superior laser noise performance, due to narrow mode emission and the compensation of thermal fluctuations, the lower limit of detection was expanded by one order of magnitude to the 10 ppm range.

  10. Integration of mode-locked diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, A. Catrina; Hou, Lianping; Marsh, John H.

    2016-03-01

    Monolithic mode-locked semiconductor lasers are attractive sources of short optical pulses with advantages over more conventional sources in compactness, robustness, performance stability, power consumption, and cost savings. The use of quantum well intermixing (QWI) to integrate passive sections and surface etched distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) into monolithic laser cavity will be described. The performance of the devices will be presented.

  11. Suitability of integrated protection diodes from diverse semiconductor technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanum, van Maurice; Lebouille, Tom; Visser, Guido; Vliet, van Frank E.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this article diodes from three different semiconductor technologies are compared based on their suitability to protect a receiver. The semiconductor materials involved are silicon, gallium arsenide and gallium nitride. The diodes in the diverse semiconductor technologies themselves are c

  12. Suitability of integrated protection diodes from diverse semiconductor technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanum, M. van; Lebouille, T.T.N.; Visser, G.C.; Vliet, F.E. van

    2009-01-01

    In this article diodes from three different semiconductor technologies are compared based on their suitability to protect a receiver. The semiconductor materials involved are Silicon, Gallium Arsenide and Gallium Nitride. The diodes in the diverse semiconductor technologies themselves are close in p

  13. First system experiments with a monolithically integrated tunable polarization diversity heterodyne receiver OEIC on InP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbk, U.; Hermes, T.; Meissner, P.; Westphal, F. J.; Jacumeit, G.; Stenzel, R.; Unterboersch, G.

    1995-01-01

    System performance of an integrated polarization diversity heterodyne receiver optoelectronic IC (OEIC) is reported. The OEIC is monolithically integrated on InP. It includes a tunable 4 section DBR laser (quasi continuous tuning range 3.5 nm) and balanced photodiodes. The packaged OEIC is supplied with a fiber pigtail. Stable and polarization independent operation is achieved without any tendency for a bit error floor. The sensitivity at 1550.2 nm is -33.5 dBm at a bitrate of 140 Mbit/s. The performance of the OEIC based receiver is verified by operating in an experimental OFDM-TV distribution system with 4 channels.

  14. Monolithic narrow-linewidth InGaAsP semiconductor laser for coherent optical communications. Final report, 6 August 1987-9 June 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palfrey, S.L.; Enstrom, R.E.; Longeway, P.A.

    1989-09-01

    A design for a monolithic narrow-linewidth InGaAsP diode laser has been developed using a multiple-quantum-well (MQW) extended-passive-cavity distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) laser design. Theoretical results indicate that this structure has the potential for a linewidth of 100 kHz or less. To realize this device, a number of the fabrication techniques required to integrate low-loss passive waveguides with active regions have been developed using a DBR laser structure. In addition, the MOCVD growth of InGaAs MQW laser structures has been developed, and threshold current densities as low as 1.6 kA/sq cm have been obtained from broad-stripe InGaAs/InGaAsP separate-confinement-heterostructure MQW lasers.

  15. Design of monoliths through their mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgornik, Aleš; Savnik, Aleš; Jančar, Janez; Krajnc, Nika Lendero

    2014-03-14

    Chromatographic monoliths have several interesting properties making them attractive supports for analytics but also for purification, especially of large biomolecules and bioassemblies. Although many of monolith features were thoroughly investigated, there is no data available to predict how monolith mechanical properties affect its chromatographic performance. In this work, we investigated the effect of porosity, pore size and chemical modification on methacrylate monolith compression modulus. While a linear correlation between pore size and compression modulus was found, the effect of porosity was highly exponential. Through these correlations it was concluded that chemical modification affects monolith porosity without changing the monolith skeleton integrity. Mathematical model to describe the change of monolith permeability as a function of monolith compression modulus was derived and successfully validated for monoliths of different geometries and pore sizes. It enables the prediction of pressure drop increase due to monolith compressibility for any monolith structural characteristics, such as geometry, porosity, pore size or mobile phase properties like viscosity or flow rate, based solely on the data of compression modulus and structural data of non-compressed monolith. Furthermore, it enables simple determination of monolith pore size at which monolith compressibility is the smallest and the most robust performance is expected. Data of monolith compression modulus in combination with developed mathematical model can therefore be used for the prediction of monolith permeability during its implementation but also to accelerate the design of novel chromatographic monoliths with desired hydrodynamic properties for particular application.

  16. Computer Aided Design of Monolithic Microwave and Millimeter Wave Integrated Circuits and Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    methods," SIAM J. as a Consultant to DOD on the VHSIC and various monolithic programs Numer. Anal., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 510-536, 1983. and industrial ...algorithm," Acta Electronica Sinica. vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 91-96, 1986. Neglecting the higher order terms, we can express ,(x) 161 J. E. Dennis. Jr

  17. Monolithic liquid-chromatography columns for protein analysisprotein digest separation and integrated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent, M.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the research described in this thesis are to evaluate the applicability of both silica-based and polymeric monolithic columns for protein analysis. The first part describes investigations into the effects of column length and stationary-phase chemistry on the separation of protein

  18. Back End of Line Nanorelays for Ultra-low Power Monolithic Integrated NEMS-CMOS Circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Lechuga Aranda, Jesus Javier

    2016-05-01

    Since the introduction of Complementary-Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology, the chip industry has enjoyed many benefits of transistor feature size scaling, including higher speed and device density and improved energy efficiency. However, in the recent years, the IC designers have encountered a few roadblocks, namely reaching the physical limits of scaling and also increased device leakage which has resulted in a slow-down of supply voltage and power density scaling. Therefore, there has been an extensive hunt for alternative circuit architectures and switching devices that can alleviate or eliminate the current crisis in the semiconductor industry. The Nano-Electro-Mechanical (NEM) relay is a promising alternative switch that offers zero leakage and abrupt turn-on behaviour. Even though these devices are intrinsically slower than CMOS transistors, new circuit design techniques tailored for the electromechanical properties of such devices can be leveraged to design medium performance, ultra-low power integrated circuits. In this thesis, we deal with a new generation of such devices that is built in the back end of line (BEOL) CMOS process and is an ideal option for full integration with current CMOS transistor technology. Simulation and verification at the circuit and system level is a critical step in the design flow of microelectronic circuits, and this is especially important for new technologies that lack the standard design infrastructure and well-known verification platforms. Although most of the physical and electrical properties of NEM structures can be simulated using standard electronic automation software, there is no report of a reliable behavioural model for NEMS switches that enable large circuit simulations. In this work, we present an optimised model of a BEOL nano relay that encompasses all the electromechanical characteristics of the device and is robust and lightweight enough for VLSI applications that require simulation of thousands of

  19. A Monolithically Integrated Gallium Nitride Nanowire/Silicon Solar Cell Photocathode for Selective Carbon Dioxide Reduction to Methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yichen; Fan, Shizhao; AlOtaibi, Bandar; Wang, Yongjie; Li, Lu; Mi, Zetian

    2016-06-20

    A gallium nitride nanowire/silicon solar cell photocathode for the photoreduction of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is demonstrated. Such a monolithically integrated nanowire/solar cell photocathode offers several unique advantages, including the absorption of a large part of the solar spectrum and highly efficient carrier extraction. With the incorporation of copper as the co-catalyst, the devices exhibit a Faradaic efficiency of about 19 % for the 8e(-) photoreduction to CH4 at -1.4 V vs Ag/AgCl, a value that is more than thirty times higher than that for the 2e(-) reduced CO (ca. 0.6 %).

  20. Monolithic integration of GaAs/GaAlAs buried-heterostructure orthogonal facet laser and optical waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribot, H.; Sansonetti, P.; Brandon, J.; Carre, M.; Menigaux, L.; Azoulay, R.; Bouadma, N.

    1989-02-06

    Monolithic integration of a quarter-circle laser evanescently coupled to an optical waveguide located below the active layer is demonstrated on GaAs. The curved resonator consists of a 45-..mu..m-long straight part and a quarter circle with a curvature radius of 150 ..mu..m. The component exhibits a threshold current of 50 mA in a pulsed regime. A 10 mW emission is measured from a 415-..mu..m-long tangential straight waveguide for an injection current of 140 mA.

  1. InP-based monolithically integrated 1310/1550nm diplexer/triplexer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfvenius, C.; Swillo, M.; Claesson, J.; Forsberg, E.; Akram, N.; Chacinski, M.; Thylén, L.

    2008-11-01

    Multiple streams of high definition television (HDTV) and improved home-working infrastructure are currently driving forces for potential fiber to the home (FTTH) customers [1]. There is an interest to reduce the cost and physical size of the FTTH equipment. The current fabrication methods have reached a cost minimum. We have addressed the costchallenge by developing 1310/(1490)/1550nm bidirectional diplexers, by monolithic seamless integration of lasers, photodiodes and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) couplers into one single InP-based device. A 250nm wide optical gain profile covers the spectrum from 1310 to 1550nm and is the principal building block. The device fabrication is basically based on the established configuration of using split-contacts on continuos waveguides. Optical and electrical cross-talks are further addressed by using a Y-configuration to physically separate the components from each other and avoid inline configurations such as when the incoming signal travels through the laser component or vice versa. By the eliminated butt-joint interfaces which can reflect light between components or be a current leakage path and by leaving optically absorbing (unpumped active) material to surround the components to absorb spontaneous emission and nonintentional reflections the devices are optically and electrically isolated from each other. Ridge waveguides (RWG) form the waveguides and which also maintain the absorbing material between them. The WDM functionality is designed for a large optical bandwidth complying with the wide spectral range in FTTH applications and also reducing the polarization dependence of the WDM-coupler. Lasing is achieved by forming facet-free, λ/4-shifted, DFB (distributed feedback laser) lasers emitting directly into the waveguide. The photodiodes are waveguide photo-diodes (WGPD). Our seamless technology is also able to array the single channel diplexers to 4 to 12 channel diplexer arrays with 250μm fiber port

  2. Integration of Magneto-Optical Materials for Novel Optical Devices & Magnetophotonic Crystals Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work proposes to capitalize on our Phase I success in monolithically integrating magneto-optic and magnetic materials with semiconductor platforms in order to...

  3. Integration of Solar Cells on Top of CMOS Chips - Part II: CIGS Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Liu, Wei; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Sun, Yun; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of deepsubmicrometer complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) microchips with copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) solar cells. Solar cells are manufactured directly on unpackaged CMOS chips. The microchips maintain comparable electronic performance,

  4. Integration of Solar Cells on Top of CMOS Chips - Part II: CIGS Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Jiwu; Liu, Wei; Kovalgin, Alexey Y.; Sun, Yun; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of deepsubmicrometer complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) microchips with copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) solar cells. Solar cells are manufactured directly on unpackaged CMOS chips. The microchips maintain comparable electronic performance,

  5. Towards monolithic integration of mode-locked vertical cavity surface emitting laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaz, Rafael I.

    2007-12-01

    The speed and performance of today's high end computing and communications systems have placed difficult but still feasible demands on off-chip electrical interconnects. However, future interconnect systems may need aggregate bandwidths well into the terahertz range thereby making electrical bandwidth, density, and power targets impossible to meet. Optical interconnects, and specifically compact semiconductor mode-locked lasers, could alleviate this problem by providing short pulses in time at 10s of GHz repetition rates for Optical Time Division Multiplexing (OTDM) and clock distribution applications. Furthermore, the characteristic spectral comb of frequencies of these lasers could also serve as a multi-wavelength source for Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) applications. A fully integrated mode-locked Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) is proposed as a low-cost high-speed source for these applications. The fundamental laser platform for such a device has been developed and a continuous-wave version of these lasers has been fabricated and demonstrated excellent results. Output powers close to 60mW have been obtained with very high beam quality factor of M2 unassisted ultrafast QD saturable absorbers, without the need to incorporate high concentrations of non radiative recombination centers by either ion-implantation or low temperature growth.

  6. Chemistry integrated circuit: chemical system on a complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazato, Kazuo

    2014-03-28

    By integrating chemical reactions on a large-scale integration (LSI) chip, new types of device can be created. For biomedical applications, monolithically integrated sensor arrays for potentiometric, amperometric and impedimetric sensing of biomolecules have been developed. The potentiometric sensor array detects pH and redox reaction as a statistical distribution of fluctuations in time and space. For the amperometric sensor array, a microelectrode structure for measuring multiple currents at high speed has been proposed. The impedimetric sensor array is designed to measure impedance up to 10 MHz. The multimodal sensor array will enable synthetic analysis and make it possible to standardize biosensor chips. Another approach is to create new functional devices by integrating molecular systems with LSI chips, for example image sensors that incorporate biological materials with a sensor array. The quantum yield of the photoelectric conversion of photosynthesis is 100%, which is extremely difficult to achieve by artificial means. In a recently developed process, a molecular wire is plugged directly into a biological photosynthetic system to efficiently conduct electrons to a gold electrode. A single photon can be detected at room temperature using such a system combined with a molecular single-electron transistor.

  7. Chemistry integrated circuit: chemical system on a complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazato, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    By integrating chemical reactions on a large-scale integration (LSI) chip, new types of device can be created. For biomedical applications, monolithically integrated sensor arrays for potentiometric, amperometric and impedimetric sensing of biomolecules have been developed. The potentiometric sensor array detects pH and redox reaction as a statistical distribution of fluctuations in time and space. For the amperometric sensor array, a microelectrode structure for measuring multiple currents at high speed has been proposed. The impedimetric sensor array is designed to measure impedance up to 10 MHz. The multimodal sensor array will enable synthetic analysis and make it possible to standardize biosensor chips. Another approach is to create new functional devices by integrating molecular systems with LSI chips, for example image sensors that incorporate biological materials with a sensor array. The quantum yield of the photoelectric conversion of photosynthesis is 100%, which is extremely difficult to achieve by artificial means. In a recently developed process, a molecular wire is plugged directly into a biological photosynthetic system to efficiently conduct electrons to a gold electrode. A single photon can be detected at room temperature using such a system combined with a molecular single-electron transistor. PMID:24567475

  8. Solution-based photodetectors for monolithically integrated low-cost short-wave infrared focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heves, Emre; Kayahan, Huseyin; Gurbuz, Yasar

    2013-05-01

    In this work, PbS Colloidal Quantum Dots (CQD) based photodiodes are realized on both silicon substrates and on the replicas of the ROICs in order to demonstrate fully integrated FPAs. Careful optimization of PbS CQD film formation and ligand exchange process, together with optimization of IC integrable process steps resulted in high performance, monolithically integrable photodiodes. High quantum efficiencies such as 32% is achieved for photodiodes on Si substrates and high responsivities up to 5,73 A/W is achieved for photodiodes on ROIC replicas. Also these detectors achieved very high normalized detectivities such as; 1.36 x 1011 Jones and 1.42 x 1012 Jones under 1V and 2V reverse bias respectively, which is close to conventional InGaAS SWIR detectors.

  9. Mode-locked InAs/InP quantum-dash-based DBR laser with monolithically integrated SOA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Siddharth; Chimot, Nicolas; Barbet, Sophie; Accard, Alain; Lelarge, François

    2014-02-01

    We present the first demonstration of InAs/InP Quantum Dash based single-section frequency comb generator designed for use in photonic integrated circuits. The laser cavity is closed using a specific Bragg reflector without compromising the mode-locking performance of the laser. This enables the integration of single-section mode- locked laser on photonic integrated circuits as on-chip frequency comb source. As a demonstration, we integrate the Fabry Perot laser with a semiconductor optical amplifier. Such a device could be used for amplification or modulation of the frequency generated comb. We thus investigate the device operation to obtain a NRZ modulated comb.

  10. A novel CMOS-compatible, monolithically integrated line-scan hyperspectral imager covering the VIS-NIR range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Pilar; Tack, Klaas; Geelen, Bert; Masschelein, Bart; Charle, Wouter; Vereecke, Bart; Lambrechts, Andy

    2016-05-01

    Imec has developed a process for the monolithic integration of optical filters on top of CMOS image sensors, leading to compact, cost-efficient and faster hyperspectral cameras. Different prototype sensors are available, most notably a 600- 1000 nm line-scan imager, and two mosaic sensors: a 4x4 VIS (470-620 nm range) and a 5x5 VNIR (600-1000 nm). In response to the users' demand for a single sensor able to cover both the VIS and NIR ranges, further developments have been made to enable more demanding applications. As a result, this paper presents the latest addition to imec's family of monolithically-integrated hyperspectral sensors: a line scan sensor covering the range 470-900 nm. This new prototype sensor can acquire hyperspectral image cubes of 2048 pixels over 192 bands (128 bands for the 600- 900 nm range, and 64 bands for the 470-620 nm range) at 340 cubes per second for normal machine vision illumination levels.

  11. SPICE Level 3 and BSIM3v3.1 characterization of monolithic integrated CMOS-MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staple, Bevan D.; Watts, Herman A.; Dyck, Christopher W.; Griego, A. P.; Hewlett, F. W.; Smith, James H.

    1998-09-01

    Thy monolithic integration of MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) with the driving, controlling, and signal processing electronics promises to improve the performance of micromechanical devices as well as lower their manufacturing, packaging, and instrumentation costs. Key to this integration is the proper interleaving, combining, and customizing of the manufacturing processes to produce functional integrated micromechanical devices with electronics. We have developed a MEMS-first monolithic integrated process that first seals the micromechanical devices in a planarized trench and then builds the electronics in a conventional CMOS process. To date, most of the research published on this technology has focused on the performance characteristics of the mechanical portion of the devices, with little information on the attributes of the accompanying electronics. This work attempts to reduce this information void by presenting the results of SPICE Level 3 and BSIM3v3.1 model parameters extracted for the CMOS portion of the MEMS-first process. Transistor-level simulations of MOSFET current, capacitance, output resistance, and transconductance versus voltage using the extracted model parameters closely match the measured data. Moreover, in model validation efforts, circuit-level simulation values for the average gate propagation delay in a 101-stage ring oscillator are within 13 - 18% of the measured data. These results establish the following: (1) the MEMS-first approach produces functional CMOS devices integrated on a single chip with MEMS devices and (2) the devices manufactured in the approach have excellent transistor characteristics. Thus, the MEMS-first approach renders a solid technology foundation for customers designing in the technology.

  12. Fabrication and Characterisation of Low-noise Monolithic Mode-locked Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, David

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterisation of monolithic semiconductor mode-locked lasers for use in optical communication systems. Other foreseeable applications may be as sources in microwave photonics and optical sampling. The thesis also deals with the design and fabrication...... of intracavity monolithically integrated filters. The common dnominator among the diffrent parts of the thesis is how to achieve and measure the lowest possible noise. Achieving low noise has been pinpointed as one of the most important and difficult challenges for semiconductor mode-locked lasers. The main...... result of this thesis are a fabrication process of a monolithic and deeply etched distributed Bragg reflector and a characterisation system for measurement of quantum limitid timing noise at high repetition rates. The Bragg reflector is a key component in achieving transform limited pulses with low noise...

  13. Semiconductor lasers as integrated optical biosensors: sensitivity optimisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coote, J; Sweeney, S J [Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    Semiconductor lasers contain both a light source and waveguide, rendering them suitable for adaptation to evanescent field biosensing. One-dimensional simulations using the beam propagation method have been carried out for planar semiconductor waveguide structures, with a view to maximising sensitivity of the effective index to changes in the refractive index and thickness of a film on the waveguide surface. Various structural parameters are investigated and it is found that thinning the upper cladding layer maximises the sensitivity. Implications for laser operation are considered, and an optimised structure is proposed. Surface layer index and thickness resolutions of 0.2 and 2nm are predicted.

  14. Integrated optical and nuclear simulation of a monolithic LYSO:Ce based PET detector module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Játékos, B.; Patay, G.; Lőrincz, E.; Erdei, G.

    2017-05-01

    In the recent years new digital photon counter devices (also known as silicon photomultipliers, SiPMs) were designed and manufactured to be used specifically in positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. Finely pixelated SiPM arrays have opened new opportunities in PET detector development, such as the utilization of monolithic scintillator crystals. We worked out a simulation tool (SCOPE2) to assist the optimization and characterization of such PET detector modules. In the present paper we report the first application of SCOPE2 on the performance evaluation of a prototype PET detector module. The PET detector is based on monolithic LYSO:Ce scintillator crystal and a fully digital, silicon photon-counter, SPADnet-I. A new interface has been developed for SCOPE2 to access GATE simulation results. A combination of GATE and SCOPE2 was used to simulate excitation of the prototype PET detector with an electronically collimated γ -beam. Measurement results from the collimated γ-beam experiment were compared with the combined simulation. A good agreement was observed in the tendencies of total count spectrum and point of interaction distribution. We used the performance evaluation to understand and explain the measurement results in detail.

  15. Direct optical injection locking of monolithically integrated In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As/In(0.52)Al(0.48)As MODFET oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D.; Bhattacharya, P. K.; Brock, T.

    1993-05-01

    The authors have fabricated monolithically integrated In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As/In(0.52)Al(0.48)As 0.25-micron gate MODFET oscillators. The results of direct optical subharmonic injection locking of these oscillator circuits at 10.159 and 19.033 GHz are presented.

  16. Single frequency semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zujie; Chen, Gaoting; Qu, Ronghui

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the single frequency semiconductor laser, which is widely used in many vital advanced technologies, such as the laser cooling of atoms and atomic clock, high-precision measurements and spectroscopy, coherent optical communications, and advanced optical sensors. It presents both the fundamentals and characteristics of semiconductor lasers, including basic F-P structure and monolithic integrated structures; interprets laser noises and their measurements; and explains mechanisms and technologies relating to the main aspects of single frequency lasers, including external cavity lasers, frequency stabilization technologies, frequency sweeping, optical phase locked loops, and so on. It paints a clear, physical picture of related technologies and reviews new developments in the field as well. It will be a useful reference to graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the field.

  17. Color mixing from monolithically integrated InGaN-based light-emitting diodes by local strain engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kunook; Sui, Jingyang; Demory, Brandon; Ku, Pei-Cheng

    2017-07-01

    Additive color mixing across the visible spectrum was demonstrated from an InGaN based light-emitting diode (LED) pixel comprising red, green, and blue subpixels monolithically integrated and enabled by local strain engineering. The device was fabricated using a top-down approach on a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition-grown sample consisting of a typical LED epitaxial stack. The three color subpixels were defined in a single lithographic step. The device was characterized for its electrical properties and emission spectra under an uncooled condition, which is desirable in practical applications. The color mixing was controlled by pulse-width modulation, and the degree of color control was also characterized.

  18. Monolithically integrated laser diode and electroabsorption modulator with dual-waveguide spot-size converter input and output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lianping; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Hongliang; Zhou, Fan; Wang, Lufeng; Bian, Jing

    2005-08-01

    We have demonstrated a 1.60 µm ridge-structure laser diode and electroabsorption modulator monolithically integrated with buried-ridge-structure dual-waveguide spot-size converters at the input and output ports for low-loss coupling to a cleaved single-mode optical fibre by means of selective area growth and asymmetric twin waveguide technologies. The devices emit in single transverse and quasi-single longitudinal modes with a side mode suppression ratio of 25.6 dB. These devices exhibit 3 dB modulation bandwidth of 15.0 GHz and modulator extinction ratios of 14.0 dB dc. The output beam divergence angles of the spot-size converter in the horizontal and vertical directions are as small as 7.3° × 10.6°, respectively, resulting in 3.0 dB coupling loss with a cleaved single-mode optical fibre.

  19. Monolithic integration of an (Al)GaAs laser and an intracavity electroabsorption modulator using selective partial interdiffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, S.; Shealy, J. R.; Wicks, G. W.

    1991-04-01

    The monolithic integration of an intracavity modulator with a multiple quantum well (Al)GaAs laser has been accomplished with the use of selective partial interdiffusion. Interdiffusion was used to create a blue-shifted and semitransparent modulator section in a ridge laser structure. In measuring the total optical output power from the devices, steady-state extinction ratios of 20 dB were measured at reverse biases of -4.6 and -3.6 V for modulator sections with lengths of 200 and 400 microns, respectively. Shifting of the lasing mode toward longer wavelengths was also observed making the structure useful as a tunable device and for frequency modulation applications.

  20. Integrated monolithic 3D MEMS scanner for switchable real time vertical/horizontal cross-sectional imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haijun; Duan, Xiyu; Qiu, Zhen; Zhou, Quan; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Oldham, Kenn R; Wang, Thomas D

    2016-02-08

    We present an integrated monolithic, electrostatic 3D MEMS scanner with a compact chip size of 3.2 × 2.9 mm(2). Use of parametric excitation near resonance frequencies produced large optical deflection angles up to ± 27° and ± 28.5° in the X- and Y-axes and displacements up to 510 μm in the Z-axis with low drive voltages at atmospheric pressure. When packaged in a dual axes confocal endomicroscope, horizontal and vertical cross-sectional images can be collected seamlessly in tissue with a large field-of-view of >1 × 1 mm(2) and 1 × 0.41 mm(2), respectively, at 5 frames/sec.

  1. Development towards cell-to-cell monolithic integration of a thin-film solar cell and lithium-ion accumulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbo, Solomon N.; Merdzhanova, Tsvetelina; Yu, Shicheng; Tempel, Hermann; Kungl, Hans; Eichel, Rüdiger-A.; Rau, Uwe; Astakhov, Oleksandr

    2016-09-01

    This work focuses on the potentials of monolithic integrated thin-film silicon solar cell and lithium ion cell in a simple cell-to-cell integration without any control electronics as a compact power solution for portable electronic devices. To demonstrate this we used triple-junction thin-film silicon solar cell connected directly to a lithium ion battery cell to charge the battery and in turn discharge the battery through the solar cell. Our results show that with appropriate voltage matching the solar cell provides efficient charging for lab-scale lithium ion storage cell. Despite the absence of any control electronics the discharge rate of the Li-ion cell through the non-illuminated solar cell can be much lower than the charging rate when the current voltage (IV) characteristics of the solar cell is matched properly to the charge-discharge characteristics of the battery. This indicates good sustainability of the ultimately simple integrated device. At the maximum power point, solar energy-to-battery charging efficiency of 8.5% which is nearly the conversion efficiency of the solar cell was obtained indicating potential for loss-free operation of the photovoltaic (PV)-battery integration. For the rest of the charging points, an average of 8.0% charging efficiency was obtained.

  2. On the Integration of Wide Band-gap Semiconductors in Single Phase Boost PFC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos

    of high frequency operation in optoelectronics applications. On the other hand, Schottky SiC power diodes were introduced in 2001 as an alternative to eliminate reverse recovery issues in Si rectifiers. Wide band-gap semiconductors offer an increased electrical field strength and electron mobility...... diodes, or the introduction of silicon carbide (SiC) diodes, provided large steps in miniaturization and efficiency improvement of switched mode power converters. Gallium nitride (GaN) and SiC semiconductor devices have already been around for some years. The first one proliferated due to the necessity...... compared to Si semiconductors. Moreover, both semiconductor materials are particularly interesting for high temperature operation. These characteristics makes integration of SiC and GaN devices as the next logical step to further increase efficiency and power density in SMPS. This work is part of the Ph...

  3. Switching Characteristics of Phase Change Memory Cell Integrated with Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Cheng; CHEN Bomy; LIU Bo; CHEN Yi-Feng; LIANG Shuang; SONG Zhi-Tang; FENG Song-Lin; WAN Xu-Dong; YANG Zuo-Ya; XIE Joseph

    2008-01-01

    A Ge2Sb2Te5 based phase change memory device cell integrated with metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) is fabricated using standard 0.18 μm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor process technology.It shows steady switching characteristics in the dc current-voltage measurement.The phase changing phenomenon from crystalline state to amorphous state with a voltage pulse altitude of 2.0 V and pulse width of 50 ns is also obtained.These results show the feasibility of integrating phase change memory cell with MOSFET.

  4. A semiconductor laser for an integrated optical heterodyne receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosikhiro, F.; Khiromoto, S.

    1984-04-14

    A design is patented that consists of two identical semiconductor lasers grown on the same substrate, one of which is used to transmit the information signal and the other is used as the oscillator. The oscillator frequency is tuned by varying the laser resonator length. The signals from the two oscillators are mixed at the transmitting end of the communications link, which makes it possible to reduce losses during the introduction of the signal to the fiber and the detector. This design serves to reduce the influence of temperature variations.

  5. Monolithic spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajic, Slobodan; Egert, Charles M.; Kahl, William K.; Snyder, Jr., William B.; Evans, III, Boyd M.; Marlar, Troy A.; Cunningham, Joseph P.

    1998-01-01

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays.

  6. Record bandwidth and sub-picosecond pulses from a monolithically integrated mode-locked quantum well ring laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, Valentina; Latkowski, Sylwester; Tahvili, Saeed; de Vries, Tjibbe; Smit, Meint; Bente, Erwin

    2014-11-17

    In this paper, we present the detailed characterization of a semiconductor ring passively mode-locked laser with a 20 GHz repetition rate that was realized as an indium phosphide based photonic integrated circuit (PIC). Various dynamical regimes as a function of operating conditions were explored in the spectral and time domain. A record bandwidth of the optical coherent comb from a quantum well based device of 11.5 nm at 3 dB and sub-picosecond pulse generation is demonstrated.

  7. Monolithically Peltier-cooled laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hava, S.; Hunsperger, R.G.; Sequeira, H.B.

    1984-04-01

    A new method of cooling a GaAs/GaAlAs laser in an optical integrated circuit or on a discrete chip, by adding an integral thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling and heat spreading device to the laser, is presented. This cooling both reduces and stabilizes the laser junction temperature to minimize such deleterious effects as wavelength drift due to heating. A unified description of the electrical and thermal properties of a monolithic semiconductor mesa structure is given. Here it is shown that an improvement in thermal characteristics is obtained by depositing a relatively thick metallic layer, and by using this layer as a part of an active Peltier structure. Experimental results reveal a 14-percent increase in emitted power (external quantum efficiency) due to passive heat spreading and a further 8-percent if its Peltier cooler is operated. Fabrication techniques used to obtain devices exhibiting the above performance characteristics are given. 21 references.

  8. CMOS-NEMS Copper Switches Monolithically Integrated Using a 65 nm CMOS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Muñoz-Gamarra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates the feasibility to obtain copper nanoelectromechanical (NEMS relays using a commercial complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS technology (ST 65 nm following an intra CMOS-MEMS approach. We report experimental demonstration of contact-mode nano-electromechanical switches obtaining low operating voltage (5.5 V, good ION/IOFF (103 ratio, abrupt subthreshold swing (4.3 mV/decade and minimum dimensions (3.50 μm × 100 nm × 180 nm, and gap of 100 nm. With these dimensions, the operable Cell area of the switch will be 3.5 μm (length × 0.2 μm (100 nm width + 100 nm gap = 0.7 μm2 which is the smallest reported one using a top-down fabrication approach.

  9. Simply and reliably integrating micro heaters/sensors in a monolithic PCR-CE microfluidic genetic analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Runtao; Pan, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Lei; Dai, Zhongpeng; Qin, Jianhua; Lin, Bingcheng

    2009-04-01

    A novel fabrication process was presented to construct a monolithic integrated PCR-CE microfluidic DNA analysis system as a step toward building a total genetic analysis microsystem. Microfabricated Titanium/Platinum (Ti/Pt) heaters and resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were integrated on the backside of a bonded glass chip to provide good thermal transfer and precise temperature detection for the drilled PCR-wells. This heater/RTD integration procedure was simple and reliable, and the resulting metal layer can be easily renewed when the Ti/Pt layer was damaged in later use or novel heater/RTD design was desired. A straightforward "RTD-calibration" method was employed to optimize the chip-based thermal cycling conditions. This method was convenient and rapid, comparing with a conventional RTD-calibration/temperature adjustment method. The highest ramping rates of 14 degrees C/s for heating and 5 degrees C/s for cooling in a 3-microL reaction volume allow 30 complete PCR cycles in about 33 min. After effectively passivating the PCR-well surface, successful lambda-phage DNA amplifications were achieved using a two- or three-temperature cycling protocol. The functionality and performance of the integrated microsystem were demonstrated by successful amplification and subsequent on-line separation/sizing of lambda-phage DNA. A rapid assay for Hepatitis B virus, one of the major human pathogens, was performed in less than 45 min, demonstrating that the developed PCR-CE microsystem was capable of performing automatic and high-speed genetic analysis.

  10. Monolithic integration of optical mode-size converter and high-speed electroabsorption modulators using laterally undercut waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsu-Hsiu; Lin, Fang-Zheng; Yan, Hung-Jung; Wu, Jui-Pin; Chiu, Yi-Jen

    2010-02-01

    A new monolithic integration scheme of fabricating optical spot-size converter (SSC) is realized in this work. High-speed electroabsorption modulator (EAM) is used to integrate such SSC. By laterally tapering the active region of an optical waveguide through undercut active region, a vertically asymmetric waveguide coupler can be defined to form an SSC, where the top is a tapered active waveguide, and the bottom is a large core of passive waveguide mode-matched to single-mode fiber (SMF). Through the top tapered active waveguide, the effective index can be gradually varied in the propagation direction, momentarily matching the bottom low-index passive waveguide. It not only performs the resonant coupling in such asymmetric waveguide coupler, but also locks the transferred power by the tapered structure. InGaAsP/InP multiple quantum wells are used as active region of active waveguide. Based on the highly selective etching properties between InGaAsP and InP, the tapered active waveguide can be fabricated by a method, called selectively undercut-etching-active-region (UEAR), enabling the processing a narrow waveguide structure (up to submicron) by general wet etching from a large waveguide ridge. It also leads to good microwave performance of waveguide. By taking this advantage, a SSC-integrated EAM can perform high-speed electrical-to-optical (EO) response as well as low-insertion loss properties. A mode transfer efficiency of 70% is obtained in such SSC. By narrowing waveguide by UEAR, over 40 GHz of -3dB electrical-to-optical (EO) response is obtained from this device. The high efficient SSC integrated with high-speed EAM suggests that the UEAR technique can have potential for applications in high-speed optoelectronic fields.

  11. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits for sensors, radar, and communications systems; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 2-4, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Regis F. (Editor); Bhasin, Kul B. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to MMICs for airborne phased arrays, monolithic GaAs integrated circuit millimeter wave imaging sensors, accurate design of multiport low-noise MMICs up to 20 GHz, an ultralinear low-noise amplifier technology for space communications, variable-gain MMIC module for space applications, a high-efficiency dual-band power amplifier for radar applications, a high-density circuit approach for low-cost MMIC circuits, coplanar SIMMWIC circuits, recent advances in monolithic phased arrays, and system-level integrated circuit development for phased-array antenna applications. Consideration is also given to performance enhancement in future communications satellites with MMIC technology insertion, application of Ka-band MMIC technology for an Orbiter/ACTS communications experiment, a space-based millimeter wave debris tracking radar, low-noise high-yield octave-band feedback amplifiers to 20 GHz, quasi-optical MESFET VCOs, and a high-dynamic-range mixer using novel balun structure.

