WorldWideScience

Sample records for monolithic structural alloys

  1. Acoustic of monolithic dome structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Refat Ismail

    2018-03-01

    The interior of monolithic domes have perfect, concave shapes to ensure that sound travels through the dome and perfectly collected at different vocal points. These dome structures are utilized for domestic use because the scale allows the focal points to be positioned across daily life activities, thereby affecting the sonic comfort of the internal space. This study examines the various acoustic treatments and parametric configurations of monolithic dome sizes. A geometric relationship of acoustic treatment and dome radius is established to provide architects guidelines on the correct selection of absorption needed to maintain the acoustic comfort of these special spaces.

  2. A Novel 3D Printer to Support Additive Manufacturing of Gradient Metal Alloy Structures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gradient metal alloy structures possess multi-functional properties that conventional monolithic metal counterparts do not have. Such structures can potentially...

  3. A Novel 3D Printer to Support Additive Manufacturing of Gradient Metal Alloy Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gradient metal alloy structures possess multi-functional properties that conventional monolithic metal counterparts do not have. Such structures can potentially...

  4. Increased thermal conductivity monolithic zeolite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, James; Klett, Lynn; Kaufman, Jonathan

    2008-11-25

    A monolith comprises a zeolite, a thermally conductive carbon, and a binder. The zeolite is included in the form of beads, pellets, powders and mixtures thereof. The thermally conductive carbon can be carbon nano-fibers, diamond or graphite which provide thermal conductivities in excess of about 100 W/mK to more than 1,000 W/mK. A method of preparing a zeolite monolith includes the steps of mixing a zeolite dispersion in an aqueous colloidal silica binder with a dispersion of carbon nano-fibers in water followed by dehydration and curing of the binder is given.

  5. Peculiarities of forming diffusion bimetallic joints of aluminum foam with a monolithic magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khokhlov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The work is carried out to determine an optimal method to obtain the welded bimetallic joints of monolithic Mg-alloy with porous Al-alloy using gallium as chemical activator and heating up to 300 °C by two different methods: long-term in vacuum oven and short-term without vacuum by passing of low voltage current. There is no microstructure change in Al-foam but indentation test records the negligible reduction of the mechanical properties. SEM showed the crystallization of two types of Mg5Ga2 and Mg2Ga inter-metallic phases in the wavy uneven diffusion zone on Mg-alloy side with significant increase of micro-hardness and Young's modulus. The narrow depth of the diffusion zone takes place in joints by short-term heating, so this method is more applicable for welding of monolithic and porous alloys at chemical activation using gallium.

  6. Structural alloys for high field superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1985-08-01

    Research toward structural alloys for use in high field superconducting magnets is international in scope, and has three principal objectives: the selection or development of suitable structural alloys for the magnet support structure, the identification of mechanical phenomena and failure modes that may influence service behavior, and the design of suitable testing procedures to provide engineering design data. This paper reviews recent progress toward the first two of these objectives. The structural alloy needs depend on the magnet design and superconductor type and differ between magnets that use monolithic and those that employ force-cooled or ICCS conductors. In the former case the central requirement is for high strength, high toughness, weldable alloys that are used in thick sections for the magnet case. In the latter case the need is for high strength, high toughness alloys that are used in thin welded sections for the conductor conduit. There is productive current research on both alloy types. The service behavior of these alloys is influenced by mechanical phenomena that are peculiar to the magnet environment, including cryogenic fatigue, magnetic effects, and cryogenic creep. The design of appropriate mechanical tests is complicated by the need for testing at 4 0 K and by rate effects associated with adiabatic heating during the tests. 46 refs

  7. A poly(vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate blend monolith with nanoscale porous structure

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xiaoxia; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    A stimuli-responsive poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sodium alginate (SA) blend monolith with nanoscale porous (mesoporous) structure is successfully fabricated by thermally impacted non-solvent induced phase separation (TINIPS) method. The PVA/SA blend monolith with different SA contents is conveniently fabricated in an aqueous methanol without any templates. The solvent suitable for the fabrication of the present blend monolith by TINIPS is different with that of the PVA monolith. The nanostructu...

  8. Development and characterization of monolithic fuel miniplate alloy U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb, coated in zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Geraldo Correa

    2014-01-01

    The autocthonal production of nuclear fuel in Brazil for test and research reactors is restricted to MTR (Material Test Reactor) fuel type dispersion plate, using U3Si2 alloy, coated and dispersed in aluminum, developed by IPEN-SP for use in IEA-R1 reactor. Moreover, the UO 2 fuel rod type for power reactors is manufactured by Rezende (RJ) with a German technology by INB under license. Currently, Brazil is performing two programs of developing reactors. Currently, Brazil is developing two reactors. One of them is the development, by CNEN, the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), for testing, research and radioisotope production. The other one is the development a power reactor for naval propulsion, conducted by the Brazilian Navy. This dissertation presents the development and characterization of monolithic fuel miniplate alloy U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb, coated in zircaloy (ZRY), on a laboratory scale. Due to its innovative features and properties, this fuel can be used as fuel in both test reactors, research and producing radioisotopes for power reactors as small and medium sizes. Thus, this high potential fuel can be used in domestic reactors currently under development. The development of monolithic fuel plate type is made using the technique called 'picture-frame' where a sandwich composed of a monolith alloy U-2.5Zr- 7.5Nb coupled to a frame and coated sheets of Zry is obtained. The alloy U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb was obtained by melting in an induction furnace and then was cast into rectangular ingots of graphite, thus achieving an ingot with approximate dimensions of 170 x 50 x 60 mm. The obtained ingot was hot rolled at 850 ºC, with a 50 % reduction in thickness, in order to refine the raw structure of fusion. Samples cut from the alloy U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb, with dimensions 20 x 20 x 6 mm were placed in frames and plates Zry and joined by TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) under an atmosphere of argon, obtaining a set of 10 mm thick, 45 mm wide and 100 mm long. The sandwiches were hot rolled to

  9. Peculiarities of Thermal Treatment of Monolithic Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchin, V. N.; Shilonosova, N. V.

    2017-11-01

    A mathematical program has been developed that allows one to determine the parameters of heat treatment of monolithic structures. One of the quality indicators of monolithic reinforced concrete structures is the level of temperature stresses arising in the process of heat treatment and further operation of structures. In winter at heat treatment the distribution of temperatures along the cross-section of the structure is uneven. A favorable thermo-stressed state in a concrete massif occurs when using the preheating method, providing the concrete temperature in the center of the structure is greater than at the periphery. In this case, after the strength is set and the temperature is later equalized along the cross-section, the central part of the structure tends to decrease its dimensions more but the extreme zones prevent it. Therefore, the center is in a state of tension, and the extreme zones on the periphery are compressed. In compressed concrete there is a lesser chance of cracks or defects. The temperature gradient over the section of the structure, the stress in the concrete and its strength are determined. When calculating the temperature and strength fields, the stress level was determined - a value equal to the ratio of the tensile stresses in the section under consideration to the tensile strength of the concrete in this section at the same time. The nature of the change in stress level is determined by the massive structure and power of the formwork heaters. It is shown that under unfavorable conditions the stress level is close to the critical value. The greatest temperature gradient occurs in the outer layers adjacent to the heating formwork. A technology for concrete conditioning is proposed which makes it possible to reduce the temperature stresses along the cross-section of the structure. The time for concrete conditioning in the formwork is reduced. In its turn, it further reduces labor costs and the cost of concrete work along with the cost of

  10. A poly(vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate blend monolith with nanoscale porous structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoxia; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2013-10-04

    A stimuli-responsive poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sodium alginate (SA) blend monolith with nanoscale porous (mesoporous) structure is successfully fabricated by thermally impacted non-solvent induced phase separation (TINIPS) method. The PVA/SA blend monolith with different SA contents is conveniently fabricated in an aqueous methanol without any templates. The solvent suitable for the fabrication of the present blend monolith by TINIPS is different with that of the PVA monolith. The nanostructural control of the blend monolith is readily achieved by optimizing the fabrication conditions. Brunauer Emmett Teller measurement shows that the obtained blend monolith has a large surface area. Pore size distribution plot for the blend monolith obtained by the non-local density functional theory method reveals the existence of the nanoscale porous structure. Fourier transform infrared analysis reveals the strong interactions between PVA and SA. The pH-responsive property of the blend monolith is investigated on the basis of swelling ratio in different pH solutions. The present blend monolith of biocompatible and biodegradable PVA and SA with nanoscale porous structure has large potential for applications in biomedical and environmental fields.

  11. Design of ultra-lightweight concrete: towards monolithic concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Qing Liang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the development of ultra-lightweight concrete. A moderate strength and an excellent thermal conductivity of the lightweight concrete are set as the design targets. The designed lightweight aggregates concrete is targeted to be used in monolithic concrete façade structure, performing as both load bearing element and thermal insulator. The developed lightweight concrete shows excellent thermal properties, with a low thermal conductivity of about 0.12 W/(m·K; and moderate mechanical properties, with 28-day compressive strengths of about 10-12 N/mm . This combination of values exceeds, to the researchers’ knowledge, the performance of all other lightweight building materials. Furthermore, the developed lightweight concrete possesses excellent durability properties.

  12. A Monolithic Perovskite Structure for Use as a Magnetic Regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini; Clemens, Frank; Menon, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    A La0.67Ca0.26Sr0.07Mn1.05O3 (LCSM) perovskite was prepared for the first time as a ceramic monolithic regenerator used in a regenerative magnetic refrigeration device. The parameters influencing the extrusion process and the performance of the regenerator, such as the nature of the monolith paste...

  13. A symmetric positive definite formulation for monolithic fluid structure interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Robinson-Mosher, Avi; Schroeder, Craig; Fedkiw, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider a strongly coupled (monolithic) fluid structure interaction framework for incompressible flow, as opposed to a loosely coupled (partitioned) method. This requires solving a single linear system that combines the unknown velocities of the structure with the unknown pressures of the fluid. In our previous work, we were able to obtain a symmetric formulation of this coupled system; however, it was also indefinite, making it more difficult to solve. In fact in practice there have been cases where we have been unable to invert the system. In this paper we take a novel approach that consists of factoring the damping matrix of deformable structures and show that this can be used to obtain a symmetric positive definite system, at least to the extent that the uncoupled systems were symmetric positive definite. We use a traditional MAC grid discretization of the fluid and a fully Lagrangian discretization of the structures for the sake of exposition, noting that our procedure can be generalized to other scenarios. For the special case of rigid bodies, where there are no internal damping forces, we exactly recover the system of Batty et al. (2007) [4]. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  14. A symmetric positive definite formulation for monolithic fluid structure interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Robinson-Mosher, Avi

    2011-02-01

    In this paper we consider a strongly coupled (monolithic) fluid structure interaction framework for incompressible flow, as opposed to a loosely coupled (partitioned) method. This requires solving a single linear system that combines the unknown velocities of the structure with the unknown pressures of the fluid. In our previous work, we were able to obtain a symmetric formulation of this coupled system; however, it was also indefinite, making it more difficult to solve. In fact in practice there have been cases where we have been unable to invert the system. In this paper we take a novel approach that consists of factoring the damping matrix of deformable structures and show that this can be used to obtain a symmetric positive definite system, at least to the extent that the uncoupled systems were symmetric positive definite. We use a traditional MAC grid discretization of the fluid and a fully Lagrangian discretization of the structures for the sake of exposition, noting that our procedure can be generalized to other scenarios. For the special case of rigid bodies, where there are no internal damping forces, we exactly recover the system of Batty et al. (2007) [4]. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  15. Electronic structure of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenreich, H.; Schwartz, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    The description of electronic properties of binary substitutional alloys within the single particle approximation is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on a didactic exposition of the equilibrium properties of the transport and magnetic properties of such alloys. Topics covered include: multiple scattering theory; the single band alloy; formal extensions of the theory; the alloy potential; realistic model state densities; the s-d model; and the muffin tin model. 43 figures, 3 tables, 151 references

  16. Fabrication of Monolithic Bridge Structures by Vacuum-Assisted Capillary-Force Lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Kwak, Rhokyun; Jeong, Hoon Eui; Suh, Kahp Y.

    2009-01-01

    Monolithic bridge structures were fabricated by using capillary-force lithography (CFL), which was developed for patterning polymers over a large area by combining essential features of nanoimprint lithography and capillarity. A patterned soft mold

  17. Development and Validation of Capabilities to Measure Thermal Properties of Layered Monolithic U-Mo Alloy Plate-Type Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkes, Douglas E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Edwards, Matthew K.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Pool, Karl N.; Smith, Frances N.; Steen, Franciska H.

    2014-07-01

    The uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy in a monolithic form has been proposed as one fuel design capable of converting some of the world's highest power research reactors from the use of high enriched uranium to low enriched uranium. One aspect of the fuel development and qualification process is to demonstrate appropriate understanding of the thermal-conductivity behavior of the fuel system as a function of temperature and expected irradiation conditions. The purpose of this paper is to verify functionality of equipment installed in hot cells for eventual measurements on irradiated uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) monolithic fuel specimens, refine procedures to operate the equipment, and validate models to extract the desired thermal properties. The results presented here demonstrate the adequacy of the equipment, procedures, and models that have been developed for this purpose based on measurements conducted on surrogate depleted uranium-molybdenum (DU-Mo) alloy samples containing a Zr diffusion barrier and clad in aluminum alloy 6061 (AA6061). The results are in excellent agreement with thermal property data reported in the literature for similar U-Mo alloys as a function of temperature.

  18. Structural thermodynamics of alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Manenc, Jack

    1973-01-01

    Technical progress has for a very long time been directly dependent on progress in metallurgy, which is itself connected with improvements in the technology of alloys. Metals are most frequently used in the form of alloys for several reasons: the quantity of pure metal in its native state in the earth's crust is very limited; pure metals must be extracted from ores which are themselves impure. Finally, the methods of treatment used lead more easily to alloys than to pure metals. The most typical case is that of iron, where a pure ore may be found, but which is the starting point for cast iron or steel, alloys of iron and carbon. In addition, the properties of alloys are in general superior to those of pure metals and modem metallurgy consists of controlling these properties so as to make them conform to the requirements of the design office. Whilst the engineer was formerly compelled to adapt his designs and constructions to the materials available, such as wood, stone, bronze, iron, cast iron and ordinary st...

  19. A Symmetric Positive Definite Formulation for Monolithic Fluid Structure Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    more likely to converge than simply iterating the partitioned approach to convergence in a simple Gauss - Seidel manner. Our approach allows the use of...conditions in a second step. These approaches can also be iterated within a given time step for increased stability, noting that in the limit if one... converges one obtains a monolithic (albeit expensive) approach. Other approaches construct strongly coupled systems and then solve them in one of several

  20. Advances in aluminium alloy products for structural applications in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staley, J.T.; Lege, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the needs of the aviation and automotive markets for structural materials and presents examples of developments of aluminum alloy products to fill these needs. Designers of aircraft desire materials which will allow them to design lightweight, cost-effective structures which have the performance characteristics of durability and damage tolerance. Their needs are being met by new and emerging materials varying from Al-Li alloys for thick structure, high-strength plate and extrusions for wings, and new monolithic and aluminum-fiber laminates for fuselages. Increase in fuel economy because of lighter weight structure is the driving force for aluminum alloys in the automotive market, and cost is extremely important. Mechanical properties for automotive use also depend on the application, and corrosion resistance must be adequate. For ''hang-on'' components such as fenders and hoods, formability is typically the limiting mechanical property. Strength must be adequate to resist denting at a thickness which offers cost-effective weight savings over steel. Because formability often decreases with increasing yield strength, alloys which are highly formable in the T4 temper and which age harden during the paint bake operation were developed. Alloys such as 6009 and 6010 are now being challenged by 2008, 6111 and 6016. Body structure components must be made from materials which absorb energy and fail gracefully during a crash. Such components for an automotive space frame are being die cast from an Al-Si-Mg alloy. These ductile die castings are joined to thin 6XXX extrusions which must combine formability, strength, ductility and the ability to deform plastically on impact. Bumpers must combine strength and adequate formability; in the event that current alloys are inadequate for future needs, a new 7XXX alloy offers an improved combination of properties. (orig.)

  1. Research on modulated structure alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, Tokuzo; Saito, Kazuo; Hashimoto, Kenki

    1982-01-01

    Research was carried out for the purposes of clarifying the cause of modulated structure formation, developing the structure control method utilizing modulated structure and clarifying the suitability of modulated structure alloys as radiation damage-resisting materials. The research on structure control method encountered a difficulty in the analysis of experimental results, bu the following results were obtained in the other items. The method of solving a diffusion equation including a nonlinear term was found in course of the clarification of the cause of modulated structure formation. As a means of detecting faint unevenness in solid solution, of which the deviation of composition is a few %, the structure analysis method utilizing magnetic property was developed. This method was applied to Ni-9.6 at.% Ti alloy, and the process of expanding amplitude in composition variation in spinodal decomposition and the formation of solute atomshort region at the time of nucleation-growth were confirmed. Utilizing the high energy electron beam generated in a superhigh voltage electron microscope, electron beam irradiation experiment was carried out on precipitation hardening alloys with modulated structure. As the result, it was found that in Ni-Ti alloy, the amount of void swelling resistance showed the change with the increase of modulated structure period. (Kako, I.)

  2. Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication of Titanium Alloy Gradient Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Craig A.; Newman, John A.; Bird, Richard Keith; Shenoy, Ravi N.; Baughman, James M.; Gupta, Vipul K.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, the structural optimization of aerospace components has been done through geometric methods. A monolithic material is chosen based on the best compromise between the competing design limiting criteria. Then the structure is geometrically optimized to give the best overall performance using the single material chosen. Functionally graded materials offer the potential to further improve structural efficiency by allowing the material composition and/or microstructural features to spatially vary within a single structure. Thus, local properties could be tailored to the local design limiting criteria. Additive manufacturing techniques enable the fabrication of such graded materials and structures. This paper presents the results of a graded material study using two titanium alloys processed using electron beam freeform fabrication, an additive manufacturing process. The results show that the two alloys uniformly mix at various ratios and the resultant static tensile properties of the mixed alloys behave according to rule-of-mixtures. Additionally, the crack growth behavior across an abrupt change from one alloy to the other shows no discontinuity and the crack smoothly transitions from one crack growth regime into another.

  3. Monolithic dual-band HgCdTe infrared detector structure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Parish, G

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A monolithic HgCdTe photoconductive device structure is presented that is suitable for dual-band optically registered infrared photodetection in the two atmospheric transmission windows of 3-5 mu m and 8-12 mu m, which correspond to the mid...

  4. Monolithic integration of nanoscale tensile specimens and MEMS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Kysar, Jeffrey W

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale materials often have stochastic material properties due to a random distribution of material defects and an insufficient number of defects to ensure a consistent average mechanical response. Current methods to measure the mechanical properties employ MEMS-based actuators. The nanoscale specimens are typically mounted manually onto the load platform, so the boundary conditions have random variations, complicating the experimental measurement of the intrinsic stochasticity of the material properties. Here we show methods for monolithic integration of a nanoscale specimen co-fabricated with the loading platform. The nanoscale specimen is gold with dimensions of ∼40 nm thickness, 350 ± 50 nm width, and 7 μm length and the loading platform is an interdigitated electrode electrostatic actuator. The experiment is performed in a scanning electron microscope and digital image correlation is employed to measure displacements to determine stress and strain. The ultimate tensile strength of the nanocrystalline nanoscale specimen approaches 1 GPa, consistent with measurements made by other nanometer scale sample characterization methods on other material samples at the nanometer scale, as well as gold samples at the nanometer scale. The batch-compatible microfabrication method can be used to create nominally identical nanoscale specimens and boundary conditions for a broad range of materials. (paper)

  5. The Importance of Pressure Sampling Frequency in Models for Determination of Critical Wave Loadings on Monolithic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Meinert, Palle

    2008-01-01

    Wave induced pressures on model scale monolithic structures like caissons and concrete superstructures on rubble mound breakwaters show very peaky variations, even in cases without impacts from slamming waves....

  6. NASA-UVA light aerospace alloy and structures technology program (LA(sup 2)ST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Haviland, John K.; Herakovich, Carl T.; Pilkey, Walter D.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Scully, John R.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Thornton, Earl A.; Wawner, Franklin E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The general objective of the Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology (LA(sup 2)ST) Program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light weight aerospace alloys, composites, and thermal gradient structures in collaboration with Langley researchers. Specific technical objectives are established for each research project. We aim to produce relevant data and basic understanding of material behavior and microstructure, new monolithic and composite alloys, advanced processing methods, new solid and fluid mechanics analyses, measurement advances, and critically, a pool of educated graduate students for aerospace technologies. Four research areas are being actively investigated, including: (1) Mechanical and Environmental Degradation Mechanisms in Advanced Light Metals and Composites; (2) Aerospace Materials Science; (3) Mechanics of Materials and Composites for Aerospace Structures; and (4) Thermal Gradient Structures.

  7. Structure and Electromagnetic Properties of Cellular Glassy Carbon Monoliths with Controlled Cell Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Szczurek

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic shielding is a topic of high importance for which lightweight materials are highly sought. Porous carbon materials can meet this goal, but their structure needs to be controlled as much as possible. In this work, cellular carbon monoliths of well-defined porosity and cell size were prepared by a template method, using sacrificial paraffin spheres as the porogen and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF resin as the carbon precursor. Physicochemical studies were carried out for investigating the conversion of RF resin into carbon, and the final cellular monoliths were investigated in terms of elemental composition, total porosity, surface area, micropore volumes, and micro/macropore size distributions. Electrical and electromagnetic (EM properties were investigated in the static regime and in the Ka-band, respectively. Due to the phenolic nature of the resin, the resultant carbon was glasslike, and the special preparation protocol that was used led to cellular materials whose cell size increased with density. The materials were shown to be relevant for EM shielding, and the relationships between those properties and the density/cell size of those cellular monoliths were elucidated.

  8. The Importance of Pressure Sampling Frequency in Models for Determination of Critical Wave Loadingson Monolithic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Meinert, Palle

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of wave load sampling frequency on calculated sliding distance in an overall stability analysis of a monolithic caisson. It is demonstrated by a specific example of caisson design that for this kind of analyses the sampling frequency in a small scale model could...... be as low as 100 Hz in model scale. However, for design of structure elements like the wave wall on the top of a caisson the wave load sampling frequency must be much higher, in the order of 1000 Hz in the model. Elastic-plastic deformations of foundation and structure were not included in the analysis....

  9. Study of GeSn Alloy for Low Cost Monolithic Mid Infrared Quantum Well Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash PAREEK

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on theoretical study of Tin incorporated group IV alloys particularly GeSn and design of quantum well sensor for mid infrared sensing applications. Initially, the physics behind the selection of material for midinfrared sensor is explained. The importance of controlling strain in GeSn alloy is also explained. The physical background and motivation for incorporation of Tin(Sn in Germanium is briefly narrated. Eigen energy states for different Sn concentrations are obtained for strain compensated quantum well in G valley conduction band (GCB, heavy hole (HH band and light hole (LH band by solving coupled Schrödinger and Poisson equations simultaneously. Sn concentration dependent absorption spectra for HH- GCB transition reveals that significant absorption observed in mid infrared range (3-5 µm. So, Ge1-x Snx quantum well can be used for mid infrared sensing applications.

  10. THE ANALYSIS OF INTENSE-DEFORMED MONOLITHIC CONCRETE STRIP STATE OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES OF NONCIRCULAR OUTLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aleksandrovna Bauer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research results of intense deformed state (IDS of the crepe and soil massif of un-derground structures having a non-circular outline with a depth of laying up to 50 m in unstable al-luvial rocks with dumps from 0.3 to 0.7 m are presented. The study was carried out by means of modeling the IDS of the soil massif and the hardening concrete of the monolithic support, erected after slaughter moving. To implement the proposed technological solutions ensuring the fixing of underground structures with monolithic concrete, it is necessary to use particularly fast solidifying compounds to exclude the use of temporary crepe. Based on the studies of a number of modifiers, various changes in mechanical properties of the most effective compositions have been established, which are used to simulate the concrete crepe of structures with time-varying characteristics. Purpose: the basis for using resource-saving technology for the construction of underground structures in a non-circular outline in a soil massif. Methods and methodology of the work: the studies were carried out by means of the finite element method (FEM using the optimal design of the experiment. Results: stress distributions were obtained in the hardening concrete crepe structures, stress concentration zones were established, displacement values in the soil massif and their spread on the surface were recieved. Areas of the result application: the results of research work can be used in the design of options for the construction of underground structures.

  11. New Structure for a Six-Port Reflectometer in Monolithic Microwave Integrated-Circuit Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Wiedmann , Frank; Huyart , Bernard; Bergeault , Eric; Jallet , Louis

    1997-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a new structure for a six-port reflectometer which due to its simplicity can be implemented very easily in monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) technology. It uses nonmatched diode detectors with a high input impedance which are placed around a phase shifter in conjunction with a power divider for the reference detector. The circuit has been fabricated using the F20 GaAs process of the GEC–Marconi foundry and operates between 1.3 GHz and 3...

  12. High-temperature oxidation behavior of dense SiBCN monoliths: Carbon-content dependent oxidation structure, kinetics and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Daxin; Yang, Zhihua; Jia, Dechang; Wang, Shengjin; Duan, Xiaoming; Zhu, Qishuai; Miao, Yang; Rao, Jiancun; Zhou, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The scale growth for all investigated monoliths at 1500 °C cannot be depicted by a linear or parabolic rate law. •The carbon-rich monoliths oxidize at 1500 °C according to a approximately linear weight loss equation. •The excessive carbon in SiBCN monoliths deteriorates the oxidation resistance. •The oxidation resistance stems from the characteristic oxide structures and increased oxidation resistance of BN(C). -- Abstract: The high temperature oxidation behavior of three SiBCN monoliths: carbon-lean SiBCN with substantial Si metal, carbon-moderate SiBCN and carbon-rich SiBCN with excessive carbon, was investigated at 1500 °C for times up to15 h. Scale growth for carbon-lean and −moderate monoliths at 1500 °C cannot be described by a linear or parabolic rate law, while the carbon-rich monoliths oxidize according to a approximately linear weight loss equation. The microstructures of the oxide scale compose of three distinct layers. The passivating layer of carbon and boron containing amorphous SiO 2 and increased oxidation resistance of BN(C) both benefit the oxidation resistance.

  13. Nickel aluminide alloy suitable for structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.T.

    1998-03-10

    Alloys are disclosed for use in structural applications based upon NiAl to which are added selected elements to enhance room temperature ductility and high temperature strength. Specifically, small additions of molybdenum produce a beneficial alloy, while further additions of boron, carbon, iron, niobium, tantalum, zirconium and hafnium further improve performance of alloys at both room temperature and high temperatures. A preferred alloy system composition is Ni--(49.1{+-}0.8%)Al--(1.0{+-}0.8%)Mo--(0.7 + 0.5%)Nb/Ta/Zr/Hf--(nearly zero to 0.03%)B/C, where the % is at. % in each of the concentrations. All alloys demonstrated good oxidation resistance at the elevated temperatures. The alloys can be fabricated into components using conventional techniques. 4 figs.

  14. Structural features in Ni-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abylkalykova, R.B.; Kveglis, L.I.; Rakhimova, U.A.; Nasokhova, Sh.B.; Tazhibaeva, G.B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of the work is study of structural transformations under diverse memory effect in Ni-Al alloys. Examination were conducted in following composition samples: Ni -75 at.% and Al - 25 at.%. The work is devoted to clarification reasons both formation atom-ordered structures in inter-grain boundaries of bulk samples under temperature action and static load. Revealed inter-grain inter-boundary layers in Ni-Al alloy both bulk and surface state have complicated structure

  15. Identification of Technological Parameters of Ni-Alloys When Machining by Monolithic Ceramic Milling Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czán, Andrej; Kubala, Ondrej; Danis, Igor; Czánová, Tatiana; Holubják, Jozef; Mikloš, Matej

    2017-12-01

    The ever-increasing production and the usage of hard-to-machine progressive materials are the main cause of continual finding of new ways and methods of machining. One of these ways is the ceramic milling tool, which combines the pros of conventional ceramic cutting materials and pros of conventional coating steel-based insert. These properties allow to improve cutting conditions and so increase the productivity with preserved quality known from conventional tools usage. In this paper, there is made the identification of properties and possibilities of this tool when machining of hard-to-machine materials such as nickel alloys using in airplanes engines. This article is focused on the analysis and evaluation ordinary technological parameters and surface quality, mainly roughness of surface and quality of machined surface and tool wearing.

  16. Isothermal structural evolution of SnO2 monolithic porous xerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, G.E.S.; Pulcinelli, S.H.; Santilli, C.V.; Craievich, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    Monolithic samples of SnO 2 xerogel were produced by careful control of the gelation and drying steps of material preparation. In these samples, small and nanoporous aggregates stick together, yielding a monolithic (nonpowdered) material. The material was analyzed by in situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) during isothermal treatment at temperatures ranging from 473 to 773 K. At 473 K, the SAXS intensity does not change significantly with time. All experimental scattering intensity functions for T > 473 K are composed of two wide peaks, which evolve with increasing time. Each of them was associated with one of the modes of a bimodal distribution of pore sizes corresponding to a fine (intra-aggregate) and a coarse (inter-aggregate) porosity. The SAXS intensities of the maxima of both peaks increase with increasing treatment time, while the position of their maxima, associated with an average correlation distance, decreases. The time dependences of the SAXS intensity corresponding to both families of pores qualitatively agree with those expected for a two-phase separating system exhibiting dynamic scaling properties. The time evolutions of the several moments of the structure function of samples heat treated at 773 K exhibit a good quantitative agreement with the theory of dynamic scaling for systems evolving by a coagulation mechanism. The kinetic parameters are the same for both peaks, indicating that the same mechanism is responsible for the structural evolution of both families of pores. (orig.)

  17. Structure Map for Embedded Binary Alloy Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, C.W.; Shin, S.J.; Liao, C.Y.; Guzman, J.; Stone, P.R.; Watanabe, M.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.; Chrzan, D.C.

    2008-09-20

    The equilibrium structure of embedded nanocrystals formed from strongly segregating binary-alloys is considered within a simple thermodynamic model. The model identifies two dimensionlessinterface energies that dictate the structure, and allows prediction of the stable structure for anychoice of these parameters. The resulting structure map includes three distinct nanocrystal mor-phologies: core/shell, lobe/lobe, and completely separated spheres.

  18. Synthesis and electronic structure of low-density monoliths of nanoporous nanocrystalline anatase TiO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucheyev, S O; Baumann, T F; Wang, Y M; van Buuren, T; Satcher, J H

    2004-08-13

    Monolithic nanocrystalline anatase titania aerogels are synthesized by the epoxide sol-gel method followed by thermal annealing at 550 C. These aerogels are formed by {approx}10-20 nm size anatase nanoparticles which are randomly oriented and interconnected into an open-cell solid network. Aerogel monoliths have an apparent density of {approx}6% and a surface area of {approx} 100 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and soft x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy reveal good crystallinity of the anatase nanoparticles forming the aerogel skeleton.

  19. Activation analyses for different fusion structural alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaya, H.; Smith, D.

    1991-01-01

    The leading candidate structural materials, viz., the vanadium alloys, the nickel or the manganese stabilized austenitic steels, and the ferritic steels, are analysed in terms of their induced activation in the TPSS fusion power reactor. The TPSS reactor has 1950 MW fusion power and inboard and outboard average neutron wall loading of 3.75 and 5.35 MW/m 2 respectively. The results shows that, after one year of continuous operation, the vanadium alloys have the least radioactivity at reactor shutdown. The maximum difference between the induced radioactivity in the vanadium alloys and in the other iron-based alloys occurs at about 10 years after reactor shutdown. At this time, the total reactor radioactivity, using the vanadium alloys, is about two orders of magnitude less than the total reactor radioactivity utilizing any other alloy. The difference is even larger in the first wall, the FW-vanadium activation is 3 orders of magnitude less than other alloys' FW activation. 2 refs., 7 figs

  20. Structure of Zr-Hf alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobromyslov, A.V.; Taluts, N.I.

    1991-01-01

    Structure of quenched zirconium-hafnium alloy system containing up to 2.5 at. % was studied. Existence of three morphological forms of α-phase was presented: lath, twinned, laminated. Twinning plane in the system was identified. Formation model of packet structure of lath martensite was suggested

  1. Fabrication of Monolithic Bridge Structures by Vacuum-Assisted Capillary-Force Lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Kwak, Rhokyun

    2009-04-06

    Monolithic bridge structures were fabricated by using capillary-force lithography (CFL), which was developed for patterning polymers over a large area by combining essential features of nanoimprint lithography and capillarity. A patterned soft mold was placed on a spin-coated UV-curable resin on a substrate. The polymer then moved into the cavity of the mold by capillary action and then solidified after exposure to UV radiation. The uncured resin was forced to migrate into the cavity of a micropatterned PDMS mold by capillarity, and then exposed to UV radiation under a high-energy mercury lamp with intensity. A rotary pump was then turned on, decreasing the air pressure in the chamber. SEM images were taken with a high-resolution SEM at an acceleration voltage greater than 15 kV. It was observed that when the air pressure was rapidly reduced to a low vacuum, the top layer moved into the nanochannels with a meniscus at the interface between the nanoscale PUA and the base structure.

  2. Mathematical Modelling of Optimization of Structures of Monolithic Coverings Based on Liquid Rubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgumbayeva, R. Kh; Abdikarimov, M. N.; Mussabekov, R.; Sartayev, D. T.

    2018-05-01

    The paper considers optimization of monolithic coatings compositions using a computer and MPE methods. The goal of the paper was to construct a mathematical model of the complete factorial experiment taking into account its plan and conditions. Several regression equations were received. Dependence between content components and parameters of rubber, as well as the quantity of a rubber crumb, was considered. An optimal composition for manufacturing the material of monolithic coatings compositions was recommended based on experimental data.

  3. Detecting Milling Deformation in 7075 Aluminum Alloy Aeronautical Monolithic Components Using the Quasi-Symmetric Machining Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Wu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The deformation of aeronautical monolithic components due to CNC machining is a bottle-neck issue in the aviation industry. The residual stress releases and redistributes in the process of material removal, and the distortion of the monolithic component is generated. The traditional one-side machining method will produce oversize deformation. Based on the three-stage CNC machining method, the quasi-symmetric machining method is developed in this study to reduce deformation by symmetry material removal using the M-symmetry distribution law of residual stress. The mechanism of milling deformation due to residual stress is investigated. A deformation experiment was conducted using traditional one-side machining method and quasi-symmetric machining method to compare with finite element method (FEM. The deformation parameters are validated by comparative results. Most of the errors are within 10%. The reason for these errors is determined to improve the reliability of the method. Moreover, the maximum deformation value of using quasi-symmetric machining method is within 20% of that of using the traditional one-side machining method. This result shows the quasi-symmetric machining method is effective in reducing deformation caused by residual stress. Thus, this research introduces an effective method for reducing the deformation of monolithic thin-walled components in the CNC milling process.

  4. Shape Memory Alloy-Based Periodic Cellular Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I effort will develop and demonstrate an innovative shape memory alloy (SMA) periodic cellular structural technology. Periodic cellular structures...

  5. Simulation Based Optimization of Complex Monolithic Composite Structures Using Cellular Core Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickmott, Curtis W.

    Cellular core tooling is a new technology which has the capability to manufacture complex integrated monolithic composite structures. This novel tooling method utilizes thermoplastic cellular cores as inner tooling. The semi-rigid nature of the cellular cores makes them convenient for lay-up, and under autoclave temperature and pressure they soften and expand providing uniform compaction on all surfaces including internal features such as ribs and spar tubes. This process has the capability of developing fully optimized aerospace structures by reducing or eliminating assembly using fasteners or bonded joints. The technology is studied in the context of evaluating its capabilities, advantages, and limitations in developing high quality structures. The complex nature of these parts has led to development of a model using the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software Abaqus and the plug-in COMPRO Common Component Architecture (CCA) provided by Convergent Manufacturing Technologies. This model utilizes a "virtual autoclave" technique to simulate temperature profiles, resin flow paths, and ultimately deformation from residual stress. A model has been developed simulating the temperature profile during curing of composite parts made with the cellular core technology. While modeling of composites has been performed in the past, this project will look to take this existing knowledge and apply it to this new manufacturing method capable of building more complex parts and develop a model designed specifically for building large, complex components with a high degree of accuracy. The model development has been carried out in conjunction with experimental validation. A double box beam structure was chosen for analysis to determine the effects of the technology on internal ribs and joints. Double box beams were manufactured and sectioned into T-joints for characterization. Mechanical behavior of T-joints was performed using the T-joint pull-off test and compared to traditional

  6. Monolithic spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajic, Slobodan (Knoxville, TN); Egert, Charles M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kahl, William K. (Knoxville, TN); Snyder, Jr., William B. (Knoxville, TN); Evans, III, Boyd M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlar, Troy A. (Knoxville, TN); Cunningham, Joseph P. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays.

  7. Structure and properties of hybrid poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)/SiO2 monoliths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Xiangling; Jiang, Shichun; Qiu, Xuepeng

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: Hybrid poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA)/SiO2 monoliths were synthesized via a sol-gel process of the precursor tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and the in situ free-radical polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). The weight ratio of the starting chemicals, TEOS...

  8. A monolithic relativistic electron beam source based on a dielectric laser accelerator structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeur, Josh; Carranza, Nestor; Travish, Gil; Yin Hairong; Yoder, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    Work towards a monolithic device capable of producing relativistic particle beams within a cubic-centimeter is detailed. We will discuss the Micro-Accelerator Platform (MAP), an optical laser powered dielectric accelerator as the main building block of this chip-scale source along with a field enhanced emitter and a region for sub-relativistic acceleration.

  9. Hierarchically porous Ni monolith@branch-structured NiCo2O4 for high energy density supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengjie Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A variety of NiCo2O4 nanostrucutures ranging from nanowire to nanoplate and branched structures were successfully prepared via a simple hydrothermal process. The experimental results show that NiCo2O4 with branched structures possesses the best overall electrochemical performance. The improvement of energy density was explored in terms of hierarchically three-dimensional (3D metal substrates and a high specific area capacitance, and area energy density is obtained with hierarchically porous Ni monolith synthesized through a controlled combustion procedure.

  10. Structure of nanocomposites of Al–Fe alloys prepared by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    This difference in the product structure can be attributed to the difference in alloying mechanisms in MA and RSP. Keywords. Nanocomposites; Al–Fe; mechanical alloying; rapid solidification; quasicrystalline. 1. Introduction. Al–Fe alloys are attractive for applications at temperatures beyond those normally associated with ...

  11. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program (LA2ST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.; Kelly, Robert G.; Scully, John R.; Shiflet, Gary J.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Wert, John A.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology (LA2ST) Program was initiated in 1986 and continues with a high level of activity. Here, we report on progress achieved between July I and December 31, 1996. The objective of the LA2ST Program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light-weight aerospace alloys, composites and thermal gradient structures in collaboration with NASA-Langley researchers. Specific technical objectives are presented for each research project. We generally aim to produce relevant data and basic understanding of material mechanical response, environmental/corrosion behavior, and microstructure; new monolithic and composite alloys; advanced processing methods; new solid and fluid mechanics analyses; measurement and modeling advances; and a pool of educated graduate students for aerospace technologies. The accomplishments presented in this report are summarized as follows. Three research areas are being actively investigated, including: (1) Mechanical and Environmental Degradation Mechanisms in Advanced Light Metals, (2) Aerospace Materials Science, and (3) Mechanics of Materials for Light Aerospace Structures.

  12. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program: LA(2)ST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Haviland, John K.; Herakovich, Carl T.; Pilkey, Walter D.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Scully, John R.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Thornton, Earl A.; Wawner, Franklin E., Jr.; Wert, John A.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology (LA(2)ST) Program continues a high level of activity, with projects being conducted by graduate students and faculty advisors in the Departments of Materials Science and Engineering, Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics, and Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Virginia. This work is funded by the NASA-Langley Research Center under Grant NAG-1-745. We report on progress achieved between July 1 and December 31, 1992. The objective of the LA(2)ST Program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light weight aerospace alloys, composites and thermal gradient structures in collaboration with NASA-Langley researchers. Specific technical objectives are presented for each research project. We generally aim to produce relevant data and basic understanding of material mechanical response, corrosion behavior, and microstructure; new monolithic and composite alloys; advanced processing methods; new solid and fluid mechanics analyses; measurement advances; and critically, a pool of educated graduate students for aerospace technologies.

  13. STRUCTURE FORMATION OF ALLOYS ON IRON BASIS AFTER LASER ALLOYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Diachenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to investigations on influence of laser treatment regimes of gas-thermal and adhesive coatings from self-fluxing powders on iron basis and after melting with modifying plaster on their roughness and phase composition. One of mathematical planning methods that is a complete factor experiment method has been used for investigation of parameters’ influence on micro-geometry of coatings. The executed investigations have made it possible to observe a general regularity which does not depend on a type of alloying plaster: while increasing speed of laser beam relatively to treated part, beam diameter value of Ra parameter is becoming less. Decrease in height of surface irregularities in case of increasing laser beam speed is related with intensification of evaporation processes. An increase in beam diameter diminishes Ra parameter of the surface. This is due to the fact that decrease in power density occurs at high rate of beam defocusing. Overlapping coefficient does not exert a pronounced effect on Ra parameter of fused coatings. While increasing the speed of laser beam relatively to the part structure is transferred from dendrite into supersaturated one with carbide and boride precipitations. It has been established that technological parameters of laser treatment and particularly speed of laser beam influence on coating composition. While increasing the speed up to v5 = 5 × 10–3 m/s amount of chromium has become larger by 1.5-fold that resulted in increase of micro-hardness of the coating from 9.5–10.1 GPa up to 11.04–15.50 GPa.

  14. Fibrous monolithic ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovar, D.; King, B.H.; Trice, R.W.; Halloran, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Fibrous monolithic ceramics are an example of a laminate in which a controlled, three-dimensional structure has been introduced on a submillimeter scale. This unique structure allows this all-ceramic material to fail in a nonbrittle manner. Materials have been fabricated and tested with a variety of architectures. The influence on mechanical properties at room temperature and at high temperature of the structure of the constituent phases and the architecture in which they are arranged are discussed. The elastic properties of these materials can be effectively predicted using existing models. These models also can be extended to predict the strength of fibrous monoliths with an arbitrary orientation and architecture. However, the mechanisms that govern the energy absorption capacity of fibrous monoliths are unique, and experimental results do not follow existing models. Energy dissipation occurs through two dominant mechanisms--delamination of the weak interphases and then frictional sliding after cracking occurs. The properties of the constituent phases that maximize energy absorption are discussed. In this article, the authors examine the structure of Si 3 N 4 -BN fibrous monoliths from the submillimeter scale of the crack-deflecting cell-cell boundary features to the nanometer scale of the BN cell boundaries

  15. Effects of indirect bandgap top cells in a monolithic cascade cell structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, H. B.; Godlewski, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of having a slightly indirect top cell in a three junction cascade monolithic stack is calculated. The minority carrier continuity equations are utilized to calculate individual junction performance. Absorption coefficient curves for general III-V compounds are calculated for a variety of direct and indirect gap materials. The results indicate that for a small excursion into the indirect region, (about 0.1 eV), the loss of efficiency is acceptably small (less than 2.5 percent) and considerably less than attempting to make the top junction a smaller direct bandgap.

  16. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structures technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Haviland, John K.; Herakovich, Carl T.; Pilkey, Walter D.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Scully, John R.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Swanson, Robert E.; Thornton, Earl A.; Wawner, Franklin E., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The general objective of the NASA-UVa Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program was to conduct research on the performance of next generation, light weight aerospace alloys, composites, and associated thermal gradient structures. The following research areas were actively investigated: (1) mechanical and environmental degradation mechanisms in advanced light metals and composites; (2) aerospace materials science; (3) mechanics of materials and composites for aerospace structures; and (4) thermal gradient structures.

  17. Effects of the shape of the foil corners on the irradiation performance of U10Mo alloy based monolithic mini-plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaltun, Hakan [Idaho National Laboratory; Medvedev, Pavel G [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-06-01

    Monolithic plate-type fuel is a fuel form being developed for high performance research and test reactors to minimize the use of enriched material. These fuel elements are comprised of a high density, low enrichment, U-Mo alloy based fuel foil, sandwiched between Zirconium liners and encapsulated in Aluminum cladding. The use of a high density fuel in a foil form presents a number of fabrication and operational concerns, such as: foil centering, flatness of the foil, fuel thickness variation, geometrical tilting, foil corner shape etc. To benchmark this new design, effects of various geometrical and operational variables on irradiation performance have been evaluated. As a part of these series of sensitivity studies, the shape of the foil corners were studied. To understand the effects of the corner shapes of the foil on thermo-mechanical performance of the plates, a behavioral model was developed for a selected plate from RERTR-12 experiments (Plate L1P785). Both fabrication and irradiation processes were simulated. Once the thermo-mechanical behavior the plate is understood for the nominal case, the simulations were repeated for two additional corner shapes to observe the changes in temperature, displacement and stress-strain fields. The results from the fabrication simulations indicated that the foil corners do not alter the post-fabrication stress-strain magnitudes. Furthermore, the irradiation simulations revealed that post-fabrication stresses of the foil would be relieved very quickly in operation. While, foils with chamfered and filleted corners yielded stresses with comparable magnitudes, they are slightly lower in magnitudes, and provided a more favorable mechanical response compared with the foil with sharp corners.

  18. Structure of Mn40Zn60 liquid alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbihi, D Es; Grosdidier, B; Gasser, J G

    2008-01-01

    In this work we present the structural study of the Mn 40 Zn 60 liquid alloy, whose two components have a high vapour pressure. The structure has been measured by neutron diffraction. The investigation of the chemical order in this alloy was readily made possible. This is due to the manganese negative scattering length which allows a good contrast. A magnetic correction has been considered since manganese is paramagnetic in the liquid state. An 'effective' spin is obtained and its value is discussed. The interpretation of the atomic structure is done in the frame of the Bhatia-Thornton formalism, (S NN (q), S NC (q), S CC (q)) which allows to separate topological, size and chemical effects. It appears clearly that manganese ions and zinc ions have approximately the same radius in the alloy as S NC (q) ≅ 0. The Bhatia-Thornton number-number partial structure factor S NN (q) has been approximated by a linear combination of the experimental structure factors of the two alloy pure components. In the frame of this assumption, the Bhatia-Thornton concentration-concentration partial structure factor S CC (q) is obtained, and shows clearly that this alloy is hetero-coordinated. The hard sphere model cannot explain the structure of this alloy. Its behaviour is compared to other manganese-polyvalent alloys and the general trends are discussed

  19. ODS alloys for structures subjected to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlan, Y. de

    2010-01-01

    ODS (oxide-dispersion-strengthened) materials are considered for cladding purposes for the fourth-generation sodium-cooled fast reactors. ODS materials afford many benefits. Indeed, these high-performance materials combine, at the same time, remarkable mechanical strength, in hot conditions, and outstanding irradiation behavior. New ODS steel grades, exhibiting better performance levels than the last-generation austenitic steels, afford not only negligible swelling under irradiation, owing to their 'ferritic' body-centered cubic structure - by contrast to austenitic grades, which feature a face-centered cubic structure - but equally outstanding creep properties, owing to the nano-reinforcements present in the matrix. ODS materials are obtained by powder metallurgy, the first fabrication step involves co-grinding a metal powder together with yttrium oxide (Y 2 O 3 ) powder. At this stage, an iron oxide may also be added, or an yttrium-rich intermetallic compound in order to provide the amounts of yttrium, and oxygen required for the formation of nano-oxides. The metal powder consists of a powder pre-alloyed to the chemical composition of the desired material. Once the powder has been obtained, consolidation of the ODS materials is achieved either by hot extrusion, or by hot isostatic pressing. (A.C.)

  20. Electronic structure theory of alloy phase stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turchi, P.E.A.; Sluiter, M.

    1992-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the advanced methodology which has been developed and applied to the study of phase stability properties in substitutional alloys. The approach is based on the real space version of the Generalized Perturbation Method within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker multiple scattering formulation of the Coherent Potential Approximation. Temperature effects are taken into account with a generalized meanfield approach, namely the Cluster Variation Method, or with Monte-Carlo simulations. We show that this approach is well suited for studying ground state properties of substitutional alloys, for calculating energies of idealized interfaces and antiphase boundaries, and finally to compute alloy phase diagrams

  1. Shape Memory Alloy-Based Periodic Cellular Structures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II effort will continue to develop and demonstrate an innovative shape memory alloy (SMA) periodic cellular structural technology. Periodic cellular...

  2. Copper alloys for high heat flux structure applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Fabritsiev, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    The mechanical and physical properties of copper alloys are reviewed and compared with the requirements for high heat flux structural applications in fusion reactors. High heat flux structural materials must possess a combination of high thermal conductivity and high mechanical strength. The three most promising copper alloys at the present time are oxide dispersion-strengthened copper (Cu-Al 2 O 3 ) and two precipitation-hardened copper alloys (Cu-Cr-Zr and Cu-Ni-Be). These three alloys are capable of room temperature yield strengths >400 MPa and thermal conductivities up to 350 W/m-K. All of these alloys require extensive cold working to achieve their optimum strength. Precipitation-hardened copper alloys such Cu-Cr-Zr are susceptible to softening due to precipitate overaging and recrystallization during brazing, whereas the dislocation structure in Cu-Al 2 O 3 remains stabilized during typical high temperature brazing cycles. All three alloys exhibit good resistance to irradiation-induced softening and void swelling at temperatures below 300 degrees C. The precipitation-strengthened allows typically soften during neutron irradiation at temperatures above about 300 degrees C and therefore should only be considered for applications operating at temperatures 2 O 3 ) is considered to be the best candidate for high heat flux structural applications

  3. Structure and Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon Films Deposited by PACVD Technique on Light Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tański T.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigations presented in this paper describe surface treatment performed on samples of heat-treated cast magnesium and aluminium alloy. The structure and chemical composition as well as the functional and mechanical properties of the obtained gradient/monolithic films were analysed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, the ball-on-disk tribotester and scratch testing. Moreover, investigation of the electrochemical corrosion behaviour of the samples was carried out by means of potentiodynamic polarisation curves in 1-M NaCl solution. The coatings produced by chemical vapour deposition did not reveal any delamination or defects and they adhere closely to the substrate. The coating thickness was in a range of up to 2.5 microns. Investigations using Raman spectra of the DLC films confirmed a multiphase character of the diamond-like carbon layer, revealing the sp2 and sp3 electron hybridisation responsible for both the hardness and the friction coefficient. The best wear resistance test results were obtained for the magnesium alloy substrate - AZ61, for which the measured value of the friction path length was equal to 630 m.

  4. Structure of hardened alloys of Sr-Rh system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobromyslov, A.V.; Taluth, N.I.

    1997-01-01

    Methods of X-ray diffraction analysis, optical metallography, transmission electron microscopy and hardness measurement were applied to study the structure of hardened zirconium-rhodium system alloys with rhodium contents up to 4.5 at.%. It is shown that in hardening alloys with rhodium concentration lower 2.2 at.% the eutectoid decomposition takes place and bainite-like structure is formed. A metastable ω-phase is formed in alloys with rhodium concentration equal to 2.65 at.% and above. The formation of ω-phase suppresses the process of eutectoid decomposition

  5. Monolithic mode locked DBR laser with multiple-bandgap MQW structure realized by selective area growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, M.; Bouayad-Amine, J.; Feeser, T.; Haisch, H.; Kuehn, E.; Lach, E.; Satzke, K.; Weber, J.; Zielinski, E. [Alcatel Telecom, Stuttgart (Germany). Research Div.

    1996-12-31

    The realization of novel monolithically integrated multiple-segment pulse laser sources in InGaAsP MQW technology is reported. The MQW layers for all functional sections of these devices, the modulator, the active (gain) and the passive waveguide, as well as the Bragg section were grown in a single selective area growth (SAG) step by LP-MOVPE on SiO{sub 2} patterned 2 inch InP substrates. Due to a properly selected pattern geometry 3 different bandgap regions with smooth interfaces are thereby formed along the laser cavity. The more than 4 mm long DBR lasers which exhibit a threshold current as low as 30 mA were mode locked by an intra-cavity electroabsorption modulator applying a sinusoidal voltage at around 10 GHz. In this way an optical pulse train with pulse widths < 13 ps (measured with a streak camera) and high extinction ratio was generated. A time-bandwidth product of 0.5 close to the Fourier limit is obtained. This device is very attractive for signal generation in 40 Gb/s OTDM transmission systems at 1.55 {micro}m wavelength.

  6. Structure and grindability of dental Ti-Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, H.-C.; Wu, S.-C.; Chiang, T.-Y.; Ho, W.-F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the structure and microhardness of a series of binary Ti-Cr alloys with Cr contents up to 30 wt%. In addition, the grindability was also evaluated using an electric dental handpiece with SiC wheels, with the goal of developing a titanium alloy with better mechanical properties and machinability than commercially pure titanium (c.p. Ti), a metal generally considered to be difficult to machine. This study evaluated the phase and structure of Ti-Cr alloys, using an X-ray diffraction (XRD) for phase analysis and optical microscope for microstructure of the etched alloys. Grindability was evaluated by measuring the amount of metal volume removed after grinding for 1 min. Results indicated that the structure of Ti-Cr alloys is sensitive to the Cr content. The cast c.p. Ti has a hexagonal α phase. With 5 wt% Cr, metastable β phase starts to be retained. With Cr contents higher than 10 wt%, the equi-axed β phase is almost entirely retained. In addition, athermal ω phase was found in the Ti-5Cr and Ti-10Cr alloys. The largest quantity of ω phase and highest microhardness were found in Ti-10Cr alloy. The grinding rate of the Ti-Cr alloys showed a similar tendency to the microhardness. The Ti-10Cr alloy exhibited the best grindability, especially at 1000 m/min, which presumably due to the brittle nature of the alloy containing the ω phase in the β matrix.

  7. Structure formation of 5083 alloy during friction stir welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikina, A. A.; Kolubaev, A. V.; Sizova, O. V.; Ivanov, K. V.; Filippov, A. V.; Kolubaev, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    This paper provides a comparative study of structures obtained by friction stir welding and sliding friction of 5083 Al alloy. Optical and electron microscopy reveals identical fine-grained structures with a grain size of ˜5 µm both in the weld nugget zone and subsurface layer in friction independently of the initial grain size of the alloy. It has been suggested that the grain boundary sliding is responsible for the specific material flow pattern in both techniques considered.

  8. Shape Memory Alloy Adaptive Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I effort will demonstrate and scale up an innovative manufacturing process that yields aerospace grade shape memory alloy (SMA) solids and periodic...

  9. Development and characterization of monolithic fuel miniplate alloy U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb, coated in zircaloy; Desenvolvimento e caracterizacao do combustivel nuclear tipo placa monolitico da liga U-2,5Zr-7,5Nb revestido em zircaloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Geraldo Correa

    2014-06-01

    The autocthonal production of nuclear fuel in Brazil for test and research reactors is restricted to MTR (Material Test Reactor) fuel type dispersion plate, using U3Si2 alloy, coated and dispersed in aluminum, developed by IPEN-SP for use in IEA-R1 reactor. Moreover, the UO{sub 2} fuel rod type for power reactors is manufactured by Rezende (RJ) with a German technology by INB under license. Currently, Brazil is performing two programs of developing reactors. Currently, Brazil is developing two reactors. One of them is the development, by CNEN, the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), for testing, research and radioisotope production. The other one is the development a power reactor for naval propulsion, conducted by the Brazilian Navy. This dissertation presents the development and characterization of monolithic fuel miniplate alloy U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb, coated in zircaloy (ZRY), on a laboratory scale. Due to its innovative features and properties, this fuel can be used as fuel in both test reactors, research and producing radioisotopes for power reactors as small and medium sizes. Thus, this high potential fuel can be used in domestic reactors currently under development. The development of monolithic fuel plate type is made using the technique called 'picture-frame' where a sandwich composed of a monolith alloy U-2.5Zr- 7.5Nb coupled to a frame and coated sheets of Zry is obtained. The alloy U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb was obtained by melting in an induction furnace and then was cast into rectangular ingots of graphite, thus achieving an ingot with approximate dimensions of 170 x 50 x 60 mm. The obtained ingot was hot rolled at 850 ºC, with a 50 % reduction in thickness, in order to refine the raw structure of fusion. Samples cut from the alloy U-2.5Zr-7.5Nb, with dimensions 20 x 20 x 6 mm were placed in frames and plates Zry and joined by TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) under an atmosphere of argon, obtaining a set of 10 mm thick, 45 mm wide and 100 mm long. The sandwiches were

  10. FINEMET type alloy without Si: Structural and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraca, D.; Cremaschi, V.; Moya, J.; Sirkin, H.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic and structural properties of a Finemet type alloy (Fe 73.5 Ge 15.5 Nb 3 B 7 Cu 1 ) without Si and high Ge content were studied. Amorphous material was obtained by the melt spinning technique and was heat treated at different temperatures for 1 h under high vacuum to induce the nanocrystallization of the sample. The softest magnetic properties were obtained between 673 and 873 K. The role of Ge on the ferromagnetic paramagnetic transition of the as-quenched alloys and its influence on the crystallization process were studied using a calorimetric technique. Moessbauer spectroscopy was employed in the nanocrystallized alloy annealed at 823 K to obtain the composition of the nanocrystals and the amorphous phase fraction. Using this data and magnetic measurements of the as-quenched alloy, the magnetic contribution of nanocrystals to the alloy annealed at 823 K was estimated via a linear model

  11. Structure of eutectic alloys of Au with Si and Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, S. [Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1, Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan)], E-mail: takeda@rc.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Fujii, H. [Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1, Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kawakita, Y. [Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1, Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Tahara, S.; Nakashima, S. [Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1, Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kohara, S.; Itou, M. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Koto Sayo-cho, Sayo Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2008-03-06

    Au-Si and Au-Ge alloy systems have a deep eutectic point in the Au-rich concentration region where the melting point falls down to 633 K. In order to investigate the liquid structure in relation to the glass-forming tendency of these alloys, high-energy X-ray diffraction measurements have been carried out at the eutectic composition and at compositions with excess amounts of Au or IVb element. The nearest neighbor correlations in the eutectic liquids are intense and sharp in the pair distribution function and exhibit a rather small temperature dependence in comparison with those alloys of other than the eutectic composition. Structural models for these liquid alloys are proposed with the aid of reverse Monte Carlo simulation. The reproduced atomic arrangements around the eutectic region exhibit a substitutional-type structure where the dense random packing of Au atoms is preserved and Si or Ge atoms occupy the Au-sites at random.