  12. Development of a GaAs-Based Monolithic Surface Acoustic Wave Integrated Chemical Microsensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baca, A.G.; Casalnuovo, S.C.; Drummond, T.J.; Frye, G.C.; Heller, E.J.; Hietala, V.M.; Klem, J.F.

    1998-10-28

    An oscillator technology using surface acoustic wave delay lines integrated with GaAs MESFET electronics has been developed for GaAs-based integrated microsensor applications. Oscillators with frequencies of 470, 350, and 200 MHz have been designed and fabricated. These oscillators are also promising for other rf applications.

  13. Shape-anchored porous polymer monoliths for integrated online solid-phase extraction-microchip electrophoresis-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordman, Nina; Barrios-Lopez, Brianda; Laurén, Susanna; Suvanto, Pia; Kotiaho, Tapio; Franssila, Sami; Kostiainen, Risto; Sikanen, Tiina

    2015-02-01

    We report a simple protocol for fabrication of shape-anchored porous polymer monoliths (PPMs) for on-chip SPE prior to online microchip electrophoresis (ME) separation and on-chip (ESI/MS). The chip design comprises a standard ME separation channel with simple cross injector and a fully integrated ESI emitter featuring coaxial sheath liquid channel. The monolith zone was prepared in situ at the injection cross by laser-initiated photopolymerization through the microchip cover layer. The use of high-power laser allowed not only maskless patterning of a precisely defined monolith zone, but also faster exposure time (here, 7 min) compared with flood exposure UV lamps. The size of the monolith pattern was defined by the diameter of the laser output (∅500 μm) and the porosity was geared toward high through-flow to allow electrokinetic actuation and thus avoid coupling to external pumps. Placing the monolith at the injection cross enabled firm anchoring based on its cross-shape so that no surface premodification with anchoring linkers was needed. In addition, sample loading and subsequent injection (elution) to the separation channel could be performed similar to standard ME setup. As a result, 15- to 23-fold enrichment factors were obtained already at loading (preconcentration) times as short as 25 s without sacrificing the throughput of ME analysis. The performance of the SPE-ME-ESI/MS chip was repeatable within 3.1% and 11.5% RSD (n = 3) in terms of migration time and peak height, respectively, and linear correlation was observed between the loading time and peak area.

  14. Near-IR Spectral Imaging of Semiconductor Absorption Sites in Integrated Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Samson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We derive spectral maps of absorption sites in integrated circuits (ICs by varying the wavelength of the optical probe within the near-IR range. This method has allowed us to improve the contrast of the acquired images by revealing structures that have a different optical absorption from neighboring sites. A false color composite image from those acquired at different wavelengths is generated from which the response of each semiconductor structure can be deduced. With the aid of the spectral maps, nonuniform absorption was also observed in a semiconductor structure located near an electrical overstress defect. This method may prove important in failure analysis of ICs by uncovering areas exhibiting anomalous absorption, which could improve localization of defective edifices in the semiconductor parts of the microchip

  15. Characterization of efficiency-limiting resistance losses in monolithically integrated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ju-Heon; Park, Jong-Keuk; Kim, Won Mok; Lee, JinWoo; Pak, Hisun; Jeong, Jeung-Hyun

    2015-01-09

    The cell-to-module efficiency gap in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) monolithically integrated solar modules is enhanced by contact resistance between the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) and Mo back contact layers, the P2 contact, which connects adjacent cells. The present work evaluated the P2 contact resistance, in addition to the TCO resistance, using an embedded transmission line structure in a commercial-grade module without using special sample fabrication methods. The AZO layers between cells were not scribed; instead, the CIGS/CdS/i-ZnO/AZO device was patterned in a long stripe to permit measurement of the Mo electrode pair resistance over current paths through two P2 contacts (Mo/AZO) and along the AZO layer. The intercept and slope of the resistance as a function of the electrode interval yielded the P2 contact resistance and the TCO resistance, respectively. Calibration of the parasitic resistances is discussed as a method of improving the measurement accuracy. The contribution of the P2 contact resistance to the series resistance was comparable to that of the TCO resistance, and its origin was attributed to remnant MoSe2 phases in the P2 region, as verified by transmission electron microscopy.

  16. Imaging and chemical surface analysis of biomolecular functionalization of monolithically integrated on silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometric immunosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajos, Katarzyna; Angelopoulou, Michailia; Petrou, Panagiota; Awsiuk, Kamil; Kakabakos, Sotirios; Haasnoot, Willem; Bernasik, Andrzej; Rysz, Jakub; Marzec, Mateusz M.; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Ioannis; Budkowski, Andrzej

    2016-11-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (imaging, micro-analysis) has been employed to evaluate biofunctionalization of the sensing arm areas of Mach-Zehnder interferometers monolithically integrated on silicon chips for the immunochemical (competitive) detection of bovine κ-casein in goat milk. Biosensor surfaces are examined after: modification with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, application of multiple overlapping spots of κ-casein solutions, blocking with 100-times diluted goat milk, and reaction with monoclonal mouse anti-κ-casein antibodies in blocking solution. The areas spotted with κ-casein solutions of different concentrations are examined and optimum concentration providing homogeneous coverage is determined. Coverage of biosensor surfaces with biomolecules after each of the sequential steps employed in immunodetection is also evaluated with TOF-SIMS, supplemented by Atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Uniform molecular distributions are observed on the sensing arm areas after spotting with optimum κ-casein concentration, blocking and immunoreaction. The corresponding biomolecular compositions are determined with a Principal Component Analysis that distinguished between protein amino acids and milk glycerides, as well as between amino acids characteristic for Mabs and κ-casein, respectively. Use of the optimum conditions (κ-casein concentration) for functionalization of chips with arrays of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers provided on-chips assays with dramatically improved both intra-chip response repeatability and assay detection sensitivity.

  17. Monolithic integration of MQW wavelength tunable DBR lasers with external cavity electroabsorption modulators by selective-area MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Robert M.; Smith, Gary M.; Hughes, J. S.; Osowski, Mark L.; Jones, A. M.; Coleman, James J.

    1997-01-01

    The design and operation of multiple-quantum well (MQW) wavelength tunable distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers with nonabsorbing gratings and monolithically integrated external cavity electroabsorption modulators fabricated by selective-area metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are presented. Uncoated devices exhibit cw threshold currents as low as 10.5 mA with slope efficiencies of 0.21 W/A from the laser facet and 0.06 W/A from the modulator facet. After the application of facet coatings, slope efficiencies from the modulator facet increase to 0.14 W/A. Wavelength tuning of 7 nm is obtained by injection current heating of the DBR section. These devices exhibit extinction ratios of 18 dB from the modulator facet at a low modulator bias of 1 V, when measured with a broad-area detector. When coupled to a singlemode fiber, these devices exhibit high extinction ratios of 40 dB at a modulator bias of 1.25 V. Photo-generated current versus optical power plots indicate that the extinction ratios are not limited by carrier build- up in the modulator quantum wells.

  18. Development of a GaAs Monolithic Surface Acoustic Wave Integrated Circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baca, A.G.; Casalnuovo, S.C.; Drummond, T.J.; Frye, G.C.; Heller, E.J.; Hietala, V.M.; Klem, J.F.

    1999-03-08

    An oscillator technology using surface acoustic wave delay lines integrated with GaAs MESFET electronics has been developed for GaAs-based integrated microsensor applications. The oscillator consists of a two-port SAW delay line in a feedback loop with a four-stage GaAs MESFET amplifier. Oscillators with frequencies of 470, 350, and 200 MHz have been designed and fabricated. These oscillators are also promising for other RF applications.

  19. Development of a GaAs Monolithic Surface Acoustic Wave Integrated Circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baca, A.G.; Casalnuovo, S.C.; Drummond, T.J.; Frye, G.C.; Heller, E.J.; Hietala, V.M.; Klem, J.F.

    1999-03-08

    An oscillator technology using surface acoustic wave delay lines integrated with GaAs MESFET electronics has been developed for GaAs-based integrated microsensor applications. The oscillator consists of a two-port SAW delay line in a feedback loop with a four-stage GaAs MESFET amplifier. Oscillators with frequencies of 470, 350, and 200 MHz have been designed and fabricated. These oscillators are also promising for other RF applications.

  20. 1060-nm Tunable Monolithic High Index Contrast Subwavelength Grating VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansbæk, Thor; Chung, Il-Sug; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2013-01-01

    We present the first tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) where the top distributed Bragg reflector has been completely substituted by an air-cladded high-index-contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) mirror. In this way, an extended cavity design can be realized by reducing...... the reflection at the semiconductor #x2013;air interface using an anti-reflective coating (ARC). We demonstrate how the ARC can be integrated in a monolithic structure by oxidizing AlGaAs with high Al-content. The HCG VCSEL has the potential to achieve polarization stable single-mode output with high tuning...

  1. Diamond as a material for monolithically integrated optical and optomechanical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rath, Patrik; Nebel, Christoph; Pernice, Wolfram H P

    2016-01-01

    Diamond provides superior optical and mechanical material properties, making it a prime candidate for the realization of integrated optomechanical circuits. Because diamond sub- strates have matured in size, efficient nanostructuring methods can be used to realize full-scale integrated devices. Here we review optical and mechanical resonators fab- ricated from polycrystalline as well as single crystalline diamond. We present relevant material properties with respect to implementing optomechanical devices and compare them with other material systems. We give an overview of diamond integrated optomechanical circuits and present the optical readout mechanism and the actuation via optical or electrostatic forces that have been implemented to date. By combining diamond nanophotonic circuits with superconducting nanowires single photons can be efficiently detected on such chips and we outline how future single photon optomechanical circuits can be realized on this platform.

  2. Imaging and chemical surface analysis of biomolecular functionalization of monolithically integrated on silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometric immunosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajos, Katarzyna, E-mail: kasia.fornal@uj.edu.pl [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Angelopoulou, Michailia; Petrou, Panagiota [Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Awsiuk, Kamil [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Kakabakos, Sotirios [Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Haasnoot, Willem [RIKILT Wageningen UR, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB Wageningen (Netherlands); Bernasik, Andrzej [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Rysz, Jakub [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Marzec, Mateusz M. [Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Misiakos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Ioannis [Department of Microelectronics, Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Budkowski, Andrzej [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Optimization of probe immobilization with robotic spotter printing overlapping spots. • In-situ inspection of microstructured surfaces of biosensors integrated on silicon. • Imaging and chemical analysis of immobilization, surface blocking and immunoreaction. • Insight with molecular discrimination into step-by-step sensor surface modifications. • Optimized biofunctionalization improves sensor sensitivity and response repeatability. - Abstract: Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (imaging, micro-analysis) has been employed to evaluate biofunctionalization of the sensing arm areas of Mach-Zehnder interferometers monolithically integrated on silicon chips for the immunochemical (competitive) detection of bovine κ-casein in goat milk. Biosensor surfaces are examined after: modification with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, application of multiple overlapping spots of κ-casein solutions, blocking with 100-times diluted goat milk, and reaction with monoclonal mouse anti-κ-casein antibodies in blocking solution. The areas spotted with κ-casein solutions of different concentrations are examined and optimum concentration providing homogeneous coverage is determined. Coverage of biosensor surfaces with biomolecules after each of the sequential steps employed in immunodetection is also evaluated with TOF-SIMS, supplemented by Atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Uniform molecular distributions are observed on the sensing arm areas after spotting with optimum κ-casein concentration, blocking and immunoreaction. The corresponding biomolecular compositions are determined with a Principal Component Analysis that distinguished between protein amino acids and milk glycerides, as well as between amino acids characteristic for Mabs and κ-casein, respectively. Use of the optimum conditions (κ-casein concentration) for functionalization of chips with arrays of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers provided on-chips assays

  3. Dry Etching of GaAs to Fabricate Via-Hole Grounds in Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Rawal

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the dry etching of 60 mm dia, 200 mm deep holes for fabrication of through substrate via holes for grounding monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs, on 3-inch dia semiinsulating GaAs wafer using RIE and ICP processes with CFC and non-CFC gas chemistry, respectively. The effect of various process parameters on GaAs etch rate and resultant etch profile was investigated. Two kinds of masks, photoresist and Ni, were used to etch GaAs and performance was compared by investigating effect on etch rate, etch depth, etch profile, and surface morphology. The etch profile, etch depth, and surface morphology of as-etched samples were characterised by scanning electron microscopy. The desired 200 mm deep strawberry profile was obtained at 40 mTorr for both RIE and ICP processes with an etch rate of ~1.3 mm/min and ~4 mm/min respectively. Ni metal mask was used for RIE process due to poor photoresist selectivity, whereas ICP process utilised photoresist as mask. The vias were then metallised by depositing a thin seed layer of Ti/Au (1000 Å using radio frequency sputtering and Au (~5 mm electroplated to connect the frontside pad and back side ground plane. The typical parasitic inductance offered by these via for RIE and ICP processes was ~76 pH and 83 pH respectively, which is well within the acceptable limits. The developed process was finally integrated to in-house MMIC production line.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(4, pp.363-370, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1535

  4. Monolithic Integration of a Novel Microfluidic Device with Silicon Light Emitting Diode-Antifuse and Photodetector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LeMinh, P.; Holleman, J.; Berenschot, J.W.; Tas, N.R.; Berg, van den A.

    2002-01-01

    Light emitting diode antifuse has been integrated into a microfluidic device that is realized with extended standard CMOS technological steps. The device comprises of a microchannel sandwiched between a photodiode detector and a nanometer-scale diode antifuse light emitter. Within this contribution,

  5. Gene Detection in Complex Biological Media Using Semiconductor Nanorods within an Integrated Microfluidic Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xinyan; Adriani, Giulia; Xu, Yang; Chakrabortty, Sabyasachi; Pastorin, Giorgia; Ho, Han Kiat; Ang, Wee Han; Chan, Yinthai

    2015-10-20

    The salient optical properties of highly luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals render them ideal fluorophores for clinical diagnostics, therapeutics, and highly sensitive biochip applications. Microfluidic systems allow miniaturization and integration of multiple biochemical processes in a single device and do not require sophisticated diagnostic tools. Herein, we describe a microfluidic system that integrates RNA extraction, reverse transcription to cDNA, amplification and detection within one integrated device to detect histidine decarboxylase (HDC) gene directly from human white blood cells samples. When anisotropic semiconductor nanorods (NRs) were used as the fluorescent probes, the detection limit was found to be 0.4 ng of total RNA, which was much lower than that obtained using spherical quantum dots (QDs) or organic dyes. This was attributed to the large action cross-section of NRs and their high probability of target capture in a pull-down detection scheme. The combination of large scale integrated microfluidics with highly fluorescent semiconductor NRs may find widespread utility in point-of-care devices and multitarget diagnostics.

  6. Modeling and design of a monolithically integrated power converter on SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L. C.; Sheng, K.; Zhao, J. H.

    2008-10-01

    To fully explore the high temperature and high power density potential of the 4H-SiC material, not only power devices need to be fabricated on SiC, but also the circuitries for signal generation/processing, gate driver and control. In this paper, static and dynamic characteristics of SiC lateral JFET (LJFET) devices are numerically simulated and compact circuit models developed. Based on these models, analog and digital integrated circuits functional blocks such as OPAMP, gate driver and logic gates are then designed and simulated. Finally, a fully integrated power converter including pulse-width-modulation circuit, over-temperature protection circuit and a power boost converter is designed and simulated. The converter has an input of 200 V and an output voltage of 400 V, 2.5 A, operating at 1 kW and 5 MHz.

  7. Evolution of the Department of Defense Millimeter and Microwave Monolithic Integrated Circuit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Dertouzos, Michael; Lester, Richard K.; Solow , Robert M.; Thorow, Lester C., “Toward a New Industrial America Scientific American, June 1989, pp...Vladimir Gelnovatch, Director of the U.S. Army Electronics Technology and Devices Laboratory; and Robert Heaston, Office of Under Secretary of Defense...Jack S. Kilby and Robert N. Noyce shared honors for the achievement. Hybrid microwave and millimeter wave integrated circuits achieved greater

  8. Ultrasensitive Nanoelectrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry using Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Microchips with Monolithically Integrated Emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xuefei; Kelly, Ryan T.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-09-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is the most widely used substrate for microfluidic devices as it enables facile fabrication and has other distinctive properties. However, for applications involving highly sensitive nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nanoESI-MS) detection, the use of PDMS microdevices has been hindered by the leaching of uncross-linked oligomers and other contaminants from the substrate that yields a large background of chemical noise in the mass spectra. A more general challenge is that microfluidic devices containing integrated electrospray emitters are frequently unable to operate stably in the nanoflow regime where the best sensitivity is achieved. In this report, we extracted the contaminants from PDMS substrates using a series of solvents, eliminating the background observed when untreated PDMS microchips are used for nanoESI-MS. Optimization of the integrated emitter geometry enabled stable operation at flow rates as low as 10 nL/min. Peptide concentrations of 1 nM were readily detected, representing ~170 zmol of consumed analyte, and an extrapolated detection limit of ~40 zmol; these are the lowest mass and concentration detection limits reported to date for a microchip having an integrated electrospray emitter.

  9. The topological structure of the integral quantum Hall effect in magnetic semiconductor-superconductor hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Ji-Rong; Zhu Hui

    2009-01-01

    An unconventional integer quantum Hall regime was found in magnetic semiconductor-superconductor hybrids.By making use of the decomposition of the gauge potential on a U(1) principal fibre bundle over k-space, we study the topological structure of the integral Hall conductance. It is labeled by the Hopf index β and the Brouwer degree η. The Hall conductance topological current and its evolution is discussed.

  10. Monolithic integration of microfluidic channels and optical waveguides in silica on silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Peter; Hoppe, Karsten; Leistiko, Otto

    2001-01-01

    Sealing of the flow channel is an important aspect during integration of microfluidic channels and optical waveguides. The uneven topography of many waveguide-fabrication techniques will lead to leakage of the fluid channels. Planarization methods such as chemical mechanical polishing or the etch......-back technique are possible, but troublesome. We present a simple but efficient alternative: By means of changing the waveguide layout, bonding pads are formed along the microfluidic channels. With the same height as the waveguide, they effectively prevent leakage and hermetically seal the channels during...

  11. Monolithic nanoscale photonics-electronics integration in silicon and other group IV elements

    CERN Document Server

    Radamson, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Silicon technology is evolving rapidly, particularly in board-to-board or chip-to chip applications. Increasingly, the electronic parts of silicon technology will carry out the data processing, while the photonic parts take care of the data communication. For the first time, this book describes the merging of photonics and electronics in silicon and other group IV elements. It presents the challenges, the limitations, and the upcoming possibilities of these developments. The book describes the evolution of CMOS integrated electronics, status and development, and the fundamentals of silicon p

  12. A monolithic integrated 180 GHz SiGe HBT Push-Push Oscillator.

    OpenAIRE

    Roux, P.; BAEYENS, Y.; Wohlgemuth, O.; Chen, Y.K.

    2005-01-01

    A fully integrated single-ended output push-push oscillator is realized using an advanced 0.2µm SiGe HBT process. Up to –5 dBm output power is achieved at 180 GHz using a technology with a transition frequency fT of 200 GHz and maximum oscillation frequency fMAX of 275 GHz. Preliminary phase noise measurements show a phase noise of less than –90 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset from the 180 GHz carrier.

  13. Towards monolithically integrated CMOS cameras for active imaging with 600 GHz radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppel, Sebastian; Lisauskas, Alvydas; Krozer, Viktor; Roskos, Hartmut G.

    2012-02-01

    We explore terahertz imaging with CMOS field-effect transistors exploiting their plasmonic detection capability and the advantages of CMOS technology for the fabrication of THz cameras with respect to process stability, array uniformity, ease of integration of additional functionality, scalability and cost-effectiveness. A 100×100-pixel camera with an active area of 20×20 mm² is physically simulated by scanning single detectors and groups of a few detectors in the image plane. Using detectors with a noise-equivalent power of 43 pW/√Hz, a distributed illumination of 432 μW at 591.4 GHz, and an integration time of 20 ms (for a possible frame rate of 17 fps), this virtual camera allows to obtain images with a dynamic range of at least 20 dB and a resolution approaching the diffraction limit. Imaging examples acquired in direct and heterodyne detection mode, and in transmission and reflection geometry, show the potential for real-time operation. It is demonstrated that heterodyning (i) improves the dynamic range substantially even if the radiation from the local oscillator is distributed over the camera area, and (ii) allows sensitive determination of object-induced phase changes, which promises the realization of coherent imaging systems.

  14. Developing high mobility emissive organic semiconductors towards integrated optoelectronic devices (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huanli; Hu, Wenping; Heeger, Alan J.

    2016-09-01

    The achievement of organic semiconductors with both high mobility and strong fluorescence emission remains a challenge. High mobility requires molecules which pack densely and periodically, while serious fluorescence quenching typically occurs when fluorescent materials begin to aggregate (aggregation-induced quenching (AIQ)). Indeed, classical materials with strong fluorescent emission always exhibit low mobility, for example, tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (ALQ) and phenylenevinylene-based polymers with mobility only 10-6-10-5 cm2V-1s-1, and benchmark organic semiconductors with high mobility demonstrate very weak emission, for example, rubrene exhibits a quantum yield 1% in crystalline state and pentacene shows very weak fluorescence in the solid state. However, organic semiconductors with high mobility and strong fluorescence are necessary for the achievement of high efficiency organic light-emitting transistors (OLETs) and electrically pumped organic lasers. Therefore, it is necessary for developing high mobility emissive organic/polymeric semiconductors towards a fast mover for the organic optoelectronic integrated devices and circuits.

  15. On-chip optical phase locking of single growth monolithically integrated Slotted Fabry Perot lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, P E; Cotter, W; Goulding, D; Kelleher, B; Osborne, S; Yang, H; O'Callaghan, J; Roycroft, B; Corbett, B; Peters, F H

    2013-07-15

    This work investigates the optical phase locking performance of Slotted Fabry Perot (SFP) lasers and develops an integrated variable phase locked system on chip for the first time to our knowledge using these lasers. Stable phase locking is demonstrated between two SFP lasers coupled on chip via a variable gain waveguide section. The two lasers are biased differently, one just above the threshold current of the device with the other at three times this value. The coupling between the lasers can be controlled using the variable gain section which can act as a variable optical attenuator or amplifier depending on bias. Using this, the width of the stable phase locking region on chip is shown to be variable.

  16. Monolithic beam steering in a mid-infrared, surface-emitting, photonic integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slivken, Steven; Wu, Donghai; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2017-08-16

    The mid-infrared (2.5 infrared optical systems, however, mid-infrared component technology is still rather crude, with isolated components exhibiting limited functionality. In this manuscript, we make a significant leap forward in mid-infrared technology by developing a platform which can combine functions of multiple mid-infrared optical elements, including an integrated light source. In a single device, we demonstrate wide wavelength tuning (240 nm) and beam steering (17.9 degrees) in the mid-infrared with a significantly reduced beam divergence (down to 0.5 degrees). The architecture is also set up to be manufacturable and testable on a wafer scale, requiring no cleaved facets or special mirror coating to function.

  17. Enhancing flow boiling heat transfer in microchannels for thermal management with monolithically-integrated silicon nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D; Wu, G S; Wang, W; Wang, Y D; Liu, Dong; Zhang, D C; Chen, Y F; Peterson, G P; Yang, Ronggui

    2012-07-11

    Thermal management has become a critical issue for high heat flux electronics and energy systems. Integrated two-phase microchannel liquid-cooling technology has been envisioned as a promising solution, but with great challenges in flow instability. In this work, silicon nanowires were synthesized in situ in parallel silicon microchannel arrays for the first time to suppress the flow instability and to augment flow boiling heat transfer. Significant enhancement in flow boiling heat transfer performance was demonstrated for the nanowire-coated microchannel heat sink, such as an early onset of nucleate boiling, a delayed onset of flow oscillation, suppressed oscillating amplitudes of temperature and pressure drop, and an increased heat transfer coefficient.

  18. Monolithic integration of microfluidic channels and optical waveguides in silica on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, P; Hoppe, K; Leistiko, O; Mogensen, K B; Hübner, J; Kutter, J P

    2001-12-01

    Sealing of the flow channel is an important aspect during integration of microfluidic channels and optical waveguides. The uneven topography of many waveguide-fabrication techniques will lead to leakage of the fluid channels. Planarization methods such as chemical mechanical polishing or the etch-back technique are possible, but troublesome. We present a simple but efficient alternative: By means of changing the waveguide layout, bonding pads are formed along the microfluidic channels. With the same height as the waveguide, they effectively prevent leakage and hermetically seal the channels during bonding. Negligible influence on light propagation is found when 10-mum-wide bonding pads are used. Fabricated microsystems with application in absorbance measurements and flow cytometry are presented.

  19. Monolithic integration of GMR sensors for standard CMOS-IC current sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marcellis, A.; Reig, C.; Cubells-Beltrán, M.-D.; Madrenas, J.; Santos, J. D.; Cardoso, S.; Freitas, P. P.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we report on the development of Giant Magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors for off-line current measurements in standard integrated circuits. An ASIC has been specifically designed and fabricated in the well-known AMS-0.35 μm CMOS technology, including the electronic circuitry for sensor interfacing. It implements an oscillating circuit performing a voltage-to-frequency conversion. Subsequently, a fully CMOS-compatible low temperature post-process has been applied for depositing the GMR sensing devices in a full-bridge configuration onto the buried current straps. Sensitivity and resolution of these sensors have been investigated achieving experimental results that show a detection sensitivity of about 100 Hz/mA, with a resolution of about 5 μA.

  20. Effect of light backscattering on high-speed modulation performance in strongly injection-locked unidirectional semiconductor ring lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolyakov, Gennady A.; Osinski, Marek

    2014-03-01

    Greatly enhanced high-speed modulation performance has been recently predicted in numerical calculations for a novel injection-locking scheme involving a DBR or DFB master laser monolithically integrated with a unidirectional semiconductor microring laser. In this work, we investigate the effect of light backscattering between the two counterpropagating modes on high-speed modulation performance of strongly injection-locked unidirectional semiconductor microring lasers.

  1. Comparison of the noise performance of 10 GHz repetition rate quantum-dot and quantum well monolithic mode-locked semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpintero, G.; Thompson, M. G.; Yvind, Kresten

    2011-01-01

    Mode-locked lasers are commonly used in carrier-wave signal generation systems because of their excellent phase noise performance. Owing to the importance of this key parameter, this study presents a like-for-like comparison of the noise performance of the passive mode-locked regime of two devices...... and the shape of the noise pedestals, both depending on the passive mode-locked bias conditions. Nevertheless, the dominant contribution of the RF linewidth to the phase noise, which is significantly narrower for the QD laser, makes this material more suitable for optical generation of low-noise millimetre...... fabricated with different material gain systems, one quantum well and the other quantum dot (QD), both with a monolithic all-active two-section mode-locked structure. Two important factors are identified as having a significant effect on the noise performance, the RF linewidth of the first harmonic...

  2. Smart monolithic integration of inkjet printed thermal flow sensors with fast prototyping polymer microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxebarria, Ikerne; Elizalde, Jorge; Pacios, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    There is an increasing demand for built-in flow sensors in order to effectively control microfluidic processes due to the high number of available microfluidic applications. The possible solutions should be inexpensive and easy to connect to both, the microscale features and the macro setup. In this paper, we present a novel approach to integrate a printed thermal flow sensor with polymeric microfluidic channels. This approach is focused on merging two high throughput production processes, namely inkjet printing and fast prototyping technologies, in order to produce trustworthy and low cost devices. These two technologies are brought together to obtain a sensor located outside the microfluidic device. This avoids the critical contact between the sensor material and the fluids through the microchannels that can seriously damage the conducting paths under continuous working regimes. In this way, we ensure reliable and stable operation modes. For this application, a silver nanoparticle based ink and cyclic olefin polymer were used. This flow sensor operates linearly in the range of 0-10 μl min-1 for water and 0-20 μl min-1 for ethanol in calorimetric mode. Switching to anemometric mode, the range can be expanded up to 40 μl min-1.

  3. NCD Diamond Semiconductor System for Advanced Power Electronics Systems Integration : CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumant, Anirudha [AKHAN Semiconductor, Inc., Hoffman Estates, IL (United States)

    2016-07-22

    The integration of 2D materials such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) with diamond (3D) was achieved by forming an heterojunction between these two materials and its electrical performance was studied experimentally. The device charactertics did show good rectifying nature when p-type single crystal diamond was integrated with n-type MoS2. These results are very encouraging indicating possible applications in semiconductor electronics, however further studies are required for a detailed understanding of the transport phenomena at the MoS2/diamond interface.

  4. The Study of an Integrated Rating System for Supplier Quality Performance in the Semiconductor Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Cheng; Yen, Tieh-Min; Tsai, Chih-Hung

    This study provides an integrated model of Supplier Quality Performance Assesment (SQPA) activity for the semiconductor industry through introducing the ISO 9001 management framework, Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) Supplier Quality Performance Assesment and Taguchi`s Signal-to-Noise Ratio (S/N) techniques. This integrated model provides a SQPA methodology to create value for all members under mutual cooperation and trust in the supply chain. This method helps organizations build a complete SQPA framework, linking organizational objectives and SQPA activities to optimize rating techniques to promote supplier quality improvement. The techniques used in SQPA activities are easily understood. A case involving a design house is illustrated to show our model.

  5. Development of optically pumped DBR-free semiconductor disk lasers (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhou; Albrecht, Alexander R.; Cederberg, Jeffrey G.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2017-03-01

    Semiconductor disk lasers (SDLs) are attractive for applications requiring good beam quality, wavelength versatility, and high output powers. Typical SDLs utilize the active mirror geometry, where a semiconductor DBR is integrated with the active region by growth or post-growth bonding. This imposes restrictions for the SDL design, like material system choice, thermal management, and effective gain bandwidth. In DBR-free geometry, these restrictions can be alleviated. An integrated gain model predicts DBR-free geometry with twice the gain bandwidth of typical SDLs, which has been experimentally verified with active regions near 1 μm and 1.15 μm. The lift-off and bonding technique enables the integration of semiconductor active regions with arbitrary high quality substrates, allowing novel monolithic geometries. Bonding an active region onto a straight side of a commercial fused silica right angle prism, and attaching a high reflectivity mirror onto the hypotenuse side, with quasi CW pumping at 780 nm, lasing operation was achieved at 1037 nm with 0.2 mW average power at 1.6 mW average pump power. Laser dynamics show that thermal lens generation in the active region bottlenecks the laser efficiency. Investigations on total internal reflection based monolithic ring cavities are ongoing. These geometries would allow the intracavity integration of 2D materials or other passive absorbers, which could be relevant for stable mode locking. Unlike typical monolithic microchip SDLs, with the evanescent wave coupling technique, these monolithic geometries allow variable coupling efficiency.

  6. Heterogeneous Integration for Reduced Phase Noise and Improved Reliability of Semiconductor Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sudharsanan

    Significant savings in cost, power and space are possible in existing optical data transmission networks, sensors and metrology equipment through photonic integration. Photonic integration can be broadly classified into two categories, hybrid and monolithic integration. The former involves assembling multiple single functionality optical devices together into a single package including any optical coupling and/or electronic connections. On the other hand monolithic integration assembles many devices or optical functionalities on a single chip so that all the optical connections are on chip and require no external alignment. This provides a substantial improvement in reliability and simplifies testing. Monolithic integration has been demonstrated on both indium phosphide (InP) and silicon (Si) substrates. Integration on larger 300mm Si substrates can further bring down the cost and has been a major area of research in recent years. Furthermore, with increasing interest from industry, the hybrid silicon platform is emerging as a new technology for integrating various active and passive optical elements on a single chip. This is both in the interest of bringing down manufacturing cost through scaling along with continued improvement in performance and to produce multi-functional photonic integrated circuits (PIC). The goal of this work is twofold. First, we show four laser demonstrations that use the hybrid silicon platform to lower phase noise due to spontaneous emission, based on the following two techniques, viz. confinement factor reduction and negative optical feedback. The first two demonstrations are of mode-locked lasers and the next two are of tunable lasers. Some of the key results include; (a) 14dB white frequency noise reduction of a 20GHz radio-frequency (RF) signal from a harmonically mode-locked long cavity laser with greater than 55dB supermode noise suppression, (b) 8dB white frequency noise reduction from a colliding pulse mode-locked laser by

  7. Hybrid integration of III-V semiconductor lasers on silicon waveguides using optofluidic microbubble manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Youngho; Shim, Jaeho; Kwon, Kyungmook; You, Jong-Bum; Choi, Kyunghan; Yu, Kyoungsik

    2016-07-01

    Optofluidic manipulation mechanisms have been successfully applied to micro/nano-scale assembly and handling applications in biophysics, electronics, and photonics. Here, we extend the laser-based optofluidic microbubble manipulation technique to achieve hybrid integration of compound semiconductor microdisk lasers on the silicon photonic circuit platform. The microscale compound semiconductor block trapped on the microbubble surface can be precisely assembled on a desired position using photothermocapillary convective flows induced by focused laser beam illumination. Strong light absorption within the micro-scale compound semiconductor object allows real-time and on-demand microbubble generation. After the assembly process, we verify that electromagnetic radiation from the optically-pumped InGaAsP microdisk laser can be efficiently coupled to the single-mode silicon waveguide through vertical evanescent coupling. Our simple and accurate microbubble-based manipulation technique may provide a new pathway for realizing high precision fluidic assembly schemes for heterogeneously integrated photonic/electronic platforms as well as microelectromechanical systems.

  8. On-chip generation and demultiplexing of quantum correlated photons using a silicon-silica monolithic photonic integration platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Karkus, Peter; Nishi, Hidetaka; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Munro, William J; Takesue, Hiroki; Yamada, Koji

    2014-09-22

    We demonstrate the generation and demultiplexing of quantum correlated photons on a monolithic photonic chip composed of silicon and silica-based waveguides. Photon pairs generated in a nonlinear silicon waveguide are successfully separated into two optical channels of an arrayed-waveguide grating fabricated on a silica-based waveguide platform.

  9. Probing the exciton density of states in semiconductor nanocrystals using integrated photoluminescence spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Filonovich, S A; Vasilevskiy, M I; Rolo, A G; Gomes, M J M; Artemiev, M V; Talapin, D V; Rogach, A L

    2002-01-01

    We present the results of a comparative analysis of the absorption and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra vs. integrated photoluminescence (IPL) measured as a function of the excitation wavelength for a number of samples containing II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) produced by different techniques. The structure of the absorption and PL spectra due to excitons confined in NCs and difficulties with the correct interpretation of the transmittance and PLE results are discussed. It is shown that, compared to the conventional PLE, the IPL intensity plotted against the excitation wavelength (IPLE spectra) reproduce better the structure of the absorption spectra. Therefore, IPLE spectroscopy can be successfully used for probing the quantized electron-hole (e-h) transitions in semiconductor nanocrystals. (author)

  10. A Fully Integrated Nanosystem of Semiconductor Nanowires for Direct Solar Water Splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chong; Tang, Jinyao; Chen, HaoMing; Liu, Bin; Yang, Peidong

    2013-02-21

    Artificial photosynthesis, the biomimetic approach to converting sunlight?s energy directly into chemical fuels, aims to imitate nature by using an integrated system of nanostructures, each of which plays a specific role in the sunlight-to-fuel conversion process. Here we describe a fully integrated system of nanoscale photoelectrodes assembled from inorganic nanowires for direct solar water splitting. Similar to the photosynthetic system in a chloroplast, the artificial photosynthetic system comprises two semiconductor light absorbers with large surface area, an interfacial layer for charge transport, and spatially separated cocatalysts to facilitate the water reduction and oxidation. Under simulated sunlight, a 0.12percent solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency is achieved, which is comparable to that of natural photosynthesis. The result demonstrates the possibility of integrating material components into a functional system that mimics the nanoscopic integration in chloroplasts. It also provides a conceptual blueprint of modular design that allows incorporation of newly discovered components for improved performance.

  11. A Fully Integrated Nanosystem of Semiconductor Nanowires for Direct Solar Water Splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chong; Tang, Jinyao; Chen, Hao Ming; Liu, Bin; Yang, Peidong

    2013-06-12

    Artificial photosynthesis, the biomimetic approach to converting sunlight?s energy directly into chemical fuels, aims to imitate nature by using an integrated system of nanostructures, each of which plays a specific role in the sunlight-to-fuel conversion process. Here we describe a fully integrated system of nanoscale photoelectrodes assembled from inorganic nanowires for direct solar water splitting. Similar to the photosynthetic system in a chloroplast, the artificial photosynthetic system comprises two semiconductor light absorbers with large surface area, an interfacial layer for charge transport, and spatially separated cocatalysts to facilitate the water reduction and oxidation. Under simulated sunlight, a 0.12percent solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency is achieved, which is comparable to that of natural photosynthesis. The result demonstrates the possibility of integrating material components into a functional system that mimics the nanoscopic integration in chloroplasts. It also provides a conceptual blueprint of modular design that allows incorporation of newly discovered components for improved performance.

  12. Monolithic integration of InGaN segments emitting in the blue, green, and red spectral range in single ordered nanocolumns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E. [ISOM and Dept. Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kong, X.; Trampert, A. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoeperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-05-06

    This work reports on the selective area growth by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumnar heterostructures. The optimization of the In/Ga and total III/V ratios, as well as the growth temperature, provides control on the emission wavelength, either in the blue, green, or red spectral range. An adequate structure tailoring and monolithic integration in a single nanocolumnar heterostructure of three InGaN portions emitting in the red-green-blue colors lead to white light emission.

  13. Monolithic integration of InGaN segments emitting in the blue, green, and red spectral range in single ordered nanocolumns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Kong, X.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.; Trampert, A.

    2013-05-01

    This work reports on the selective area growth by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumnar heterostructures. The optimization of the In/Ga and total III/V ratios, as well as the growth temperature, provides control on the emission wavelength, either in the blue, green, or red spectral range. An adequate structure tailoring and monolithic integration in a single nanocolumnar heterostructure of three InGaN portions emitting in the red-green-blue colors lead to white light emission.

  14. A G-band terahertz monolithic integrated amplifier in 0.5-μm InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Peng, Li; Yong, Zhang; Rui-Min, Xu; Wei, Cheng; Yuan, Wang; Bing, Niu; Hai-Yan, Lu

    2016-05-01

    Design and characterization of a G-band (140-220 GHz) terahertz monolithic integrated circuit (TMIC) amplifier in eight-stage common-emitter topology are performed based on the 0.5-μm InGaAs/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT). An inverted microstrip line is implemented to avoid a parasitic mode between the ground plane and the InP substrate. The on-wafer measurement results show that peak gains are 20 dB at 140 GHz and more than 15-dB gain at 140-190 GHz respectively. The saturation output powers are -2.688 dBm at 210 GHz and -2.88 dBm at 220 GHz, respectively. It is the first report on an amplifier operating at the G-band based on 0.5-μm InP DHBT technology. Compared with the hybrid integrated circuit of vacuum electronic devices, the monolithic integrated circuit has the advantage of reliability and consistency. This TMIC demonstrates the feasibility of the 0.5-μm InGaAs/InP DHBT amplifier in G-band frequencies applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61501091) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. ZYGX2014J003 and ZYGX2013J020).

  15. Selective epitaxial growth of monolithically integrated GaN-based light emitting diodes with AlGaN/GaN driving transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhaojun; Ma, Jun; Huang, Tongde; Liu, Chao; May Lau, Kei, E-mail: eekmlau@ust.hk [Photonics Technology Center, Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-03-03

    In this Letter, we report selective epitaxial growth of monolithically integrated GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) drivers. A comparison of two integration schemes, selective epitaxial removal (SER), and selective epitaxial growth (SEG) was made. We found the SER resulted in serious degradation of the underlying LEDs in a HEMT-on-LED structure due to damage of the p-GaN surface. The problem was circumvented using the SEG that avoided plasma etching and minimized device degradation. The integrated HEMT-LEDs by SEG exhibited comparable characteristics as unintegrated devices and emitted modulated blue light by gate biasing.

  16. Optimal parameters of monolithic high-index contrast grating VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Magdalena; Gebski, Marcin; Dems, Maciej; Czyszanowski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Monolithic High refractive index Contrast Grating (MHCG) allows several-fold size reduction of epitaxial structure of VCSEL and facilitates VCSEL fabrication in all photonic material systems. MHCGs can be fabricated of material which refractive index is higher than 1.75 without the need of the combination of low and high refractive index materials. MHCGs have a great application potential in optoelectronic devices, especially in phosphide- and nitride-based VCSELs, which suffer from the lack of efficient monolithically integrated DBR mirrors. MHCGs can simplify the construction of VCSELs, reducing their epitaxial design to monolithic wafer with carrier confinement and active region inside and etched stripes on both surfaces in post processing. In this paper we present results of numerical analysis of MHCGs as a high reflective mirrors for broad range of refractive indices that corresponds to plethora of materials typically used in optoelectronics. Our calculations base on a three-dimensional, fully vectorial optical model. We investigate the reflectance of the MHCG mirrors of different design as the function of the refractive index and we show the optimal geometrical parameters of MHCG enabling nearly 100% reflectance and broad reflection stop-band. We show that MHCG can be designed based on most of semiconductors materials and for any incident light wavelength from optical spectrum.

  17. Integrated Materials Design of Organic Semiconductors for Field-Effect Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jianguo

    2013-05-08

    The past couple of years have witnessed a remarkable burst in the development of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), with a number of organic semiconductors surpassing the benchmark mobility of 10 cm2/(V s). In this perspective, we highlight some of the major milestones along the way to provide a historical view of OFET development, introduce the integrated molecular design concepts and process engineering approaches that lead to the current success, and identify the challenges ahead to make OFETs applicable in real applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. All-optical SR flip-flop based on SOA-MZI switches monolithically integrated on a generic InP platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitris, St.; Vagionas, Ch.; Kanellos, G. T.; Kisacik, R.; Tekin, T.; Broeke, R.; Pleros, N.

    2016-03-01

    At the dawning of the exaflop era, High Performance Computers are foreseen to exploit integrated all-optical elements, to overcome the speed limitations imposed by electronic counterparts. Drawing from the well-known Memory Wall limitation, imposing a performance gap between processor and memory speeds, research has focused on developing ultra-fast latching devices and all-optical memory elements capable of delivering buffering and switching functionalities at unprecedented bit-rates. Following the master-slave configuration of electronic Flip-Flops, coupled SOA-MZI based switches have been theoretically investigated to exceed 40 Gb/s operation, provided a short coupling waveguide. However, this flip-flop architecture has been only hybridly integrated with silica-on-silicon integration technology exhibiting a total footprint of 45x12 mm2 and intra-Flip-Flop coupling waveguide of 2.5cm, limited at 5 Gb/s operation. Monolithic integration offers the possibility to fabricate multiple active and passive photonic components on a single chip at a close proximity towards, bearing promises for fast all-optical memories. Here, we present for the first time a monolithically integrated all-optical SR Flip-Flop with coupled master-slave SOA-MZI switches. The photonic chip is integrated on a 6x2 mm2 die as a part of a multi-project wafer run using library based components of a generic InP platform, fiber-pigtailed and fully packaged on a temperature controlled ceramic submount module with electrical contacts. The intra Flip-Flop coupling waveguide is 5 mm long, reducing the total footprint by two orders of magnitude. Successful flip flop functionality is evaluated at 10 Gb/s with clear open eye diagram, achieving error free operation with a power penalty of 4dB.

  19. Integrated Photonics Research Topical Meeting (1993)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    integrated with an electroabsorption (EA) modulator was also demonstrated (24] using an 9.1 mm long extended cavity laser with an integrated DBR grating. A...se./ 414 / IWA3-1 A 16xl WDM Transmitter with Integrated DBR Lasers and Electroabsorption Modulators Ktt G. Young, U. Koren, B.l. Miller, MLA...INTRODUCTION Monolithic integrated circuits containing both semiconductor optical and electronic elements should provide improved performance and

  20. Band edge tailoring of InGaAs/AlAsSb coupled double quantum wells for a monolithically integrated all-optical switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jijun; Akimoto, Ryoichi; Gozu, Shin-ichiro; Mozume, Teruo; Hasama, Toshifumi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate a compact all-optical Michelson interferometer (MI) gating switch with monolithic integration of two different bandgap energies. Based on the ion-induced intermixing in InGaAs/AlAsSb coupled double quantum wells, the blueshift of the band edge can be tailored. Through phosphorus ion implantation with a dose of 5 × 10(14) cm(-2) and subsequent annealing at 720 °C for 60 s, an implanted sample can acquire a high transmittance compared with the as-grown one. Meanwhile, the cross-phase modulation (XPM) efficiency of a non-implanted sample undergoing the same annealing process decreases little. An implanted part for signal propagation and a non-implanted section for XPM are thus monolithically integrated for an MI switch by an area-selective manner. Full switching of a π-rad nonlinear phase shift is achieved with pump pulse energy of 5.6 pJ at a 10-GHz repetition rate.

  1. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits for sensors, radar, and communications systems; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 2-4, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Regis F.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    Consideration is given to MMICs for airborne phased arrays, monolithic GaAs integrated circuit millimeter wave imaging sensors, accurate design of multiport low-noise MMICs up to 20 GHz, an ultralinear low-noise amplifier technology for space communications, variable-gain MMIC module for space applications, a high-efficiency dual-band power amplifier for radar applications, a high-density circuit approach for low-cost MMIC circuits, coplanar SIMMWIC circuits, recent advances in monolithic phased arrays, and system-level integrated circuit development for phased-array antenna applications. Consideration is also given to performance enhancement in future communications satellites with MMIC technology insertion, application of Ka-band MMIC technology for an Orbiter/ACTS communications experiment, a space-based millimeter wave debris tracking radar, low-noise high-yield octave-band feedback amplifiers to 20 GHz, quasi-optical MESFET VCOs, and a high-dynamic-range mixer using novel balun structure. (For individual items see A93-25777 to A93-25814)

  2. A 3D porous polymer monolith-based platform integrated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchips for immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Qin-Shu; Shen, Xiao-Fan; Hu, Na-Na; Hu, Meng-Jia; Liao, Hui; Wang, Han-Zhong; He, Zhi-Ke; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2013-05-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the immunocapture and on-line fluorescence immunoassay of protein and virus based on porous polymer monoliths (PPM) in microfluidic devices. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) [poly(GMA-co-EGDMA)] monoliths were successfully synthesized in the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels by in situ UV-initiated free radical polymerization. After surface modification, PPM provides a high-surface area and specific affinity 3D substrate for immunoassays. Combining with well controlled microfluidic devices, the direct immunoassay of IgG and sandwich immunoassay of inactivated H1N1 influenza virus using 5 μL sample has been accomplished, with detection limits of 4 ng mL(-1) and less than 10 pg mL(-1), respectively. The enhanced detection sensitivity is due to both high surface area of PPM and flow-through design. The detection time was obviously decreased mainly due to the shortened diffusion distance and improved convective mass transfer inside the monolith, which accelerates the reaction kinetics between antigen and antibody. This work provides a novel microfluidic immunoassay platform with high efficiency thereby enabling fast and sensitive immunoassay.

  3. Semiconductor Nanocrystal Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-31

    Hahn, H. Du, and T. D. Krauss, "Photoluminescence enhancement of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots embedded in a monolithic microcavity," Appl... DBRs ). The colloidal NC suspension was spun-coat into a 95-nm thick layer in the center of the cavity and then the other layers forming the top DBR

  4. Microcavity-integrated graphene photodetector

    OpenAIRE

    Furchi, Marco; Urich, Alexander; Pospischil, Andreas; Lilley, Govinda; Unterrainer, Karl; Detz, Hermann; Klang, Pavel; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried; Mueller, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The monolithic integration of novel nanomaterials with mature and established technologies has considerably widened the scope and potential of nanophotonics. For example, the integration of single semiconductor quantum dots into photonic crystals has enabled highly efficient single-photon sources. Recently, there has also been an increasing interest in using graphene - a single atomic layer of carbon - for optoelectronic devices. However, being an inherently weak optical absorber (only 2.3 % ...

  5. Integrated Broadband Quantum Cascade Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Kamjou (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A broadband, integrated quantum cascade laser is disclosed, comprising ridge waveguide quantum cascade lasers formed by applying standard semiconductor process techniques to a monolithic structure of alternating layers of claddings and active region layers. The resulting ridge waveguide quantum cascade lasers may be individually controlled by independent voltage potentials, resulting in control of the overall spectrum of the integrated quantum cascade laser source. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  6. Micromachining of semiconductor by femtosecond laser for integrated circuit defect analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbwax, M. [Laboratoire LP3 CNRS UMR 6182, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, Case 917, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13009 Marseille (France); Sarnet, T. [Laboratoire LP3 CNRS UMR 6182, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, Case 917, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13009 Marseille (France)], E-mail: sarnet@lp3.univ-mrs.fr; Hermann, J.; Delaporte, Ph.; Sentis, M. [Laboratoire LP3 CNRS UMR 6182, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, Case 917, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13009 Marseille (France); Fares, L.; Haller, G. [STMicroelectronics, 190 Avenue Celestin Coq, ZI, 13106 Rousset Cedex (France)

    2007-12-15

    The latest International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) has highlighted the detection and analysis of defects in Integrated Circuits (IC) as a major challenge faced by the semiconductor industry. Advanced tools used today for defect cross sectioning include dual beams (focused ion- and electron-beam technologies) with resolution down to the sub-Angstrom level. However ion milling an IC with a FIB is time consuming because of the need to open wide cavities in front of the cross-sections that need to be analyzed. Therefore the use of a femtosecond laser as a tool for direct material removal is discussed in this paper. Experiments were performed on IC structures to reveal the different layers of fabrication: selective or total ablation can occur depending on the laser energy density, without delamination of the layers. Different laser irradiation conditions like pressure (air, vacuum), polarization, beam shaping, and scanning parameters have been used to produce different types of cavities. The femtosecond laser engraving of silicon-based structures could be useful for cross-sectioning devices but also for other applications like direct-write lithography, photomask repair, maskless implantation or reverse engineering/restructuring.

  7. A multifunctional biphasic water splitting catalyst tailored for integration with high-performance semiconductor photoanodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinhui; Cooper, Jason K.; Toma, Francesca M.; Walczak, Karl A.; Favaro, Marco; Beeman, Jeffrey W.; Hess, Lucas H.; Wang, Cheng; Zhu, Chenhui; Gul, Sheraz; Yano, Junko; Kisielowski, Christian; Schwartzberg, Adam; Sharp, Ian D.

    2017-03-01

    Artificial photosystems are advanced by the development of conformal catalytic materials that promote desired chemical transformations, while also maintaining stability and minimizing parasitic light absorption for integration on surfaces of semiconductor light absorbers. Here, we demonstrate that multifunctional, nanoscale catalysts that enable high-performance photoelectrochemical energy conversion can be engineered by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition. The collective properties of tailored Co3O4/Co(OH)2 thin films simultaneously provide high activity for water splitting, permit efficient interfacial charge transport from semiconductor substrates, and enhance durability of chemically sensitive interfaces. These films comprise compact and continuous nanocrystalline Co3O4 spinel that is impervious to phase transformation and impermeable to ions, thereby providing effective protection of the underlying substrate. Moreover, a secondary phase of structurally disordered and chemically labile Co(OH)2 is introduced to ensure a high concentration of catalytically active sites. Application of this coating to photovoltaic p+n-Si junctions yields best reported performance characteristics for crystalline Si photoanodes.

  8. Fabrication of Si/SiO2/GaN structure by surface-activated bonding for monolithic integration of optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, Kazuaki; Yamane, Keisuke; Sekiguchi, Hiroto; Okada, Hiroshi; Wakahara, Akihiro

    2016-05-01

    A Si/SiO2/GaN-light-emitting-diode (LED) wafer is proposed as a new structure for the monolithic integration of both Si circuits and GaN-based optical devices. Surface-activated bonding was performed to transfer a Si layer from a silicon-on-insulator substrate to a SiO2/GaN-LED substrate. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that a defect-free Si layer was formed on the SiO2/GaN-LED substrate without interfacial voids. The crystalline quality of the Si layer, which is characterized by an X-ray rocking curve, was markedly improved by flattening the SiO2/GaN-LED substrate before bonding. Finally, a micro-LED array was successfully fabricated on the Si/SiO2/GaN-LED wafer without the delamination of the Si layer.

  9. Monolithic Integration of Sampled Grating DBR with Electroabsorption Modulator by Combining Selective-Area-Growth MOCVD and Quantum-Well Intermixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Bo; Zhao, Ling-Juan; Pan, Jiao-Qing; Zhu, Hong-Liang; Zhou, Fan; Wang, Bao-Jun; Wang, Wei

    2008-10-01

    We present the monolithic integration of a sampled-grating distributed Bragg reflector (SG-DBR) laser with a quantum-well electroabsorption modulator (QW-EAM) by combining ultra-low-pressure (55mbar) selective-area-growth (SAG) metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) and quantum-well intermixing (QWI) for the first time. The QW-EAM and the gain section can be grown simultaneously by using SAG MOCVD technology. Meanwhile, the QWI technology offers an abrupt band-gap change between two functional sections, which reduces internal absorption loss. The experimental results show that the threshold current Ith = 62 mA, and output power reaches 3.6mW. The wavelength tuning range covers 30nm, and all the corresponding side mode suppression ratios are over 30 dB. The extinction ratios at available wavelength channels can reach more than 14 dB with bias of -5 V.

  10. Monolithic Integration of Sampled Grating DBR with Electroabsorption Modulator by Combining Selective-Area-Growth MOCVD and Quantum-Well Intermixing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong-Bo; ZHAO Ling-Juan; PAN Jiao-Qing; ZHU Hong-Liang; ZHOU Fan; WANG Bao-Jun; WANG Wei

    2008-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of a sampled-grating distributed Bragg reflector (SG-DBR) laser with a quantum-well eleetroabsorption modulator (QW-EAM) by combining ultra-low-pressure (55mbar) selectivearea-growth (SAG) metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) and quantum-well intermixing (QWI)for the first time. The QW-EAM and the gain section can be grown simultaneously by using SAG MOCVD technology. Meanwhile, the QWI technology offers an abrupt band-gap change between two functional sections,which reduces internal absorption loss. The experimental results show that the threshold current Ith=62 mA,and output power reaches 3.6 roW. The wavelength tuning range covers 3Ohm, and all the corresponding side mode suppression ratios are over 30 dB. The extinction ratios at available wavelength channels can reach more than 14dB with bias of -5 V.

  11. Using tunnel junctions to grow monolithically integrated optically pumped semipolar III-nitride yellow quantum wells on top of electrically injected blue quantum wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowsz, Stacy J; Young, Erin C; Yonkee, Benjamin P; Pynn, Christopher D; Farrell, Robert M; Speck, James S; DenBaars, Steven P; Nakamura, Shuji

    2017-02-20

    We report a device that monolithically integrates optically pumped (20-21) III-nitride quantum wells (QWs) with 560 nm emission on top of electrically injected QWs with 450 nm emission. The higher temperature growth of the blue light-emitting diode (LED) was performed first, which prevented thermal damage to the higher indium content InGaN of the optically pumped QWs. A tunnel junction (TJ) was incorporated between the optically pumped and electrically injected QWs; this TJ enabled current spreading in the buried LED. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition enabled the growth of InGaN QWs with high radiative efficiency, while molecular beam epitaxy was leveraged to achieve activated buried p-type GaN and the TJ. This initial device exhibited dichromatic optically polarized emission with a polarization ratio of 0.28. Future improvements in spectral distribution should enable phosphor-free polarized white light emission.

  12. High-Performance WSe2 Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Technology and Integrated Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lili; Zubair, Ahmad; Santos, Elton J G; Zhang, Xu; Lin, Yuxuan; Zhang, Yuhao; Palacios, Tomás

    2015-08-12

    Because of their extraordinary structural and electrical properties, two-dimensional materials are currently being pursued for applications such as thin-film transistors and integrated circuit. One of the main challenges that still needs to be overcome for these applications is the fabrication of air-stable transistors with industry-compatible complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate a novel high performance air-stable WSe2 CMOS technology with almost ideal voltage transfer characteristic, full logic swing and high noise margin with different supply voltages. More importantly, the inverter shows large voltage gain (∼38) and small static power (picowatts), paving the way for low power electronic system in 2D materials.

  13. Group IV semiconductor Ge integration with topological insulator Sb2Te3 for spintronic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Beining; Sun, Yu; Wu, Jie; Han, Mei; Wu, Xiaofeng; Huang, Keke; Feng, Shouhua

    2017-03-01

    Sb2Te3/Ge heterojunctions were grown on deoxidized GaAs (0 0 1) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy to explore a new type of spin torque device. Despite the large lattice mismatch between Ge and Sb2Te3, the films display highly uniform fabrication and good crystallinity, which have been confirmed by structural characterization. The band structures of Sb2Te3/Ge heterojunctions were investigated by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. Small chemical shift of Sb 3d5/2 indicates that TI conducting surface is not destroyed, and Ge valence band bending contributes to Fermi level depinning. The band offset of Sb2Te3/Ge heterojunctions is different from common gate dielectric/Ge heterojunctions. The integral quality of the heterostructure reveals the potential of combining topological insulators with semiconductors for the advancement of spintronic devices.

  14. Monoliths in Bioprocess Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignesh Rajamanickam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic columns are a special type of chromatography column, which can be used for the purification of different biomolecules. They have become popular due to their high mass transfer properties and short purification times. Several articles have already discussed monolith manufacturing, as well as monolith characteristics. In contrast, this review focuses on the applied aspect of monoliths and discusses the most relevant biomolecules that can be successfully purified by them. We describe success stories for viruses, nucleic acids and proteins and compare them to conventional purification methods. Furthermore, the advantages of monolithic columns over particle-based resins, as well as the limitations of monoliths are discussed. With a compilation of commercially available monolithic columns, this review aims at serving as a ‘yellow pages’ for bioprocess engineers who face the challenge of purifying a certain biomolecule using monoliths.

  15. A Monolithic CMOS Magnetic Hall Sensor with High Sensitivity and Linearity Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiyun; Wang, Dejun; Xu, Yue

    2015-10-27

    This paper presents a fully integrated linear Hall sensor by means of 0.8 μm high voltage complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. This monolithic Hall sensor chip features a highly sensitive horizontal switched Hall plate and an efficient signal conditioner using dynamic offset cancellation technique. An improved cross-like Hall plate achieves high magnetic sensitivity and low offset. A new spinning current modulator stabilizes the quiescent output voltage and improves the reliability of the signal conditioner. The tested results show that at the 5 V supply voltage, the maximum Hall output voltage of the monolithic Hall sensor microsystem, is up to ±2.1 V and the linearity of Hall output voltage is higher than 99% in the magnetic flux density range from ±5 mT to ±175 mT. The output equivalent residual offset is 0.48 mT and the static power consumption is 20 mW.

  16. Artificial Neuron Based on Integrated Semiconductor Quantum Dot Mode-Locked Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesaritakis, Charis; Kapsalis, Alexandros; Bogris, Adonis; Syvridis, Dimitris

    2016-12-19

    Neuro-inspired implementations have attracted strong interest as a power efficient and robust alternative to the digital model of computation with a broad range of applications. Especially, neuro-mimetic systems able to produce and process spike-encoding schemes can offer merits like high noise-resiliency and increased computational efficiency. Towards this direction, integrated photonics can be an auspicious platform due to its multi-GHz bandwidth, its high wall-plug efficiency and the strong similarity of its dynamics under excitation with biological spiking neurons. Here, we propose an integrated all-optical neuron based on an InAs/InGaAs semiconductor quantum-dot passively mode-locked laser. The multi-band emission capabilities of these lasers allows, through waveband switching, the emulation of the excitation and inhibition modes of operation. Frequency-response effects, similar to biological neural circuits, are observed just as in a typical two-section excitable laser. The demonstrated optical building block can pave the way for high-speed photonic integrated systems able to address tasks ranging from pattern recognition to cognitive spectrum management and multi-sensory data processing.

  17. Artificial Neuron Based on Integrated Semiconductor Quantum Dot Mode-Locked Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesaritakis, Charis; Kapsalis, Alexandros; Bogris, Adonis; Syvridis, Dimitris

    2016-12-01

    Neuro-inspired implementations have attracted strong interest as a power efficient and robust alternative to the digital model of computation with a broad range of applications. Especially, neuro-mimetic systems able to produce and process spike-encoding schemes can offer merits like high noise-resiliency and increased computational efficiency. Towards this direction, integrated photonics can be an auspicious platform due to its multi-GHz bandwidth, its high wall-plug efficiency and the strong similarity of its dynamics under excitation with biological spiking neurons. Here, we propose an integrated all-optical neuron based on an InAs/InGaAs semiconductor quantum-dot passively mode-locked laser. The multi-band emission capabilities of these lasers allows, through waveband switching, the emulation of the excitation and inhibition modes of operation. Frequency-response effects, similar to biological neural circuits, are observed just as in a typical two-section excitable laser. The demonstrated optical building block can pave the way for high-speed photonic integrated systems able to address tasks ranging from pattern recognition to cognitive spectrum management and multi-sensory data processing.

  18. High gain semiconductor optical amplifier — Laser diode at visible wavelength

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2017-02-07

    We reported on the first experimental demonstration of a two-section semipolar InGaN-based laser diode with monolithically integrated semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA-LD). The onset of amplification effect was measured at 4V SOA bias (VSOA). The SOA-LD shows a large gain of 5.32 dB at Vsoa = 6 V.

  19. Integration of carbon nanotubes with semiconductor technology: fabrication of hybrid devices by III–V molecular beam epitaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stobbe, Søren; Lindelof, P. E.; Nygård, J.

    2006-01-01

    on incorporation of singlewall nanotubes in III–V semiconductor heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We demonstrate that singlewall carbon nanotubes can be overgrown using MBE; electrical contacts to the nanotubes are obtained by GaMnAs grown at 250 °C. The resulting devices can exhibit field......We review a number of essential issues regarding the integration of carbon nanotubes in semiconductor devices for electronics: material compatibility, electrical contacts, functionalities, circuit architectures and reliability. In the second part of the paper, we present our own recent results...

  20. Flower-Like Internal Emission Distribution of LEDs with Monolithic Integration of InGaN-based Quantum Wells Emitting Narrow Blue, Green, and Red Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwanjae; Choi, Ilgyu; Lee, Cheul-Ro; Chung, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Yoon Seok; Jeong, Kwang-Un; Chung, Dong Chul; Kim, Jin Soo

    2017-08-02

    We report a phosphor-free white light-emitting diodes (LED) realized by the monolithic integration of In0.18Ga0.82N/GaN (438 nm, blue), In0.26Ga0.74N/GaN (513 nm, green), and In0.45Ga0.55N/In0.13Ga0.87N (602 nm, red) quantum wells (QWs) as an active medium. The QWs corresponding to blue and green light were grown using a conventional growth mode. For the red spectral emission, five-stacked In0.45Ga0.55N/In0.13Ga0.87N QWs were realized by the so-called Ga-flow-interruption (Ga-FI) technique, wherein the Ga supply was periodically interrupted during the deposition of In0.3Ga0.7N to form an In0.45Ga0.55N well. The vertical and lateral distributions of the three different light emissions were investigated by fluorescence microscope (FM) images. The FM image measured at a focal point in the middle of the n-GaN cladding layer for the red-emitting LED shows that light emissions with flower-like patterns with six petals are periodically observed. The chromaticity coordinates of the electroluminescence spectrum for the white LEDs at an injection current of 80 mA are measured to be (0.316, 0.312), which is close to ideal white light. In contrast with phosphor-free white-light-emitting devices based on nanostructures, our white light device exhibits a mixture of three independent wavelengths by monolithically grown InGaN-based QWs, thus demonstrating a more facile technique to obtain white LEDs.

  1. Semiconductor optoelectronic devices for free-space optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J.

    1983-01-01

    The properties of individual injection lasers are reviewed, and devices of greater complexity are described. These either include or are relevant to monolithic integration configurations of the lasers with their electronic driving circuitry, power combining methods of semiconductor lasers, and electronic methods of steering the radiation patterns of semiconductor lasers and laser arrays. The potential of AlGaAs laser technology for free-space optical communications systems is demonstrated. These solid-state components, which can generate and modulate light, combine the power of a number of sources and perform at least part of the beam pointing functions. Methods are proposed for overcoming the main drawback of semiconductor lasers, that is, their inability to emit the needed amount of optical power in a single-mode operation.

  2. High frequency characteristic of a monolithic 500 °C OpAmp-RC integrator in SiC bipolar IC technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Zetterling, Carl-Mikael

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive investigation of the frequency response of a monolithic OpAmp-RC integrator implemented in a 4H-SiC bipolar IC technology. The circuits and devices have been measured and characterized from 27 to 500 °C. The devices have been modelled to identify that the substrate capacitance is a dominant factor affecting the OpAmp's high-frequency response. Large Miller compensation capacitors of more than 540 pF are required to ensure stability of the internal OpAmp. The measured unit-gain-bandwidth product of the OpAmp is ∼1.1 MHz at 27 °C, and decreases to ∼0.5 MHz at 500 °C mainly due to the reduction of the transistor's current gain. On the other hand, it is not necessary to compensate the integrator in a relatively wide bandwidth ∼0.7 MHz over the investigated temperature range. At higher frequencies, the integrator's frequency response has been identified to be significantly affected by that of the OpAmp and load impedance. This work demonstrates the potential of this technology for high temperature applications requiring bandwidths of several megahertz.

  3. A hybrid fluorous monolithic capillary column with integrated nanoelectrospray ionization emitter for determination of perfluoroalkyl acids by nano-liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionization-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyang; Ou, Junjie; Wei, Yinmao; Wang, Hongwei; Liu, Zhongshan; Zou, Hanfa

    2016-04-01

    A hybrid fluorous monolithic column was simply prepared via photo-initiated free radical polymerization of an acrylopropyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (acryl-POSS) and a perfluorous monomer (2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7-dodecafluoroheptyl acrylate) in UV-transparent fused-silica capillaries within 5min. The physical characterization of hybrid fluorous monolith, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurement was performed. Chromatographic performance was also evaluated by capillary liquid chromatography (cLC). Due to the fluorous-fluorous interaction between fluorous monolith and analytes, fluorobenzenes could well be separated, and the column efficiencies reached 86,600-92,500plates/m at the velocity of 0.87mm/s for alkylbenzenes and 51,900-76,000plates/m at the velocity of 1.10mm/s for fluorobenzenes. Meanwhile, an approach to integrate nanoelectrospray ionization (ESI) emitter with hybrid fluorous monolithic column was developed for quantitative determination of perfluoroalkyl acids by nanoHPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The integration design could minimize extracolumn volume, thus excluding undesirable peak broadening and improving separation performance.

  4. Controlling quantum dot emission by integration of semiconductor nanomembranes onto piezoelectric actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastelli, A.; Plumhof, J.D.; Kumar, S.; Trotta, R.; Atkinson, P.; Zallo, E.; Krapek, V.; Schroeter, J.R.; Kiravittaya, S.; Benyoucef, M.; Thurmer, D.J.; Grimm, D.; Schmidt, O.G. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Ding, F.; Zander, T. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Deneke, C. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia (LNNano), Rua Giuseppe Maximo Scolfaro 10000, 13083-100 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Malachias, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CP 702, 30123-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Herklotz, A.; Doerr, K. [Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Singh, R.; Bester, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Hafenbrak, R.; Joens, K.D.; Michler, P. [Institut fuer Halbleiteroptik und Funktionelle Grenzflaechen, University of Stuttgart, Allmandring 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    This paper reviews the recent advances obtained by integrating semiconductor epitaxial films with embedded self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) on top of single-crystal piezoelectric substrates made of lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT). This combination allows us to study in detail the effects produced by variable strains (up to about {+-} 0.2%) on the excitonic emission of single QDs and to add a powerful ''tuning knob'' to QDs. Biaxial stress can be used to reversibly shift the emission wavelength of QDs in a spectral range wider than 10 meV and to modify the relative binding energies of excitonic species. Anisotropic stress has instead a strong influence on the fine structure splitting of neutral excitons. Finally, we present experimental results on the effect of biaxial strain on the optical modes of microring optical resonators and show a simple approach enabling the compensation of piezo-creep via a closed-loop system. Schematic illustration of a QD membrane integrated on top of a PMN-PT substrate. Stress provided by the piezoelectric substrate allows broad range tuning of the emission properties of the overlying dots. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Optical displacement measurement using a monolithic Michelson interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Daniel; Zappe, Hans P.

    1997-04-01

    Contactless optical displacement measurement has the potential for a variety of industrial and scientific applications. For highly accurate displacement measurements at distances below 1 m, interferometric methods are preferred over most other methods. This is mainly because of the good resolution and the possibility of doing the measurements in real-time. Furthermore, the use of direct bandgap semiconductor materials also enables the fabrication of a compact interferometer-based device which unites all necessary components, including the light emitter, on a single chip. In this paper, a monolithically integrated optical displacement sensor fabricated in the GaAs/AlGaAs material system is reported. This single chip microsystem is configured as a double Michelson interferometer and comprises a distributed Bragg reflector laser, photodetectors, phase shifters and waveguide couplers. In the course of this paper, we will also briefly discuss possible scientific and industrial applications of such devices.