  12. PDF analysis of PuAl alloys local structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platteau, C. [CEA Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)], E-mail: platteau.cyril@yahoo.fr; Bruckel, P.; Ravat, B.; Delaunay, F. [CEA Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2009-03-15

    For understanding singular properties of plutonium, there is a need in studying the average and local atomic structure in Pu alloys. To study the local structure of the {delta} phase, a pair distribution function (PDF) analysis was done and has shown some significant differences with the average structure.

  13. Discontinuous structural phase transition of liquid metal and alloys (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li; Liu, Jiantong

    2004-01-01

    The diameter (d f ) of diffusion fluid cluster before and after phase transition has been calculated in terms of the paper ''Discontinuous structural phase transition of liquid metal and alloy (1)'' Physics Letters. A 326 (2004) 429-435, to verify quantitatively the discontinuity of structural phase transition; the phenomena of thermal contraction and thermal expansion during the phase transition, together with the evolution model of discontinuous structural phase transition are also discussed in this Letter to explore further the nature of structural transition; In addition, based on the viscosity experimental result mentioned in paper [Y. Waseda, The Structure of Non-Crystalline Materials--Liquids and Amorphous Solids, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1980], we present an approach to draw an embryo of the liquid-liquid (L-L) phase diagram for binary alloys above liquidus in the paper, expecting to guide metallurgy process so as to improve the properties of alloys. The idea that controls amorphous structure and its properties by means of the L-L phase diagram for alloys and by the rapid cooling technique to form the amorphous alloy has been brought forward in the end

  14. Periodic Cellular Structure Technology for Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Edward Y.

    2015-01-01

    Shape memory alloys are being considered for a wide variety of adaptive components for engine and airframe applications because they can undergo large amounts of strain and then revert to their original shape upon heating or unloading. Transition45 Technologies, Inc., has developed an innovative periodic cellular structure (PCS) technology for shape memory alloys that enables fabrication of complex bulk configurations, such as lattice block structures. These innovative structures are manufactured using an advanced reactive metal casting technology that offers a relatively low cost and established approach for constructing near-net shape aerospace components. Transition45 is continuing to characterize these structures to determine how best to design a PCS to better exploit the use of shape memory alloys in aerospace applications.

  15. Recent advances in alloy design of Ni{sub 3}Al alloys for structural use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.; George, E.P.

    1996-12-31

    This is a comprehensive review of recent advances in R&D of Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys for structural use at elevated temperatures in hostile environments. Recent studies indicate that polycrystalline Ni{sub 3}Al is intrinsically quite ductile at ambient temperatures, and its poor tensile ductility and brittle grain-boundary fracture are caused mainly by moisture-induced hydrogen embrittlement when the aluminide is tested in moisture- or hydrogen-containing environments. Tensile ductility is improved by alloying with substitutional and interstitial elements. Among these additives, B is most effective in suppressing environmental embrittlement and enhancing grain-boundary cohesion, resulting in a dramatic increase of tensile ductility at room temperature. Both B-doped and B-free Ni{sub 3}Al alloys exhibit brittle intergranular fracture and low ductility at intermediate temperatures (300-850 C) because of oxygen-induced embrittlement in oxidizing environments. Cr is found to be most effective in alleviating elevated-temperature embrittlement. Parallel efforts on alloy development using physical metallurgy principles have led to development of several Ni{sub 3}Al alloys for industrial use. The unique properties of these alloys are briefly discussed. 56 refs, 15 figs, 3 tabs.

  16. Fragility and structure of Al-Cu alloy melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Xiaoqian; Bian Xiufang; Mao Tan; Li Zhenkuan; Guo Jing; Zhao Yan

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic viscosity measurements are performed for Al-Cu alloy melts with different compositions using an oscillating-cup viscometer. The results show that the viscosities of Al-Cu alloy melts increase with the copper content increasing, and also have a correlation with the correlation radius of clusters, which is measured by the high-temperature X-ray diffractometer. It has also been found that the fragilities of superheated melts (M) of hypereutectic Al-Cu alloys increase with the copper content increasing. There exists a relationship between the fragility and the structure in Al-Cu alloy melts. The value of the M reflects the variation of activation energy for viscous flow

  17. Antireflective sub-wavelength structures for improvement of the extraction efficiency and color rendering index of monolithic white light-emitting diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Corell, Dennis Dan; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    We have theoretically investigated the influence of antireflective sub-wavelength structures on a monolithic white light-emitting diode (LED). The simulation is based on the rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) algorithm, and both cylinder and moth-eye structures have been studied in the work. Our...... simulation results show that a moth-eye structure enhances the light extraction efficiency over the entire visible light range with an extraction efficiency enhancement of up to 26 %. Also for the first time to our best knowledge, the influence of sub-wavelength structures on both the color rendering index...

  18. Fatigue damage monitoring of structural aluminum alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С.Р. Ігнатович

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  Results of the experiments directed on creation of a new tool method of fatigue damage diagnostics and an estimation of a residual life of aviation designs are presented. It is shown, that the defo rmation relief formed on a surface of cladding  layer of sheets of constructional alloys Д-16АТ, 2024-Т3, 7075-Т6  can be considered as the metal damage indicator  under cyclically repeating loadings.

  19. Study of structural relaxation in amorphous alloys prepared by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibi, S.; Banaee, N.; Majidy, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: We have prepared amorphous alloy of Al x Cu 1-x (with X= 93, 90, 80, 70, 30) using sputtering system. The rate of growth was 0.7 nm/sec. X-ray diffractometer was used to conform the amorphous nature of the prepared specimens. High temperature annealing can change amorphous to crystalline structure, while low temperature annealing may transform amorphous state to a more stable amorphous state via structural relaxation of the specimen and enhancing the properties of the alloys, such as mechanical ductility etc. Here we have annealed the alloys at temperatures 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 C for 1 hour. We observed that microhardness of the specimen increases with annealing and gets maximum value at 300 C. Our XRD experiments and also earlier Moessbauer studies show that while the average interatomic distances reduces due to annealing, structure remains amorphous

  20. Structural disordering of de-alloyed Pt bimetallic nanocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanos, Ioannis; Dideriksen, Knud; Kirkensgaard, Jacob Judas Kain

    2015-01-01

    composition affects their electrocatalytic performance. The results show that upon contact with acid environment the Co leaches out of the particles leading to almost identical compositions, independent of the initial differences. Surprisingly the data show a clear trend in ORR activity, although the PtxCo1-x...... nanoparticles almost completely de-alloy during acid leaching, i.e. under reaction conditions in a fuel cell. To scrutinize the resulting particle structure after de-alloying we used pair distribution function (PDF) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD) gaining insight into the structural disorder and its...... dependence on the initial metal composition. Our results suggest that not only the ORR activity, but also the corrosion resistance of the synthesized NPs, are dependent on the structural disorder resulting from the de-alloying process....

  1. Origin, Development and Decline of Monolithic Pillars and the Continuity of the Tradition in Polylithic, Non-Lithic and Structural Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krishnamurthy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with one such creations of Man, i.e. the tradition of erecting free standing monolithic pillars - its origin, growth and decline and the continuity of the tradition of erecting such pillars in its changed polylithic (from Greek word polloi = many + lithic = stone, non-lithic and structural forms. No exact reason can be found, pointing it to be the exact cause for the decline in the tradition of erecting monolithic pillar and its transformation. In this paper the authors try to analyse various phenomenon likesocio-political, economic and technical aspects which may have lead to their decline and subsequently their continuity in a changed form in Indian context.

  2. The experimental search for new predicted binary-alloy structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, K. C.; Richey, Lauren; Lang, Candace; Campbell, Branton; Hart, Gus

    2010-10-01

    Predicting new ordered phases in metallic alloys is a productive line of inquiry because configurational ordering in an alloy can dramatically alter their useful material properties. One is able to infer the existence of an ordered phase in an alloy using first-principles calculated formation enthalpies.ootnotetextG. L. W. Hart, ``Where are Nature's missing structures?,'' Nature Materials 6 941-945 2007 Using this approach, we have been able to identify stable (i.e. lowest energy) orderings in a variety of binary metallic alloys. Many of these phases have been observed experimentally in the past, though others have not. In pursuit of several of the missing structures, we have characterized potential orderings in PtCd, PtPd and PtMo alloys using synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction and symmetry-analysis tools.ootnotetextB. J. Campbell, H. T. Stokes, D. E. Tanner, and D. M. Hatch, ``ISODISPLACE: a web-based tool for exploring structural distortions,'' J. Appl. Cryst. 39, 607-614 (2006)

  3. Electronic structure and phase equilibria in ternary substitutional alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traiber, A.J.S.; Allen, S.M.; Waterstrat, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    A reliable, consistent scheme to study phase equilibria in ternary substitutional alloys based on the tight-binding approximation is presented. With electronic parameters from linear muffin-tin orbital calculations, the computed density of states and band structures compare well with those from more accurate abinitio calculations. Disordered alloys are studied within the tight-binding coherent-potential approximation extended to alloys; energetics of ordered systems are obtained through effective pair interactions computed with the general perturbation method; and partially ordered alloys are studied with a novel simplification of the molecular coherent-potential approximation combined with the general perturbation method. The formalism is applied to bcc-based Zr-Ru-Pd alloys which are promising candidates for medical implant devices. Using energetics obtained from the above scheme, we apply the cluster- variation method to study phase equilibria for particular pseudo- binary alloys and show that results are consistent with observed behavior of electronic specific heat coefficient with composition for Zr 0.5 (Ru, Pd) 0.5

  4. Nature of low dimensional structural modulations and relative phase stability in RexMo(W)1-xS2 transition metal dichalcogenide alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Sahu, R.

    2017-03-08

    We report on the various types of Peierls like two dimensional structural modulations and relative phase stability of 2H and 1T poly-types in the RexMo1-xS2 and RexW1-xS2 alloy system. Theoretical calculation predicts a polytype phase transition cross over at ∼50 at. % of Mo and W in ReS2 in both monolayer and bulk form, respectively. Experimentally, two different types of structural modulations at 50% and a modulation corresponding to trimerization at 75% alloy composition are observed for RexMo1-xS2 and only one type of modulation is observed at the 50% RexW1-xS2 alloy system. The 50% alloy system is found to be a suitable monolithic candidate for metal semiconductor transition with minute external perturbation. ReS2 is known to be in the 2D Peierls distorted 1Td structure and forms a chain like superstructure. Incorporation of Mo and W atoms into the ReS2 lattice modifies the metal-metal hybridization between the cations and influences the structural modulation and electronic properties of the system. The results offer yet another effective way to tune the electronic structure and poly-type phases of this class of materials other than intercalation, strain, and vertical stacking arrangement.

  5. Electron microscopy study of hardened layers structure at electrospark alloying the VT-18 titanium alloy with aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilyankevich, A.N.; Martynenko, A.N.; Verkhoturov, A.D.; Paderno, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the results of metallographic, electron-microscopic, and X-ray structure analysis, of microhardness measurements and of the study of the electrode weight changes at electrospark alloying the VT-18 titanium alloy with aluminium. It is shown, that pulsating thermal and mechanical loadings in the process of electrospark alloying result in the electrode surface electroerosion, a discrete relief is being formed, which changes constantly in the process depending on the alloying time. Though with the process time the cathode weight gain increases, microareas of fracture in the hardened layer appear already at the initial stages of electrospark alloying

  6. Monoliths in Bioprocess Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignesh Rajamanickam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic columns are a special type of chromatography column, which can be used for the purification of different biomolecules. They have become popular due to their high mass transfer properties and short purification times. Several articles have already discussed monolith manufacturing, as well as monolith characteristics. In contrast, this review focuses on the applied aspect of monoliths and discusses the most relevant biomolecules that can be successfully purified by them. We describe success stories for viruses, nucleic acids and proteins and compare them to conventional purification methods. Furthermore, the advantages of monolithic columns over particle-based resins, as well as the limitations of monoliths are discussed. With a compilation of commercially available monolithic columns, this review aims at serving as a ‘yellow pages’ for bioprocess engineers who face the challenge of purifying a certain biomolecule using monoliths.

  7. Electronic structure calculations on nitride semiconductors and their alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugdale, D.

    2000-09-01

    Calculations of the electronic properties of AIN, GaN, InN and their alloys are presented. Initial calculations are performed using the first principles pseudopotential method to obtain accurate lattice constants. Further calculations then investigate bonding in the nitrides through population analysis and density of state calculations. The empirical pseudopotential method is also used in this work. Pseudopotentials for each of the nitrides are constructed using a functional form that allows strained material and alloys to be studied. The conventional k.p valence band parameters for both zincblende and wurtzite are obtained from the empirical band structure using two different methods. A Monte-Carlo fitting of the k.p band structure to the pseudopotential data (or an effective mass method for the zincblende structure) is used to produce one set. Another set is obtained directly from the momentum matrix elements and energy eigenvalues at the centre of the Brillouin zone. Both methods of calculating k.p parameters produce band structure in excellent agreement with the original empirical band calculations near the centre of the Brillouin zone. The advantage of the direct method is that it produces consistent sets of parameters, and can be used in studies involving a series of alloy compositions. Further empirical pseudopotential method calculations are then performed for alloys of the nitrides. In particular, the variation of the band gap with alloy composition is investigated, and good agreement with theory and experiment is found. The direct method is used to obtain k.p parameters for the alloys, and is contrasted with the fitting approach. The behaviour of the nitrides under strain is also studied. In particular. valence band offsets for nitride heterojunctions are calculated, and a strong forward- backward asymmetry in the band offset is found, in good agreement with other results in the literature. (author)

  8. Three-Dimensional Cellular Structures Enhanced By Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathal, Michael V.; Krause, David L.; Wilmoth, Nathan G.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Baker, Eric H.

    2014-01-01

    This research effort explored lightweight structural concepts married with advanced smart materials to achieve a wide variety of benefits in airframe and engine components. Lattice block structures were cast from an aerospace structural titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V and a NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA), and preliminary properties have been measured. A finite element-based modeling approach that can rapidly and accurately capture the deformation response of lattice architectures was developed. The Ti-6-4 and SMA material behavior was calibrated via experimental tests of ligaments machined from the lattice. Benchmark testing of complete lattice structures verified the main aspects of the model as well as demonstrated the advantages of the lattice structure. Shape memory behavior of a sample machined from a lattice block was also demonstrated.

  9. Structure analysis of 3104 aluminium alloy applied to deep drawing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klyszewski, A.; Lech-Grega, M.; Zelechowski, J.; Szymanski, W. [Light Metals Div., Skawina (Poland). Inst. of Non-Ferrous Metals

    2000-07-01

    Optical and electron microscopy observations and X-ray investigations of 3104 aluminium alloy ingots and bands after experimental heat treatment were carried out. The influence of ingots homogenisation temperature and parameters of material heat treatment after hot rolling on structure, texture and earing of band 0.3 mm thick was analysed. (orig.)

  10. Characteristics of aluminum alloy microplastic deformation in different structural states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seregin, G.V.; Efimenko, L.L.; Leonov, M.V. [Novosibirsk Pedagogical Inst. (Russian Federation)

    1995-07-01

    The solution to the problem of improving the mechanical properties (including cyclic strength) of structural materials is largely dependent on our knowledge of the laws governing the development of microplastic deformations in them. The effect of heat and mechanical treatment on the elastoplastic properties and fatigue resistance of the commercial aluminum alloys AK4-1 and D16 is analyzed.

  11. Development of monolith with a carbon-nanofiber-washcoat as a structured catalyst support in liquid phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarah nabeel abdul kareem amin, N.A.K.A.; Jarrah, Nabeel A.; van Ommen, J.G.; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2003-01-01

    Washcoats with improved mass transfer properties are necessary to circumvent concentration gradients in case of fast reactions in liquid phase, e.g. nitrate hydrogenation. A highly porous, high surface area (180 m2/g) and thin washcoat of carbon fibers, was produced on a monolith support by methane

  12. Structural and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe–Co–Ni alloy processed by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raanaei, Hossein; Eskandari, Hossein; Mohammad-Hosseini, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    In this present work, a nanostructured iron–cobalt–nickel alloy with Fe_5_0Co_3_0Ni_2_0 composition has been processed by mechanical alloying. The structural and magnetic properties have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. It is shown that the crystallize size reaches to about 18.7 nm after 32 h milling time. A remarkable decrease in coercivity after 16 h milling time and also a continuous increase in remanent magnetization during the mechanical alloying process are observed. Heat treatment of the samples milled at 32 and 48 h demonstrates the crystalline constituent elements and also Fe_3O_4 crystalline phase. - Highlights: • This article focuses on mechanical alloying of Fe_5_0Co_3_0Ni_2_0 composition. • Structural and magnetic properties were investigated. • Saturation magnetization was increased sharply after 16 h of milling time. • The heat treatment revealed the signature of Fe_3O_4 as well as FeNi_3 and Co crystalline phases.

  13. Structural and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe–Co–Ni alloy processed by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raanaei, Hossein, E-mail: hraanaei@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eskandari, Hossein [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammad-Hosseini, Vahid [Department of Physics, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    In this present work, a nanostructured iron–cobalt–nickel alloy with Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 30}Ni{sub 20} composition has been processed by mechanical alloying. The structural and magnetic properties have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. It is shown that the crystallize size reaches to about 18.7 nm after 32 h milling time. A remarkable decrease in coercivity after 16 h milling time and also a continuous increase in remanent magnetization during the mechanical alloying process are observed. Heat treatment of the samples milled at 32 and 48 h demonstrates the crystalline constituent elements and also Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} crystalline phase. - Highlights: • This article focuses on mechanical alloying of Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 30}Ni{sub 20} composition. • Structural and magnetic properties were investigated. • Saturation magnetization was increased sharply after 16 h of milling time. • The heat treatment revealed the signature of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} as well as FeNi{sub 3} and Co crystalline phases.

  14. Work hardening behavior study of structural alloys for cryogenic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, D.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Previous investigation on aluminum-lithium alloys have indicated different dependencies of the work hardening behavior on temperature. This variation in temperature dependence is attributed to differences in microstructure rather than composition. An understanding of the microstructural effect on the observed thermal dependency is important as it may allow the tailoring of deformation properties through mechanical processing. Work hardening analyses on other aluminum alloys and a number of structural steels have been performed to better elucidate the role played by microstructure in determining the work hardening behavior. In the paper correlations between the differences in mechanical behavior and the various microstructures observed are presented

  15. Simulation of Structural Transformations in Heating of Alloy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkin, A. S.; Makarov, E. L.; Kurkin, A. B.; Rubtsov, D. E.; Rubtsov, M. E.

    2017-07-01

    Amathematical model for computer simulation of structural transformations in an alloy steel under the conditions of the thermal cycle of multipass welding is presented. The austenitic transformation under the heating and the processes of decomposition of bainite and martensite under repeated heating are considered. Amethod for determining the necessary temperature-time parameters of the model from the chemical composition of the steel is described. Published data are processed and the results used to derive regression models of the temperature ranges and parameters of transformation kinetics of alloy steels. The method developed is used in computer simulation of the process of multipass welding of pipes by the finite-element method.

  16. Structural changes in heat resisting high nickel alloys during homogenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleshchev, A.S.; Korneeva, N.N.; Yurina, O.M.; Guzej, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    Effect of homogenization on the structure and technological plasticity of the KhN73MBTYu and KhN62BMKTYu alloys during treatment with pressure is investigated taking into account peculiarities if the phase composition. It is shown that homogenization of the KhN73MBTYu and KhN62BMKTYu alloys increases the technological plasticity. Homogenization efficiency is conditioned by the change of the grain boundaries and carbide morphology as well as by homogeneous distribution of the large γ'-phase [ru

  17. Metallurgical structures in a high uranium-silicon alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, B.S.; Berthiaume, L.C.; Conversi, J.L.

    1968-10-01

    The effects of fabrication and heat treatment variables on the structure of a uranium -- 3.96 wt% silicon alloy have been studied using optical microscopy, quantitative metallography and hardness determinations. It has been shown that an optimum temperature exists below the peritectoid temperature where the maximum amount of transformation to U 3 Si occurs in a given period of time. The time required to fully transform an as-cast alloy at this optimum temperature is affected by the size of the primary U 3 Si 2 dendrites. With a U 3 Si 2 particle size of <12 μm complete transformation can be achieved in four hours. (author)

  18. Alloying effect on the electronic structures of hydrogen storage compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukawa, H.; Moringa, M.; Takahashi, Y. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Eng.

    1997-05-20

    The electronic structures of hydrogenated LaNi{sub 5} containing various 3d transition elements were investigated by the DV-X{alpha} molecular orbital method. The hydrogen atom was found to form a strong chemical bond with the Ni rather than the La atoms. The alloying modified the chemical bond strengths between atoms in a small metal octahedron containing a hydrogen atom at the center, resulting in the change in the hydrogen absorption and desorption characteristics of LaNi{sub 5} with alloying. (orig.) 7 refs.

  19. Mossbauer analysis of the atomic and magnetic structure of alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Ovchinnikov, VV

    2007-01-01

    The monograph indicates the key problems that have to be solved for the further development of the Mössbauer methods for analysis of the nuclear and magnetic structure of alloys, and offer solution variants for some of these problems based on the generalised results of a wide range of theoretical and experimental investigations,including original work by the author of the book and his colleagues. Contents 1. Description of the nature of the Mössbauer effect 2. Interpretation of the ossbauer spectra of alloys 3.Electrical and magnetics hyperfine interactions of resonant nuclei in metals and

  20. Prospect of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy applied in reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yuangang

    1995-01-01

    Shape memory effect mechanism, physical property, composition, manufacturing process and application in mechanical structure of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy are introduced. Applications of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy in reactor structure are prospected and some necessary technical conditions of shape memory alloy applied in the reactor structure are put forward initially

  1. Magnetic susceptibility of transition metal alloys with a hcp structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkenshtejn, N.V.; Galoshina, Eh.V.; Gorina, N.B.; Korenovskij, N.L.; Polyakova, V.P.; Savitskij, E.M.

    1978-01-01

    The angular dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of single crystals of Ru-Nb, Re-W and Os-Re alloys is investigated in the region of the hexagonal closely packed structure. The spin susceptibility is estimated on the basis of available data on the electron specific heat. The principal values of the orbital component of the susceptibility are determined under the assumption of isotopy of the spin contribution to the susceptibility. In Ru-Nb alloys the magnitudes of the orbital contributions and the susceptibility anisotropy are found to increase; in Re-W the spin contribution is noticeably greater whereas the orbital susceptibility is smaller, as is the anistropy. In the Os-Re alloy the orbital contributions increase and the susceptibility anisotropy is constant. It is suggested that the addition of the second component changes the overlapping of the d-electron wave functions

  2. Vanadium alloys for structural applications in fusion systems: A review of vanadium alloy mechanical and physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1991-12-16

    The current knowledge is reviewed on (1) the effects of neutron irradiation on tensile strength and ductility, ductile-brittle transition temperature, creep, fatigue, and swelling of vanadium-base alloys, (2) the compatibility of vanadium-base alloys with liquid lithium, water, and helium environments, and (3) the effects of hydrogen and helium on the physical and mechanical properties of vanadium alloys that are potential candidates for structural materials applications in fusion systems. Also, physical and mechanical properties issues are identified that have not been adequately investigated in order to qualify a vanadium-base alloy for the structural material in experimental fusion devices and/or in fusion reactors.

  3. Vanadium alloys for structural applications in fusion systems: A review of vanadium alloy mechanical and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The current knowledge is reviewed on (1) the effects of neutron irradiation on tensile strength and ductility, ductile-brittle transition temperature, creep, fatigue, and swelling of vanadium-base alloys, (2) the compatibility of vanadium-base alloys with liquid lithium, water, and helium environments, and (3) the effects of hydrogen and helium on the physical and mechanical properties of vanadium alloys that are potential candidates for structural materials applications in fusion systems. Also, physical and mechanical properties issues are identified that have not been adequately investigated in order to qualify a vanadium-base alloy for the structural material in experimental fusion devices and/or in fusion reactors

  4. Monolithic fiber optic sensor assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Scott

    2015-02-10

    A remote sensor element for spectrographic measurements employs a monolithic assembly of one or two fiber optics to two optical elements separated by a supporting structure to allow the flow of gases or particulates therebetween. In a preferred embodiment, the sensor element components are fused ceramic to resist high temperatures and failure from large temperature changes.

  5. Structural transformations in quenched Fe-Ga alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lograsso, T.A.; Ross, A.R.; Schlagel, D.L.; Clark, A.E.; Wun-Fogle, M.

    2003-01-01

    It has been speculated that the large increase in magnetostriction in Fe-Ga alloys results from local short-range ordering of the Ga atoms along specific crystallographic directions in the disordered Fe structure. The structural transitions associated with different cooling rates from the high temperature disordered state were investigated with X-ray diffraction of oriented single crystals of Fe-19 at% Ga. Results are presented for long-range ordering during slow cooling and indirect evidence of local short-range ordering of Ga atoms in the disordered state when the alloys are quenched is also presented. In the latter case, the short-range ordering of Ga atoms leads to a tetragonal distortion of the lattice. The dependence of the magnetostrictive response of Fe-Ga alloys on thermal history has been found to be directly related to these structural transformations in Fe-19 at% Ga alloys and experimental support for the proposed magnetostriction model based on Ga-Ga pairing along [100] crystallographic directions is presented

  6. Mechanical properties and structure of magnesium alloy AS31

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hanus

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary materials should possess high mechanical properties, physical and chemical, as well as technological ones, to ensure long and reliable use. The non-ferrous metals alloys used nowadays, including the magnesium alloys, meet the above-mentioned requirements and expectations regarding the contemporary materials.Magnesium alloys are primarily used in aeronautical and automobile industry in wide variety of structural characteristics because of their favorable combination of tensile strength (160 to 365 MPa, elastic modulus (45 GPa, and low density (1 740 kg/m3, which is two-thirds that of aluminum. Magnesium alloys have high strength-to-weight ratio (tensile strength/density, comparable to those of other structural metals. [1-6]Knowledge of the relaxation properties of metal materials at high temperatures is necessary for the verification of susceptibility of castings to the creation of defects during the production process. Temperature limits of materials where highest tension values are generated may be detected with tensile tests under high temperatures. The generated tensions in the casting are a cause of the creation and development of defects. At acoustic emission (hereinafter called the "AE" use, tensile tests at high temperatures may, among other things, be used for analysis of the AE signal sources and set, in more detail, the temperature limit of elastic-plastic deformations existence in the material under examination. The results of the temperature drop where tension at casting cooling is generated or its release at heating are basic data for controlled cooling mode (and temperature of casting knocking out of the form as well as necessary for the thermal mode for the casting tension reduction. [7-9]Knowledge of elastic-plastic properties at elevated temperatures is often important for complex evaluation of magnesium alloys. Objective of the work was focused on determination of changes of elastic-plastic properties of magnesium

  7. Structural and transport properties of Sn-Mg alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meydaneri, F.; Saatci, E.; Oezdemir, M.; Ari, M.; Durmus, S.

    2010-01-01

    The structural and temperature dependence transport of Sn-Mg alloys have been investigated for five different samples (Pure Sn, Sn-1.0 wt % Mg , Sn-2.0 wt % Mg , Sn-6.0 wt.% Mg and Pure Mg). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive x-ray Analysis (EDX) measurements were carried out in order to clarify the structural properties of the samples. It has been found that, the samples have tetragonal crystal symmetry except the pure Mg which has hexagonal crystal symmetry. The cell parameters decrease slightly with addition of Mg element. The SEM micrographs of the samples show that, the samples have smooth surfaces with clear grain boundary. There is no crack, porosity or defects on the surfaces. The electrical resistivity of the samples increases almost linearly with the increasing temperature, which were measured by four-point probe technique. The thermal conductivity values are in between 0.60-1.00 W/Km, which are decrease slightly with temperature and increase with composition of Mg. The thermal conductivity values of the alloys are in between the values of the pure samples. Thermal conductivity results of the alloys have been compared with available other studies and a good agreement has been seen between the results. In addition, the temperature coefficients of electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity have been determined, which are independent with the compositions of alloying elements

  8. Characterization and structure of precipitates in 6xxx Aluminium Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmestad, Randi; Bjørge, Ruben; Ehlers, Flemming J H; Torsæter, Malin; Marioara, Calin D; Andersen, Sigmund J

    2012-01-01

    Solute atom nanoscale precipitates are responsible for the favourable mechanical properties of heat treatable aluminium alloys such as Al-Mg-Si (6xxx). The shape, structure and strengthening properties of age-hardening precipitates depend on alloy composition and thermo-mechanical history. We seek an improved understanding of the physics related to nucleation and precipitation on the atomistic level in these alloys. Once these mechanisms are sufficiently well described and understood, the hope is that 'alloy design' simulations can assist tailoring of materials with desired properties. In pure Al-Mg-Si we have determined the structure of nearly all the known metastable precipitate phases, by combining advanced TEM techniques (such as high resolution TEM and nano-beam diffraction) with atom probe tomography and density functional theory. We are now studying effects of additions /substitutions of Cu, Ag and/or Ge that promote formation of more disordered precipitates, employing aberration corrected high angle annular dark field scanning TEM. We find that all metastable precipitates contain variations of a widely spaced 'Si/Ge network'. In spite of disorder or defects, this network is surprisingly well ordered, with hexagonal projected sub-cell dimensions a = b ≅ 0.4 nm and c (along the fully coherent precipitate main growth direction) equal to 0.405 nm or a multiple of it.

  9. Nanocrystalline Fe-Pt alloys. Phase transformations, structure and magnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubina, J.V.

    2006-12-21

    This work has been devoted to the study of phase transformations involving chemical ordering and magnetic properties evolution in bulk Fe-Pt alloys composed of nanometersized grains. Nanocrystalline Fe{sub 100-x}Pt{sub x} (x=40-60) alloys have been prepared by mechanical ball milling of elemental Fe and Pt powders at liquid nitrogen temperature. The as-milled Fe-Pt alloys consist of {proportional_to} 100 {mu}m sized particles constituted by randomly oriented grains having an average size in the range of 10-40 nm. Depending on the milling time, three major microstructure types have been obtained: samples with a multilayer-type structure of Fe and Pt with a thickness of 20-300 nm and a very thin (several nanometers) A1 layer at their interfaces (2 h milled), an intermediate structure, consisting of finer lamellae of Fe and Pt (below approximately 100 nm) with the A1 layer thickness reaching several tens of nanometers (4 h milled) and alloys containing a homogeneous A1 phase (7 h milled). Subsequent heat treatment at elevated temperatures is required for the formation of the L1{sub 0} FePt phase. The ordering develops via so-called combined solid state reactions. It is accompanied by grain growth and thermally assisted removal of defects introduced by milling and proceeds rapidly at moderate temperatures by nucleation and growth of the ordered phases with a high degree of the long-range order. In a two-particle interaction model elaborated in the present work, the existence of hysteresis in recoil loops has been shown to arise from insufficient coupling between the low- and the high-anisotropy particles. The model reveals the main features of magnetisation reversal processes observed experimentally in exchange-coupled systems. Neutron diffraction has been used for the investigation of the magnetic structure of ordered and partially ordered nanocrystalline Fe-Pt alloys. (orig.)

  10. Monolithically Integrated Ge-on-Si Active Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Monolithically integrated, active photonic devices on Si are key components in Si-based large-scale electronic-photonic integration for future generations of high-performance, low-power computation and communication systems. Ge has become an interesting candidate for active photonic devices in Si photonics due to its pseudo-direct gap behavior and compatibility with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS processing. In this paper, we present a review of the recent progress in Ge-on-Si active photonics materials and devices for photon detection, modulation, and generation. We first discuss the band engineering of Ge using tensile strain, n-type doping, Sn alloying, and separate confinement of Γ vs. L electrons in quantum well (QW structures to transform the material towards a direct band gap semiconductor for enhancing optoelectronic properties. We then give a brief overview of epitaxial Ge-on-Si materials growth, followed by a summary of recent investigations towards low-temperature, direct growth of high crystallinity Ge and GeSn alloys on dielectric layers for 3D photonic integration. Finally, we review the most recent studies on waveguide-integrated Ge-on-Si photodetectors (PDs, electroabsorption modulators (EAMs, and laser diodes (LDs, and suggest possible future research directions for large-scale monolithic electronic-photonic integrated circuits on a Si platform.

  11. Solidified structure of Al-Pb-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Tetsuyuki; Nishi, Seiki; Kumeuchi, Hiroyuki; Tatsuta, Yoshinori.

    1986-01-01

    Al-Pb-Cu alloys were cast into bars or plates in different two metal mold casting processes in order to suppress gravity segregation of Pb and to achieve homogeneous dispersion of Pb phase in the alloys. Solidified structures were analyzed by a video-pattern-analyzer. Plate castings 15 to 20 mm in thickness of Al-Pb-1 % Cu alloy containing Pb up to 5 % in which Pb phase particles up to 10 μm disperse are achieved through water cooled metal mold casting. The plates up to 5 mm in thickness containing Pb as much as 8 to 10 % cast in this process have dispersed Pb particles up to 5 μm in diameter in the surface layer. Al-8 % Pb-1 % Cu alloy bars 40 mm in diameter and 180 mm in height in which gravity segregation of Pb is prevented can be cast by movable and water sprayed metal mold casting at casting temperature 920 deg C and mold moving speed 1.0 mm/s. Pb phase particles 10 μm in mean size are dispersed in the bars. (author)

  12. Structural changes in a copper alloy due to helium implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, D.; Eliezer, D.

    1996-01-01

    The most suitable nuclear fusion reaction for energy production occurs between the two heavy hydrogen isotopes, deuterium and tritium. Structural materials in fusion reactors will be exposed to helium implantation over a broad range of energies. The deformation and partial exfoliation of surface layers due to hydrogen isotopes and helium contribute to the total erosion of the first wall. For this reason, one of the most important criteria in the choice of materials for the first wall of fusion reactors is the material's damage resistance. Recent advances in developing nuclear fusion reactors reveal that efficient heat removal from plasma-facing components is very important. Copper and copper alloys are considered an attractive choice for transporting such a high heat flux without thermal damage as they have high thermal conductivity. In the present study the authors report on the structural changes in a copper alloy, due to the helium implantation on the very near surface area, observed by transmission electron microscopy

  13. Structural models for amorphous transition metal binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching, W.Y.; Lin, C.C.

    1976-01-01

    A dense random packing of 445 hard spheres with two different diameters in a concentration ratio of 3 : 1 was hand-built to simulate the structure of amorphous transition metal-metalloid alloys. By introducing appropriate pair potentials of the Lennard-Jones type, the structure is dynamically relaxed by minimizing the total energy. The radial distribution functions (RDF) for amorphous Fe 0 . 75 P 0 . 25 , Ni 0 . 75 P 0 . 25 , Co 0 . 75 P 0 . 25 are obtained and compared with the experimental data. The calculated RDF's are resolved into their partial components. The results indicate that such dynamically constructed models are capable of accounting for some subtle features in the RDF of amorphous transition metal-metalloid alloys

  14. Monolithic solid-state lasers for spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Stephen, Mark A.; Merritt, Scott; Glebov, Leonid; Glebova, Larissa; Ryasnyanskiy, Aleksandr; Smirnov, Vadim; Mu, Xiaodong; Meissner, Stephanie; Meissner, Helmuth

    2015-02-01

    A new solution for building high power, solid state lasers for space flight is to fabricate the whole laser resonator in a single (monolithic) structure or alternatively to build a contiguous diffusion bonded or welded structure. Monolithic lasers provide numerous advantages for space flight solid-state lasers by minimizing misalignment concerns. The closed cavity is immune to contamination. The number of components is minimized thus increasing reliability. Bragg mirrors serve as the high reflector and output coupler thus minimizing optical coatings and coating damage. The Bragg mirrors also provide spectral and spatial mode selection for high fidelity. The monolithic structure allows short cavities resulting in short pulses. Passive saturable absorber Q-switches provide a soft aperture for spatial mode filtering and improved pointing stability. We will review our recent commercial and in-house developments toward fully monolithic solid-state lasers.

  15. Electron microscope investigation into dislocation structure of cast aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotorevskij, V.S.; Orelkina, T.A.; Istomin-Kastrovskij, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    By applying the diffraction electron microscopy method, the general specific features of the disclocation structure of cast binary alloys of aluminium with different additions were established. It is shown that in most alloys, when they undergo cooling in the process of crystallization at the rate of about 850 deg/min, the cellular dislocation structure is formed. It is shown that in all the alloys studied, the total density of dislocations of one order is about-10 9 cm -2 , which exceeds by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude the value which follows from the Tiller theory of concentration stresses. It has been experimentally established that the contribution of shrinkage and thermal stresses to the formation of a dislocation structure is rather insignificant; yet the dislocation density values calculated according to the size of dendritic cells and the medium angles of their disorientation are close to those determined by the electron-microscopic method. This is the basis for making a supposition that the greater part of the dislocations in castings are formed as a result of comparing dendritic branches with one another, which are disoriented in respect to each other

  16. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program (LA2ST). Research on Materials for the High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.; Kelly, Robert G.; Scully, John R.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Wert, John A.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1986, the NASA-Langley Research Center has sponsored the NASA-UVa Light Alloy and Structures Technology (LA2ST) Program at the University of Virginia (UVa). The fundamental objective of the LA2ST program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light-weight aerospace alloys, composites and thermal gradient structures. The LA2ST program has aimed to product relevant data and basic understanding of material mechanical response, environmental/corrosion behavior, and microstructure; new monolithic and composite alloys; advanced processing methods; measurement and modeling advances; and a pool of educated graduate students for aerospace technologies. The scope of the LA2ST Program is broad. Research areas include: (1) Mechanical and Environmental Degradation Mechanisms in Advanced Light Metals and Composites, (2) Aerospace Materials Science, (3) Mechanics of materials for Aerospace Structures, and (4) Thermal Gradient Structures. A substantial series of semi-annual progress reports issued since 1987 documents the technical objectives, experimental or analytical procedures, and detailed results of graduate student research in these topical areas.

  17. Magnetic structures of holmium-lutetium alloys and superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swaddling, P.P.; Cowley, R.A.; Ward, R.C.C.

    1996-01-01

    Alloys and superlattices of Ho and Lu have been grown using molecular beam epitaxy and their magnetic structures determined using neutron-scattering techniques. The 4f moments in the alloys form a helix at all compositions with the moments aligned in the basal plane perpendicular to the wave vector...... of the helix remaining coherent through the nonmagnetic Lu blocks. The neutron scattering from the superlattices is consistent with a model in which there are different phase advances of the helix turn angle through the Ho and Lu blocks, but with a localized moment on the Ho sites only. A comparison...... of Ho and Lu. At low temperatures, for superlattices with fewer than approximately twenty atomic planes of Ho, the Ho moments within a block undergo a phase transition from helical to ferromagnetic order, with the coupling between successive blocks dependent on the thickness of the Lu spacer....

  18. QuikForm: Intelligent deformation processing of structural alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, R.J.; Wellman, G.W.

    1994-09-01

    There currently exists a critical need for tools to enhance the industrial competitiveness and agility of US industries involved in deformation processing of structural alloys. In response to this need, Sandia National Laboratories has embarked upon the QuikForm Initiative. The goal of this program is the development of computer-based tools to facilitate the design of deformation processing operations. The authors are currently focusing their efforts on the definition/development of a comprehensive system for the design of sheet metal stamping operations. The overall structure of the proposed QuikForm system is presented, and the focus of their thrust in each technical area is discussed.

  19. Monolithic exploding foil initiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, Eric J; Vianco, Paul T; Headley, Paul S; Jarrell, Jason A; Garrity, J. Emmett; Shelton, Keegan P; Marley, Stephen K

    2012-10-23

    A monolithic exploding foil initiator (EFI) or slapper detonator and the method for making the monolithic EFI wherein the exploding bridge and the dielectric from which the flyer will be generated are integrated directly onto the header. In some embodiments, the barrel is directly integrated directly onto the header.

  20. A study of the formation of Cr-surface alloyed layer on structural alloy steel by Co2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.H.; Han, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    In order to improve wear and erosion-resistances of a structural alloy steel (SNCM 8) during heat-cycling, chromium-alloyed layers were produced on the surface by irradiating Co 2 laser. Specimens were prepared either by electroplating of hard-chromium or coating of chromium powders on the steel followed by the laser treatment. Index values, which related the depth and the width of the alloyed layers to the scanning speed of laser, for both samples are experimentally measured. At a fixed scanning speed, while both samples resulted in a similar depth of the alloyed layers, the chromium powder coated specimen showed larger width of the alloyed layer than the chromium electroplated one. The hardness values of the alloyed layers in both samples were slightly lower than that of the martensitic region beneath the alloyed layers. But they are considerably higher than those of steel matrices. Regardless of the prior treatments before laser irradiation, distributions of chromium were fairly uniform throughout the alloyed layers. (Author)

  1. Phosphorus effect on structure and physical properties of iron-nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berseneva, F.N.; Kalinin, V.M.; Rybalko, O.F.

    1982-01-01

    The structure and properties of iron-nickel alloys (30-50 % Ni) containing from 0.02 to 0.5 wt. % P have been investigated. It has been found that phosphorus solubility in iron-nickel alloys at most purified from impurities exceeds limiting solubility values usually observed for commercial alloys. Phosphide eutectics precipitation over the grain boundaries of studied alloys occurs but with phosphorus content equal 0.45 wt. %. The 0.4 wt. % P addition in invar alloys increases saturation magnetization and the Curie point and leads to a more homogeneous structure

  2. Structural formation of aluminide phases on titanium alloy during annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamaeva, A.A.; Romankov, S.E.; Sagdoldina, Zh.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The aluminum layer on the surface of titanium alloy has been formed by thermal deposition. The structural formation of aluminide phases on the surface has been studied. The sequence of structural transformations at the Ti/Al interface is limited by the reaction temperature and time. The sequence of aluminide phase formation is occurred in compliance with Ti-Al equilibrium phase diagram. At the initial stages at the Ti/Al interface the Al3Ti alloy starts forming as a result of interdiffusion, and gradually the whole aluminum films is spent on the formation of this layer. The Al3Ti layer decomposes with the increase of temperature (>600C). At 800C the two-phase (Ti3Al+TiAl) layer is formed on the titanium surface. The TiAl compound is unstable and later on with the increase of the exposure time at 800C gradually transforms into the Ti3Al. The chain of these successive transformations leads to the formation of the continuous homogeneous layer consisting of the Ti3Al compound on the surface. At temperatures exceeding the allotropic transformation temperature (>900C) the Ti3Al compound starts decomposing. All structural changes taking place at the Ti/Al interface are accompanied by considerable changes in micro hardness. The structure of initial substrate influences on kinetics of phase transformation and microstructure development. (author)

  3. Electronic structure of disordered alloys, surfaces and interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Turek, Ilja; Kudrnovský, Josef; Šob, Mojmír; Weinberger, Peter

    1997-01-01

    At present, there is an increasing interest in the prediction of properties of classical and new materials such as substitutional alloys, their surfaces, and metallic or semiconductor multilayers. A detailed understanding based on a thus of the utmost importance for fu­ microscopic, parameter-free approach is ture developments in solid state physics and materials science. The interrela­ tion between electronic and structural properties at surfaces plays a key role for a microscopic understanding of phenomena as diverse as catalysis, corrosion, chemisorption and crystal growth. Remarkable progress has been made in the past 10-15 years in the understand­ ing of behavior of ideal crystals and their surfaces by relating their properties to the underlying electronic structure as determined from the first principles. Similar studies of complex systems like imperfect surfaces, interfaces, and mul­ tilayered structures seem to be accessible by now. Conventional band-structure methods, however, are of limited use ...

  4. Researches focused on structure of aluminium alloys processed by rapid solidification, used in automotive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sfat, C.; Vasile, T.; Vasilescu, M.

    2001-01-01

    The paper present some new results focused on an aluminium high temperature alloy, obtained by 'melt spinning method'. alloy composition, processing conditions, resulted structures and the influence between them are presented. There are studied the two zone structures of the alloy and the relation between processing conditions and the characteristics of the zones, with implications on mechanical behavior in real conditions. The final conclusion show that is possible to control the structure in order to improve material behavior. (author)

  5. Density and Structure Analysis of Molten Ni-W Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng XIAO; Liang FANG

    2004-01-01

    Density of molten Ni and Ni-W alloys was measured in the temperature range of 1773~1873 K with a sessile drop method.The density of molten Ni and Ni-W alloys trends to decrease with increasing temperature. The density and molar volume of the alloys trend to increase with increasing W concentration in the alloys. The calculation result shows an ideal mixing of Ni-W alloys.

  6. Atomic Structure of Au−Pd Bimetallic Alloyed Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Yong

    2010-09-08

    Using a two-step seed-mediated growth method, we synthesized bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) having a gold octahedron core and a palladium epitaxial shell with controlled Pd-shell thickness. The mismatch-release mechanism between the Au core and Pd shell of the NPs was systematically investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. In the NPs coated with a single atomic layer of Pd, the strain between the surface Pd layer and the Au core is released by Shockley partial dislocations (SPDs) accompanied by the formation of stacking faults. For NPs coated with more Pd (>2 nm), the stacking faults still exist, but no SPDs are found. This may be due to the diffusion of Au atoms into the Pd shell layers to eliminate the SPDs. At the same time, a long-range ordered L11 AuPd alloy phase has been identified in the interface area, supporting the assumption of the diffusion of Au into Pd to release the interface mismatch. With increasing numbers of Pd shell layers, the shape of the Au-Pd NP changes, step by step, from truncated-octahedral to cubic. After the bimetallic NPs were annealed at 523 K for 10 min, the SPDs at the surface of the NPs coated with a single atomic layer of Pd disappeared due to diffusion of the Au atoms into the surface layer, while the stacking faults and the L11 Au-Pd alloyed structure remained. When the annealing temperature was increased to 800 K, electron diffraction patterns and diffraction contrast images revealed that the NPs became a uniform Au-Pd alloy, and most of the stacking faults disappeared as a result of the annealing. Even so, some clues still support the existence of the L11 phase, which suggests that the L11 phase is a stable, long-range ordered structure in Au-Pd bimetallic NPs. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  7. The Structure of the Silumin Coat on Alloy Cast Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Szymczak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the analysis results of the structure of the coat obtained by dipping in silumin AlSi5 of two grades of alloy cast steel: GX6CrNiTi18-10 (LH18N9T and GX39Cr13 (LH14. The temperature of the silumin bath was 750±5°C, and the hold-up time of the cast steel element τ = 180 s. The absolute thickness of the coat obtained in the given conditions was g = 104 μm on cast steel GX6CrNiTi18-10 and g = 132 μm on GX39Cr13. The obtained coat consisted of three layers of different phase structure. The first layer from the base “g1`” was constructed of the phase AlFe including Si and alloy additives of the tested cast steel grades: Cr and Ni (GX6CrNiTi18-10 and Cr (GX39Cr13. The second layer “g1``” of intermetallic phases AlFe which also contains Si and Cr crystallizes on it. The last, external layer “g2” of the coat consists of the silumin containing the intermetallic phases AlFeSi which additionally can contain alloy additives of the cast steel. It was shown that there were no carbides on the coat of the tested cast steels which are the component of their microstructure, as it took place in the case of the coat on the high speed steels.

  8. Mechanically stable, hierarchically porous Cu3(btc)2 (HKUST-1) monoliths via direct conversion of copper(II) hydroxide-based monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitra, Nirmalya; Fukumoto, Shotaro; Reboul, Julien; Sumida, Kenji; Zhu, Yang; Nakanishi, Kazuki; Furukawa, Shuhei; Kitagawa, Susumu; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi

    2015-02-28

    The synthesis of highly crystalline macro-meso-microporous monolithic Cu3(btc)2 (HKUST-1; btc(3-) = benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate) is demonstrated by direct conversion of Cu(OH)2-based monoliths while preserving the characteristic macroporous structure. The high mechanical strength of the monoliths is promising for possible applications to continuous flow reactors.

  9. Fabrication and structure of bulk nanocrystalline Al-Si-Ni-mishmetal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latuch, Jerzy; Cieslak, Grzegorz; Kulik, Tadeusz

    2007-01-01

    Al-based alloys of structure consisting of nanosized Al crystals, embedded in an amorphous matrix, are interesting for their excellent mechanical properties, exceeding those of the commercial crystalline Al-based alloys. Recently discovered nanocrystalline Al alloys containing silicon (Si), rare earth metal (RE) and late transition metal (Ni), combine high tensile strength and good wear resistance. The aim of this work was to manufacture bulk nanocrystalline alloys from Al-Si-Ni-mishmetal (Mm) system. Bulk nanostructured Al 91-x Si x Ni 7 Mm 2 (x = 10, 11.6, 13 at.%) alloys were produced by ball milling of nanocrystalline ribbons followed by high pressure hot isostating compaction

  10. Activated Carbon Fiber Monoliths as Supercapacitor Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelines Moreno-Fernandez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers (ACF are interesting candidates for electrodes in electrochemical energy storage devices; however, one major drawback for practical application is their low density. In the present work, monoliths were synthesized from two different ACFs, reaching 3 times higher densities than the original ACFs’ apparent densities. The porosity of the monoliths was only slightly decreased with respect to the pristine ACFs, the employed PVDC binder developing additional porosity upon carbonization. The ACF monoliths are essentially microporous and reach BET surface areas of up to 1838 m2 g−1. SEM analysis reveals that the ACFs are well embedded into the monolith structure and that their length was significantly reduced due to the monolith preparation process. The carbonized monoliths were studied as supercapacitor electrodes in two- and three-electrode cells having 2 M H2SO4 as electrolyte. Maximum capacitances of around 200 F g−1 were reached. The results confirm that the capacitance of the bisulfate anions essentially originates from the double layer, while hydronium cations contribute with a mixture of both, double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance.

  11. The structure of the alphinizing coat on alloy steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper results of the structure of the coat alphinizing in AlSi5 silumin on alloy steels: acid-proof 1H18N9T (X6CrNiTi18-10 and high speed SW18 (HS18-0-1 were presented. The temperature of the alphinizing bath was amounts to750±5°C, and immersion time of the element τ = 180s. It was shown, that there is the different “g” coat thickness on testing steels. On the 1H18N9T steel it amounts to g = 52μm, and on the SW18 steel – g = 203μm. Regardless of a grade of testing alloy steels the coat consist of three layers with diversified phasic structure. There is different chemical composition of coat layers on testing steels. The first layer from the base consist of AlFe phase containing alloy addictions of steels: Cr and Ni (1H18N9T and W, V and Cr (SW18. On this layer crystallize the second layer of intermetallic phases. It is the phase containing the main alloy addiction of steels: AlFeCr (1H18N9T and AlFeW (SW18. The last, outside layer consist of silumin containing AlFeNi intermetallic phases on the 1H18N9T steel and AlFeW on the SW18 steel. Regardless of the grade of testing steels there is Si element in all layers of the coat. There are morphological differences in tested layers. The second layer (AlFeW phase inside the coat on the SW18 steel consist of faced crystals growing into in outside silumin layer. On the 1H18N9T steel a boundary between transient and outside layer is more uniform. Free separations of intermetallic phases inside silumin layer on the 1H18N9T steel have lamellar and on the SW18 steel – faced form.

  12. Features of ultrafine-grained structure forming in Zr-1Nb alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanova, Ekaterina N.; Prosolov, Konstantin A. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Grabovetskaya, Galina P.; Mishin, Ivan P. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Ultrafine-grained structure forming by the method combined reversible hydrogenation and hot pressing in Zr-1Nb alloy was investigated. Preliminary hydrogenation to concentrations of (0.14–0.4) % at 873 K is found to lead to yield strength decreasing in Zr-1Nb alloy during hot pressing by 1,5–2 times. During uniaxial compression at (70–72) % under isothermal conditions at a temperature of 873 K in Zr-1Nb alloy, hydrogenated to concentration of 0.22 %, homogeneous ultrafine grained structure with an average grain size of 0,4 P m was formed. Key words: zirconium alloy, ultrafine-grained structure, hydrogen.

  13. High-Entropy Alloys in Hexagonal Close-Packed Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M. C.; Zhang, B.; Guo, S. M.; Qiao, J. W.; Hawk, J. A.

    2016-07-01

    The microstructures and properties of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) based on the face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic structures have been studied extensively in the literature, but reports on HEAs in the hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure are very limited. Using an efficient strategy in combining phase diagram inspection, CALPHAD modeling, and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, a variety of new compositions are suggested that may hold great potentials in forming single-phase HCP HEAs that comprise rare earth elements and transition metals, respectively. Experimental verification was carried out on CoFeReRu and CoReRuV using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersion spectroscopy.

  14. Precipitation structures and mechanical properties of Al-Li-Zr alloy containing V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, J.K.; Ohashi, T.

    1999-01-01

    It is known that Al-Li alloys possess high elastic modulus and low density, and the metastable δ' (Al 3 Li) precipitate in these alloys affords considerable strengthening effect. However, with the strengthening resulting from the precipitation of δ' which is coherent with the matrix, these alloys suffer from low ductility and fracture toughness. It seems that the loss of ductility is the slip localization which occurs as a result of slip planes during deformation in connection with the specific hardening mechanism. As a result it indicates typical intergranular fracture. On the one hand, zirconium is used in many aluminum alloys to inhibit recrystallization during alloy processing. When zirconium is present in the alloy grain refinement occurs, which consequently, is considered as a factor that reduces the slip distance, and lowers the stress concentration across grain boundaries and at grain boundary triple points. Nevertheless, if only zirconium is added in Al-Li alloy it still shows intergranular fracture. By Zedaris et al., equilibrium phase Al 3 (Zr,V) in Al-Zr alloy containing V reduces the lattice mismatch along the c-axis with Al and, the L1 2 -structure metastable precipitates Al 3 (Zr,V) in Al-Zr-V alloys are stable at elevated temperature. Therefore, it is interesting to elucidate the effect of V in Al-Li-Zr alloy at the precipitation structures and mechanical properties of these alloys

  15. Structure and Mechanical Properties of Al-Cu-Fe-X Alloys with Excellent Thermal Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Školáková

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the structure and mechanical properties of innovative Al-Cu-Fe based alloys were studied. We focused on preparation and characterization of rapidly solidified and hot extruded Al-Cu-Fe, Al-Cu-Fe-Ni and Al-Cu-Fe-Cr alloys. The content of transition metals affects mechanical properties and structure. For this reason, microstructure, phase composition, hardness and thermal stability have been investigated in this study. The results showed exceptional thermal stability of these alloys and very good values of mechanical properties. Alloying by chromium ensured the highest thermal stability, while nickel addition refined the structure of the consolidated alloy. High thermal stability of all tested alloys was described in context with the transformation of the quasicrystalline phases to other types of intermetallics.

  16. Computing elastic anisotropy to discover gum-metal-like structural alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, I. S.; de Jong, M.; Asta, M.; Chrzan, D. C.

    2017-08-01

    The computer aided discovery of structural alloys is a burgeoning but still challenging area of research. A primary challenge in the field is to identify computable screening parameters that embody key structural alloy properties. Here, an elastic anisotropy parameter that captures a material's susceptibility to solute solution strengthening is identified. The parameter has many applications in the discovery and optimization of structural materials. As a first example, the parameter is used to identify alloys that might display the super elasticity, super strength, and high ductility of the class of TiNb alloys known as gum metals. In addition, it is noted that the parameter can be used to screen candidate alloys for shape memory response, and potentially aid in the optimization of the mechanical properties of high-entropy alloys.

  17. Structure and Mechanical Properties of Al-Cu-Fe-X Alloys with Excellent Thermal Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Školáková, Andrea; Novák, Pavel; Mejzlíková, Lucie; Průša, Filip; Salvetr, Pavel; Vojtěch, Dalibor

    2017-11-05

    In this work, the structure and mechanical properties of innovative Al-Cu-Fe based alloys were studied. We focused on preparation and characterization of rapidly solidified and hot extruded Al-Cu-Fe, Al-Cu-Fe-Ni and Al-Cu-Fe-Cr alloys. The content of transition metals affects mechanical properties and structure. For this reason, microstructure, phase composition, hardness and thermal stability have been investigated in this study. The results showed exceptional thermal stability of these alloys and very good values of mechanical properties. Alloying by chromium ensured the highest thermal stability, while nickel addition refined the structure of the consolidated alloy. High thermal stability of all tested alloys was described in context with the transformation of the quasicrystalline phases to other types of intermetallics.

  18. Structure and magnetic properties of nanostructured MnNi alloys fabricated by mechanical alloying and annealing treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, T.; Hossein Nedjad, S.; Khalili Molan, S.

    2013-05-01

    A nearly equiatomic MnNi alloy was fabricated from the elemental powders by means of mechanical alloying in a planetary ball milling apparatus. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and measurements of magnetization were conducted to identify the structural states and properties of the prepared alloys. After ball milling for 20 h, a disordered face-centered cubic (f.c.c.) solid solution was formed which increased in lattice parameter by further milling up to 50 h. An exothermic reaction took place at around 300-400°C during continuous heating of the disordered f.c.c. solid solution. This reaction is attributed to a structural ordering leading to the formation of a face-centered tetragonal (f.c.t.) phase with L10 type ordering. Examination of the magnetic properties indicated that the structural ordering increases remnant magnetization and decreases coerecivity.

  19. Structural investigation of Fe(Cu)ZrB amorphous alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhaj, P. [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Bratislava (Slovakia). Fyzikalny Ustav; Matko, I. [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Bratislava (Slovakia). Fyzikalny Ustav; Svec, P. [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Bratislava (Slovakia). Fyzikalny Ustav; Sitek, J. [Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Slovak Technical University, 81219 Bratislava (Slovakia); Janickovic, D. [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Bratislava (Slovakia). Fyzikalny Ustav

    1996-07-01

    The crystallization process in Fe{sub 86}(Cu{sub 1})Zr{sub 7}B{sub 6} and Fe{sub 87}Zr{sub 7}B{sub 6} is investigated using the methods of transmission electron microscopy, electron and X-ray diffraction and resistometry. Two crystallization reactions take place during thermal annealing of amorphous Fe{sub 86}(Cu{sub 1})Zr{sub 7}B{sub 6} and Fe{sub 87}Zr{sub 7}B{sub 6} alloys. In both alloys the first crystallization begins with the formation of nanocrystalline {alpha}-Fe at temperature to approximately 800 K. The second crystallization starts above 1000 K; the nanocrystalline phase dissolves and together with the remaining amorphous matrix form rough grains of {alpha}-Fe and dispersed Fe{sub 23}Zr{sub 6} phases. From Moessbauer spectroscopy it seems that there exist two neighbourhoods of Fe atoms in the amorphous structure. One of them is characterized by low Zr content and is responsible for the high-field component of the hyperfine field distribution p(H). The second one is rich in Zr and B and is responsible for the low-field component of p(H). This is in accord with the observation of two crystallization steps separated by a large interval of temperatures due to the existence of two chemically different regions or clusters. (orig.)

  20. Structural investigation of Fe(Cu)ZrB amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaj, P.; Janickovic, D.

    1996-01-01

    The crystallization process in Fe 86 (Cu 1 )Zr 7 B 6 and Fe 87 Zr 7 B 6 is investigated using the methods of transmission electron microscopy, electron and X-ray diffraction and resistometry. Two crystallization reactions take place during thermal annealing of amorphous Fe 86 (Cu 1 )Zr 7 B 6 and Fe 87 Zr 7 B 6 alloys. In both alloys the first crystallization begins with the formation of nanocrystalline α-Fe at temperature to approximately 800 K. The second crystallization starts above 1000 K; the nanocrystalline phase dissolves and together with the remaining amorphous matrix form rough grains of α-Fe and dispersed Fe 23 Zr 6 phases. From Moessbauer spectroscopy it seems that there exist two neighbourhoods of Fe atoms in the amorphous structure. One of them is characterized by low Zr content and is responsible for the high-field component of the hyperfine field distribution p(H). The second one is rich in Zr and B and is responsible for the low-field component of p(H). This is in accord with the observation of two crystallization steps separated by a large interval of temperatures due to the existence of two chemically different regions or clusters. (orig.)

  1. A review of the structural characteristics of alloy 800

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, J.

    1978-01-01

    The published literature is reviewed and supplemented by current information from the author's laboratory, to show the influence of various compositional, heat treatment and thermomechanical factors on the structural characteristics of Alloy 800. The features discussed include carbon, aluminium, titanium and boron, solution treatment, ageing treatments with and without applied strain, and cold working. Examples of the aspects reviewed include the effect of heat treatment and service or testing temperature on the austenite grain size, and the relative importance of M 23 C 6 and TiC, the influence of carbon level on gamma prime, the effect of residual or steady stress combined with time at temperature on changes in carbide or gamma prime morphology, and on the appearance of sigma or other intermetallic phases. The questions posed by these features are discussed generally, in terms of their effect on the mechanical properties at ambient and elevated temperatures and on the time-dependent properties. The review also suggests areas where further research work is required on Alloy 800. (Auth.)

  2. Hybrid Spintronic Structures With Magnetic Oxides and Heusler Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Y. B.; Hassan, S. S. A.; Wong, P. K. J.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid spintronic structures, integrating half-metallic magnetic oxides and Heusler alloys with their predicted high spin polarization, are important for the development of second-generation spintronics with high-efficient spin injection. We have synthesized epitaxial magnetic oxide Fe3O4 on Ga......As(100) and the unit cell of the Fe3O4 was found to be rotated by 45 degrees to match the gallium arsenide GaAs. The films were found to have a bulk-like moment down to 3-4 nm and a low coercivity indicating a high-quality magnetic interface. The magnetization hysteresis loops of the ultrathin films...... are controlled by uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. The dynamic response of the sample shows a heavily damped precessional response to the applied field pulses. In the Heusler alloy system of Co-2 MnGa on GaAs, we found that the magnetic moment was reduced for thicknesses down to 10 nm, which may account...

  3. Electronic structure of disordered Fe-V alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, J.C.; Paduani, C.; Schaff, J.; Costa, M.I. Jr. da

    1998-01-01

    The first-principles discrete variational method is employed to investigate the electronic structure and local magnetic properties of disordered Fe-V alloys. The spin-polarized case is considered in the formalism of the local-spin-density approximation, with the exchange-correlation term of von Barth endash Hedin. The effect on the local magnetic properties of adding V atoms in the immediate neighborhood of iron atoms is investigated. The partial density of states, hyperfine field (H c ), magnetic moment (μ), and isomer shift are obtained for the central atom of the cluster. For the impurity V atom in the bcc iron host the calculated values for H c and μ are -203 kG and -0.86μ B , respectively. The isolated Fe atom in a bcc vanadium host exhibits a collapsed moment and acts as a receptor for electrons. In ordered alloys the calculations indicate also a vanishing moment at iron sites. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  4. Recycling of inorganic waste in monolithic and cellular glass-based materials for structural and functional applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Acacio; Marangoni, Mauro; Cetin, Suna; Bernardo, Enrico

    2016-07-01

    The stabilization of inorganic waste of various nature and origin, in glasses, has been a key strategy for environmental protection for the last decades. When properly formulated, glasses may retain many inorganic contaminants permanently, but it must be acknowledged that some criticism remains, mainly concerning costs and energy use. As a consequence, the sustainability of vitrification largely relies on the conversion of waste glasses into new, usable and marketable glass-based materials, in the form of monolithic and cellular glass-ceramics. The effective conversion in turn depends on the simultaneous control of both starting materials and manufacturing processes. While silica-rich waste favours the obtainment of glass, iron-rich wastes affect the functionalities, influencing the porosity in cellular glass-based materials as well as catalytic, magnetic, optical and electrical properties. Engineered formulations may lead to important reductions of processing times and temperatures, in the transformation of waste-derived glasses into glass-ceramics, or even bring interesting shortcuts. Direct sintering of wastes, combined with recycled glasses, as an example, has been proven as a valid low-cost alternative for glass-ceramic manufacturing, for wastes with limited hazardousness. The present paper is aimed at providing an up-to-date overview of the correlation between formulations, manufacturing technologies and properties of most recent waste-derived, glass-based materials. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Recycling of inorganic waste in monolithic and cellular glass‐based materials for structural and functional applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Acacio; Marangoni, Mauro; Cetin, Suna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The stabilization of inorganic waste of various nature and origin, in glasses, has been a key strategy for environmental protection for the last decades. When properly formulated, glasses may retain many inorganic contaminants permanently, but it must be acknowledged that some criticism remains, mainly concerning costs and energy use. As a consequence, the sustainability of vitrification largely relies on the conversion of waste glasses into new, usable and marketable glass‐based materials, in the form of monolithic and cellular glass‐ceramics. The effective conversion in turn depends on the simultaneous control of both starting materials and manufacturing processes. While silica‐rich waste favours the obtainment of glass, iron‐rich wastes affect the functionalities, influencing the porosity in cellular glass‐based materials as well as catalytic, magnetic, optical and electrical properties. Engineered formulations may lead to important reductions of processing times and temperatures, in the transformation of waste‐derived glasses into glass‐ceramics, or even bring interesting shortcuts. Direct sintering of wastes, combined with recycled glasses, as an example, has been proven as a valid low‐cost alternative for glass‐ceramic manufacturing, for wastes with limited hazardousness. The present paper is aimed at providing an up‐to‐date overview of the correlation between formulations, manufacturing technologies and properties of most recent waste‐derived, glass‐based materials. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:27818564

  6. Examination of arrangement of alloy structural elements in models of metallographic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, M.; Gibas, K.; Lybacka, K.; Narbantowicz, E.

    1986-01-01

    To verify the structure description method taking the probability of component concentration distributions in alloys into account, it is necessary to answer the following question: do the geometrical shapes of component arrangement which are visible on the autoradiographs as dark spots determine the type and parameters of the probability distribution. To solve the problem, 14 autoradiographic models representing different shapes of labelled compounds have been prepared and measured. The results show that different structures have a different distribution of the same element

  7. Electronic structure of disordered Cu-Ag alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razee, S.S.A.

    1994-08-01

    We present a self-consistent-field Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent potential approximation study of the electronic structure of disordered Cu x Ag 1-x alloys for x=0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0. In particular, we focus on the Fermi surface, density of states, and Bloch spectral density, and study how they evolve as a function of x. We find that, Fermi surface dimensions have a non-linear composition dependence. The disorder-induced smearing of the Fermi surface, as expected, is very high along the direction; both the Cu and Ag Fermi surfaces have a neck in this direction. Whenever possible we have compared our results with the available experimental data. (author). 34 refs, 4 figs

  8. On the rational alloying of structural chromium-nickel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astaf'ev, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was made on the influence of chromium nickel, phosphorus on the critical brittleness temperature of Cr-Ni-Mo-V structural steels. It is shown that the critical brittleness temperature of these steels increases at chromium content more over than 2% and nickel content more than 2% in the result of carbide transformations during tempering. Increase of nickel content in Cr-Ni-Mo-V-steels strengthens the tendency to embrittlement during slow cooling, from tempering temperature owing to development of process of phosphorus grain-boundary segregation. Two mentioned mechanisms of embrittlement determine principles of rational steel alloying. The extreme dependence of the critical brittleness temperature on chromium and nickel content, which enables to choose the optimum composition of Cr-Ni-Mo-V-steels, was established

  9. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program (LA2ST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Scully, John R.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Thornton, Earl A.; Wawner, Franklin E., Jr.; Wert, John A.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology (LA2ST) Program continues a high level of activity. Progress achieved between 1 Jan. and 30 Jun. 1993 is reported. The objective of the LA2ST Program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light weight aerospace alloys, composites, and thermal gradient structures in collaboration with NASA-Langley researchers. The following projects are addressed: environmental fatigue of Al-Li-Cu alloys; mechanisms of localized corrosion and environmental fracture in Al-Cu-Li-Mg-Ag alloy X2095 and compositional variations; the effect of zinc additions on the precipitation and stress corrosion cracking behavior of alloy 8090; hydrogen interactions with Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 and model alloys; metastable pitting of aluminum alloys; cryogenic fracture toughness of Al-Cu-Li + In alloys; the fracture toughness of Weldalite (TM); elevated temperature cracking of advanced I/M aluminum alloys; response of Ti-1100/SCS-6 composites to thermal exposure; superplastic forming of Weldalite (TM); research to incorporate environmental effects into fracture mechanics fatigue life prediction codes such as NASA FLAGRO; and thermoviscoplastic behavior.

  10. Structural and constitutional studies of some cerium-praseodymium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altunbas, M.; Harris, I.R.

    1980-01-01

    Room temperature X-ray diffraction studies on some powdered Ce-Pr alloys indicate that the face-centred-cubic (fcc) structure extends from 0 to 65% Pr and the double hexagonal (dhcp) structure from 66 to 100% Pr, after a heat treatment of 600 0 C for 2 h and quickly cooling to room temperature. Variations of atomic volume with composition in both ranges indicate that the volume difference between the fcc form of praseodymium and the dhcp form is similar to that observed for α(dhcp) and β(fcc) lanthanum, whereas extrapolation to 100% Ce from the dhcp range gave an atomic volume for the dhcp Ce appreciably in excess of the atomic volume of fcc γ-Ce. This volume expansion is consistent with a slight change of the effective valency of the cerium atoms in the dhcp solid solutions when compared with the γ-Ce but there is uncertainty as to the precise atomic volume of dhcp β-Ce. The DTA studies indicate a narrow liquidus/solidus separation and the electrical resistivity and DTA measurements indicate a regular change with composition in the transition temperature of the high temperature bcc phase. For the dhcp-fcc transition there is a marked variation in the width of the hysteresis loop across the Ce-Pr system which can be correlated with the degree of plastic deformation involved in the transformation. There is a marked increase in the slope of the transition temperature with composition for the Pr-rich alloys and no such transition is observed for the praseodymium samples after one heating cycle. A possible dhcp-fcc transition, however, is indicated by the DTA traces of the commercially pure praseodymium sample on cycling with temperature and this has been attributed to the influence of interstitial impurities. (author)

  11. Robust biomimetic-structural superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingjie; Huang, Tao; Lei, Jinglei; He, Jianxin; Qu, Linfeng; Huang, Peiling; Zhou, Wei; Li, Nianbing; Pan, Fusheng

    2015-01-28

    The following facile approach has been developed to prepare a biomimetic-structural superhydrophobic surface with high stabilities and strong resistances on 2024 Al alloy that are robust to harsh environments. First, a simple hydrothermal treatment in a La(NO3)3 aqueous solution was used to fabricate ginkgo-leaf like nanostructures, resulting in a superhydrophilic surface on 2024 Al. Then a low-surface-energy compound, dodecafluoroheptyl-propyl-trimethoxylsilane (Actyflon-G502), was used to modify the superhydrophilic 2024 Al, changing the surface character from superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity. The water contact angle (WCA) of such a superhydrophobic surface reaches up to 160°, demonstrating excellent superhydrophobicity. Moreover, the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface shows high stabilities in air-storage, chemical and thermal environments, and has strong resistances to UV irradiation, corrosion, and abrasion. The WCAs of such a surface almost remain unchanged (160°) after storage in air for 80 days, exposure in 250 °C atmosphere for 24 h, and being exposed under UV irradiation for 24 h, are more than 144° whether in acidic or alkali medium, and are more than 150° after 48 h corrosion and after abrasion under 0.98 kPa for 1000 mm length. The remarkable durability of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface can be attributed to its stable structure and composition, which are due to the existence of lanthanum (hydr)oxides in surface layer. The robustness of the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface to harsh environments will open their much wider applications. The fabricating approach for such robust superhydrophobic surface can be easily extended to other metals and alloys.

  12. The effect of the solidification mode on eutectic structure in Fe-C-V alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fras, E.; Guzik, E.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine such a chemical composition of Fe-C-V alloys which would ensure the formation of perfectly eutectic structures as well as to investigate the eutectic morphology of these alloys when undergoing bulk and directional solidification. Attempts have been done to get in situ composites from Fe-C-V alloys. The adopted testing methods as well as obtained results are described in detail. (H.M.)

  13. New alloys for structural application. Kikai kozoyo shin kinzoku zairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T [Kogakuin Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-01-15

    As recent advance on the scientific technologies is amazing, the materials having new function or excellent performance have been developed. Speaking on some recent examples, they can be divided roughly to one group belonging to invention of materials themselves such as oxide superconductors and compounds semi-conductors, and the other belonging to the products as invention of epoc-making material manufacturing methods such as noncrystalline alloys and particle dispersion reinforced alloys (ODS). In this report, first, some new metallic materials introduced relatively recently and converting many technical innovations in wide range of machinery field, such as titanium alloys, refractory alloys having nickel group, aluminium-lithium alloys, HSLA steels composed of reduced weight of alloy elements and having higher strengths than those of carbon-steels and various properties, intermetallic materials such as Ni3Al and others are described, and next, mechanical alloying and its particle dispersion reinforced alloys, liquid phase rapid cooling process and its noncrystalline alloy-rapid cooling cohesion powder sintering alloys, and others are summarized under the paths from their birth to present status. 31 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. High density fuels using dispersion and monolithic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Daniel S.; Silva, Antonio T.; Abe, Alfredo Y.; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Giovedi, Claudia; Universidade de São Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Fuel plates used in high-performance research reactors need to be converted to low-enrichment uranium fuel; the fuel option based on a monolithic formulation requires alloys to contain 6 - 10 wt% Mo. In this case, the fuel plates are composed of the metallic alloy U-10Mo surrounded by a thin zirconium layer encapsulated in aluminum cladding. This study reviewed the physical properties of monolithic forms. The constraints produced during the manufacturing process were analyzed and compared to those of dispersed fuel. The bonding process used for dispersion fuels differs from the techniques applied to foil bonding used for pure alloys. The quality of monolithic plates depends on the fabrication method, which usually involves hot isostatic pressing and the thermal annealing effect of residual stress, which degrades the uranium cubic phase. The preservation of the metastable phase has considerable influence on fuel performance. The physical properties of the foil fuel under irradiation are superior to those of aluminum-dispersed fuels. The fuel meat, using zirconium as the diffusion barrier, prevents the interaction layer from becoming excessively thick. The problem with dispersed fuel is breakaway swelling with a medium fission rate. It has been observed that the fuel dispersed in aluminum was minimized in monolithic forms. The pure alloys exhibited a suitable response from a rate at least twice as much as the fission rate of dispersions. The foils can support fissile material concentration combined with a reduced swelling rate. (author)

  15. High density fuels using dispersion and monolithic fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Daniel S.; Silva, Antonio T.; Abe, Alfredo Y.; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Giovedi, Claudia, E-mail: dsgomes@ipen.br, E-mail: teixeira@ipen.br, E-mail: alfredo@ctmsp.mar.mil.br, E-mail: rafael.orm@gmail.com, E-mail: claudia.giovedi@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Naval e Oceânica

    2017-07-01

    Fuel plates used in high-performance research reactors need to be converted to low-enrichment uranium fuel; the fuel option based on a monolithic formulation requires alloys to contain 6 - 10 wt% Mo. In this case, the fuel plates are composed of the metallic alloy U-10Mo surrounded by a thin zirconium layer encapsulated in aluminum cladding. This study reviewed the physical properties of monolithic forms. The constraints produced during the manufacturing process were analyzed and compared to those of dispersed fuel. The bonding process used for dispersion fuels differs from the techniques applied to foil bonding used for pure alloys. The quality of monolithic plates depends on the fabrication method, which usually involves hot isostatic pressing and the thermal annealing effect of residual stress, which degrades the uranium cubic phase. The preservation of the metastable phase has considerable influence on fuel performance. The physical properties of the foil fuel under irradiation are superior to those of aluminum-dispersed fuels. The fuel meat, using zirconium as the diffusion barrier, prevents the interaction layer from becoming excessively thick. The problem with dispersed fuel is breakaway swelling with a medium fission rate. It has been observed that the fuel dispersed in aluminum was minimized in monolithic forms. The pure alloys exhibited a suitable response from a rate at least twice as much as the fission rate of dispersions. The foils can support fissile material concentration combined with a reduced swelling rate. (author)

  16. Fire resistance of prefabricated monolithic slab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravit Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A prefabricated monolithic slab (PMS has a number of valuable advantages, they allow to significantly decrease the weight of construction keeping the necessary structural-load capacity, to speed up and cheapen work conduction, to increase the heat isolating properties of an enclosure structure [1]. In order to create a design method of prefabricated monolithic slab fire-resistance, it's necessary to perform a series of PMS testing, one of which is being described in this article. Subjected to the test is a fragment of prefabricated monolithic slab with polystyrene concrete inserts along the beams with bent metal profile 250 mm thick, with a 2.7 m span loaded with evenly spread load equal to 600 kg/m2. After 3 hour testing for fire-resistance [2] no signs of construction ultimate behavior were detected.

  17. Structure, mechanical properties and grindability of dental Ti-10Zr-X alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, W.-F.; Cheng, C.-H.; Pan, C.-H.; Wu, S.-C.; Hsu, H.-C.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the structure, mechanical properties and grindability of a binary Ti-Zr alloy added to a series of alloying elements (Nb, Mo, Cr and Fe). The phase and structure of Ti-10Zr-X alloys were evaluated using an X-ray diffraction (XRD) for phase analysis and optical microscope for microstructure of the etched alloys. Three-point bending tests were performed using a desk-top mechanical tester. Grindability was evaluated by measuring the amount of metal volume removed after grinding for 1 min at each of the four rotational speeds of the wheel (500, 750, 1000 or 1200 m/min). Results were compared with c.p. Ti, which was chosen as a control. Results indicated that the phase/crystal structure, microstructure, mechanical properties and grindability of the Ti-10Zr alloy can be significantly changed by adding small amounts of alloying elements. The alloying elements Nb, Mo, Cr and Fe contributed significantly to increasing the grinding ratio under all grinding conditions, although the grinding rate of all the metals was found to be largely dependent on grinding speed. The Ti-10Zr-1Mo alloy showed increases in microhardness (63%), bending strength (40%), bending modulus (30%) and elastic recovery angle (180%) over those of c.p. Ti, and was also found to have better grindability. The Ti-10Zr-1Mo alloy could therefore be used for prosthetic dental applications if other conditions necessary for dental casting are met

  18. Electronic structure of the L-cysteine films on dental alloys studied by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, K; Takahashi, K; Azuma, J; Kamada, M; Tsujibayashi, T; Ichimiya, M

    2013-01-01

    The valence electronic structures of the dental alloys, type 1, type 3, K14, and MC12 and their interaction with L-cysteine have been studied by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation. It was found that the electronic structures of the type-1 and type-3 dental alloys are similar to that of polycrystalline Au, while that of the K14 dental alloy is much affected by Cu. The electronic states of the MC12 dental alloy originate dominantly from Cu 3d states and Pd 4d states around the top of the valence bands, while the 4∼7-eV electronic structure of MC12 originates from the Ag 4d states. The peak shift and the change in shape due to alloying are observed in all the dental alloys. For the L-cysteine thin films, new peak or structure observed around 2 eV on all the dental alloys is suggested to be due to the bonding of S 3sp orbitals with the dental alloy surfaces. The Cu-S bond as well as the Au-S and Au-O bonds may cause the change in the electronic structure of the L-cysteine on type 1, type 3 and K14. For MC12, the interaction with L-cysteine may be dominantly due to the Pd-S, Cu-S, and Ag-O bonds, while the contribution of the Ag-S bond is small.

  19. Summary of structural refinement in hi-silicon aluminium piston alloy with phosphorous as grain refiner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, F.A.; Sheikh, S.T.; Choudhry, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminium Silicon Alloys are extensively used in a wide variety of applications. There are numerous variables in composition, production control, final structure which can influence the mechanical properties of Hi - Silicon Piston alloys. Hypereutectic AlSi alloys develop coarse grain primary silicon crystals, which have a strong negative effect on the tensile strength, the ductility, and the hardness. These crystals slow machining and reduce the tool life considerably. Phosphorous addition produce a fine, evenly spread crystal structure, lamellar structure of the silicon changes into a granular structure. (author)

  20. Effect of Iron and Magnesium on Alloy AL9M Structure and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhenov, V. E.; Koltygin, A. V.; Belov, V. D.

    2017-09-01

    The effect of iron impurity on the structure and properties of aluminum alloy AL9M, especially its action on magnesium distribution within the structure, is studied. The microstructure of a cast component of this alloy broken during operation is analyzed. It is shown that iron impurity has an unfavorable effect on structure and mechanical properties of a casting due to appearance of Al9Fe2Si and Al18Fe2Mg7Si10 intermetallics. Formation of these intermetallics consumes a considerable amount of magnesium and lowers the content of the Q(Al5Cu2Mg8Si6) strengthening phase in the alloy structure.

  1. Prospects for zirconium structural alloys at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.R.

    1969-05-01

    Improved station efficiencies and lower capital costs provide incentives for the development of zirconium alloys for pressure tubes which can operate at temperatures above 450 o C. The experience of the Ti industry indicates that a complex alloy containing solution hardeners of Sn or Al and precipitation hardeners of Mo and Nb and perhaps Si will be required. The thermal neutron cross-section of the alloy will be about 10% higher than Zircaloy-2 and because of its poor corrosion resistance will require cladding with a corrosion resistant alloy such as Zr-Cr. Results to date indicate that such a pressure tube is feasible. (author)

  2. The Age-Precipitations Structure Of Al-Mg-Ge Alloy Aged At 473K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawai A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Al-Mg-Ge alloy is one of the age-hardening aluminum alloy after solution heat treatment. It has been proposed that the age-precipitation behavior of Al-Mg-Ge alloy is different from that of Al-Mg-Si alloy according to our previous works about the microstructure on Al-Mg-Ge alloy over-aged at 523K. For example, The hardness of peak aged Al-1.0mass%Mg2Ge alloy is higher than that of Al-1.0mass%Mg2Si alloy. The precipitates in the over-aged samples have been classified as some metastable phases, such as the β’-phase and Type-A precipitates and equilibrium phase of β-Mg2Ge by TEM observation. There a few reports about microstructure on Al-Mg-Ge alloys observed by TEM for different aging times. The age-precipitations structure of Al-Mg-Ge alloy has not been became clear. In this work, TEM observation was investigated the microstructure on Al-1.0mass%Mg2Ge alloy for difference aging times aged at 473K.

  3. Formation and structure of nanocrystalline Al-Mn-Ni-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latuch, J.; Krasnowski, M.; Ciesielska, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the short investigation on the effect of Cu additions upon the nanocrystallization behaviour of an Al-Mn-Ni alloy. 2 at.% Cu added to the base alloy of Al 85 Mn 10 Ni 5 alloy by substitution for Mn(mischmetal). The control of cooling rate did not cause the formation of nanocrystals of fcc-Al phase. The nanocrystalline structure fcc-Al + amorphous phase in quarternary alloy was obtained by isothermal annealing and continuous heating method, but the last technique is more effective. The volume fraction, lattice parameter, and size of Al-phase were calculated. (author)

  4. Structure of tetragonal martensite in the In95.42Cd4.58 cast alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Egorova, L. Yu.; Rodionov, D. P.; Kazantsev, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    The structure of martensite in the In95.42Cd4.58 alloy has been studied by metallography, X-ray diffraction, dilatometry, and transmission electron microscopy. It has been shown that a massive structure built of colonies of tetragonal lamellar plates divided by a twin boundary {101}FCT is formed in the alloy under cooling below the martensite FCC → FCT transition temperature. The alloy recrystallizes after a cycle of FCT → FCC → FCT transitions with a decrease in the grain size by several times compared with the initial structure such fashion that the size of massifs and individual martensite lamella in the massif correlates with the change in the size of the alloy grain. Using thermal cycling, it has been revealed that the alloy tends to stabilize the high-temperature phase.

  5. Damping Properties vs. Structure Fineness of the High-zinc Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.K. Krajewski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is the presentation of relation between the degree of structure fineness and ultrasonic wave dampingcoefficient for the high-zinc aluminium alloys represented in this study by the sand mould cast alloy Al - 20 wt% Zn (AlZn20. Thestudied alloy was refined with a modifying (Al,Zn-Ti3 ternary master alloy, introducing Ti in the amount of 400 pm into metal. Based on the analysis of the initial and modified alloy macrostructure images and ultrasonic testing, it was found that the addition of (Al,Zn-Ti3 master alloy, alongside a significant fragmentation of grains, does not reduce the coefficient of ultrasonic waves with a frequency of 1 MHz.

  6. Electronic structures of the L-cysteine film on dental alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, K., E-mail: e7141@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Synchrotron Light Application Center, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Tsujibayashi, T. [Department of Physics, Osaka Dental University, Osaka 573-1121 (Japan); Takahashi, K.; Azuma, J. [Synchrotron Light Application Center, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Kakimoto, K. [Department of Geriatric Dentistry, Osaka Dental University, Osaka 573-1121 (Japan); Kamada, M. [Synchrotron Light Application Center, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The electronic structures of dental alloys and L-cysteine film were studied by PES. {yields} The density of states in the dental alloy originates from Au and Cu as constituents. {yields} The Cu-3d states contribute dominantly to the occupied states near the Fermi level. {yields} The electronic structure of L-cysteine thin film is different from the thick film. {yields} The bonding between Cu-3d and S-3sp states are formed at the interface. - Abstract: Metal-organic interfaces have been attracting continuous attention in many fields including basic biosciences. The surface of dental alloys could be one of such interfaces since they are used in a circumstance full of organic compounds such as proteins and bacteria. In this work, electronic structures of Au-dominant dental alloys, which have Ag and Cu besides Au, and those of L-cysteine on the dental alloys have been studied by photoelectron spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation. It was found that the density of states in the dental alloy originate from gold and copper as constituents, and the Cu-3d states contribute dominantly to the occupied states near the Fermi level. It was also found that the electronic structure of the L-cysteine thin film on the dental alloy is different from that of the L-cysteine thick film. The result indicates the formation of the orbital bonding between Cu-3d and S-3sp states in the thin film on the dental alloy.

  7. Electronic structures of the L-cysteine film on dental alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, K.; Tsujibayashi, T.; Takahashi, K.; Azuma, J.; Kakimoto, K.; Kamada, M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The electronic structures of dental alloys and L-cysteine film were studied by PES. → The density of states in the dental alloy originates from Au and Cu as constituents. → The Cu-3d states contribute dominantly to the occupied states near the Fermi level. → The electronic structure of L-cysteine thin film is different from the thick film. → The bonding between Cu-3d and S-3sp states are formed at the interface. - Abstract: Metal-organic interfaces have been attracting continuous attention in many fields including basic biosciences. The surface of dental alloys could be one of such interfaces since they are used in a circumstance full of organic compounds such as proteins and bacteria. In this work, electronic structures of Au-dominant dental alloys, which have Ag and Cu besides Au, and those of L-cysteine on the dental alloys have been studied by photoelectron spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation. It was found that the density of states in the dental alloy originate from gold and copper as constituents, and the Cu-3d states contribute dominantly to the occupied states near the Fermi level. It was also found that the electronic structure of the L-cysteine thin film on the dental alloy is different from that of the L-cysteine thick film. The result indicates the formation of the orbital bonding between Cu-3d and S-3sp states in the thin film on the dental alloy.

  8. A Study of Phase Composition and Structure of Alloys of the Al - Mg - Si - Fe System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailybaeva, A. D.; Zolotorevskii, V. S.; Smagulov, D. U.; Islamkulov, K. M.

    2017-03-01

    The Thermo-Calc software is used to compute the phase transformations occurring during cooling of alloys. Polythermal and isothermal sections of the phase diagram of the Al - Mg - Si - Fe system are plotted. The phase composition and the structure of aluminum alloys in cast condition and after a heat treatment are studied experimentally.

  9. Structure and mechanical properties of nanostructured Al-0.3%Cu alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakeel, Aneela; Huang, Tianlin; Wu, Guilin

    2014-01-01

    An Al-0.3%Cu alloy has been produced using extremely high purity (99.9996%) Al and OFHC Cu.The alloy was cold rolled to 98% thickness reduction, forming a stable lamellar structure that has a lamellar boundary spacing of about 200nm and a tensile strength of 225MPa. During recovery annealing at t...

  10. The influence of chemical composition on the properties and structure Al-Si-Cu(Mg alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kaczorowski

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of different chemical composition AlSiCuMg type cast alloys after precipitation hardening are presented. The aim of the study was to find out how much the changes in chemistry of aluminum cast alloys permissible by EN-PN standards may influence the mechanical properties of these alloys. Eight AlSi5Cu3(Mg type cast alloys of different content alloying elements were selected for the study. The specimens cut form test castings were subjected to precipitation hardening heat treatment. The age hardened specimens were evaluated using tensile test, hardness measurements and impact test. Moreover, the structure investigation were carried out using either conventional light Metallography and scanning (SEM and transmission (TEM electron microscopy. The two last methods were used for fractography observations and precipitation process observations respectively. It was concluded that the changes in chemical composition which can reach even 2,5wt.% cause essential differences of the structure and mechanical properties of the alloys. As followed from quantitative evaluation and as could be predicted theoretically, copper and silicon mostly influenced the mechanical properties of AlSi5Cu3(Mg type cast alloys. Moreover it was showed that the total concentration of alloying elements accelerated and intensifies the process of decomposition of supersaturated solid solution. The increase of Cu and Mg concentration increased the density of precipitates. It increases of strength properties of the alloys which are accompanied with decreasing in ductility.

  11. Effect of structure and alloying elements on void formation in austenitic steels and nickel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, V.; Azam, N.; Le Naour, L.; Didout, G.; Delaplace, J.

    1977-01-01

    In the development of the fast breeder reactors the phenomenon of metal swelling due to the formation of radiation induced voids is a large problem. In the complex alloys small fluctuations in composition can have a considerable effect on swelling and a great deal of investigation on the effect of both major and minor alloying elements is needed to be able to predict swelling. To provide more insight a research program involving irradiation of both commercial or specially cast alloys by 500 keV Ni + ions or 1 MeV electrons has been developed. The major results are presented

  12. Highlighting micrographic structures of uranium-zirconium alloys with 6 per cent of weight of Zr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouleau, Maurice

    1961-01-01

    In order to study the transformation kinetics of U-Zr alloys with a Zr content of 6 per cent in weight, the authors searched for a slow enough electrolytic polishing bath, and for an attack and examination method to highlight martensite structures produced by austempering and water tempering, and ultra-fine decomposition structures obtained by austempering. The authors explain the choice of a perchloric-butyl glycol polishing bath, of an examination under polarized light or normal light after appropriate attacks. These studies are reported for annealed alloys, and for processed alloys with martensite or ultra-fine decomposition structures [fr

  13. On the atomic structure of liquid Ni-Si alloys: a neutron diffraction study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, S.; Marczinke, J.; Hennet, L.; Hoyer, W.; Cuello, G. J.

    2009-09-01

    The atomic structure of the liquid NiSi and NiSi2 alloys is investigated by means of neutron diffraction experiments with isotopic substitution. From experimental data-sets obtained using four Ni isotopes, partial structure factors and pair correlation functions are obtained by applying a reverse Monte Carlo modelling approach. Both alloys were found to exhibit a strong tendency to hetero-coordination within the first coordination shell. In particular, covalent Si-Si bonds with somewhat greater distances seem to influence the structure of the liquid NiSi alloy.

  14. On the atomic structure of liquid Ni-Si alloys: a neutron diffraction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruner, S; Marczinke, J; Hoyer, W [Institute of Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Hennet, L [CNRS-CEMHTI, University of Orleans, F-45071 Orleans (France); Cuello, G J, E-mail: sascha.gruner@physik.tu-chemnitz.d [Institute Laue-Langevin, PO Box 156, F-38042 Grenoble (France)

    2009-09-23

    The atomic structure of the liquid NiSi and NiSi{sub 2} alloys is investigated by means of neutron diffraction experiments with isotopic substitution. From experimental data-sets obtained using four Ni isotopes, partial structure factors and pair correlation functions are obtained by applying a reverse Monte Carlo modelling approach. Both alloys were found to exhibit a strong tendency to hetero-coordination within the first coordination shell. In particular, covalent Si-Si bonds with somewhat greater distances seem to influence the structure of the liquid NiSi alloy.

  15. Structure and radiation induced swelling of steels and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshin, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Regularities of vacancy void formation and radiation induced swelling of austenitic chromium-nickel steels and alloyse ferritic steels as well as titanium α-alloys under radiation by light and heavy ions and neutrons are considered. Possible methods for preparation of alloys with increased resistance to radiation swelling are described. Accounting for investigations into ferritic steels and α-alloys of titanium the basic way of weakening vacancy smelling is development of continuous homogeneous decomposition of solid solution using alloying with vividly expressed incubation period at a certain volumetric dilatation as well as decompositions of the type of ordering, K-state, lamination of solid solutions, etc. Additional alloying of solid solutions is also shown to be necessary for increasing recrystallization temperature of cold-deformed steel

  16. Strength properties and structure of a submicrocrystalline Al-Mg-Mn alloy under shock compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, A. N.; Brodova, I. G.; Razorenov, S. V.

    2017-06-01

    The results of studying the strength of a submicrocrystalline aluminum A5083 alloy (chemical composition was 4.4Mg-0.6Mn-0.11Si-0.23Fe-0.03Cr-0.02Cu-0.06Ti wt % and Al base) under shockwave compression are presented. The submicrocrystalline structure of the alloy was produced in the process of dynamic channel-angular pressing at a strain rate of 104 s-1. The average size of crystallites in the alloy was 180-460 nm. Hugoniot elastic limit σHEL, dynamic yield stress σy, and the spall strength σSP of the submicrocrystalline alloy were determined based on the free-surface velocity profiles of samples during shock compression. It has been established that upon shock compression, the σHEL and σy of the submicrocrystalline alloy are higher than those of the coarse-grained alloy and σsp does not depend on the grain size. The maximum value of σHEL reached for the submicrocrystalline alloy is 0.66 GPa, which is greater than that in the coarse-crystalline alloy by 78%. The dynamic yield stress is σy = 0.31 GPa, which is higher than that of the coarse-crystalline alloy by 63%. The spall strength is σsp = 1.49 GPa. The evolution of the submicrocrystalline structure of the alloy during shock compression was studied. It has been established that a mixed nonequilibrium grain-subgrain structure with a fragment size of about 400 nm is retained after shock compression, and the dislocation density and the hardness of the alloy are increased.

  17. Structural characteristics and elevated temperature mechanical properties of AJ62 Mg alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubásek, J., E-mail: Jiri.Kubasek@vscht.cz; Vojtěch, D.; Martínek, M.

    2013-12-15

    Structure and mechanical properties of the novel casting AJ62 (Mg–6Al–2Sr) alloy developed for elevated temperature applications were studied. The AJ62 alloy was compared to commercial casting AZ91 (Mg–9Al–1Zn) and WE43 (Mg–4Y–3RE) alloys. The structure was examined by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectrometry. Mechanical properties were characterized by Viskers hardness measurements in the as-cast state and after a long-term heat treatment at 250 °C/150 hours. Compressive mechanical tests were also carried out both at room and elevated temperatures. Compressive creep tests were conducted at a temperature of 250 °C and compressive stresses of 60, 100 and 140 MPa. The structure of the AJ62 alloy consisted of primary α-Mg dendrites and interdendritic nework of the Al{sub 4}Sr and massive Al{sub 3}Mg{sub 13}Sr phases. By increasing the cooling rate during solidification from 10 and 120 K/s the average dendrite arm thickness decreased from 18 to 5 μm and the total volume fraction of the interdendritic phases from 20% to 30%. Both factors slightly increased hardness and compressive strength. The room temperature compressive strength and hardness of the alloy solidified at 30 K/s were 298 MPa and 50 HV 5, i.e. similar to those of the as-cast WE43 alloy and lower than those of the AZ91 alloy. At 250 °C the compressive strength of the AJ62 alloy decreased by 50 MPa, whereas those of the AZ91 and WE43 alloys by 100 and 20 MPa, respectively. The creep rate of the AJ62 alloy was higher than that of the WE43 alloy, but significantly lower in comparison with the AZ91 alloy. Different thermal stabilities of the alloys were discussed and related to structural changes during elevated temperature expositions. - Highlights: • Small effect of cooling rate on the compressive strength and hardness of AJ 62 • A bit lower compressive strength of AJ 62 compared to AZ91 at room temperature • Higher resistance of the AJ 62

  18. Constitution, structure and magnetic properties of some rare-earth - cobalt-aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.; Harris, I.R.

    1982-01-01

    The constitution and structure of the alloys represented by the formulae Cesub(1-x)Alsub(x)Co 5 and Prsub(1-x)Alsub(x)Co 5 (where 0 = 5 produces a mixture of the 1:5 and 2:17 phases based on CeCo 5 and Ce 2 Co 17 ; there are two variations of the 2:17 phase which are isostructural with the hexagonal Th 2 Ni 17 -type and rhombohedral Th 2 Zn 17 -type phases. At the composition Cesub(0.76)Alsub(0.24)Co 5 (4 at % Al) the alloy consists only of the 2:17-type phases and metallographically the alloy is one phase in appearance. Further substitution of Al results in the precipitation of an fcc phase, based on the Co-Al solid solution, in the 2:17 matrix. The crystal structures of the Prsub(1-x)Alsub(x)Co 5 alloys are very similar to those of the equivalent cerium alloys. The metallographic structures of the Pr alloys in the composition range 1 to 3 at % Al show significant differences from the corresponding Ce alloys. Determination of the Curie temperatures of the Rsub(1-x)Alsub(x)Co 5 alloys (R = Ce and Pr) in the composition range 0 = 5 and PrCo 5 phases. (author)

  19. Prospects for designing structural cast eutectic alloys on Al-Ce-Ni system base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, N.A.; Naumova, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    The phase diagram of Al-Ce-Ni system is built for an aluminium corner at component concentration up to 16 mass %Ce and 8 mass%Ni. A ternary eutectic reaction is established at 12%Ce, 5%Ni and 626 deg C. The ternary eutectic alloy is similar in structure to rapidly cooled Al base alloys with transition metals. The possibility to design new cast alloys based on three-phase (Al)+NiAl 3 +CeAl 4 eutectics is under consideration. Al-Zn-Mg-Cu, Al-Sc and Al-Zr base alloys can be used as (Al) constituent of the eutectics. The new alloys may be considered as heat resistant ones due to the fact that no structural changes are observed in castings on heating up to 350 deg C. 18 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  20. Relationship between structural properties and electrochemical characteristics of monolithic carbon xerogel-based electrochemical double-layer electrodes in aqueous and organic electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeller, Mario [Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research e.V. (ZAE Bayern), Wuerzburg (Germany); Institute of Radiology, University Clinic, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Lorrmann, Volker; Reichenauer, Gudrun; Wiener, Matthias [Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research e.V. (ZAE Bayern), Wuerzburg (Germany); Pflaum, Jens [Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research e.V. (ZAE Bayern), Wuerzburg (Germany); Department of Experimental Physics VI, Julius-Maximilians-University of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    The impact of the micropore width, external surface area, and meso-/macropore size on the charging performance of electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) electrodes is systematically investigated. Nonactivated carbon xerogels are used as model electrodes in aqueous and organic electrolytes. Monolithic porous model carbons with different structural parameters are prepared using a resorcinol-formaldehyde-based sol-gel process and subsequent pyrolysis of the organic precursors. Electrochemical properties are characterized by utilizing them as EDLC half-cells operated in aqueous and organic electrolytes, respectively. Experimental data derived for organic electrolytes reveals that the respective ions cannot enter the micropores within the skeleton of the meso- and macroporous carbons. Therefore the total capacitance is limited by the external surface formed by the interface between the meso-/macropores and the microporous carbon particles forming the xerogel skeleton. In contrast, for aqueous electrolytes the total capacitance solely depends on the total surface area, including interfaces at the micropore scale. For both types of electrolytes the charging rate of the electrodes is systematically enhanced when increasing the diameter of the carbon xerogel particles from 10 to 75 nm and the meso-/macropore size from 10 to 121 nm. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Crystal Structural Effect of AuCu Alloy Nanoparticles on Catalytic CO Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Wangcheng; Wang, Jinglin; Wang, Haifeng; Zhang, Jinshui; Liu, Xiaofei

    2017-01-01

    Controlling the physical and chemical properties of alloy nanoparticles (NPs) is an important approach to optimize NP catalysis. Unlike other tuning knobs, such as size, shape, and composition, crystal structure has received limited attention and not been well understood for its role in catalysis. This deficiency is mainly due to the difficulty in synthesis and fine-tuning of the NPs’ crystal structure. Here, Exemplifying by AuCu alloy NPs with face centered cubic (fcc) and face centered tetragonal (fct) structure, we demonstrate a remarkable difference in phase segregation and catalytic performance depending on the crystal structure. During the thermal treatment in air, the Cu component in fcc-AuCu alloy NPs segregates more easily onto the alloy surface as compared to that in fct-AuCu alloy NPs. As a result, after annealing at 250 °C in air for 1 h, the fcc- and fct-AuCu alloy NPs are phase transferred into Au/CuO and AuCu/CuO core/shell structures, respectively. More importantly, this variation in heterostructures introduces a significant difference in CO adsorption on two catalysts, leading to a largely enhanced catalytic activity of AuCu/CuO NP catalyst for CO oxidation. Furthermore, the same concept can be extended to other alloy NPs, making it possible to fine-tune NP catalysis for many different chemical reactions.

  2. Crystal Structural Effect of AuCu Alloy Nanoparticles on Catalytic CO Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Wangcheng [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Wang, Jinglin [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Wang, Haifeng [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Jinshui [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Xiaofei [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhang, Pengfei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chi, Miaofang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guo, Yanglong [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Guo, Yun [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Lu, Guanzhong [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Sun, Shouheng [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Dai, Sheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Zhu, Huiyuan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-07

    Controlling the physical and chemical properties of alloy nanoparticles (NPs) is an important approach to optimize NP catalysis. Unlike other tuning knobs, such as size, shape, and composition, crystal structure has received limited attention and not been well understood for its role in catalysis. This deficiency is mainly due to the difficulty in synthesis and fine-tuning of the NPs’ crystal structure. Here, Exemplifying by AuCu alloy NPs with face centered cubic (fcc) and face centered tetragonal (fct) structure, we demonstrate a remarkable difference in phase segregation and catalytic performance depending on the crystal structure. During the thermal treatment in air, the Cu component in fcc-AuCu alloy NPs segregates more easily onto the alloy surface as compared to that in fct-AuCu alloy NPs. As a result, after annealing at 250 °C in air for 1 h, the fcc- and fct-AuCu alloy NPs are phase transferred into Au/CuO and AuCu/CuO core/shell structures, respectively. More importantly, this variation in heterostructures introduces a significant difference in CO adsorption on two catalysts, leading to a largely enhanced catalytic activity of AuCu/CuO NP catalyst for CO oxidation. Furthermore, the same concept can be extended to other alloy NPs, making it possible to fine-tune NP catalysis for many different chemical reactions.

  3. New ternary ordered structures in CuMPt6 (M=3d elements) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Ananda Kumar; Nakamura, Reo; Takahashi, Miwako; Ohshima, Ken-ichi; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Shishido, Toetsu

    2006-01-01

    X-ray and electron diffraction measurements were performed to investigate the structure and ordering behaviour of the ternary alloys CuMPt 6 (M=Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni). X-ray polycrystalline diffraction patterns of all the speciments quenched from 1000degC have shown that a single phase is formed at this stoichiometric composition. The alloys with M=Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni have the face-centred cubic (fcc) structure, while in the alloys with M=Ti, V, and Fe ordering has occurred and the structure is of the Cu 3 Au type. On annealing at lower temperatures ordering has been induced in the alloys with M=Cr, Mn, and Co and the structure is of the Cu 3 Au type, though the ordering in the last alloy has remained incomplete. Detailed X-ray diffraction measurements on single crystals of the CuMnPt 6 alloy have revealed that further ordering takes place and structure changes from the Cu 3 Au type into the cubic ABC 6 type with the unit cell as large 2 x 2 x 2 as the fcc unit cell, a new observation of the double-step ordering in the ternary fcc alloy. The corresponding transition temperatures are T c =970(±5)degC and T cl =750(±5)degC. (author)

  4. Structure, mechanical properties, and grindability of dental Ti-Zr alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wen-Fu; Chen, Wei-Kai; Wu, Shih-Ching; Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan

    2008-10-01

    Structure, mechanical properties and grindability of a series of binary Ti-Zr alloys with zirconium contents ranging from 10 to 40 wt% have been investigated. Commercially pure titanium (c.p. Ti) was used as a control. Experimental results indicated that the diffraction peaks of all the Ti-Zr alloys matched those for alpha Ti. No beta-phase peaks were found. The hardness of the Ti-Zr alloys increased as the Zr contents increased, and ranged from 266 HV (Ti-10Zr) to 350 HV (Ti-40Zr). As the concentration of zirconium in the alloys increased, the strength, elastic recovery angles and hardness increased. Moreover, the elastically recoverable angle of Ti-40Zr was higher than of c.p. Ti by as much as 550%. The grindability of each metal was found to be largely dependent on the grinding conditions. The Ti-40Zr alloy had a higher grinding rate and grinding ratio than c.p. Ti at low speed. The grinding rate of the Ti-40Zr alloy at 500 m/min was about 1.8 times larger than that of c.p. Ti, and the grinding ratio was about 1.6 times larger than that of c.p. Ti. Our research suggested that the Ti-40Zr alloy has better mechanical properties, excellent elastic recovery capability and improved grindability at low grinding speed. The Ti-40Zr alloy has a great potential for use as a dental machining alloy.

  5. Development of GaInNAsSb alloys: Growth, band structure, optical properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, James S. Jr.; Kudrawiec, R.; Yuen, H.B.; Bank, S.R.; Bae, H.P.; Wistey, M.A.; Jackrel, D.; Pickett, E.R.; Sarmiento, T.; Goddard, L.L.; Lordi, V.; Gugov, T.

    2007-01-01

    In the past few years, GaInNAsSb has been found to be a potentially superior material to both GaInNAs and InGaAsP for communications wavelength laser applications. It has been observed that due to the surfactant role of antimony during epitaxy, higher quality material can be grown over the entire 1.2-1.6 μm range on GaAs substrates. In addition, it has been discovered that antimony in GaInNAsSb also works as a constituent that significantly modifies the valence band. These findings motivated a systematic study of GaInNAsSb alloys with widely varying compositions. Our recent progress in growth and materials development of GaInNAsSb alloys and our fabrication of 1.5-1.6 μm lasers are discussed in this paper. We review our recent studies of the conduction band offset in (Ga,In) (N,As,Sb)/GaAs quantum wells and discuss the growth challenges of GaInNAsSb alloys. Finally, we report record setting long wavelength edge emitting lasers and the first monolithic VCSELs operating at 1.5 μm based on GaInNAsSb QWs grown on GaAs. Successful development of GaInNAsSb alloys for lasers has led to a much broader range of potential applications for this material including: solar cells, electroabsorption modulators, saturable absorbers and far infrared optoelectronic devices and these are also briefly discussed in this paper. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Development of GaInNAsSb alloys: Growth, band structure, optical properties and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, James S. Jr.; Kudrawiec, R.; Yuen, H.B.; Bank, S.R.; Bae, H.P.; Wistey, M.A.; Jackrel, D.; Pickett, E.R.; Sarmiento, T.; Goddard, L.L.; Lordi, V.; Gugov, T. [Solid State and Photonics Laboratory, Stanford University, CIS-X 328, Via Ortega, Stanford, California 94305-4075 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    In the past few years, GaInNAsSb has been found to be a potentially superior material to both GaInNAs and InGaAsP for communications wavelength laser applications. It has been observed that due to the surfactant role of antimony during epitaxy, higher quality material can be grown over the entire 1.2-1.6 {mu}m range on GaAs substrates. In addition, it has been discovered that antimony in GaInNAsSb also works as a constituent that significantly modifies the valence band. These findings motivated a systematic study of GaInNAsSb alloys with widely varying compositions. Our recent progress in growth and materials development of GaInNAsSb alloys and our fabrication of 1.5-1.6 {mu}m lasers are discussed in this paper. We review our recent studies of the conduction band offset in (Ga,In) (N,As,Sb)/GaAs quantum wells and discuss the growth challenges of GaInNAsSb alloys. Finally, we report record setting long wavelength edge emitting lasers and the first monolithic VCSELs operating at 1.5 {mu}m based on GaInNAsSb QWs grown on GaAs. Successful development of GaInNAsSb alloys for lasers has led to a much broader range of potential applications for this material including: solar cells, electroabsorption modulators, saturable absorbers and far infrared optoelectronic devices and these are also briefly discussed in this paper. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Exploration and Development of High Entropy Alloys for Structural Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B. Miracle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a strategy to design and evaluate high-entropy alloys (HEAs for structural use in the transportation and energy industries. We give HEA goal properties for low (≤150 °C, medium (≤450 °C and high (≥1,100 °C use temperatures. A systematic design approach uses palettes of elements chosen to meet target properties of each HEA family and gives methods to build HEAs from these palettes. We show that intermetallic phases are consistent with HEA definitions, and the strategy developed here includes both single-phase, solid solution HEAs and HEAs with intentional addition of a 2nd phase for particulate hardening. A thermodynamic estimate of the effectiveness of configurational entropy to suppress or delay compound formation is given. A 3-stage approach is given to systematically screen and evaluate a vast number of HEAs by integrating high-throughput computations and experiments. CALPHAD methods are used to predict phase equilibria, and high-throughput experiments on materials libraries with controlled composition and microstructure gradients are suggested. Much of this evaluation can be done now, but key components (materials libraries with microstructure gradients and high-throughput tensile testing are currently missing. Suggestions for future HEA efforts are given.

  8. Structure and growth of oxide on iron-chromium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, M.G.C.; McEnaney, B.; Scott, V.D.

    1974-01-01

    Several oxides form during the initial stages of oxidation of iron-chromium alloys at 400 to 600 0 C in CO 2 -1%CO gas. The nature of the oxidation product depends upon crystallographic orientation and composition of the substrate, and can be explained by considering the maximum solubility of chromium in different oxide phases together with interfacial and strain energy factors. Kinetics of oxidation together with micrographic observations indicate that, as oxidation proceeds spinel oxide M 3 O 4 nucleates at sites on the substrate surface associated with asperities. The spinel nuclei grow laterally and vertically until they coalesce and the scale subsequently thickens according to a parabolic rate law. The duplex structure of scales is interpreted in terms of an outward diffusion of cations together with simultaneous growth of an inner layer in the space created by this outward movement. Scale porosity provides a route for gas-phase transport of oxidant to support the growth of the inner layer. Regularly spaced lamellar voids which may form in the inner layer are believed to be associated with a cyclic vacancy condensation process. Enrichment of the inner layer in chromium is explained by analysis of the possible diffusion path networks in close-packed oxides. Some comments are made concerning possible practical applications of these data. (author)

  9. Nucleation and growth of fatigue cracks in magnesium alloys of different structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinberg, N.M.; Serdyuk, V.A.; Malinkina, T.I.; Kamyshkov, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    Duration of the fatigue crack nucleation and growth rate have been in a wide range of stress intensity factor variations for MA2-1, MA2-1 hp (higher purity), MA12, (T2, T6 and T8), MA15, IMB6, MA21 magnesium alloys of different composition and structural state. The threshold and criti- cal values of stress intensity factors, Ksub(th) and Ksub(fc) are determined for those alloys, and morphology of fracture is studied at different stages of crack growth. Duration of the nucleation stage of a fatigue crack, the rate and micromechanisms of its growth are found to depedend on alloying and structural state of magnesium alloys. The best crack resistance characteristics has the MA2-1 alloy, the poorest - MA12 (T2) alloy. It is stated that thermal treatment by hardening and ageing increases the resistance of the MA12 alloy to fatigue fracture and the MA2-1 alloy of higher purity gives poorer parameters of crack resistance [ru

  10. A two potential embedding approach to the electronic structure of disordered binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.; Mookerjee, A.