  6. Thin film CIGS photovoltaic modules: monolithic integration and advanced packaging for high performance, high reliability and low cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldada, Louay

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, thin-film photovoltaic companies started realizing their low manufacturing cost potential, and have been grabbing an increasingly larger market share. Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) is the most promising thin-film PV material, having demonstrated the highest energy conversion efficiency in both cells and modules. However, most CIGS manufacturers still face the challenge of delivering a reliable and rapid manufacturing process that can scale effectively and deliver on the promise of this material system. HelioVolt has developed a reactive transfer process for CIGS absorber formation that has the benefits of good compositional control, and a fast high-quality CIGS reaction. The reactive transfer process is a two stage CIGS fabrication method. Precursor films are deposited onto substrates and reusable cover plates in the first stage, while in the second stage the CIGS layer is formed by rapid heating with Se confinement. HelioVolt also developed best-in-class packaging technologies that provide unparalleled environmental stability. High quality CIGS films with large grains were fabricated on the production line, and high-performance highreliability monolithic modules with a form factor of 120 cm × 60 cm are being produced at high yield and low cost. With conversion efficiency levels around 14% for cells and 12% for modules, HelioVolt is commercializing the process on its first production line with 20 MW capacity, and is planning its next GW-scale factory.

  7. Toward printed integrated circuits based on unipolar or ambipolar polymer semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeg, Kang-Jun; Caironi, Mario; Noh, Yong-Young

    2013-08-21

    For at least the past ten years printed electronics has promised to revolutionize our daily life by making cost-effective electronic circuits and sensors available through mass production techniques, for their ubiquitous applications in wearable components, rollable and conformable devices, and point-of-care applications. While passive components, such as conductors, resistors and capacitors, had already been fabricated by printing techniques at industrial scale, printing processes have been struggling to meet the requirements for mass-produced electronics and optoelectronics applications despite their great potential. In the case of logic integrated circuits (ICs), which constitute the focus of this Progress Report, the main limitations have been represented by the need of suitable functional inks, mainly high-mobility printable semiconductors and low sintering temperature conducting inks, and evoluted printing tools capable of higher resolution, registration and uniformity than needed in the conventional graphic arts printing sector. Solution-processable polymeric semiconductors are the best candidates to fulfill the requirements for printed logic ICs on flexible substrates, due to their superior processability, ease of tuning of their rheology parameters, and mechanical properties. One of the strongest limitations has been mainly represented by the low charge carrier mobility (μ) achievable with polymeric, organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). However, recently unprecedented values of μ ∼ 10 cm(2) /Vs have been achieved with solution-processed polymer based OFETs, a value competing with mobilities reported in organic single-crystals and exceeding the performances enabled by amorphous silicon (a-Si). Interestingly these values were achieved thanks to the design and synthesis of donor-acceptor copolymers, showing limited degree of order when processed in thin films and therefore fostering further studies on the reason leading to such improved charge

  8. Monolithic multinozzle emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daojing; Yang, Peidong; Kim, Woong; Fan, Rong

    2011-09-20

    Novel and significantly simplified procedures for fabrication of fully integrated nanoelectrospray emitters have been described. For nanofabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (NM.sup.2 emitters), a bottom up approach using silicon nanowires on a silicon sliver is used. For microfabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (M.sup.3 emitters), a top down approach using MEMS techniques on silicon wafers is used. The emitters have performance comparable to that of commercially-available silica capillary emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry.

  9. A new era of semiconductor genetics using ion-sensitive field-effect transistors: the gene-sensitive integrated cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumazou, Christofer; Thay, Tan Sri Lim Kok; Georgiou, Pantelis

    2014-03-28

    Semiconductor genetics is now disrupting the field of healthcare owing to the rapid parallelization and scaling of DNA sensing using ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) fabricated using commercial complementary metal -oxide semiconductor technology. The enabling concept of DNA reaction monitoring introduced by Toumazou has made this a reality and we are now seeing relentless scaling with Moore's law ultimately achieving the $100 genome. In this paper, we present the next evolution of this technology through the creation of the gene-sensitive integrated cell (GSIC) for label-free real-time analysis based on ISFETs. This device is derived from the traditional metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) and has electrical performance identical to that of a MOSFET in a standard semiconductor process, yet is capable of incorporating DNA reaction chemistries for applications in single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays and DNA sequencing. Just as application-specific integrated circuits, which are developed in much the same way, have shaped our consumer electronics industry and modern communications and memory technology, so, too, do GSICs based on a single underlying technology principle have the capacity to transform the life science and healthcare industries.

  10. Monolithic integration of hybrid III-V/Si lasers and Si-based modulators for data transmission up to 25Gbps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrotti, Thomas; Blampey, Benjamin; Jany, Christophe; Duprez, Hélène; Chantre, Alain; Boeuf, Frédéric; Seassal, Christian; Ben Bakir, Badhise

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the 200mm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform is used to demonstrate the monolithic co-integration of hybrid III-V/silicon Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) tunable lasers and silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZMs), to achieve fully integrated hybrid transmitters for silicon photonics. The design of each active component, as well as the fabrication process steps of the whole architecture are described in details. Data transmission rate up to 25Gb/s has been reached for transmitters using MZMs with active lengths of 2mm and 4mm. Extinction ratios of respectively 2.9dB and 4.7dB are obtained by applying drive voltages of 2.5V peak-to-peak on the MZMs. 25Gb/s data transmission is demonstrated at 1303.5nm and 1315.8nm, with the possibility to tune the operating wavelength by up to 8.5nm in each case, by using metallic heaters above the lasers Bragg reflectors.

  11. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: Low power CMOS preamplifier for neural recording applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhang; Weihua, Pei; Beiju, Huang; Hongda, Chen

    2010-04-01

    A fully-differential bandpass CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) preamplifier for extracellular neural recording is presented. The capacitive-coupled and capacitive-feedback topology is adopted. The preamplifier has a midband gain of 20.4 dB and a DC gain of 0. The -3 dB upper cut-off frequency of the preamplifier is 6.7 kHz. The lower cut-off frequency can be adjusted for amplifying the field or action potentials located in different bands. It has an input-referred noise of 8.2 μVrms integrated from 0.15 Hz to 6.7 kHz for recording the local field potentials and the mixed neural spikes with a power dissipation of 23.1 μW from a 3.3 V supply. A bandgap reference circuitry is also designed for providing the biasing voltage and current. The 0.22 mm2 prototype chip, including the preamplifier and its biasing circuitry, is fabricated in the 0.35-μm N-well CMOS 2P4M process.

  12. Integrated Active Magnetic Probe in Silicon-on-Insulator Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Satoshi; Kawahito, Shoji; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2006-09-01

    A novel magnetic probe has been designed and fabricated by 0.15 μm five-metal (4M + thick metal) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology to achieve both a high sensitivity and a high spatial resolution. A detecting coil having metal multilayers, a two-stage differential amplifier, a differential-to-single-ended converter, and an output buffer are integrated on a single chip. The probe is referred to as an active probe, and it has a feature to distinguish magnetic field from detected electromagnetic emissions by means of a two-turn differential coil structure and a circuit technique using a wideband differential-to-single-ended converter with a high common-mode rejection. Measurement results show the effectiveness of the active magnetic probe with the function of on-chip amplification and electric field suppression, as well as electrical switching with common-mode voltage (Vcom). Moreover, for the first time, a magnetic field distribution is visualized with an active probe.

  13. Integration of Solar Cells on Top of CMOS Chips Part I: a-Si Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; van der Werf, Karine H.M.; Schropp, Ruud E.I.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of deepsubmicrometer complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) microchips with a-Si:H solar cells. Solar cells are manufactured directly on the CMOS chips. The microchips maintain comparable electronic performance, and the solar cells show efficiency values

  14. Integration of Solar Cells on Top of CMOS Chips Part I: a-Si Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Jiwu; Kovalgin, Alexey Y.; Werf, van der Karine H.M.; Schropp, Ruud E.I.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of deepsubmicrometer complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) microchips with a-Si:H solar cells. Solar cells are manufactured directly on the CMOS chips. The microchips maintain comparable electronic performance, and the solar cells show efficiency values

  15. DBR-free optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhou; Albrecht, Alexander R.; Cederberg, Jeffrey G.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2015-03-01

    Optically pumped semiconductor disk lasers (SDLs) provide high beam quality with high average-power power at designer wavelengths. However, material choices are limited by the need for a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), usually monolithically integrated with the active region. We demonstrate DBR-free SDL active regions, which have been lifted off and bonded to various transparent substrates. For an InGaAs multi-quantum well sample bonded to a diamond window heat spreader, we achieved CW lasing with an output power of 2 W at 1150 nm with good beam quality.

  16. Monolithic optical gates based on integration of evanescently-coupled uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes and electroabsorption modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Xiao; Liao, Zai-Yi; Zhao, Ling-Juan; Pan, Jiao-Qing; Zhu, Hong-Liang; Wang, Wei

    2010-07-01

    We report on chip-scale optical gates based on the integration of evanescent waveguide unitraveling-carrier photodiodes (EC-UTC-PDs) and intra-step quantum well electroabsorption modulators (IQW-EAMs) on n-InP substrates. These devices exhibit simultaneously 2.1 GHz and -6.2 dB RF-gain at 21 GHz with a 450 Ω thin-film resistor and a bypass capacitor integrated on a chip.

  17. Nano-photonics in III-V semiconductors for integrated quantum optical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasley, Nicholas Andrew

    This thesis describes the optical spectroscopic measurements of III-V semiconductors used to investigate a number of issues related to the development of integrated quantum optical circuits. The disorder-limited propagation of photons in photonic crystal waveguides in the slow-light regime is investigated. The analysis of Fabry-Perot resonances is used to map the mode dispersion and extract the photon localisation length. Andersonlocalised modes are observed at high group indices, when the localisation lengths are shorter than the waveguide lengths, consistent with the Fabry-Perot analysis. A spin-photon interface based on two orthogonal waveguides is introduced, where the polarisation emitted by a quantum dot is mapped to a path-encoded photon. Operation is demonstrated by deducing the spin using the interference of in-plane photons. A second device directly maps right and left circular polarisations to anti-parallel waveguides, surprising for a non-chiral structure but consistent with an off-centre dot. Two dimensional photonic crystal cavities in GaInP and full control over the spontaneous emission rate of InP quantum dots is demonstrated by spectrally tuning the exciton emission energy into resonance with the fundamental cavity mode. Fourier transform spectroscopy is used to investigate the short coherence times of InP quantum dots in GaInP photonic crystal cavities. Additional technological developments are also presented including a quantum dot registration technique, electrical tuning of quantum dot emission and uniaxial strain tuning of H1 cavity modes.

  18. Monolithic resonant optical reflector laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, T.; Suehiro, M.; Maeda, M.; Hihara, M.; Hosomatsu, H.

    1991-10-01

    The first monolithic resonant optical reflector laser diode that has a waveguide directional coupler and two DBR reflectors integrated by compositional disordering of quantum-well heterostructures is described. A linewidth of 440 kHz was obtained, and this value is expected to be greatly decreased by reducing the propagation loss in the integrated waveguide.

  19. Monolithic integration of a lithium niobate microresonator with a free-standing waveguide using femtosecond laser assisted ion beam writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhiwei; Xu, Yingxin; Wang, Min; Qiao, Lingling; Lin, Jintian; Fang, Wei; Cheng, Ya

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrated integrating a high quality factor lithium niobate microdisk resonator with a free-standing membrane waveguide. Our technique is based on femtosecond laser direct writing which produces the pre-structure, followed by focused ion beam milling which reduces the surface roughness of sidewall of the fabricated structure to nanometer scale. Efficient light coupling between the integrated waveguide and microdisk was achieved, and the quality factor of the microresonator was measured as high as 1.67 × 105. PMID:28358135

  20. Toward High Performance Integrated Semiconductor Micro and Nano Lasers Enabled by Transparent Conducting Materials: from Thick Structure to Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Fang

    Integrated semiconductor lasers working at the wavelength around 1.3 microm and 1.55 microm are of great interest for the research of photonic integrated circuit (PIC) since they are the crucial components for optical communications and many other applications. To satisfy the requirement of the next generation optical communication and computing systems, integrated semiconductor lasers are expected to have high device performance like very low lasing threshold, high output powers, high speed and possibility of being integrated with electronics. This dissertation focuses on the design and realization of InP based high performance electrically pumped integrated semiconductor lasers. In the dissertation, we first design the tall structure based electrically pumped integrated micro-lasers. Those lasers are capable of giving >10 mW output power with a moderate low threshold current density (0.5--5 kA/cm 2). Besides, a new enhanced radiation loss based coupler design is demonstrated to realize single directional output for curvilinear cavities. Second, the thin film structure based integrated semiconductor laser designs are proposed. Both structures use the side conduction geometry to enable the electrical injection into the thin film laser cavity. The performance enhancement of the thin film structure based lasers is analyzed compared to the tall structure. Third, we investigate the TCO materials. CdO deposited by PLD and In 2O3 deposited by IAD are studied from aspects of their physical, optical and electrical properties. Those materials can give a wide range of tunability in their conductivity (1--5000 S/cm) and optical transparency (loss 200--5000 cm-1), which is of great interest in realizing novel nanophotonic devices. In addition, the electrical contact properties of those materials to InP are also studied. Experiment result shows that both CdO and In2O3 can achieve good ohmic contact to n-InP with contact resistance as low as 10-6O·cm 2. At last, we investigate

  1. DC and RF characterization of InGaAs replacement metal gate (RMG) nFETs on SiGe-OI FinFETs fabricated by 3D monolithic integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, V.; Djara, V.; O'Connor, E.; Hashemi, P.; Balakrishnan, K.; Caimi, D.; Sousa, M.; Czornomaz, L.; Fompeyrine, J.

    2017-02-01

    We report the first RF characterization of short-channel replacement metal gate (RMG) InGaAs-OI nFETs built in a 3D monolithic (3DM) CMOS process. This process features RMG InGaAs-OI nFET top layer and SiGe-OI fin pFET bottom layer. We demonstrate state-of-the-art device integration on both levels. The bottom layer SiGe-OI pFETs are fabricated with a Gate-First (GF) process with fins and featuring epitaxial raised source drain (RSD) as well as silicide contact layer. The top layer InGaAs nFETs are fabricated with a RMG process featuring a self-aligned epitaxial raised source drain (RSD). We show that the 3D monolithic integration scheme does not degrade the performance of the bottom SiGe-OI pFETs owing to an optimized thermal budget for the top InGaAs nFETs. From the RF characterizations performed (post-3D monolithic process) on multifinger-gate InGaAs-OI nFETs, we extract a cut-off frequency (Ft) of 16.4 GHz at a gate-length (Lg) of 120 nm. Measurements on various gate lengths shows increasing cut-off frequency with decreasing gate-length.

  2. Monolithic integrated system with an electrowetting-on-dielectric actuator and a film-bulk-acoustic-resonator sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Menglun; Cui, Weiwei; Chen, Xuejiao; Wang, Chao; Pang, Wei; Duan, Xuexin; Zhang, Daihua; Zhang, Hao

    2015-02-01

    Although digital microfluidics has shown great potential in a wide range of applications, a lab-on-a-chip with integrated digital droplet actuators and powerful biochemical sensors is still lacking. To address the demand, a fully integrated chip with electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) and a film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) sensor is introduced, where an EWOD actuator manipulates digital droplets and the FBAR sensor detects the presence of substances in the droplets, respectively. The piezoelectric layer of the FBAR sensor and the dielectric layer of the EWOD share the same aluminum nitride (AlN) thin film, which is a key factor to achieve the full integration of the two completely different devices. The liquid droplets are reliably managed by the EWOD actuator to sit on or move off the FBAR sensor precisely. Sessile drop experiments and limit of detection (LOD) experiments are carried out to characterize the EWOD actuator and the FBAR sensor, respectively. Taking advantage of the digital droplet operation, a ‘dry sensing mode’ of the FBAR sensor in the lab-on-a-chip microsystem is proposed, which has a much higher signal to noise ratio than the conventional ‘wet sensing mode’. Hg2+ droplets with various concentrations are transported and sensed to demonstrate the capability of the integrated system. The EWOD-FBAR chip is expected to play an important role in many complex lab-on-a-chip applications.

  3. Robotic Tactile Sensors Fabricated from a Monolithic Silicon Integrated Circuit and a Piezoelectric Polyvinylidene Fluoride Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    quartz crystals has been in the communications industry , where the crystals were used in very selective band-pass filters in lbroad-bland carrier...PVDF on .Silicon Integrated Circuit."* Sensors and A4ctuators, 27:. 167-172 (191). 86. Park, 1K. and others. "’A PVDF Tactile Sensor for Industrial ...G. E. Neville. -Jr. "The Induced Vibration Touch Sensor - A New Dynamic Touch Sensing Systemn," Robotica , 4: 27-31 (1986). 88. Paul. C. R. and S. A

  4. A wafer-scale packaging structure with monolithic microwave integrated circuits and passives embedded in a silicon substrate for multichip modules for radio frequency applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Fei; Ding, Xiao-yun; Xu, Gao-wei; Luo, Le

    2009-10-01

    A wafer-level packaging structure with chips and passive components embedded in a silicon substrate for multichip modules (MCM) is proposed for radio frequency (RF) applications. The packaging structure consists of two layers of benzocyclobutene (BCB) films and three layers of metalized films, in which the monolithic microwave ICs (MMICs), thin film resistors, striplines and microstrip lines are integrated. The low resistivity silicon wafer with etched cavities is used as a substrate. The BCB films serve as interlayer dielectrics (ILDs). Wirebonding gold bumps are used as electric interconnections between different layers, which eliminate the need of preparing vias by costly procedures including dry etching, metal sputtering and electroplating. The chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) is used to uncover the gold bumps, and the BCB curing profile is optimized to obtain the appropriate BCB film for CMP process. In this work, the thermal, mechanical, electrical as well as RF properties of the packaging structure are investigated. The packaging thermal resistance can be controlled below 2 °C W-1. The average shear strength of the gold bumps on the BCB surface is about 70 MPa. In addition, a Kelvin test structure is fabricated for resistance testing of the vertical vias. The performances of MMIC and interconnection structure at high frequency are simulated and tested. The testing results reveal that the slight shifting of S-parameter curves of the packaged MMIC indicates perfect transmission characteristics at high frequency. For the transition structure of transmission line, the experimental results are compatible with the simulation results. The insertion loss (S21) is below 0.4 dB from 0 to 40 GHz and the return loss (S11) is less than -20 dB from 0 to 40 GHz. For a low noise amplifier (LNA) chip, the S21 shifting caused by the packaging structure is below 0.5 dB, and S11 is less than -10 dB from 8 GHz to 14 GHz.

  5. 单片集成微波/射频功率放大器技术进展%Progress in Monolithic Integrated Microwave/RF Power Amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 严利人; 周卫; 张伟

    2011-01-01

    As wireless communication market increases, monolithic integrated microwave/RF power amplifier (MMIC PA) plays a more and more important role in 3G and/or 4G systems. Traditional circuits used in mono-stage amplifiers are reviewed, together with their pros and cons. Architectures, such as the Doherty circuitry, EER (Envelope Elimination and Restoration) technology, LINC, etc. , are also discussed. Generally, these technologies may be used to improve linearity and efficiency of microwave power amplifier. Currently, some system-level linearization techniques have also been utilized. The overview may serve as a useful groundwork for those who are designing MMIC Pas.%回顾了一些用于微波单级功率放大器的传统技术方案,讨论了各自的优缺点.从电路模块的角度,总结了若干兼顾功放线性度和效率指标的典型电路拓扑形式,包括Doherty电路、包络消除与恢复(EER)技术、LINC技术等,并总结了当前主要采用的基于电路系统层面的微波射频功放线性化方案.在此基础上,列举评点了文献中一些典型功放的电路特点和性能指标,可为设计和制造人员提供有益参考.

  6. On the Integration of Wide Band-gap Semiconductors in Single Phase Boost PFC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos

    diodes, or the introduction of silicon carbide (SiC) diodes, provided large steps in miniaturization and efficiency improvement of switched mode power converters. Gallium nitride (GaN) and SiC semiconductor devices have already been around for some years. The first one proliferated due to the necessity...

  7. Linewidth broadening in a distributed feedback laser integrated with a semiconductor optical amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Champagne, A.; Camel, J.; Maciejko, R.

    2002-01-01

    The problem of the linewidth degradation in systems using distributed-feedback lasers together with strained-layer multi-quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) is examined. A modified expression for the linewidth in the case of antireflection-coated SOA output facets is derived...

  8. Decision Making for Third Party Logistics Supplier Selection in Semiconductor Manufacturing Industry: A Nonadditive Fuzzy Integral Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang-Ning Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The semiconductor industry has a unique vertically disintegrated structure that consists of various firms specializing in a narrow range of the value chain. To ensure manufacturing and logistics efficiency, the semiconductor manufacturers considerably rely on 3PL suppliers to achieve supply chain excellence. However, 3PL supplier selection is a complex decision-making process involving multiple selection criteria. The goal of this paper is to identify the key 3PL selection criteria by employing the nonadditive fuzzy integral approach. Unlike the traditional multicriterion decision-making (MCDM methods which often assume independence among criteria and additive importance weights, the nonadditive fuzzy integral is a more effective approach to solve the dependency among criteria, vagueness in information, and essential fuzziness of human judgment. In this paper, we demonstrate an empirical case that employs the nonadditive fuzzy integral to evaluate the importance weight of selection criteria and choose the most appropriate 3PL supplier. The research result can become a valuable reference for manufacturing companies operating in comparable situations. Moreover, the systematic framework presented in this study can be easily extended to the analysis of other decision-making domains.

  9. Nanosecond monolithic CMOS readout cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchkov, Vitali V.

    2004-08-24

    A pulse shaper is implemented in monolithic CMOS with a delay unit formed of a unity gain buffer. The shaper is formed of a difference amplifier having one input connected directly to an input signal and a second input connected to a delayed input signal through the buffer. An elementary cell is based on the pulse shaper and a timing circuit which gates the output of an integrator connected to the pulse shaper output. A detector readout system is formed of a plurality of elementary cells, each connected to a pixel of a pixel array, or to a microstrip of a plurality of microstrips, or to a detector segment.

  10. High-efficiency microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors that are arrayed, dual-integrated, and stacked

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellinger, Steven L., E-mail: slb3888@ksu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Fronk, Ryan G. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Sobering, Timothy J. [Electronics Design Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); McGregor, Douglas S. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Silicon diodes with large aspect ratio 3D microstructures backfilled with {sup 6}LiF show a significant increase in neutron detection efficiency beyond that of conventional thin-film coated planar devices. Described in this work are advancements in the technology using detector stacking methods and summed-detector 6 Multiplication-Sign 6-element arraying methods to dramatically increase the sensitivity to thermal neutrons. The intrinsic detection efficiency of the 6 Multiplication-Sign 6 array for normal-incident 0.0253 eV neutrons was found 6.8% compared against a calibrated {sup 3}He proportional counter. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid-state semiconductor neutron detectors utilizing {sup 6}LiF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Large aspect ratio 3D microstructured silicon diodes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arrayed solid-state semiconductor neutron detectors.

  11. A semiconductor device noise model: integration of Poisson type stochastic ohmic contact conditions with semiclassical transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noaman, B. A.; Korman, C. E.; Piazza, A. J.

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we show an approach to couple two stochastic processes to describe the dynamics of independent carriers in semiconductor devices: the launch time of carriers from the contacts is described by independent Poisson launch processes, and the stochastic motion of carriers due to scattering inside the device is described by inhomogeneous Poisson type Markov processes according to the semiclassical transport theory. The coupling of the Poisson type stochastic launch process to the semiclassical dynamics will be shown, and the resulting Ohmic contact boundary conditions will be derived. For proof of concept, an expression for the autocovariance for terminal current noise for one point contact will be shown which can be easily extended to a real semiconductor device with multiple contacts.

  12. Dedicated optoelectronic stochastic parallel processor for real-time image processing: motion-detection demonstration and design of a hybrid complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor- self-electro-optic-device-based prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinelli, A; Chavel, P; Desmulliez, M P

    2001-12-10

    We report experimental results and performance analysis of a dedicated optoelectronic processor that implements stochastic optimization-based image-processing tasks in real time. We first show experimental results using a proof-of-principle-prototype demonstrator based on standard silicon-complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology and liquid-crystal spatial light modulators. We then elaborate on the advantages of using a hybrid CMOS-self-electro-optic-device-based smart-pixel array to monolithically integrate photodetectors and modulators on the same chip, providing compact, high-bandwidth intrachip optoelectronic interconnects. We have modeled the operation of the monolithic processor, clearly showing system-performance improvement.

  13. Effective Linewidth of Semiconductor Lasers for Coherent Optical Data Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Iglesias Olmedo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the implications of using monolithically integrated semiconductor lasers in high capacity optical coherent links suitable for metro applications, where the integration capabilities of semiconductor lasers make them an attractive candidate to reduce transceiver cost. By investigating semiconductor laser frequency noise profiles we show that carrier induced frequency noise plays an important role in system performance. We point out that, when such lasers are employed, the commonly used laser linewidth fails to estimate system performance, and we propose an alternative figure of merit that we name “Effective Linewidth”. We derive this figure of merit analytically, explore it by numerical simulations and experimentally validate our results by transmitting a 28 Gbaud DP-16QAM over an optical link. Our investigations cover the use of semiconductor lasers both in the transmitter side and as a local oscillator at the receiver. The obtained results show that our proposed “effective linewidth” is easy to measure and accounts for frequency noise more accurately, and hence the penalties associated to phase noise in the received signal.

  14. Digital signal processing approaches for semiconductor phase noise tolerant coherent transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Pang, Xiaodan; Schatz, Richard

    2015-01-01

    We discuss about digital signal processing approaches that can enable coherent links based on semiconductor lasers. A state-of-the art analysis on different carrier-phase recovery (CPR) techniques is presented. We show that these techniques are based on the assumption of lorentzian linewidth, which...... does not hold for monolithically integrated semiconductor lasers. We investigate the impact of such lineshape on both 3 and 20 dB linewidth and experimentally conduct a systematic study for 56-GBaud DP-QPSK and 28-GBaud DP-16QAM systems using a decision directed phase look loop algorithm. We show how...... carrier induced frequency noise has no impact on linewidth but a significant impact on system performance; which rises the question on whether 3-dB linewidth should be used as performance estimator for semiconductor lasers....

  15. Eigenpolarization theory of monolithic nonplanar ring oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Alan C.; Gustafson, Eric K.; Byer, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Diode-laser-pumped monolithic nonplanar ring oscillators (NPROs) in an applied magnetic field can operate as unidirectional traveling-wave lasers. The diode laser pumping, monolithic construction, and unidirectional oscillation lead to narrow linewidth radiation. Here, a comprehensive theory of the eigenpolarizations of a monolithic NPRO is presented. It is shown how the properties of the integral optical diode that forces unidirectional operation depend on the choice of the gain medium, the applied magnetic field, the output coupler, and the geometry of the nonplanar ring light path. Using optical equivalence theorems to gain insight into the polarization characteristics of the NPRO, a strategy for designing NPROs with low thresholds and large loss nonreciprocities is given. An analysis of the eigenpolarizations for one such NPRO is presented, alternative optimization approaches are considered, and the prospects for further reducing the linewidths of these lasers are briefly discussed.

  16. Monolithic cells for solar fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongé, Jan; Bosserez, Tom; Martel, David; Nervi, Carlo; Boarino, Luca; Taulelle, Francis; Decher, Gero; Bordiga, Silvia; Martens, Johan A

    2014-12-07

    Hybrid energy generation models based on a variety of alternative energy supply technologies are considered the best way to cope with the depletion of fossil energy resources and to limit global warming. One of the currently missing technologies is the mimic of natural photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide and water into chemical fuel using sunlight. This idea has been around for decades, but artificial photosynthesis of organic molecules is still far away from providing real-world solutions. The scientific challenge is to perform in an efficient way the multi-electron transfer reactions of water oxidation and carbon dioxide reduction using holes and single electrons generated in an illuminated semiconductor. In this tutorial review the design of photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells that combine solar water oxidation and CO2 reduction is discussed. In such PEC cells simultaneous transport and efficient use of light, electrons, protons and molecules has to be managed. It is explained how efficiency can be gained by compartmentalisation of the water oxidation and CO2 reduction processes by proton exchange membranes, and monolithic concepts of artificial leaves and solar membranes are presented. Besides transferring protons from the anode to the cathode compartment the membrane serves as a molecular barrier material to prevent cross-over of oxygen and fuel molecules. Innovative nano-organized multimaterials will be needed to realise practical artificial photosynthesis devices. This review provides an overview of synthesis techniques which could be used to realise monolithic multifunctional membrane-electrode assemblies, such as Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), and porous silicon (porSi) engineering. Advances in modelling approaches, electrochemical techniques and in situ spectroscopies to characterise overall PEC cell performance are discussed.

  17. Optical Regeneration and Noise in Semiconductor Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip

    2005-01-01

    In this report all-optical 2R-regeneration in optical communication systems is investigated. A simple regenerator device based on concatenated semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) and electro absorbers (EAs) is introduced and examined. Experiments show that the monolithic SOA-EA 2R-regenerator......In this report all-optical 2R-regeneration in optical communication systems is investigated. A simple regenerator device based on concatenated semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) and electro absorbers (EAs) is introduced and examined. Experiments show that the monolithic SOA-EA 2R...

  18. Monolithically Integrated Micro Flapping Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Mechanical Logic • Memory Mm-Scale Ground Mobility Actuation & Mechanisms Ultrasonic Motors Reversible Adhesion Platform Design...MEMS Mm-Scale Ground Mobility PiezoMEMS Haltere Actuation & Mechanisms Ultrasonic Motors Reversible Adhesion Platform Design Flapping

  19. Graphene and thin-film semiconductor heterojunction transistors integrated on wafer scale for low-power electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jinseong; Byun, Kyung-Eun; Lee, Jaeho; Chung, Hyun-Jong; Jeon, Sanghun; Park, Seongjun; Hwang, Sungwoo

    2013-01-01

    Graphene heterostructures in which graphene is combined with semiconductors or other layered 2D materials are of considerable interest, as a new class of electronic devices has been realized. Here we propose a technology platform based on graphene-thin-film-semiconductor-metal (GSM) junctions, which can be applied to large-scale and power-efficient electronics compatible with a variety of substrates. We demonstrate wafer-scale integration of vertical field-effect transistors (VFETs) based on graphene-In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO)-metal asymmetric junctions on a transparent 150 × 150 mm(2) glass. In this system, a triangular energy barrier between the graphene and metal is designed by selecting a metal with a proper work function. We obtain a maximum current on/off ratio (Ion/Ioff) up to 10(6) with an average of 3010 over 2000 devices under ambient conditions. For low-power logic applications, an inverter that combines complementary n-type (IGZO) and p-type (Ge) devices is demonstrated to operate at a bias of only 0.5 V.

  20. Characterization of the first prototypes of Silicon Photomultipliers with bulk-integrated quench resistor fabricated at MPI semiconductor laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jendrysik, Christian, E-mail: jendrysik@hll.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, D-81739 Munich (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Andriček, Ladislav; Liemann, Gerhard; Moser, Hans-Günther; Ninković, Jelena; Richter, Rainer [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, D-81739 Munich (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Schopper, Florian [Max-Planck-Institut Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, D-81739 Munich (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    In this paper new results of the characterization of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) with bulk-integrated quench resistor will be presented. The novel detector concept was developed at the Max-Planck-Institute (MPI) semiconductor laboratory and allows a metal and polysilicon free entrance window which offers an improvement in photon detection efficiency (PDE). For electrical separation and suppression of optical cross talk (OCT) an insensitive area (gap) between neighboring cells is required. Based on simulations the first prototypes with devices of different combinations of cell size and gap were fabricated, providing the opportunity to study the influence of these parameters on the detector performance. First PDE measurements of the new detector are presented together with results of the influence of geometrical variations. Also an outlook on possible future developments of the concept with single cell read-out is given.

  1. Pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} on amorphous dielectric layers towards monolithic 3D photonic integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haofeng; Brouillet, Jeremy; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng, E-mail: Jifeng.Liu@dartmouth.edu [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2014-11-17

    We demonstrate pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} crystallized on amorphous layers at <450 °C towards 3D Si photonic integration. We developed two approaches to seed the lateral single crystal growth: (1) utilize the Gibbs-Thomson eutectic temperature depression at the tip of an amorphous GeSn nanotaper for selective nucleation; (2) laser-induced nucleation at one end of a GeSn strip. Either way, the crystallized Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} is dominated by a single grain >18 μm long that forms optoelectronically benign twin boundaries with others grains. These pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} patterns are suitable for monolithic 3D integration of active photonic devices on Si.

  2. Monolithic integration of an InGaAsP InP strained DFB laser and an electroabsorption modulator by ultra-low-pressure selective-area-growth MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q.; Pan, J. Q.; Zhou, F.; Wang, B. J.; Wang, L. F.; Wang, W.

    2005-06-01

    The design and basic characteristics of a strained InGaAsP-InP multiple-quantum-well (MQW) DFB laser monolithically integrated with an electroabsorption modulator (EAM) by ultra-low-pressure (22 mbar) selective-area-growth (SAG) MOCVD are presented. A fundamental study of the controllability and the applicability of band-gap energy by using the SAG method is performed. A large band-gap photoluminescence wavelength shift of 88 nm was obtained with a small mask width variation (0-30 µm). The technique is then applied to fabricate a high performance strained MQW EAM integrated with a DFB laser. The threshold current of 26 mA at CW operation of the device with DFB laser length of 300 µm and EAM length of 150 µm has been realized at a modulator bias of 0 V. The devices also exhibit 15 dB on/off ratio at an applied bias voltage of 5 V.

  3. Embedded-monolith armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElfresh, Michael W.; Groves, Scott E; Moffet, Mitchell L.; Martin, Louis P.

    2016-07-19

    A lightweight armor system utilizing a face section having a multiplicity of monoliths embedded in a matrix supported on low density foam. The face section is supported with a strong stiff backing plate. The backing plate is mounted on a spall plate.

  4. Semiconductor radiation detection systems

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Covers research in semiconductor detector and integrated circuit design in the context of medical imaging using ionizing radiation. This book explores other applications of semiconductor radiation detection systems in security applications such as luggage scanning, dirty bomb detection and border control.

  5. Porous Si as a substrate for the monolithic integration of RF and millimeter-wave passive devices (transmission lines, inductors, filters, and antennas): Current state-of-art and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafis, Panagiotis; Nassiopoulou, Androula G.

    2017-09-01

    The increasing need for miniaturization, reliability, and cost efficiency in modern telecommunications has boosted the idea of system-on-chip integration, incorporating the RF front-end circuitry and the passive elements such as RF transmission lines, inductors, antennas, and filters. However, the performance of the passive elements of these circuits is highly degraded when integrated on standard CMOS Si, due to its low resistivity. Porous silicon (PSi) has emerged as a promising local substrate material for the on-chip monolithic integration of high performance passive RF and mm-wave devices, because it combines high resistivity and low permittivity along with CMOS compatibility. This review paper aims at summarizing the obtained results so far in the above area, including transmission lines, inductors, filters, and miniaturized antennas, monolithically integrated on porous Si in a CMOS-compatible environment. In this respect, we first present the requirements for a low-loss, CMOS-compatible RF substrates and we then argue on how PSi fulfills the set requirements. Then, we present the methods used so far to extract the dielectric properties of PSi, which are necessary inputs for designing RF devices. The performance of different passive RF devices such as coplanar waveguides, inductors, filters, and antennas on the local porous Si substrate is then reviewed and compared with the performance of other state-of-the-art RF passive devices based on different technologies. Finally, we discuss the progress made so far towards the industrialization of PSi local RF substrate technology and the challenges that are currently faced towards this objective.