    1988-06-01

    Using an embedding technique introduced in a recent publication by one of us, we study the electronic structure of disordered binary alloys within a pair-cluster coherent potential approximation. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs

  11. Special quasirandom structures for binary/ternary group IV random alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.; Jiang, Chao; Grimes, Robin W.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2010-01-01

    Simulation of defect interactions in binary/ternary group IV semiconductor alloys at the density functional theory level is difficult due to the random distribution of the constituent atoms. The special quasirandom structures approach is a

  12. Structural and magnetic properties of holmium-scandium alloys and superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryn-Jacobsen, C.; Cowley, R.A.; McMorrow, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    The properties of Ho-Sc alloys and superlattices grown by molecular-beam epitaxy have been investigated using x-ray and neutron-diffraction techniques. Structural studies reveal that the alloy samples have different a lattice parameters for the Sc-seed layer and the Ho:Sc alloy grown on top...... of the seed layer; while the superlattices have different a lattice parameters for the Sc seed, and for both the Ho and Sc in the superlattice layers. The structural characteristics are related to the large lattice mismatches (of the order 7%) between the constituent elements. The magnetic moments...

  13. Pore structure and mechanical properties of directionally solidified porous aluminum alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komissarchuk Olga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous aluminum alloys produced by the metal-gas eutectic method or GASAR process need to be performed under a certain pressure of hydrogen, and to carry over melt to a tailor-made apparatus that ensures directional solidification. Hydrogen is driven out of the melt, and then the quasi-cylindrical pores normal to the solidification front are usually formed. In the research, the effects of processing parameters (saturation pressure, solidification pressure, temperature, and holding time on the pore structure and porosity of porous aluminum alloys were analyzed. The mechanical properties of Al-Mg alloys were studied by the compressive tests, and the advantages of the porous structure were indicated. By using the GASAR method, pure aluminum, Al-3wt.%Mg, Al-6wt.%Mg and Al-35wt.%Mg alloys with oriented pores have been successfully produced under processing conditions of varying gas pressure, and the relationship between the final pore structure and the solidification pressure, as well as the influences of Mg quantity on the pore size, porosity and mechanical properties of Al-Mg alloy were investigated. The results show that a higher pressure of solidification tends to yield smaller pores in aluminum and its alloys. In the case of Al-Mg alloys, it was proved that with the increasing of Mg amount, the mechanical properties of the alloys sharply deteriorate. However, since Al-3%Mg and Al-6wt.%Mg alloys are ductile metals, their porous samples have greater compressive strength than that of the dense samples due to the existence of pores. It gives the opportunity to use them in industry at the same conditions as dense alloys with savings in weight and material consumption.

  14. Structure and Mechanical Properties of Al-Cu-Fe-X Alloys with Excellent Thermal Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Školáková, Andrea; Novák, Pavel; Mejzlíková, Lucie; Průša, Filip; Salvetr, Pavel; Vojtěch, Dalibor

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the structure and mechanical properties of innovative Al-Cu-Fe based alloys were studied. We focused on preparation and characterization of rapidly solidified and hot extruded Al-Cu-Fe, Al-Cu-Fe-Ni and Al-Cu-Fe-Cr alloys. The content of transition metals affects mechanical properties and structure. For this reason, microstructure, phase composition, hardness and thermal stability have been investigated in this study. The results showed exceptional thermal stability of these allo...

  15. Photoelectron spectroscopic study on the electronic structures of the dental gold alloys and their interaction with L-cysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Koji; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Azuma, Junpei; Kamada, Masao; Tsujibayashi, Toru; Ichimiya, Masayoshi; Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Sumimoto, Michinori

    2011-01-01

    The valence electronic structures of the dental gold alloys, type 1, type 3, and K14, and their interaction with L-cysteine have been studied by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation. It was found that the electronic structures of the type-1 and type-3 dental alloys are similar to that of polycrystalline Au, while that of the K14 dental alloy is much affected by Cu. The peak shift and the change in shape due to alloying are observed in all the dental alloys. It is suggested that the new peak observed around 2 eV for the L-cysteine thin films on all the dental alloys may be due to the bonding of S 3sp orbitals with the dental alloy surfaces, and the Cu-S bond, as well as the Au-S and Au-O bonds, may cause the change in the electronic structure of the L-cysteine on the alloys.

  16. Life cycle assessment of metal alloys for structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malovrh Rebec, K.; Markoli, B.; Leskovar, B.

    2018-03-01

    The study compared environmental footprints of two types of Al-alloys: well-known 5083 aluminium alloy with magnesium and traces of manganese and chromium in its composition. This material is highly resistant to seawater corrosion and the influence of industrial chemicals. Furthermore, it retains exceptional strength after welding. The comparisons were made to an innovative alloy where the aluminium based matrix is reinforced by metastable quasicrystals (QC), thus avoiding magnesium in its composition. Furthermore, we checked other aluminium ingots’ footprints and compared European average and Germany country specific production data. Environmental footprints were assessed via cradle to gate life cycle assessment. Our findings normalized to 1 m2 plate suggest, that newly proposed alloy could save around 50 % in value of parameters abiotic resources depletion of fossil fuels, acidification, eutrophication, global warming potential and photochemical ozone creation potential if we compare Qc5 to 6 mm 5083 alloy plate. Only abiotic resources depletion of elements and ozone depletion parameters increase for Qc5 compared to 6 mm 5083 alloy plate.

  17. Structure, activity, and stability of platinum alloys as catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vej-Hansen, Ulrik Grønbjerg

    In this thesis I present our work on theoretical modelling of platinum alloys as catalysts for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR). The losses associated with the kinetics of the ORR is the main bottleneck in low-temperature fuel cells for transport applications, and more active catalysts...... are essential for wide-spread use of this technology. platinum alloys have shown great promise as more active catalysts, which are still stable under reaction conditions. We have investigated these systems on multiple scales, using either Density Functional Theory (DFT) or Effective Medium Theory (EMT......), depending on the length and time scales involved. Using DFT, we show how diffusion barriers in transition metal alloys in the L12 structure depend on the alloying energy, supporting the assumption that an intrinsically more stable alloy is also more stable towards diffusion-related degradation...

  18. Electronic structure and properties of disordered alloys of d-elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demidenko, V.S.; Kal'yanov, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of coherent potential approximation the fundamental characteristics in which transition element alloys differ have been established. Connection of the characteristics with position of the elements alloyed in the Mendeleev table is considered. It is confirmed by calculations that electronic structure and, consequently, physical properties of the alloys of a certain value potential disturbing matrix, change qualitatively. Results of the calculation of electron energy state density, diagrams of partial and average magnetic momenta in binary and ternary alloys of the first transition period, are presented. Besides, calculation results of bond energy in d-metals and energy of segregation formation in their alloys are also given. Comparison with experiment confirms the efficiency of concepts given in the paper

  19. Development of weldable, corrosion-resistant iron-aluminide alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maziasz, P.J.; Goodwin, G.M.; Wang, X.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Corrosion-resistant, weldable FeAl alloys have been developed with improved high-temperature strength industrial applications. Previous processing difficulties with these alloys led to their evaluation as weld-overlay claddings on conventional structural steels to take advantage of their good properties now. Simplified and better processing methods for monolithic FeAl components are also currently being developed so that components for industrial testing can be made. Other avenues for producing FeAl coatings are currently being explored. Neutron scattering experiments residual stress distributions in the FeAl weld-overlay cladding began in FY 1993 and continued this year.

  20. Influence of melting and filtration processes on the structure and mechanical properties of aluminum alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dudyk

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article are presented the results of the study on the applied upgrading processes such as refining, modification and filtration of thenear eutectics alloy EN AC- 44000, AlSi11, (AK11, cast into the chill. The upgrading processes applied to the said alloy caused, incomparison to the alloy which was not upgraded, significant differences in the shape of the crystallization curves, obtained in the graphicrecord of the ATD-AED method. It was demonstrated the existence of connections between the thermal and electric phenomena duringsolidification and crystallization of the studied silumin. The obtained results of the metallographic analysis showed the occurrence of theimpurities within the alloy structure in the form of porosity and oxides following the metallurgical processing (in pig sows. The primarystudies on microstructure of the cast ceramic filters have demonstrated the purposefulness of introduction of the filtration process to thetechnology of aluminum alloys manufacturing. The microstructures of the filters cast with the studied alloys illustrate the extent anddeployment of the impurities retained (in the filter during the process of samples casting for measurement of the mechanical strengthproperties. On the example of the near eutectics alloy AK11, it has been demonstrated, that in comparison to the refined alloy there isa possibility to obtain significant improvement of mechanical properties, and especially elongation A5 and impact strength KCV.

  1. Structural transformations of heat treated Co-less high entropy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrica, D.; Tudor, A.; Rinaldi, A.; Soare, V.; Predescu, C.; Berbecaru, A.; Stoiciu, F.; Badilita, V.

    2018-03-01

    Co is considered to be one of the main ingredients in superalloys. Co is considered a critical element and its substitution is difficult due to its unique ability to form high temperature stable structures with high mechanical and corrosion/oxidation resistance. High entropy alloys (HEA) represent a relatively new concept in material design. HEA are characterised by a high number of alloying elements, in unusually high proportion. Due to their specific particularities, high entropy alloys tend to form predominant solid solution structures that develop potentially high chemical, physical and mechanical properties. Present paper is studying Co-less high entropy alloys with high potential in severe environment applications. The high entropy alloys based on Al-Cr-Fe-Mn-Ni system were prepared by induction melting and casting under protective atmosphere. The as-cast specimens were heat treated at various temperatures to determine the structure and property behaviour. Samples taken before and after heat treatment were investigated for chemical, physical, structural and mechanical characteristics. Sigma phase composition and heat treatment parameters had major influence over the resulted alloy structure and properties.

  2. Dislocation structure evolution and characterization in the compression deformed Mn-Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Y.; Yin, F.; Sakaguchi, T.; Nagai, K.; Yang, K.

    2007-01-01

    Dislocation densities and dislocation structure arrangements in cold compressed polycrystalline commercial M2052 (Mn-20Cu-5Ni-2Fe) high damping alloy with various strains were determined in scanning mode by X-ray peak profile analysis and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results indicate that the Mn-Cu-Ni-Fe alloy has an evolution behavior quite similar to the dislocation structure in copper. The dislocation arrangement parameter shows a local minimum in the transition range between stages III and IV that can be related to the transformation of the dislocation arrangement in the cell walls from a polarized dipole wall (PDW) into a polarized tile wall (PTW) structure. This evolution is further confirmed by the results of local misorientation determined by EBSD. In addition, during deformation, the multiplication of dislocation densities in the MnCu alloy is significantly slower than that in copper, and the transition of the dislocation structure is strongly retarded in the MnCu alloy compared with copper. These results can be explained by the mechanism of elastic anisotropy on the dislocation dynamics, as the elastic anisotropy in the MnCu alloy is larger than that in copper, which can strongly retard the multiplication of the dislocation population and the transformation of the dislocation structure. These results are important for research into the plastic working behavior of Mn-Cu-Ni-Fe high damping alloy

  3. Structure of disordered alloys - II: self-consistent CCPA calculations for III-V semiconducting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mookerjee, A.; Chaudhry, V.

    1980-09-01

    Using the chemical pseudopotential approach of Anderson and Bullett we have generated from first principles pseudo-Hamiltonians for heteropolar alloys. The one-electron density of states has been generated for Gasub(x)Insub(1-x)As using a self-consistent cluster CPA introduced earlier by one of us. Off-diagonal disorder has also been incorporated. (author)

  4. The structure and mechanical properties of as-cast Zr-Ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, H.-C.; Wu, S.-C.; Sung, Y.-C.; Ho, W.-F.

    2009-01-01

    This study has investigated the structure and mechanical properties of pure Zr and a series of binary Zr-Ti alloys in order to determine their potential application as dental implant materials. The titanium contents of these alloys range from 10 to 40 wt.% and were prepared by arc melting in inert gas. This study evaluated the phase and structure of these Zr-Ti alloys using an X-ray diffraction (XRD) for phase analysis, and an optical microscope for microstructure analysis of the etched alloys. Three-point bending tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of all specimens. The experimental results indicated that the pure Zr and Zr-10Ti comprised entirely of an acicular hexagonal structure of α' phase. When the Ti content increased to 20 wt.%, a significant amount of β phase was retained. However, when the Ti content increased to 40 wt.%, only the equi-axed, retained β phase was observed in the cast alloy. Moreover, the hardness values and bending strengths of the Zr-Ti alloys decreased with an increasing Ti content. Among pure Zr and Zr-Ti alloys, the α'-phase Zr-10Ti alloy has the greatest hardness and bending strength. The pure Zr and Zr-Ti alloys exhibit a similar elastic modulus ranging from 68 GPa (Zr-30Ti) to 78 GPa (Zr-40Ti). Based on the results of elastic moduli, pure Zr and Zr-Ti alloys are found to be suitable for implant materials due to lower modulus. Like bending strength, the elastically recoverable angle of Zr-Ti alloys decreased as the concentration of Ti increased. In the current search for a better implant material, the Zr-10Ti alloy exhibited the highest bending strength/modulus ratios as large as 25.3, which are higher than that of pure Zr (14.9) by 70%, and commercially pure Ti (8.7) by 191%. Thus, Zr-Ti alloy's low modulus, ductile property, excellent elastic recovery capability and impressive strength confirm that it is a promising candidate for dental implant materials.

  5. Influence of different carbon monolith preparation parameters on pesticide adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukčević Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of carbon monolith for pesticide removal from water, and the mechanism of pesticide interaction with carbon surface were examined. Different carbon monolith samples were obtained by varying the carbonization and activation parameters. In order to examine the role of surface oxygen groups in pesticide adsorption, carbon monolith surface was functionalized by chemical treatment in HNO3, H2O2 and KOH. The surface properties of the obtained samples were investigated by BET surface area, pore size distribution and temperature-programmed desorption. Adsorption of pesticides from aqueous solution onto activated carbon monolith samples was studied by using five pesticides belonging to different chemical groups (acetamiprid, dimethoate, nicosulfuron, carbofuran and atrazine. Presented results show that higher temperature of carbonization and the amount of activating agent allow obtaining microporous carbon monolith with higher amount of surface functional groups. Adsorption properties of the activated carbon monolith were more readily affected by the amount of the surface functional groups than by specific surface area. Results obtained by carbon monolith functionalisation showed that π-π interactions were the main force for adsorption of pesticides with aromatic structure, while acidic groups play an important role in adsorption of pesticides with no aromatic ring in the chemical structure.

  6. Structure and grindability of cast Ti-5Cr-xFe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, H.-C.; Pan, C.-H.; Wu, S.-C.; Ho, W.-F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the structure, microhardness and grindability of Ti-5Cr and a series of ternary Ti-5Cr-xFe alloys with 0.1, 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 wt.% Fe, respectively. This study evaluated the phase and structure of Ti-5Cr and Ti-5Cr-xFe alloys, using an X-ray diffraction (XRD) for phase analysis and optical microscope for microstructure of the etched alloys. In addition, grindability was evaluated by measuring the amount of metal volume removed after grinding for 1 min at each of the four rotational speeds of the wheel (500, 750, 1000 or 1200 m/min), with the goal of developing a titanium alloy with better machinability than commercially pure titanium (c.p. Ti). The results showed that the structure of Ti-5Cr-xFe alloys is sensitive to the Fe content. With Fe contents higher than 0.5 wt.%, the equi-axed β phase is entirely retained, while ω phase was found in the Ti-5Cr, Ti-5Cr-0.1Fe, Ti-5Cr-0.5Fe and Ti-5Cr-1Fe alloys. The largest quantity of ω phase and highest microhardness were found in Ti-5Cr-0.5Fe and Ti-5Cr-1Fe alloys. The grinding rates of the Ti-5Cr and Ti-5Cr-xFe alloys showed a similar tendency to the microhardness. The Ti-5Cr, Ti-5Cr-0.1Fe, Ti-5Cr-0.5Fe and Ti-5Cr-1Fe alloys exhibited the best grindability, especially at 500, 750 and 1000 m/min. Furthermore, the grindability of the tested metals increased in proportion to grinding speed up to 1000 m/min, with a decrease after 1200 m/min. This study concluded that Fe may be used to harden titanium and improve the grindability

  7. Monolith electroplating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarrwal, Rajev R.

    2001-01-01

    An electroplating process for preparing a monolith metal layer over a polycrystalline base metal and the plated monolith product. A monolith layer has a variable thickness of one crystal. The process is typically carried in molten salts electrolytes, such as the halide salts under an inert atmosphere at an elevated temperature, and over deposition time periods and film thickness sufficient to sinter and recrystallize completely the nucleating metal particles into one single crystal or crystals having very large grains. In the process, a close-packed film of submicron particle (20) is formed on a suitable substrate at an elevated temperature. The temperature has the significance of annealing particles as they are formed, and substrates on which the particles can populate are desirable. As the packed bed thickens, the submicron particles develop necks (21) and as they merge into each other shrinkage (22) occurs. Then as micropores also close (23) by surface tension, metal density is reached and the film consists of unstable metal grain (24) that at high enough temperature recrystallize (25) and recrystallized grains grow into an annealed single crystal over the electroplating time span. While cadmium was used in the experimental work, other soft metals may be used.

  8. The corrosion behaviour and structure of amorphous and thermally treated Fe-B-Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicheff, R.; Zaprianova, V.; Petrova, E.

    2003-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of magnetic amorphous alloys Fe 78 B 13 Si 9 , Fe 81 B 13 Si 4 C 2 and Fe 67 Co 18 Bi 4 S 1 obtained by rapid quenching from the melts are investigated in a model corrosive environment of 1N H 2 SO 4 . The structure of the alloys, is, characterized by DTA, SEM, TEM, X-ray and electron diffraction techniques. The dissolution kinetics of the,alloys is studied using gravimetric and electrochemical polarization measurements. It is established that the corrosion rate of the amorphous Fe 67 Co 18 Bt 4 S 1 alloy is up to 50 times lower than that of Fe 78 Bi 3 Si 9 alloy and the addition of cobalt leads to a considerable reduction of the rates of both partial corrosion reactions, while the addition of carbon results only in a moderate decrease (2-3 times) of the corrosion rate. It is also shown that the crystallization of the amorphous Fe 78 B 13 Si 9 alloy (at 700 o C for 3 h) leads to formation of multiphase structure consisting of crystalline phases α-Fe and Fe 3 (B,Si). After crystallization an increase of the rate of both hydrogen evolution and anodic dissolution reactions is observed which results in a considerable (an order of magnitude) increase of the corrosion rate of the alloy. (Original)

  9. The effect of thermohydrogen treatment on the structure and properties of casts obtained from titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'in, A.A.; Skvortsova, S.V.; Mamonov, A.M.; Permyakova, G.V.; Kurnikov, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    The method based on the combination of high temperature gas-static and thermal hydrogen treatments is suggested to increase mechanical properties of cast pseudo-α and (α+β)-titanium alloys. The study is carried out using alloys VT20L, VT23L and alloy Ti-6%Al-2%Mo-4%Zr-2%Sn. It is shown that the method proposed provides the change in a cast structure, an increase in density of castings, an increase of strength properties by 10-20% and fatigue by a factor of 1.5-2 at satisfactory ductility and impact strength [ru

  10. Structural transformations and temperature state of rotating blades of E1893 alloy under operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigrova, G.D.; Rybnikov, A.I.; Kryukov, I.I. [Polzunov Central Boiler and Turbine Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    The composition and quantity of different phase component of EI893 alloy after long term operation as base metal for rotating blades of gas turbines GT-6, GTN-9, GTK-10 and GT-100 types were studied. The obtained date were analysed with regard to the chemical composition of alloys and of initial condition of heat treatment. Data of metal phase analysis owned alter operation can provide the basis for evaluation of tempera field of rotating blades in the course of operation since structural condition of phase components and redistribution of alloying elements are being specified by temperature and in-service time. (orig.)

  11. The influence of interfacial energies and gravitational levels on the directionally solidified structures in hypermonotectic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J. B.; Curreri, P. A.; Sandlin, A. C.

    1988-01-01

    Various Cu-Pb-Al alloys were directionally solidified under 1-g conditions and alternating high-g/low-g conditions (achieved using NSAS's KC-135 aircraft) as a means of studying the influence of interfacial energies and gravitational levels on the resulting microstructures. Directional solidification of low Al content alloys was found to result in samples with coarser more irregular microstructures than in alloys with high Al contents under all the gravity conditions considered. Structures are correlated with interfacial energies, growth rates, and gravitational levels.

  12. Investigation of structural transformations in the Nb-Ti-Al alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergasova, L.L.; Volin, Eh.M.; Chizhov, I.N.; Lokshina, A.E.

    1975-01-01

    There are given the results of investigating the effect of thermal treatment conditions upon the structure, the phase composition and the mechanical characteristic of VN7 alloy from Nb-Ti-Al system. VN7 alloy was investigated in cast, forged, pressed and rolled state to study the β-α-conversion processes at slow cooling from high temperature. It was found out that slow cooling lowers considerably the plastic characteristic and the impact ductility without changing practically the tensile strength values. Higher plastic characteristic of VN7 alloy can be obtained through hastening the cooling process of the intermediate products after annealing at 950-1050 0 C

  13. Structural transformations and temperature state of rotating blades of E1893 alloy under operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigrova, G D; Rybnikov, A I; Kryukov, I I [Polzunov Central Boiler and Turbine Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1999-12-31

    The composition and quantity of different phase component of EI893 alloy after long term operation as base metal for rotating blades of gas turbines GT-6, GTN-9, GTK-10 and GT-100 types were studied. The obtained date were analysed with regard to the chemical composition of alloys and of initial condition of heat treatment. Data of metal phase analysis owned alter operation can provide the basis for evaluation of tempera field of rotating blades in the course of operation since structural condition of phase components and redistribution of alloying elements are being specified by temperature and in-service time. (orig.)

  14. Structural Investigation of Rapidly Quenched FeCoPtB Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabias, A.; Kopcewicz, M.; Latuch, J.; Oleszak, D.

    2011-01-01

    Two sets of Fe 52-x Co x Pt 28 B 20 (x = 0-26 at.%) and Fe 60-x Co x Pt 25 B 15 (x = 0-40 at.%) alloys were prepared in the form of ribbons by the rapid quenching technique. Structure of the samples was characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. In the as-quenched alloys the amorphous phase coexisted with the fcc-(Fe,Co)Pt disordered solid solution. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements performed in the range 50-720 ± C revealed one or two exothermal peaks. The magnetically hard ordered L1 0 (Fe,Co)Pt and magnetically soft (Fe,Co) 2 B nanocrystalline phases were formed due to thermal treatment of the alloys. The influence of Co content on the structure of the as-quenched and heated alloys was studied. (authors)

  15. Effect of the structure on the low-cycle fatigue behaviour of alloy 800

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, G.; Mathiot, A.; Regnard, C.; Dessus, J.; Claret, J.

    1982-04-01

    Alloy 800 (grade I) is used for making the steam generators of liquid metal fast breeder reactors. At working temperature (525 0 C) alloy 800 is strengthned by γ' (Ni 3 (Ti,Al)) precipitation which occurs during thermal aging. The mechanical properties of this alloy depend on the parameters which define the γ' precipitation and obviously on the structural characteristics due to the thermomechanical treatments which govern the manufacture of the product. For one cast of alloy 800 this work aims to analyse the influence, on low cycle fatigue behaviour at 550 0 C, of structural and microstructural variations originating either in different elaboration procedures or in γ' precipitation obtained by a thermal aging of 3000h at 550 0 C with or without a preceeding cold working of 10% [fr

  16. Chromium surface alloying of structural steels during laser treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurov, I.E.; Nagornykh, S.N.; Sivukhin, G.A.; Solenov, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    Results of matrix alloying from the surface layer and creation of considerably increased chromium concentration in the depth which permits to increase the efficiency of laser treatment of steels (12Kh18N10T and 38KhN3M) in the process of their further mechanical polishing, are presented. The treatment was realized by continuous CO 2 -laser at different power densities and scanning rates are presented. A model describing the creation of anomalous distributions of the alloying element in steels is plotted

  17. Structural and magnetic study of mechanically deformed Fe rich FeAlSi ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarra, E.; Apiñaniz, E.; Plazaola, F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Addition of Si to binary Fe–Al alloys makes the disordering more difficult. ► Si addition opposes the large volume increase found in FeAl alloys with deformation. ► Disordering induces a redistribution of non-ferrous atoms around Fe atoms in Fe 75 Al 25−x Si x and Fe 70 Al 30−x Si x . ► Addition of Si to binary Fe 75 Al 25 and Fe 70 Al 30 alloys opposes the magnetic behavior induced by Al in the magnetism of Fe. ► Si inhibits the para-ferro transition found in Fe 60 Al 40 alloy with disordering. - Abstract: In this work we study systematically the influence of different Al/Si ratios on the magnetic and structural properties of mechanically disordered powder Fe 75 Al 25−x Si x , Fe 70 Al 30−x Si x and Fe 60 Al 40−x Si x alloys by means of Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. In order to obtain different stages of disorder the alloys were deformed by different methods: crushing induction melted alloys and ball milling annealed (ordered) alloys using different number of balls and speed. X-ray and Mössbauer data show that mechanical deformation induces the disordered A2 structure in these alloys. The results indicate that addition of Si to binary Fe–Al alloys makes the disordering more difficult. In addition, X-ray diffraction patterns show that the normalized lattice parameter variation of the disordered alloys of each composition decreases monotonically with Si content, indicating clearly that Si addition opposes the large volume increase found in FeAl alloys with deformation. The study of the hyperfine fields indicates that there is a redistribution of non-ferrous atoms around Fe atoms with the disordering; indeed, there is an inversion of the behavior of the hyperfine field of the Fe atoms. On the other hand, the magnetic measurements indicate that addition of Si to binary Fe 75 Al 25 and Fe 70 Al 30 alloys opposes the magnetic behavior induced by Al in the magnetism of Fe.

  18. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER MONOLITH FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C

    2006-01-01

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as an alternative technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of aqueous high sodium containing radioactive wastes at various DOE facilities in the United States. The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants converts aqueous Low Activity Wastes (LAW) to a granular or ''mineralized'' waste form while converting organic components to CO 2 and steam, and nitrate/nitrite components, if any, to N 2 . The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like structures that atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and anions such as SO 4 , I, F, and Cl. The granular product has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Shallow land burial requires that the mineralized waste form be able to sustain the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations. The strength requirement necessitates binding the granular product into a monolith. FBSR mineral products were formulated into a variety of monoliths including various cements, Ceramicrete, and hydroceramics. All but one of the nine monoliths tested met the 2 durability specification for Na and Re (simulant for Tc-99) when tested using the Product Consistency Test (PCT; ASTM C1285). Of the nine monoliths tested the cements produced with 80-87 wt% FBSR product, the Ceramicrete, and the hydroceramic produced with 83.3 wt% FBSR product, met the compressive strength and durability requirements for an LAW waste form

  19. Structural evolution in films of alloy Zn70Al27Cu3 (ZA27)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y.H.; Lee, W.B.; Mei, Z.; To, S.; Sze, Y.K.

    2005-01-01

    Films of alloy ZA27 were produced using electron deposition technique. Structural evolution and phase decomposition of the films were studied. It was found that the alloy films were relatively stable because of a strong preferred crystal orientation of the nano-phases. The dependence of nano-phase stability on the Zn content and the preferred crystal orientation is discussed from point of view of Gibbs free energy

  20. Determination of localized magnetic moments in Fe-Cr-Al alloys and the electron structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blau, W.

    1977-01-01

    The localized magnetic moments of Fe and Cr are determined by combination of saturation magnetization measurements and magnetic diffuse scattering. Power series characterizing the interactions between the different kinds of atoms in the alloys are chosen to describe the concentration dependence of the magnetic moments. The different terms are discussed on the basis of band structure models valid for dilute alloys taking into account their modification by impurity interactions. (author)

  1. Structural characteristics and corrosion behavior of biodegradable Mg-Zn, Mg-Zn-Gd alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubásek, J; Vojtěch, D

    2013-07-01

    In this research, binary Mg-Zn (up to 3 wt% Zn) and ternary Mg-Zn-Gd (up to 3 wt% Gd, 3 wt% Zn) alloys were prepared by induction melting in an argon atmosphere. The structures of these alloys were characterized using light and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. In addition, Brinell hardness measurements were taken to supplement these studies. Corrosion behavior was evaluated by immersion tests and potentiodynamic measurements in a physiological solution (9 g/l NaCl). Depending on the composition, structures of the as-cast alloys contained α-Mg dendrites, MgZn, Mg5Gd and Mg3Gd2Zn3 phases. Compared to pure Mg, zinc improved the corrosion resistance of binary Mg-Zn. Gadolinium also improved the corrosion resistance in the case of Mg-1Zn-3Gd alloy. The highest corrosion rate was observed for Mg-3Zn-3Gd alloy. Our results improve the understanding of the relationships between the structure and corrosion behavior of our studied alloy systems.

  2. The effect warming time of mechanical properties and structural phase aluminum alloy nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husna Al Hasa, M.; Anwar Muchsin

    2011-01-01

    Ferrous aluminum alloys as fuel cladding will experience the process of heat treatment above the recrystallization temperature. Temperature and time of heat treatment will affect the nature of the metal. Heating time allows will affect change in mechanical properties, thermal and structure of the metal phase. This study aims to determine the effect of time of heat treatment on mechanical properties and phase metal alloys. Testing the mechanical properties of materials, especially violence done by the method of Vickers. Observation of microstructural changes made by metallographic-optical and phase structure were analyzed Based on the x-ray diffraction patterns Elemental analysis phase alloy compounds made by EDS-SEM. Test results show the nature of violence AlFeNiMg alloy by heating at 500°C with a warm-up time 1 hour, 2 hours and 3 hours respectively decreased range 94.4 HV, 87.6 HV and 85.1 HV. The nature of violence AlFeNi alloy showed a decrease in line with the longer heating time. Metallographic-optical observations show the microstructural changes with increasing heating time. Microstructure shows the longer the heating time trend equi axial shaped grain structure of growing and the results showed a trend analyst diffraction pattern formation and phase θ α phase (FeAl3) in the alloy. (author)

  3. Structural stability of high entropy alloys under pressure and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Azkar S.; Su, Y.; Liu, S. Y.

    2017-01-01

    The stability of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) is a key issue before their selection for industrial applications. In this study, in-situ high-pressure and high-temperature synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on three typical HEAs Ni20Co20Fe20Mn20Cr20, Hf25Nb25Zr25Ti...

  4. Electronic structure of metallic alloys through Auger and photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleiman, G.G.; Rogers, J.D.; Sundaram, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    A review is presented of experimental results of electron spectroscopy studies for various series of transition metal alloys as well as a model for their interpretation which leads to the possibility for the first time to determine independently relative variations in the dipole barrier and Fermi energy contributions to the work function. (L.C.) [pt

  5. Highly corrosion resistant zirconium based alloy for reactor structural material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yoichi.

    1996-01-01

    The alloy of the present invention is a zirconium based alloy comprising tin (Sn), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe) in zirconium (Zr). The amount of silicon (Si) as an impurity is not more than 60ppm. It is preferred that Sn is from 0.9 to 1.5wt%, that of Cr is from 0.05 to 0.15wt%, and (Fe + Ni) is from 0.17 to 0.5wt%. If not less than 0.12wt% of Fe is added, resistance against nodular corrosion is improved. The upper limit of Fe is preferably 0.40wt% from a view point of uniform suppression for the corrosion. The nodular corrosion can be suppressed by reducing the amount of Si-rich deposition product in the zirconium based alloy. Accordingly, a highly corrosion resistant zirconium based alloy improved for the corrosion resistance of zircaloy-2 and usable for a fuel cladding tube of a BWR type reactor can be obtained. (I.N.)

  6. Structure and energetics of bimetallic surface confined alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbreiter, Andreas; Roetter, Ralf T.; Engstfeld, Albert K.; Hoster, Harry E.; Behm, R. Juergen [Institute of Surface Chemistry and Catalysis, Ulm University (Germany); Gross, Axel [Institute for Theoretical Chemistry, Ulm University (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The atomic distribution in a number of A{sub x}B{sub 1-x}/B type surface alloys was determined by STM imaging with chemical contrast and statistically evaluated. Whereas in the systems Au{sub x}Pt{sub 1-x}/Pt(111), Ag{sub x}Pt{sub 1-x}/Pt(111), and Pd{sub x}Ru{sub 1-x}/Ru(0001) we find preferences for larger homoatomic aggregates, the atom distribution in Pt{sub x}Ru{sub 1-x}/Ru(0001) and Ag{sub x}Pd{sub 1-x}/Pd(111) is very close to a random one[1]. In Ag{sub x}Pd{sub 1-x}/Pd(111), our data show a small tendency towards clustering for x{sub Ag}<0.5, whereas at x{sub Ag}>0.5 this is reversed to a slight preference for heteroatomic neighborhoods. Based on these experimental results, we have derived effective cluster interaction energies for all surface alloys. These allow us to calculate phase diagrams for the surface alloys that we compare to predictions from theoretical work and to the behaviour of the corresponding bulk systems. We also discuss in how far the different atom distributions affect chemical and catalytic properties of the surface alloys.

  7. Effects of alloying elements on defect structures in the incubation period for void swelling in austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiki, M.; Yoshiie, T.; Huang, S.S.; Sato, K.; Cao, X.Z.; Xu, Q.; Troev, T.D.

    2013-01-01

    Positron lifetime measurements were used to study the effects of alloying elements on the defect structure during the incubation period for void swelling in several fcc model alloys. Pure Ni, four model alloys (Fe–Cr–Ni, Fe–Cr–Ni–Mo–Mn, Fe–Cr–Ni–Mo–Mn–Si and Fe–Cr–Ni–Mo–Mn–Si–Ti), and four commercial alloys (SUS316LSS, SUS316SS, SUS304SS and Ti added modified SUS316SS) were irradiated with electrons and neutrons. Even at 363 and 573 K to a dose of 0.2 dpa, an effect of alloying elements was observed. At 363 K irradiation, voids were formed only in Ni and Fe–Cr–Ni. At 573 K irradiation, voids were formed in Ni and all model alloys, though the concentration depended on the alloying elements. In commercial alloys, precipitates were formed instead of vacancy clusters, which prevented void growth

  8. Solidification structure and dispersoids in rapidly solidified Ti-Al-Sn-Zr-Er-B alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, R.G.; Broderick, T.F.; Koch, E.F.; Froes, F.H.

    1986-01-01

    The microstructure of melt extracted and melt spun titanium alloys containing erbium and boron revealed a duplex solidification structure of columnar grains leading to equiaxed and dendritic structures near the free surface of melt extracted and melt spun alloys. The solidification structure was revealed by apparent boride segregation to cellular, interdendritic and grain boundaries. Precipitation of needle or lath-like TiB particles occurred adjacent to Er/sub 2/O/sub 3/ dispesoid particles in as-rapidly solidified ribbon

  9. Adhesive wear of iron chromium nickel silicon manganese molybdenum niobium alloys with duplex structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugscheider, E.; Deppe, E.; Ambroziak, A.; Melzer, A.

    1991-01-01

    Iron nickel chromium manganese silicon and iron chromium nickel manganese silicon molybdenum niobium alloys have a so-called duplex structure in a wide concentration range. This causes an excellent resistance to wear superior in the case of adhesive stress with optimized concentrations of manganese, silicon, molybdenum and niobium. The materials can be used for welded armouring structures wherever cobalt and boron-containing alloy systems are not permissible, e.g. in nuclear science. Within the framework of pre-investigations for manufacturing of filling wire electrodes, cast test pieces were set up with duplex structure, and their wear behavior was examined. (orig.) [de

  10. Regularities of structure formation on different stages of WC-Co hard alloys fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyavskij, K S

    1987-03-01

    Some regularities of structural transformations in powder products of the hard alloys fabrication have been formulated on the basis of results of the author works and other native and foreign reseachers. New data confirming the influene of technological prehistory of carbide powder on the mechanism of its particle grinding as well as the influence of the structural-energy state of WC powder on the course of the WC-Co alloy structure formation processes are given. Some possibilities for the application in practice of the regularities studied are considered.

  11. Quantitative assessment of Aluminium cast Alloys` structural parameters to optimize ITS properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kuchariková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with evaluation of eutectic Si (its shape, size, and distribution, dendrite cell size and dendrite arm spacing in aluminium cast alloys which were cast into different moulds (sand and metallic. Structural parameters were evaluated using NIS-Elements image analyser software. This software is imaging analysis software for the evaluation, capture, archiving and automated measurement of structural parameters. The control of structural parameters by NIS Elements shows that optimum mechanical properties of aluminium cast alloys strongly depend on the distribution, morphology, size of eute ctic Si and matrix parameters.

  12. Microwaves integrated circuits: hybrids and monolithics - fabrication technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha Pinto, J.K. da

    1983-01-01

    Several types of microwave integrated circuits are presented together with comments about technologies and fabrication processes; advantages and disadvantages in their utilization are analysed. Basic structures, propagation modes, materials used and major steps in the construction of hybrid thin film and monolithic microwave integrated circuits are described. Important technological applications are revised and main activities of the microelectronics lab. of the University of Sao Paulo (Brazil) in the field of hybrid and monolithic microwave integrated circuits are summarized. (C.L.B.) [pt

  13. The structure of Cu-Cd alloys obtained by electrolysis on monocrystalline silver substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagiewka, E.

    1981-01-01

    The structure of Cu-Cd alloys obtained by electrolysis on monocrystalline silver cathodes with a surface parallel to the (111), (110) and (100) planes has been investigated. It has been found that depending on the range of the cathode potentials, one-phase (phase α) or two-phase (phase α + cadmium) alloy are obtained. In the alloys the occurrence of twins has been observed, the orientation of which is the result of twinning along the [111] planes of crystallites with epitaxial orientation with respect to the cathode surface and of a random orientation of crystallites. The volume of the layer containing crystallites with a random arrangement increases with the obtaining potential of the alloy and with the decrease in the surface density of the cathode atoms. (author)

  14. Local structure of disordered Au-Cu and Au-Ag alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenkel, A. I.; Machavariani, V. Sh.; Rubshtein, A.; Rosenberg, Yu.; Voronel, A.; Stern, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    X-ray-absorption fine structure (XAFS) and x-ray-diffraction (XRD) measurements of disordered alloys Au x Cu 1-x and Au 0.5 Ag 0.5 prepared by melt spinning were performed. In the Au 0.5 Ag 0.5 alloy, no significant local deviations of the atoms from the average fcc lattice were detected while in Au x Cu 1-x alloys, significant deviations of atoms from the average fcc lattice were found. Mean-square vibrations of the Cu-Cu distances revealed by the XAFS in Au x Cu 1-x alloys indicate the weakening of contact between Cu atoms in the dilute limit. Our computer simulation for Au x Cu 1-x clusters of 10 5 atoms reproduces the main features of both the XAFS and XRD data

  15. Structure and properties of alloys of A15 type compounds with carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitskij, E.M.; Efimov, Yu.V.; Myasnikova, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    Microstructure and some properties of the alloys on the base of the phases of A15 type in the V-Si-C, Nb-Si-C, Nb-Sn-C, Nb-Al-C, Nb-Ga-C, V-Ga-C ternary systems are investigated. It is established that in the niobium-rich corners of the A-B-C ternary systems the new ternary conpounds do not form, as a rule, bUt the wide ranges of threephase equilibrium A-A 3 B-C exist. New ternary phases with A15 type structure stabilized with carbon are established only in the Nb-Si-C and V-Al-C systems. Alloying with carbon results in sharp refining of structural components of stable and metastable alloys, promotes transition of the alloys into amorphous state at super fast cooling of the melts as well as increases stability of metastable state of the alloys against tempering. After super fast quenching and tempering Tsub(c) of the ternary alloys close to the A15 phases exceed Tsub(c) of equilibrium samples

  16. Crystal-Structure Contribution to the Solid Solubility in Transition Metal Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1998-01-01

    The solution energies of 4d metals in other 4d metals as well as the bcc-hcp structural energy differences in random 4d alloys are calculated by density functional theory. It is shown that the crystal structure of the host plays a crucial role in the solid solubility. A local virtual bond...

  17. Structure and phase stability of a Pu-0.32 wt% Ga alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.W., E-mail: David.Wheeler@awe.co.uk; Ennaceur, S.M.; Matthews, M.B.; Roussel, P.; Bayer, P.D.

    2016-08-01

    In plutonium-gallium (Pu-Ga) alloys that have a Ga content of 0.3–0.4 wt%, their readiness to transform to α′ renders them of particular interest in efforts to understand the tenuous nature of δ phase stability. The present study is a comprehensive examination of the structure and phase stability of a cast Pu-0.32 wt% Ga alloy, the Ga content being close to the minimum amount needed to retain the δ phase to ambient temperature. The alloy was characterised in both the as-cast condition as well as following a homogenising heat treatment. The 250-h heat treatment at 450 °C was shown to achieve an apparently stable δ-Pu phase. However, the stability of the δ-Pu phase was shown to be marginal: partial transformation to α′-Pu was observed when the alloy was subjected to hydrostatic compression. Similar transformation was also apparent during metallographic preparation as well as during hardness indentation. The results provide new understanding of the nature of δ phase stability. - Highlights: • New insights into the delta phase stability of a Pu-0.32 wt% Ga alloy. • Density and DSC of as-cast alloy both show α-Pu contents of approximately 30%. • The heat-treated alloy has a largely δ-Pu structure at ambient temperature. • Heat-treated alloy susceptible to δ → α transformation during hardness indentation.

  18. Effect of initial structure on strengthening and properties of the 35NKhTYu alloy bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorontsov, N.M.; Shugaenko, V.K.; Drapiko, P.E.; Chernyakova, L.E.; Patseka, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    Variation in the structure, mechanical strength, plasticity, and elasticity of thin (about 0.15 mm thick) bands of 36NKhTYu alloy after their cold rolling to the reduction degree up to 70% was examined. The influence of the cold plastic deformation on the dislocation structure of the alloy has been determined. By resorting to the method of transmission electron microscopy, the distribution of dislocations depending on the reduction degree has been shown. The character of the influence of the initial structure of bands after their plastic deformation on the process of decomposition of the solid solution and the formation of γ 1 -phase in tempering and a variation in the mechanical properties of 36NKhTYu alloy have been established

  19. Electronic structure studies of a clock-reconstructed Al/Pd(1 0 0) surface alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Janet E.; Tainter, Craig J.

    We have employed solid-state Fenske-Hall band structure calculations to examine the electronic structure of Al/Pd(1 0 0), a surface alloy that undergoes a reconstruction, or rearrangement, of the atoms in the top few surface layers. Surface alloys are materials that consist primarily of a single elemental metal, but which have a bimetallic surface composition that is only a few atomic layers in thickness. The results of this study indicate that reconstruction into a clock configuration simultaneously optimizes the intralayer bonding within the surface plane and the bonding between the first and second atomic layers. These results also allow us to examine the fundamental relationship between the electronic and physical structures of this reconstructed surface alloy.

  20. Evolution of twinning in extruded AZ31 alloy with bimodal grain structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcés, G., E-mail: ggarces@cenim.csic.es [Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Centre for Metallurgical Research CENIM-CSIC, Av. De Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Oñorbe, E. [CIEMAT, Division of Structural Materials, Avenida Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gan, W. [German Engineering Materials Science Centre at MLZ, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Lichtebergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Máthis, K. [Department of Physics of Materials, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, KeKarlovu 5, 121 16 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Tolnai, D. [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Horváth, K. [Department of Physics of Materials, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, KeKarlovu 5, 121 16 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Pérez, P.; Adeva, P. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Centre for Metallurgical Research CENIM-CSIC, Av. De Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    Twinning in extruded AZ31 alloy with a bimodal grain structure is studied under compression along the extrusion direction. This study has combined in-situ measurements during the compression tests by Synchrotron Radiation Diffraction and Acoustic Emission techniques and the evaluation of the microstructure and texture in post-mortem compression samples deformed at different strains. The microstructure of the alloy is characterized by the coexistence of large areas of fine dynamic recrystallized grains and coarse non-recrystallized grains elongated along extrusion direction. Twinning occurs initially in large elongated grains before the macroscopic yield stress which is controlled by the twinning in equiaxed dynamically recrystallized grains. - Highlights: • The AZ31 extruded at low temperature exhibits a bimodal grains structure. • Twinning takes place before macroscopic yielding in coarse non-DRXed grains. • DRXed grains controls the beginning of plasticity in magnesium alloys with bimodal grain structure.

  1. Layered growth model and epitaxial growth structures for SiCAlN alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhaoqing; Ni Jun; Su Xiaoao; Dai Zhenhong

    2009-01-01

    Epitaxial growth structures for (SiC) 1-x (AlN) x alloys are studied using a layered growth model. First-principle calculations are used to determine the parameters in the layered growth model. The phase diagrams of epitaxial growth are given. There is a rich variety of the new metastable polytype structures at x=1/6 ,1/5 ,1/4 ,1/3 , and 1/2 in the layered growth phase diagrams. We have also calculated the electronic properties of the short periodical SiCAlN alloys predicted by our layered growth model. The results show that various ordered structures of (SiC) 1-x (AlN) x alloys with the band gaps over a wide range are possible to be synthesized by epitaxial growth.

  2. Tunable compact mechanical monolithic sensors for linear and angular large band low-frequency monitoring and characterization of sites and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, F.; Giordano, G.; Acernese, F.; Romano, R.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we present monolithic implementations of tunable mechanical seismometers and accelerometers (horizontal, vertical and angular) based on the UNISA Folded Pendulum configuration, characterized by large measurement band 10-7 ÷ 1 kHz, sensitivity down to ≈ 10-15 m/√ Hz, high directivity > 104 , low weight engineering, seismology, geophysics, civil engineering (buildings, bridges, dams, etc.), space (inertial guide).

  3. Porous polymer monolithic col

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Terborg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new approach has been developed for the preparation of mixed-mode stationary phases to separate proteins. The pore surface of monolithic poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate capillary columns was functionalized with thiols and coated with gold nanoparticles. The final mixed mode surface chemistry was formed by attaching, in a single step, alkanethiols, mercaptoalkanoic acids, and their mixtures on the free surface of attached gold nanoparticles. Use of these mixtures allowed fine tuning of the hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance. The amount of attached gold nanoparticles according to thermal gravimetric analysis was 44.8 wt.%. This value together with results of frontal elution enabled calculation of surface coverage with the alkanethiol and mercaptoalkanoic acid ligands. Interestingly, alkanethiols coverage in a range of 4.46–4.51 molecules/nm2 significantly exceeded that of mercaptoalkanoic acids with 2.39–2.45 molecules/nm2. The mixed mode character of these monolithic stationary phases was for the first time demonstrated in the separations of proteins that could be achieved in the same column using gradient elution conditions typical of reverse phase (using gradient of acetonitrile in water and ion exchange chromatographic modes (applying gradient of salt in water, respectively.

  4. Plant oil-based shape memory polymer using acrylic monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tsujimoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the synthesis of a plant oil-based material using acrylic monolith. An acrylic monolith bearing oxirane groups was prepared via simple technique that involved the dissolution of poly(glycidyl methacrylate-comethyl methacrylate (PGMA in ethanolic – aqueous solution by heating and subsequent cooling. The PGMA monolith had topologically porous structure, which was attributed to the phase separation of the polymer solution. The PGMA monolith was impregnated by epoxidized soybean oil (ESO containing thermally-latent catalyst, and the subsequent curing produced a crosslinked material with relatively good transparency. The Young’s modulus and the tensile strength of polyESO/PGMA increased compared with the ESO homopolymer. The strain at break of polyESO/PGMA was larger than that of the ESO homopolymer and crosslinked PGMA. Furthermore, polyESO/PGMA exhibited good shape memory-recovery behavior.

  5. Influence of structural transition on the electronic structures and physical properties of Ni2MnGa alloy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. W.; Kudryavtsev, Y. V.; Rhee, J. Y.; Lee, N. N.; Lee, Y. P.

    2004-01-01

    Ordered and disordered Ni 2 MnGa alloy films were prepared by flash evaporation onto substrates maintained at 720 K and 150 K, respectively. The results show that the ordered films behave in nearly the same way as the bulk Ni 2 MnGa ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy, including the martensitic transformation at 200 K, while the disordered films exhibit characteristics of amorphous alloys. It was also found that the disordering in Ni 2 MnGa alloy films did not change to any appreciable magnetic ordering down to 4 K. Annealing of the disordered films restores the ordered structure with an almost full recovery of the magnetic, magneto-optical and transport properties of the ordered Ni 2 MnGa alloy films. It was also understood, for the first time, how the structural ordering in the films influences the physical properties, including the surprising loss of ferromagnetism in the disordered films, as a result of performing electronic-structure calculations.

  6. Structure and mechanical properties of as-cast Ti-5Nb-xFe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan; Hsu, Shih-Kuang; Wu, Shih-Ching; Lee, Chih-Jhan; Ho, Wen-Fu

    2010-01-01

    In this study, as-cast Ti-5Nb and a series of Ti-5Nb-xFe alloys were investigated and compared with commercially pure titanium (c.p. Ti) in order to determine their structure and mechanical properties. The series of Ti-5Nb-xFe alloys contained an iron content ranging from 1 to 5 mass% and were prepared by using a commercial arc-melting vacuum-pressure casting system. Additionally, X-ray diffraction (XRD) for phase analysis was conducted with a diffractometer, and three-point bending tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of all specimens. The fractured surfaces were observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results indicated that these alloys possessed a range of different structures and mechanical properties dependent upon the various additions of Fe. With an addition of 1 mass% Fe, retention of the metastable β phase began. However, when 4 mass% Fe or greater was added, the β phase was entirely retained with a bcc crystal structure. Moreover, the ω phase was only detected in the Ti-5Nb-2Fe, Ti-5Nb-3Fe and Ti-5Nb-4Fe alloys. The largest quantity of ω phase and the highest bending modulus were found in the Ti-5Nb-3Fe alloy. The Ti-5Nb-2Fe alloy had the lowest bending modulus, which was lower than that of c.p. Ti by 20%. This alloy exhibited the highest bending strength/modulus ratio of 26.7, which was higher than that of c.p. Ti by 214%, and of the Ti-5Nb alloy (14.4 ) by 85%. Additionally, the elastically recoverable angles of the ductile Ti-5Nb-1Fe (19.9 o ) and Ti-5Nb-5Fe (29.5 o ) alloys were greater than that of c.p. Ti (2.7 o ) by as much as 637% and 993%, respectively. Furthermore, the preliminary cell culturing results revealed that the Ti-5Nb-xFe alloys were not only biocompatible, but also supported cell attachment.

  7. Structure and mechanical properties of as-cast Ti-5Nb-xFe alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan; Hsu, Shih-Kuang; Wu, Shih-Ching [Department of Dental Laboratory Technology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 40605, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Material Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Changhua 51591, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chih-Jhan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Changhua 51591, Taiwan (China); Ho, Wen-Fu, E-mail: fujii@mail.dyu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Changhua 51591, Taiwan (China)

    2010-09-15

    In this study, as-cast Ti-5Nb and a series of Ti-5Nb-xFe alloys were investigated and compared with commercially pure titanium (c.p. Ti) in order to determine their structure and mechanical properties. The series of Ti-5Nb-xFe alloys contained an iron content ranging from 1 to 5 mass% and were prepared by using a commercial arc-melting vacuum-pressure casting system. Additionally, X-ray diffraction (XRD) for phase analysis was conducted with a diffractometer, and three-point bending tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of all specimens. The fractured surfaces were observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results indicated that these alloys possessed a range of different structures and mechanical properties dependent upon the various additions of Fe. With an addition of 1 mass% Fe, retention of the metastable {beta} phase began. However, when 4 mass% Fe or greater was added, the {beta} phase was entirely retained with a bcc crystal structure. Moreover, the {omega} phase was only detected in the Ti-5Nb-2Fe, Ti-5Nb-3Fe and Ti-5Nb-4Fe alloys. The largest quantity of {omega} phase and the highest bending modulus were found in the Ti-5Nb-3Fe alloy. The Ti-5Nb-2Fe alloy had the lowest bending modulus, which was lower than that of c.p. Ti by 20%. This alloy exhibited the highest bending strength/modulus ratio of 26.7, which was higher than that of c.p. Ti by 214%, and of the Ti-5Nb alloy (14.4 ) by 85%. Additionally, the elastically recoverable angles of the ductile Ti-5Nb-1Fe (19.9{sup o}) and Ti-5Nb-5Fe (29.5{sup o}) alloys were greater than that of c.p. Ti (2.7{sup o}) by as much as 637% and 993%, respectively. Furthermore, the preliminary cell culturing results revealed that the Ti-5Nb-xFe alloys were not only biocompatible, but also supported cell attachment.

  8. Metal oxide nanorod arrays on monolithic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Pu-Xian; Guo, Yanbing; Ren, Zheng

    2018-01-02

    A metal oxide nanorod array structure according to embodiments disclosed herein includes a monolithic substrate having a surface and multiple channels, an interface layer bonded to the surface of the substrate, and a metal oxide nanorod array coupled to the substrate surface via the interface layer. The metal oxide can include ceria, zinc oxide, tin oxide, alumina, zirconia, cobalt oxide, and gallium oxide. The substrate can include a glass substrate, a plastic substrate, a silicon substrate, a ceramic monolith, and a stainless steel monolith. The ceramic can include cordierite, alumina, tin oxide, and titania. The nanorod array structure can include a perovskite shell, such as a lanthanum-based transition metal oxide, or a metal oxide shell, such as ceria, zinc oxide, tin oxide, alumina, zirconia, cobalt oxide, and gallium oxide, or a coating of metal particles, such as platinum, gold, palladium, rhodium, and ruthenium, over each metal oxide nanorod. Structures can be bonded to the surface of a substrate and resist erosion if exposed to high velocity flow rates.

  9. Fracture-resistant monolithic dental crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Mai, Zhisong; Barani, Amir; Bush, Mark; Lawn, Brian

    2016-03-01

    To quantify the splitting resistance of monolithic zirconia, lithium disilicate and nanoparticle-composite dental crowns. Fracture experiments were conducted on anatomically-correct monolithic crown structures cemented to standard dental composite dies, by axial loading of a hard sphere placed between the cusps. The structures were observed in situ during fracture testing, and critical loads to split the structures were measured. Extended finite element modeling (XFEM), with provision for step-by-step extension of embedded cracks, was employed to simulate full failure evolution. Experimental measurements and XFEM predictions were self-consistent within data scatter. In conjunction with a fracture mechanics equation for critical splitting load, the data were used to predict load-sustaining capacity for crowns on actual dentin substrates and for loading with a sphere of different size. Stages of crack propagation within the crown and support substrate were quantified. Zirconia crowns showed the highest fracture loads, lithium disilicate intermediate, and dental nanocomposite lowest. Dental nanocomposite crowns have comparable fracture resistance to natural enamel. The results confirm that monolithic crowns are able to sustain high bite forces. The analysis indicates what material and geometrical properties are important in optimizing crown performance and longevity. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  10. Special quasirandom structures for binary/ternary group IV random alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.

    2010-06-01

    Simulation of defect interactions in binary/ternary group IV semiconductor alloys at the density functional theory level is difficult due to the random distribution of the constituent atoms. The special quasirandom structures approach is a computationally efficient way to describe the random nature. We systematically study the efficacy of the methodology and generate a number of special quasirandom cells for future use. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the technique, the electronic structures of E centers in Si1-xGex and Si1-x -yGexSny alloys are discussed for a range of nearest neighbor environments. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Highlighting micrographic structures of uranium alloys containing 0.5 to 10 per cent wt molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laniesse, J.; Bouleau, M.

    1959-02-01

    The authors report a study which aimed at determining for different uranium molybdenum alloys and with respect to their molybdenum content a polishing method which allows a relatively simple grain examination in the as-cast condition, an as perfect as possible resolution of eutectic decompositions, and the appropriate conditions to highlight structures (beta-alpha and gamma-alpha martensite transformations, beta phase retention and decomposition, transient structures, eutectoid decomposition, and so on). Alloys differ by their molybdenum content: from 0.5 to 1 per cent wt, 1.5 to 3 per cent wt, 5 to 10 per cent wt

  12. Structure and Mechanical Properties of As-Cast Ti–5Sn–xMo Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hsing-Ning; Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan; Wu, Shih-Ching; Hsu, Shih-Kuang; Ho, Wen-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Ti–5Sn–xMo (x = 0, 1, 3, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, and 20 wt %) alloys were designed and prepared for application as implant materials with superior mechanical properties. The results demonstrated that the crystal structure and mechanical properties of Ti–5Sn–xMo alloys are highly affected by their Mo content. The as-cast microstructures of Ti–5Sn–xMo alloys transformed in the sequence of phases α′ → α″ → β, and the morphologies of the alloys changed from a lath structure to an equiaxed structure as the Mo content increased. The α″-phase Ti–5Sn–7.5Mo (80 GPa) and β-phase Ti–5Sn–10Mo (85 GPa) exhibited relatively low elastic moduli and had excellent elastic recovery angles of 27.4° and 37.8°, respectively. Furthermore, they exhibited high ductility and moderate strength, as evaluated using the three-point bending test. Search for a more suitable implant material by this study, Ti–5Sn–xMo alloys with 7.5 and 10 wt % Mo appear to be promising candidates because they demonstrate the optimal combined properties of microhardness, ductility, elastic modulus, and elastic recovery capability. PMID:28772820

  13. Influence of grain structure on quench sensitivity relative to localized corrosion of high strength aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, ShengDan, E-mail: csuliusd@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410083 (China); Li, ChengBo [Light Alloy Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Deng, YunLai; Zhang, XinMing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2015-11-01

    The influence of grain structure on quench sensitivity relative to localized corrosion of high strength aluminum alloy 7055 was investigated by electrochemical test, accelerated exfoliation corrosion test, optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The decrease of quench rate led to lower corrosion resistance of both the homogenized and solution heat treated (HS) alloy with equiaxed grains and the hot-rolled and solution heat treated (HRS) alloy with elongated grains, but there was a higher increment in corrosion depth and corrosion current density and a higher decrement in corrosion potential for the latter alloy, which therefore exhibited higher quench sensitivity. It is because in this alloy the larger amount of (sub) grain boundaries led to a higher increment in the amount of quench-induced η phase and precipitates free zone at (sub) grain boundaries with the decrease of quench rate, and there was a larger increment in the content of Zn, Mg and Cu in the η phase at grain boundaries due to slow quenching. The presence of subgrain boundaries in the HRS alloy tended to increase corrosion resistance at high quench rates higher than about 630 °C/min but decrease it at lower quench rates. - Highlights: • (Sub)Grain boundaries increase quench sensitivity relative to localized corrosion. • Subgrain boundaries decrease corrosion resistance below quench rate of 630 °C/min. • More (sub) grain boundaries leads to more GBPs and PFZ with decreasing quench rate.

  14. Structure and properties of Al-Mg-Li-Zr system alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridlyander, I.N.; Dolzhanskij, Yu.M.; Sandler, V.S.; Tyurin, .V.; Nikol'skaya, T.I.

    1977-01-01

    Studied were the structure and mechanical properties of the Al-Mg-Li-Zr alloy system (including 01420 alloy) containing 1.6-5.3%Li and 1.0-8.8%Mg). Electron microscopic studies of 01420 alloy conducted after heating at 450 deg C for 4 hours revealed non-uniformly distributed precipitations of a metastable phase ZrAl 3 , having spherical and needle-like configurations. These precipitations, together with zirconium contained in the solid solution, retard recrystallization. The introduction of 0.1-0.2% Zr decreases the limiting solubility of magnesium and lithium in the aluminium solid solution and leads to the formation of disperse equilibrium (S and, possibly, γ) phases with the size of 0.1-0.5 mcm. These phases were observed in the alloys containing (>=) 4% Mg and 1.9-3.5% Li. The method of planned experiment was used to study the principles governing the variation of the mechanical properties of the alloys subjected to water hardening and after aging at 170 deg C for 16 hours. It was established that the strength properties of the hardened alloys become higher, and the relative elongation decreases with the content of lithium and especially magnesium. It would be more proper to assess strengthening in the course of aging according to variation in the yield point and hardness. The effect of aging determined by the yield point depends on the content of lithium and is practically independent of the concentration of magnesium

  15. A comparative study of ausforming of shape memory alloys with A2 and B2 structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornbogen, E.

    1999-01-01

    Ausforming implies plastic deformation of austenite (β) at temperatures T AF M d , at which no stress- or strain-induced transformation can occur. It introduces a variety of extrinsic lattice defects, which in turn modify the course of transformation, the structure of martensite, and increase the conventional strength of the alloys. The temperature range of ausforming has to be subdivided into three subranges, depending on whether the β-phase is (1), disordered; (2), ordered; or (3) capable of precipitation of a second phase or massive transformation. For the Cu-base alloys the ranges 1 and 3, and for Ni-Ti 2 and 3 may apply. This causes a different hot-deformation behavior of the two types of alloys: the formation of dislocation groupings (2-d, 3-d-nets, and Moires) in the brass-type alloys which undergo ordering during cooling from T AF. In addition a particular twinning mechanism and the formation of a rolling texture are found in ordered Ni-Ti. In Ni-Ti-alloys premartensitic R-phase formation can be caused by ausforming. Ausforming leads to lower temperatures but not to suppression of martensitic transformation cycles. Conventional strength is increased in both types of alloys. (orig.)

  16. Light-weight alloys for aerospace applications II; Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium, New Orleans, LA, Feb. 17-21, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.W.; Kim, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    The present symposium on applications of light-weight alloys for aerospace discusses Al-Li alloys, aluminum alloys, advanced composites, and light alloys. Attention is given to Al-Li alloy development for parts made from thick plates, the structure and properties of P/M-aluminum alloys, X-ray rocking curve analysis of aging and deformation characteristics in Al-Li alloys, and the transformation characteristics of the 2090 Al-Li alloy. Topics considered include microstructural development in a rapidly solidified Al-Fe-V-Si alloy, the structure and mechanical properties of rapidly solidified Al-Cr-Hf alloys, the deformation mechanisms in superplastic Al-Mg alloys by microtexture technique, and the design of powder metallurgy aluminum alloys. Also discussed are the mechanical properties of monolithic and particular composites of L1(2) forms of Al3Ti, in situ polymer fiber-reinforced hybrid materials, thermal cycling of Ti-1421/SiC metal matrix composites, and the fracture behavior of a Ti3-Al-Nb alloy

  17. Aging Optimization of Aluminum-Lithium Alloy C458 for Application to Cryotank Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, B. J.; Sankaran, K. K.; Babel, H.; Farahmand, B.; Rioja, R.

    2003-01-01

    Compared with aluminum alloys such as 2219, which is widely used in space vehicle for cryogenic tanks and unpressurized structures, aluminum-lithium alloys possess attractive combinations of lower density and higher modulus along with comparable mechanical properties. These characteristics have resulted in the successful use of the aluminum-lithium alloy 2195 (Al-1.0 Li-4.0 Cu-0.4 Mg-0.4 Ag-0.12 Zr) for the Space Shuttle External Tank, and the consideration of newer U.S. aluminum-lithium alloys such as L277 and C458 for future space vehicles. These newer alloys generally have lithium content less than 2 wt. % and their composition and processing have been carefully tailored to increase the toughness and reduce the mechanical property anisotropy of the earlier generation alloys such 2090 and 8090. Alloy processing, particularly the aging treatment, has a significant influence on the strength-toughness combinations and their dependence on service environments for aluminum-lithium alloys. Work at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on alloy 2195 has shown that the cryogenic toughness can be improved by employing a two-step aging process. This is accomplished by aging at a lower temperature in the first step to suppress nucleation of the strengthening precipitate at sub-grain boundaries while promoting nucleation in the interior of the grains. Second step aging at the normal aging temperature results in precipitate growth to the optimum size. A design of experiments aging study was conducted for plate. To achieve the T8 temper, Alloy C458 (Al-1.8 Li-2.7 Cu-0.3 Mg- 0.08 Zr-0.3 Mn-0.6 Zn) is typically aged at 300 F for 24 hours. In this study, a two-step aging treatment was developed through a comprehensive 24 full factorial design of experiments study and the typical one-step aging used as a reference. Based on the higher lithium content of C458 compared with 2195, the first step aging temperature was varied between 175 F and 250 F. The second step aging temperatures was

  18. Structural and magnetic properties of FeCoC system obtained by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincón Soler, A. I. [Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Fac. de Ciencias, Depto. de Física (Colombia); Rodríguez Jacobo, R. R., E-mail: rrrodriguez@uao.edu.co [Universidad Autónoma de Occidente, Fac. de Ciencias Básicas, Depto. de Física (Colombia); Medina Barreto, M. H.; Cruz-Muñoz, B. [Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Fac. de Ciencias, Depto. de Física (Colombia)

    2017-11-15

    Fe{sub 96−X}Co{sub X}C{sub 4} (x = 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 at. %) alloys were obtained by mechanical alloying of Fe, C and Co powders using high-energy milling. The structural and magnetic properties of the alloy system were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and Mössbauer Spectrometry at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed a BCC-FeCoC structure phase for all samples, as well as a lattice parameter that slightly decreases with Co content. The saturation magnetization and coercive field were analyzed as a function of Co content. The Mössbauer spectra were fitted with a hyperfine magnetic field distribution showing the ferromagnetic behavior and the disordered character of the samples. The mean hyperfine magnetic field remained nearly constant (358 T) with Co content.

  19. Computation material science of structural-phase transformation in casting aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golod, V. M.; Dobosh, L. Yu

    2017-04-01

    Successive stages of computer simulation the formation of the casting microstructure under non-equilibrium conditions of crystallization of multicomponent aluminum alloys are presented. On the basis of computer thermodynamics and heat transfer during solidification of macroscale shaped castings are specified the boundary conditions of local heat exchange at mesoscale modeling of non-equilibrium formation the solid phase and of the component redistribution between phases during coalescence of secondary dendrite branches. Computer analysis of structural - phase transitions based on the principle of additive physico-chemical effect of the alloy components in the process of diffusional - capillary morphological evolution of the dendrite structure and the o of local dendrite heterogeneity which stochastic nature and extent are revealed under metallographic study and modeling by the Monte Carlo method. The integrated computational materials science tools at researches of alloys are focused and implemented on analysis the multiple-factor system of casting processes and prediction of casting microstructure.

  20. Effect of Nanosheet Surface Structure of Titanium Alloys on Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Komasa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloys are the most frequently used dental implants partly because of the protective oxide coating that spontaneously forms on their surface. We fabricated titania nanosheet (TNS structures on titanium surfaces by NaOH treatment to improve bone differentiation on titanium alloy implants. The cellular response to TNSs on Ti6Al4V alloy was investigated, and the ability of the modified surfaces to affect osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow cells and increase the success rate of titanium implants was evaluated. The nanoscale network structures formed by alkali etching markedly enhanced the functions of cell adhesion and osteogenesis-related gene expression of rat bone marrow cells. Other cell behaviors, such as proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin deposition, and mineralization, were also markedly increased in TNS-modified Ti6Al4V. Our results suggest that titanium implants modified with nanostructures promote osteogenic differentiation, which may improve the biointegration of these implants into the alveolar bone.

  1. Structural and magnetic properties of FeCoC system obtained by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincón Soler, A. I.; Rodríguez Jacobo, R. R.; Medina Barreto, M. H.; Cruz-Muñoz, B.

    2017-01-01

    Fe 96−X Co X C 4 (x = 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 at. %) alloys were obtained by mechanical alloying of Fe, C and Co powders using high-energy milling. The structural and magnetic properties of the alloy system were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and Mössbauer Spectrometry at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed a BCC-FeCoC structure phase for all samples, as well as a lattice parameter that slightly decreases with Co content. The saturation magnetization and coercive field were analyzed as a function of Co content. The Mössbauer spectra were fitted with a hyperfine magnetic field distribution showing the ferromagnetic behavior and the disordered character of the samples. The mean hyperfine magnetic field remained nearly constant (358 T) with Co content.

  2. Computer generated structures of grain boundaries in Li2-type ordered alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHosson, J.Th.M.; Pestman, B.J.; Schapink, F.W.; Tichelaar, F.D.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, the influence of the establishment of long-range order in cubic alloys on the structure of grain boundaries in Li 2 alloys has been considered. Thus, for example, for the Σ = 5 (310) tilt boundary the various possible structures have been investigated that are generated upon ordering, starting from plausible structures in the disordered state. However, apart from some rough energy estimates based upon nearest neighbor interactions, no reliable energy calculations have been performed of these different possible structures. In this paper, computer calculations based upon interatomic pair potentials constructed in such a way that the Li 2 structure is stable with respect to disordering, are reported for the Σ = 5 (310) boundary. The relative stability of various possible structures, with associated different boundary compositions, has been investigated

  3. Formation of metastable phases and nanocomposite structures in rapidly solidified Al-Fe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, S.S.; Chang, H.J.; Kim, D.H.; Pabi, S.K.; Murty, B.S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Structures of nanocomposites in rapidly solidified Al-Fe alloys were investigated. → Nanoquasicrystalline, amorphous and intermetallics phases coexist with α-Al. → Nanoquasicrystalline phase was observed for the first time in the dilute Al alloys. → Thermodynamic driving force plays dominant role in precipitation of Fe-rich phases. → High hardness (3.57 GPa) was observed for nanocomposite of Al-10Fe alloy. - Abstract: In the present work the structure and morphology of the phases of nanocomposites formed in rapidly solidified Al-Fe alloys were investigated in details using analytical transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Nanoquasicrystalline phases, amorphous phase and intermetallics like Al 5 Fe 2 , Al 13 F 4 coexisted with α-Al in nanocomposites of the melt spun alloys. It was seen that the Fe supersaturation in α-Al diminished with the increase in Fe content and wheel speed indicating the dominant role of the thermodynamic driving force in the precipitation of Fe-rich phases. Nanoquasicrystalline phases were observed for the first time in the dilute Al alloys like Al-2.5Fe and Al-5Fe as confirmed by high resolution TEM. High hardness (3.57 GPa) was measured in nanocomposite of Al-10Fe alloy, which was attributed to synergistic effect of solid solution strengthening due to high solute content (9.17 at.% Fe), dispersion strengthening by high volume fraction of nanoquasicrystalline phase; and Hall-Petch strengthening from finer cell size (20-30 nm) of α-Al matrix.

  4. Test of the TRAPPISTe monolithic detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soung Yee, L.; Álvarez, P.; Martin, E.; Cortina, E.; Ferrer, C.

    2013-12-01

    A monolithic pixel detector named TRAPPISTe-2 has been developed in Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) technology. A p-n junction is implanted in the bottom handle wafer and connected to readout electronics integrated in the top active layer. The two parts are insulated from each other by a buried oxide layer resulting in a monolithic detector. Two small pixel matrices have been fabricated: one containing a 3-transistor readout and a second containing a charge sensitive amplifier readout. These two readout structures have been characterized and the pixel matrices were tested with an infrared laser source. The readout circuits are adversely affected by the backgate effect, which limits the voltage that can be applied to the metal back plane to deplete the sensor, thus narrowing the depletion width of the sensor. Despite the low depletion voltages, the integrated pixel matrices were able to respond to and track a laser source.

  5. Radiation induced structural changes in alpha-copper-zinc alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuele, W.; Gieb, M.

    1991-01-01

    During irradiation of alpha-copper-zinc alloys with high energy electrons and protons a decrease of the electrical resistivity due to an increase of the degree of short range order is observed through radiation enhanced diffusion followed by an increase of the electrical resistivity through the formation of radiation induced interstitial clusters. The initial formation rate of interstitial clusters increases about linearly with the displacement rate for electron and proton irradiation. The largest initial formation rate is found between 60 and 130 0 C becoming negligibly small above 158 0 C and decreases drastically below 60 0 C. The dynamic steady state interstitial cluster concentration increases with decreasing irradiation temperature in the investigated temperature range between 158 and 40 0 C. Above 158 0 C the formation rate of interstitial clusters is negligibly small. Thus the transition temperature for radiation induced interstitial cluster formation is 158 0 C, depending mainly on the migration activation energy of vacancies. The radiation induced interstitial clusters are precipitates in those alloys in which the diffusion rate of the undersized component atoms via an interstitialcy diffusion mechanism is larger than that of the other atoms

  6. Phonon structures of GaN-based random semiconductor alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mei; Chen, Xiaobin; Li, Gang; Zheng, Fawei; Zhang, Ping

    2017-12-01

    Accurate modeling of thermal properties is strikingly important for developing next-generation electronics with high performance. Many thermal properties are closely related to phonon dispersions, such as sound velocity. However, random substituted semiconductor alloys AxB1-x usually lack translational symmetry, and simulation with periodic boundary conditions often requires large supercells, which makes phonon dispersion highly folded and hardly comparable with experimental results. Here, we adopt a large supercell with randomly distributed A and B atoms to investigate substitution effect on the phonon dispersions of semiconductor alloys systematically by using phonon unfolding method [F. Zheng, P. Zhang, Comput. Mater. Sci. 125, 218 (2016)]. The results reveal the extent to which phonon band characteristics in (In,Ga)N and Ga(N,P) are preserved or lost at different compositions and q points. Generally, most characteristics of phonon dispersions can be preserved with indium substitution of gallium in GaN, while substitution of nitrogen with phosphorus strongly perturbs the phonon dispersion of GaN, showing a rapid disintegration of the Bloch characteristics of optical modes and introducing localized impurity modes. In addition, the sound velocities of both (In,Ga)N and Ga(N,P) display a nearly linear behavior as a function of substitution compositions. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://https://doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2017-80481-0.

  7. Electrochemical alloying of immiscible Ag and Co for their structural and magnetic analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhi, Kalavathy [Material Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Department of Physics, Women’s Christian College, Chennai 600006 (India); Kumarsan, Dhanapal [Material Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Vengidusamy, Naryanan [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India); Arumainathan, Stephen, E-mail: stephen_arum@hotmail.com [Material Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025 (India)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Ag-Co alloy has been prepared using pulsed electrodeposition method. • Wide range of Ag composition in the alloy was obtained. • XPS measurement evident the Ag and Co in metallic nature. • The electrodeposition method develop dendrite like morphology. • Detailed analysis of magnetic behaviour is carried out. - Abstract: Electrochemical alloying of immiscible Ag and Co was carried out at different current densities from electrolytes of two different concentrations, after optimizing the electrolytic bath and operating conditions. The samples obtained were characterized using X-ray diffraction to confirm the simultaneous deposition of Ag and Co and to determine their crystallographic structure. The atomic percentage of Ag and Co contents in the granular alloy was determined by ICP-OES analysis. The XPS spectra were observed to confirm the presence of Ag and Co in the metallic form in the granular alloy samples. The micrographs observed using scanning and transmission electron microscopes threw light on the surface morphology and the size of the particles. The magnetic nature of the samples was analyzed at room temperature by a vibration sample magnetometer. Their magnetic phase transition while heating was also studied to provide further evidence for the magnetic behaviour and the structure of the deposits.

  8. The complex structure of liquid Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin Jingyu; Gu Tingkun; Bian Xiufang [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Southern Campus, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Hui [Shandong High Performance Computing Center, Shandong University, Southern Campus, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2009-04-15

    By applying ab initio molecular dynamics simulation to liquid Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} alloy, the hetero-coordination tendency is discovered by Bathia-Thornton partial correlation functions and a chemical short-range parameter. However the local structural environment of Sn in l-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} alloy resembles that of liquid Sn by Voronoi analysis. A new feature, i.e. a subpeak in between the first and second peaks, is discovered by the present method which implies that topologically disordered {beta}-Sn-type structural units may exist in l-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} alloy. The local density states of electrons show that both Cu-Sn and Sn-Sn bonding exist in l-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} alloy. This work suggests that chemical short-range order between unlike atoms and self-coordination between Sn atoms coexists in l-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} alloy.

  9. Electrochemical alloying of immiscible Ag and Co for their structural and magnetic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhi, Kalavathy; Kumarsan, Dhanapal; Vengidusamy, Naryanan; Arumainathan, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag-Co alloy has been prepared using pulsed electrodeposition method. • Wide range of Ag composition in the alloy was obtained. • XPS measurement evident the Ag and Co in metallic nature. • The electrodeposition method develop dendrite like morphology. • Detailed analysis of magnetic behaviour is carried out. - Abstract: Electrochemical alloying of immiscible Ag and Co was carried out at different current densities from electrolytes of two different concentrations, after optimizing the electrolytic bath and operating conditions. The samples obtained were characterized using X-ray diffraction to confirm the simultaneous deposition of Ag and Co and to determine their crystallographic structure. The atomic percentage of Ag and Co contents in the granular alloy was determined by ICP-OES analysis. The XPS spectra were observed to confirm the presence of Ag and Co in the metallic form in the granular alloy samples. The micrographs observed using scanning and transmission electron microscopes threw light on the surface morphology and the size of the particles. The magnetic nature of the samples was analyzed at room temperature by a vibration sample magnetometer. Their magnetic phase transition while heating was also studied to provide further evidence for the magnetic behaviour and the structure of the deposits.

  10. Monolitni katalizatori i reaktori: osnovne značajke, priprava i primjena (Monolith catalysts and reactors: preparation and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašić, V.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic (honeycomb catalysts are continuous unitary structures containing many narrow, parallel and usually straight channels (or passages. Catalytically active components are dispersed uniformly over the whole porous ceramic monolith structure (so-called incorporated monolithic catalysts or are in a layer of porous material that is deposited on the walls of channels in the monolith's structure (washcoated monolithic catalysts. The material of the main monolithic construction is not limited to ceramics but includes metals, as well. Monolithic catalysts are commonly used in gas phase catalytic processes, such as treatment of automotive exhaust gases, selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides, catalytic removal of volatile organic compounds from industrial processes, etc. Monoliths continue to be the preferred support for environmental applications due to their high geometric surface area, different design options, low pressure drop, high temperature durability, mechanical strength, ease of orientation in a reactor and effectiveness as a support for a catalytic washcoat. As known, monolithic catalysts belong to the class of the structured catalysts and/or reactors (in some cases the distinction between "catalyst" and "reactor" has vanished. Structured catalysts can greatly intensify chemical processes, resulting in smaller, safer, cleaner and more energy efficient technologies. Monolith reactors can be considered as multifunctional reactors, in which chemical conversion is advantageously integrated with another unit operation, such as separation, heat exchange, a secondary reaction, etc. Finally, structured catalysts and/or reactors appear to be one of the most significant and promising developments in the field of heterogeneous catalysis and chemical engineering of the recent years. This paper gives a description of the background and perspectives for application and development of monolithic materials. Different methods and techniques

  11. Effect of scandium on structure and hardening of Al–Ca eutectic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belov, N.A., E-mail: nikolay-belov@yandex.ru [National Research and Technological University “MISIS”, 4, Leninsky pr., Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Naumova, E.A. [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 5, 2 ul. Baumanskaya, Moscow, 105005 (Russian Federation); Alabin, A.N. [National Research and Technological University “MISIS”, 4, Leninsky pr., Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); UC RUSAL, 13/1, Nikoloyamskaya st., Moscow, 109240 (Russian Federation); Matveeva, I.A. [UC RUSAL, 13/1, Nikoloyamskaya st., Moscow, 109240 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    The phase composition, structure and hardening of alloys in the aluminium corner of the Al–Ca–Sc system were studied in the range up to 10% Ca and up to 1% S≿. The experimental study (optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy with electron-microprobe analysis, differential thermal analysis and hardness measurements) was combined with Thermo-Calc software simulation for the optimization of the alloy composition. It was shown that only phases of the binary systems (Al{sub 4}Ca and Al{sub 3}Sc) might be in equilibrium with the aluminium solid solution. It was shown that the (Al) + Al{sub 4}Ca eutectic had a much finer structure as compared with the Al–Si eutectic, which suggests a possibility of reaching higher mechanical properties as compared to commercial alloys of the A356 type. The influence of the annealing temperature within the range up to 600 °C on the structure and hardness of the Al–Ca–Sc experimental alloys was studied. It was determined that the maximum hardening corresponded to the annealing at 300 °C, which was due to the precipitation of Al{sub 3}Sc nanoparticles with their further coarsening. With an example of an Al-7.6% Ca-0.3% Sc model experimental alloy, a principal possibility of manufacturing aluminium casting alloys based on the (Al) + Al{sub 4}Ca eutectic was demonstrated. Unlike commercial alloys of the A356 type, the model alloy does not require quenching, as hardening particles are formed in the course of annealing of casting. - Highlights: • Al–Ca–Sc phase diagram in aluminum corner. • Formation of Al{sub 3}Sc nanoparticles in eutectic (Al) + Al{sub 4}Ca during heating at 300–450 °C. • Hardening and thermal stability of proposed (Al–Ca–Sc) and commercial (Al–Si–Mg, 356 type) eutectic alloys.

  12. Structure and stacking faults in layered Mg-Zn-Y alloys: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Aditi; Waghmare, U.V.; Ramamurty, U.

    2008-01-01

    We use first-principles density functional theory total energy calculations based on pseudo-potentials and plane-wave basis to assess stability of the periodic structures with different stacking sequences in Mg-Zn-Y alloys. For pure Mg, we find that the 6-layer (6l) structure with the ABACAB stacking is most stable after the lowest energy hcp (2l) structure with ABAB stacking. Addition of 2 at.% Y leads to stabilization of the structure to 6l sequence whereas the addition of 2 at.% Zn makes the 6l energetically comparable to that of the hcp. Stacking fault (SF) on the basal plane of 6l structure is higher in energy than that of the hcp 2l Mg, which further increases upon Y doping and decreases significantly with Zn doping. SF energy surface for the prismatic slip indicates activation of non-basal slip in alloys with a 6l structure. Charge density analysis shows that the 2l and 6l structures are electronically similar which might be a cause for better stability of 6l structure over a 4l sequence or other periodic structures. Thus, in an Mg-Zn-Y alloy, Y stabilizes the long periodicity, while its mechanical properties are further improved due to Zn doping

  13. Phase separation and structure formation in gadolinium based liquid and glassy metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Junhee

    2014-01-01

    tailored both at microscopic and macroscopic length scales. This includes either droplet-like or interconnected microstructures at the microscopic level and glass-glass or glass-crystalline composites at the macroscopic level. Essential parameter for the quenched in microstructure is the temperature dependence of liquid-liquid phase separation, which is determined by the chemical composition of the alloy: on the one hand, earlier and/or later stages of spinodal decomposition or almost homogeneous glassy states are obtained if the critical temperature of miscibility gap T c is close to the glass transition temperature T g ; and on the one hand, coarsening and secondary precipitations of the liquids are obtained if T c is much higher than T g . Finally, the influence of the microstructure developed by phase separation on their magnetic properties had been investigated. The saturation magnetization σ S depends on the overall amount of Gd atoms in the alloys and is not remarkably affected by phase separation processes. The Curie temperature T Curie of the magnetic transition is influenced by the changed chemical composition of the Gd-rich glassy phases compared to that of monolithic Gd-Co-Al glasses.

  14. Magnetic structure at the surface of a FeZrB alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavuk, M.; Miglierini, M.; Sitek, J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine two structural states of the "5"7Fe_9_0Zr_7B_3 alloy from the point of view of their domain structure. As the method for obtaining the image of a domain structure we used the magnetic force microscopy (MFM). Its advantage is that besides the image of a domain structure, it also records the image of topography. Another advantage is the high spatial resolution. From both of these advantages, one can benefit in the study of nanocrystalline alloys. Nevertheless, the use of MFM in the study of nanocrystalline materials is so far only rare. Additional structural characterization was obtained by the help of Conversion Electron Moessbauer Spectrometry (CEMS). (authors)

  15. Annealing effects on structure and mechanical properties of CoCrFeNiTiAlx high-entropy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, K B; Fu, Z Y; Zhang, J Y; Wang, W M; Lee, S W; Niihara, K

    2011-01-01

    Novel CoCrFeNiTiAl x (x:molar ratio, other elements are equimolar) high-entropy alloys were prepared by vacuum arc melting and these alloys were subsequently annealed at 1000 deg. C for 2 h. The annealing effects on structure and mechanical properties were investigated. Compared with the as-cast alloys, there are many complex intermetallic phases precipitated from the solid solution matrix in the as-annealed alloys with Al content lower than Al 1.0 . Only simple BCC solid solution structure appears in the as-annealed Al 1.5 and Al 2.0 alloys. This kind of alloys exhibit high resistance to anneal softening. Most as-annealed alloys possess even higher Visker hardness than the as-cast ones. The as-annealed Al 0.5 alloys shows the highest compressive strength while the Al 0 alloy exhibits the best ductility, which is about 2.6 GPa and 13%, respectively. The CoCrFeNiTiAl x high-entropy alloys possess integrated high temperature mechanical property as well.

  16. Atomic structure of the SbCu surface alloy: A surface X-ray diffraction study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meunier, I.; Gay, J.M.; Lapena, L.

    1999-01-01

    The dissolution at 400 degrees C of an antimony layer deposited at room temperature on a Cu(111) substrate leads to a surface alloy with a p(root 3x root 3)R 30 degrees x 30 degrees superstructure and a Sb composition of 1/3.We present here a structural study of this Sb-Cu compound by surface X...

  17. Experimental simulation techniques for the evaluation of structural changes in metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucki, Georgi

    1992-01-01

    In this work, high-doses irradiation in nuclear reactor were simulated using a cyclotron in order to study mechanical, electric, magnetic and structural changes in materials. Results of such simulations for portland cement, binary alloys and stainless steels are presented and discussed. 15 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  18. Structure and properties of an aluminium alloy welded by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzimov, Sh.M.; Palvanov, S.R.; Pogrebnjak, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In the given work the experimental results on research of influence of electronic beams on structure of an aluminum alloy are submitted. As a basis of samples the alloy Al-Mg-Zn-Cu by the additives Se-0.5 % and Nb-0.15 % is chosen. Samples from a cast aluminum alloy by thickness of 3 mm such as B-96 were welded with an electronic beam in three different modes at radius circle of a root of a welded seam of 5 mm. The welding was carried out by an alloy Amg 63 and Sv-1571 with application electron team welding joint of parts. The basic influence on the given process makes energy - allocation of an electronic beam. For research of phase structure used of X-ray beams (XRD), DRON-2 in copper K α - Cu measurement. For research of structure and morphology of a surface used optical microscope with increase 800-1500 times and electronic microscope with the microanalysis. On figures of optical microscopy the morphology of a seam sharply differs from morphology of an initial part. The microanalysis carried out with a place of a seam, has shown presence of the whole spectrum of elements, such as, Al; Zn; Na; Mg; Cu; and Mn. All measurements carried out in welding zone and in frontier zones that it was possible to carry out the comparative analysis. The element structure of these zones essentially differs in dependence of a condition of welding

  19. Change of structure and some mechanical properties during processing of AlMn(Fe,Si) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs-Csetenyi, E.; Griger, A.; Turmezey, T.; Suchanek, V.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the change of structure and some mechanical properties during processing of AlMn(Fe,Si) alloys. An emphasis was given to the effect of Fe and Si on the properties measured in deformed and annealed states, because of its technological importance

  20. Alloy Dependence of Electron-Phonon Interactions in Double Barrier Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wallis, Corinne

    1996-01-01

    ...)As double barrier structures as a function of the alloy concentration in the barrier. We have measured current-voltage and conductance-voltage curves associated with phonon-assisted tunneling with magnetic fields from 0 to 6.8 Tesla...

  1. Structure and properties of a splat cooled 2024 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebo, M.; Grant, N. J.

    1974-01-01

    In the investigation the alloy was melted, heated to 750 C, and atomized into fine droplets. The droplets were rapidly quenched against a heavy copper disk rotating at 1725 rpm. The resultant splat cooled flakes were screened. Three flake sizes were finally separated. Flakes of each size were separately processed. The characteristics of the splat cooling process and the properties of the obtained products are discussed. Splat cooling against a metallic substrate permits cooling rates up to about 1,000,000 deg C/sec. Increases in yield strength and tensile strength of 14 to 19% are observed for the splat products. Other improvements are connected with increases in fatigue life and stress rupture performance.

  2. Cellular Shape Memory Alloy Structures: Experiments & Modeling (Part 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    High -­‐ temperature  SMAs 24 Braze  Joint  between  two  wrought  pieces  of  a  Ni24.5Pd25Ti50.5  HTSMA   (HTSMA  from...process  can  be  used   to  join  other  metal  alloys  and   high -­‐ temperature   SMAs 25 Cellular  Shape  Memory...20 30 40 50 60 910 3 4 8 5 2 T (°C) Shape memory & superelasticity 1 0 e (%) (GPa) 6 7 A NiTi wire

  3. A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid Metal Structures and Electronic Equilibrium - 154041

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-28

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0027 A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal Structures and...to 16 Dec 2016 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal...Air Force Research Laboratory for accurately predicting compositions of new amorphous alloys specifically based on aluminium with properties superior

  4. Morphology, deformation, and defect structures of TiCr2 in Ti-Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.C.; Allen, S.M.; Livingston, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The morphologies and defect structures of TiCr 2 in several Ti-Cr alloys have been examined by optical metallography, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in order to explore the room-temperature deformability of the Laves phase TiCr 2 . The morphology of the Laves phase was found to be dependent upon alloy composition and annealing temperature. Samples deformed by compression have also been studied using TEM. Comparisons of microstructures before and after deformation suggest an increase in twin, stacking fault, and dislocation density within the Laves phase, indicating some but not extensive room-temperature deformability

  5. Structure of Ni-rich Ni--Cr--B--Si coating alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotek, O.; Lugscheider, E.; Reimann, H.

    1975-01-01

    The structures of quaternary, nickel-rich Ni--Cr--B--Si alloys were analyzed at a constant boron content of 10 at. percent and a temperature of 850 0 C. The composition range for silicide formation was determined. In these quaternary alloys, known binary nickel silicides, nickel and chromium borides, and the ternary silico-boride Ni 6 Si 2 B were confirmed. A new composition for the W 5 Si 3 -type phase in the Ni--B--Si system was proposed. (U.S.)

  6. Chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of LaFeCoSi alloy: Surface and bulk properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lollobrigida, V. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Basso, V.; Kuepferling, M.; Coïsson, M.; Olivetti, E. S.; Celegato, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), I-10135 Torino (Italy); Borgatti, F. [CNR, Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Torelli, P.; Panaccione, G. [CNR, Istituto Officina dei Materiali (IOM), Lab. TASC, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Tortora, L. [Laboratorio di Analisi di Superficie, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Università Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Stefani, G.; Offi, F. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy)

    2014-05-28

    We investigate the chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of the magnetocaloric LaFeCoSi compound with bulk and surface sensitive techniques. We put in evidence that the surface retains a soft ferromagnetic behavior at temperatures higher than the Curie temperature of the bulk due to the presence of Fe clusters at the surface only. This peculiar magnetic surface effect is attributed to the exchange interaction between the ferromagnetic Fe clusters located at the surface and the bulk magnetocaloric alloy, and it is used here to monitor the magnetic properties of the alloy itself.

  7. Chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of LaFeCoSi alloy: Surface and bulk properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollobrigida, V.; Basso, V.; Borgatti, F.; Torelli, P.; Kuepferling, M.; Coïsson, M.; Olivetti, E. S.; Celegato, F.; Tortora, L.; Stefani, G.; Panaccione, G.; Offi, F.

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of the magnetocaloric LaFeCoSi compound with bulk and surface sensitive techniques. We put in evidence that the surface retains a soft ferromagnetic behavior at temperatures higher than the Curie temperature of the bulk due to the presence of Fe clusters at the surface only. This peculiar magnetic surface effect is attributed to the exchange interaction between the ferromagnetic Fe clusters located at the surface and the bulk magnetocaloric alloy, and it is used here to monitor the magnetic properties of the alloy itself.

  8. Chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of LaFeCoSi alloy: Surface and bulk properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lollobrigida, V.; Basso, V.; Kuepferling, M.; Coïsson, M.; Olivetti, E. S.; Celegato, F.; Borgatti, F.; Torelli, P.; Panaccione, G.; Tortora, L.; Stefani, G.; Offi, F.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of the magnetocaloric LaFeCoSi compound with bulk and surface sensitive techniques. We put in evidence that the surface retains a soft ferromagnetic behavior at temperatures higher than the Curie temperature of the bulk due to the presence of Fe clusters at the surface only. This peculiar magnetic surface effect is attributed to the exchange interaction between the ferromagnetic Fe clusters located at the surface and the bulk magnetocaloric alloy, and it is used here to monitor the magnetic properties of the alloy itself.

  9. Synthesis and structural characterization of amorphous alloys of the Fe-Ni-B type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral P, A.; Jimenez B, J.; Garcia S, I.

    2004-01-01

    It was prepared the alloy FeNiB for chemical reduction, using four p H values (5, 6, 7 and 7.5). To p H=6 partially oxidized particles were obtained, between 16 and 20%. In the synthesis to other p H values, the obtained particles were highly oxidized (65-90%) according to the X-ray diffraction results, in all the preparations the particles were partially crystallized, with crystal size that varied between 4 and 10 nm. The structure of these particles can be consider that they are formed by a nucleus due to the alloy and an oxide armor recovering it. (Author)

  10. Process-Structure-Property Relationship in Magnesium-Based Biodegradable Alloy for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Pramanshu

    Magnesium alloys are considered to be the next generation of biomaterials because of their ability to degrade in the physiological environment. We elucidate here the impact of multiaxial forging of Mg-2Zn-2Gd alloy on grain refinement to sub-micron regime and relate the structure to mechanical properties and biological functionality. As-cast and annealed samples were multiaxial forged (MAF) for a total number of two passes with a true strain of 2/pass. Considering that the microstructure governs the biological response of materials, we studied the constituents of the microstructure in conjunction with the mechanical behavior. The antimicrobial behavior in a Mg-2Zn-2Gd alloy with different grain size in the range of 44 microm to 710 nm was studied by seeding. Surface energy and contact angle measurements using goniometer and wettability were assessed with water, SBF, n-Hexane, and DMEM. The structure-property relationship in Mg-2Zn-2Gd alloy to maintaining mechanical integrity during degradation was studied by seeding Escherichia coli ( E. coli). Furthermore, we studied the effect of degradation behavior in the presence and absence of cells. This was followed by the study of bioactivity in terms of phases present on the surface and degradation products in simulated body fluid (SBF). Magnesium coated with apatite using a biomimetic approach were placed in a 24-well culture plate with alpha-MEM media and the degradation behavior was studied in the absence and presence of cells (seeding density: 10,000 cells/cm2). The change in pH was monitored at regular intervals. Cell attachment was studied by seeding the cells for 4h and cell viability was studied by seeding the cells for up to 1, 3, and 7 days. The study underscores that the fine-grained alloys exhibited superior mechanical properties, antimicrobial resistance, and cell attachment. The degradation rate was also least for fine-grained alloy. The higher surface energy of ultrafine-grained Mg-2Zn-2Gd alloy led to the

  11. Structural order and magnetism of rare-earth metallic amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, M.

    1984-01-01

    Local symmetry (as evaluated from the electric field gradient tensor) and radial distribution functions (obtained by EXAFS measurement) are determined in a series of amorphous rare-earth base alloys. Local order is found to increase with the extent of heteroatomic interactions. Various magnetic phases (including ferromagnetic, spin-glass, reentrant spin-glass) occur for europium alloys with simple metals (Mg, Zn, Cd, Al, Au, ...). This variety reflects the sensitivity of exchange interactions to the presence of non-s conduction electrons. Asperomagnetic structures are established for the Dy alloys. The crystalline electric field interactions at the Dy 3+ ions are interpreted with the help of local symmetry data. Quadratic axial and non-axial crystal field terms are sufficient and necessary in order to account for the hyperfine and bulk experimental results [fr

  12. Structural and electronic properties of Si1−xGex alloy nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iori, Federico; Ossicini, Stefano; Rurali, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    We present first-principles density-functional calculations of Si 1−x Ge x alloy nanowires. We show that given the composition of the alloy, the structural properties of the nanowires can be predicted with great accuracy by means of Vegard's law, linearly interpolating the values of a pure Si and a pure Ge nanowire of the same diameter. The same holds, to some extent, also for electronic properties such as the band-gap. We also assess to what extend the band-gap varies as a function of disorder, i.e., how it changes for different random realization of a given concentration. These results make possible to tailor the desired properties of SiGe alloy nanowires starting directly from the data relative to the pristine wires.

  13. Effects of alloying on Co--Si eutectoid structures and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of various ternary alloying elements on the microstructure and properties of directionally solidified and transformed Co-Si eutectoid alloys were studied. Aligned eutectoid structures were maintained with additions of up to 10 at. percent Ni. However, higher Ni additions led to changes in both the silicide and solid-solution phases, related changes in microstructure, and decreased tensile strength. Additions of 5 at. percent Cr, Cu, Fe, or Mn produced cellular eutectoid microstructures which deteriorated the mechanical properties. Additions of W, Ta, or Al led to eutectic, rather than eutectoid, microstructures. Alloys based on the Co-W-Si eutectic appear to have the most promising high-temperature mechanical properties

  14. Structure and Mechanical Properties of AlSiCuMg Alloy after Thermo Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piątkowski J.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the dissertation it has been shown, that so called „time-thermal treatment” (TTT of the alloy in liquid state, as overheating the metal with around 250°C above the Tliq. and detaining it in this temperature for around 30 minutes, improves the mechanical properties (HB, Rm, R0,2. It was ascertained, that overheating the AlSi17Cu5Mg alloy aids the modification, resulting with microcrystalline structure. Uniform arrangement of the Si primeval crystals in the warp, and α(Al solution type, supersaturated with alloying elements present in the base content (Cu, Mg assures not only increased durability in the ambient temperature, but also at elevated temperature (250°C, what is an advantage, especially due to the use in car industry.

  15. Structural properties of calcogenic thin films and alloys subjected to synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, P.R.; Almeida, D.P.; Lima, J.C. de; Campos, C.E.M.; Ponciano, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Results on structural characterization of Sb 50 Te 50 and Te 24 In 38 Sb 38 alloys prepared as powder and after deposited as a thin films are presented. For that x ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence were used. The nanocrystalline phases Sb 2 Te 2 and Sb 24 Te 9 were nucleated in both Sb 50 Te 50 and Te 24 In 38 Sb 38 alloys, respectively. The thin films of both binary and ternary alloys are mainly amorphous. According to X-ray fluorescence results the chemical composition inside the ultraviolet irradiated region on one of the binary thin film become different than that outside irradiation marks, suggesting Sb migration. (author)

  16. Characterization of SOI monolithic detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Rengifo, P. L.; Soung Yee, L.; Martin, E.; Cortina, E.; Ferrer, C.

    2013-12-01

    A monolithic active pixel sensor for charged particle tracking was developed. This research is performed within the framework of an R&D project called TRAPPISTe (Tracking Particles for Physics Instrumentation in SOI Technology) whose aim is to evaluate the feasibility of developing a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) with Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) technology. Two chips were fabricated: TRAPPISTe-1 and TRAPPISTe-2. TRAPPISTe-1 was produced at the WINFAB facility at the Université catholique de Louvain (UCL), Belgium, in a 2 μm fully depleted (FD-SOI) CMOS process. TRAPPISTe-2 was fabricated with the LAPIS 0.2 μm FD-SOI CMOS process. The electrical characterization on single transistor test structures and of the electronic readout for the TRAPPISTe series of monolithic pixel detectors was carried out. The behavior of the prototypes’ electronics as a function of the back voltage was studied. Results showed that both readout circuits exhibited sensitivity to the back voltage. Despite this unwanted secondary effect, the responses of TRAPPISTe-2 amplifiers can be improved by a variation in the circuit parameters.

  17. Study of the structure and development of the set of reference materials of composition and structure of heat resisting nickel and intermetallic alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Chabina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of research: There are two sizes (several microns and nanodimensional of strengthening j'-phase in single-crystal heat resisting nickel and intermetallic alloys, used for making blades of modern gas turbine engines (GTD. For in-depth study of structural and phase condition of such alloys not only qualitative description of created structure is necessary, but quantitative analysis of alloy components geometrical characteristics. Purpose of the work: Development of reference material sets of heat resisting nickel and intermetallic alloy composition and structure. Research methods: To address the measurement problem of control of structural and geometrical characteristics of single-crystal heat resisting and intermetallic alloys by analytical microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis the research was carried out using certified measurement techniques on facilities, entered in the Register of Measurement Means of the Russian Federation. The research was carried out on microsections, foils and plates, cut in the plane {100}. Results: It is established that key parameters, defining the properties of these alloys are particle size of strengthening j' -phase, the layer thickness of j-phase between them and parameters of phases lattice. Metrological requirements for reference materials of composition and structure of heat resisting nickel and intermetallic alloys are formulated. The necessary and sufficient reference material set providing the possibility to determine the composition and structure parameters of single-crystal heat resisting nickel and intermetallic alloys is defined. The developed RM sets are certified as in-plant reference materials. Conclusion: The reference materials can be used for graduation of spectral equipment when conducting element analysis of specified class alloys; for calibration of means of measuring alloy structure parameters; for measurement of alloys phases lattice parameters; for structure reference pictures

  18. Aging Optimization of Aluminum-Lithium Alloy L277 for Application to Cryotank Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, B. J.; Sankaran, K. K.; Babel, H.; Farahmand, B.; Cho, A.

    2003-01-01

    Compared with aluminum alloys such as 2219, which is widely used in space vehicle for cryogenic tanks and unpressurized structures, aluminum-lithium alloys possess attractive combinations of lower density and higher modulus along with comparable mechanical properties and improved damage tolerance. These characteristics have resulted in the successful use of the aluminum-lithium alloy 2195 for the Space Shuttle External Tank, and the consideration of newer U.S. aluminum-lithium alloys such as L277 and C458 for future space vehicles. A design of experiments aging study was conducted for plate and a limited study on extrusions. To achieve the T8 temper, Alloy L277 is typically aged at 290 F for 40 hours. In the study for plate, a two-step aging treatment was developed through a design of experiments study and the one step aging used as a control. Based on the earlier NASA studies on 2195, the first step aging temperature was varied between 220 F and 260 F. The second step aging temperatures was varied between 290 F and 310 F, which is in the range of the single-step aging temperature. For extrusions, two, single-step, and one two-step aging condition were evaluated. The results of the design of experiments used for the T8 temper as well as a smaller set of experiments for the T6 temper for plate and the results for extrusions will be presented.

  19. Effects of Surface Structure and Chemical Composition of Binary Ti Alloys on Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ok-Sung Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Binary Ti alloys containing Fe, Mo, V and Zr were micro-arc oxidized and hydrothermally treated to obtain micro- and nano-porous layers. This study aimed to investigate cell differentiation on micro and micro/nanoporous oxide layers of Ti alloys. The properties of the porous layer formed on Ti alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern, microstructural and elemental analyses and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS method. The MTT assay, total protein production and alkaline phosphatase (ALPase activity were evaluated using human osteoblast-like cells (MG-63. Microporous structures of micro-arc oxidized Ti alloys were changed to micro/nanoporous surfaces after hydrothermal treatment. Micro/nanoporous surfaces consisted of acicular TiO2 nanoparticles and micron-sized hydroxyapatite particles. From ICP and MTT tests, the Mo and V ions released from porous oxide layers were positive for cell viability, while the released Fe ions were negative for cell viability. Although the micro/nanoporous surfaces led to a lower total protein content than the polished and microporous Ti surfaces after cell incubation for 7 days, they caused higher ALPase activities after 7 days and 14 days of incubation except for V-containing microporous surfaces. The micro/nanoporous surfaces of Ti alloys were more efficient in inducing MG-63 cell differentiation.

  20. Fe–Al–Mn–C lightweight structural alloys: a review on the microstructures and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansoo Kim, Dong-Woo Suh and Nack J Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adding a large amount of light elements such as aluminum to steels is not a new concept recalling that several Fe–Al–Mn–C alloys were patented in 1950s for replacement of nickel or chromium in corrosion resistance steels. However, the so-called lightweight steels or low-density steels were revisited recently, which is driven by demands from the industry where steel has served as a major structural material. Strengthening without loss of ductility has been a triumph in steel research, but lowering the density of steel by mixing with light elements will be another prospect that may support the competitiveness against emerging alternatives such as magnesium alloys. In this paper, we review recent studies on lightweight steels, emphasizing the concept of alloy design for microstructures and mechanical properties. The influence of alloying elements on the phase constituents, mechanical properties and the change of density is critically reviewed. Deformation mechanisms of various lightweight steels are discussed as well. This paper provides a reason why the success of lightweight steels is strongly dependent on scientific achievements even though alloy development is closely related to industrial applications. Finally, we summarize some of the main directions for future investigations necessary for vitalizing this field of interest.

  1. Fe–Al–Mn–C lightweight structural alloys: a review on the microstructures and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hansoo; Suh, Dong-Woo; Kim, Nack J

    2013-01-01

    Adding a large amount of light elements such as aluminum to steels is not a new concept recalling that several Fe–Al–Mn–C alloys were patented in 1950s for replacement of nickel or chromium in corrosion resistance steels. However, the so-called lightweight steels or low-density steels were revisited recently, which is driven by demands from the industry where steel has served as a major structural material. Strengthening without loss of ductility has been a triumph in steel research, but lowering the density of steel by mixing with light elements will be another prospect that may support the competitiveness against emerging alternatives such as magnesium alloys. In this paper, we review recent studies on lightweight steels, emphasizing the concept of alloy design for microstructures and mechanical properties. The influence of alloying elements on the phase constituents, mechanical properties and the change of density is critically reviewed. Deformation mechanisms of various lightweight steels are discussed as well. This paper provides a reason why the success of lightweight steels is strongly dependent on scientific achievements even though alloy development is closely related to industrial applications. Finally, we summarize some of the main directions for future investigations necessary for vitalizing this field of interest. PMID:27877553

  2. Fe-Al-Mn-C lightweight structural alloys: a review on the microstructures and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hansoo; Suh, Dong-Woo; Kim, Nack J

    2013-02-01

    Adding a large amount of light elements such as aluminum to steels is not a new concept recalling that several Fe-Al-Mn-C alloys were patented in 1950s for replacement of nickel or chromium in corrosion resistance steels. However, the so-called lightweight steels or low-density steels were revisited recently, which is driven by demands from the industry where steel has served as a major structural material. Strengthening without loss of ductility has been a triumph in steel research, but lowering the density of steel by mixing with light elements will be another prospect that may support the competitiveness against emerging alternatives such as magnesium alloys. In this paper, we review recent studies on lightweight steels, emphasizing the concept of alloy design for microstructures and mechanical properties. The influence of alloying elements on the phase constituents, mechanical properties and the change of density is critically reviewed. Deformation mechanisms of various lightweight steels are discussed as well. This paper provides a reason why the success of lightweight steels is strongly dependent on scientific achievements even though alloy development is closely related to industrial applications. Finally, we summarize some of the main directions for future investigations necessary for vitalizing this field of interest.

  3. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER MONOLITH FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C

    2006-12-22

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as an alternative technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of aqueous high sodium containing radioactive wastes at various DOE facilities in the United States. The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants converts aqueous Low Activity Wastes (LAW) to a granular or ''mineralized'' waste form while converting organic components to CO{sub 2} and steam, and nitrate/nitrite components, if any, to N{sub 2}. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like structures that atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The granular product has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Shallow land burial requires that the mineralized waste form be able to sustain the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations. The strength requirement necessitates binding the granular product into a monolith. FBSR mineral products were formulated into a variety of monoliths including various cements, Ceramicrete, and hydroceramics. All but one of the nine monoliths tested met the <2g/m{sup 2} durability specification for Na and Re (simulant for Tc-99) when tested using the Product Consistency Test (PCT; ASTM C1285). Of the nine monoliths tested the cements produced with 80-87 wt% FBSR product, the Ceramicrete, and the hydroceramic produced with 83.3 wt% FBSR product, met the compressive strength and durability requirements for an LAW waste form.

  4. Optimisation by plastic deformation of structural and mechanical uranium alloys properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, Claude.

    1981-08-01

    Structural and mechanical properties evolution of rich and poor uranium alloys are investigated. Good usual properties are obtained with few metallic additions with a limited effect giving a fine and isotrope grain structure. Amelioration is observed with heat treatment from β and γ phases high temperature range. However, dynamic recrystallisation, related to hot working, is the better phenomena to maximize the usual mechanical and structural properties. So high temperature behaviour of rich and poor uranium alloys in α, β and γ crystalline structure is studied: - dynamic recrystallisation phenomena begins only in α, and β phases high temperature range; - high strength and brittle β phase shows a very large ductility above 700 deg C. Recrystallisation is a thermal actived phenomena localised at grain boundary, dependant with alloys concentration and crystalline structure. β phase activation energy and deformation rate for dynamic recrystallisation beginning are most important, than α and γ phases in relation with quadratic structure complexity. Both temperature and deformation rate are the main dynamic recrystallisation factors. Optimal usual mechanical and structural properties obtained by hot working (forging, milling) are sensible to hydrogen embrittlement [fr

  5. Structural conditions of achieving maximum ductility of two-phase Ni-NiO alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabin, V.V.; Dabizha, E.V.; Movchan, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    A study was made on possibility of increasing ductility of two-phase Ni-NiO alloys, proJuced by traditional technology: ingot smelting, rolling and corresponding annealing for production of grain with certain size. The correlation of mechanical properties of Ni-NiO alloys and pure nickel shows that completion of the structural conJition D--lambda (where D - the average grain diameter, lambda - the value of free path between particles) in two-phase alloys enables: to increase the ultimate strength 1.5 times and preserve the basic level of pure nickel plasticity - at 20 deg C; to increase plasticity 1.4-1.5 times with preserved basic level of pure nickel plasticity - at 800 deg C. The conclusions testify to possibility of controlling mechanical properties of two-phase alloys using structural D and lambda parameters It is proposed that creation of structures with more unifor m particle distribution with respect to sizes will the accompanied by further increase of plasticity under D=lambda condition

  6. Formation and structure of V-Zr amorphous alloy thin films

    KAUST Repository

    King, Daniel J M

    2015-01-01

    Although the equilibrium phase diagram predicts that alloys in the central part of the V-Zr system should consist of V2Zr Laves phase with partial segregation of one element, it is known that under non-equilibrium conditions these materials can form amorphous structures. Here we examine the structures and stabilities of thin film V-Zr alloys deposited at room temperature by magnetron sputtering. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computational methods. Atomic-scale modelling was used to investigate the enthalpies of formation of the various competing structures. The calculations confirmed that an amorphous solid solution would be significantly more stable than a random body-centred solid solution of the elements, in agreement with the experimental results. In addition, the modelling effort provided insight into the probable atomic configurations of the amorphous structures allowing predictions of the average distance to the first and second nearest neighbours in the system.

  7. Effect of tantalum on α-martensite crystal structure in Co-Ta alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorodzievskij, V.S.; Ustinov, A.I.; Chuistov, K.V.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the crystal structure of α-martensite, formed during Co-Ta alloy hardening from the region of a homogeneous solid solution, are investigated by X-ray analysis methods. In case of increasing tantalum content in the alloy, intensity redistribution of X-ray scattering along the direction of the reverse space of H-K not equal to 3N (N=0, +-1, +-2...) type is fixed, which appears, depending on concentration, in continuous displacement of maxima from positions being characteristic for the initial 2H structure, as well as in occurring additional maxima and in changing the ratio between them by ipteΣity. For limiting values of tantalum concentration, where β → α-transformations are still observed, the number of intepsity maxima and their positions an the period of α-martensite reverse lattice recurrence period is closer to the location of 15R 1 -structure reverse structure unit

  8. Influence of structural relaxation and partial devitrification on the corrosion resistance of Fe78B13Si9 amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, C.A.C.; Politi, F.S.; Kiminami, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    Amorphous alloys obtained by rapid solidification from the melt exhibit a similar structure to those observed in the liquid state, i.e., without long range ordering, in such a way that the constituents of the alloy usually are randomly and homogeneously distributed. Amorphous alloys, depending on their composition, may exhibit interesting characteristics such as very soft magnetic properties and improved resistance to corrosion. The high corrosion resistance of these alloys is attributed mainly to a higher rate of dissolution of passivating elements in the amorphous state. In addition, amorphous alloys are chemically homogeneous and free of defects such as grain boundaries, precipitates and segregation, which are favorable sites for corrosion. The corrosion resistance of amorphous alloys also depends on their thermal history. Several authors have reported that structural changes, such as structural relaxation and devitrification caused by annealing, change significantly the corrosion properties of these alloys. The purpose of this paper is to study corrosion resistance of the amorphous FeBSi alloy and the effects of structural changes such as structural relaxation and partial crystallization caused by annealing

  9. Reactive wetting of amorphous silica by molten Al–Mg alloys and their interfacial structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Laixin [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials (Ministry of Education), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, No. 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun 130025 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Shen, Ping, E-mail: shenping@jlu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials (Ministry of Education), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, No. 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun 130025 (China); Zhang, Dan [Editorial Office, Journal of Bionic Engineering, Jilin University, No. 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun 130025 (China); Jiang, Qichuan [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials (Ministry of Education), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, No. 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun 130025 (China)

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • The wettability improves with increasing Mg concentration and temperature. • Reaction product zone consists of layered structures relating with Mg concentration. • Formation of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgO at the interface does not promote the wettability. • Formation of Mg{sub 2}Si plays a dominant role in promoting the wettability. • Anomalous recession of the triple line was mainly due to diminishing Mg in the alloy. - Abstract: The reactive wetting of amorphous silica substrates by molten Al–Mg alloys over a wide composition range was studied using a dispensed sessile drop method in a flowing Ar atmosphere. The effects of the nominal Mg concentration and temperature on the wetting and interfacial microstructures were discussed. The initial contact angle for pure Al on the SiO{sub 2} surface was 115° while that for pure Mg was 35° at 1073 K. For the Al–Mg alloy drop, it decreased with increasing nominal Mg concentration. The reaction zone was characterized by layered structures, whose formation was primarily controlled by the variation in the alloy concentration due to the evaporation of Mg and the interfacial reaction from the viewpoint of thermodynamics as well as by the penetration or diffusion of Mg, Al and Si from the viewpoint of kinetics. In addition, the effects of the reaction and the evaporation of Mg on the movement of the triple line were examined. The spreading of the Al–Mg alloy on the SiO{sub 2} surface was mainly attributed to the formation of Mg{sub 2}Si at the interface and the recession of the triple line to the diminishing Mg concentration in the alloy.