  6. Progress towards Spin-Based Light Emission in Group IV Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano De Cesari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Spin-optoelectronics is an emerging technology in which novel and advanced functionalities are enabled by the synergetic integration of magnetic, optical and electronic properties onto semiconductor-based devices. This article reviews the possible implementation and convergence of spintronics and photonics concepts on group IV semiconductors: the core materials of mainstream microelectronics. In particular, we describe the rapid pace of progress in the achievement of lasing action in the notable case of Ge-based heterostructures and devote special attention to the pivotal role played by optical investigations in advancing the understanding of the rich spin physics of group IV materials. Finally, we scrutinize recent developments towards the monolithic integration on Si of a new class of spin-based light emitting devices having prospects for applications in fields such as cryptography and interconnects.

  7. Design of a total-dose radiation hardened monolithic CMOS DC-DC boost converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Zhi; Yu Hongbo; Liu Youbao [Xi' an Institute of Microelectronics Technology, Xi' an 710054 (China); Ning Hongying, E-mail: liuzhi6048@126.com [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China)

    2011-07-15

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a monolithic CMOS DC-DC boost converter that is hardened for total dose radiation. In order to improve its radiation tolerant abilities, circuit-level and device-level RHBD (radiation-hardening by design) techniques were employed. Adaptive slope compensation was used to improve the inherent instability. The H-gate MOS transistors, annular gate MOS transistors and guard rings were applied to reduce the impact of total ionizing dose. A boost converter was fabricated by a standard commercial 0.35 {mu}m CMOS process. The hardened design converter can work properly in a wide range of total dose radiation environments, with increasing total dose radiation. The efficiency is not as strongly affected by the total dose radiation and so does the leakage performance. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  8. Hyperentangled photon sources in semiconductor waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Dongpeng; Helt, L. G.; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    We propose and analyze the performance of a technique to generate mode and polarization hyperentangled photons in monolithic semiconductor waveguides using two concurrent type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) processes. These two SPDC processes are achieved by waveguide engineering...

  9. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS Design and implementation of a low-pass filter for microsensor signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuping, Wang; Shun'an, Zhong; Yingtao, Ding; Xiaoqing, Wang

    2010-12-01

    A novel low-pass filter that consists of a switched capacitor filter (SCF) and its antialiasing prefilter and smoothing postfilter is proposed for a microsensor signal processing system, which is used in separation point detection on the surface of micro air vehicles. In the system, the filter is not only applied to finish the function of filtering but also used as the front end antialiasing filter of the over sampling analog-to-digital converter. This proposed implementation mostly relies on the design of a high-precision SCF employing a correlated double sampling technique and optimisation switches. Simultaneously, the multiple-loop feedback low pass filter with good high frequency attenuation characteristics is applied as the pre- and postfilter. The design is implemented in the Central Semiconductor Manufacturing Corporation (CSMC) 0.5 μm double-poly three-metal (2P3M) 3.3 V CMOS technology, with satisfactory results. The chip die area occupies only 0.39 mm2 and dissipates1.53 mW.

  10. Functional integrity of flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors on a reversibly bistable platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaraj, Nasir; Hussain, Aftab M.; Torres Sevilla, Galo A.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Rojas, Jhonathan P.; Aljedaani, Abdulrahman B.; Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2015-10-01

    Flexibility can bring a new dimension to state-of-the-art electronics, such as rollable displays and integrated circuit systems being transformed into more powerful resources. Flexible electronics are typically hosted on polymeric substrates. Such substrates can be bent and rolled up, but cannot be independently fixed at the rigid perpendicular position necessary to realize rollable display-integrated gadgets and electronics. A reversibly bistable material can assume two stable states in a reversible way: flexibly rolled state and independently unbent state. Such materials are used in cycling and biking safety wristbands and a variety of ankle bracelets for orthopedic healthcare. They are often wrapped around an object with high impulsive force loading. Here, we study the effects of cumulative impulsive force loading on thinned (25 μm) flexible silicon-based n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor devices housed on a reversibly bistable flexible platform. We found that the transistors have maintained their high performance level up to an accumulated 180 kN of impact force loading. The gate dielectric layers have maintained their reliability, which is evidenced by the low leakage current densities. Also, we observed low variation in the effective electron mobility values, which manifests that the device channels have maintained their carrier transport properties.

  11. Functional integrity of flexible n-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors on a reversibly bistable platform

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-10-26

    Flexibility can bring a new dimension to state-of-the-art electronics, such as rollable displays and integrated circuit systems being transformed into more powerful resources. Flexible electronics are typically hosted on polymeric substrates. Such substrates can be bent and rolled up, but cannot be independently fixed at the rigid perpendicular position necessary to realize rollable display-integrated gadgets and electronics. A reversibly bistable material can assume two stable states in a reversible way: flexibly rolled state and independently unbent state. Such materials are used in cycling and biking safety wristbands and a variety of ankle bracelets for orthopedic healthcare. They are often wrapped around an object with high impulsive force loading. Here, we study the effects of cumulative impulsive force loading on thinned (25 μm) flexible silicon-based n-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor devices housed on a reversibly bistable flexible platform. We found that the transistors have maintained their high performance level up to an accumulated 180 kN of impact force loading. The gate dielectric layers have maintained their reliability, which is evidenced by the low leakage current densities. Also, we observed low variation in the effective electron mobility values, which manifests that the device channels have maintained their carrier transport properties.

  12. Monolithic pixel detectors for high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Snoeys, W

    2013-01-01

    Monolithic pixel detectors integrating sensor matrix and readout in one piece of silicon have revolutionized imaging for consumer applications, but despite years of research they have not yet been widely adopted for high energy physics. Two major requirements for this application, radiation tolerance and low power consumption, require charge collection by drift for the most extreme radiation levels and an optimization of the collected signal charge over input capacitance ratio ( Q / C ). It is shown that monolithic detectors can achieve Q / C for low analog power consumption and even carryout the promise to practically eliminate analog power consumption, but combining suf fi cient Q / C , collection by drift, and integration of readout circuitry within the pixel remains a challenge. An overview is given of different approaches to address this challenge, with possible advantages and disadvantages.

  13. Novel design of low-jitter 10 GHz all-active monolithic mode-locked lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, David; Yvind, Kresten; Christiansen, Lotte Jin

    2004-01-01

    Using a novel design, we have fabricated 10 GHz all-active monolithic mode-locked semiconductor lasers that generate 1.4 ps pulses with record-low timing jitter. The dynamical properties of lasers with 1 and 2 QWs are compared.......Using a novel design, we have fabricated 10 GHz all-active monolithic mode-locked semiconductor lasers that generate 1.4 ps pulses with record-low timing jitter. The dynamical properties of lasers with 1 and 2 QWs are compared....

  14. Metal semiconductor contacts and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Simon S; Einspruch, Norman G

    1986-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 13: Metal-Semiconductor Contacts and Devices presents the physics, technology, and applications of metal-semiconductor barriers in digital integrated circuits. The emphasis is placed on the interplay among the theory, processing, and characterization techniques in the development of practical metal-semiconductor contacts and devices.This volume contains chapters that are devoted to the discussion of the physics of metal-semiconductor interfaces and its basic phenomena; fabrication procedures; and interface characterization techniques, particularl

  15. Monolithic MACS micro resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann-Horn, J. A.; Jacquinot, J.-F.; Ginefri, J. C.; Bonhomme, C.; Sakellariou, D.

    2016-10-01

    Magic Angle Coil Spinning (MACS) aids improving the intrinsically low NMR sensitivity of heterogeneous microscopic samples. We report on the design and testing of a new type of monolithic 2D MACS resonators to overcome known limitations of conventional micro coils. The resonators' conductors were printed on dielectric substrate and tuned without utilizing lumped element capacitors. Self-resonance conditions have been computed by a hybrid FEM-MoM technique. Preliminary results reported here indicate robust mechanical stability, reduced eddy currents heating and negligible susceptibility effects. The gain in B1 /√{ P } is in agreement with the NMR sensitivity enhancement according to the principle of reciprocity. A sensitivity enhancement larger than 3 has been achieved in a monolithic micro resonator inside a standard 4 mm rotor at 500 MHz. These 2D resonators could offer higher performance micro-detection and ease of use of heterogeneous microscopic substances such as biomedical samples, microscopic specimens and thin film materials.

  16. The MONOLITH prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Bencivenni, G; Candela, A M; Chiarini, A; Chignoli, F; De Deo, M; D'Incecco, M; Gerli, S; Giusti, P; Gómez, F; Gustavino, C; Lindozzi, M; Mannocchi, G; Menghetti, H; Morello, C; Murtas, F; Paoluzzi, G; Pilastrini, R; Redaelli, N G; Santoni, M; Sartorelli, G; Terranova, F; Trinchero, G C

    2000-01-01

    MONOLITH (Massive Observatory for Neutrino Oscillation or LImits on THeir existence) is the project of an experiment to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations with a massive magnetized iron detector. The baseline option is a 34 kt iron detector based on the use of about 50000 m/sup 2/ of the glass Resistive Plate Chambers (glass RPCs) developed at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS). An 8 ton prototype equipped with 23 m/sup 2/ of glass RPC has been realized and tested at the T7-PS beam at CERN. The energy resolution for pions follows a 68%/ square root (E(GeV))+2% law for orthogonally incident particles, in the energy range between 2 and 10 GeV. The time resolution and the tracking capability of the glass RPC are suitable for the MONOLITH experiment. (7 refs).

  17. A Monolithic CMOS Magnetic Hall Sensor with High Sensitivity and Linearity Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyun Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fully integrated linear Hall sensor by means of 0.8 μm high voltage complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS technology. This monolithic Hall sensor chip features a highly sensitive horizontal switched Hall plate and an efficient signal conditioner using dynamic offset cancellation technique. An improved cross-like Hall plate achieves high magnetic sensitivity and low offset. A new spinning current modulator stabilizes the quiescent output voltage and improves the reliability of the signal conditioner. The tested results show that at the 5 V supply voltage, the maximum Hall output voltage of the monolithic Hall sensor microsystem, is up to ±2.1 V and the linearity of Hall output voltage is higher than 99% in the magnetic flux density range from ±5 mT to ±175 mT. The output equivalent residual offset is 0.48 mT and the static power consumption is 20 mW.

  18. A Monolithic CMOS Magnetic Hall Sensor with High Sensitivity and Linearity Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiyun; Wang, Dejun; Xu, Yue

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a fully integrated linear Hall sensor by means of 0.8 μm high voltage complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. This monolithic Hall sensor chip features a highly sensitive horizontal switched Hall plate and an efficient signal conditioner using dynamic offset cancellation technique. An improved cross-like Hall plate achieves high magnetic sensitivity and low offset. A new spinning current modulator stabilizes the quiescent output voltage and improves the reliability of the signal conditioner. The tested results show that at the 5 V supply voltage, the maximum Hall output voltage of the monolithic Hall sensor microsystem, is up to ±2.1 V and the linearity of Hall output voltage is higher than 99% in the magnetic flux density range from ±5 mT to ±175 mT. The output equivalent residual offset is 0.48 mT and the static power consumption is 20 mW. PMID:26516864

  19. Single-Fiber Bidirectional Optical Data Links with Monolithic Transceiver Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kern

    2012-01-01

    fiber (MMF, low-cost bidirectional communication in half- and even full-duplex mode is demonstrated. Two design concepts are presented, based on a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL and a monolithically integrated p-doped-intrinsic-n-doped (PIN or metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM photodetector. Whereas the VCSEL-PIN photodiode (PD chips are used for high-speed bidirectional data transmission over 62.5 and 50 μm core diameter MMFs, MSM TRx chips are employed for 100 or 200 μm large-area fibers. Such a monolithic transceiver design based on a well-established material system and avoiding the use of external fiber coupling optics is well suited for inexpensive and compact optical interconnects over distances of a few hundred meters. Standard MMF networks can thus be upgraded using high-speed VCSEL-PIN transceiver chips which are capable to handle data rates of up to 10 Gbit/s.

  20. Ultrasensitive mass sensor fully integrated with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuitry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsén, Esko Sebastian; Abadal, G.; Ghatnekar-Nilsson, S.;

    2005-01-01

    and display ultrasensitive mass detection in air. A mass sensitivity of 4 ag/Hz has been determined in air by placing a single glycerine drop, having a measured weight of 57 fg, at the apex of a cantilever and subsequently measuring a frequency shift of 14.8 kHz. CMOS integration enables electrostatic...

  1. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: Sigma-delta modulator modeling analysis and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binjie, Ge; Xin'an, Wang; Xing, Zhang; Xiaoxing, Feng; Qingqin, Wang

    2010-09-01

    This paper introduces a new method for SC sigma-delta modulator modeling. It studies the integrator's different equivalent circuits in the integrating and sampling phases. This model uses the OP-AMP input pair's tail current (I0) and overdrive voltage (von) as variables. The modulator's static and dynamic errors are analyzed. A group of optimized I0 and von for maximum SNR and power × area ratio can be obtained through this model. As examples, a MASH21 modulator for digital audio and a second order modulator for RFID baseband are implemented and tested, and they can achieve 91 dB and 72 dB respectively, which verifies the modeling and design criteria.

  2. Whispering-gallery microcavity semiconductor lasers suitable for photonic integrated circuits and optical interconnects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of whispering-gallery-like modes in the equilateral triangle and square microresonators are introduced,including directional emission triangle and square microlasers connected to an output waveguide.We propose a photonic interconnect scheme by connecting two directional emission microlasers with an optical waveguide on silicon integrated circuit chip.The measurement indicates that the triangle microlasers can work as a resonance enhanced photodetector for optical interconnect.

  3. Synthesis Methods, Microscopy Characterization and Device Integration of Nanoscale Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Gas Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Vander Wal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.; Kulis, Michael J.; Hunter, Gary W; Laura Evans; Xu, Jennifer C.

    2009-01-01

    A comparison is made between SnO2, ZnO, and TiO2 single-crystal nanowires and SnO2 polycrystalline nanofibers for gas sensing. Both nanostructures possess a one-dimensional morphology. Different synthesis methods are used to produce these materials: thermal evaporation-condensation (TEC), controlled oxidation, and electrospinning. Advantages and limitations of each technique are listed. Practical issues associated with harvesting, purification, and integration of these materials into sensing ...

  4. Development of large-area monolithically integrated silicon-film{trademark} photovoltaic modules. Final subcontract report, May 1, 1991--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.B.; Rand, J.A.; Cotter, J.E. [AstroPower, Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this program is to develop Silicon Film{trademark} Product III into a low-cost, stable solar cell for large-scale terrestrial power applications. The Product III structure is a thin (<100 {mu}m) polycrystalline layer of silicon on a durable, insulating, ceramic substrate. The insulating substrate allows the silicon layer to be isolated and metallized to form a monolithically interconnected array of solar cells. High efficiency is achieved by the use of light trapping and passivated surfaces. This project focused on the development of five key technologies associated with the monolithic sub-module device structure: (1) development of the film deposition and growth processes; (2) development of the low-cost ceramic substrate; (3) development of a metallurgical barrier technology; (4) development of sub-element solar cell processing techniques; and (5) development of sub-module (isolation and interconnection) processes. This report covers the development approaches and results relating to these technologies. Significant progress has been made in the development of all of the related technologies. This is evidenced by the fabrication of a working 12.0 cm{sup 2} prototype sub-module consisting of 7 elements and testing with an open circuit voltage of 3.9 volts, a short circuit current of 35.2 mA and a fill factor of 63% and an overall efficiency of 7.3%. Another significant result achieved is a 13.4% (NREL verified), 1.0 cm{sup 2} solar cell fabricated from material deposited and grown on a graphite cloth substrate. The significant technological hurdle of the program was and remains the low quality of the photovoltaic layer which is caused by contamination of the photovoltaic layer from the low-cost ceramic substrate by trace impurities found in the substrate precursor materials. The ceramic substrate and metallurgical barrier are being developed specifically to solve this problem.

  5. Adsorption-controlled growth of BiFeO3 by MBE and integration with wide band gap semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon F; Tian, Wei; Liu, Zi-Kui; Doolittle, W Alan; Bernhagen, Margitta; Reiche, Peter; Uecker, Reinhard; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Schlom, Darrell G

    2009-08-01

    BiFeO3 thin films have been deposited on (001) SrTiO3, (101) DyScO3, (011) DyScO3, (0001) AlGaN/GaN, and (0001) 6H-SiC single crystal substrates by reactive molecular beam epitaxy in an adsorption-controlled growth regime. This is achieved by supplying a bismuth over-pressure and utilizing the differential vapor pressures between bismuth oxides and BiFeO3 to control stoichiometry in accordance with thermodynamic calculations. Four-circle x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy reveal phase-pure, epitaxial films with rocking curve full width at half maximum values as narrow as 7.2 arc seconds (0.002 degrees). Epitaxial growth of (0001)-oriented BiFeO3 thin films on (0001) GaN, including AlGaN HEMT structures, and (0001) SiC has been realized using intervening epitaxial (111) SrTiO3 / (100) TiO2 buffer layers. The epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films have 2 in-plane orientations: [1120] BiFeO3 || [1120] GaN (SiC) plus a twin variant related by a 180 degrees in-plane rotation. This epitaxial integration of the ferroelectric with the highest known polarization, BiFeO3, with high bandgap semiconductors is an important step toward novel field-effect devices.

  6. Ultrasonic fingerprint sensor using a piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer array integrated with complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Y.; Fung, S.; Wang, Q.; Horsley, D. A. [Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tang, H.; Boser, B. E. [Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tsai, J. M.; Daneman, M. [InvenSense, Inc., 1745 Technology Drive, San Jose, California 95110 (United States)

    2015-06-29

    This paper presents an ultrasonic fingerprint sensor based on a 24 × 8 array of 22 MHz piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers (PMUTs) with 100 μm pitch, fully integrated with 180 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry through eutectic wafer bonding. Each PMUT is directly bonded to a dedicated CMOS receive amplifier, minimizing electrical parasitics and eliminating the need for through-silicon vias. The array frequency response and vibration mode-shape were characterized using laser Doppler vibrometry and verified via finite element method simulation. The array's acoustic output was measured using a hydrophone to be ∼14 kPa with a 28 V input, in reasonable agreement with predication from analytical calculation. Pulse-echo imaging of a 1D steel grating is demonstrated using electronic scanning of a 20 × 8 sub-array, resulting in 300 mV maximum received amplitude and 5:1 contrast ratio. Because the small size of this array limits the maximum image size, mechanical scanning was used to image a 2D polydimethylsiloxane fingerprint phantom (10 mm × 8 mm) at a 1.2 mm distance from the array.

  7. Photovoltaic nanopillar radial junction diode architecture enhanced by integrating semiconductor quantum dot nanocrystals as light harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzeltürk, Burak; Mutlugün, Evren; Wang, Xiaodong; Pey, Kin Leong; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2010-08-01

    We propose and demonstrate colloidal quantum dot hybridized, radial p-n junction based, nanopillar solar cells with photovoltaic performance enhanced by intimately integrating nanocrystals to serve as light harvesting agents around the light trapping pillars. By furnishing Si based nanopillar photovoltaic diodes with CdSe quantum dots, we experimentally showed up to sixfold enhancement in UV responsivity and ˜13% enhancement in overall solar conversion efficiency. The maximum responsivity enhancement achieved by incorporation of nanocrystals in the nanopillar architecture is found to be spectrally more than four times larger than the responsivity enhancement obtained using planar architecture of the same device.

  8. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: A novel high voltage start up circuit for an integrated switched mode power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Hu; Xingbi, Chen

    2010-09-01

    A novel high voltage start up circuit for providing an initial bias voltage to an integrated switched mode power supply (SMPS) is presented. An enhanced mode VDMOS transistor, the gate of which is biased by a floating p-island, is used to provide start up current and sustain high voltage. An NMOS transistor having a high source to ground breakdown voltage is included to extend the bias voltage range to the SMPS. Simulation results indicate that the high voltage start up circuit can start and restart as designed. The proposed structure is believed to be more energy saving and cost-effective compared with other solutions.

  9. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: Soft error generation analysis in combinational logic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ding; Yu, Wang; Rong, Luo; Hui, Wang; Huazhong, Yang

    2010-09-01

    Reliability is expected to become a big concern in future deep sub-micron integrated circuits design. Soft error rate (SER) of combinational logic is considered to be a great reliability problem. Previous SER analysis and models indicated that glitch width has a great impact on electrical masking and latch window masking effects, but they failed to achieve enough insights. In this paper, an analytical glitch generation model is proposed. This model shows that after an inflexion point the collected charge has an exponential relationship with glitch duration and the model only introduces an estimation error of on average 2.5%.

  10. Synthesis Methods, Microscopy Characterization and Device Integration of Nanoscale Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Gas Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy L. Vander Wal

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparison is made between SnO2, ZnO, and TiO2 single-crystal nanowires and SnO2 polycrystalline nanofibers for gas sensing. Both nanostructures possess a one-dimensional morphology. Different synthesis methods are used to produce these materials: thermal evaporation-condensation (TEC, controlled oxidation, and electrospinning. Advantages and limitations of each technique are listed. Practical issues associated with harvesting, purification, and integration of these materials into sensing devices are detailed. For comparison to the nascent form, these sensing materials are surface coated with Pd and Pt nanoparticles. Gas sensing tests, with respect to H2, are conducted at ambient and elevated temperatures. Comparative normalized responses and time constants for the catalyst and noncatalyst systems provide a basis for identification of the superior metal-oxide nanostructure and catalyst combination. With temperature-dependent data, Arrhenius analyses are made to determine activation energies for the catalyst-assisted systems.

  11. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: A new integrated SOI power device based on self-isolation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanmei, Gao; Xiaorong, Luo; Wei, Zhang; Hao, Deng; Tianfei, Lei

    2010-08-01

    A new SOI LDMOS structure with buried n-islands (BNIs) on the top interface of the buried oxide (BOX) is presented in a p-SOI high voltage integrated circuits (p-SOI HVICs), which exhibits good self-isolation performance between the power device and low-voltage control circuits. Furthermore, both the donor ions of BNIs and holes collected between depleted n-islands not only enhance the electric field in BOX from 32 to 113 V/μm, but also modulate the lateral electric field distribution, resulting in an improvement of the breakdown voltage of the BNI SOI LDMOS. A 673 V BNI SOI LDMOS is experimentally obtained and presents an excellent self-isolation performance in a p-SOI HVIC.

  12. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A dual-band frequency synthesizer for CMMB application with low phase noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu; Jun, Yan; Yin, Shi; Foster, Dai Fa

    2010-09-01

    A wide-band frequency synthesizer with low phase noise is presented. The frequency tuning range is from 474 to 858 MHz which is compatible with U-band CMMB application while the S-band frequency is also included. Three VCOs with selectable sub-band are integrated on chip to cover the target frequency range. This PLL is fabricated with 0.35 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology. The measured result shows that the RMS phase error is less than 1° and the reference spur is less than -60 dBc. The proposed PLL consumes 20 mA current from a 2.8 V supply. The silicon area occupied without PADs is 1.17 mm2.

  13. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS A current-steering self-calibration 14-bit 100-MSPs DAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qiu; Sheng, Fang; Ran, Li; Renzhong, Xie; Ting, Yi; Zhiliang, Hong

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a 14-bit, 100 MS/s CMOS digital-to-analog converter (DAC). Analog background self-calibration based on the concept of analog current trimming is introduced. A constant clock load switch driver, a calibration period randomization circuit and a return-to-zero output stage have been adopted to improve the dynamic performance. The chip has been manufactured in a SMIC 0.13-μm process and occupies 1.33 × 0.97 mm2 of the core area. The current consumption is 50 mA under 1.2/3.3 V dual power supplies for digital and analog, respectively. The measured differential and integral nonlinearity is 3.1 LSB and 4.3 LSB, respectively. The SFDR is 72.8 dB at a 1 MHz signal and a 100 MHz sampling frequency.

  14. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: 4 GHz bit-stream adder based on ΣΔ modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Liang; Zhigong, Wang; Qiao, Meng; Xiaodan, Guo

    2010-08-01

    The conventional circuit model of a bit-stream adder based on sigma delta (ΣΔ) modulation is improved with pipeline technology to make it work correctly at high frequencies. The integrated circuit (IC) of the bit-stream adder is designed with the source coupled logic structure and designed at the transistor level to increase the operating frequency. The IC is fabricated in TSMC's 0.18-μm CMOS process. The chip area is 475 × 570 μm2. A fully digital ΣΔ signal generator is designed with a field programmable gate array to test the chip. Experimental results show that the chip meets the function and performance demand of the design, and the chip can work at a frequency of higher than 4 GHz. The noise performance of the adder is analyzed and compared with both theory and experimental results.

  15. Bioaffinity chromatography on monolithic supports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetala, K.K.R.; Beek, van T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Affinity chromatography on monolithic supports is a powerful analytical chemical platform because it allows for fast analyses, small sample volumes, strong enrichment of trace biomarkers and applications in microchips. In this review, the recent research using monolithic materials in the field of bi

  16. Bioaffinity chromatography on monolithic supports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetala, K.K.R.; Beek, van T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Affinity chromatography on monolithic supports is a powerful analytical chemical platform because it allows for fast analyses, small sample volumes, strong enrichment of trace biomarkers and applications in microchips. In this review, the recent research using monolithic materials in the field of bi

  17. Optimization of a Common Buffer Platform for Monolithic Integration of InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes and AlGaN/GaN High-Electron-Mobility Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Cai, Yuefei; Jiang, Huaxing; Lau, Kei May

    2016-04-01

    For the development of a metal-interconnection-free integration scheme for monolithic integration of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs), a common buffer to achieve high brightness, low leakage current, and high breakdown in the integrated HEMT-LED device is essential. Different buffer structures have been investigated, and their impacts upon both the LED and HEMT parts of the HEMT-LED device have been analyzed. Results indicated that a GaN/AlN buffer structure is the most ideal to serve as a common buffer platform, offering both the excellent crystalline quality and superior buffer resistivity required by the HEMT-LED device. Growth of the AlN layer was particularly crucial for engineering the dislocation density, surface morphology, as well as resistivity of the buffer layer. Using the optimized GaN/AlN buffer structure, the LED part of the HEMT-LED device was improved, showing greatly enhanced light output power and suppressed reverse leakage current, while the breakdown characteristics of the HEMT part were also improved.

  18. A New Method for Lift-off of III-Nitride Semiconductors for Heterogeneous Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zang KeYan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The release and transfer of GaN epilayers to other substrates is of interest for a variety of applications, including heterogeneous integration of silicon logic devices, III–V power devices and optical devices. We have developed a simple wet chemical etching method to release high-quality epitaxial III-nitride films from their substrates. This method builds on a nanoepitaxial lateral overgrowth (NELO process that provides III-Nitride films with low dislocation densities. NELO is accomplished using a nanoporous mask layer patterned on GaN substrates. Chemical removal of the SiO2 layer after growth of III-Nitride overlayers causes fracture at the interface between the GaN film and the original GaN substrate, resulting in free-standing GaN films with nanostructured surfaces on one side. These layers can be transferred to other substrates, and the nano-structured surface can be used in photonic devices, or planarized for power devices.

  19. Integrated plasmonic circuitry on a vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPolin, Cillian P. T.; Bouillard, Jean-Sebastien; Vilain, Sebastien; Krasavin, Alexey V.; Dickson, Wayne; O'Connor, Daniel; Wurtz, Gregory A.; Justice, John; Corbett, Brian; Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2016-08-01

    Integrated plasmonic sources and detectors are imperative in the practical development of plasmonic circuitry for bio- and chemical sensing, nanoscale optical information processing, as well as transducers for high-density optical data storage. Here we show that vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) can be employed as an on-chip, electrically pumped source or detector of plasmonic signals, when operated in forward or reverse bias, respectively. To this end, we experimentally demonstrate surface plasmon polariton excitation, waveguiding, frequency conversion and detection on a VCSEL-based plasmonic platform. The coupling efficiency of the VCSEL emission to waveguided surface plasmon polariton modes has been optimized using asymmetric plasmonic nanostructures. The plasmonic VCSEL platform validated here is a viable solution for practical realizations of plasmonic functionalities for various applications, such as those requiring sub-wavelength field confinement, refractive index sensitivity or optical near-field transduction with electrically driven sources, thus enabling the realization of on-chip optical communication and lab-on-a-chip devices.

  20. Adaptive Integrated Optical Bragg Grating in Semiconductor Waveguide Suitable for Optical Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniem, T. A.

    2016-05-01

    This article presents a methodology for an integrated Bragg grating using an alloy of GaAs, AlGaAs, and InGaAs with a controllable refractive index to obtain an adaptive Bragg grating suitable for many applications on optical processing and adaptive control systems, such as limitation and filtering. The refractive index of a Bragg grating is controlled by using an external electric field for controlling periodic modulation of the refractive index of the active waveguide region. The designed Bragg grating has refractive indices programmed by using that external electric field. This article presents two approaches for designing the controllable refractive indices active region of a Bragg grating. The first approach is based on the modification of a planar micro-strip structure of the iGaAs traveling wave as the active region, and the second is based on the modification of self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots of an alloy from GaAs and InGaAs with a GaP traveling wave. The overall design and results are discussed through numerical simulation by using the finite-difference time-domain, plane wave expansion, and opto-wave simulation methods to confirm its operation and feasibility.

  1. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A high precision high PSRR bandgap reference with thermal hysteresis protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yintang, Yang; Yani, Li; Zhangming, Zhu

    2010-09-01

    To meet the accuracy requirement for the bandgap voltage reference by the increasing data conversion precision of integrated circuits, a high-order curvature-compensated bandgap voltage reference is presented employing the characteristic of bipolar transistor current gain exponentially changing with temperature variations. In addition, an over-temperature protection circuit with a thermal hysteresis function to prevent thermal oscillation is proposed. Based on the CSMC 0.5 μm 20 V BCD process, the designed circuit is implemented; the active die area is 0.17 × 0.20 mm2. Simulation and testing results show that the temperature coefficient is 13.7ppm/K with temperature ranging from -40 to 150 °C, the power supply rejection ratio is -98.2 dB, the line regulation is 0.3 mV/V, and the power consumption is only 0.38 mW. The proposed bandgap voltage reference has good characteristics such as small area, low power consumption, good temperature stability, high power supply rejection ratio, as well as low line regulation. This circuit can effectively prevent thermal oscillation and is suitable for on-chip voltage reference in high precision analog, digital and mixed systems.

  2. Silicon CMOS optical receiver circuits with integrated thin-film compound semiconductor detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Martin A.; Lee, Myunghee; Jokerst, Nan Marie; Camperi-Ginestet, C.

    1995-04-01

    While many circuit designers have tackled the problem of CMOS digital communications receiver design, few have considered the problem of circuitry suitable for an all CMOS digital IC fabrication process. Faced with a high speed receiver design the circuit designer will soon conclude that a high speed analog-oriented fabrication process provides superior performance advantages to a digital CMOS process. However, for applications where there are overwhelming reasons to integrate the receivers on the same IC as large amounts of conventional digital circuitry, the low yield and high cost of the exotic analog-oriented fabrication is no longer an option. The issues that result from a requirement to use a digital CMOS IC process cut across all aspects of receiver design, and result in significant differences in circuit design philosophy and topology. Digital ICs are primarily designed to yield small, fast CMOS devices for digital logic gates, thus no effort is put into providing accurate or high speed resistances, or capacitors. This lack of any reliable resistance or capacitance has a significant impact on receiver design. Since resistance optimization is not a prerogative of the digital IC process engineer, the wisest option is thus to not use these elements, opting instead for active circuitry to replace the functions normally ascribed to resistance and capacitance. Depending on the application receiver noise may be a dominant design constraint. The noise performance of CMOS amplifiers is different than bipolar or GaAs MESFET circuits, shot noise is generally insignificant when compared to channel thermal noise. As a result the optimal input stage topology is significantly different for the different technologies. It is found that, at speeds of operation approaching the limits of the digital CMOS process, open loop designs have noise-power-gain-bandwidth tradeoff performance superior to feedback designs. Furthermore, the lack of good resisters and capacitors

  3. Extended Leach Testing of Simulated LAW Cast Stone Monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Benjamin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jung, H. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-09

    This report describes the results from long-term laboratory leach tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the release of key constituents from monoliths of Cast Stone prepared with four simulated low-activity waste (LAW) liquid waste streams. Specific objectives of the Cast Stone long-term leach tests described in this report focused on four activities: 1. Extending the leaching times for selected ongoing EPA-1315 tests on monoliths made with LAW simulants beyond the conventional 63-day time period up to 609 days reported herein (with some tests continuing that will be documented later) in an effort to evaluate long-term leaching properties of Cast Stone to support future performance assessment activities. 2. Starting new EPA-1315 leach tests on archived Cast Stone monoliths made with four LAW simulants using two leachants (deionized water [DIW] and simulated Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Site vadose zone pore water [VZP]). 3. Evaluating the impacts of varying the iodide loading (starting iodide concentrations) in one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) Average) by manufacturing new Cast Stone monoliths and repeating the EPA-1315 leach tests using DIW and the VZP leachants. 4. Evaluating the impacts of using a non-pertechnetate form of Tc that is present in some Hanford tanks. In this activity one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na HTWOS Average) was spiked with a Tc(I)-tricarbonyl gluconate species and then solidified into Cast Stone monoliths. Cured monoliths were leached using the EPA-1315 leach protocol with DIW and VZP. The leach results for the Tc-Gluconate Cast Stone monoliths were compared to Cast Stone monoliths pertechnetate.

  4. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S

    1987-01-01

    In-depth exploration of the implications of carrier populations and Fermi energies examines distribution of electrons in energy bands and impurity levels of semiconductors. Also: kinetics of semiconductors containing excess carriers, particularly in terms of trapping, excitation, and recombination.

  5. Porous polymer monolithic col

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Terborg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new approach has been developed for the preparation of mixed-mode stationary phases to separate proteins. The pore surface of monolithic poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate capillary columns was functionalized with thiols and coated with gold nanoparticles. The final mixed mode surface chemistry was formed by attaching, in a single step, alkanethiols, mercaptoalkanoic acids, and their mixtures on the free surface of attached gold nanoparticles. Use of these mixtures allowed fine tuning of the hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance. The amount of attached gold nanoparticles according to thermal gravimetric analysis was 44.8 wt.%. This value together with results of frontal elution enabled calculation of surface coverage with the alkanethiol and mercaptoalkanoic acid ligands. Interestingly, alkanethiols coverage in a range of 4.46–4.51 molecules/nm2 significantly exceeded that of mercaptoalkanoic acids with 2.39–2.45 molecules/nm2. The mixed mode character of these monolithic stationary phases was for the first time demonstrated in the separations of proteins that could be achieved in the same column using gradient elution conditions typical of reverse phase (using gradient of acetonitrile in water and ion exchange chromatographic modes (applying gradient of salt in water, respectively.