  10. Structure of Ti-6Al-4V nanostructured titanium alloy joint obtained by resistance spot welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimenov, V. A., E-mail: klimenov@tpu.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Av., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Kurgan, K. A., E-mail: kirill-k2.777@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Chumaevskii, A. V., E-mail: tch7av@gmail.com [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2/4 Akademicheskii pr., Tomsk, 634021 (Russian Federation); Klopotov, A. A., E-mail: klopotovaa@tsuab.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Gnyusov, S. F., E-mail: gnusov@rambler.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Av., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The structure of weld joints of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V in the initial ultrafine-grained state, obtained by resistance spot welding, is studied using the optical and scanning electron microscopy method and the X-ray structure analysis. The carried out studies show the relationship of the metal structure in the weld zone with main joint zones. The structure in the core zone and the heat affected zone is represented by finely dispersed grains of needle-shaped martensite, differently oriented in these zones. The change in the microhardness in the longitudinal section of the weld joint clearly correlates with structural changes during welding.

  11. Contribution of Shape Memory Alloys Elements in Designing Underwater Smart Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Amariei

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys (SMA have generated a lot of new ideas in engineering. Application is however so far limited to clamps and springs. With respect to smart structures sensing as well as control has to be included. While sensing looks to be relatively feasible control is the big challenge. This paper describes some related a smart structure idea using SMAs and discusses the challenges which need to be solved before these ideas can be realised.

  12. Structure and Stability of Pt-Y Alloy Particles for Oxygen Reduction Studied by Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deiana, Davide; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2015-01-01

    Platinum-yttrium alloy nanoparticles show both a high activity and stability for the oxygen reduction reaction. The catalysts were prepared by magnetron sputter aggregation and mass filtration providing a model catalyst system with a narrow size distribution. The structure and stability of nanost...... the catalyst after reaction and after aging tests shows the development of a core-shell type structure after being exposed to reaction conditions....

  13. Structural studies of amorphous Mo-Ge alloys using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortright, J.B.

    1984-06-01

    Structural changes in sputtered amorphous Mo-Ge alloy films with composition varying from a-Ge to about 70 at. % Mo have been studied with several x-ray techniques. Results of individual techniques are presented and discussed in separate chapters. The complementary nature of information obtained from EXAFS and scattering for these materials is discussed in a separate chapter. A concluding chapter summarizes the results and structural changes with composition

  14. Band structure of Mgsub(x)Znsub(1-x)Te alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laugier, A.; Montegu, B.; Barbier, D.; Chevallier, J.; Guillaume, J.C.; Somogyi, K.

    1980-01-01

    The band structure of Mgsub(x)Znsub(1-x)Te alloys is studied using a double beam wavelength modulated system in first derivative mode. Modulated reflectivity measurements are made from 82 to 300 K within spectral range 2500 to 5400 A. Structures corresponding to the E 0 , E 0 + Δ 0 , E 1 , E 1 + Δ 1 , e 1 and e 1 + Δ 1 critical points are indexed on the basis of existing band calculations for ZnTe. (author)

  15. The structure-property relationships of powder processed Fe-Al-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prichard, Paul D. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1998-02-23

    Iron-aluminum alloys have been extensively evaluated as semi-continuous product such as sheet and bar, but have not been evaluated by net shape P/M processing techniques such as metal injection molding. The alloy compositions of iron-aluminum alloys have been optimized for room temperature ductility, but have limited high temperature strength. Hot extruded powder alloys in the Fe-Al-Si system have developed impressive mechanical properties, but the effects of sintering on mechanical properties have not been explored. This investigation evaluated three powder processed Fe-Al-Si alloys: Fe-15Al, Fe-15Al-2.8Si, Fe-15Al-5Si (atomic %). The powder alloys were produced with a high pressure gas atomization (HPGA) process to obtain a high fraction of metal injection molding (MIM) quality powder (D84 < 32 μm). The powders were consolidated either by P/M hot extrusion or by vacuum sintering. The extruded materials were near full density with grain sizes ranging from 30 to 50 μm. The vacuum sintering conditions produced samples with density ranging from 87% to 99% of theoretical density, with an average grain size ranging from 26 μm to 104 μm. Mechanical property testing was conducted on both extruded and sintered material using a small punch test. Tensile tests were conducted on extruded bar for comparison with the punch test data. Punch tests were conducted from 25 to 550 C to determine the yield strength, and fracture energy for each alloy as a function of processing condition. The ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) was observed to increase with an increasing silicon content. The Fe-15Al-2.8Si alloy was selected for more extensive testing due to the combination of high temperature strength and low temperature toughness due to the two phase α + DO3 structure. This investigation provided a framework for understanding the effects of silicon in powder processing and mechanical property behavior of Fe-Al-Si alloys.

  16. Structure of Sn1−xGex random alloys as obtained from the coherent potential approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Pulikkotil, J. J.; Chroneos, A.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the Sn1−xGex random alloys is studied using density functional theory and the coherent potential approximation. We report on the deviation of the Sn1−xGex alloys from Vegard’s law, addressing their full compositional range

  17. Critical evaluation on structural stiffness of porous cellular structure of cobalt chromium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Malek, N. M. S.; Mohamed, S. R.; Che Ghani, S. A.; Harun, W. S. Wan

    2015-12-01

    In order to improve the stiffness characteristics of orthopedic devices implants that mimic the mechanical behavior of bone need to be considered. With the capability of Additive layer manufacturing processes to produce orthopedic implants with tailored mechanical properties are needed. This paper discusses finite element (FE) analysis and mechanical characterization of porous medical grade cobalt chromium (CoCr) alloy in cubical structures with volume based porosity ranging between 60% to 80% produced using direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process. ANSYS 14.0 FE modelling software was used to predict the effective elastic modulus of the samples and comparisons were made with the experimental data. The effective mechanical properties of porous samples that were determined by uniaxial compression testing show exponential decreasing trend with the increase in porosity. Finite element model shows good agreement with experimentally obtained stress-strain curve in the elastic regions. The models prove that numerical analysis of actual prosthesis implant can be computed particularly in load bearing condition

  18. Critical evaluation on structural stiffness of porous cellular structure of cobalt chromium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Malek, N M S; Mohamed, S R; Che Ghani, S A; Wan Harun, W S

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the stiffness characteristics of orthopedic devices implants that mimic the mechanical behavior of bone need to be considered. With the capability of Additive layer manufacturing processes to produce orthopedic implants with tailored mechanical properties are needed. This paper discusses finite element (FE) analysis and mechanical characterization of porous medical grade cobalt chromium (CoCr) alloy in cubical structures with volume based porosity ranging between 60% to 80% produced using direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process. ANSYS 14.0 FE modelling software was used to predict the effective elastic modulus of the samples and comparisons were made with the experimental data. The effective mechanical properties of porous samples that were determined by uniaxial compression testing show exponential decreasing trend with the increase in porosity. Finite element model shows good agreement with experimentally obtained stress-strain curve in the elastic regions. The models prove that numerical analysis of actual prosthesis implant can be computed particularly in load bearing condition (paper)

  19. Two-dimensional thermal analysis of radial heat transfer of monoliths in small-scale steam methane reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Xiaoti; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2018-01-01

    Monolithic catalysts have received increasing attention for application in the small-scale steam methane reforming process. The radial heat transfer behaviors of monolith reformers were analyzed by two-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling. A parameter study was conducted...... by a large number of simulations focusing on the thermal conductivity of the monolith substrate, washcoat layer, wall gap, radiation heat transfer and the geometric parameters (cell density, porosity and diameter of monolith). The effective radial thermal conductivity of the monolith structure, kr......,eff, showed good agreement with predictions made by the pseudo-continuous symmetric model. This influence of the radiation heat transfer is low for highly conductive monoliths. A simplified model has been developed to evaluate the importance of radiation for monolithic reformers under different conditions...

  20. Development of high-throughput analysis system using highly-functional organic polymer monoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemura, Tomonari; Kojima, Norihisa; Ueki, Yuji

    2008-01-01

    The growing demand for high-throughput analysis in the current competitive life sciences and industries has promoted the development of high-speed HPLC techniques and tools. As one of such tools, monolithic columns have attracted increasing attention and interest in the last decade due to the low flow-resistance and excellent mass transfer, allowing for rapid separations and reactions at high flow rates with minimal loss of column efficiency. Monolithic materials are classified into two main groups: silica- and organic polymer-based monoliths, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. Organic polymer monoliths have several distinct advantages in life-science research, including wide pH stability, less irreversible adsorption, facile preparation and modification. Thus, we have so far tried to develop organic polymer monoliths for various chemical operations, such as separation, extraction, preconcentration, and reaction. In the present paper, recent progress in the development of organic polymer monoliths is discussed. Especially, the procedure for the preparation of methacrylate-based monoliths with various functional groups is described, where the influence of different compositional and processing parameters on the monolithic structure is also addressed. Furthermore, the performance of the produced monoliths is demonstrated through the results for (1) rapid separations of alklybenzenes at high flow rates, (2) flow-through enzymatic digestion of cytochrome c on a trypsin-immobilized monolithic column, and (3) separation of the tryptic digest on a reversed-phase monolithic column. The flexibility and versatility of organic polymer monoliths will be beneficial for further enhancing analytical performance, and will open the way for new applications and opportunities both in scientific and industrial research. (author)

  1. First-principles study of ternary bcc alloys using special quasi-random structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Chao

    2009-01-01

    Using a combination of exhaustive enumeration and Monte Carlo simulated annealing, we have developed special quasi-random structures (SQSs) for ternary body-centered cubic (bcc) alloys with compositions of A 1 B 1 C 1 , A 2 B 1 C 1 , A 6 B 1 C 1 and A 2 B 3 C 3 , respectively. The structures possess local pair and multisite correlation functions that closely mimic those of the random bcc alloy. We employed the SQSs to predict the mixing enthalpies, nearest neighbor bond length distributions and electronic density of states of bcc Mo-Nb-Ta and Mo-Nb-V solid solutions. Our convergence tests indicate that even small-sized SQSs can give reliable results. Based on the SQS energetics, the predicting powers of the existing empirical ternary extrapolation models were assessed. The present results suggest that it is important to take into account the ternary interaction parameter in order to accurately describe the thermodynamic behaviors of ternary alloys. The proposed SQSs are quite general and can be applied to other ternary bcc alloys.

  2. Ti2FeZ (Z=Al, Ga, Ge) alloys: Structural, electronic, and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liping, Mao; Yongfan, Shi; Yu, Han

    2014-01-01

    Using the first-principle projector augmented wave potential within the generalized gradient approximation taking into account the on-site Coulomb repulsive, we investigate the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Ti 2 FeZ (Z=Al, Ga, Ge) alloys with Hg 2 CuTi-type structure. These alloys are found to be half-metallic ferrimagnets. The total magnetic moments of the Heusler alloys Ti 2 FeZ follow the µ t =Z t −18 rule and agree with the Slater–Pauling curve quite well. The band gaps are mainly determined by the bonding and antibonding states created from the hybridizations of the d states between the Ti(A)–Ti(B) coupling and Fe atom. - Highlights: • Ti 2 FeZ (Z=Al, Ga, Ge) are found to be half-metallic ferrimagnets. • The band gaps are mainly determined by the hybridizations of the d states between the Ti(A)–Ti(B) coupling and Fe atom. • The s–p elements play an important role in the half-metallicity of these Heusler alloys

  3. Formation, stability and crystal structure of the {sigma} phase in Mo-Re-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bei, H., E-mail: beih@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Yang, Y., E-mail: ying.yang@computherm.com [CompuTherm LLC, Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Viswanathan, G.B. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States); Rawn, C.J.; George, E.P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)] [University of Tennessee, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Tiley, J. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States); Chang, Y.A. [CompuTherm LLC, Madison, WI 53719 (United States)] [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The formation, stability and crystal structure of the {sigma} phase in Mo-Re-Si alloys were investigated. Guided by thermodynamic calculations, six critically selected alloys were arc melted and annealed at 1600 deg. C for 150 h. Their as-cast and annealed microstructures, including phase fractions and distributions, the compositions of the constituent phases and the crystal structure of the {sigma} phase were analyzed by thermodynamic modeling coupled with experimental characterization by scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Two key findings resulted from this work. One is the large homogeneity range of the {sigma} phase region, extending from binary Mo-Re to ternary Mo-Re-Si. The other is the formation of a {sigma} phase in Mo-rich alloys either through the peritectic reaction of liquid + Mo{sub ss} {yields} {sigma} or primary solidification. These findings are important in understanding the effects of Re on the microstructure and providing guidance on the design of Mo-Re-Si alloys.

  4. Structural transformations in the Co53Mo35Cr12 alloy at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustinovshikov, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase separation microstructures are formed in the alloy studied below solidus line. • Co 3 Mo chemical compound precipitates in the liquidus–solidus temperature interval. • Ordering-phase separation transition takes place in Co/Mo diffusional couple only. - Abstract: Structural transformations of the Co 53 Mo 35 Cr 12 alloy were studied at temperatures of 1250, 1000 and 700 °C, when in all the three diffusion couples of the alloy there takes place a tendency to phase separation and at a temperature above the solidus, when in the Co/Mo diffusion couple there appears a tendency to ordering and the So 3 Mo phase is formed. It has been shown that at a temperature of 1250 °C, this phase is completely dissolved, and in the process of such dissolution, a Co-enriched fcc solid solution with a large number of stacking faults is formed. Simultaneously, there occurs precipitation of particles of Sr atoms, the sizes of which grow with lowering the temperature of heat treatment. The stacking faults, formed at 1250 °C, turn out to be the place, where laths enriched in Mo atoms, begin to form. After a heat treatment at 700 °C, the whole structure of the alloy consists of light-color and dark laths, arranged along the elastically- soft directions of the matrix. Each of these laths is enriched in atoms of either cobalt (fcc lattice) or molybdenum (bcc lattice)

  5. The structural and phase state formed in construction titanium alloy by radial forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlyakhova, Galina V.; Danilov, Vladimir I.; Orlova, Dina V.; Zuev, Lev B. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Zavodchikov, Aleksandr S. [Perm State Technical University, Perm (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    The feasibility of rod manufacture from construction titanium alloy using radial forging on a high duty machine SXK16 was investigated. The investigations were carried on for titanium rod samples using the methods of metallography, electron transmission microscophy and X-ray analysis. The results obtained are described herein. It is found that radial forging results in the formation of homogeneous fine-grained structure.Using radial forging process, high-quality items are produced. As-worked material has submicrocrystalline globular structure and an optimal α:β phase ratio. Besides, the technology is more cost-effective relative to conventional flow charts. Key words: forging, titanium alloy, fine-grain structure, substructure, pore size.

  6. Transport, Structural and Mechanical Properties of Quaternary FeVTiAl Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Tahir Mohiuddin; Gupta, Dinesh C.

    2016-11-01

    The electronic, structural, magnetic and transport properties of FeVTiAl quaternary alloy have been investigated within the framework of density functional theory. The material is a completely spin-polarized half-metallic ferromagnet in its ground state with F-43m structure. The structural stability was further confirmed by elastic constants in the cubic phase with high Young's modulus and brittle nature. The present study predicts an energy band gap of 0.72 eV in a localized minority spin channel at equilibrium lattice parameter of 6.00 Å. The transport properties of the material are discussed based on the Seebeck coefficient, and electrical and thermal conductivity coefficients. The alloy presents large values of Seebeck coefficients, ~39 μV K-1 at room temperature (300 K), and has an excellent thermoelectric performance with ZT = ~0.8.

  7. Structural evolution of Ni-20Cr alloy during ball milling of elemental powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez B, I.; Trapaga M, L. G.; Martinez F, E.; Zoz, H.

    2011-01-01

    The ball milling (B M) of blended Ni and Cr elemental powders was carried out in a Simoloyer performing on high-energy scale mode at maximum production to obtain a nano structured Ni-20Cr alloy. The phase transformations and structural changes occurring during mechanical alloying were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical microscopy (Om). A gradual solid solubility of Cr and the subsequent formation of crystalline metastable solid solutions described in terms of the Avrami-Ero fe ev kinetics model were calculated. The XRD analysis of the structure indicates that cumulative lattice strain contributes to the driving force for solid solution between Ni and Cr during B M. Microstructure evolution has shown, additionally to the lamellar length refinement commonly observed, the folding of lamellae in the final processing stage. Om observations revealed that the lamellar spacing of Ni rich zones reaches a steady value near 500 nm and almost disappears after 30 h of milling. (Author)

  8. Average Structure Evolution of δ-phase Pu-Ga Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Alice Iulia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Page, Katharine L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Gourdon, Olivier [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Siewenie, Joan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Richmond, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ramos, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-30

    [Full Text] Plutonium metal is a highly unusual element, exhibiting six allotropes at ambient pressure, from room temperature to its melting point. Many phases of plutonium metal are unstable with temperature, pressure, chemical additions, and time. This strongly affects structure and properties, and becomes of high importance, particularly when considering effects on structural integrity over long time periods. The fcc δ-phase deserves additional attention, not only in the context of understanding the electronic structure of Pu, but also as one of the few high-symmetry actinide phases that can be stabilized down to ambient pressure and room temperature by alloying it with trivalent elements. We will present results on recent work on aging of Pu-2at.%Ga and Pu-7at.%Ga alloys

  9. Structural evolution of Ni-20Cr alloy during ball milling of elemental powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez B, I.; Trapaga M, L. G. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Juriquilla, 76230 Queretaro (Mexico); Martinez F, E. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica, Cerrada de Cecati s/n, Col. Santa Catarina Azcapotzalco, 02250 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Zoz, H., E-mail: israelbaez@gmail.co [Zoz GmbH, D-57482, Wenden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The ball milling (B M) of blended Ni and Cr elemental powders was carried out in a Simoloyer performing on high-energy scale mode at maximum production to obtain a nano structured Ni-20Cr alloy. The phase transformations and structural changes occurring during mechanical alloying were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical microscopy (Om). A gradual solid solubility of Cr and the subsequent formation of crystalline metastable solid solutions described in terms of the Avrami-Ero fe ev kinetics model were calculated. The XRD analysis of the structure indicates that cumulative lattice strain contributes to the driving force for solid solution between Ni and Cr during B M. Microstructure evolution has shown, additionally to the lamellar length refinement commonly observed, the folding of lamellae in the final processing stage. Om observations revealed that the lamellar spacing of Ni rich zones reaches a steady value near 500 nm and almost disappears after 30 h of milling. (Author)

  10. First stage of the structural evolution of austenite in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelosin, V.; Gerland, M.; Riviere, A.

    2001-01-01

    Two shape memory Cu-Al-Ni alloys, a polycrystal and a single crystal, exhibiting a martensitic transformation close to 130 C (in the as-quenched state) have been studied. Specimens have been quenched after heat treatment at 850 C. The structural evolutions of the high temperature phase (austenite) have been studied for thermal treatments performed below 200 C. Investigations have been carried out using electrical resistivity measurements, TEM (transmission electron microscopy) observations and X-ray diffraction analysis. The main structural modifications are observed in the polycrystalline alloy and concern first, the reordering process of the austenite structure (B2→L2 1 ), and second, the precipitation of the (Cu 9 Al 4 ) γ 2 phase. In the single crystal alloy, the evolutions are very slight and localized on the structural defects. Particular attention is paid to the role of the quenched-in vacancy elimination on the observed mechanisms. In addition, the incidence of the structural evolution on the transformation temperatures is also discussed. (orig.)

  11. Nanoscale characterization of martensite structures in copper based shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adiguzel, O, E-mail: oadiguzel@firat.edu.t [Firat University Department of Physics, 23169 Elazig (Turkey)

    2010-11-01

    Martensitic transformations are first order displacive transitions and occur in the materials on cooling from high temperature. Shape memory effect is an unusual property exhibited by certain alloy systems, and leads to martensitic transition. Copper-based alloys exhibit this property in beta phase field which possess simple bcc- structures, austenite structure at high-temperatures. As temperature is lowered the austenite undergoes martensitic transition following two ordering reactions, and structural changes in nanoscale govern this transition. Atomic movements are also confined to interatomic lengths in sub-{mu}m or angstrom scale in martensitic transformation. The formation of the layered structures in copper based alloys consists of shears and shear mechanism. Martensitic transformations occur in a few steps with the cooperative movement of atoms less than interatomic distances by means of lattice invariant shears on a {l_brace}110{r_brace} - type plane of austenite matrix which is basal plane or stacking plane of martensite. The lattice invariant shears occurs, in two opposite directions, <110> -type directions on the {l_brace}110{r_brace}-type plane. These shears gives rise to the formation of layered structure.

  12. L10 ordered structures in Al-Cu-(Mg) alloys at the early stages of elevated temperature aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuzhong, X.; Mingpu, W.

    2016-07-01

    This study concerns the precipitation structures of Al-3Cu and Al-3Cu-1.78Mg (wt. %) alloys at the early stages of elevated temperature aging. The Al-3Cu and Al-3Cu-1.78 Mg alloys were solution treated at 540 °C and 500 °C for 2 h, respectively, and then aged at 190 °C for 2 min. The precipitation structures in aged Al-3Cu-(1.78Mg) alloys were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HTREM). 001 zone axis Selected area electron diffraction patterns indicate that L10 ordered structures are formed in the two aged alloys. HRTEM experiments reveal the partial dislocations on the interfaces of L10 ordered structures. From comparing experimental results with that in the literature, it is concluded that the L10 ordered structures in aged Al-3Cu alloy consist of Al and Cu atoms, and they are comprised by Al, Cu and Mg atoms together in the aged Al-3Cu-1.78Mg alloy. On the basis of precipitate growing thermodynamics, it is thought the L10 ordered structures act as nuclei for GP zones in Al-Cu-(Mg) alloys during aging. (Author)

  13. L10 ordered structures in Al-Cu-(Mg) alloys at the early stages of elevated temperature aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuzhong, X.; Mingpu, W.

    2016-01-01

    This study concerns the precipitation structures of Al-3Cu and Al-3Cu-1.78Mg (wt. %) alloys at the early stages of elevated temperature aging. The Al-3Cu and Al-3Cu-1.78 Mg alloys were solution treated at 540 °C and 500 °C for 2 h, respectively, and then aged at 190 °C for 2 min. The precipitation structures in aged Al-3Cu-(1.78Mg) alloys were characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HTREM). 001 zone axis Selected area electron diffraction patterns indicate that L10 ordered structures are formed in the two aged alloys. HRTEM experiments reveal the partial dislocations on the interfaces of L10 ordered structures. From comparing experimental results with that in the literature, it is concluded that the L10 ordered structures in aged Al-3Cu alloy consist of Al and Cu atoms, and they are comprised by Al, Cu and Mg atoms together in the aged Al-3Cu-1.78Mg alloy. On the basis of precipitate growing thermodynamics, it is thought the L10 ordered structures act as nuclei for GP zones in Al-Cu-(Mg) alloys during aging. (Author)

  14. Stereological analysis of structure formation for solid WC-Co alloys in the process of carbide powder consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyavskij, K S

    1986-03-01

    Evolution of particle size distribution in carbide powders of different technological prehistory is studied in the process of their consolidation as a hard alloy. A successive estimate on identical preparations is used to study a structural powder->alloy transition. Temperature dependences of integral measures of the consolidated structure and characteristics of its heterogeneity are studied. It is shown that all studied structural rearrangements: formation of regular alternation of carbide and binding phases, development of particle-phase interfaces, change in size distribution - more intensely proceed in the high-temperature carbide base alloy.

  15. Incentives for the use of depleted uranium alloys as transport cask containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, P.; Salzbrenner, R.; Wellman, G.W.; Sorenson, K.B.

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive material transport casks use either lead or depleted uranium (DU) as gamma-ray shielding material. Stainless steel is conventionally used for structural containment. If a DU alloy had sufficient properties to guarantee resistance to failure during both nominal use and accident conditions to serve the dual-role of shielding and containment, the use of other structure materials (i.e., stainless steel) could be reduced. (It is recognized that lead can play no structural role.) Significant reductions in cask weight and dimensions could then be achieved perhaps allowing an increase in payload. The mechanical response of depleted uranium has previously not been included in calculations intended to show that DU-shielded transport casks will maintain their containment function during all conditions. This paper describesa two-part study of depleted uranium alloys: First, the mechanical behavior of DU alloys was determined in order to extend the limited set of mechanical properties reported in the literature. The mechanical properties measured include the tensile behavior the impact energy. Fracture toughness testing was also performed to determine the sensitivity of DU alloys to brittle fracture. Fracture toughness is the inherent material property which quantifies the fracmm resistance of a material. Tensile strength and ductility are significant in terms of other failure modes, however, as win be discussed. These mechanical properties were then input into finite element calculations of cask response to loading conditions to quantify the potential for claiming structural credit for DU. (The term ''structural credit'' describes whether a material has adequate properties to allow it to assume a positive role in withstanding structural loadings.)

  16. Structure of molten Bi-Sb-alloys by means of neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamparter, P.; Knoll, W.; Steeb, S.

    1976-01-01

    The structural investigations with melts can be subdivided into two groups: The first group contains molten metals and molten alloys, and one can state that the structure of molten metals and of molten alloys nowadays is rather well understood. Interference functions of molten metals may be described by a hard sphere model. This is valid also for molten alloys with statistical distribution. For the second group, namely molten non-metals and molecular melts, the interference functions as well as the pair correlation functions are very offen rather complicated and not well understood. The present study is concerned with the transition region between these two groups. It is shown that the melts of the Bi-Sb system exhibit a change from metallic to non-metallic structure. Regarding the experimental details: the experiments were done with the two-axes spectrometer D 4 at the high-flux reactor at Grenoble. The containers consisted of cylindrical quartz tubes with a wall thickness of 0.1 cm. The furnace consisted of a direct-heated vanadium tube. The wavelength of the neutrons was 0.695 A. The final result is that the structure in molten Bi-Sb-alloys consists of primitive tetrahedra with coordination number 3. There are less tetrahedra in molten Bi than in molten Sb. Also with rising temperature the number of tetrahedra decreases. It is shown how to compose the coordination numbers of two structures to get the observed coordination number. The observed values are always the mean values of the two structures. (orig./HK) [de

  17. Incentives for the use of depleted uranium alloys as transport cask containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, P.; Salzbrenner, R.; Wellman, G.W.; Sorenson, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive material transport casks use either lead or depleted uranium (DU) as gamma-ray shielding material. Stainless steel is conventionally used for structural containment. If a DU alloy had sufficient properties to guarantee resistance to failure during both normal use and accident conditions to serve the dual-role of shielding and containment, the use of other structural materials (i.e., stainless steel) could be reduced. (It is recognized that lead can play no structural role.) Significant reductions in cask weight and dimensions could then be achieved perhaps allowing an increase in payload. The mechanical response of depleted uranium has previously not been included in calculations intended to show that DU-shielded transport casks will maintain their containment function during all conditions. This paper describes a two-part study of depleted uranium alloys: First, the mechanical behavior of DU alloys was determined in order to extend the limited set of mechanical properties reported in the literature (Eckelmeyer, 1991). The mechanical properties measured include the tensile behavior the impact energy. Fracture toughness testing was also performed to determine the sensitivity of DU alloys to brittle fracture. Fracture toughness is the inherent material property which quantifies the fracture resistance of a material. Tensile strength and ductility are significant in terms of other failure modes, however, as will be discussed. These mechanical properties were then input into finite element calculations of cask response to loading conditions to quantify the potential for claiming structural credit for DU. (The term 'structural credit' describes whether a material has adequate properties to allow it to assume a positive role in withstanding structural loadings.) (J.P.N.)

  18. Effect of strontium on liquid structure of Al-Si hypoeutectic alloys using high-energy X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srirangam, P.; Kramer, M.J.; Shankar, S.

    2011-01-01

    High-energy X-ray diffraction experiments were performed using a synchrotron beam source to investigate the effect of strontium on the liquid atomic structure of Al-Si hypoeutectic alloys. The high-temperature liquid diffraction experiments were carried out on Al alloys with 3, 7, 10 and 12.5 (eutectic) wt.% Si, respectively, with 0 and 0.04 wt.% addition of Sr to each of the alloys. Further, the diffraction data for all the alloys were obtained at various melt temperatures (5-220 K) above the respective liquidus temperature. It was observed that the addition of 0.04 wt.% Sr results in significant change in the liquid structure parameters, such as structure factor, pair distribution function, radial distribution function, coordination number and packing density, at any given melt temperature of the alloy. Salient observations were that, for any specific alloy and temperature, addition of Sr significantly decreases coordination number and packing density. Further, with the addition of Sr in the liquid alloy, the atomic coordination number and packing density increases with decreasing temperature and decreasing Si content of the alloy. The results coupled with prior knowledge have enabled an in-depth understanding of the nucleation environment of the solidifying phases, specifically the role of Sr in delaying the clustering tendencies (nucleation) of the eutectic Si phase.

  19. Investigation on the Structure and Electrochemical Properties of La-Ce-Mg-Al-Ni Hydrogen Storage Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Qiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Structure and electrochemical characteristics of La0.96Ce0.04Mg0.15Al0.05Ni2.8 hydrogen storage alloy have been investigated. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that the La0.96Ce0.04Mg0.15Al0.05Ni2.8 hydrogen storage alloy consisted of a (La, MgNi3 phase with the rhombohedral PuNi3-type structure and a LaNi5 phase with the hexagonal CaCu5-type structure. TEM shows that the alloy is multicrystal with a lattice space 0.187 nm. EDS analyse shows that the content of Mg is 3.48% (atom which coincide well with the designed composition of the electrode alloy. Electrochemical investigations show that the maximum discharge capacity of the alloy electrode is 325 mAh g−1. The alloy electrode has higher discharge capacity within the discharge current density span from 60 mA g−1 to 300 mA g−1. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements indicate that the charge transfer resistance RT on the alloy electrode surface and the calculated exchange current density I0 are 0.135 Ω and 1298 mA g−1, respectively; the better eletrochemical reaction kinetic of the alloy electrode may be responsible for the better high-rate dischargeability.

  20. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of the liquid and amorphous structure of Mg65Cu25Gd10 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, R.; Zhao, Y.F.; Liu, X.J.; Liu, Z.K.; Hui, X.

    2013-01-01

    The liquid and amorphous structures of Mg 65 Cu 25 Gd 10 alloy were studied by using molecular dynamics methods within the frame of density functional theory. The generalized and partial pair correlation functions, structure factors, coordination numbers and bond pairs for this alloy were analyzed. It is shown that this alloy exhibit typical characterization of liquid structure at the temperature higher than 750 K, and of amorphous structure with shoulders on the second diffuse peaks of the pair correlation functions curves at room temperature. The local short and medium range ordering tends to be increased with the decrease of temperature. Both the liquid and the amorphous structures are mainly composed of icosahedral type of bond pairs. Perfect and distorted icosahedra can be differentiated from the atomic configuration of the amorphous alloy

  1. Size-confined fixed-composition and composition-dependent engineered band gap alloying induces different internal structures in L-cysteine-capped alloyed quaternary CdZnTeS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, Oluwasesan; Park, Enoch Y.

    2016-06-01

    The development of alloyed quantum dot (QD) nanocrystals with attractive optical properties for a wide array of chemical and biological applications is a growing research field. In this work, size-tunable engineered band gap composition-dependent alloying and fixed-composition alloying were employed to fabricate new L-cysteine-capped alloyed quaternary CdZnTeS QDs exhibiting different internal structures. Lattice parameters simulated based on powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) revealed the internal structure of the composition-dependent alloyed CdxZnyTeS QDs to have a gradient nature, whereas the fixed-composition alloyed QDs exhibited a homogenous internal structure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis confirmed the size-confined nature and monodispersity of the alloyed nanocrystals. The zeta potential values were within the accepted range of colloidal stability. Circular dichroism (CD) analysis showed that the surface-capped L-cysteine ligand induced electronic and conformational chiroptical changes in the alloyed nanocrystals. The photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) values of the gradient alloyed QDs were 27-61%, whereas for the homogenous alloyed QDs, the PL QY values were spectacularly high (72-93%). Our work demonstrates that engineered fixed alloying produces homogenous QD nanocrystals with higher PL QY than composition-dependent alloying.

  2. Influence of Solution Heat Treatment on Structure and Mechanical Properties of ZnAl22Cu3 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalik R.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of solution heat treatment at 385°C over 10 h with cooling in water on the structure, hardness and strength of the ZnAl22Cu3 eutectoid alloy is presented in the paper. The eutectoid ZnAl22Cu3 alloy is characterized by a dendritic structure. Dendrites are composed of a supersaturated solid solution of Al in Zn. In the interdendritic spaces a eutectoid mixture is present, with an absence of the ε (CuZn4 phase. Solution heat treatment of the ZnAl22Cu3 alloy causes the occurrence of precipitates rich in Zn and Cu, possibly ε phase. Solution heat treatment at 385°C initially causes a significant decrease of the alloy hardness, although longer solution heat treatment causes a significant increase of the hardness as compared to the as-cast alloy.

  3. Investigation of electrochemical behaviour and structure of oxide films on Ni60Nb40 alloy in amorphous and crystalline states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomashov, N.D.; Skvortsova, I.B.; Gorodetskij, A.E.; Bogomolov, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Electrochemical properties of Ni 60 Nb 40 alloy in amorphous and crystalline states as well as structure of oxide films forming during anode polarization in electrolytes on the surface of this alloy in both its states are investigated. It is stated that increased passive ability of Ni 60 Nb 40 alloys in amorphous state and high efficiency of chlorine evolution (2 n NaCl+HCl up to pH=0) anode process in comparison with crystalline state are defined by increased homogeneity and uniformity of passive films forming on amorphous alloy and their increased electron conductivity, that is in direct dependence on different structure of passive films forming on alloys in amorphous and crystalline states

  4. Laser irradiation effects on the surface, structural and mechanical properties of Al-Cu alloy 2024

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Daniel; Bashir, Shazia; Akram, Mahreen; kalsoom, Umm-i.-; Ali, Nisar

    2014-02-01

    Laser irradiation effects on surface, structural and mechanical properties of Al-Cu-Mg alloy (Al-Cu alloy 2024) have been investigated. The specimens were irradiated for various fluences ranging from 3.8 to 5.5 J/cm2 using an Excimer (KrF) laser (248 nm, 18 ns, 30 Hz) under vacuum environment. The surface and structural modifications of the irradiated targets have been investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD), respectively. SEM analysis reveals the formation of micro-sized craters along the growth of periodic surface structures (ripples) at their peripheries. The size of the craters initially increases and then decreases by increasing the laser fluence. XRD analysis shows an anomalous trend in the peak intensity and crystallite size of the specimen irradiated for various fluences. A universal tensile testing machine and Vickers microhardness tester were employed in order to investigate the mechanical properties of the irradiated targets. The changes in yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and microhardness were found to be anomalous with increasing laser fluences. The changes in the surface and structural properties of Al-Cu alloy 2024 after laser irradiation have been associated with the changes in mechanical properties.

  5. Biomimetic hydrophobic surface fabricated by chemical etching method from hierarchically structured magnesium alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yan; Yin, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jijia [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China); Wang, Yaming [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Han, Zhiwu, E-mail: zwhan@jlu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China); Ren, Luquan [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2013-09-01

    As one of the lightest metal materials, magnesium alloy plays an important role in industry such as automobile, airplane and electronic product. However, magnesium alloy is hindered due to its high chemical activity and easily corroded. Here, inspired by typical plant surfaces such as lotus leaves and petals of red rose with super-hydrophobic character, the new hydrophobic surface is fabricated on magnesium alloy to improve anti-corrosion by two-step methodology. The procedure is that the samples are processed by laser first and then immersed and etched in the aqueous AgNO{sub 3} solution concentrations of 0.1 mol/L, 0.3 mol/L and 0.5 mol/L for different times of 15 s, 40 s and 60 s, respectively, finally modified by DTS (CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}Si(OCH{sub 3}){sub 3}). The microstructure, chemical composition, wettability and anti-corrosion are characterized by means of SEM, XPS, water contact angle measurement and electrochemical method. The hydrophobic surfaces with microscale crater-like and nanoscale flower-like binary structure are obtained. The low-energy material is contained in surface after DTS treatment. The contact angles could reach up to 138.4 ± 2°, which hydrophobic property is both related to the micro–nano binary structure and chemical composition. The results of electrochemical measurements show that anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy is improved. Furthermore, our research is expected to create some ideas from natural enlightenment to improve anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy while this method can be easily extended to other metal materials.

  6. Higher order magnetic modulation structures in rare earth metal, alloys and compounds under extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, S.

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic materials consisting of rare earth ions form modulation structures such as a helical or sinusoidal structure caused by the oscillating magnetic interaction between rare earth ions due to RKKY magnetic interaction. These modulation structures, in some cases, develop further to higher order modulation structures by additional modulations caused by higher order crystalline electric field, magnetic interactions such as spin-lattice interaction, external magnetic field and pressure. The higher order modulation structures are observed in a spin-slip structure or a helifan structure in Ho, and a tilt helix structure in a TbEr alloy. Paramagnetic ions originated from frustration generate many magnetic phases under applied external magnetic field. KUR neutron diffraction groups have performed the development and adjustment of high-pressure instruments and external magnetic fields for neutron diffraction spectrometers. The studies of 'neutron diffraction under extreme conditions' by the seven groups are described in this report. (Y. Kazumata)

  7. Identification of fullerenes in iron-carbon alloys structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUZEEV Iskander Rustemovich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Steels of various purposes are used in the construction industry, for example, as the reinforcement material in reinforced concrete structures. In the oil and gas industry, steel structures are used for storage and transportation of explosive toxic media. In this case the catastrophic damages might take place, that points at insufficiently deep knowledge about the processes running in structural materials when load is applied. Recent studies show that many properties of steel are set at the nanoscale level during crystallization from the molten metal and thermal treatment. To detect and identify fullerenes С60 and С70, which are independent nanoscale objects in steel structure, by various methods requires studying of how these objects influence on formation of steel properties. Iron atoms can serve as a catalyst and, interacting with large aromatic structures or fragments of the graphite planes, they form voluminous fullerene-type structures. The inverse phenomenon, i.e. influence of the formed nanoscale objects on structuring of the iron atoms, is also possible, as fullerene size is comparable with the size of the stable nucleus of the iron crystalline phase. The article discusses the issue of mechanisms of fullerenes formation in steels and cast irons. The most complicated issue in the study is the fullerenes identification by spectral methods as the quantity of released molecules is small. In order to increase the sensitivity of the fullerenes IR-spectrometry method, potassium bromide has been proposed to use. Dried and reduced sediment obtained as a result of dissolving iron matrix in steels is mixed with potassium bromide, the mixture becomes bright-orange. This fact points to presence of bromic fullerenes and to presence of fullerenes in the studied specimens. It is shown that the offered specimen preparation algorithm significantly increases sensitivity of the method.

  8. Effect of natural and magnetic convections on the structure of electrodeposited zinc-nickel alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, A., E-mail: alexandra.levesque@univ-reims.fr [LACMDTI URCA, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex2 (France); Chouchane, S. [Faculte des Sciences, Universite Badji Mokhtar, Annaba (Algeria); Douglade, J. [LACMDTI URCA, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex2 (France); Rehamnia, R. [Faculte des Sciences, Universite Badji Mokhtar, Annaba (Algeria); Chopart, J.-P. [LACMDTI URCA, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex2 (France)

    2009-06-30

    The effects of a magnetic field applied in a direction parallel or perpendicular to the cathode substrate plane, during electrodeposition process of Zn-Ni alloy have been investigated by means of chronoamperometric measurements, X-ray diffraction and EDX analysis. The modification of crystal orientation of the alloy by the superimposition of a high magnetic field is discussed for alloys with a content of nickel range 6-13 at%. Whatever the phase composition obtained without magnetic field, either {gamma}-Ni{sub 5}Zn{sub 21} or a mixture of the {gamma} and zinc phases, which depends on the concentration of Ni{sup 2+} in the electrolyte bath, the preferential orientation (1 0 1) of the zinc phase is always favoured with perpendicular and parallel magnetic field. There is no saturation of this effect with amplitude of B up to 8 T. A study of different geometric configurations of the cathode, which induce more or less natural convection, consolidates these results. The structural modifications of Zn-Ni alloy electrodeposits are thus probably due to a magnetohydrodynamic effect. An additional phenomenon is observed in presence of a perpendicular applied magnetic field since the (3 3 0) preferential orientation of the {gamma}-Ni{sub 5}Zn{sub 21} disappears with high values of B.

  9. Effect of natural and magnetic convections on the structure of electrodeposited zinc-nickel alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, A.; Chouchane, S.; Douglade, J.; Rehamnia, R.; Chopart, J.-P.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of a magnetic field applied in a direction parallel or perpendicular to the cathode substrate plane, during electrodeposition process of Zn-Ni alloy have been investigated by means of chronoamperometric measurements, X-ray diffraction and EDX analysis. The modification of crystal orientation of the alloy by the superimposition of a high magnetic field is discussed for alloys with a content of nickel range 6-13 at%. Whatever the phase composition obtained without magnetic field, either γ-Ni 5 Zn 21 or a mixture of the γ and zinc phases, which depends on the concentration of Ni 2+ in the electrolyte bath, the preferential orientation (1 0 1) of the zinc phase is always favoured with perpendicular and parallel magnetic field. There is no saturation of this effect with amplitude of B up to 8 T. A study of different geometric configurations of the cathode, which induce more or less natural convection, consolidates these results. The structural modifications of Zn-Ni alloy electrodeposits are thus probably due to a magnetohydrodynamic effect. An additional phenomenon is observed in presence of a perpendicular applied magnetic field since the (3 3 0) preferential orientation of the γ-Ni 5 Zn 21 disappears with high values of B.

  10. Structural and morphological approach of Co-Cr dental alloys processed by alternative manufacturing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porojan, Sorin; Bîrdeanu, Mihaela; Savencu, Cristina; Porojan, Liliana

    2017-08-01

    The integration of digitalized processing technologies in traditional dental restorations manufacturing is an emerging application. The objective of this study was to identify the different structural and morphological characteristics of Co-Cr dental alloys processed by alternative manufacturing techniques in order to understand the influence of microstructure on restorations properties and their clinical behavior. Metallic specimens made of Co-Cr dental alloys were prepared using traditional casting (CST), and computerized milling (MIL), selective laser sintering (SLS) and selective laser melting (SLM). The structural information of the samples was obtained by X-ray diffraction, the morphology and the topography of the samples were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscope. Given that the microstructure was significantly different, further differences in the clinical behavior of prosthetic restorations manufactured using additive techniques are anticipated.

  11. Electronic Structure of Fe-Pd Alloys Studied by Using Photoemission Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahm, T-U. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    We investigated the electronic structure of Fe{sub x}Pd{sub 1−x} (x = 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75) alloys by measuring valence-band and core-level photoelectron spectra. The Fe 3d and Pd 4d partial spectral weights were determined by using the Cooper minimum phenomenon of the Pd 4d photoionization cross section. We found that the experimentally determined Fe partial spectral weight of Fe{sub 50}Pd{sub 50} alloy differ much from the band calculation results, and we could not observe a spectral structure due to the Pd 4d states mixed with the Fe 3d majority states at the binding energy of 0.9 eV. We suggest that a plausible explanation for these discrepancies should be the spin-dependent lifetime of the Fe 3d states.

  12. Plain defects and their vortex configuration in dilute Mo-B alloys in dissipative structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofronova, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Electron microscopic study of single crystal of Mo-0.003 mas.% B alloy after zone melting and annealing at 2373 K was conducted to reveal the nature of planar defects and the role of boron in their formation. It was shown that planar defects should be considered as preprecipitations of MoB nonequilibrous phase out of molybdenum base solid solution. A planar defect was found to constitute a monolayer of boron atoms which consisted of B-B zigzag-like chains. Inturn the chains were surrounded by Mo atoms which formed hexagonal prism. The coherency of planar defects with matrix was due to close lattice parameters of Mo, β-MoB and δ-MoB. The planar defects in molybdenum base alloy were considered as elements of dissipative structure. They determined formation of supercellular dislocation structure under deformation

  13. On the problem of creation of structural materials on the basis of hard alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajbyshev, O.A.; Merzhanov, A.G.; Zaripov, N.G.; Bloshenko, V.N.; Bokij, V.A.; Efimov, O.Yu.

    1992-01-01

    Chemical composition and structure of refractory skeletons produced by the methods of self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) and powder metallurgy were studied for their effects on high temperature mechanical properties hard alloys on these skeletons base. Porous skeletons were obtained on the base of TiC 0.55 ; TiC 0.65 ; TiC 0.75 ; TiC 0.85 and TiC 1.0 carbides with their subsequent impregnation with heat resisting nickel base alloy ZhS6U. It was shown that a sintered skeleton was prone to fracture while SHS-skeleton preserved its structure. Optimal operating temperature of materials considered was noted to depend on the temperatures of brittle-ductile transition and transition into superplastic stable of refractory phase

  14. Structure and electrical resistivity of alkali-alkali and lithium-based liquid binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, A.K.; Mukherjee, K.K.

    1990-01-01

    Harmonic model potential, developed and used for simple metals is applied here to evaluate hardsphere diameters, which ensure minimum interionic pair potential for alkali-alkali (Na-K, Na-Rb, Na-Cs, K-Rb, K-Cs) and lithium-based (Li-Na, Li-Mg, Li-In, Li-Tl) liquid binary alloys as a function of composition for use in the determination of their partial structure factors. These structure factors are then used to calculate electrical resistivities of alloys considered. The computed values of electrical resistivity as a function of composition agree both, in magnitude and gradient reasonably well with experimental values in all cases except in Cs systems, where the disagreement is appreciable. (author)

  15. Electronic structure and nonmagnetic character of δ -Pu-Am alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shick, Alexander; Havela, L.; Kolorenč, Jindřich; Drchal, Václav; Gouder, T.; Oppeneer, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 10 (2006), 104415/1-104415/4 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100100530; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/04/1103; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/04/1055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : fcc -Pu-Am alloys * electronic structure * localised moments Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.107, year: 2006

  16. Structure, mechanical properties, corrosion behavior and cytotoxicity of biodegradable Mg-X (X=Sn, Ga, In) alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubásek, J; Vojtěch, D; Lipov, J; Ruml, T

    2013-05-01

    As-cast Mg-Sn, Mg-Ga and Mg-In alloys containing 1-7 wt.% of alloying elements were studied in this work. Structural and chemical analysis of the alloys was performed by using light and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and glow discharge spectrometry. Mechanical properties were determined by Vickers hardness measurements and tensile testing. Corrosion behavior in a simulated physiological solution (9 g/l NaCl) was studied by immersion tests and potentiodynamic measurements. The cytotoxicity effect of the alloys on human osteosarcoma cells (U-2 OS) was determined by an indirect contact assay. Structural investigation revealed the dendritic morphology of the as-cast alloys with the presence of secondary eutectic phases in the Mg-Sn and Mg-Ga alloys. All the alloying elements showed hardening and strengthening effects on magnesium. This effect was the most pronounced in the case of Ga. All the alloying elements at low concentrations of approximately 1 wt.% were also shown to positively affect the corrosion resistance of Mg. But at higher concentrations of Ga and Sn the corrosion resistance worsened due to galvanic effects of secondary phases. Cytotoxicity tests indicated that Ga had the lowest toxicity, followed by Sn. The most severe toxicity was observed in the case of In. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. REGULARITIES AND MECHANISM OF FORMATION OF STRUCTURE OF THE MECHANICALLY ALLOYED COMPOSITIONS GROUND ON THE BASIS OF METAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Lovshenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimentally determined regularities and mechanism of formation of structure of the mechanically alloyed compositions foundations on the basis of the widely applied in mechanical engineering metals – iron, nickel, aluminum, copper are given. 

  18. A Stochastic mesoscopic model for predicting the globular grain structure and solute redistribution in cast alloys at low superheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastac, Laurentiu; El Kaddah, Nagy

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that casting at low superheat has a strong influence on the solidification morphology and macro- and microstructures of the cast alloy. This paper describes a stochastic mesoscopic solidification model for predicting the grain structure and segregation in cast alloy at low superheat. This model was applied to predict the globular solidification morphology and size as well as solute redistribution of Al in cast Mg AZ31B alloy at superheat of 5°C produced by the Magnetic Suspension Melting (MSM) process, which is an integrated containerless induction melting and casting process. The castings produced at this low superheat have fine globular grain structure, with an average grain size of 80 μm, which is about 3 times smaller than that obtained by conventional casting techniques. The stochastic model was found to reasonably predict the observed grain structure and Al microsegregation. This makes the model a useful tool for controlling the structure of cast magnesium alloys.

  19. Finite Element Analysis and Die Design of Non-specific Engineering Structure of Aluminum Alloy during Extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D.-C.; Lu, Y.-Y.

    2010-01-01

    Aluminum extension applies to industrial structure, light load, framework rolls and conveyer system platform. Many factors must be controlled in processing the non-specific engineering structure (hollow shape) of the aluminum alloy during extrusion, to obtain the required plastic strain and desired tolerance values. The major factors include the forming angle of the die and temperature of billet and various materials. This paper employs rigid-plastic finite element (FE) DEFORM 3D software to investigate the plastic deformation behavior of an aluminum alloy (A6061, A5052, A3003) workpiece during extrusion for the engineering structure of the aluminum alloy. This work analyzes effective strain, effective stress, damage and die radius load distribution of the billet under various conditions. The analytical results confirm the suitability of the current finite element software for the non-specific engineering structure of aluminum alloy extrusion.

  20. Structure of the c(2x2) Mn/Ni(001) surface alloy by quantitative photoelectron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, S.; Denlinger, J.; Chen, X. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Surface alloys are two-dimensional metallic systems that can have structures that are unique to the surface, and have no counterpart in the bulk binary phase diagram. A very unusual structure was reported for the Mn-Ni system, based on a quantitative LEED structure determination, which showed that the Mn atoms were displaced out of the surface by a substantial amount. This displacement was attributed to a large magnetic moment on the Mn atoms. The structure of the Mn-Ni surface alloy was proposed to be based on a bulk termination model. Magnetic measurements on the Mn-Ni surface alloys, however, showed conclusively that the magnetic structure of these surface alloys is completely different from the bulk alloy analogs. For example, bulk MnNi is an antiferromagnet, whereas the surface alloy is ferromagnetic. This suggests that the proposed structure based on bulk termination, may not be correct. X-ray Photoelectron Diffraction (XPD) techniques were used to investigate this structure, using both a comparison to multiple scattering calculations and photoelectron holography. In this article the authors present some of the results from the quantitative analysis of individual diffraction patterns by comparison to theory.

  1. Strain-induced ordered structure of titanium carbide during depositing diamond on Ti alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.J., E-mail: lixj@alum.imr.ac.cn [College of Material Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Structural Materials, Ministry of Education, Changchun University of Technology, Changchun, 130012 (China); He, L.L., E-mail: llhe@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Lab of Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Y.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon S7N 5A9, SK (Canada); Plasma Physics Laboratory, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E2 (Canada); Yang, Q. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon S7N 5A9, SK (Canada); Hirose, A. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E2 (Canada)

    2017-01-15

    During the deposition of diamond films on Ti alloy substrates, titanium carbide is a common precipitated phase, preferentially formed at the interfacial region. However, in this case, the precipitation of an ordered structure of titanium carbide has not been reported. In our work, a long periodic ordered structure of TiC has been observed at the deposited diamond film/Ti alloy interface by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The long periodic ordered structure is identified as 6H-type. The formation mechanism is revealed by comparative studies on the different structures of TiC precipitated under different diamond deposition conditions in terms of deposition time, atmosphere and temperature. A large number of carbon vacancies in the interfacial precipitated TiC phase are verified through electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) quantification analysis. However, an ordered arrangement of these carbon vacancies occurs only when the interfacial stress is large enough to induce the precipitation of 6H-type TiC. The supplementary analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) further confirms that additional diffraction peaks presented in the XRD patterns are corresponding to the precipitation of 6H-type TiC. - Highlights: •Different structures of TiC are observed during deposited diamond on Ti alloy. •One is common NaCl structure, the other is periodic structure. •The periodic structure is identified as 6H-type by HRTEM. •Carbon vacancies are verified to always exist in the TiC phase. •The precipitation of 6H-type TiC is mainly affected by interfacial stress.

  2. Effect of Ni on eutectic structural evolution in hypereutectic Al-Mg2Si cast alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chong; Wu Yaping; Li Hui; Wu Yuying; Liu Xiangfa

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → By the injection of rod-like NiAl 3 phase in Al-Mg 2 Si alloys, Al-Mg 2 Si binary eutectic structure gradually evolves into Al-Mg 2 Si-NiAl 3 ternary eutectic. → The ternary eutectic presents a unique double rod structure that rod-like NiAl 3 and Mg 2 Si uniformly distribute in Al matrix. → The mechanism of structural evolution was analyzed in terms of the detailed microstructural observations. → The high temperature (350 deg. C) tensile strength of the alloy increases by 23% due to the eutectic structural evolution. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to investigate the eutectic structural evolution of hypereutectic Al-20% Mg 2 Si with Ni addition under a gravity casting process. Three-dimensional morphologies of eutectic phases were observed in detail using field emission scanning electron microscopy, after Al matrix was removed by deep etching or extraction. The results show that Al-Mg 2 Si binary eutectic gradually evolves into Al-Mg 2 Si-NiAl 3 ternary eutectic with the increase of Ni content, and flake-like eutectic Mg 2 Si transforms into rods. The ternary eutectic presents a unique double rod structure that rod-like NiAl 3 and Mg 2 Si uniformly distribute in Al matrix. Further, the high temperature (350 deg. C) tensile strength of the alloy increases by 23% due to the eutectic structure evolution, and the mechanism of structural evolution was discussed and analyzed in terms of the detailed microstructural observations.

  3. Strain-induced ordered structure of titanium carbide during depositing diamond on Ti alloy substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.J.; He, L.L.; Li, Y.S.; Yang, Q.; Hirose, A.

    2017-01-01

    During the deposition of diamond films on Ti alloy substrates, titanium carbide is a common precipitated phase, preferentially formed at the interfacial region. However, in this case, the precipitation of an ordered structure of titanium carbide has not been reported. In our work, a long periodic ordered structure of TiC has been observed at the deposited diamond film/Ti alloy interface by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The long periodic ordered structure is identified as 6H-type. The formation mechanism is revealed by comparative studies on the different structures of TiC precipitated under different diamond deposition conditions in terms of deposition time, atmosphere and temperature. A large number of carbon vacancies in the interfacial precipitated TiC phase are verified through electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) quantification analysis. However, an ordered arrangement of these carbon vacancies occurs only when the interfacial stress is large enough to induce the precipitation of 6H-type TiC. The supplementary analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) further confirms that additional diffraction peaks presented in the XRD patterns are corresponding to the precipitation of 6H-type TiC. - Highlights: •Different structures of TiC are observed during deposited diamond on Ti alloy. •One is common NaCl structure, the other is periodic structure. •The periodic structure is identified as 6H-type by HRTEM. •Carbon vacancies are verified to always exist in the TiC phase. •The precipitation of 6H-type TiC is mainly affected by interfacial stress.

  4. Influence of Severe Plastic Deformation on Mechanical Properties and Structure of Aluminium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Hilšer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to analysis of ECAP (Equal Channel Angular Pressing method, which uses a high degree of deformation to achieve a very fine-grained structure of formed material. Utilization of The ECAP technology enables attainment of required properties of selected materials by using of severe plastic deformation (SPD methods. In the experimental part the influence of the number of passes through forming tool with classical geometry (angle of 90° between channels was studied to achieve maximum hardening (expressed by deformation resistance and achieved value of hardness HV10. Also the metallographic analysis (detection of achieved grain refinement was carried out. From comparison of results achieved at both alloys it can be stated that for given forming by ECAP method the EN AW-8006 alloy is preferable, because higher strength degree was obtained by achieving of very fine grained structure. When using the same method of forming by ECAP method the EN AW-2024 alloy has lower hardening and structure refinement.

  5. Electronic structures and relevant physical properties of Ni2MnGa alloy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. W.; Kim, J. B.; Huang, M. D.; Lee, N. N.; Lee, Y. P.; Kudryavtsev, Y. V.; Rhee, J. Y.

    2004-01-01

    The electronic structures and physical properties of the ordered and disordered Ni 2 MnGa alloy films were investigated in this study. Ordered and disordered Ni 2 MnGa alloy films were prepared by flash evaporation onto substrates maintained at 720 K and 150 K, respectively. The results show that the ordered films behave in nearly the same way as the bulk Ni 2 MnGa ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy, including the martensitic transformation at 200 K. It was also revealed that the film deposition onto substrates cooled by liquid nitrogen leads to the formation of a substantially-disordered or an amorphous phase which is not ferromagnetically ordered at room temperature. An annealing of such an amorphous film restores its crystallinity and also recovers the ferromagnetic order. It was also clarified how the structural disordering in the films influences the physical properties, including the loss of ferromagnetism in the disordered films, by performing electronic-structure calculations and a photoemission study.

  6. Structure-phase transformations in 36NXTYu highly deformed alloy during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnikov, S.V.; Radashin, M.V.; Alontseva, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    The 36NXTYu alloy - containing 35.39% Ni, 12.43% Cr, 3.08% Ti, 1.22% Al, 0.93% Mn, 0.36% Si, 0.09% Cu , 0.03% C, 0.12% P, 0.09% S and the rest iron - has been examined. Under aging beginning in the alloy the Ni 3 (Al,Yi) type metastable γ'-phase release of with L12 structure is taking place, and then the stable η-phase (Ni 3 Ti, DO 24 ) is occurring. The thin foils structure and micro-diffraction analysis were observed with help of the electron microscope. Fractography has been watched on the scanning electron microscope. For study both phase content and samples texture the DRON-3 diffractometer was applied. The mechanical testing include one-axis static expansion with measurement of a strength limit, conventional fluidity limit, relational extension up to sample breakage. It is shown, that rolling deep levels in the 36NXTYu alloy, in the common case, do not change the structure-phase transformation morphology, but instead of γ'-phase the η-phase is discretely releasing

  7. The Refining Mechanism of Super Gravity on the Solidification Structure of Al-Cu Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhou Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is far less study of the refining effect of super gravity fields on solidification structures of metals than of the effects of electrical currents, magnetic and ultrasonic fields. Moreover, the refining mechanisms of super gravity are far from clear. This study applied a super gravity field to Al-Cu alloys to investigate its effect on refining their structures and the mechanism of interaction. The experimental results showed that the solidification structure of Al-Cu alloys can be greatly refined by a super gravity field. The major refining effect was mainly achieved when super gravity was applied at the initial solidification stage; only slight refinement could be obtained towards the end of solidification. No refinement was obtained by the super gravity treatment on pure liquid or solid stages. The effectiveness of super gravity results from its promoting the multiplication of crystal nuclei, which we call “Heavy Crystal Rain”, thereby greatly strengthening the migration of crystal nuclei within the alloy. Increasing the solute Cu content can increase nucleation density and restrict the growth of crystals, which further increases the refining effect of super gravity. Within this paper, we also discuss the motile behavior of crystals in a field of super gravity.

  8. Activation of structural alloys in fusion reactor magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.; Doran, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    Using the REAC2 code system, both short-term and long-term activation were calculated for possible structural and magnet materials at the shield-magnet interface. The flux was taken from the STARFIRE conceptual design and a 30-year lifetime was assumed. Short-term activation does not seem to be a problem. Only materials with large amounts of niobium appear to be a potential problem for long-term activation. 2 tabs

  9. The structural phases and vibrational properties of Mo1-xWxTe2 alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Sean M.; Beams, Ryan; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Kalish, Irina; Singh, Arunima K.; Bruma, Alina; Tavazza, Francesca; Joshi, Jaydeep; Stone, Iris R.; Stranick, Stephan J.; Davydov, Albert V.; Vora, Patrick M.

    2017-12-01

    The structural polymorphism in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) provides exciting opportunities for developing advanced electronics. For example, MoTe2 crystallizes in the 2H semiconducting phase at ambient temperature and pressure, but transitions into the 1T‧ semimetallic phase at high temperatures. Alloying MoTe2 with WTe2 reduces the energy barrier between these two phases, while also allowing access to the T d Weyl semimetal phase. The \\text{M}{{\\text{o}}1-\\text{x}} WxTe2 alloy system is therefore promising for developing phase change memory technology. However, achieving this goal necessitates a detailed understanding of the phase composition in the MoTe2-WTe2 system. We combine polarization-resolved Raman spectroscopy with x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to study bulk \\text{M}{{\\text{o}}1-\\text{x}} WxTe2 alloys over the full compositional range x from 0 to 1. We identify Raman and XRD signatures characteristic of the 2H, 1T‧, and T d structural phases that agree with density-functional theory (DFT) calculations, and use them to identify phase fields in the MoTe2-WTe2 system, including single-phase 2H, 1T‧, and T d regions, as well as a two-phase 1T‧  +  T d region. Disorder arising from compositional fluctuations in \\text{M}{{\\text{o}}1-\\text{x}} WxTe2 alloys breaks inversion and translational symmetry, leading to the activation of an infrared 1T‧-MoTe2 mode and the enhancement of a double-resonance Raman process in \\text{2H-M}{{\\text{o}}1-\\text{x}} WxTe2 alloys. Compositional fluctuations limit the phonon correlation length, which we estimate by fitting the observed asymmetric Raman lineshapes with a phonon confinement model. These observations reveal the important role of disorder in \\text{M}{{\\text{o}}1-\\text{x}} WxTe2 alloys, clarify the structural phase boundaries, and provide a foundation for future explorations of phase transitions and electronic phenomena in this

  10. Structural instabilities of high temperature alloys and their use in advanced high temperature gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, H.; Ennis, P.J.; Nickel, H.; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, A.

    1989-01-01

    High-temperature, iron-nickel and nickel based alloys are the candidate heat exchanger materials for advanced high temperature gas-cooled reactors supplying process heat for coal gasification, where operation temperatures can reach 850-950 deg. C and service lives of more than 100,000 h are necessary. In the present paper, typical examples of structural changes which occur in two representative alloys (Alloy 800 H, Fe-32Ni-20Cr and Alloy 617, Ni-22Cr-12Co-9Mo-1Al) during high temperature exposure will be given and the effects on the creep rupture properties discussed. At service temperatures, precipitation of carbides occurs which has a significant effect on the creep behaviour, especially in the early stages of creep when the precipitate particles are very fine. During coarsening of the carbides, carbides at grain boundaries restrict grain boundary sliding which retards the development of creep damage. In the service environments, enhanced carbide precipitation may occur due to the ingress of carbon from the environment (carburization). Although the creep rate is not adversely affected, the ductility of the carburized material at low and intermediate temperatures is very low. During simulated service exposures, the formation of surface corrosion scales, the precipitation of carbides and the formation of internal oxides below the surface leads to depletion of the matrix in the alloying elements involved in the corrosion processes. In thin-walled tubes the depletion of Cr due to Cr 2 O 3 formation on the surface can lead to a loss of creep strength. An additional depletion effect resulting from environmental-metal reactions is the loss of carbon (decarburization) which may occur in specific environments. The compositions of the cooling gases which decarburize the material have been determined; they are to be avoided during reactor operation

  11. Dual structural transition in small nanoparticles of Cu-Au alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafner, Yuri; Gafner, Svetlana; Redel, Larisa; Zamulin, Ivan

    2018-02-01

    Cu-Au alloy nanoparticles are known to be widely used in the catalysis of various chemical reactions as it was experimentally defined that in many cases the partial substitution of copper with gold increases catalytic activity. However, providing the reaction capacity of alloy nanoparticles the surface electronic structure strongly depends on their atomic ordering. Therefore, to theoretically determine catalytic properties, one needs to use a most real structural model complying with Cu-Au nanoparticles under various external influences. So, thermal stability limits were studied for the initial L12 phase in Cu3Au nanoalloy clusters up to 8.0 nm and Cu-Au clusters up to 3.0 nm at various degrees of Au atom concentration, with molecular dynamics method using a modified tight-binding TB-SMA potential. Dual structural transition L12 → FCC and further FCC → Ih is shown to be possible under the thermal factor in Cu3Au and Cu-Au clusters with the diameter up to 3.0 nm. The temperature of the structural transition FCC → Ih is established to decrease for small particles of Cu-Au alloy under the increase of Au atom concentration. For clusters with this structural transition, the melting point is found to be a linear increasing function of concentration, and for clusters without FCC → Ih structural transition, the melting point is a linear decreasing function of Au content. Thus, the article shows that doping Cu nanoclusters with Au atoms allows to control the forming structure as well as the melting point.

  12. Assessment of Embrittlement of VHTR Structural Alloys in Impure Helium Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crone, Wendy; Cao, Guoping; Sridhara, Kumar

    2013-05-31

    The helium coolant in high-temperature reactors inevitably contains low levels of impurities during steady-state operation, primarily consisting of small amounts of H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} from a variety of sources in the reactor circuit. These impurities are problematic because they can cause significant long-term corrosion in the structural alloys used in the heat exchangers at elevated temperatures. Currently, the primary candidate materials for intermediate heat exchangers are Alloy 617, Haynes 230, Alloy 800H, and Hastelloy X. This project will evaluate the role of impurities in helium coolant on the stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack growth in candidate alloys at elevated temperatures. The project team will: • Evaluate stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack initiation and crack growth in the temperature range of 500-850°C in a prototypical helium environment. • Evaluate the effects of oxygen partial pressure on stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack growth in impure helium at 500°C, 700°C, and 850°C respectively. • Characterize the microstructure of candidate alloys after long-term exposure to an impure helium environment in order to understand the correlation between stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation, creep crack growth, material composition, and impurities in the helium coolant. • Evaluate grain boundary engineering as a method to mitigate stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack growth of candidate alloys in impure helium. The maximum primary helium coolant temperature in the high-temperature reactor is expected to be 850-1,000°C.Corrosion may involve oxidation, carburization, or decarburization mechanisms depending on the temperature, oxygen partial pressure, carbon activity, and alloy composition. These corrosion reactions can substantially affect long-term mechanical properties such as crack- growth rate and fracture

  13. On the correlation between the porous structure and the electrochemical response of powdered and monolithic carbon aerogels as electrodes for capacitive deionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macías, C., E-mail: carlosmacias@nanoquimia.com [Nanoquimia S.L., PCT Rabanales 21, Ed. Aldebarán M.4.3., 14014 Córdoba (Spain); Lavela, P. [Laboratorio de Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Córdoba, Marie Curie, Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Córdoba (Spain); Rasines, G. [Nanoquimia S.L., PCT Rabanales 21, Ed. Aldebarán M.4.3., 14014 Córdoba (Spain); Zafra, M.C.; Tirado, J.L. [Laboratorio de Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Córdoba, Marie Curie, Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Córdoba (Spain); Ania, C.O. [ADPOR Group, Instituto Nacional del Carbón (INCAR), CSIC, Apdo. 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    The combined effect of resorcinol/catalyst (100≤R/C≤800) and resorcinol/water (0.04≤R/W≤0.13) molar ratio on the textural and capacitive properties of carbon aerogels with potential application for capacitive deionization has been evaluated. Activated and pyrolyzed aerogels were synthesized by the sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol-formaldehyde mixtures and dried in supercritical conditions. Data show that high R/C and R/W molar ratios lead to materials with large pores in the mesopore range, whereas the surface area and micropore volumes remain somewhat the same. The activation of the aerogels increased the differences in the specific surface and micropore volumes due to the development of microporosity. This effect was more remarkable for the samples with low R/C whatever the R/W ratio, indicating that the carbon aerogel obtained using high amounts of catalyst are more prone to be activated. Regarding the electrochemical features of the aerogels, low capacitance values were measured in aerogels combining low R/W and high R/C and reciprocally low R/C and high R/W molar ratios, due to their higher resistance. Polarization resistances were found to be slightly higher for the pyrolyzed than for activated aerogels, and followed a decreasing trend with the mesoporosity, indicating the outstanding contribution of the mesoporous network to provide a good kinetic response. The desalting capacity of monolithic aerogels showed a simultaneous dependence with the surface area and the resistivity of the electrodes, pointing out the importance of performing electrochemical measurements in adequate cell configurations (i.e., desalting units) upon the intended application. - Graphical abstract: The textural properties of carbon aerogels are strongly influenced by the synthesis parameters precursor to catalyst (R/C) and water (R/C) ratios. The volumetric capacitance measured in a symmetric cell with monolithic electrodes of carbon aerogel strongly correlates with both

  14. Structural Integrity of an Electron Beam Melted Titanium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lancaster

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Advanced manufacturing encompasses the wide range of processes that consist of “3D printing” of metallic materials. One such method is Electron Beam Melting (EBM, a modern build technology that offers significant potential for lean manufacture and a capability to produce fully dense near-net shaped components. However, the manufacture of intricate geometries will result in variable thermal cycles and thus a transient microstructure throughout, leading to a highly textured structure. As such, successful implementation of these technologies requires a comprehensive assessment of the relationships of the key process variables, geometries, resultant microstructures and mechanical properties. The nature of this process suggests that it is often difficult to produce representative test specimens necessary to achieve a full mechanical property characterisation. Therefore, the use of small scale test techniques may be exploited, specifically the small punch (SP test. The SP test offers a capability for sampling miniaturised test specimens from various discrete locations in a thin-walled component, allowing a full characterisation across a complex geometry. This paper provides support in working towards development and validation strategies in order for advanced manufactured components to be safely implemented into future gas turbine applications. This has been achieved by applying the SP test to a series of Ti-6Al-4V variants that have been manufactured through a variety of processing routes including EBM and investigating the structural integrity of each material and how this controls the mechanical response.

  15. Structural Integrity of an Electron Beam Melted Titanium Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Robert; Davies, Gareth; Illsley, Henry; Jeffs, Spencer; Baxter, Gavin

    2016-06-14

    Advanced manufacturing encompasses the wide range of processes that consist of "3D printing" of metallic materials. One such method is Electron Beam Melting (EBM), a modern build technology that offers significant potential for lean manufacture and a capability to produce fully dense near-net shaped components. However, the manufacture of intricate geometries will result in variable thermal cycles and thus a transient microstructure throughout, leading to a highly textured structure. As such, successful implementation of these technologies requires a comprehensive assessment of the relationships of the key process variables, geometries, resultant microstructures and mechanical properties. The nature of this process suggests that it is often difficult to produce representative test specimens necessary to achieve a full mechanical property characterisation. Therefore, the use of small scale test techniques may be exploited, specifically the small punch (SP) test. The SP test offers a capability for sampling miniaturised test specimens from various discrete locations in a thin-walled component, allowing a full characterisation across a complex geometry. This paper provides support in working towards development and validation strategies in order for advanced manufactured components to be safely implemented into future gas turbine applications. This has been achieved by applying the SP test to a series of Ti-6Al-4V variants that have been manufactured through a variety of processing routes including EBM and investigating the structural integrity of each material and how this controls the mechanical response.

  16. Local atomic structure of Zr-Cu and Zr-Cu-Al amorphous alloys investigated by EXAFS method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonowicz, J.; Pietnoczka, A.; Zalewski, W.; Bacewicz, R.; Stoica, M.; Georgarakis, K.; Yavari, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Coordination number, interatomic distances and mean square atomic displacement in Zr-Cu and Zr-Cu-Al glasses. → Icosahedral symmetry in local atomic structure. → Deviation from random mixing behavior resulting from Al addition. - Abstract: We report on extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) study of rapidly quenched Zr-Cu and Zr-Cu-Al glassy alloys. The local atomic order around Zr and Cu atoms was investigated. From the EXAFS data fitting the values of coordination number, interatomic distances and mean square atomic displacement were obtained for wide range of compositions. It was found that icosahedral symmetry rather than that of corresponding crystalline analogs dominates in the local atomic structure of Zr-Cu and Zr-Cu-Al amorphous alloys. Judging from bonding preferences we conclude that addition of Al as an alloying element results in considerable deviation from random mixing behavior observed in binary Zr-Cu alloys.

  17. Structure and thermal stability of biodegradable Mg-Zn-Ca based amorphous alloys synthesized by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Moni Kanchan; Chou, Da-Tren; Hong, Daeho; Saha, Partha [Department of Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Chung, Sung Jae [Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Lee, Bouen [Department of Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Sirinterlikci, Arif [Department of Engineering, Robert Morris University, Moon Township, Pittsburgh, PA 15108 (United States); Ramanathan, Madhumati; Roy, Abhijit [Department of Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Kumta, Prashant N., E-mail: matscib@gmail.com [Department of Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); School of Dental Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Center for Complex Engineered Multifunctional Materials, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Room temperature solid state diffusion reaction induced by mechanical alloying (MA) of elemental blends of Mg, Zn and Ca of nominal composition 60 at.% Mg-35 at.% Zn-5 at.% Ca has been studied. Formation of fully amorphous structure has been identified after 5 h of MA performed in a SPEX 8000M shaker mill, with milling continued up to 8 h to confirm the formation of homogeneous amorphous phase. Thermal stability of the amorphous phase has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and isothermal heat treatment at different temperatures. The amorphous powder consolidated using cold isostatic pressing (CIP) showed an envelope density {approx}80% of absolute density, which increased to an envelope density {approx}84% of absolute density after sintering at an optimized temperature of {approx}523 K for 9 h. Electrochemical bio-corrosion testing of the CIP compacted amorphous pellet as well as the sintered pellet performed in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium, showed improved corrosion resistance in comparison to the as-cast pure Mg. Cytotoxicity testing of the CIP compacted amorphous pellet, performed using the MTT assay with MC3T3 osteoblastic cells, showed low cytotoxicity in comparison to the as-cast pure Mg.

  18. Polymer stabilized Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe alloy nanoclusters: Structural and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, L.; Mandal, A.R. [Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan-731 235 (India); Mandal, S.K., E-mail: sk_mandal@hotmail.co [Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan-731 235 (India)

    2010-04-15

    We report here the structural and magnetic behaviors of nickel-silver (Ni-Ag) and nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) nanoclusters stabilized with polymer (polypyrrole). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates Ni-Ag nanoclusters to stabilize in core-shell configuration while that of Ni-Fe nanoclusters in a mixed type of geometry. Structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal the possibility of alloying in such bimetallic nanoclusters to some extent even at temperatures much lower than that of bulk alloying. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra clearly reveal two different absorption behaviors: one is ascribed to non-isolated Ni{sup 2+} clusters surrounded by either silver or iron giving rise to a broad signal, other (very narrow signal) being due to the isolated superparamagnetic Ni{sup 2+} clusters or bimetallic alloy nanoclusters. Results obtained for Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe nanoclusters have been further compared with the behavior exhibited by pure Ni nanoclusters in polypyrrole host. Temperature dependent studies (at 300 and 77 K) of EPR parameters, e.g. linewidth, g-value, line shape and signal intensity indicating the significant influence of surrounding paramagnetic silver or ferromagnetic iron within polymer host on the EPR spectra have been presented.

  19. Polymer stabilized Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe alloy nanoclusters: Structural and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, L.; Mandal, A. R.; Mandal, S. K.

    2010-04-01

    We report here the structural and magnetic behaviors of nickel-silver (Ni-Ag) and nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) nanoclusters stabilized with polymer (polypyrrole). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates Ni-Ag nanoclusters to stabilize in core-shell configuration while that of Ni-Fe nanoclusters in a mixed type of geometry. Structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal the possibility of alloying in such bimetallic nanoclusters to some extent even at temperatures much lower than that of bulk alloying. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra clearly reveal two different absorption behaviors: one is ascribed to non-isolated Ni 2+ clusters surrounded by either silver or iron giving rise to a broad signal, other (very narrow signal) being due to the isolated superparamagnetic Ni 2+ clusters or bimetallic alloy nanoclusters. Results obtained for Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe nanoclusters have been further compared with the behavior exhibited by pure Ni nanoclusters in polypyrrole host. Temperature dependent studies (at 300 and 77 K) of EPR parameters, e.g. linewidth, g-value, line shape and signal intensity indicating the significant influence of surrounding paramagnetic silver or ferromagnetic iron within polymer host on the EPR spectra have been presented.

  20. Polymer stabilized Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe alloy nanoclusters: Structural and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, L.; Mandal, A.R.; Mandal, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    We report here the structural and magnetic behaviors of nickel-silver (Ni-Ag) and nickel-iron (Ni-Fe) nanoclusters stabilized with polymer (polypyrrole). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) indicates Ni-Ag nanoclusters to stabilize in core-shell configuration while that of Ni-Fe nanoclusters in a mixed type of geometry. Structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal the possibility of alloying in such bimetallic nanoclusters to some extent even at temperatures much lower than that of bulk alloying. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra clearly reveal two different absorption behaviors: one is ascribed to non-isolated Ni 2+ clusters surrounded by either silver or iron giving rise to a broad signal, other (very narrow signal) being due to the isolated superparamagnetic Ni 2+ clusters or bimetallic alloy nanoclusters. Results obtained for Ni-Ag and Ni-Fe nanoclusters have been further compared with the behavior exhibited by pure Ni nanoclusters in polypyrrole host. Temperature dependent studies (at 300 and 77 K) of EPR parameters, e.g. linewidth, g-value, line shape and signal intensity indicating the significant influence of surrounding paramagnetic silver or ferromagnetic iron within polymer host on the EPR spectra have been presented.

  1. High temperature aging structures of Ni-20Cr-20W alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmura, Taizo; Sahira, Kensho; Sakonooka, Akihiko; Yonezawa, Noboru

    1977-01-01

    High temperature aging structures and age hardening of Ni-20Cr-20W alloys developed as the superalloys for the nuclear energy steelmaking, and effects of C and Zr additions to the alloys and the effect of preheat treatment on these properties were studied. M 6 C, α-W and two kinds of M 23 C 6 having different lattice parameters were found as precipitates in the alloys. M 23 C 6 whose lattice parameter was around 10.7A precipitated in the early stage of aging at 700 0 C-1,150 0 C, and the carbide changed to M 6 C at higher temperature than 1,000 0 C, but it remained as a stable carbide at lower temperature than 900 0 C. α-W precipitated at 800 0 C-1,100 0 C after precipitation of M 23 C 6 and it disappeared with increase of M 6 C. M 23 C 6 having the larger lattice parameter (10.9A) precipitated transitionally in aging stage of 26 x 10 3 in Larson Miller parameter at 900 0 C and 1,000 0 C. Age hardening corresponded to the precipitation of M 23 C 6 and it was reduced by the double pre-heat-treatment. Zr addition and amount of C influenced on the aging structure and age hardening. Zr seemed to be a favorable element to stabilize the carbide. (auth.)

  2. Parametric Study of Amorphous High-Entropy Alloys formation from two New Perspectives: Atomic Radius Modification and Crystalline Structure of Alloying Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Guo, S.; Wang, J. M.; Yan, Y. H.; Chen, S. S.; Lu, D. P.; Liu, K. M.; Zou, J. Z.; Zeng, X. R.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical and topological parameters have been widely used for predicting the phase selection in high-entropy alloys (HEAs). Nevertheless, previous studies could be faulted due to the small number of available data points, the negligence of kinetic effects, and the insensitivity to small compositional changes. Here in this work, 92 TiZrHfM, TiZrHfMM, TiZrHfMMM (M = Fe, Cr, V, Nb, Al, Ag, Cu, Ni) HEAs were prepared by melt spinning, to build a reliable and sufficiently large material database to inspect the robustness of previously established parameters. Modification of atomic radii by considering the change of local electronic environment in alloys, was critically found out to be superior in distinguishing the formation of amorphous and crystalline alloys, when compared to using atomic radii of pure elements in topological parameters. Moreover, crystal structures of alloying element were found to play an important role in the amorphous phase formation, which was then attributed to how alloying hexagonal-close-packed elements and face-centered-cubic or body-centered-cubic elements can affect the mixing enthalpy. Findings from this work not only provide parametric studies for HEAs with new and important perspectives, but also reveal possibly a hidden connection among some important concepts in various fields.

  3. Virtual Testing of Composite Structures Made of High Entropy Alloys and Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Geantă

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available High entropy alloys (HEA are metallic materials obtained from a mixture of at least five atomic-scale chemical elements. They are characterized by high mechanical strength, good thermal stability and hardenability. AlCrFeCoNi alloys have high compression strength and tensile strength values of 2004 MPa, respectively 1250 MPa and elongation of about 32.7%. These materials can be used to create HEA-steel type composite structures which resist to dynamic deformation during high speed impacts. The paper presents four different composite structures made from a combination of HEA and carbon steel plates, using different joining processes. The numerical simulation of the impact behavior of the composite structures was performed by virtual methods, taking into account the mechanical properties of both materials. For analyzing each constructive variant, three virtual shootings were designed, using a 7.62 × 39 mm cal. incendiary armor-piercing bullet and different impact velocities. The best ballistic behavior was provided by the composite structures obtained by welding and brazing that have good continuity and rigidity. The other composite structures, which do not have good surface adhesion, show high fragmentation risk, because the rear plate can fragment on the axis of shooting due to the combination between the shock waves and the reflected ones. The order of materials in the composite structure has a very important role in decreasing the impact energy.

  4. Radiation damage simulation studies of selected austenitic and ferritic/martensitic alloys for fusion reactor structural applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazey, D.J.; Walters, G.P.; Buckley, S.N.; Bullough, R.; Hanks, W.; Bolster, D.E.J.; Sowden, B.C.; Lurcook, D.; Murphy, S.M.

    1985-03-01

    Results are given of an investigation of the radiation damage stability of selected austenitic and ferritic alloys following ion bombardment in the Harwell VEC to simulate fusion-reactor exposures up to 110 dpa at temperatures from 425 deg to 625 deg C. Gas production rates appropriate to CTR conditions were simulated using a mixed beam of (4 MeV He + 2 MeV H 2 ) in the ratio 1:4 He:H. A beam of 46 MeV Ni or 20 MeV Cr ions was used in sequence with the mixed gas beam to provide a gas/damage ratio of 13 appm He/dpa at a damage rate of approx. 1 dpa/hr. The materials were investigated using TEM and comprised three austenitic alloys: European reference 316L, 316-Ti, 316-Nb; four high-nickel alloys: Fe/25 Ni/8Cr, Inconel 625, Inconel 706 and Nimonic PE16, and four ferritic/martensitic alloys: FV 448, FV 607, CRM 12 and FI. Some data were obtained for a non-magnetic structural alloy Nonmagne-30. The swelling behaviour is reported. The overall results of the study indicate that on a comparative basis the ferritic alloys are the most swelling-resistant, whilst the high-nickel alloys have an acceptable low swelling response up to 110 dpa. The 316 alloys tested have shown an unfavourable swelling response. (author)

  5. Forming a structure of the CoNiFe alloys by X-ray irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valko, Natalia; Kasperovich, Andrey; Koltunowicz, Tomasz N.

    The experimental data of electrodeposition kinetics researches and structure formation of ternary CoNiFe alloys deposited onto low-carbon steel 08kp in the presence of X-rays are presented. Relations of deposit rate, current efficiencies, element and phase compositions of CoNiFe coatings formed from sulfate baths with respect to cathode current densities (0.5-3A/dm2), electrolyte composition and irradiation were obtained. It is shown that, the CoNiFe coatings deposited by the electrochemical method involving exposure of the X-rays are characterized by more perfect morphology surfaces with less developed surface geometry than reference coatings. The effect of the X-ray irradiation on the electrodeposition of CoNiFe coatings promotes formatting of alloys with increased electropositive component and modified phase composition.

  6. Structure and Properties Investigation of MCMgAl12Zn1 Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrzański L.A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an influence of cooling rate on crystallization process, structure and mechanical properties of MCMgAl12Zn1 cast magnesium alloy. The experiments were performed using the novel Universal Metallurgical Simulator and Analyzer Platform. The apparatus enabled recording the temperature during refrigerate magnesium alloy with three different cooling rates, i.e. 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4°C/s and calculate a first derivative. Based on first derivative results, nucleation temperature, beginning of nucleation of eutectic and solidus temperature were described. It was fund that the formation temperatures of various thermal parameters, mechanical properties (hardness and ultimate compressive strength and grain size are shifting with an increasing cooling rate.

  7. Electrical properties and band structures of Pb1-x Snx Te alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocio, Miguel

    1972-01-01

    Both p type alloys Pb 0.72 Sn 0.28 Te and Pb 0.53 Sn 0.47 Te have been studied in the present work. The main obtained results are the following: the materials have a two-valence band structure, the first band following non-parabolic Cohen's dispersion law; at low temperatures, carriers are scattered by ionized impurities; the Coulomb potentials being screened almost completely, impurities act like neutral centers. At room temperature, scattering by acoustic modes can explain lattice mobility behavior; reversing of the thermo-power, for samples with carrier densities of about 10 20 cm -3 , is possibly due to inter-band scattering between both valence bands; a very simple picture of the band parameters variations as a function of alloy fraction is suggested. (author) [fr

  8. Band gap structure modification of amorphous anodic Al oxide film by Ti-alloying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Rechendorff, K.; Borca, C. N.

    2014-01-01

    The band structure of pure and Ti-alloyed anodic aluminum oxide has been examined as a function of Ti concentration varying from 2 to 20 at. %. The band gap energy of Ti-alloyed anodic Al oxide decreases with increasing Ti concentration. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals that Ti atoms...... are not located in a TiO2 unit in the oxide layer, but rather in a mixed Ti-Al oxide layer. The optical band gap energy of the anodic oxide layers was determined by vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy in the energy range from 4.1 to 9.2 eV (300–135 nm). The results indicate that amorphous anodic Al2O3 has a direct...

  9. Structural and electrical properties of copper-nickel-aluminum alloys obtained by conventional powder metallurgy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Waldemar A.; Carrio, Juan A.G.; Silveira, C.R. da; Pertile, H.K.S.

    2009-01-01

    This work looked for to search out systematically, in scale of laboratory, copper-nickel-aluminum alloys (Cu-Ni-Al) with conventional powder metallurgy processing, in view of the maintenance of the electric and mechanical properties with the intention of getting electric connectors of high performance or high mechanical damping. After cold uniaxial pressing (1000 kPa), sintering (780 deg C) and convenient homogenization treatments (500 deg C for different times) under vacuum (powder metallurgy), the obtained Cu-Ni-Al alloys were characterized by optical microscopy, electrical conductivity, Vickers hardness. X rays powder diffraction data were collected for the sintered samples in order to a structural and microstructural analysis. The comparative analysis is based on the sintered density, hardness, macrostructures and microstructures of the samples. (author)

  10. The structural properties of InGaN alloys and the interdependence on the thermoelectric behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukgok, Bahadir; Wu, Xuewang; Wang, Xiaojia; Liu, Zhiqiang; Ferguson, Ian T.; Lu, Na

    2016-02-01

    The III-Nitrides are promising candidate for high efficiency thermoelectric (TE) materials and devices due to their unique features which includes high thermal stability. A systematic study of the room temperature TE properties of metalorganic chemical vapor deposition grown InxGa1-xN were investigated for x = 0.07 to 0.24. This paper investigated the role of indium composition on the TE properties of InGaN alloys in particular the structural properties for homogenous material that did not show significant phase separation. The highest Seebeck and power factor values of 507 μV K-1 and 21.84 × 10-4 Wm-1K-1 were observed, respectively for In0.07Ga0.93N at room temperature. The highest value of figure-of-merit (ZT) was calculated to be 0.072 for In0.20Ga0.80N alloy at room temperature.

  11. Surface, dynamic and structural properties of liquid Al-Ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, R.; Giuranno, D.; Ricci, E.; Tuissi, A.; Wunderlich, R.; Fecht, H.-J.; Egry, I.

    2012-01-01

    The systems containing highly reactive element such as Ti are the most difficult to be determined experimentally and therefore, it is often necessary to estimate the missing values by theoretical models. The thermodynamic data of the Al-Ti system are scarce, its phase diagram is still incomplete and there are very few data on the thermophysical properties of Al-Ti melts. The study on surface, dynamic and static structural properties of liquid Al-Ti alloys has been carried out within the framework of the Compound Formation Model. In spite of the experimental difficulties, the surface tension of liquid Al-2 at.%Ti alloy has been measured over a temperature range by the pinned drop method.

  12. Recent progress in R and D on tungsten alloys for divertor structural and plasma facing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurster, S., E-mail: stefan.wurster@oeaw.ac.at [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austria and Association EURATOM-ÖAW, Jahnstrasse 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Baluc, N.; Battabyal, M. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Crosby, T. [University of California, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Du, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); García-Rosales, C. [Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Técnicas de Gipuzkoa (CEIT), San Sebastián (Spain); Hasegawa, A. [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku University (Japan); Hoffmann, A. [Plansee Metall GmbH, Reutte (Austria); Kimura, A. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University (Japan); Kurishita, H. [International Research Center for Nuclear Material Science, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University (Japan); Kurtz, R.J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Li, H. [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austria and Association EURATOM-ÖAW, Jahnstrasse 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Chair of Atomistic Modelling and Design of Materials, University of Leoben, Leoben (Austria); Noh, S.; Reiser, J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Riesch, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Rieth, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Setyawan, W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Walter, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); You, J.-H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); and others

    2013-11-15

    Tungsten materials are candidates for plasma-facing components for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and the DEMOnstration power plant because of their superior thermophysical properties. Because these materials are not common structural materials like steels, knowledge and strategies to improve the properties are still under development. These strategies discussed here, include new alloying approaches and microstructural stabilization by oxide dispersion strengthened as well as TiC stabilized tungsten based materials. The fracture behavior is improved by using tungsten laminated and tungsten wire reinforced materials. Material development is accompanied by neutron irradiation campaigns. Self-passivation, which is essential in case of loss-of-coolant accidents for plasma facing materials, can be achieved by certain amounts of chromium and titanium. Furthermore, modeling and computer simulation on the influence of alloying elements and heat loading and helium bombardment will be presented.

  13. MODELLING STUDIES ON THE USE OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS IN LIGHTWEIGHT LOAD-CARRYING CRANE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian GĄSKA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of numerical analysis whose aim was to compare the basic dynamic and strength parameters of lightweight load-carrying crane structures made of aluminium alloys and steel. The analysis covered the typical construction of workshop cranes with a span of 3 to 5 meters, girders in the form of an I-beam and maximum load capacities amounting to 5 tons. The values of stresses, deflections and natural frequencies were compared and then matched with the masses of the various structures. In the simulation a girder model was used and computed by the finite element method.

  14. Influence of submelting on formation of single crystals of nickel alloy with cellular-dendritic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankin, G.N.; Esin, V.O.; Ponomarev, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    A study was made into specific features of cellular - dendritic structure formation in single crystals of nickel base alloy ZhS26 which had been crystallized following the pattern of solid solution. The single crystals in growing were subjected to periodic partial remelting to suppress the transition of cellular structure into a cellular - dendritic one during directional solidification. The results obtained showed the possibility to stabilize cellular growth of solid solution by way of inversion of interphase surface motion in the process of directional crystallization. 4 refs.; 5 figs

  15. Electronic structure calculations for BaSxSe1-x alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhenbao; Hu Haiquan; Cui Shouxin; Wang Wenjun

    2009-01-01

    A series of first principles calculations have been carried out to study structural, electronic properties of BaS x Se 1-x alloys. We have used the local density as well as the generalized gradient approximations for the exchange-correlation potential. The structural properties of these materials, in particular the composition dependence to the lattice constant and bulk modulus, are found to be linear. It is also found linear relationship between theoretical band gaps and 1/a 2 (where a is lattice constant).

  16. Structure of liquid Au-Si alloys around the eutectic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, S. [Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Ropponmatsu Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan)], E-Mail: takeda@rc.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Fujii, H. [Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, Ropponmatsu Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kawakita, Y. [Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Ropponmatsu Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, Ropponmatsu Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Fujita, S. [Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, Ropponmatsu Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Yokota, Y. [Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, Ropponmatsu Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kohara, S. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouo Mikazuki-cho, Sayou-gun Hyogo 670-5198 (Japan)

    2007-03-25

    X-ray diffraction measurements have been carried out for liquid Au-Si alloys around the eutectic region by the transmission method using high-energy X-ray to investigate the atomic arrangements in the liquid state. From the temperature dependence of the observed structure factors, the partial pair correlation and the detailed atomic arrangements will be discussed on the basis of a Reverse Monte Carlo analysis. The reproduced atomic arrangements around the eutectic region suggest the substitution structure and also rather dense liquid with decreasing temperature.

  17. Monolithic Integrated Ceramic Waveguide Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, IC; Sandhu, MY

    2014-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled TEM filters with the same unloaded Q-Factor. Designs for both chebyshev and asymmetric generalized chebyshev filter are presented, with experimental results for an 1800 MHz chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  18. Surface morphological structures and electrochemical activity properties of iridium–niobium binary alloy electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Toru, E-mail: matsumoto.t@jemai.or.jp [Green Innovation Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 34 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8501 (Japan); Sata, Naoaki [Green Innovation Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 34 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8501 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kiyoshi [Advanced Ceramic Group, Advanced Materials Processing Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Yamabe-Mitarai, Yoko [High Temperature Materials Unit Functional Structure Materials Group, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    Highlights: • An Ir–23Nb alloy has the best oxidation capability among other Nb concentrations. • The reason is the Ir–23Nb has a large surface area which results from Ir + Ir{sub 3}Nb. • An Ir–23Nb glucose sensor detects glucose much better than an Ir glucose sensor. -- Abstract: The electrochemical activities of Ir–Nb binary alloys were investigated as functions of the alloy compositions, crystal structures, and surface morphologies for a hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid redox reaction. High activities for the redox reaction of hydrogen peroxide were observed when pure Ir and an alloy with a composition of 77 at% Ir–23 at% Nb (Ir–23Nb) were used. Tests on eight electrodes—Ir, Ir–13Nb, Ir–17Nb, Ir–23Nb, Ir–30Nb, Ir–43Nb, Ir–62Nb, and Nb—showed that at a constant potential difference of 0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl, the Ir–23Nb electrode had the best hydrogen peroxide oxidation capability: 9.2 μA/mm{sup 2} for 2 mM hydrogen peroxide. Apart from Nb, Ir–23Nb gave the best performance in terms of preferential hydrogen peroxide oxidation against ascorbic acid. Subsequently, the Ir and Ir–23Nb electrodes were used for the fabrication of amperometric glucose sensors. We first coated the two electrodes with a γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane membrane and then with a glucose oxidase membrane. Tests on the Ir and Ir–23Nb electrode glucose sensors showed that the latter had better glucose detection capability than the former: 0.226 μA/(mm{sup 2} mM) for the Ir–23Nb sensor with 1.67 mM glucose. We investigated the relationship between the electrode responses to both hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid and the electrode surface structures.

  19. Review of time-dependent fatigue behaviour of structural alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstreet, W.L.

    1978-01-01

    A review and assessment of time-dependent fatigue was needed to provide an understanding of time-dependent fatigue processes, to define the limits of our present knowledge, and to establish bases for the development of verified design methods for structural components and systems for operation at elevated temperatures. This report reviews the present state of understanding of that phenomena, commonly called 'creep fatigue', and separates it into crack-initiation and crack propagation processes. Criteria for describing material behavior for each of these processes are discussed and described within the extent of present knowledge, which is limited largely to experience with one-dimensional loading. Behaviors of types 304 and 316 stainless steel are emphasized. Much of the treatment of time-dependent failure present here is new and of a developing nature; areas of agreement and areas requiring further resolution are enumerated'. These words are from the abstract of the report on a comprehensive study of time-dependent fatigue. This paper briefly reviews some of the contents and discusses important conclusions reached, especially in terms of current status and needs for additional work. (Auth.)

  20. Electronic structure and mechanical properties of plasma nitrided ferrous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portolan, E. [Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul-RS (Brazil); Baumvol, I.J.R. [Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul-RS (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre 91509-970 (Brazil); Figueroa, C.A., E-mail: cafiguer@ucs.br [Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul-RS (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    The electronic structures of the near-surface regions of two different nitrided steels (AISI 316 and 4140) were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Photoelectron groups from all main chemical elements involved were addressed for steel samples with implanted-N concentrations in the range 16-32 at.%. As the implanted-N concentrations were increased, rather contrasting behaviors were observed for the two kinds of steel. The N1s photoelectrons had spectral shifts toward lower (nitrided AISI 316) or higher (nitrided AISI 4140) binding energies, whereas the Fe2p{sub 3/2} photoelectron spectrum remains at a constant binding energy (nitrided AISI 316) or shifts toward higher binding energies (AISI 4140). These trends are discussed in terms of the metallic nitride formation and the overlapping of atomic orbitals. For nitrided AISI 316, a semi-classical approach of charge transfer between Cr and N is used to explain the experimental facts (formation of CrN), while for nitrided AISI 4140 we propose that the interaction between orbitals 4s from Fe and 2p from N promotes electrons to the conduction band increasing the electrical attraction of the N1s and Fe2p electrons in core shells (formation of FeN{sub x}). The increase in hardness of the steel upon N implantation is attributed to the localization of electrons in specific bonds, which diminishes the metallic bond character.

  1. Electronic structure and mechanical properties of plasma nitrided ferrous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portolan, E.; Baumvol, I. J. R.; Figueroa, C. A.

    2009-04-01

    The electronic structures of the near-surface regions of two different nitrided steels (AISI 316 and 4140) were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Photoelectron groups from all main chemical elements involved were addressed for steel samples with implanted-N concentrations in the range 16-32 at.%. As the implanted-N concentrations were increased, rather contrasting behaviors were observed for the two kinds of steel. The N1s photoelectrons had spectral shifts toward lower (nitrided AISI 316) or higher (nitrided AISI 4140) binding energies, whereas the Fe2p 3/2 photoelectron spectrum remains at a constant binding energy (nitrided AISI 316) or shifts toward higher binding energies (AISI 4140). These trends are discussed in terms of the metallic nitride formation and the overlapping of atomic orbitals. For nitrided AISI 316, a semi-classical approach of charge transfer between Cr and N is used to explain the experimental facts (formation of CrN), while for nitrided AISI 4140 we propose that the interaction between orbitals 4s from Fe and 2p from N promotes electrons to the conduction band increasing the electrical attraction of the N1s and Fe2p electrons in core shells (formation of FeN x). The increase in hardness of the steel upon N implantation is attributed to the localization of electrons in specific bonds, which diminishes the metallic bond character.

  2. Electronic structure and mechanical properties of plasma nitrided ferrous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portolan, E.; Baumvol, I.J.R.; Figueroa, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The electronic structures of the near-surface regions of two different nitrided steels (AISI 316 and 4140) were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Photoelectron groups from all main chemical elements involved were addressed for steel samples with implanted-N concentrations in the range 16-32 at.%. As the implanted-N concentrations were increased, rather contrasting behaviors were observed for the two kinds of steel. The N1s photoelectrons had spectral shifts toward lower (nitrided AISI 316) or higher (nitrided AISI 4140) binding energies, whereas the Fe2p 3/2 photoelectron spectrum remains at a constant binding energy (nitrided AISI 316) or shifts toward higher binding energies (AISI 4140). These trends are discussed in terms of the metallic nitride formation and the overlapping of atomic orbitals. For nitrided AISI 316, a semi-classical approach of charge transfer between Cr and N is used to explain the experimental facts (formation of CrN), while for nitrided AISI 4140 we propose that the interaction between orbitals 4s from Fe and 2p from N promotes electrons to the conduction band increasing the electrical attraction of the N1s and Fe2p electrons in core shells (formation of FeN x ). The increase in hardness of the steel upon N implantation is attributed to the localization of electrons in specific bonds, which diminishes the metallic bond character.

  3. Corrosion Mechanisms in Brazed Al-Base Alloy Sandwich Structures as a Function of Braze Alloy and Process Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    concerns. These braze alloys use a high Si content to produce a low melting Al-Si near eutectic alloy. The recommended 11 brazing temperature for A A...each successive dip enhancing the 21 high temperature Si enrichment outside of the braze gap and decreasing the Si content within the braze gap.6...Nevertheless equilibrium phases should be considered as a reference point for grain boundaries after high temperature brazing . Recent literature [22

  4. Effects of Al content on structure and mechanical properties of hot-rolled ZrTiAlV alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, S.X.; Yin, L.X.; Che, H.W.; Jing, R.; Zhou, Y.K.; Ma, M.Z.; Liu, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase structure is greatly dependent on the Al content. • Intermetallic compound will precipitates while Al content is over 6.9 wt%. • Equiaxed α-phase grains present in the hot-rolled alloy with 6.9 wt% Al. • Alloys with Al content from 3.3 wt% to 5.6 wt% have good mechanical properties. - Abstract: Zirconium alloys show attractive properties for astronautic applications where the most important factors are anti-irradiation, corrosion resistance, anti-oxidant, very good strength-to-weight ratio. The effects of Al content (2.2–6.9 wt%) on structure and mechanical properties of the hot-rolled ZrTiAlV alloy samples were investigated in this study. Each sample of the hot-rolled ZrTiAlV alloys with Al contents from 2.2 wt% to 5.6 wt% is composed of the α phase and β phase, meanwhile, the relative content of the α phase increased with the Al content. However, the (ZrTi) 3 Al intermetallic compound was observed as the Al content increased to 6.9 wt%. Changes of phase compositions and structure with Al content distinctly affected mechanical properties of ZrTiAlV alloys. Yield strength of the alloy with 2.2 wt% Al is below 200 MPa. As Al content increased to 5.6 wt%, the yield strength, tensile strength and elongation of the examined alloy are 1088 MPa, 1256 MPa and 8%, respectively. As Al content further increased to 6.9 wt%, a rapid decrease in ductility was observed as soon as the (ZrTi) 3 Al intermetallic compound precipitated. Results show that the ZrTiAlV alloys with Al contents between 3.3 wt% and 5.6 wt% have excellent mechanical properties

  5. Protective Skins for Aerogel Monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Johnston, James C.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Meador, Ann B.

    2007-01-01

    A method of imparting relatively hard protective outer skins to aerogel monoliths has been developed. Even more than aerogel beads, aerogel monoliths are attractive as thermal-insulation materials, but the commercial utilization of aerogel monoliths in thermal-insulation panels has been inhibited by their fragility and the consequent difficulty of handling them. Therefore, there is a need to afford sufficient protection to aerogel monoliths to facilitate handling, without compromising the attractive bulk properties (low density, high porosity, low thermal conductivity, high surface area, and low permittivity) of aerogel materials. The present method was devised to satisfy this need. The essence of the present method is to coat an aerogel monolith with an outer polymeric skin, by painting or spraying. Apparently, the reason spraying and painting were not attempted until now is that it is well known in the aerogel industry that aerogels collapse in contact with liquids. In the present method, one prevents such collapse through the proper choice of coating liquid and process conditions: In particular, one uses a viscous polymer precursor liquid and (a) carefully controls the amount of liquid applied and/or (b) causes the liquid to become cured to the desired hard polymeric layer rapidly enough that there is not sufficient time for the liquid to percolate into the aerogel bulk. The method has been demonstrated by use of isocyanates, which, upon exposure to atmospheric moisture, become cured to polyurethane/polyurea-type coats. The method has also been demonstrated by use of commercial epoxy resins. The method could also be implemented by use of a variety of other resins, including polyimide precursors (for forming high-temperature-resistant protective skins) or perfluorinated monomers (for forming coats that impart hydrophobicity and some increase in strength).

  6. Fe based amorphous and compounds metallic alloys for magnetic and structural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavorato, G; Bassi, F; De Rosa, H; Moya, J

    2008-01-01

    Massive amorphous metals (thicker than 1mm) are new types of material that could have a wide range of future applications due to a unique combination of their physical properties, mechanics and magnetics. Among these are the elevated tension of fracture and hardness, and excellent soft magnetic properties. Since 1960, when an amorphous metallic alloy was first discovered, progress has continued on the application possibilities for these materials. One of their main limitations, maximum obtainable thickness, has continued to increase, since at first thicknesses of a few microns were obtained. Now amorphous alloys more than 70 mm thick are obtained using different metallic elements. Since 1995 massive amorphous metals can be produced using Fe as the base element. At first they were made in order to achieve good soft magnetic properties (thicknesses of ∼5 mm) and later a renewed interest in their use as structural material led to the development of materials with thicknesses of 16 mm and paramagnetics at room temperature. Increasing the toughness of these materials is also a challenge and investigators have proposed several solutions, among them is the development of composite materials where dendrites from a solid solution act as crack stoppers of fissures that are spread by an amorphous matrix. This work presents the results of studies with two types of synthesized materials using the rapid cooling technique from injection copper mold casting at air temperature: 1) a massive amorphous metallic alloy with composition (Fe 0.375 Co 0 .375 B 0.2 Si 0.05 )96Nb 4 (at.%) and 2) a composite of solid solution dendrites α-(FeCo) scattered in an amorphous matrix with a composition similar to alloy 1. Using the samples obtained structural studies were made (optic and electronic microscopy SEM, XRD, EDAX, DTA), magnetic studies (coercive field and saturation magnetization) and mechanical studies (Vickers microhardness). The fully amorphous alloy could be obtained with a

  7. Structural properties, deformation behavior and thermal stability of martensitic Ti-Nb alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boenisch, Matthias

    2016-06-10

    Ti-Nb alloys are characterized by a diverse metallurgy which allows obtaining a wide palette of microstructural configurations and physical properties via careful selection of chemical composition, heat treatment and mechanical processing routes. The present work aims to expand the current state of knowledge about martensite forming Ti-Nb alloys by studying 15 binary Ti-c{sub Nb}Nb (9 wt.% ≤ c{sub Nb} ≤ 44.5 wt.%) alloy formulations in terms of their structural and mechanical properties, as well as their thermal stability. The crystal structures of the martensitic phases, α{sup '} and α'', and the influence of the Nb content on the lattice (Bain) strain and on the volume change related to the β → α{sup '}/α'' martensitic transformations are analyzed on the basis of Rietveld-refinements. The magnitude of the shuffle component of the β → α{sup '}/α'' martensitic transformations is quantified in relation to the chemical composition. The largest transformation lattice strains are operative in Nb-lean alloys. Depending on the composition, both a volume dilatation and contraction are encountered and the volume change may influence whether hexagonal martensite α{sup '} or orthorhombic martensite α'' forms from β upon quenching. The mechanical properties and the deformation behavior of martensitic Ti-Nb alloys are studied by complementary methods including monotonic and cyclic uniaxial compression, nanoindentation, microhardness and impulse excitation technique. The results show that the Nb content strongly influences the mechanical properties of martensitic Ti-Nb alloys. The elastic moduli, hardness and strength are minimal in the vicinity of the limiting compositions bounding the interval in which orthorhombic martensite α'' forms by quenching. Uniaxial cyclic compressive testing demonstrates that the elastic properties of strained samples are different than those of unstrained ones

  8. Fabrication of a smart air intake structure using shape memory alloy wire embedded composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Beom-Seok; Kim, Min-Saeng; Kim, Ji-Soo; Kim, Yun-Mi; Lee, Woo-Yong; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have been actively studied in many fields utilizing their high energy density. Applying SMA wire-embedded composite to aerospace structures, such as air intake of jet engines and guided missiles, is attracting significant attention because it could generate a comparatively large actuating force. In this research, a scaled structure of SMA wire-embedded composite was fabricated for the air intake of aircraft. The structure was composed of several prestrained Nitinol (Ni-Ti) SMA wires embedded in intersection -shape glass fabric reinforced plastic (GFRP), and it was cured at room temperature for 72 h. The SMA wire-embedded GFRP could be actuated by applying electric current through the embedded SMA wires. The activation angle generated from the composite structure was large enough to make a smart air intake structure.

  9. Liquid-liquid structure transition and nucleation in undercooled Co-B eutectic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yixuan [Northwestern Polytechnical University, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Xi' an, Shanxi (China); Universite Grenoble Alpes, LNCMI, Grenoble (France); CNRS, LNCMI, Grenoble (France); Li, Jinshan; Wang, Jun; Kou, Hongchao [Northwestern Polytechnical University, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Xi' an, Shanxi (China); Beagunon, Eric [Universite Grenoble Alpes, LNCMI, Grenoble (France); CNRS, LNCMI, Grenoble (France)

    2017-06-15

    Cyclic superheating and cooling were carried out for the undercooled hypereutectic Co{sub 80}B{sub 20}, eutectic Co{sub 81.5}B{sub 18.5,} and hypoeutectic Co{sub 83}B{sub 17} alloys. For each alloy, there is a critical overheating temperature T{sub c}° at which there is a sharp increase of the mean undercooling, i.e., below (above) T{sub c}°, and the mean undercooling is about 80 °C (200 °C). DSC measurements show that there is a thermal absorption peak in the heating process, the peak temperature of which is nearly equal to the critical overheating temperature, indicating that the temperature-induced liquid-liquid structure transition does occur and should relate highly to nucleation in the undercooled Co-B eutectic melts. The effect of the liquid-liquid structure transition on nucleation was interpreted by the recent nucleation theory that considers the structures of overheated melts, and the composition-dependent overheating temperature was ascribed to the change of local favored structures. The present work provides further evidences for the liquid-liquid structure transition and is helpful for understanding solidification in undercooled melts. (orig.)

  10. High-Throughput Combinatorial Development of High-Entropy Alloys For Light-Weight Structural Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Duren, Jeroen K [Intermolecular, Inc., San Jose, CA (United States); Koch, Carl [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Luo, Alan [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Sample, Vivek [Arconic, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sachdev, Anil [General Motors, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2017-12-29

    The primary limitation of today’s lightweight structural alloys is that specific yield strengths (SYS) higher than 200MPa x cc/g (typical value for titanium alloys) are extremely difficult to achieve. This holds true especially at a cost lower than 5dollars/kg (typical value for magnesium alloys). Recently, high-entropy alloys (HEA) have shown promising SYS, yet the large composition space of HEA makes screening compositions complex and time-consuming. Over the course of this 2-year project we started from 150 billion compositions and reduced the number of potential low-density (<5g/cc), low-cost (<5dollars/kg) high-entropy alloy (LDHEA) candidates that are single-phase, disordered, solid-solution (SPSS) to a few thousand compositions. This was accomplished by means of machine learning to guide design for SPSS LDHEA based on a combination of recursive partitioning, an extensive, experimental HEA database compiled from 24 literature sources, and 91 calculated parameters serving as phenomenological selection rules. Machine learning shows an accuracy of 82% in identifying which compositions of a separate, smaller, experimental HEA database are SPSS HEA. Calculation of Phase Diagrams (CALPHAD) shows an accuracy of 71-77% for the alloys supported by the CALPHAD database, where 30% of the compiled HEA database is not supported by CALPHAD. In addition to machine learning, and CALPHAD, a third tool was developed to aid design of SPSS LDHEA. Phase diagrams were calculated by constructing the Gibbs-free energy convex hull based on easily accessible enthalpy and entropy terms. Surprisingly, accuracy was 78%. Pursuing these LDHEA candidates by high-throughput experimental methods resulted in SPSS LDHEA composed of transition metals (e.g. Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu) alloyed with Al, yet the high concentration of Al, necessary to bring the mass density below 5.0g/cc, makes these materials hard and brittle, body-centered-cubic (BCC) alloys. A related, yet multi-phase BCC alloy, based

  11. Heat treatment effects on structure and proerties of the alloy type KhN73MBNYu (EhJ 698)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslenkov, S.B.; Maslenkova, E.A.; Solov'ev, Yu.V.; Zryumov, V.P.