  6. W-band monolithic oscillator using InAlAs/InGaAs HEMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Y.; Pavlidis, D.; Tutt, M.; Ng, G. I.; Lai, R.

    1990-01-01

    A W-band monolithic integrated oscillator circuit was designed and fabricated using submicron HEMT technology. The oscillation frequency was around 81 GHz and the power was -7 dBm at the chip level. This is the first report of an InAlAs/InGaAs monolithic oscillator operating at the W-band.

  7. Design and Analysis of Enhanced Modulation Response in Integrated Coupled Cavities DBR Lasers Using Photon-Photon Resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Bardella; Chow, Weng W.; Ivo Montrosset

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, various solutions have been proposed to increase the modulation bandwidth and, consequently, the transmission bit-rate of semiconductor lasers. In this manuscript, we discuss a design procedure for a recently proposed laser cavity realized with the monolithic integration of two distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers allowing one to extend the modulation bandwidth. Such an extension is obtained introducing in the dynamic response a photon-photon resonance (PPR) at a ...

  8. Tailoring the graphene/silicon carbide interface for monolithic wafer-scale electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, S; Waldmann, D; Jobst, J; Albert, A; Albrecht, M; Reshanov, S; Schöner, A; Krieger, M; Weber, H B

    2012-07-17

    Graphene is an outstanding electronic material, predicted to have a role in post-silicon electronics. However, owing to the absence of an electronic bandgap, graphene switching devices with high on/off ratio are still lacking. Here in the search for a comprehensive concept for wafer-scale graphene electronics, we present a monolithic transistor that uses the entire material system epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide (0001). This system consists of the graphene layer with its vanishing energy gap, the underlying semiconductor and their common interface. The graphene/semiconductor interfaces are tailor-made for ohmic as well as for Schottky contacts side-by-side on the same chip. We demonstrate normally on and normally off operation of a single transistor with on/off ratios exceeding 10(4) and no damping at megahertz frequencies. In its simplest realization, the fabrication process requires only one lithography step to build transistors, diodes, resistors and eventually integrated circuits without the need of metallic interconnects.

  9. Biobased monoliths for adenovirus purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Cláudia S M; Gonçalves, Bianca; Sousa, Margarida; Martins, Duarte L; Barroso, Telma; Pina, Ana Sofia; Peixoto, Cristina; Aguiar-Ricardo, Ana; Roque, A Cecília A

    2015-04-01

    Adenoviruses are important platforms for vaccine development and vectors for gene therapy, increasing the demand for high titers of purified viral preparations. Monoliths are macroporous supports regarded as ideal for the purification of macromolecular complexes, including viral particles. Although common monoliths are based on synthetic polymers as methacrylates, we explored the potential of biopolymers processed by clean technologies to produce monoliths for adenovirus purification. Such an approach enables the development of disposable and biodegradable matrices for bioprocessing. A total of 20 monoliths were produced from different biopolymers (chitosan, agarose, and dextran), employing two distinct temperatures during the freezing process (-20 °C and -80 °C). The morphological and physical properties of the structures were thoroughly characterized. The monoliths presenting higher robustness and permeability rates were further analyzed for the nonspecific binding of Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) preparations. The matrices presenting lower nonspecific Ad5 binding were further functionalized with quaternary amine anion-exchange ligand glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride hydrochloride by two distinct methods, and their performance toward Ad5 purification was assessed. The monolith composed of chitosan and poly(vinyl) alcohol (50:50) prepared at -80 °C allowed 100% recovery of Ad5 particles bound to the support. This is the first report of the successful purification of adenovirus using monoliths obtained from biopolymers processed by clean technologies.

  10. Monolithic microchannel heatsink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benett, William J.; Beach, Raymond J.; Ciarlo, Dino R.

    1996-01-01

    A silicon wafer has slots sawn in it that allow diode laser bars to be mounted in contact with the silicon. Microchannels are etched into the back of the wafer to provide cooling of the diode bars. To facilitate getting the channels close to the diode bars, the channels are rotated from an angle perpendicular to the diode bars which allows increased penetration between the mounted diode bars. This invention enables the fabrication of monolithic silicon microchannel heatsinks for laser diodes. The heatsinks have low thermal resistance because of the close proximity of the microchannels to the laser diode being cooled. This allows high average power operation of two-dimensional laser diode arrays that have a high density of laser diode bars and therefore high optical power density.

  11. A fully integrated high-Q Whispering-Gallery Wedge Resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Ramiro-Manzano, F; Pavesi, L; Pucker, G; Ghulinyan, M

    2012-01-01

    Microresonator devices which posses ultra-high quality factors are essential for fundamental investigations and applications. Microsphere and microtoroid resonators support remarkably high Q's at optical frequencies, while planarity constrains preclude their integration into functional lightwave circuits. Conventional semiconductor processing can also be used to realize ultra-high-Q's with planar wedge-resonators. Still, their full integration with side-coupled dielectric waveguides remains an issue. Here we show the full monolithic integration of a wedge-resonator/waveguide vertically-coupled system on a silicon chip. In this approach the cavity and the waveguide lay in different planes. This permits to realize the shallow-angle wedge while the waveguide remains intact, allowing therefore to engineer a coupling of arbitrary strength between these two. The precise size-control and the robustness against post-processing operation due to its monolithic integration makes this system a prominent platform for indu...

  12. Semiconductor to Metal Transition Characteristics of VO2/NiO Epitaxial Heterostructures Integrated with Si(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaei, Roya

    The novel functionalities of Vanadium dioxide (VO2), such as, several orders of magnitude transition in resistivity and IR transmittance, provide the exciting opportunity for the development of next generation memory, sensor, and field-effect based devices. A critical issue in the development of practical devices based on metal oxides is the integration of high quality epitaxial oxide thin films with the existing silicon technology which is based on silicon (100) substrates. However, silicon is not suitable for epitaxial growth of oxides owing to its tendency to readily form an amorphous oxide layer or silicide at the film-substrate interface. The oxide films deposited directly on silicon exhibit poor crystallinity and are not suitable for device applications. To overcome this challenge, appropriate substrate templates must be developed for the growth of oxide thin films on silicon substrates. The primary objective of this dissertation was to develop an integration methodology of VO2 with Si (100) substrates so they could be used in "smart" sensor type of devices along with other multifunctional devices on the same silicon chip. This was achieved by using a NiO/c- YSZ template layer deposited in situ. It will be shown that if the deposition conditions are controlled properly. This approach was used to integrate VO 2 thin films with Si (100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The deposition methodology of integrating VO2 thin films on silicon using various other template layers will also be discussed. Detailed epitaxial relationship of NiO/c-YSZ/Si(100) heterostructures as a template to growth of VO2 as well as were studied. We also were able to create a p-n junction within a single NiO epilayer through subsequent nanosecond laser annealing, as well as established a structure-property correlation in NiO/c-YSZ/Si(100) thin film epitaxial heterostructures with especial emphasis on the stoichiometry and crystallographic characteristics. Ni

  13. Neuromorphic opto-electronic integrated circuits for optical signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeira, B.; Javaloyes, J.; Balle, S.; Piro, O.; Avó, R.; Figueiredo, J. M. L.

    2014-08-01

    The ability to produce narrow optical pulses has been extensively investigated in laser systems with promising applications in photonics such as clock recovery, pulse reshaping, and recently in photonics artificial neural networks using spiking signal processing. Here, we investigate a neuromorphic opto-electronic integrated circuit (NOEIC) comprising a semiconductor laser driven by a resonant tunneling diode (RTD) photo-detector operating at telecommunication (1550 nm) wavelengths capable of excitable spiking signal generation in response to optical and electrical control signals. The RTD-NOEIC mimics biologically inspired neuronal phenomena and possesses high-speed response and potential for monolithic integration for optical signal processing applications.

  14. All-semiconductor high-speed akinetic swept-source for OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneman, Michael P.; Ensher, Jason; Crawford, Michael; Derickson, Dennis

    2011-12-01

    A novel swept-wavelength laser for optical coherence tomography (OCT) using a monolithic semiconductor device with no moving parts is presented. The laser is a Vernier-Tuned Distributed Bragg Reflector (VT-DBR) structure exhibiting a single longitudinal mode. All-electronic wavelength tuning is achieved at a 200 kHz sweep repetition rate, 20 mW output power, over 100 nm sweep width and coherence length longer than 40 mm. OCT point-spread functions with 45- 55 dB dynamic range are demonstrated; lasers at 1550 nm, and now 1310 nm, have been developed. Because the laser's long-term tuning stability allows for electronic sample trigger generation at equal k-space intervals (electronic k-clock), the laser does not need an external optical k-clock for measurement interferometer sampling. The non-resonant, allelectronic tuning allows for continuously adjustable sweep repetition rates from mHz to 100s of kHz. Repetition rate duty cycles are continuously adjustable from single-trigger sweeps to over 99% duty cycle. The source includes a monolithically integrated power leveling feature allowing flat or Gaussian power vs. wavelength profiles. Laser fabrication is based on reliable semiconductor wafer-scale processes, leading to low and rapidly decreasing cost of manufacture.

  15. III-V semiconductor nano-resonators-a new strategy for passive, active, and nonlinear all-dielectric metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Sheng; Reno, John L; Sinclair, Michael B; Brener, Igal

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterials comprising assemblies of dielectric resonators have attracted much attention due to their low intrinsic loss and isotropic optical response. In particular, metasurfaces made from silicon dielectric resonators have shown desirable behaviors such as efficient nonlinear optical conversion, spectral filtering and advanced wave-front engineering. To further explore the potential of dielectric metamaterials, we present all-dielectric metamaterials fabricated from epitaxially grown III-V semiconductors that can exploit the high second-order optical susceptibilities of III-V semiconductors, as well as the ease of monolithically integrating active/gain media. Specifically, we create GaAs nano-resonators using a selective wet oxidation process that forms a low refractive index AlGaO (n~1.6) under layer similar to silicon dielectric resonators formed using silicon-on-insulator wafers. We further use the same fabrication processes to demonstrate multilayer III-V dielectric resonator arrays that provide us w...

  16. Output power PDF of a saturated semiconductor optical amplifier: Second-order noise contributions by path integral method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Mørk, Jesper; Tromborg, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a second-order small-signal model for describing the nonlinear redistribution of noise in a saturated semiconductor optical amplifier. In this paper, the details of the model are presented. A numerical example is used to compare the model to statistical simulations. We show that...

  17. Horizontal integration in markets for complementary components and vertical product differentiation: A case-based analysis in the semiconductor industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westbrock, B.

    2005-01-01

    Observations of recent mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in the semiconductor and computer industry indicate that activities concentrate on the technology leaders in this market. The author examines the influence of players’ heterogeneous product technologies on their involvement in M&A. He provides a

  18. Microwave Semiconductor Research - Materials, Devices, Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-30

    fabricated with I micron length gates, gate widths of 50-250 microns, and transconductances of 80-90 ms/mm. The processing sequence for the monolithic circuit...Ballantyne, invited seminar, Comsat Laboratories, 9 July, 1981. 4. " Monolithically Integrated Active Optical Devices", J. Ballantyne, D.K. Wagner, B...an optical Michelson interferometer with calibrated variable spacing in one arm. -. . . . .d* 34 This apparatus permits us to measure optical pulse

  19. Monolitni katalizatori i reaktori: osnovne značajke, priprava i primjena (Monolith catalysts and reactors: preparation and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašić, V.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic (honeycomb catalysts are continuous unitary structures containing many narrow, parallel and usually straight channels (or passages. Catalytically active components are dispersed uniformly over the whole porous ceramic monolith structure (so-called incorporated monolithic catalysts or are in a layer of porous material that is deposited on the walls of channels in the monolith's structure (washcoated monolithic catalysts. The material of the main monolithic construction is not limited to ceramics but includes metals, as well. Monolithic catalysts are commonly used in gas phase catalytic processes, such as treatment of automotive exhaust gases, selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides, catalytic removal of volatile organic compounds from industrial processes, etc. Monoliths continue to be the preferred support for environmental applications due to their high geometric surface area, different design options, low pressure drop, high temperature durability, mechanical strength, ease of orientation in a reactor and effectiveness as a support for a catalytic washcoat. As known, monolithic catalysts belong to the class of the structured catalysts and/or reactors (in some cases the distinction between "catalyst" and "reactor" has vanished. Structured catalysts can greatly intensify chemical processes, resulting in smaller, safer, cleaner and more energy efficient technologies. Monolith reactors can be considered as multifunctional reactors, in which chemical conversion is advantageously integrated with another unit operation, such as separation, heat exchange, a secondary reaction, etc. Finally, structured catalysts and/or reactors appear to be one of the most significant and promising developments in the field of heterogeneous catalysis and chemical engineering of the recent years. This paper gives a description of the background and perspectives for application and development of monolithic materials. Different methods and techniques

  20. A semiconductor photon-sorter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, A. J.; Lee, J. P.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.

    2016-10-01

    Obtaining substantial nonlinear effects at the single-photon level is a considerable challenge that holds great potential for quantum optical measurements and information processing. Of the progress that has been made in recent years one of the most promising methods is to scatter coherent light from quantum emitters, imprinting quantum correlations onto the photons. We report effective interactions between photons, controlled by a single semiconductor quantum dot that is weakly coupled to a monolithic cavity. We show that the nonlinearity of a transition modifies the counting statistics of a Poissonian beam, sorting the photons in number. This is used to create strong correlations between detection events and to create polarization-correlated photons from an uncorrelated stream using a single spin. These results pave the way for semiconductor optical switches operated by single quanta of light.

  1. Monolithic fuel cell based power source for burst power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fee, D. C.; Blackburn, P. E.; Busch, D. E.; Dees, D. W.; Dusek, J.; Easler, T. E.; Ellingson, W. A.; Flandermeyer, B. K.; Fousek, R. J.; Heiberger, J. J.

    A unique fuel cell coupled with a low power nuclear reactor presents an attractive approach for SDI burst power requirements. The monolithic fuel cell looks attractive for space applications and represents a quantum jump in fuel cell technology. Such a breakthrough in design is the enabling technology for lightweight, low volume power sources for space based pulse power systems. The monolith is unique among fuel cells in being an all solid state device. The capability for miniaturization, inherent in solid state devices, gives the low volume required for space missions. In addition, the solid oxide fuel cell technology employed in the monolith has high temperature reject heat and can be operated in either closed or open cycles. Both these features are attractive for integration into a burst power system.

  2. Monolithic integration on InP of a Wannier Stark modulator with a strained MQW DFB 1.55-micron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allovon, Michel; Fouchet, Sylvie; Harmand, Jean-Christophe; Ougazzaden, Abdallah; Rose, Benoit; Gloukhian, Andre; Devaux, Fabrice

    1995-02-01

    We present the technical approach and the preliminary device results on the first integration of a Wannier Stark (WS) electroabsorption (EA) modulator with a DFB laser on InP. The WS modulator active layer consists of a lattice matched InGaAs-InAlAs superlattice (SL) grown by solid source MBE (Molecular Beam Epitaxy). It is butt-coupled to a laser grown by AP-MOVPE whose active layer includes a strained InGaAsP-InGaAsP MQW stack. Device results cover static performances of integrated lasers and modulators, and measurements of high frequency characteristics (small signal bandwidth and 10 Gb/s eye diagram).

  3. A CMOS-compatible large-scale monolithic integration of heterogeneous multi-sensors on flexible silicon for IoT applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2017-02-07

    We report CMOS technology enabled fabrication and system level integration of flexible bulk silicon (100) based multi-sensors platform which can simultaneously sense pressure, temperature, strain and humidity under various physical deformations. We also show an advanced wearable version for body vital monitoring which can enable advanced healthcare for IoT applications.

  4. Sub-Half Micrometer Gate Lift-Off By Three Layer Resist Process Via Electron Beam Lithography For Gallium Arsenide Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MIMICs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Rao M.; Rask, Steven D.; King, Michael R.; Yard, Thomas K.

    1988-06-01

    fabricate a 0.20μm gate Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors on GaAS. These results are discussed in detail.

  5. Electron beam pumped semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Electron-beam-pumped semiconductor ultra-violet optical sources (ESUVOSs) are disclosed that use ballistic electron pumped wide bandgap semiconductor materials. The sources may produce incoherent radiation and take the form of electron-beam-pumped light emitting triodes (ELETs). The sources may produce coherent radiation and take the form of electron-beam-pumped laser triodes (ELTs). The ELTs may take the form of electron-beam-pumped vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (EVCSEL) or edge emitting electron-beam-pumped lasers (EEELs). The semiconductor medium may take the form of an aluminum gallium nitride alloy that has a mole fraction of aluminum selected to give a desired emission wavelength, diamond, or diamond-like carbon (DLC). The sources may be produced from discrete components that are assembled after their individual formation or they may be produced using batch MEMS-type or semiconductor-type processing techniques to build them up in a whole or partial monolithic manner, or combination thereof.

  6. Material Engineering for Monolithic Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkova, Irina; Yvind, Kresten; Semenova, Elizaveta; Larsson, David

    2014-01-01

    Denne afhandling omhandler halvleder materialeteknologi for selvkørende kortpulslasere, der er kompakte og energieffektive kilder til meget korte optiske pulser. Opnåelse af støjsvage sub-picosekund pulser er en udfordring. I dette arbejde er indflydelsen af den kombinerede ultrahurtige dynamik fra forstærker og absorber materialerne, som primær begrænsende faktor i pulsgenereringen, gransket. En uafhængig optimering af forstærker og absorber sektion er gjort og to lovende retninger undersøgt...

  7. Semiconductor spintronics

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Jianbai; Chang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor Spintronics, as an emerging research discipline and an important advanced field in physics, has developed quickly and obtained fruitful results in recent decades. This volume is the first monograph summarizing the physical foundation and the experimental results obtained in this field. With the culmination of the authors' extensive working experiences, this book presents the developing history of semiconductor spintronics, its basic concepts and theories, experimental results, and the prospected future development. This unique book intends to provide a systematic and modern foundation for semiconductor spintronics aimed at researchers, professors, post-doctorates, and graduate students, and to help them master the overall knowledge of spintronics.

  8. A semiconductor laser excitation circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaadzunari, O.; Masaty, K.

    1984-03-27

    A semiconductor laser excitation circuit is patented that is designed for operation in a pulsed mode with a high pulse repetition frequency. This circuit includes, in addition to a semiconductor laser, a high speed photodetector, a reference voltage source, a comparator, and a pulse oscillator and modulator. If the circuit is built using standard silicon integrated circuits, its speed amounts to several hundred megahertz, if it is constructed using gallium arsenide integrated circuits, its speed is several gigahertz.

  9. A Monolithically Integrated Silicon Modulator with a 10Gb/s 5Vpp or 5.6Vpp Driver in 0.25µm SiGe:C BiCMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard eGoll

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents as a novelty a fully monolithically integrated 10Gb/s silicon modulator consisting of an electrical driver plus optical phase modulator in 0.25µm SiGe:C BiCMOS technology on one chip, where instead of a SOI CMOS process (only MOS transistors a SiGe BiCMOS process (MOS transistors and fast SiGe bipolar transistors is implemented. The fastest bipolar transistors in the BiCMOS product line used have a transit frequency of 120GHz and a collector-emitter breakdown voltage of 2.2V (IHP SG25H3. The main focus of this paper will be given to the electronic drivers, where two driver variants are implemented in the test chips. Circuit descriptions and simulations, which treat the influences of noise and bond wires, are presented. Measurements at separate test chips for the drivers show that the integrated driver variant one has a low power consumption in the range of 0.66W to 0.68W but a high gain of S21=37dB. From the large signal point of view this driver delivers an inverted as well as a non-inverted output data signal between 0V and 2.5V (5Vpp differential. Driver variant one is supplied with 2.5V and with 3.5V. Bit-error-ratio (BER measurements resulted in a BER better than 10E-12 for voltage differences of the input data stream down to 50mVpp. Driver variant two, which is an adapted version of driver variant one, is supplied with 2.5V and 4.2V, consumes 0.83W to 0.87W, delivers a differential data signal with 5.6Vpp at the output and has a gain of S21=40dB. The chip of the fully integrated modulator occupies an area of 12.3mm^2 due to the photonic components. Measurements with a 240mVpp electrical input data stream and for an optical input wavelength of 1540nm resulted in an extinction ratio of 3.3dB for 1mm long RF phase shifters in each modulator arm driven by driver variant one and a DC tuning voltage of 1.2V. The extinction ratio was 8.4dB at a DC tuning voltage of 7V for a device with 2mm long RF phase shifters and driver

  10. Electromagnetic Field Behavior in Dispersive Isotropic Negative Phase Velocity/Negative Refractive Index Guided Wave Structures Compatible with Millimeter-Wave Monolithic Integrated Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford M. Krowne

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A microstrip configuration has been loaded with a dispersive isotropic left-handed medium (LHM substrate and studied regarding its high frequency millimeter-wave behavior near 100 GHz. This has been accomplished using a full-wave integral-equation anisotropic Green's function code configured to run for isotropy. Never before seen electromagnetic field distributions are produced, unlike anything found in normal media devices, using this ab initio solver. These distributions are made in the cross-sectional dimension, with the field propagating in the perpendicular direction. It is discovered that the LHM distributions are so radically different from ordinary media used as a substrate that completely new electronic devices based upon the new physics become a real possibility. The distinctive dispersion diagram for the dispersive medium, consisting of unit cells with split ring resonator-rod combinations, is provided over the upper millimeter-wave frequency regime.

  11. Monolithically integrated enhancement/depletion-mode AlGaN/GaN HEMTs SRAM unit and voltage level shifter using fluorine plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonghe, Chen; Xuefeng, Zheng; Jincheng, Zhang; Xiaohua, Ma; Yue, Hao

    2016-05-01

    A GaN-based E/D mode direct-couple logic 6 transistors SRAM unit and a voltage level shifter were designed and fabricated. E-mode and D-mode AlGaN/GaN HEMTs were integrated in one wafer using fluorine plasma treatment and using a moderate AlGaN barrier layer heterojunction structure. The 6 transistors SRAM unit consists of two symmetrical E/D mode inverters and two E-mode switch HEMTs. The output low and high voltage of the SRAM unit are 0.95 and 0.07 V at a voltage supply of 1 V. The voltage level shifter lowers the supply voltage using four Ni-AlGaN Schottky diodes in a series at a positive supply voltage of 6 V and a negative supply voltage of -6 V. By controlling the states of inverter modules of the level shifter in turn, the level shifter offers two channel voltage outputs of -0.5 and -5 V. The flip voltage of the level shifter is 0.76 V. Both the SRAM unit and voltage shifter operate correctly, demonstrating the promising potential for GaN-based E/D mode digital and analog integrated circuits. Several considerations are proposed to avoid the influence of threshold voltage degradation of D-mode and E-mode HEMT on the operation of the circuit. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61334002), the Opening Project of Science and Technology on Reliability Physics and Application Technology of Electronic Component Laboratory (No. ZHD201206), and the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (No. NCET-12-0915).

  12. Semiconductor heterojunctions

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, B L

    1974-01-01

    Semiconductor Heterojunctions investigates various aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions. Topics covered include the theory of heterojunctions and their energy band profiles, electrical and optoelectronic properties, and methods of preparation. A number of heterojunction devices are also considered, from photovoltaic converters to photodiodes, transistors, and injection lasers.Comprised of eight chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the theory of heterojunctions and a discussion on abrupt isotype and anisotype heterojunctions, along with graded heterojunctions. The reader is then

  13. Monolithic glass block lasercom terminal: hardware proof of concept and test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Robert T.; Drake, Marvin D.; Jaeger, Jerold L.

    1995-04-01

    We summarize a compact lasercom terminal implementation based on a previously described system concept, and report on measurements made on a prototype optical system built on internal MITRE funds. This paper discusses the fabrication and test of an innovative hardware proof-of-concept for an advanced satellite lasercom terminal with a ten-fold size, weight, and production cost reduction over current practice. We have built and tested a proof-of-concept of the optics portion of a full duplex `monolithic glass block' (MGB) lasercom terminal. The complete MGB optical system is only 6' X 4' X 0.5' and weighs less than a pound. A complete terminal which includes a 3 - 4 inch telescope and gimbal could be implemented for as little as 15 - 30 pounds. The optical system test results are reported. Our approach uses emerging technologies and a highly integrated system design, based on representative system requirements for satellite crosslinks. Technology evaluation and system trades led to a novel optics design for a lasercom terminal, based on thin film coatings and half-inch glass cubes. The emerging photonic technologies employed include liquid crystals for solid state switching, automatic gain control, and microradian alignment; multi-layer dielectric films for optical bandpass filters, dichroic separation, and polarization control; semiconductor lasers with microlens optics; and an original design where all the optics are realized in planar thin films incorporated on small glass substrates, nominally one-half inch in size. These glass cubes are permanently bonded together to form a monolithic ensemble. Hence, we have coined this implementation the monolithic glass block (MGB) approach. Fused silica is used throughout for reasons of superb radiation resistance and thermal stability. The thin film filters, switches, and polarizers perform all the necessary functions in collimated light. This approach is feasible because the optical paths have been dramatically reduced to

  14. Catastrophic failure of a monolithic zirconia prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jae-Seung; Ji, Woon; Choi, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Sunjai

    2015-02-01

    Recently, monolithic zirconia restorations have received attention as an alternative to zirconia veneered with feldspathic porcelain to eliminate chipping failures of veneer ceramics. In this clinical report, a patient with mandibular edentulism received 4 dental implants in the interforaminal area, and a screw-retained monolithic zirconia prosthesis was fabricated. The patient also received a maxillary complete removable dental prosthesis over 4 anterior roots. At the 18-month follow-up, all of the zirconia cylinders were seen to be fractured, and the contacting abutment surfaces had lost structural integrity. The damaged abutments were replaced with new abutments, and a new prosthesis was delivered with a computer-assisted design and computer-assisted manufacturing fabricated titanium framework with denture teeth and denture base resins. At the 6-month recall, the patient did not have any problems. Dental zirconia has excellent physical properties; however, care should be taken to prevent excessive stresses on the zirconia cylinders when a screw-retained zirconia restoration is planned as a definitive prosthesis.

  15. Image pixel device using integrated organic electronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi, K.; Narayan, K. S.

    2016-11-01

    We report a solution processed, monolithically integrated device similar to an imaging pixel element used in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) based cameras. This integrated pixel essentially consists of a pair of organic photodiode (OPD) and organic field effect transistor (OFET). The signal generated by the light responsive OPD drives the OFET to different output states to quantify the light intensity. The prerequisite of a low operating voltage OFET (polymer semiconductor and a self-assembled hybrid dielectric layer. A bulk heterojunction blend was used as the photo-active layer in the OPD along with suitable buffer layers for charge extraction. The material parameters were optimized to realize a suitable structure which clearly demonstrated the interplay of the OPD and OFET operations, thereby forming a roadmap for all-organic CMOS arrays.

  16. In situ Fabrication of Monolithic Copper Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Li, Mingyu; Zeng, Qingxuan; Wu, Xingyu

    2016-04-01

    Fabrication and characterization of monolithic copper azide were performed. The monolithic nanoporous copper (NPC) with interconnected pores and nanoparticles was prepared by decomposition and sintering of the ultrafine copper oxalate. The preferable monolithic NPC can be obtained through decomposition and sintering at 400°C for 30 min. Then, the available monolithic NPC was in situ reacted with the gaseous HN3 for 24 h and the monolithic NPC was transformed into monolithic copper azide. Additionally, the copper particles prepared by electrodeposition were also reacted with the gaseous HN3 under uniform conditions as a comparison. The fabricated monolithic copper azide was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  17. Regrowth-free integration of injection locked slotted laser with an electroabsorption modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Niall P; Caro, Ludovic; Dernaika, Mohamad; Peters, Frank H

    2017-02-20

    Optical injection locking was used to red shift an integrated semiconductor laser up to 30 nm away from the main free running lasing mode. This injection locking of the laser beyond its band edge enabled its integration with an electroabsorption modulator to produce a 2.5 Gb/s eye diagram. The electroabsorption modulator was shown to have a 3 dB bandwidth of 5.5 GHz, which was limited by the contact capacitance. This paper demonstrates that such devices could be applied in a regrowth free, monolithic coherent wavelength division multiplexing transmitter.

  18. Thin Film Compound Semiconductor Devices for Photonic Interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Kenneth Harold

    The research conducted for this doctoral dissertation involved the experimental investigation of thin film compound devices for use as photonic interconnection components in both external and direct modulated interconnection configurations. The devices were fabricated using a modified epitaxial liftoff procedure developed at Georgia Tech. This technique, by which single crystal semiconductor layers were separated from their growth substrate and subsequently deposited onto host substrates, allowed the development of novel photonic interconnection elements. It also facilitated the investigation of fundamental optical phenomena in compound semiconductors. Specifically, this work focused on an experimental study of the Franz-Keldysh electrorefractive effect in thin film semiconductor structures. This aspect of the research resulted in the first reported direct measurement of electrorefraction in GaAs at large electric fields (10 ^5 V/cm) and at photon energies within several meV of the band edge of GaAs. Related to this effort was the investigation of thin film, surface-normal optical modulators based on the bulk Franz-Keldysh effect. The novel modulators fabricated for this research demonstrated the largest contrast ratios ever reported for surface-normal Franz-Keldysh devices. Further investigation indicated that, with additional optimization, these thin film elements can achieve further improvements in performance. Such devices would present a low cost, easily manufactured alternative to conventional modulators, which are typically quite complex and expensive to fabricate. Finally, as an alternative to externally modulated interconnection schemes, a novel stacked wafer architecture was demonstrated. This configuration, which facilitated through-wafer optical communication, utilized thin film InP/InGaAsP emitters and detectors which were quasi-monolithically integrated onto silicon substrates using the modified epitaxial liftoff process. This through-wafer scheme is

  19. 338-GHz Semiconductor Amplifier Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoska, Lorene A.; Gaier, Todd C.; Soria, Mary M.; Fung, King Man; Rasisic, Vesna; Deal, William; Leong, Kevin; Mei, Xiao Bing; Yoshida, Wayne; Liu, Po-Hsin; Uyeda, Jansen; Lai, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Research findings were reported from an investigation of new gallium nitride (GaN) monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers (PAs) targeting the highest output power and the highest efficiency for class-A operation in W-band (75-110 GHz). W-band PAs are a major component of many frequency multiplied submillimeter-wave LO signal sources. For spectrometer arrays, substantial W-band power is required due to the passive lossy frequency multipliers.

  20. A Mathematical Model for Diffusion-Controlled Monolithic Matrix Coated with outer Membrane System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A release model for diffusion-controlled monolithic matrix coated with outer membrane system is proposed and solved by using the refined double integral method. The calculated results are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental release data. The present model can be well used to describe the release process for all cd/cs values. In addition, the release effects of the monolithic matrix coated with outer membrane system are discussed theoretically.

  1. Two stage dual gate MESFET monolithic gain control amplifier for Ka-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, V.; Geddes, J.; Contolatis, A.

    A monolithic two stage gain control amplifier has been developed using submicron gate length dual gate MESFETs fabricated on ion implanted material. The amplifier has a gain of 12 dB at 30 GHz with a gain control range of over 30 dB. This ion implanted monolithic IC is readily integrable with other phased array receiver functions such as low noise amplifiers and phase shifters.

  2. Self-contained sub-millimeter wave rectifying antenna integrated circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Peter H. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The invention is embodied in a monolithic semiconductor integrated circuit in which is formed an antenna, such as a slot dipole antenna, connected across a rectifying diode. In the preferred embodiment, the antenna is tuned to received an electromagnetic wave of about 2500 GHz so that the device is on the order of a wavelength in size, or about 200 microns across and 30 microns thick. This size is ideal for mounting on a microdevice such as a microrobot for example. The antenna is endowed with high gain in the direction of the incident radiation by providing a quarter-wavelength (30 microns) thick resonant cavity below the antenna, the cavity being formed as part of the monolithic integrated circuit. Preferably, the integrated circuit consists of a thin gallium arsenide membrane overlying the resonant cavity and supporting an epitaxial Gallium Arsenide semiconductor layer. The rectifying diode is a Schottky diode formed in the GaAs semiconductor layer and having an area that is a very small fraction of the wavelength of the 2500 GHz incident radiation. The cavity provides high forward gain in the antenna and isolation from surrounding structure.

  3. A radiation hard bipolar monolithic front-end readout

    CERN Document Server

    Baschirotto, A; Cappelluti, I; Castello, R; Cermesoni, M; Gola, A; Pessina, G; Pistolesi, E; Rancoita, P G; Seidman, A

    1999-01-01

    A fast bipolar monolithic charge sensitive preamplifier (CSP), implemented in the monolithic 2 mu m BiCMOS technology (called HF2CMOS) was designed and built in a quad monolithic chip. Studies of radiation effects in the CSP $9 performance, from non-irradiated and up to neutron irradiation of 5.3*10/sup 14/ n/cm/sup 2/, have confirmed that the use of bipolar npn transistors is suitable for the radiation level of the future LHC collider environment. The CSP $9 presents a new circuit solution for obtaining adequate slew rate performances which results in an integral linearity better than 0.8554330n 5 V at 20 ns of shaping time, regardless of the bias current selected for the CSP. This way $9 the bias current of the CSP can be set for optimizing the power dissipation with respect to series and parallel noise, especially useful when the CSP is put in a radiation environment. A prototype test with a novel monolithic 20 ns $9 time constant RC-CR shaper, capable to sum up four inputs has been also realized, featurin...

  4. Measurement and applications of dispersion in epitaxial II-VI semiconductor thin films and multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, Frank Channa

    In this thesis we investigate the dispersion of the indices of refraction of II-VI semiconductors, and explore a series of materials combinations which are suited for the fabrication of distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs). A prism coupler method and reflectivity measurements were used to determine the indices of refraction n of II-VI semiconductor ternary alloys of various compositions prepared by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We show that the prism coupler technique, which is capable of measuring n with an accuracy of at least 0.1% at discrete wavelengths, and simultaneously to determine the thickness of the layers with an uncertainty of less than 0.5%, is a very reliable, convenient, and accurate tool for determining compositions and growth rates for MBE. Using the highly accurate values of n obtained from the prism coupler and reflectivity measurements, we have fabricated several DBRs using different II-VI materials. From our work on DBRs, we have obtained a structure (i.e., a 20-period ZnMgSe/ZnCdSe multilayer) which yields 98% reflectivity. This is to our knowledge the highest reflectivity reported for a DBR in the II-VI semiconductor camp. Motivated by this work, we show preliminary results of monolithic microcavities which are fabricated by integrating these high-reflectivity DBRs.

  5. Monolithic III-V and hybrid polysilicon-III-V microelectromechanical tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Edward M.; Lott, James A.; Nelson, Thomas R., Jr.; Harvey, M. C.; Raley, J. A.; Stintz, Andreas; Malloy, Kevin J.

    2003-04-01

    We report our progress on the design and fabrication of electrostatically-actuated microelectromechanical (MEM) tunable wavelength filters and vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). We investigate both an all-semiconductor monolithic approach and a hybrid approach based on the combination of conventional polysilicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and III-V semiconductor thin-film distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and VCSEL structures. In the tunable hybrid structures the III-V semiconductor layers are flip-bonded onto specially designed polysilicon foundry MEMS structures and separated from their lattice-matched parent substrates by a novel post-bonding lift-off process.

  6. Real-time, multiplexed electrochemical DNA detection using an active complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor biosensor array with integrated sensor electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Peter M; Gong, Ping; Levicky, Rastislav; Shepard, Kenneth L

    2009-03-15

    Optical biosensing based on fluorescence detection has arguably become the standard technique for quantifying extents of hybridization between surface-immobilized probes and fluorophore-labeled analyte targets in DNA microarrays. However, electrochemical detection techniques are emerging which could eliminate the need for physically bulky optical instrumentation, enabling the design of portable devices for point-of-care applications. Unlike fluorescence detection, which can function well using a passive substrate (one without integrated electronics), multiplexed electrochemical detection requires an electronically active substrate to analyze each array site and benefits from the addition of integrated electronic instrumentation to further reduce platform size and eliminate the electromagnetic interference that can result from bringing non-amplified signals off chip. We report on an active electrochemical biosensor array, constructed with a standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, to perform quantitative DNA hybridization detection on chip using targets conjugated with ferrocene redox labels. A 4 x 4 array of gold working electrodes and integrated potentiostat electronics, consisting of control amplifiers and current-input analog-to-digital converters, on a custom-designed 5 mm x 3 mm CMOS chip drive redox reactions using cyclic voltammetry, sense DNA binding, and transmit digital data off chip for analysis. We demonstrate multiplexed and specific detection of DNA targets as well as real-time monitoring of hybridization, a task that is difficult, if not impossible, with traditional fluorescence-based microarrays.

  7. LSST primary/tertiary monolithic mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebag, J.; Gressler, W.; Liang, M.; Neill, D.; Araujo-Hauck, C.; Andrew, J.; Angeli, G.; Cho, M.; Claver, C.; Daruich, F.; Gessner, C.; Hileman, E.; Krabbendam, V.; Muller, G.; Poczulp, G.; Repp, R.; Wiecha, O.; Xin, B.; Kenagy, K.; Martin, H. M.; Tuell, M. T.; West, S. C.

    2016-08-01

    At the core of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) three-mirror optical design is the primary/tertiary (M1M3) mirror that combines these two large mirrors onto one monolithic substrate. The M1M3 mirror was spin cast and polished at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab at The University of Arizona (formerly SOML, now the Richard F. Caris Mirror Lab at the University of Arizona (RFCML)). Final acceptance of the mirror occurred during the year 2015 and the mirror is now in storage while the mirror cell assembly is being fabricated. The M1M3 mirror will be tested at RFCML after integration with its mirror cell before being shipped to Chile.

  8. Biasable, Balanced, Fundamental Submillimeter Monolithic Membrane Mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Peter; Schlecht, Erich; Mehdi, Imran; Gill, John; Velebir, James; Tsang, Raymond; Dengler, Robert; Lin, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This device is a biasable, submillimeter-wave, balanced mixer fabricated using JPL s monolithic membrane process a simplified version of planar membrane technology. The primary target application is instrumentation used for analysis of atmospheric constituents, pressure, temperature, winds, and other physical and chemical properties of the atmospheres of planets and comets. Other applications include high-sensitivity gas detection and analysis. This innovation uses a balanced configuration of two diodes allowing the radio frequency (RF) signal and local oscillator (LO) inputs to be separated. This removes the need for external diplexers that are inherently narrowband, bulky, and require mechanical tuning to change frequency. Additionally, this mixer uses DC bias-ability to improve its performance and versatility. In order to solve problems relating to circuit size, the GaAs membrane process was created. As much of the circuitry as possible is fabricated on-chip, making the circuit monolithic. The remainder of the circuitry is precision-machined into a waveguide block that holds the GaAs circuit. The most critical alignments are performed using micron-scale semiconductor technology, enabling wide bandwidth and high operating frequencies. The balanced mixer gets superior performance with less than 2 mW of LO power. This can be provided by a simple two-stage multiplier chain following an amplifier at around 90 GHz. Further, the diodes are arranged so that they can be biased. Biasing pushes the diodes closer to their switching voltage, so that less LO power is required to switch the diodes on and off. In the photo, the diodes are at the right end of the circuit. The LO comes from the waveguide at the right into a reduced-height section containing the diodes. Because the diodes are in series to the LO signal, they are both turned on and off simultaneously once per LO cycle. Conversely, the RF signal is picked up from the RF waveguide by the probe at the left, and flows

  9. Oxide semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Svensson, Bengt G; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. Originally widely known as the ""Willardson and Beer"" Series, it has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. The series publishes timely, highly relevant volumes intended for long-term impact and reflecting the truly interdisciplinary nature of the field. The volumes in Semiconductors and Semimetals have been and will continue to be of great interest to physicists, chemists, materials scientists, and device engineers in academia, scient

  10. Semiconductor electrochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Memming, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Providing both an introduction and an up-to-date survey of the entire field, this text captivates the reader with its clear style and inspiring, yet solid presentation. The significantly expanded second edition of this milestone work is supplemented by a completely new chapter on the hot topic of nanoparticles and includes the latest insights into the deposition of dye layers on semiconductor electrodes. In his monograph, the acknowledged expert Professor Memming primarily addresses physical and electrochemists, but materials scientists, physicists, and engineers dealing with semiconductor technology and its applications will also benefit greatly from the contents.

  11. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S

    1962-01-01

    Semiconductor Statistics presents statistics aimed at complementing existing books on the relationships between carrier densities and transport effects. The book is divided into two parts. Part I provides introductory material on the electron theory of solids, and then discusses carrier statistics for semiconductors in thermal equilibrium. Of course a solid cannot be in true thermodynamic equilibrium if any electrical current is passed; but when currents are reasonably small the distribution function is but little perturbed, and the carrier distribution for such a """"quasi-equilibrium"""" co

  12. Integration of crystalline orientated γ-Al2O3 films and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits on Si(1 0 0) substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Koji; Akai, Daisuke; Ishida, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, integration of crystalline orientated γ-Al2O3 films and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits on Si(1 0 0) substrate was reported. In this integration processes, crystalline γ-Al2O3 films need to be preserved their crystallinity during high temperature annealing processes of CMOS fabrication in order to prevent surface condition changes. The γ-Al2O3 films grown on Si substrates are annealed in the CMOS fabrication process conditions, drive-in annealing at 1150 °C in O2 atmosphere and wet annealing 1000 °C in H2O vapor atmosphere. Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the crystallinity of γ-Al2O3 films after the annealing processes. Surface conditions of the films are analyzed and observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). As a result, RHEED patterns of the γ-Al2O3 films indicated that wet oxidation annealing was a critical process severally inferior surface condition of crystalline γ-Al2O3 films. XRD, XPS, and SEM investigation unveiled further details of the crystallinity changes on γ-Al2O3 films for each process. These results indicated passivation films were required to integrate γ-Al2O3 films with CMOS fabrication process. Therefore we proposed and introduced Si3N4/TEOS passivation films on γ-Al2O3 films in CMOS fabrication processes. At last, MOSFETs on γ-Al2O3 integrated Si(1 0 0) substrate were fabricated and characterized. The designed characteristics of MOSFETs were obtained on γ-Al2O3 integrated Si substrate.

  13. Monolithic Fuel Fabrication Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. R. Clark; N. P. Hallinan; J. F. Jue; D. D. Keiser; J. M. Wight

    2006-05-01

    The pursuit of a high uranium density research reactor fuel plate has led to monolithic fuel, which possesses the greatest possible uranium density in the fuel region. Process developments in fabrication development include friction stir welding tool geometry and cooling improvements and a reduction in the length of time required to complete the transient liquid phase bonding process. Annealing effects on the microstructures of the U-10Mo foil and friction stir welded aluminum 6061 cladding are also examined.

  14. Pressure drop in CIM disk monolithic columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihelic, Igor; Nemec, Damjan; Podgornik, Ales; Koloini, Tine

    2005-02-11

    Pressure drop analysis in commercial CIM disk monolithic columns is presented. Experimental measurements of pressure drop are compared to hydrodynamic models usually employed for prediction of pressure drop in packed beds, e.g. free surface model and capillary model applying hydraulic radius concept. However, the comparison between pressure drop in monolith and adequate packed bed give unexpected results. Pressure drop in a CIM disk monolithic column is approximately 50% lower than in an adequate packed bed of spheres having the same hydraulic radius as CIM disk monolith; meaning they both have the same porosity and the same specific surface area. This phenomenon seems to be a consequence of the monolithic porous structure which is quite different in terms of the pore size distribution and parallel pore nonuniformity compared to the one in conventional packed beds. The number of self-similar levels for the CIM monoliths was estimated to be between 1.03 and 2.75.

  15. Graphene-supported metal oxide monolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Biener, Juergen; Biener, Monika A.; Wang, Yinmin; Ye, Jianchao; Tylski, Elijah

    2017-01-10

    A composition comprising at least one graphene-supported metal oxide monolith, said monolith comprising a three-dimensional structure of graphene sheets crosslinked by covalent carbon bonds, wherein the graphene sheets are coated by at least one metal oxide such as iron oxide or titanium oxide. Also provided is an electrode comprising the aforementioned graphene-supported metal oxide monolith, wherein the electrode can be substantially free of any carbon-black and substantially free of any binder.

  16. Graphene-supported metal oxide monolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Biener, Juergen; Biener, Monika A.; Wang, Yinmin; Ye, Jianchao; Tylski, Elijah

    2017-01-10

    A composition comprising at least one graphene-supported metal oxide monolith, said monolith comprising a three-dimensional structure of graphene sheets crosslinked by covalent carbon bonds, wherein the graphene sheets are coated by at least one metal oxide such as iron oxide or titanium oxide. Also provided is an electrode comprising the aforementioned graphene-supported metal oxide monolith, wherein the electrode can be substantially free of any carbon-black and substantially free of any binder.

  17. Monolithic silicon bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, P. M.; Jeffries, A. D.; Meyer, S. S.; Weiss, R.; Bachner, F. J.; Donnelly, J. P.; Lindley, W. T.; Mountain, R. W.; Silversmith, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    A new type of bolometer detector for the millimeter and submillimeter spectral range is described. The bolometer is constructed of silicon using integrated circuit fabrication techniques. Ion implantation is used to give controlled resistance vs temperature properties as well as extremely low 1/f noise contacts. The devices have been tested between 4.2 and 0.3 K. The best electrical NEP measured is 4 x 10 to the -16th W/Hz to the 1/2 at 0.35 K between 1- and 10-Hz modulation frequency. This device had a detecting area of 0.25 sq cm and a time constant of 20 msec at a bath temperature of 0.35 K.

  18. Advanced on-chip divider for monolithic microwave VCO's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Weddell C.

    1989-01-01

    High frequency division on a monolithic circuit is a critical technology required to significantly enhance the performance of microwave and millimeter-wave phase-locked sources. The approach used to meet this need is to apply circuit design practices which are essentially 'microwave' in nature to the basically 'digital' problem of high speed division. Following investigation of several promising circuit approaches, program phase 1 culminated in the design and layout of an 8.5 GHz (Deep Space Channel 14) divide by four circuit based on a dynamic mixing divider circuit approach. Therefore, during program phase 2, an 8.5 GHz VCO with an integral divider which provides a phase coherent 2.125 GHz reference signal for phase locking applications was fabricated and optimized. Complete phase locked operation of the monolithic GaAs devices (VCO, power splitter, and dynamic divider) was demonstrated both individually and as an integrated unit. The fully functional integrated unit in a suitable test fixture was delivered to NASA for engineering data correlation. Based on the experience gained from this 8.5 GHz super component, a monolithic GaAs millimeter-wave dynamic divider for operation with an external VCO was also designed, fabricated, and characterized. This circuit, which was also delivered to NASA, demonstrated coherent division by four at an input frequency of 24.3 GHz. The high performance monolithic microwave VCO with a coherent low frequency reference output described in this report and others based on this technology will greatly benefit advanced communications systems in both the DoD and commercial sectors. Signal processing and instrumentation systems based on phase-locking loops will also attain enhanced performance at potentially reduced cost.

  19. Advanced on-chip divider for monolithic microwave VCO's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Weddell C.

    1989-05-01

    High frequency division on a monolithic circuit is a critical technology required to significantly enhance the performance of microwave and millimeter-wave phase-locked sources. The approach used to meet this need is to apply circuit design practices which are essentially 'microwave' in nature to the basically 'digital' problem of high speed division. Following investigation of several promising circuit approaches, program phase 1 culminated in the design and layout of an 8.5 GHz (Deep Space Channel 14) divide by four circuit based on a dynamic mixing divider circuit approach. Therefore, during program phase 2, an 8.5 GHz VCO with an integral divider which provides a phase coherent 2.125 GHz reference signal for phase locking applications was fabricated and optimized. Complete phase locked operation of the monolithic GaAs devices (VCO, power splitter, and dynamic divider) was demonstrated both individually and as an integrated unit. The fully functional integrated unit in a suitable test fixture was delivered to NASA for engineering data correlation. Based on the experience gained from this 8.5 GHz super component, a monolithic GaAs millimeter-wave dynamic divider for operation with an external VCO was also designed, fabricated, and characterized. This circuit, which was also delivered to NASA, demonstrated coherent division by four at an input frequency of 24.3 GHz. The high performance monolithic microwave VCO with a coherent low frequency reference output described in this report and others based on this technology will greatly benefit advanced communications systems in both the DoD and commercial sectors. Signal processing and instrumentation systems based on phase-locking loops will also attain enhanced performance at potentially reduced cost.

  20. Semiconductor Detectors; Detectores de Semiconductores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortina, E.

    2007-07-01

    Particle detectors based on semiconductor materials are among the few devices used for particle detection that are available to the public at large. In fact we are surrounded by them in our daily lives: they are used in photoelectric cells for opening doors, in digital photographic and video camera, and in bar code readers at supermarket cash registers. (Author)

  1. A new monolithic approach for mid-IR focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chengzhi; Pusino, Vincenzo; Khalid, Ata; Aziz, Mohsin; Steer, Matthew J.; Cumming, David R. S.

    2016-10-01

    Antimonide-based photodetectors have recently been grown on a GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and reported to have comparable performance to the devices grown on more expensive InSb and GaSb substrates. We demonstrated that GaAs, in addition to providing a cost saving substrate for antimonide-based semiconductor growth, can be used as a functional material to fabricate transistors and realize addressing circuits for the heterogeneously grown photodetectors. Based on co-integration of a GaAs MESFET with an InSb photodiode, we recently reported the first demonstration of a switchable and mid-IR sensible photo-pixel on a GaAs substrate that is suitable for large-scale integration into a focal plane array. In this work we report on the fabrication steps that we had to develop to deliver the integrated photo-pixel. Various highly controllable etch processes, both wet and dry etch based, were established for distinct material layers. Moreover, in order to avoid thermally-induced damage to the InSb detectors, a low temperature annealed Ohmic contact was used, and the processing temperature never exceeded 180 °C. Furthermore, since there is a considerable etch step (> 6 μm) that metal must straddle in order to interconnect the fabricated devices, we developed an intermediate step using polyimide to provide a smoothing section between the lower MESFET and upper photodiode regions of the device. This heterogeneous technology creates great potential to realize a new type of monolithic focal plane array of addressable pixels for imaging in the medium wavelength infrared range without the need for flip-chip bonding to a CMOS readout chip.

  2. Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers for Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten

    2003-01-01

    The thesis deals with the design and fabrication of semiconductor mode-locked lasers for use in optical communication systems. The properties of pulse sources and characterization methods are described as well as requirements for application in communication systems. Especially, the importance of......, and ways to reduce high-frequency jitter is discussed. The main result of the thesis is a new design of the epitaxial structure that both enables simplified fabrication and improves the properties of monolithic lasers. 40 GHz monolithic lasers with record low jitter and high power is presented as well...... as the first 10 GHz all-active monolithic laser with both short pulses and low jitter.Results from external cavity mode-locked lasers are also reported along with an investigation of the influence of the operating conditions on the performance of the device. Antireflection coatings are a critical limiting...

  3. Semiconductor Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Klingshirn, Claus F

    2012-01-01

    This updated and enlarged new edition of Semiconductor Optics provides an introduction to and an overview of semiconductor optics from the IR through the visible to the UV, including linear and nonlinear optical properties, dynamics, magneto and electrooptics, high-excitation effects and laser processes, some applications, experimental techniques and group theory. The mathematics is kept as elementary as possible, sufficient for an intuitive understanding of the experimental results and techniques treated. The subjects covered extend from physics to materials science and optoelectronics. Significantly updated chapters add coverage of current topics such as electron hole plasma, Bose condensation of excitons and meta materials. Over 120 problems, chapter introductions and a detailed index make it the key textbook for graduate students in physics. The mathematics is kept as elementary as possible, sufficient for an intuitive understanding of the experimental results and techniques treated. The subjects covered ...

  4. Semiconductor sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Frank, E-mail: frank.hartmann@cern.c [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT, Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, Karlsruhe 76131 (Germany)

    2011-02-01

    Semiconductor sensors have been around since the 1950s and today, every high energy physics experiment has one in its repertoire. In Lepton as well as Hadron colliders, silicon vertex and tracking detectors led to the most amazing physics and will continue doing so in the future. This contribution tries to depict the history of these devices exemplarily without being able to honor all important developments and installations. The current understanding of radiation damage mechanisms and recent R and D topics demonstrating the future challenges and possible technical solutions for the SLHC detectors are presented. Consequently semiconductor sensor candidates for an LHC upgrade and a future linear collider are also briefly introduced. The work presented here is a collage of the work of many individual silicon experts spread over several collaborations across the world.

  5. Piezoresistive Sensors Development Using Monolithic CMOS MEMS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chaehoi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a monolithic CMOS-MEMS platform under the iDesign and SemeMEMS projects with the aim of jointly providing an open access “one-stop-shop” design and prototyping facility for integrated CMOS-MEMS. This work addresses the implementation of a 3-axis accelerometer and a pressure sensor using Semefab’s in-house 2-poly 1-metal CMOS process on a 380/4/15 μm SOI wafer; the membrane and the proof mass being micromachined using double-sided Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE. This monolithic approach promises, in high volume production and using low complexity processes, a dramatic cost reduction over hybrid sensors. Furthermore, the embedded signal conditioning and the low-noise level in polysilicon gauges enables high performance to be achieved by implementing dedicated on-chip amplification and filtering circuitry.

  6. Low-bandgap, monolithic, multi-bandgap, optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanlass, Mark W.; Carapella, Jeffrey J.

    2014-07-08

    Low bandgap, monolithic, multi-bandgap, optoelectronic devices (10), including PV converters, photodetectors, and LED's, have lattice-matched (LM), double-heterostructure (DH), low-bandgap GaInAs(P) subcells (22, 24) including those that are lattice-mismatched (LMM) to InP, grown on an InP substrate (26) by use of at least one graded lattice constant transition layer (20) of InAsP positioned somewhere between the InP substrate (26) and the LMM subcell(s) (22, 24). These devices are monofacial (10) or bifacial (80) and include monolithic, integrated, modules (MIMs) (190) with a plurality of voltage-matched subcell circuits (262, 264, 266, 270, 272) as well as other variations and embodiments.

  7. Low-bandgap, monolithic, multi-bandgap, optoelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanlass, Mark W.; Carapella, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-05

    Low bandgap, monolithic, multi-bandgap, optoelectronic devices (10), including PV converters, photodetectors, and LED's, have lattice-matched (LM), double-heterostructure (DH), low-bandgap GaInAs(P) subcells (22, 24) including those that are lattice-mismatched (LMM) to InP, grown on an InP substrate (26) by use of at least one graded lattice constant transition layer (20) of InAsP positioned somewhere between the InP substrate (26) and the LMM subcell(s) (22, 24). These devices are monofacial (10) or bifacial (80) and include monolithic, integrated, modules (MIMs) (190) with a plurality of voltage-matched subcell circuits (262, 264, 266, 270, 272) as well as other variations and embodiments.

  8. Low-bandgap, monolithic, multi-bandgap, optoelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanlass, Mark W.; Carapella, Jeffrey J.

    2014-07-08

    Low bandgap, monolithic, multi-bandgap, optoelectronic devices (10), including PV converters, photodetectors, and LED's, have lattice-matched (LM), double-heterostructure (DH), low-bandgap GaInAs(P) subcells (22, 24) including those that are lattice-mismatched (LMM) to InP, grown on an InP substrate (26) by use of at least one graded lattice constant transition layer (20) of InAsP positioned somewhere between the InP substrate (26) and the LMM subcell(s) (22, 24). These devices are monofacial (10) or bifacial (80) and include monolithic, integrated, modules (MIMs) (190) with a plurality of voltage-matched subcell circuits (262, 264, 266, 270, 272) as well as other variations and embodiments.

  9. Low-bandgap, monolithic, multi-bandgap, optoelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanlass, Mark W.; Carapella, Jeffrey J.

    2016-03-22

    Low bandgap, monolithic, multi-bandgap, optoelectronic devices (10), including PV converters, photodetectors, and LED's, have lattice-matched (LM), double-heterostructure (DH), low-bandgap GaInAs(P) subcells (22, 24) including those that are lattice-mismatched (LMM) to InP, grown on an InP substrate (26) by use of at least one graded lattice constant transition layer (20) of InAsP positioned somewhere between the InP substrate (26) and the LMM subcell(s) (22, 24). These devices are monofacial (10) or bifacial (80) and include monolithic, integrated, modules (MIMs) (190) with a plurality of voltage-matched subcell circuits (262, 264, 266, 270, 272) as well as other variations and embodiments.

  10. Superconducting single photon detectors integrated with diamond nanophotonic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Rath, Patrik; Ferrari, Simone; Sproll, Fabian; Lewes-Malandrakis, Georgia; Brink, Dietmar; Ilin, Konstantin; Siegel, Michael; Nebel, Christoph; Pernice, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Photonic quantum technologies promise to repeat the success of integrated nanophotonic circuits in non-classical applications. Using linear optical elements, quantum optical computations can be performed with integrated optical circuits and thus allow for overcoming existing limitations in terms of scalability. Besides passive optical devices for realizing photonic quantum gates, active elements such as single photon sources and single photon detectors are essential ingredients for future optical quantum circuits. Material systems which allow for the monolithic integration of all components are particularly attractive, including III-V semiconductors, silicon and also diamond. Here we demonstrate nanophotonic integrated circuits made from high quality polycrystalline diamond thin films in combination with on-chip single photon detectors. Using superconducting nanowires coupled evanescently to travelling waves we achieve high detection efficiencies up to 66 % combined with low dark count rates and timing resolu...

  11. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS A 12-bit current steering DAC with 2-dimensional gradient-error tolerant switching scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chen; Liyuan, Liu; Dongmei, Li; Chun, Zhang; Zhihua, Wang

    2010-10-01

    A 12-bit intrinsic accuracy digital-to-analog converter integrated into standard digital 0.18 μm CMOS technology is proposed. It is based on a current steering segmented 6+6 architecture and requires no calibration. By dividing one most significant bit unary source into 16 elements located in 16 separated regions of the array, the linear gradient errors and quadratic errors can be averaged and eliminated effectively. A novel static performance testing method is proposed. The measured differential nonlinearity and integral nonlinearity are 0.42 and 0.39 least significant bit, respectively. For 12-bit resolution, the converter reaches an update rate of 100 MS/s. The chip operates from a single 1.8 V voltage supply, and the core die area is 0.28 mm2.

  12. Compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Vernon, George E.; Hoke, Darren A.; De Marquis, Virginia K.; Harris, Steven M.

    2007-06-26

    A compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit (CDU) is disclosed in which a thyristor switch and a flyback charging circuit are both sandwiched about a ceramic energy storage capacitor. The result is a compact rugged assembly which provides a low-inductance current discharge path. The flyback charging circuit preferably includes a low-temperature co-fired ceramic transformer. The CDU can further include one or more ceramic substrates for enclosing the thyristor switch and for holding various passive components used in the flyback charging circuit. A load such as a detonator can also be attached directly to the CDU.

  13. Compound semiconductor device modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Compound semiconductor devices form the foundation of solid-state microwave and optoelectronic technologies used in many modern communication systems. In common with their low frequency counterparts, these devices are often represented using equivalent circuit models, but it is often necessary to resort to physical models in order to gain insight into the detailed operation of compound semiconductor devices. Many of the earliest physical models were indeed developed to understand the 'unusual' phenomena which occur at high frequencies. Such was the case with the Gunn and IMPATI diodes, which led to an increased interest in using numerical simulation methods. Contemporary devices often have feature sizes so small that they no longer operate within the familiar traditional framework, and hot electron or even quantum­ mechanical models are required. The need for accurate and efficient models suitable for computer aided design has increased with the demand for a wider range of integrated devices for operation at...

  14. Photonic integration using asymmetric twin-waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenkov, Pavel V.

    A novel approach to fabrication of monolithic photonic integrated circuits based on the asymmetric twin- waveguide (ATG) structure is proposed and demonstrated. In contrast to the conventional integration methods relying on semiconductor regrowth, the ATG approach requires only one epitaxy step, while the integrated devices are defined by post-growth patterning. The ATG structure contains two evanescently coupled waveguide layers separated by a cladding layer. The upper layer provides optical gain for the active devices such as lasers and semiconductor optical amplifiers. The transparent lower layer is used to make waveguides and optical interconnects on the chip. Thus the ATG represents a versatile integration platform for cost- effective fabrication of photonic integrated circuits, similar in some respects to the electronic CMOS platform. Light propagation and coupling in the ATG structure are analyzed using the beam propagation method to optimize the layer design. It is shown that the asymmetric refractive index profile eliminates undesirable optical coupling between the waveguide layers. At the interfaces between the active and passive devices, lateral tapers are used to induce vertical coupling of light with a coupling loss of typically integrated devices can be separately optimized to achieve performance close to that of the conventional discrete components. The design of taper couplers is described in detail, and their performance is experimentally verified. Using the ATG approach, several integrated devices were fabricated in the InGaAsP/InP material system for λ = 1.55 μm wavelength operation. Lasers and semiconductor optical amplifiers with integrated waveguides were characterized to test the integration approach. Single-frequency, distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers achieved output power of 11 mW with a 40 dB side-mode suppression ratio. A DBR laser with integrated electroabsorption modulator had a 24 dB extinction ratio between 0V and -2V bias

  15. Potentiometric Dye Imaging for Pheochromocytoma and Cortical Neurons with a Novel Measurement System Using an Integrated Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Imaging Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takuma; Tagawa, Ayato; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Tokuda, Takashi; Hatanaka, Yumiko; Tamura, Hideki; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Shiosaka, Sadao; Ohta, Jun

    2010-11-01

    The combination of optical imaging with voltage-sensitive dyes is a powerful tool for studying the spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity and understanding the neural networks of the brain. To visualize the potential status of multiple neurons simultaneously using a compact instrument with high density and a wide range, we present a novel measurement system using an implantable biomedical photonic LSI device with a red absorptive light filter for voltage-sensitive dye imaging (BpLSI-red). The BpLSI-red was developed for sensing fluorescence by the on-chip LSI, which was designed by using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. A micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) microfabrication technique was used to postprocess the CMOS sensor chip; light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were integrated for illumination and to enable long-term cell culture. Using the device, we succeeded in visualizing the membrane potential of 2000-3000 cells and the process of depolarization of pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cells) and mouse cerebral cortical neurons in a primary culture with cellular resolution. Therefore, our measurement application enables the detection of multiple neural activities simultaneously.

  16. Detachable strong cation exchange monolith, integrated with capillary zone electrophoresis and coupled with pH gradient elution, produces improved sensitivity and numbers of peptide identifications during bottom-up analysis of complex proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenbin; Yan, Xiaojing; Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Dovichi, Norman J

    2015-04-21

    A detachable sulfonate-silica hybrid strong cation-exchange monolith was synthesized in a fused silica capillary, and used for solid phase extraction with online pH gradient elution during capillary zone electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CZE-MS/MS) proteomic analysis. Tryptic digests were prepared in 50 mM formic acid and loaded onto the strong cation-exchange monolith. Fractions were eluted using a series of buffers with lower concentration but higher pH values than the 50 mM formic acid background electrolyte. This combination of elution and background electrolytes results in both sample stacking and formation of a dynamic pH junction and allows use of relatively large elution buffer volumes while maintaining reasonable peak efficiency and resolution. A series of five pH bumps were applied to elute E. coli tryptic peptides from the monolith, followed by analysis using CZE coupled to an LTQ-Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer; 799 protein groups and 3381 peptides were identified from 50 ng of the digest in a 2.5 h analysis, which approaches the identification rate for this organism that was obtained with an Orbitrap Fusion. We attribute the improved numbers of peptide and protein identifications to the efficient fractionation by the online pH gradient elution, which decreased the complexity of the sample in each elution step and improved the signal intensity of low abundance peptides. We also performed a comparative analysis using a nanoACQUITY UltraPerformance LCH system. Similar numbers of protein and peptide identifications were produced by the two methods. Protein identifications showed significant overlap between the two methods, whereas peptide identifications were complementary.

  17. All-Optical Regenerative OTDM Add-Drop Multiplexing at 40 Gb/s using Monolithic InP Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, St.; Dülk, M.; Gamper, E.;

    2000-01-01

    We present a novel method for all-optical add-drop multiplexing having regenerative capability for 40-Gb/s optical time-division multiplexed (OTDM) data using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) based, monolithic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). Simultaneous dropping of one 10-Gb/s channel ...

  18. Synthesis Methods, Microscopy Characterization and Device Integration of Nanoscale Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Gas Sensing in Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.; Kulis, Michael J.; Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Evans, Laura J.

    2009-01-01

    A comparison is made between SnO2, ZnO, and TiO2 single-crystal nanowires and SnO2 polycrystalline nanofibers for gas sensing. Both nanostructures possess a one-dimensional morphology. Different synthesis methods are used to produce these materials: thermal evaporation-condensation (TEC), controlled oxidation, and electrospinning. Advantages and limitations of each technique are listed. Practical issues associated with harvesting, purification, and integration of these materials into sensing devices are detailed. For comparison to the nascent form, these sensing materials are surface coated with Pd and Pt nanoparticles. Gas sensing tests, with respect to H2, are conducted at ambient and elevated temperatures. Comparative normalized responses and time constants for the catalyst and noncatalyst systems provide a basis for identification of the superior metal-oxide nanostructure and catalyst combination. With temperature-dependent data, Arrhenius analyses are made to determine an activation energy for the catalyst-assisted systems.

  19. Semiconductor laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, K.; Shyuue, M.

    1982-09-25

    A distributed feedback semiconductor laser is proposed which generates several beams with equal wavelengths in different directions. For this purpose, 1 millimeter grooves are cut into the surface of an n-type conductance GaAs plate in three different directions; these grooves form a diffraction grating. The center of this plate has no grooves and is bombarded by an He/Ne laser beam. The diffraction gratings provide resonance properties and generate laser beams with wavelengths of 8850, 9000 and 9200 angstroms.

  20. Single-Fiber Bidirectional Optical Data Links with Monolithic Transceiver Chips

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Kern; Sujoy Paul; Dietmar Wahl; Ahmed Al-Samaneh; Rainer Michalzik

    2012-01-01

    We report the monolithic integration, fabrication, and electrooptical properties of AlGaAs-GaAs-based transceiver (TRx) chips for 850 nm wavelength optical links with data rates of multiple Gbit/s. Using a single butt-coupled multimode fiber (MMF), low-cost bidirectional communication in half- and even full-duplex mode is demonstrated. Two design concepts are presented, based on a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and a monolithically integrated p-doped-intrinsic-n-doped (PIN) or...

  1. Physical modeling of semiconductor heterodimensional devices for photodetector applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Gregory B.; Nabet, Bahram

    2004-06-01

    Efforts to exploit reduced dimensionality systems in semiconductor devices are presently driven by the continuing need to improve speed performance, transport efficiency, device density, and power management. In this work, we investigate the performance of novel GaAs/AlGaAs and InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructures for high-speed photodetector devices. First, a modulation-doped AlGaAs/GaAs device, suitable for monolithic integration with planar HEMT and FET devices, produces a built-in electric field that aids in the high-speed collection of photogenerated carriers. Surface Schottky electrodes on this structure form a planar interdigitated metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) device for use at 850-nm wavelength. A second structure, an InGaAs/InAlAs quantum-well MSM photodetector for use at 1550-nm wavelength, utilizes recessed electrodes to contact directly the two-dimensional (2D) transport channel. Unfortunately, rather low Schottky barrier heights on undoped InGaAs lead to excessive dark currents when metal contacts are deposited directly on this material. To remedy this situation, we propose to form barrier-enhancement regions between the optically active 2D-quantum well and the lateral 3D-metal contacts by means of ion-implantation-induced quantum-well intermixing. Results indicate a reduction in dark current of nearly three orders of magnitude. Additionally, the high-speed performance appears not to be adversely affected under normal operating conditions by the potentially deleterious effects of carrier emission and accumulation at these heterojunction interfaces. The Fourier transform of a simulated transient current response to a light impulse indicates an electrical 3-dB bandwidth in excess of 50 GHz in a device with a recessed electrode gap of 1 μm.

  2. Dynamic single-mode semiconductor lasers with a distributed reflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suematsu, Y.; Arai, S.; Kishino, K.

    1983-03-01

    Recent progress in dynamic single-mode (DSM) semiconductor lasers in the wavelength of 1.5-1.6 microns are reviewed, and the basic principle of DSM operation is given. Study of the DSM laser is originated for application to wide-band optical-fiber communication in the lowest loss wavelength region of 1.5 to 1.65 microns. A DSM laser consists of a mode-selective resonator and a transverse-mode-controller waveguide, as in the narrow-striped distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) laser, so as to maintain a fixed axial mode under rapid direct modulation. The technology of monolithic integration for optical circuits is applied to realize some DSM lasers. Structures, static and dynamic characteristics of lasing wavelength, output power, and reliability of state-of-the-art DSM lasers are reviewed. Dynamic spectral width of 0.3 nm, output power of a few milliwatts, and reliability over a few thousand hours are reported for experimental DSM lasers. 120 references.

  3. Dynamic single-mode semiconductor lasers with a distributed reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Y.; Arai, S.; Kishino, K.

    1983-03-01

    Recent progress in dynamic single-mode (DSM) semiconductor lasers in the wavelength of 1.5-1.6 microns are reviewed, and the basic principle of DSM operation is given. Study of the DSM laser is originated for application to wide-band optical-fiber communication in the lowest loss wavelength region of 1.5 to 1.65 microns. A DSM laser consists of a mode-selective resonator and a transverse-mode-controller waveguide, as in the narrow-striped distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) laser, so as to maintain a fixed axial mode under rapid direct modulation. The technology of monolithic integration for optical circuits is applied to realize some DSM lasers. Structures, static and dynamic characteristics of lasing wavelength, output power, and reliability of state-of-the-art DSM lasers are reviewed. Dynamic spectral width of 0.3 nm, output power of a few milliwatts, and reliability over a few thousand hours are reported for experimental DSM lasers.

  4. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Anson V; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay V

    2014-04-22

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  5. UPDATE ON MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF MONOLITHIC FUEL PLATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Burkes; F. J. Rice; J.-F. Jue; N. P. Hallinan

    2008-03-01

    Results on the relative bond strength of the fuel-clad interface in monolithic fuel plates have been presented at previous RRFM conferences. An understanding of mechanical properties of the fuel, cladding, and fuel / cladding interface has been identified as an important area of investigation and quantification for qualification of monolithic fuel forms. Significant progress has been made in the area of mechanical analysis of the monolithic fuel plates, including mechanical property determination of fuel foils, cladding processed by both hot isostatic pressing and friction bonding, and the fuel-clad composite. In addition, mechanical analysis of fabrication induced residual stress has been initiated, along with a study to address how such stress can be relieved prior to irradiation. Results of destructive examinations and mechanical tests are presented along with analysis and supporting conclusions. A brief discussion of alternative non-destructive evaluation techniques to quantify not only bond quality, but also bond integrity and strength, will also be provided. These are all necessary steps to link out-of-pile observations as a function of fabrication with in-pile behaviours.

  6. A Ferrite LTCC-Based Monolithic SIW Phased Antenna Array

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Ahmed

    2016-11-17

    In this work, we present a novel configuration for realizing monolithic SIW-based phased antenna arrays using Ferrite LTCC technology. Unlike the current common schemes for realizing SIW phased arrays that rely on surface-mount component (p-i-n diodes, etc) for controlling the phase of the individual antenna elements, here the phase is tuned by biasing of the ferrite filling of the SIW. This approach eliminates the need for mounting of any additional RF components and enables seamless monolithic integration of phase shifters and antennas in SIW technology. As a proof of concept, a two-element slotted SIW-based phased array is designed, fabricated and measured. The prototype exhibits a gain of 4.9 dBi at 13.2 GHz and a maximum E-plane beam-scanning of 28 degrees using external windings for biasing the phase shifters. Moreover, the array can achieve a maximum beam-scanning of 19 degrees when biased with small windings that are embedded in the package. This demonstration marks the first time a fully monolithic SIW-based phased array is realized in Ferrite LTCC technology and paves the way for future larger-size implementations.

  7. Power semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Kubát, M

    1984-01-01

    The book contains a summary of our knowledge of power semiconductor structures. It presents first a short historic introduction (Chap. I) as well as a brief selection of facts from solid state physics, in particular those related to power semiconductors (Chap. 2). The book deals with diode structures in Chap. 3. In addition to fundamental facts in pn-junction theory, the book covers mainly the important processes of power structures. It describes the emitter efficiency and function of microleaks (shunts). the p +p and n + n junctions, and in particular the recent theory of the pin, pvn and p1tn junctions, whose role appears to be decisive for the forward mode not only of diode structures but also of more complex ones. For power diode structures the reverse mode is the decisive factor in pn-junction breakdown theory. The presentation given here uses engineering features (the multiplication factor M and the experimentally detected laws for the volume and surface of crystals), which condenses the presentation an...

  8. Magnetic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bihler, Christoph

    2009-04-15

    In this thesis we investigated in detail the properties of Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As, Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}P, and Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}N dilute magnetic semiconductor thin films with a focus on the magnetic anisotropy and the changes of their properties upon hydrogenation. We applied two complementary spectroscopic techniques to address the position of H in magnetic semiconductors: (i) Electron paramagnetic resonance, which provides direct information on the symmetry of the crystal field of the Mn{sup 2+} atoms and (ii) x-ray absorption fine structure analysis which allows to probe the local crystallographic neighborhood of the absorbing Mn atom via analysing the fine structure at the Mn K absorption edge. Finally, we discussed the obstacles that have to be overcome to achieve Curie temperatures above the current maximum in Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As of 185 K. Here, we outlined in detail the generic problem of the formation of precipitates at the example of Ge:MN. (orig.)

  9. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: Design and realization of an ultra-low-power low-phase-noise CMOS LC-VCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiushan, Wu; Zhigong, Wang; Zhiqun, Li; Jun, Xia; Qing, Li

    2010-08-01

    A fully integrated cross-coupled LC tank voltage-controlled oscillator (LC-VCO) using transformer feedback is proposed to achieve a low phase noise and ultra-low-power design even at a supply below the threshold voltage. The ultra-low-power VCO is implemented in the mixed-signal and RF 1P6M 0.18-μm CMOS technology of SMIC. The measured phase noise is -125.3 dBc/Hz at an offset frequency of 1 MHz from a carrier of 2.433 GHz, while the VCO core circuit draws only 640 μW from a 0.4-V supply. The designed VCO can cover a frequency range from 2.28 to 2.48 GHz. The tuning range of the circuit is 200 MHz (8.7%) and the FOM is -195.7 dB, which is suitable for an IEEE 802.11b receiver.

  10. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A fully integrated UHF RFID reader SoC for handheld applications in the 0.18 μm CMOS process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingchao, Wang; Chun, Zhang; Zhihua, Wang

    2010-08-01

    A low cost fully integrated single-chip UHF radio frequency identification (RFID) reader SoC for short distance handheld applications is presented. The SoC integrates all building blocks—including an RF transceiver, a PLL frequency synthesizer, a digital baseband and an MCU—in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. A high-linearity RX front-end is designed to handle the large self-interferer. A class-E power amplifier with high power efficiency is also integrated to fulfill the function of a UHF passive RFID reader. The measured maximum output power of the transmitter is 20.28 dBm and the measured receiver sensitivity is -60 dBm. The digital baseband including MCU core consumes 3.91 mW with a clock of 10 MHz and the analog part including power amplifier consumes 368.4 mW. The chip has a die area of 5.1 × 3.8 mm2 including pads.

  11. Silicon/silicon germanium heterostructures: Materials, physics, quantum functional devices and their integration with heterostructure bipolar transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung-Yong

    With the advent of the first transistor in 1947, the integrated circuit (IC) industry has rapidly expanded with the tremendous advances in the development of IC technology. The driving force in the evolution of IC technology is the reduction of transistor sizes. Without a doubt, transistor miniaturization will face fundamental physical limitations imposed by further dimensional scaling of silicon transistors in the near future. According to the 2004 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), the width of a gate electrode for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) is projected to be a mere 7 nm by the end of 2018. No further solutions have been found. Since the 2001 ITRS, tunneling devices have been evaluated as an emerging technology to augment silicon CMOS. Transistor circuitry incorporating tunneling devices realized using III-V semiconductors has exhibited superior performance over its transistor-only counterparts. However, due to fundamental differences in material properties, such technology is not readily compatible with the mainstream platforms (>95% market share of semiconductors) of CMOS and HBT technologies. Recently, we demonstrated the successful monolithic integration of Si-based resonant interband tunnel diodes (RITDs) with CMOS and SiGe HBT, which makes them more attractive than III-V based tunnel diodes for system level integration. This dissertation is concerned with the development of quantum functional tunneling devices, RITDs, and high-speed transistors, HBTs, using Si/SiGe heterostructures as well as material growth and electrical properties of Si/SiGe heterostructures. Emphasis is placed on the development of Si/SiGe-based RITDs, HBTs, and their monolithic integration for 3-terminal negative differential resistance (NDR) devices. The operating principles of Si-based RITDs and the integration of RITD with HBT are also discussed.

  12. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  13. Design and evaluation of modelocked semiconductor lasers for low noise and high stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten; Larsson, David; Christiansen, Lotte Jin;

    2005-01-01

    We present work on design of monolithic mode-locked semiconductor lasers with focus on the gain medium. The use of highly inverted quantum wells in a low-loss waveguide enables both low quantum noise, low-chirped pulses and a large stability region. Broadband noise measurements are performed...

  14. Novel swirl-flow reactor for kinetic studies of semiconductor photocatalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray, A.K; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1997-01-01

    A new two-phase swirl-flow monolithic-type reactor was designed to study the kinetics of heterogeneous photocatalytic processes on immobilized semiconductor catalysts. True kinetic rate constants for destruction of a textile dye were measured as a function of wavelength of light intensity and angle

  15. Feasibility evaluation of the monolithic braided ablative nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Director, Mark N.; McPherson, Douglass J., Sr.

    1992-02-01

    The feasibility of the monolithic braided ablative nozzle was evaluated as part of an independent research and development (IR&D) program complementary to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) Low-Cost, High-Reliability Case, Insulation and Nozzle for Large Solid Rocket Motors (LOCCIN) Program. The monolithic braided ablative nozzle is a new concept that utilizes a continuous, ablative, monolithic flame surface that extends from the nozzle entrance, through the throat, to the exit plane. The flame surface is fabricated using a Through-the-Thickness braided carbon-fiber preform, which is impregnated with a phenolic or phenolic-like resin. During operation, the braided-carbon fiber/resin material ablates, leaving the structural backside at temperatures which are sufficiently low to preclude the need for any additional insulative materials. The monolithic braided nozzle derives its potential for low life cycle cost through the use of automated processing, one-component fabrication, low material scrap, low process scrap, inexpensive raw materials, and simplified case attachment. It also has the potential for high reliability because its construction prevents delamination, has no nozzle bondlines or leak paths along the flame surface, is amenable to simplified analysis, and is readily inspectable. In addition, the braided construction has inherent toughness and is damage-tolerant. Two static-firing tests were conducted using subscale, 1.8 - 2.0-inch throat diameter, hardware. Tests were approximately 15 seconds in duration, using a conventional 18 percent aluminum/ammonium perchlorate propellant. The first of these tests evaluated the braided ablative as an integral backside insulator and exit cone; the second test evaluated the monolithic braided ablative as an integral entrance/throat/exit cone nozzle. Both tests met their objectives. Radial ablation rates at the throat were as predicted, approximately 0.017 in

  16. Monolithic Continuous-Flow Bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Kornfield, Julia A.; Voecks, Gerald A.

    1993-01-01

    Monolithic ceramic matrices containing many small flow passages useful as continuous-flow bioreactors. Ceramic matrix containing passages made by extruding and firing suitable ceramic. Pores in matrix provide attachment medium for film of cells and allow free movement of solution. Material one not toxic to micro-organisms grown in reactor. In reactor, liquid nutrients flow over, and liquid reaction products flow from, cell culture immobilized in one set of channels while oxygen flows to, and gaseous reaction products flow from, culture in adjacent set of passages. Cells live on inner surfaces containing flowing nutrient and in pores of walls of passages. Ready access to nutrients and oxygen in channels. They generate continuous high yield characteristic of immobilized cells, without large expenditure of energy otherwise incurred if necessary to pump nutrient solution through dense biomass as in bioreactors of other types.

  17. Graphene-semiconductor heterojunctions and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Tzu-Min

    In this thesis we explore the potential of versatile graphene-semiconductor heterojunctions in photodetection and field-effect transistor (FET) applications. The first part of the thesis studies near-infrared photodiode (NIR PD) based on a graphene-n-Si heterojunction in which graphene is used as the absorbing medium. Graphene is chosen for its absorption in NIR wavelengths to which Si is not responsive. Most graphene detectors in the literature are photoconductors that have a high dark current. The graphene-Si heterojunction PD has a large Schottky barrier height that suppresses the dark current and enhances the current rectification and the photon detectivity. The fabricated graphene-Si heterojunction PD under conventional telecommunication 1.3 (1.5)-um illumination exhibits a responsivity of 3 (0.2) mA/W, an internal quantum efficiency of 14 (0.6) %, a noise-equivalent power of 1.5 (30) pW/Hz 0.5, and a specific detectivity of 3 (0.1)x109 cmHz0.5/W. An unexpected tunnel oxide is observed at the graphene-Si interface, further reducing the dark current. The performance in terms of sensitivity and noise is comparable to the commercially available discrete germanium NIR PDs due to its low dark current density on the order of 10 fA/microm 2. The Si CMOS-compatible PD based on graphene-Si heterojunction provides a promising route to realize a critical component for monolithically integrated Si photonic interconnects. The second part of the thesis focuses on a novel graphene junction FET (GJFET) gated by a graphene-semiconductor heterojunction. The majority of graphene transistors in the literature---including MOSFETs, barristors, and tunneling FETs---have a heavily-doped Si back gate separated from the graphene channel by a conventional or high-K dielectric layer. The threshold voltage of individual transistors cannot be tuned easily in such designs, and have an additional problem with shorted back gates. In GJFETs, a Schottky junction is formed as graphene is placed

  18. InP chip scale integration platform for high performance tunable lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simes, Robert J.; Fish, Gregory A.; Abraham, Patrick; Akulova, Yuliya A.; Coldren, Christopher W.; Focht, Marlin; Hall, Eric M.; Larson, Mike C.; Marchand, Hugues; Kozodoy, Peter; Dahl, Anders; Koh, Ping C.; Strand, T.

    2003-12-01

    Tunable semiconductor lasers have been listed in numerous critical technology lists for future optical communication systems. Lasers with full band tuning ranges (C or L) allow reduction of the inventory cost and simplify deployment and operation of existing systems in addition to enabling wavelength agile networking concepts in future systems. Furthermore, monolithic integration of full band tunable lasers with modulators to form complete transmitters offers the most potential for reducing system size, weight, power consumption, and cost. This paper summarizes design, fabrication technology, and performance characteristics of widely tunable CW sources and transmitters based on chip scale integration of a Sampled Grating Distributed Bragg Reflector (SG DBR) laser with a Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) and Electroabsorption (EA) or Mach Zehnder (MZ) modulator. Widely tunable CW sources based on SG-DBR lasers exhibit high fiber coupled output power (20 mW CW) and side mode suppression ratio (>40 dB), low relative intensity noise (below -140 dB/Hz) and line width ( 10 dB, and error-free transmission over 350 km of standard fiber at 2.5 Gb/s across a 40 nm tuning range. Monolithic integration of widely tunable lasers with MZ modulators allow for further extension of bit rate (10 Gb/s and beyond) and transmission distances through precise control of the transient chirp of the transmitter. Systematic investigations of accelerated aging confirm that reliability of these widely-tunable transmitters is sufficient for system deployment.

  19. Anisotropically structured magnetic aerogel monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiligtag, Florian J.; Airaghi Leccardi, Marta J. I.; Erdem, Derya; Süess, Martin J.; Niederberger, Markus

    2014-10-01

    Texturing of magnetic ceramics and composites by aligning and fixing of colloidal particles in a magnetic field is a powerful strategy to induce anisotropic chemical, physical and especially mechanical properties into bulk materials. If porosity could be introduced, anisotropically structured magnetic materials would be the perfect supports for magnetic separations in biotechnology or for magnetic field-assisted chemical reactions. Aerogels, combining high porosity with nanoscale structural features, offer an exceptionally large surface area, but they are difficult to magnetically texture. Here we present the preparation of anatase-magnetite aerogel monoliths via the assembly of preformed nanocrystallites. Different approaches are proposed to produce macroscopic bodies with gradient-like magnetic segmentation or with strongly anisotropic magnetic texture.Texturing of magnetic ceramics and composites by aligning and fixing of colloidal particles in a magnetic field is a powerful strategy to induce anisotropic chemical, physical and especially mechanical properties into bulk materials. If porosity could be introduced, anisotropically structured magnetic materials would be the perfect supports for magnetic separations in biotechnology or for magnetic field-assisted chemical reactions. Aerogels, combining high porosity with nanoscale structural features, offer an exceptionally large surface area, but they are difficult to magnetically texture. Here we present the preparation of anatase-magnetite aerogel monoliths via the assembly of preformed nanocrystallites. Different approaches are proposed to produce macroscopic bodies with gradient-like magnetic segmentation or with strongly anisotropic magnetic texture. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Digital photographs of dispersions and gels with different water-to-ethanol ratios; magnetic measurements of an anatase aerogel containing 0.25 mol% Fe3O4 nanoparticles; XRD patterns of the iron oxide and

  20. Dedicated monolithic infrared spectrometer for process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Suneet; Kyle, William; Bolduc, Roy A.; Curtiss, Lawrence E.

    1999-12-01

    Foster-Miller has leveraged its innovations in IR fiber- optic probes and the recent development of a miniature spectrometer to build a novel IR sensor system for process applications. The developed sensor systems is a low-cost alternative to process FTIR and filter based systems. A monolithic wedge-grating optic provides the spectral dispersion with low cost thermopile point or array detectors picking off the diffracted wavelengths from the optic. The integrated optic provides spectral discrimination between 3- 12 micrometers with resolution at 8 cm-1 or better and high overall optical throughput. The device has a fixed cylindrical grating uniquely bonded to the edge of a ZnSe conditioning 'wedge'. The conditioning optic overcomes limitations of concave gratings as it accepts high angle light at the narrow end of the wedge and progressively conditions it to be near normal to the grating. On return, the diffracted wavelengths are concentrated on the discrete or array detector elements by the wedge, providing throughput comparable to that of an FTIR. The miniature spectrometer coupled to flow through liquid cells or multipass gas cells provides significant cost advantage over conventional sampling methodologies. Currently, we are investigating process applications for the petroleum and dairy markets. The sensor system eliminates the cost, complexity, reliability and bandwidth/resolution problems associated with either Fabry Perot or Michelson Interferometer based approaches for low-cost process applications.

  1. Industrial integration of high coherence tunable single frequency semiconductor lasers based on VECSEL technology for scientific instrumentation in NIR and MIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecocq, Vincent; Chomet, Baptiste; Ferrières, Laurence; Myara, Mikhaël.; Beaudoin, Grégoire; Sagnes, Isabelle; Cerutti, Laurent; Denet, Stéphane; Garnache, Arnaud

    2017-02-01

    Laser technology is finding applications in areas such as high resolution spectroscopy, radar-lidar, velocimetry, or atomic clock where highly coherent tunable high power light sources are required. The Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VECSEL) technology [1] has been identified for years as a good candidate to reach high power, high coherence and broad tunability while covering a wide emission wavelength range exploiting III-V semiconductor technologies. Offering such performances in the Near- and Middle-IR range, GaAs- and Sb-based VECSEL technologies seem to be a well suited path to meet the required specifications of demanding applications. Built up in this field, our expertise allows the realization of compact and low power consumption marketable products, with performances that do not exist on the market today in the 0.8-1.1 μm and 2-2.5 μm spectral range. Here we demonstrate highly coherent broadly tunable single frequency laser micro-chip, intracavity element free, based on a patented VECSEL technology, integrated into a compact module with driving electronics. VECSEL devices emitting in the Near and Middle-IR developed in the frame of this work [2] exhibit exciting features compared to diode-pumped solid-state lasers and DFB diode lasers; they combine high power (>100mW) high temporal coherence together with a low divergence diffraction limited TEM00 beam. They exhibit a class-A dynamics with a Relative Intensity Noise as low as -140dB/Hz and at shot noise level reached above 200MHz RF frequency (up to 160GHz), a free running narrow linewidth at sub MHz level (fundamental limit at Hz level) with high spectral purity (SMSR >55dB), a linear polarization (>50dB suppression ratio), and broadband continuous tunability greater than 400GHz (frequency) with total tunability up to 3THz. Those performances can all be reached thanks to the high finesse cavity of VECSEL technology, associated to ideal homogeneous QW gain behaviour [3]. In addition

  2. Remote Sensing with Commutable Monolithic Laser and Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous trend toward miniaturized sensing systems demands novel concepts for compact and versatile spectroscopic tools. Conventional optical sensing setups include a light source, an analyte interaction region, and a separate external detector. We present a compact sensor providing room-temperature operation of monolithic surface-active lasers and detectors integrated on the same chip. The differentiation between emitter and detector is eliminated, which enables mutual commutation. Proof-of-principle gas measurements with a limit of detection below 400 ppm are demonstrated. This concept enables a crucial miniaturization of sensing devices. PMID:27785455

  3. Activated Carbon Fiber Monoliths as Supercapacitor Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelines Moreno-Fernandez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers (ACF are interesting candidates for electrodes in electrochemical energy storage devices; however, one major drawback for practical application is their low density. In the present work, monoliths were synthesized from two different ACFs, reaching 3 times higher densities than the original ACFs’ apparent densities. The porosity of the monoliths was only slightly decreased with respect to the pristine ACFs, the employed PVDC binder developing additional porosity upon carbonization. The ACF monoliths are essentially microporous and reach BET surface areas of up to 1838 m2 g−1. SEM analysis reveals that the ACFs are well embedded into the monolith structure and that their length was significantly reduced due to the monolith preparation process. The carbonized monoliths were studied as supercapacitor electrodes in two- and three-electrode cells having 2 M H2SO4 as electrolyte. Maximum capacitances of around 200 F g−1 were reached. The results confirm that the capacitance of the bisulfate anions essentially originates from the double layer, while hydronium cations contribute with a mixture of both, double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance.

  4. Organic semiconductors in sensor applications

    CERN Document Server

    Malliaras, George; Owens, Róisín

    2008-01-01

    Organic semiconductors offer unique characteristics such as tunability of electronic properties via chemical synthesis, compatibility with mechanically flexible substrates, low-cost manufacturing, and facile integration with chemical and biological functionalities. These characteristics have prompted the application of organic semiconductors and their devices in physical, chemical, and biological sensors. This book covers this rapidly emerging field by discussing both optical and electrical sensor concepts. Novel transducers based on organic light-emitting diodes and organic thin-film transistors, as well as systems-on-a-chip architectures are presented. Functionalization techniques to enhance specificity are outlined, and models for the sensor response are described.

  5. Monolithic Multi-Colour 40 GHz Mode-Locked Laser Array

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Lianping; Eddie, Iain; Marsh, John

    2016-01-01

    The monolithic integration of four 40 GHz multi-colored mode-locked lasers with a 4×1 MMI, four electroabsorption modulators and an SOA has been demonstrated. The shortest pulse widths are between 2.63 and 2.85 ps.

  6. Long all-active monolithic mode-locked lasers with surface-etched bragg gratings

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, David; Yvind, Kresten; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2007-01-01

    We have fabricated 4.4-mm-long monolithic InAlGaAsP–InP mode-locked lasers with integrated deeply surface etched distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirrors. The lasers produce 3.7-ps transform-limited Gaussian pulses with 10-mW average output power and 250-fs absolute timing jitter. The performance of the DBR lasers is compared to the performance of Fabry–PÉrot mode-locked lasers from the same wafer and to the performance of earlier reported long monolithic DBR mode-locked lasers and is found ...

  7. Long all-active monolithic mode-locked lasers with surface-etched bragg gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, David; Yvind, Kresten; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2007-01-01

    We have fabricated 4.4-mm-long monolithic InAlGaAsP–InP mode-locked lasers with integrated deeply surface etched distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirrors. The lasers produce 3.7-ps transform-limited Gaussian pulses with 10-mW average output power and 250-fs absolute timing jitter. The performance...... of the DBR lasers is compared to the performance of Fabry–PÉrot mode-locked lasers from the same wafer and to the performance of earlier reported long monolithic DBR mode-locked lasers and is found to be better....

  8. Semiconductor nanowire lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Samuel W.; Fu, Anthony; Wong, Andrew B.; Ning, Cun-Zheng; Yang, Peidong

    2016-06-01

    The discovery and continued development of the laser has revolutionized both science and industry. The advent of miniaturized, semiconductor lasers has made this technology an integral part of everyday life. Exciting research continues with a new focus on nanowire lasers because of their great potential in the field of optoelectronics. In this Review, we explore the latest advancements in the development of nanowire lasers and offer our perspective on future improvements and trends. We discuss fundamental material considerations and the latest, most effective materials for nanowire lasers. A discussion of novel cavity designs and amplification methods is followed by some of the latest work on surface plasmon polariton nanowire lasers. Finally, exciting new reports of electrically pumped nanowire lasers with the potential for integrated optoelectronic applications are described.

  9. Design of a monolithic tunable laser based on equivalent-chirp grating reflectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yitang; Xu, Kun; Wu, Jian; Li, Yan; Hong, Xiaobin; Guo, Hongxiang; Lin, Jintong

    2010-12-01

    A Vernier-tuned distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) semiconductor laser is an effective monolithic approach for wide wavelength tunability, at the expense, however, of costly electron-beam lithography during fabrication. In this Letter, a tunable laser design with equivalent-chirp based, flat-top envelope grating reflectors is proposed that can be implemented easily by conventional two-beam interference lithography. The principle is described, and a detailed design shows uniform output power (0.08 dB variation) and excellent side-mode suppression ratio (47 dB minimum) within a wide tuning range (>32 nm) through numerical simulation.

  10. Analysis and simulation of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Selberherr, Siegfried

    1984-01-01

    The invention of semiconductor devices is a fairly recent one, considering classical time scales in human life. The bipolar transistor was announced in 1947, and the MOS transistor, in a practically usable manner, was demonstrated in 1960. From these beginnings the semiconductor device field has grown rapidly. The first integrated circuits, which contained just a few devices, became commercially available in the early 1960s. Immediately thereafter an evolution has taken place so that today, less than 25 years later, the manufacture of integrated circuits with over 400.000 devices per single chip is possible. Coincident with the growth in semiconductor device development, the literature concerning semiconductor device and technology issues has literally exploded. In the last decade about 50.000 papers have been published on these subjects. The advent of so called Very-Large-Scale-Integration (VLSI) has certainly revealed the need for a better understanding of basic device behavior. The miniaturization of the s...

  11. Single facet slotted Fabry-Perot laser and its application in photonic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Morrissey, Padraic; Lu, Qiao Y.; Cotter, William; Daunt, Chris L. L. M.; O'Callaghan, James; Guo, Wei H.; Han, Wei; Donegan, John F.; Corbett, Brian; Peters, Frank H.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, a single facet slotted Fabry-Perot (FP) laser is demonstrated to provide tunable, single mode operation and has been monolithically integrated into a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) with semiconductor optical amplifiers and a multimode interference coupler. These lasers are designed by incorporating slots into the ridge of traditional FP cavity lasers to achieve single mode output, integrability and tunability. With the feature size of the slots around 1μm, standard photolithographic techniques can be used in the fabrication of the devices. This provides a time and cost advantage in comparison to ebeam or holographic lithography as used for defining gratings in distributed feedback (DFB) or distrusted Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers, which are typically used in PICs. The competitive integrable single mode laser also enables the PIC to be fabricated using only one epitaxial growth and one etch process as is done with standard FP lasers. This process simplicity can reduce the cost and increase the yield.

  12. Macroporous glass monoliths prepared from powdered niobium phosphate glass by fast sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda Mauricio, Vitor; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz; Odone Mazali, Italo, E-mail: mazali@iqm.unicamp.br

    2011-03-15

    Macroporous monoliths were prepared by very fast sintering (between 3 and 15 min) of niobophosphate glass powders at low temperature (1018 K) using cellulose as a foaming agent. The porous materials were analyzed by thermal analysis, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction, and further investigated using X-ray microtomography, a non-destructive technique capable of reconstructing three-dimensional models of samples and providing structural measurements. The progression of the porosity of the monoliths depends on the sintering time (3 to 15 min) and the amount (up to 50% in mass) of cellulose used. The macroporous glass monoliths may find application in integrated chemical systems and in filtering processes.

  13. 单片集成放大反馈激光器的脉冲包络动力学实验研究∗%Exp erimental investigations on the dynamical characteristics of pulse packages in a monolithically integrated amplified feedback laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈熙; 赵玲娟; 陈建军; 王会苹; 吴正茂; 陆丹; 夏光琼

    2016-01-01

    Under suitable external perturbation such as optical feedback, optical injection or optoelectronic feedback, semi-conductor lasers can be driven to realize diverse dynamic outputs including period-one, period-two, multi-period, pulse packages (PPs), chaos, etc., which have potential applications in optical secure communications, microwave photonics, lidar, high speed random signal generation, etc.. For the PPs dynamics, most of previous relevant investigations are usually based on a system composed of discrete elements. In this work, we experimentally investigate the PP dynamical characteristics in a three-section monolithically integrated amplified feedback laser (AFL) composed of a distributed feedback (DFB) laser section, a phase (P) section, and an amplified feedback (A) section. For the AFL, the sections P and A act as a compounded feedback cavity in which the feedback phase and strength can be varied by adjusting the current in section P (IP) and the current in section A (IA), respectively. Via the power spectrum and self-correlation function curve of the time series output from the AFL, the influences of IP and IA on repeated frequency (νPP) and regularity of PPs are analyzed in detail. The results indicate that, for the section DFB, whose current (IDFB) is biased at a relatively large level, the AFL can realize two-mode oscillation. After further choosing appropriate IP and IA, the AFL can behave as the dynamical state of PPs. Under IDFB = 86.15 mA and IP = 96.00 mA, through varying IA in a range of 6.50–10.50 mA, there exist two separated regions for IA to make the AFL operate at PPs. For the region with relatively small value of IA, both νPP and the secondary maximum (σ) of self-correlation curve characterizing the regularity of PPs monotonically decrease with the increase of IA. However, for the region with relatively large value of IA, with the increase of IA, νPP first decreases and then fluctuates in a tiny range, but σ first increases, and

  14. Integration of functional complex oxide nanomaterials on silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel eVila-Fungueiriño

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The combination of standard wafer-scale semiconductor processing with the properties of functional oxides opens up to innovative and more efficient devices with high value applications that can be produced at large scale. This review uncovers the main strategies that are successfully used to monolithically integrate functional complex oxide thin films and nanostructures on silicon: the chemical solution deposition approach (CSD and the advanced physical vapor deposition techniques such as oxide molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Special emphasis will be placed on complex oxide nanostructures epitaxially grown on silicon using the combination of CSD and MBE. Several examples will be exposed, with a particular stress on the control of interfaces and crystallization mechanisms on epitaxial perovskite oxide thin films, nanostructured quartz thin films, and octahedral molecular sieve nanowires. This review enlightens on the potential of complex oxide nanostructures and the combination of both chemical and physical elaboration techniques for novel oxide-based integrated devices.

  15. Integrated device architectures for electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, Jonathan Mack; Berland, Brian Spencer

    2015-04-21

    This disclosure describes systems and methods for creating monolithically integrated electrochromic devices which may be a flexible electrochromic device. Monolithic integration of thin film electrochromic devices may involve the electrical interconnection of multiple individual electrochromic devices through the creation of specific structures such as conductive pathway or insulating isolation trenches.

  16. Fundamentals of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lindmayer, Joseph

    1965-01-01

    Semiconductor properties ; semiconductor junctions or diodes ; transistor fundamentals ; inhomogeneous impurity distributions, drift or graded-base transistors ; high-frequency properties of transistors ; band structure of semiconductors ; high current densities and mechanisms of carrier transport ; transistor transient response and recombination processes ; surfaces, field-effect transistors, and composite junctions ; additional semiconductor characteristics ; additional semiconductor devices and microcircuits ; more metal, insulator, and semiconductor combinations for devices ; four-pole parameters and configuration rotation ; four-poles of combined networks and devices ; equivalent circuits ; the error function and its properties ; Fermi-Dirac statistics ; useful physical constants.

  17. Integrated optoelectronic devices by selective-area epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. M.; Coleman, James J.

    1997-01-01

    The development of a simulation model for selective-area epitaxy and the fabrication of semiconductor lasers monolithically integrated with electroabsorption modulators by this technique are presented. Diffusion equations and boundary conditions from selective-area MOCVD theory are applied in a computational model to predict column III reactant concentrations, and self-consistent solutions for reaction parameters are found using the finite element method. Data are presented to demonstrate accurate predictions of the thickness and composition of selectively grown ternary InGaAs quantum wells. This model was utilized to design the selective growth mask for Fabry-Perot lasers integrated with intracavity electroabsorption modulators. These devices, with modulator lengths of 290, 620, and 1020 micrometer, exhibit cw threshold currents of 9, 7.5, and 7.5 mA, respectively. Also, extinction ratios of 16.5, 19.5, and 20.5 dB, respectively, are measured at a modulator reverse bias of 2 V. Distributed Bragg reflector lasers with monolithically integrated external cavity modulators are also fabricated, and the selective-area MOCVD simulation was employed to design the growth mask dimensions and the location of the gratings. Cw threshold currents of 10.5 mA, slope efficiencies of 0.21 W/A, and extinction ratios of 18 dB at a modulator reverse bias of 1.0 V are achieved for these devices.

  18. Reproducible bipolar resistive switching in entire nitride AlN/n-GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor device and its mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yiren; Song, Hang, E-mail: songh@ciomp.ac.cn, E-mail: lidb@ciomp.ac.cn; Jiang, Hong; Li, Zhiming; Zhang, Zhiwei; Sun, Xiaojuan; Li, Dabing, E-mail: songh@ciomp.ac.cn, E-mail: lidb@ciomp.ac.cn; Miao, Guoqing [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2014-11-10

    Reproducible bipolar resistive switching characteristics are demonstrated in entire nitride AlN/n-GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor devices. The mechanism involved confirms to trap-controlled space charge limited current theory and can be attributed to the nitrogen vacancies of AlN serving as electron traps that form/rupture electron transport channel by trapping/detrapping electrons. This study will lead to the development of in-situ growth of group-III nitrides by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition as a candidate for next-generation nonvolatile memory device. Moreover, it will be benefit to structure monolithic integrated one-transistor-one-resistor memory with nitride high electron mobility transistors.

  19. Gating a ferromagnetic semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, A.; Altomare, F.; Kundtz, N.; Chang, A. M.; Cho, Y. J.; Liu, X.; Furdyna, J.

    2007-03-01

    Ferromagnetic semiconductors have the potential of revolutionizing the way current electronic devices work: more so, because they are compatible with current fabrication lines and can easily be integrated with today's technology. Particular interest lies in III-V Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor (DMS), where the ferromagnetism is hole-mediated and the Curie temperature can therefore be tuned by changing the concentration of free carriers. In these systems, most of the effort is currently applied toward the fabrication of devices working at room-temperature: this implies high carrier density accompanied by low mobility and short mean free path. We will report our results for a ferromagnetic 2DHG system with low carrier density (˜3.4E12 cm-2) and mobility (˜ 1000 cm^2/(Vs)), and we will discuss the effects of local gating in light of possible applications to the fabrication of ferromagnetic quantum dots. T. Dietl et al., Phys. Rev. B 63, 195205 (2001). H. Ohno et al., Nature 408, 944 (2000)

  20. Modified monolithic silica capillary for preconcentration of catecholamines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Chang; Tusyo-shi Komazu

    2009-01-01

    Preconcentration of catecholamines by the modified monolithic silica in the capillary was investigated in this study. In order to achieve a microchip-based method for determining catecholamines in the saliva, the monolithic silica was fabricated in the capillary and the monolithic silica was chemically modified by on-column reaction with phenylboronate. Different modified methods were compared. The concentration conditions were optimized. This study indicates the applicability of the modified monolithic silica capillary when it was used to concentrate catecholamines.