    1994-01-01

    Influence of quenching temperature and various ageing conditions on tensile properties and impact strength of wrought alloy type KhN73MBTYu has been investigated at room temperature and in the range of 500-850 deg C. Two-step quenching followed by ageing at 700-750 deg C. Two-step quenching followed by ageing at 700-750 deg C is shown to assure needed heat resistance of the alloy. Due to the whole complex of structural changes during heat treatments mechanical properties of the alloy preserv high level up to 750 deg C. This temperature is limiting value in the case of long-term operation

  12. Structural and magnetic properties of Fe60Al40 alloys prepared by means of a magnetic mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal-Correa, R.; Rosales-Rivera, A.; Pineda-Gomez, P.; Salazar, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    A study on synthesis, structural and magnetic characterization of Fe 60 Al 40 (at.%) alloys prepared by means of mechanical alloying process is presented. The mechanical alloying was performed using a milling device with magnetically controlled ball movement (Uni-Ball-Mill 5 equipment) at several milling times. The characterization was carried out via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The effects of milling time on the structural state, morphological evolution and magnetic behaviour of the Fe 60 Al 40 (at.%) alloys are discussed. Besides, in this current study we emphasize the result that indicating a ferro-para-ferromagnetic transition from a correlation between X-ray diffraction and magnetization data.

  13. Structure and transformation behaviour of a rapidly solidified Al-Y-Ni-Co-Pd alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V.; Inoue, A.

    2005-01-01

    An as-solidified structure and transformation behaviour on heating of the rapidly solidified Al-Y-Ni-Co-Pd alloy was studied by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning and isothermal calorimetries. The Al-Y-Ni-Co-Pd ribbon samples have been produced by the melt spinning technique and heat treated using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The addition of Pd to Al-Y-Ni-Co alloys caused disappearance of the supercooled liquid region as well as the formation of the highly dispersed primary α-Al nanoparticles about 3-7 nm in size homogeneously embedded in the glassy matrix upon solidification. An extremely high density of precipitates of the order of 10 24 m -3 is obtained. These particles start growing at the temperature below a glass-transition temperature. The results presented in this paper indicate that some of so-called 'marginal' glass-formers in as-solidified state are actually not glassy alloys with pre-existed nuclei but crystal-glassy nanocomposites

  14. Structure and in vitro bioactivity of ceramic coatings on magnesium alloys by microarc oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huijun; Dong, Qing; Dou, Jinhe; Pan, Yaokun; Chen, Chuanzhong

    2016-12-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have the potential to serve as lightweight, degradable, biocompatible and bioactive orthopedic implants for load-bearing applications. However, severe local corrosion attack and high corrosion rate have prevented their further clinical use. Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) is proved to be a simple, controllable and efficient electrochemistry technique that can prepare protective ceramic coatings on magnesium alloys. In this paper, electrolyte containing silicate salts was used for microarc oxidation to form ceramic bioactive coatings on the ZK61 alloy substrate. The structure characteristics and element distributions of the coating were investigated by XRD, TEM, SEM and EPMA. The MAO samples were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 and 14 days, respectively. The surface characteristic of the immersed coatings was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results show that these MAO coatings have low crystallinity and are mainly composed of MgO, Mg2SiO4 and Mg2Si2O6. The coating surface is porous. During the SBF immersion period, the nucleation and precipitation of bone-like apatites occur on the MAO coating surface. The corrosion resistance of the substrate is improved by the MAO coatings.

  15. Parameters of Models of Structural Transformations in Alloy Steel Under Welding Thermal Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkin, A. S.; Makarov, E. L.; Kurkin, A. B.; Rubtsov, D. E.; Rubtsov, M. E.

    2017-05-01

    A mathematical model of structural transformations in an alloy steel under the thermal cycle of multipass welding is suggested for computer implementation. The minimum necessary set of parameters for describing the transformations under heating and cooling is determined. Ferritic-pearlitic, bainitic and martensitic transformations under cooling of a steel are considered. A method for deriving the necessary temperature and time parameters of the model from the chemical composition of the steel is described. Published data are used to derive regression models of the temperature ranges and parameters of transformation kinetics in alloy steels. It is shown that the disadvantages of the active visual methods of analysis of the final phase composition of steels are responsible for inaccuracy and mismatch of published data. The hardness of a specimen, which correlates with some other mechanical properties of the material, is chosen as the most objective and reproducible criterion of the final phase composition. The models developed are checked by a comparative analysis of computational results and experimental data on the hardness of 140 alloy steels after cooling at various rates.

  16. Role of aluminium concentration on the structure behaviour of Cu-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, A.M.; Taha, A.S.; Ragab, K.A.; El-Mossalamy, S.

    1988-06-01

    Effect of Al(5, 10, 15 and 20)% on the structure behaviour of Cu-Al alloys was investigated by both microhardness measurements and optical microscopic investigations. Pure Cu was used for comparison. The analysis of the hardness-temperature curve shows a type of dependence which obeys an empirical exponential law, but consists of several distinguishable regions. For Cu 20% Al, one region is observed, and two regions for pure Cu, while for alloys of 5 and 10% Al concentration three regions were observed. The activation energy varies between 0.03 and 0.9 ev. for these regions, depending on the Al-concentration as well as the annealing temperature. The recrystallization temperature was found to increase with increasing Al-concentration. It was also observed that Cu-20% Al alloy is very hard and brittle owing to the formation of γ2 phase, and also to phase separation as being detected from optical microscopic investigations. (author). 22 refs, 3 figs

  17. Structural transitions in the titanium alloy β-CEZ studied by precipitation mechanisms after solution treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelier, C.; Bechet, J.

    1994-01-01

    The β-CEZ, a high strength titanium alloy developed for aerospace engine applications, is a α/β near β alloy. A wide variety of phase transformations and attendant nodular, lamellar and mixed microstructures are possible according to thermomechanical treatment conditions. The aim of this present paper is to illustrate the influence of solution treat-ment temperature on equilibrium microstructures and continuous cooling transformations. Solution treatment temperature controls the volume fraction of primary α particles and composition of the β-matrix. Therefore the transformation during continuous cooling from α/β or β field depends on β-matrix stability and potential sites amount of α precipitation. After a β solution treatment, the α particles are disappeared and the β phase contains all alloying elements; the continuous cooling transformation produces a Widmanstaetten structure. If the cooling rate or/and the solution treatment temperature in the α/β field are sufficiently low, the microstructure consists only of nodular morphology. During α particles growth the α volume fraction increases as equilibrium and the decreasing of growth kinetic leads to supersaturated β matrix and Widmanstaetten α precipitation. The final microstructures are mixed. The influence of solution trat-ment temperature and cooling rate on nucleation and growth mechanisms is specially developed. (orig.)

  18. Electronic structure of Ni/sub 3/Al and Ni/sub 3/Ga alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Pong, W F; Chang, Y K; Tsai, M H; Hsieh, H H; Pieh, J Y; Tseng, P K; Lee, J F; Hsu, L S

    1999-01-01

    This work investigates the charge transfer and Al(Ga) p-Ni d hybridization effects in the intermetallic Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) alloy using the NiL/sub 3.2/- and K-edge and Al(Ga)K X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements. We find that the intensity of white-line features at the NiL/sub 3.2/-edge in the Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni /sub 3/Ga) alloy decreased in comparison with that of pure Ni, which can be attributed to the enhancement of Ni3d states filling and the depletion of the density of Ni 3d unoccupied states in the Ni/sub 3 /Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) alloy. Two clear features are also observed in the Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga) XANES spectrum at the Al(Ga) K-edge, which can be assigned to the Al(Ga) unoccupied 3p (4p) states and their hybridized states with the Ni 3d/4sp states above the Fermi level in Ni/sub 3/Al(Ni/sub 3/Ga). The threshold at Al K-edge XANES for Ni/sub 3/Al clearly shifts towards higher photon energies relative to that of pure Al, indicating that Al loses charges upon forming Ni/sub 3 /Al. ...

  19. Structural evolution of Fe-50 at.% Al powders during mechanical alloying and subsequent annealing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighi, Sh. Ehtemam; Janghorban, K.; Izadi, S.

    2010-01-01

    Iron aluminides, despite having desirable properties like excellent corrosion resistance, present low room-temperature ductility and low strength at high temperatures. Mechanical alloying as a capable process to synthesize nanocrystalline materials is under consideration to modify these drawbacks. In this study, the microstructure of iron aluminide powders synthesized by mechanical alloying and subsequent annealing was investigated. Elemental Fe and Al powders with the same atomic percent were milled in a planetary ball mill for 15 min to 100 h. The powder milled for 80 h was annealed at temperatures of 300, 500 and 700 o C for 1 h. The alloyed powders were disordered Fe(Al) solid solutions which were transformed to FeAl intermetallic after annealing. The effect of the milling time and annealing treatment on structural parameters, such as crystallite size, lattice parameter and lattice strain was evaluated by X-ray diffraction. Typically, these values were 15 nm, 2.92 A and 3.1% for the disordered Fe(Al) solid solution milled for 80 h and were 38.5 nm, 2.896 A and 1.2% for the FeAl intermetallic annealed at 700 o C, respectively.

  20. Experimental study of the oxide film structural phase state in the E635 and E110 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevyakov, A. Yu.; Shishov, V. N.; Novikov, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    The microstructure, phase and element compositions of oxide films of E110 (Zr-1%Nb) and E635 (Zr-1%Nb-0,35%Fe-1,2%Sn) alloys after autoclave tests in pure water had been studied by the method of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). TEM investigations of oxide film structure were carried on different oxide layers according to their thickness (near interface of “metal-oxide”, in central part of the oxide film and near outer surface) and in cross-section. The results of the tests show that oxide films of the alloys have different microstructure (grain size, fraction of tetragonal phase, content of defects, etc) and the phase compositions. The crystal structure of oxide films is mainly monoclinic, however, at the “metal-oxide” interface there are a significant fraction of the tetragonal phase. Researching of oxides on different stages of oxidation allow us to determine the kinetics of the second phase precipitate structure change: a) in E635 alloy at early oxidation stages of the amorphization process of the Laves phase precipitates begins with decreasing the content of iron and niobium; b) in E110 alloy the amorphization process of β-Nb precipitates begins at a later stage of oxidation. The influence of changes of the crystal structure and the chemical composition of the second phase precipitates on protective properties of the oxides had been determined. Researching of alloying element redistribution in E635 alloy oxide film shows that iron and niobium are concentrated in pores. Increased porosity of the E635 alloy oxide films at a later oxidation stage, in comparison with the E110 alloy, shows the influence of change composition and subsequent dissolution of the Laves phase particles on the pore formation in the oxide. (authors)

  1. Valence electron structure analysis of the cubic silicide intermetallics in rapidly solidified Al-Fe-V-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.Q.; Qian, C.F.; Zhang, B.J.; Tseng, M.K.; Xiong, S.W.

    1996-01-01

    The application of rapid solidification for the development of elevated temperature aluminum alloys has resulted in the emergence of several alloys based on the Al-Fe alloy system. Of particular interest are Al-Fe-V-Si alloys which have excellent room temperature and high temperature mechanical properties. In a pioneering study, Skinner et al. showed the stabilization of the cubic phase in ternary Al-Fe-Si alloy by the addition of a quaternary element, vanadium. The evolution of the microstructure in these alloys both during rapid solidification and subsequent processing is of crucial importance. Kim has demonstrated that the composition of the silicide phase in rapidly solidified Al-Fe-V-Si alloy is very close to Al 12 (Fe,V) 3 Si with the body centered cubic (bcc) structure. The structure is closely related to that of quasicrystals.In view of the structural features and the relationship between the α 12 and α 13 phases, the researching emphasis should firstly be put on the α 12 phase. In this paper the authors analyzed the α -(AlFeSi)(α 12 -type) phase from the angle of atomic valence electron structure other than the traditional methods of obtaining the diffraction spots of the phase. Several pieces of information were obtained about the hybrid levels and bond natures of every kind of atom in the α -(AlFeSi) phase. Finally the authors explained the phenomenon which V atom can substitute for Fe atom in the α 12 phase and improve the thermal stability of the phase in Al-Fe-V-Si alloy

  2. Deformation and fracture of Cu alloy-stainless steel layered structures under dynamic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, J.H.; Kumar, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    Fracture resistance of the current ITER first wall configuration, a copper alloy-stainless steel layered structure, is a major design issue. The question of dynamic crack propagation into and through the first wall structure is examined using dynamic finite element modeling (FEM). Several layered configurations that incorporate both strain and frictional energy dissipation during the fracture process are considered. With fixed overall specimen geometry, the energy required to extend a precrack is examined as a function of material properties, and the layer structure. It is found that the crack extension energies vary dramatically with the fracture strain of materials, and to a much lesser extent with the number of layers. In addition, it is found that crack propagation through the lower ductility copper alloy layer may be deflected at the stainless steel-copper interface and not result in total fracture of the structure. Although the total energy required is affected only to a small degree by the interface properties, the time to extend the precrack is strongly affected. By making proper selections of the interface and the layered material, crack propagation rates and the possibility of full fracture can be substantially reduced. (orig.)

  3. Biomimetic superhydrophobic surface of high adhesion fabricated with micronano binary structure on aluminum alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Liu, Jindan; Li, Shuyi; Liu, Jiaan; Han, Zhiwu; Ren, Luquan

    2013-09-25

    Triggered by the microstructure characteristics of the surfaces of typical plant leaves such as the petals of red roses, a biomimetic superhydrophobic surface with high adhesion is successfully fabricated on aluminum alloy. The essential procedure is that samples were processed by a laser, then immersed and etched in nitric acid and copper nitrate, and finally modified by DTS (CH3(CH2)11Si(OCH3)3). The obtained surfaces exhibit a binary structure consisting of microscale crater-like pits and nanoscale reticula. The superhydrophobicity can be simultaneously affected by the micronano binary structure and chemical composition of the surface. The contact angle of the superhydrophobic surface reaches up to 158.8 ± 2°. Especially, the surface with micronano binary structure is revealed to be an excellent adhesive property with petal-effect. Moreover, the superhydrophobic surfaces show excellent stability in aqueous solution with a large pH range and after being exposed long-term in air. In this way, the multifunctional biomimetic structural surface of the aluminum alloy is fabricated. Furthermore, the preparation technology in this article provides a new route for other metal materials.

  4. Structural health monitoring for DOT using magnetic shape memory alloy cables in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Allen; Mirsayar, Mirmilad; Sheahan, Emery; Hartl, Darren

    2018-03-01

    Embedding shape memory alloy (SMA) wires in concrete components offers the potential to monitor their structural health via external magnetic field sensing. Currently, structural health monitoring (SHM) is dominated by acoustic emission and vibration-based methods. Thus, it is attractive to pursue alternative damage sensing techniques that may lower the cost or increase the accuracy of SHM. In this work, SHM via magnetic field detection applied to embedded magnetic shape memory alloy (MSMA) is demonstrated both experimentally and using computational models. A concrete beam containing iron-based MSMA wire is subjected to a 3-point bend test where structural damage is induced, thereby resulting in a localized phase change of the MSMA wire. Magnetic field lines passing through the embedded MSMA domain are altered by this phase change and can thus be used to detect damage within the structure. A good correlation is observed between the computational and experimental results. Additionally, the implementation of stranded MSMA cables in place of the MSMA wire is assessed through similar computational models. The combination of these computational models and their subsequent experimental validation provide sufficient support for the feasibility of SHM using magnetic field sensing via MSMA embedded components.

  5. Effect of Sn additive on the structure and crystallization kinetics in Ge–Se alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-Elrahman, M.I., E-mail: mostafaia11@yahoo.com; Hafiz, M.M.; Abdelraheem, A.M.; Abu-Sehly, A.A.

    2016-08-05

    The structure of Ge{sub 20}Se{sub 80−x}Snx glassy alloys and crystallization phases are identified using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The glass transition kinetics and the crystallization mechanism of the system are studied using Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) under non-isothermal condition. The results reveal that glass transition temperature (Tg) increases with increasing Sn content which is attributed to the increase in the coordination number. The increase of the glass transition activation energy (Eg) with increasing Sn content is attributed to the decrease in the internal energy of the system as Sn increases. The compositional dependence of both glass forming ability and thermal stability are studied. From the experimental data, the thermal stability parameter (S) is found to be maximum for Ge{sub 20}Se{sub 78}Sn{sub 2} alloy, which indicates that this alloy is thermally more stable in the composition range under investigation. The effect of composition on the crystallization mechanism is discussed using different kinetic models. The crystallization activation energy (Ec) decreases with increasing Sn. This is attributed to the addition of Sn increases the tendency of crystallization. The calculated values of Avrami exponent (n) indicates the crystallization process occurs in one-and two dimensions for Sn is less than or equals 12 at%, respectively. - Highlights: • Glass and crystallization transitions in Ge{sub 20}Se{sub 80−x}Sn{sub x} candidate for devices. • The addition of Sn increases the tendency of Ge-Se alloy to crystallization. • The glass forming ability and thermal stability increase as Sn decreases. • The dimension of the crystals growth is one or two depending on the Sn content.

  6. Influence of nanoporous structure on mechanical strength of aluminium and aluminium alloy adhesive structural joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadaro, C; Dispenza, C; Sunseri, C

    2006-01-01

    The influence of surface treatments on the mechanical strength of adhesive joints was investigated. The attention was focused on AA2024 alloy because it is extensively used in both the automotive and aerospace industries. Adhesive joints fabricated with pure aluminium were also investigated in order to evidence possible differences in the surface features after identical treatments. Before joining with a commercial epoxy adhesive, metal substrates were subjected to different kinds of treatment and the surfaces were characterized by SEM analysis. The formation of a microporous surface in the AA2024 alloy, upon etching and anodizing, is discussed on the basis of the role of the intermetallic particles and their electrochemical behaviour with respect to the aluminium matrix. Moreover, nanostructured porous oxide layers on both type of substrate were also formed, as a consequence of the anodizing process. Differences in their morphologies were revealed as a function of both the applied voltage and the presence of alloying elements. On this basis, an explanation of the different values of fracture energy measured by means of T-peel tests carried out on the corresponding joints was attempted

  7. Influence of structure on the mechanical properties of low-alloyed molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivashchenko, R.K.; Maksimovich, G.G.; Mil'man, Yu.K.; Shchepanskij, Ya.S.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Lvov. Fiziko-Mekhanicheskij Inst.)

    1978-01-01

    Studied were the effects of grain size and the presence of cellular dislocation structure on strength and plastic characteristies of TSM-6 low-alloyed molybdenum during short-term tests in the temperature range fron 20 to 1300 deg C. Structure refining results in considerable increase in short-term strength within the termperature range studied. Ressitance of a crystal lattice to dislocation motion and the Ky parameter in the Hall-Petch equation decreases with the temperature increase. Specific elongation (delta) with increasing the test temperature changes in a curve with the maximum for recrystallized metal and in a curve with minimim for metal with previously formed cellular structure. During the short-term tests the properties of metal with a cellular duslocation structure with provision for a low value of cold brittleness temperature are considered preferable in the whole temperature range studied

  8. Structural, morphological and magnetic characterization of electrodeposited Co–Fe–W alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noce, R. Della, E-mail: rodrnoce@iq.unesp.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Benedetti, A.V.; Magnani, M. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Passamani, E.C. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, 29075-910 Vitória, ES (Brazil); Kumar, H.; Cornejo, D.R. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, USP, 05508-090 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ospina, C.A. [Electron Microscopy Laboratory, Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-10-25

    Highlights: • Small W additions (up to 9 at.%) to the Co{sub 35}Fe{sub 65} binary system. • Electrodeposited Co–Fe–W alloys characterization by XRD, SEM, TEM, Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. • Production of Co–Fe–W alloys with low values of coercivity and high saturation magnetization. • Potential materials for applications in magnetic devices such as read/write heads and hard disks. - Abstract: Structural, morphological and magnetic characterization of electrodeposited Co–Fe–W alloys, containing small amounts of W (up to 9 at.%), were performed using X-ray diffractometry, scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy, Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. Electrodeposited (Co{sub 100−x}Fe{sub x}){sub 100−y}W{sub y} films (x = 63–72 at.% Fe, y = 4–9 at.% W) were successfully produced varying the applied cathodic current density (i{sub c}) between 0.5 and 10 mA cm{sup −2}. X-ray diffraction results revealed a bcc-like structure for all studied compositions with average crystallite size ranging from 16 to 35 nm, as also confirmed by TEM results. SEM images indicated that needle-type morphology is dominant for the deposits containing lower W content (up to 4.5 at.%.), while a cauliflower-type behavior is observed for higher W content deposits. Room temperature Mössbauer spectra indicate the presence of two magnetic species for all samples; one component associated with an ordered Co–Fe–W fraction (crystalline grain core) and a magnetic disordered Co–Fe–W contribution, which can be attributed to the grain boundaries/grain surfaces. Magnetization was observed to be in the film plane along the film direction, except the sample prepared at i{sub c} = 10 mA cm{sup −2} that is slightly canted from in- to out-of-plane geometry. Magnetic measurements show high saturation magnetization values accompanied by low coercivity ones for the electrodeposited Co–Fe–W alloys, making these

  9. Impact of as-cast structure on structure and properties of twin-roll cast AA8006 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slamova, M.; Ocenasek, V. [Vyzkumny Ustav Kovu, Panenske Brezany (Czechoslovakia); Juricek, Z.

    2000-07-01

    Sheet production by twin-roll casting (TRC) process is a well established practice in the aluminium industry because it offers several advantages in comparison with DC casting and hot rolling, esp. lower production and investment costs. Thin strips exhibiting a combination of good strength and high ductility are required for various applications and for this reason alloys with higher Fe and Mn content such as AA 8006 displace AA 1xxx or AA 8011 alloys. However, TRC of AA 8006 strips involves several problems, e.g. casting conditions and subsequent treatment procedures need fine tuning. The results of an investigation of the effect of casting conditions on structure and properties of AA 8006 strips are presented. The influence of casting speed, grain refiner addition, molten metal level in the tundish, tip setback and roll separating force was investigated. The impact of imperfect as-cast structure on structure and properties of thin strips in H22 and O tempers was evaluated and compared with strips from good as-cast material. (orig.)

  10. The structural changes of Y2O3 in ferritic ODS alloys during milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilger, I.; Tegel, M.; Gorley, M.J.; Grant, P.S.; Weißgärber, T.; Kieback, B.

    2014-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels are usually fabricated via mechanical alloying and subsequent consolidation via hot extrusion or hot isostatic pressing. During the individual process steps, a complex evolution of the nanoparticle structure is taking place. Powders with different Y 2 O 3 contents were milled and examined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atom probe tomography (APT). It has been observed that the Y 2 O 3 is fragmented and becomes partially amorphous upon milling due to the grain refinement of Y 2 O 3 during the milling process. There was no compelling evidence for Y 2 O 3 dissociation and dissolution into the steel matrix

  11. Constitutive equations for describing high-temperature inelastic behavior of structural alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.N.; Pugh, C.E.; Corum, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    This paper addresses constitutive equations for the description of inelastic behavior of LMFBR structural alloys at elevated temperatures. Both elastic-plastic (time-independent) and creep (time-dependent) deformations are considered for types 304 and 316 stainless steel and 2 1 / 4 Cr--1 Mo steel. The constitutive equations identified for interim use in design analyses are described along with the assumptions and data on which they are based. Areas where improvements are needed are identified, and some alternate theories that are being pursued are outlined

  12. Structure of the AZ91 alloy pressure castings fabricated of home scrap containing charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Konopka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the AZ91 alloy home scrap addition to the metal charge on both the structure and the selected mechanical propertiesof pressure castings was examined in this article. Two heats were made using different components, the first with only pure AZ91 alloyingots in the charge, and the second containing 30 wt % of home scrap. The hot chamber 3 MN machine was used for casting. Thestructures of the castings and their Brinell hardness were examined for both cases. A strong refinement of crystals was observed in castings made with the contribution of the recycled material. Any significant differences in castings hardness were not observed.

  13. Low Alloy Steel Structures After Welding with Micro-Jet Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Węgrzyn T.; Piwnik J.; Hadryś D.; Wszołek Ł.

    2017-01-01

    The paper focuses on low alloy steel after innovate welding method with micro-jet cooling. Weld metal deposit (WMD) was carried out for welding and for MIG and MAG welding with micro-jet cooling. This method is very promising mainly due to the high amount of AF (acicular ferrite) and low amount of MAC (self-tempered martensite, retained austenite, carbide) phases in WMD. That structure corresponds with very good mechanical properties, ie. high impact toughness of welds at low temperature. Mic...

  14. Structural Phase Evolution in Ultrasonic-Assisted Friction Stir Welded 2195 Aluminum Alloy Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliseev, A. A.; Fortuna, S. V.; Kalashnikova, T. A.; Chumaevskii, A. V.; Kolubaev, E. A.

    2017-10-01

    The authors examined the structural and phase state of fixed joints produced by method of friction stir welding (FSW) and ultrasonic-assisted friction stir welding (UAFSW) from extruded profile of aluminum alloy AA2195. In order to identify the role of ultrasonic application in the course of welding, such characteristics, as volume fraction and average size of secondary particles are compared in the base material and stir zones of FSW and UAFSW joints. By applying the methods of SEM and TEM analysis, researchers established the complex character of phase transitions as a result of ultrasonic application.

  15. Strength of normal sections of NPP composite monolithic constructions with ribbed reinforced panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyashitskij, V.I.; Kirillov, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    Strength characteristics and recommendations on designing composite-monolytic structures of NPP with ribbed reinforced panels are considered. Ribbed reinforced panel consists of a system of cross ribs joined with a comparatively thin (25 mm thick) plate. The investigations were carried on using models representing columns symmetrically reinforced with reinforced panels with a low percent of reinforcing. The monolithic structures consisting of ribbed reinforced panels and cast concrete for making monoliths as well as monolithic having analogous strength characteristics of extended and compressed zones have similar strengths. It is shown that calculation of supporting power of composite-monolithic structures is performed according to techniques developed for monolithic structures. Necessity of structural transverse fittings no longer arises in case of corresponding calculational substitution of stability of compressed parts of fittings. Supporting power of a structure decreases not more than by 10% in the presence of cracks in the reinforced panels of the compressed zone. Application of composite-monolithic structures during the construction of the Kursk, Smolensk and Chernobylskaya NPPs permitted to decrease labour content and reduce periods of accomplishment of these works which saves over 6 million roubles

  16. Study of grain structure evolution during annealing of a twin-roll-cast Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, A.; Samajdar, I.; Nie, J.F.; Tewari, A.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of microstructure under static annealing was studied for mid-thickness section of a twin-roll-cast (TRC) magnesium alloy. Annealing was performed at 300 °C and 500 °C for different times. Microstructural evolution was quantitatively analyzed, from optical micrographs, using grain path envelope analysis. Additional information from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used for addressing the possible mechanism(s). It was found that the TRC structure had a bimodal grain size, which was preserved even after annealing at 300 °C. However, the annealing at 500 °C led to a unimodal grain size. This difference in the grain size distribution created a contrasting behavior in the normalized standard deviations. This was primarily attributed to a competition between recovery and recrystallization, and their respective dominance at 300° and 500 °C. A deformation induced recrystallization recovery (DIRR) model was proposed. The proposed model could successfully address the experimental microstructural evolution. - Highlights: • Annealing of twin roll cast (TRC) magnesium alloy was done at temperatures of 300 °C and 500 °C. • TRC had bimodal structure. Bimodality preserved for annealing at 300 °C. Annealing at 500 °C led to unimodal structure. • Grain evolution was described based on the competition between recovery and recrystallization. • Deformation induced recrystallization recovery (DIRR) mechanistic model was developed.

  17. Influence of small additions of Sc and Zr on structure and mechanical properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajgorodova, L.I.; Sel'nikhina, E.I.; Tkachenko, E.A.; Senatorova, O.G.

    1996-01-01

    A study was made into Sc and Zr addition effects on grain structure formation, supersaturated solid solution decomposition and mechanical properties of Al-7%Zn-2%Mg-1.2%Cu alloy. It is shown that grain structure is determined by volume fraction and distribution character of disperse particles of Al 3 Sc and Al 3 (Sc 1-x Zr x ). The reason for additives influence on decomposition kinetics during natural and artificial ageing are revealed. The structural factors responsible for the enhancement of mechanical properties on alloying are discussed. 17 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  18. Characterization and testing of monolithic RERTR fuel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, D.D.; Jue, J.F.; Burkes, D.E. [Idaho National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Monolithic fuel plates are being developed as a LEU (low enrichment uranium) fuel for application in research reactors throughout the world. These fuel plates are comprised of a U-Mo alloy foil encased in aluminum alloy cladding. Three different fabrication techniques have been looked at for producing monolithic fuel plates: hot isostatic pressing (HIP), transient liquid phase bonding (TLPB), and friction stir welding (FSW). Of these three techniques, HIP and FSW are currently being emphasized. As part of the development of these fabrication techniques, fuel plates are characterized and tested to determine properties like hardness and the bond strength at the interface between the fuel and cladding. Testing of HIP-made samples indicates that the foil/cladding interaction behavior depends on the Mo content in the UMo foil, the measured hardness values are quite different for the fuel, cladding, and interaction zone phase and Ti, Zr and Nb are the most effective diffusion barriers. For FSW samples, there is a dependence of the bond strength at the foil/cladding interface on the type of tool that is employed for performing the actual FSW process. (authors)

  19. Nuclear reactor fuel structure containing uranium alloy wires embedded in a metallic matrix plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelli, A.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear fuel-containing plate structure for a nuclear reactor is described; such structure comprising a pair of malleable metallic non-fissionable matrix plates having confronting surfaces which are pressure bonded together and fully united to form a bonded surface, and elongated malleable wire-like fissionable fuel members separately confined and fully enclosed between the matrix plates along the interface to afford a high fuel density as well as structural integrity and effective retention of fission products. The plates have separate recesses formed in the confronting surfaces for closely receiving the wire-like fissionable fuel members. The wire-like fissionable fuel members are made of a maleable uranium alloy capable of being formed into elongated wire-like members and capable of withstanding pressure bonding. The wire-like fissionable fuel members are completely separated and isolated by fully united portions of the interface

  20. Primary Structure and Mechanical Properties of AlSi2 Alloy Continuous Ingots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wróbel T.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research results of horizontal continuous casting of ingots of aluminium alloy containing 2% wt. silicon (AlSi2. Together with the casting velocity (velocity of ingot movement we considered the influence of electromagnetic stirring in the area of the continuous casting mould on refinement of the ingot’s primary structure and their selected mechanical properties, i.e. tensile strength, yield strength, hardness and elongation. The effect of primary structure refinement and mechanical properties obtained by electromagnetic stirring was compared with refinement obtained by using traditional inoculation, which consists in introducing additives, i.e. Ti, B and Sr, to the metal bath. On the basis of the obtained results we confirmed that inoculation done by electromagnetic stirring in the range of the continuous casting mould guarantees improved mechanical properties and also decreases the negative influence of casting velocity, thus increasing the structure of AlSi2 continuous ingots.

  1. Severe plastic deformation effect on structure and mechanical properties of Al-Mg-Li system alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolobov, Yu.R.; Najdenkin, E.V.; Dudarev, E.F.; Bakach, G.P.; Pochivalov, Yu.I.; Girsova, N.V.; Ivanov, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    The study on the structural-phase states and mechanical properties of the industrial aluminium alloys Al - 5.5% Mg - 2.2% Li - 0.12% Zr, percent by weight and Al - 5% Mg - 2.2% Li -0.12% Zr - 0.2% Sc percent by weight, obtained by the impact of the intensive plastic deformation, is carried out in comparison with the initial polycrystalline state. It is established that the homogeneous ultrafine-grained structure with the second phase particles, located primarily by the grain boundaries, is formed in the studied samples by the above-mentioned treatment. Such a character of the structure leads to the shift of the temperature-velocity interval of the superplastic properties to the area of lower temperatures and higher deformation velocities [ru

  2. Connection between kinetic phenomena and atomic ordering processes and electronic structure of Ni3(FeMe)-type alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'eva, R.P.; Arkhipov, Yu.N.; Narkulov, N.; Fadin, V.P.

    1978-01-01

    The results are presented of the measurements of the Hall and the Nernst-Ettingshausen effect and of thermal emf, electric resistivity and magnetization measurements in alloys Ni 3 (FeMe), where Me is Mo, Cr, W. The concentration of additions is not higher than 12.5%. The relationship of the kinetic phenomena with peculiarities of the electron structure and ordering processes is investigated. The obtained data show that the Hall and Nernst-Ettingshausen electromotive forces in the investigated alloys have positive values. The effects of the concentration variations of the investigated phenomena manifest themselves stronger in ordered state, this testifyies to a considerable increase of the part, the hole sections of the Fermi surface play. The investigation enables some conclusions to be made on the energy characteristics of these alloys as a function of the variation of the concentration composition of the alloys and the ordering processes

  3. Structure of Sn1−xGex random alloys as obtained from the coherent potential approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Pulikkotil, J. J.

    2011-08-09

    The structure of the Sn1−xGex random alloys is studied using density functional theory and the coherent potential approximation. We report on the deviation of the Sn1−xGex alloys from Vegard’s law, addressing their full compositional range. The findings are compared to the related Si1−xGex alloys and to experimental results. Interestingly, the deviation from Vegard’s law is quantitatively and qualitatively different between the Sn1−xGex and Si1−xGex alloys. An almost linear dependence of the bulk modulus as a function of composition is found for Si1−xGex, whereas for Sn1−xGex the dependence is strongly nonlinear.

  4. FORMATION REGULARITIES OF PHASE COMPOSITION, STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES DURING MECHANICAL ALLOYING OF BINARY ALUMINUM COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Lovshenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents investigation results pertaining to  ascertainment of formation regularities of phase composition and structure during mechanical alloying of binary aluminium composites/substances. The invetigations have been executed while applying a wide range of methods, devices and equipment used in modern material science. The obtained data complement each other. It has been established that presence of oxide and hydro-oxide films on aluminium powder  and introduction of surface-active substance in the composite have significant effect on mechanically and thermally activated phase transformations and properties of semi-finished products.  Higher fatty acids have been used as a surface active substance.The mechanism of mechanically activated solid solution formation has been identified. Its essence is  a formation of  specific quasi-solutions at the initial stage of processing. Mechanical and chemical interaction between components during formation of other phases has taken place along with dissolution  in aluminium while processing powder composites. Granule basis is formed according to the dynamic recrystallization mechanism and possess submicrocrystal structural type with the granule dimension basis less than 100 nm and the grains are divided in block size of not more than 20 nm with oxide inclusions of 10–20 nm size.All the compounds  with the addition of  surface-active substances including aluminium powder without alloying elements obtained by processing in mechanic reactor are disperse hardened. In some cases disperse hardening is accompanied by dispersive and solid solution hardnening process. Complex hardening predetermines a high temperature of recrystallization in mechanically alloyed compounds,  its value exceeds 400 °C.

  5. Moessbauer study of the ageing effects on the structure of CuZnSn shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frackowiak, J.E.; Dutkiewicz, J.; Morgiel, J.

    1986-01-01

    Using the 119 Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy the study of ageing effects on the structure of a CuZnSn shape memory alloy was performed. Two stages of ageing at 200 0 C were observed. The first stage is connected with formation of DO 3 structure and the second stage with precipitation of α and γ phases. (Auth.)

  6. First-principles calculations of structural, electronic and optical properties of CdxZn1-xS alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Noor, Naveed Ahmed; Ikram, Nazma; Ali, Sana Zulfiqar; Nazir, Safdar; Alay-E-Abbas, Syed Muhammad; Shaukat, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Structural, electronic and optical properties of ternary alloy system CdxZn1-xS have been studied using first-principles approach based on density functional theory. Electronic structure, density of states and energy band gap values for CdxZn1-xS

  7. Structure, mechanical properties, corrosion behavior and cytotoxicity of biodegradable Mg–X (X = Sn, Ga, In) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubásek, J., E-mail: Jiri.Kubasek@vscht.cz [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vojtěch, D. [Department of Metals and Corrosion Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Lipov, J.; Ruml, T. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2013-05-01

    As-cast Mg–Sn, Mg–Ga and Mg–In alloys containing 1–7 wt.% of alloying elements were studied in this work. Structural and chemical analysis of the alloys was performed by using light and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and glow discharge spectrometry. Mechanical properties were determined by Vickers hardness measurements and tensile testing. Corrosion behavior in a simulated physiological solution (9 g/l NaCl) was studied by immersion tests and potentiodynamic measurements. The cytotoxicity effect of the alloys on human osteosarcoma cells (U-2 OS) was determined by an indirect contact assay. Structural investigation revealed the dendritic morphology of the as-cast alloys with the presence of secondary eutectic phases in the Mg–Sn and Mg–Ga alloys. All the alloying elements showed hardening and strengthening effects on magnesium. This effect was the most pronounced in the case of Ga. All the alloying elements at low concentrations of approximately 1 wt.% were also shown to positively affect the corrosion resistance of Mg. But at higher concentrations of Ga and Sn the corrosion resistance worsened due to galvanic effects of secondary phases. Cytotoxicity tests indicated that Ga had the lowest toxicity, followed by Sn. The most severe toxicity was observed in the case of In. - Highlights: ► Gallium addition (up to 7 wt.%) improves the strength and toughness of as-cast Mg. ► The effect of indium addition (up to 7 wt.%) on mechanical properties is small. ► Gallium, Tin and Indium addition improves the corrosion resistance of as-cast Mg. ► Gallium shows no toxic effect on osteosarcoma cells. ► Tin and indium show serious toxic effect on osteosarcoma cells.

  8. Three-dimensional nanometer scale analyses of precipitate structures and local compositions in titanium aluminide engineering alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstl, Stephan S. A.

    Titanium aluminide (TiAl) alloys are among the fastest developing class of materials for use in high temperature structural applications. Their low density and high strength make them excellent candidates for both engine and airframe applications. Creep properties of TiAl alloys, however, have been a limiting factor in applying the material to a larger commercial market. In this research, nanometer scale compositional and structural analyses of several TiAl alloys, ranging from model Ti-Al-C ternary alloys to putative commercial alloys with 10 components are investigated utilizing three dimensional atom probe (3DAP) and transmission electron microscopies. Nanometer sized borides, silicides, and carbide precipitates are involved in strengthening TiAl alloys, however, chemical partitioning measurements reveal oxygen concentrations up to 14 at. % within the precipitate phases, resulting in the realization of oxycarbide formation contributing to the precipitation strengthening of TiAl alloys. The local compositions of lamellar microstructures and a variety of precipitates in the TiAl system, including boride, silicide, binary carbides, and intermetallic carbides are investigated. Chemical partitioning of the microalloying elements between the alpha2/gamma lamellar phases, and the precipitate/gamma-matrix phases are determined. Both W and Hf have been shown to exhibit a near interfacial excess of 0.26 and 0.35 atoms nm-2 respectively within ca. 7 nm of lamellar interfaces in a complex TiAl alloy. In the case of needle-shaped perovskite Ti3AlC carbide precipitates, periodic domain boundaries are observed 5.3+/-0.8 nm apart along their growth axis parallel to the TiAl[001] crystallographic direction with concomitant composition variations after 24 hrs. at 800°C.

  9. Thermal evolution of nanocrystalline co-sputtered Ni–Zr alloy films: Structural, magnetic and MD simulation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Debarati; Rao, T.V. Chandrasekhar; Bhushan, K.G.; Ali, Kawsar; Debnath, A.; Singh, S.; Arya, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Basu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Monophasic and homogeneous Ni 10 Zr 7 nanocrystalline alloy films were successfully grown at room temperature by co-sputtering in an indigenously developed three-gun DC/RF magnetron sputtering unit. The films could be produced with long-range crystallographic and chemical order in the alloy, thus overcoming the widely acknowledged inherent proclivity of the glass forming Ni–Zr couple towards amorphization. Crystallinity of these alloys is a desirable feature with regard to improved efficacy in applications such as hydrogen storage, catalytic activity and nuclear reactor engineering, to name a few. Thermal stability of this crystalline phase, being vital for transition to viable applications, was investigated through systematic annealing of the alloy films at 473 K, 673 K and 923 K for various durations. While the films were stable at 473 K, the effect of annealing at 673 K was to create segregation into nanocrystalline Ni (superparamagnetic) and amorphous Ni + Zr (non-magnetic) phases. Detailed analyses of the physical and magnetic structures before and after annealing were performed through several techniques effectual in analyzing stratified configurations and the findings were all consistent with each other. Polarized neutron and X-ray reflectometry, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to gauge phase separation at nanometer length scales. SQUID based magnetometry was used to investigate macroscopic magnetic properties. Simulated annealing performed on this system using molecular dynamic calculations corroborated well with the experimental results. This study provides a thorough understanding of the creation and thermal evolution of a crystalline Ni–Zr alloy. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline Ni 10 Zr 7 alloy thin films deposited successfully by co-sputtering. • Creation of a crystalline alloy in a binary system with a tendency to amorphize. • Quantitative

  10. Fusion materials: Technical evaluation of the technology of vandium alloys for use as blanket structural materials in fusion power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Committee's evaluation of vanadium alloys as a structural material for fusion reactors was constrained by limited data and time. The design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is still in the concept stage, so meaningful design requirements were not available. The data on the effect of environment and irradiation on vanadium alloys were sparse, and interpolation of these data were made to select the V-5Cr-5Ti alloy. With an aggressive, fully funded program it is possible to qualify a vanadium alloy as the principal structural material for the ITER blanket in the available 5 to 8-year window. However, the data base for V-5Cr-5Ti is United and will require an extensive development and test program. Because of the chemical reactivity of vanadium the alloy will be less tolerant of system failures, accidents, and off-normal events than most other candidate blanket structural materials and will require more careful handling during fabrication of hardware. Because of the cost of the material more stringent requirements on processes, and minimal historical worlding experience, it will cost an order of magnitude to qualify a vanadium alloy for ITER blanket structures than other candidate materials. The use of vanadium is difficult and uncertain; therefore, other options should be explored more thoroughly before a final selection of vanadium is confirmed. The Committee views the risk as being too high to rely solely on vanadium alloys. In viewing the state and nature of the design of the ITER blanket as presented to the Committee, h is obvious that there is a need to move toward integrating fabrication, welding, and materials engineers into the ITER design team. If the vanadium allay option is to be pursued, a large program needs to be started immediately. The commitment of funding and other resources needs to be firm and consistent with a realistic program plan

  11. Study of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of CoFeIn and Co2FeIn Heusler alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Amine Monir, M.; Khenata, R.; Baltache, H.; Murtaza, G.; Abu-Jafar, M.S.; Bouhemadou, A.; Bin Omran, S.

    2015-01-01

    The structural, electronic and magnetic properties of half-Heusler CoFeIn and full-Heusler Co 2 FeIn alloys have been investigated by using the state of the art full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The exchange-correlation potential was treated with the generalized gradient approximation (PBE-GGA) for the calculation of the structural properties, whereas the PBE-GGA+U approximation (where U is the Hubbard Coulomb energy term) is applied for the computation of the electronic and magnetic properties in order to treat the “d” electrons. The structural properties have been calculated in the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases where we have found that both the CoFeIn and Co 2 FeIn alloys have a stable ferromagnetic phase. The obtained results of the spin-polarized band structure and the density of states show that the CoFeIn alloy is a metal and the Co 2 FeIn alloy has a complete half-metallic nature. Through the obtained values of the total spin magnetic moment, we conclude that in general, the Co 2 FeIn alloy is half-metallic ferromagnet material whereas the CoFeIn alloy has a metallic nature. - Highlights: • Based on DFT calculations, CoFeIn and Co2FeIn Heusler alloys were investigated. • The magnetic phase stability was determined from the total energy calculations. • Electronic properties reveal the metallic (half-metallic) nature for CoFeIn (Co2FeIn)

  12. Failure analysis of various monolithic posterior aesthetic dental crowns using finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porojan, Liliana; Topală, Florin

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of material stiffness and load on the biomechanical performance of the monolithic full-coverage posterior aesthetic dental crowns using finite element analysis. Three restorative materials for monolithic dental crowns were selected for the study: zirconia; lithium disilicate glass-ceramic, and resin-based composite. Stresses were calculated in the crowns for all materials and in the teeth structures, under different load values. The experiments show that dental crowns made from all this new aesthetic materials processed by CAD/CAM technologies would be indicated as monolithic dental crowns for posterior areas.

  13. Fabrication of hydrophobic surface with hierarchical structure on Mg alloy and its corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Li Dandan; Liu Qi; Yin Xi; Zhang Ying; Jing Xiaoyan; Zhang Milin

    2010-01-01

    A hydrotalcite/hydromagnesite conversion coating with hierarchical structure has been fabricated on a Mg alloy substrate by in situ hydrothermal crystallization method. A MgO layer existing between the hydrotalcite/hydromagnesite film and the substrate was formed prior to the hydrotalcite/hydromagnesite film during the crystallization process. After surface treatment with silane coupling agent, the surface of conversion coating changes from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the silylated conversion coating with hierarchical structure maintains the original rough surface of which was composed of numerous micro-scale flakes and beautiful flower-like protrusions. Polarization measurements have shown that the hydrophobic conversion coating exhibited a low corrosion current density value of 0.432 μA/cm 2 , which means that the hydrophobic conversion coating can effectively protect Mg alloy from corrosion. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the impedance of the hydrophobic conversion coating was 9000 Ω. It means that the coating served as a passive layer with high charge transfer resistance.

  14. Structure factors and phonon dispersion in liquid Li0.61Na0.39 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratap, Arun; Lad, Kirit N.; Raval, K.G.

    2004-01-01

    The phonon spectra for liquid Li and Na have been computed through the phenomenological model of Bhatia and Singh for disordered systems like liquids and glasses and the obtained results have been compared with the available data obtained by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) experiments. The effective pair potentials and their space derivatives are important ingredients in the computation of the dispersion curves. The pair potentials are obtained using the pseudo-potential theory. The empty core model proposed by Ashcroft is widely used for pseudo-potential calculations for alkali metals. But, it is thought to be unsuitable for Li because of its simple 1s electronic structure. However, it can be used with an additional term known as Born-Mayer (BM) core term. The influence of the BM core term on the phonon dispersion is discussed. The same pseudo-potential formalism has been employed to obtain the dispersion relation in liquid Li 0.61 Na 0.39 alloy. Apart from the phonon spectra, the Ashcroft-Langreth structure factors in the alloy are derived in the Percus-Yevick approximation. (author)

  15. Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on steel and titanium alloy for tribological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonse, J.; Koter, R.; Hartelt, M.; Spaltmann, D.; Pentzien, S.; Höhm, S.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.

    2014-10-01

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS, ripples) were generated on stainless steel (100Cr6) and titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) surfaces upon irradiation with multiple femtosecond laser pulses (pulse duration 30 fs, central wavelength 790 nm). The experimental conditions (laser fluence, spatial spot overlap) were optimized in a sample-scanning geometry for the processing of large surface areas (5 × 5 mm2) covered homogeneously by the nanostructures. The irradiated surface regions were subjected to white light interference microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealing spatial periods around 600 nm. The tribological performance of the nanostructured surface was characterized by reciprocal sliding against a ball of hardened steel in paraffin oil and in commercial engine oil as lubricants, followed by subsequent inspection of the wear tracks. For specific conditions, on the titanium alloy a significant reduction of the friction coefficient by a factor of more than two was observed on the laser-irradiated (LIPSS-covered) surface when compared to the non-irradiated one, indicating the potential benefit of laser surface structuring for tribological applications.

  16. Nuclear reactor fuel structure containing uranium alloy wires embedded in a metallic matrix plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travelli, Armando

    1988-01-01

    A flat or curved plate structure, to be used as fuel in a nuclear reactor, comprises elongated fissionable wires or strips embedded in a metallic continuous non-fissionable matrix plate. The wires or strips are made predominantly of a malleable uranium alloy, such as uranium silicide, uranium gallide or uranium germanide. The matrix plate is made predominantly of aluminum or an aluminum alloy. The wires or strips are located in a single row at the midsurface of the plate, parallel with one another and with the length dimension of the plate. The wires or strips are separated from each other, and from the surface of the plate, by sufficient thicknesses of matrix material, to provide structural integrity and effective fission product retention, under neutron irradiation. This construction makes it safely feasible to provide a high uranium density, so that the uranium enrichment with uranium 235 may be reduced below about 20%, to deter the reprocessing of the uranium for use in nuclear weapons.

  17. Structure and hardness of a hard metal alloy prepared with a WC powder synthesized at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, F.A. da [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais, UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil)], E-mail: francineac@yahoo.com; Medeiros, F.F.P. de [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais, UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Silva, A.G.P. da [Laboratorio de Materiais Avancados, UENF, 28015-620 Campos de Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Gomes, U.U. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Filgueira, M. [Laboratorio de Materiais Avancados, UENF, 28015-620 Campos de Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Souza, C.P. de [Laboratorio de Termodinamica e Reatores, UFRN, Campus Universitario, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-06-25

    The structure and hardness of a WC-10 wt% Co alloy prepared with an experimental WC powder are compared with those of another alloy of the same composition produced under the same conditions and prepared with a commercial WC powder. The experimental WC powder was synthesized by a gas-solid reaction between APT and methane at low temperature and the commercial WC powder was conventionally produced by a solid-solid reaction between tungsten and carbon black. WC-10 wt% Co alloys with the two powders were prepared under the same conditions of milling and sintering. The structure of the sample prepared with the experimental WC powder is homogeneous and coarse grained. The structure of the sample prepared with the commercial powder is heterogeneous. Furthermore the size and shape of the WC grains are significantly different.

  18. The Production of Material with Ultrafine Grain Structure in Al-Zn Alloy in the Process of Rapid Solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymaneka M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the aluminium alloy family, Al-Zn materials with non-standard chemical composition containing Mg and Cu are a new group of alloys, mainly owing to their high strength properties. Proper choice of alloying elements, and of the method of molten metal treatment and casting enable further shaping of the properties. One of the modern methods to produce materials with submicron structure is a method of Rapid Solidification. The ribbon cast in a melt spinning device is an intermediate product for further plastic working. Using the technique of Rapid Solidification it is not possible to directly produce a solid structural material of the required shape and length. Therefore, the ribbon of an ultrafine grain or nanometric structure must be subjected to the operations of fragmentation, compaction, consolidation and hot extrusion.

  19. Dopamine-imprinted monolithic column for capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aşır, Süleyman; Sarı, Duygu; Derazshamshir, Ali; Yılmaz, Fatma; Şarkaya, Koray; Denizli, Adil

    2017-11-01

    A dopamine-imprinted monolithic column was prepared and used in capillary electrochromatography as stationary phase for the first time. Dopamine was selectively separated from aqueous solution containing the competitor molecule norepinephrine, which is similar in size and shape to the template molecule. Morphology of the dopamine-imprinted column was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The influence of the organic solvent content of mobile phase, applied pressure and pH of the mobile phase on the recognition of dopamine by the imprinted monolithic column has been evaluated, and the imprinting effect in the dopamine-imprinted monolithic polymer was verified. Developed dopamine-imprinted monolithic column resulted in excellent separation of dopamine from structurally related competitor molecule, norepinephrine. Separation was achieved in a short period of 10 min, with the electrophoretic mobility of 5.81 × 10 -5  m 2 V -1 s -1 at pH 5.0 and 500 mbar pressure. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Novel biocompatible magnesium alloys design with nutrient alloying elements Si, Ca and Sr: Structure and properties characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weidan; Han, Junjie [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Yang, Xuan; Li, Mei [Department of Orthopedics, Guangdong Key Lab of Orthopaedic Technology and Implant Materials, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, 111 Liuhua Road, Guangzhou 510010 (China); Wan, Peng, E-mail: pwan@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Tan, Lili [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, Yu [Department of Orthopedics, Guangdong Key Lab of Orthopaedic Technology and Implant Materials, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, 111 Liuhua Road, Guangzhou 510010 (China); Yang, Ke, E-mail: kyang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A non-toxic Mg-based alloy system with nutrient elements Si, Sr, Ca is proposed. • Properties improved due to morphology of coarse Mg{sub 2}Si change into small polygon. • Fewer, finer and homogenized Mg{sub 2}Si particles are obtained after anneal-treated. • Cytocompatibility results indicate a potential application in orthopedic. - Abstract: Magnesium has been widely studied as a biodegradable material, where its mechanical property and biocompatibility make it preferred candidate for orthopedic implant. Proper alloying can further improve the properties of Mg. First and foremost, to guarantee the biosafety for biomedical application, the alloying element should be toxic free. To address this point, nutrient elements including Si, Sr and Ca were selected due to their biological functions in human body, especially in bone regeneration and repair. In this study, 0.5–1.0 wt% Sr and Ca were used to refine and modify the morphology of coarse Mg{sub 2}Si in Mg-1.38wt% Si to obtain an uniform microstructure. Microstructure, mechanical and degradation properties of as-cast and homogenizing-annealed quaternary Mg-1.38Si-xSr-yCa (x, y = 0.5–1 wt%) alloys were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction, tensile and electrochemical measurement. Addition of Sr and Ca element cause a morphological change in Mg{sub 2}Si particles from coarse Chinese script shape to small polygonal type. The presences of intermetallic phases, such as Mg{sub 2}Si, CaMgSi and Mg{sub 17}Sr{sub 2}, were confirmed in quaternary alloys, of which content was applied to interpret the results for the quaternary system. Compared with the as-cast state, fewer, finer and homogenized microstructure were observed after an anneal heat treatment under 500 °C. The mechanical properties were improved with increase of Ca and Sr additions, which was related to the evolution of the microstructure and second phases, however, also causing an

  1. Protective properties and structure of amorphous alumosilicophosphate coatings for niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sichinava, M.A.; Kobyakov, V.P.; Sedmale, G.P.

    2000-01-01

    Results of thermal tests of niobium alloy samples with a protective coating in gas media with different content of oxygen are presented. Microhardness of the metal under the coating and of the coating as such prior to and after thermal testing was studied. Near the contact areas of the metal and coating were studied using electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction microprobe and X-ray phase analyses. Information on the structure, elementary and phase compositions of the near the contact areas was obtained. The processes occurring during formation and subsequent long-term annealing of the coating, which give rise to structural changes in the coating providing its adhesion to substrate and high protective efficiency, were interpreted [ru

  2. Dislocation structure, aging processes and critical currents of vanadium-gallium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, V.M.; Beletskii, Yu.I.; Flis, V.S.; Firstov, S.A.; Sarzhan, G.F.

    1976-04-01

    An electron microscopical investigation of the structural and phase changes in vanadium-gallium alloys was carried out in the range of concentrations corresponding to a supersaturated mixed crystal with bcc lattice during plastic deformation and annealing. The determined data were compared with the measured results of the electrophysical and superconducting properties. It was shown that the deformed and aged vanadium-gallium samples at 4.2 K could conduct a dissipation-free transport current with a density of 8 x 10 3 A/cm 2 in the transversal magnetic field of 60 kOe. Based on the experimental results of the dislocation structure, the mechanism and kinetics of the separation process, conclusions were drawn as to the character of the exceeding of the critical current density in the presence of a magnetic field in these compounds. (orig.) [de

  3. Effect of crack closing and cyclic fracture toughness evaluation of structural alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romaniv, O.N.; Nikiforchin, G.N.; Andrusiv, B.N.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanisms of crack closing (CC), methods of its evalution as well as CC effect on cyclic fracture toughness of structural alloys are considered based on literature and experimental datas several CC mechanisms are suggested. It is noted that evaluation of fatigue crack closing is exercised, mainly, experimentally, though analytical methods of its determination are also suggested. Experimental Methods may be divided in two main groups. The first one comprises techniques based on direct determination of strains and displacements, the second one includes methods based on physical methods of investigations. High importance of CC effect accountancy in investigation of growth kinetics and machanism of corrosion-fatigue cracks in structural materials is noted. Besides, it should be taken into account that cyclic loading changes electrochemical conditions in the apex of corrosion crack

  4. Structural analysis and martensitic transformation in equiatomic HfPd alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisada, S.; Matsuda, M.; Takashima, K.; Yamabe-Mitarai, Y.

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the crystal structure and the martensitic transformation in equiatomic HfPd alloy. The analysis of the crystal structure by electron diffraction and Rietveld refinement using X-ray diffraction data indicates that the space group of the martensitic phase is Cmcm, and the lattice parameters are a = 0.329 nm, b = 1.021 nm, and c = 0.438 nm. Martensitic variants are composed of the plate-like morphology of several hundred nm, and the boundaries between the variants have (021)Cmcm twin relations. This (021)Cmcm twin boundary seems to be sharp without ledge and steps. Differential scanning calorimetry measurement indicates that each martensitic transformation temperature is determined to be Ms = 819 K, Mf = 794 K, As = 928 K, and Af = 954 K. Based on the dimension change using a thermo-mechanical analyzer, the expansion and shrinkage of the sample occurred with the forward and reverse martensitic transformation, respectively.

  5. Structural acoustic response of a shape memory alloy hybrid composite panel (lessons learned)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.

    2002-07-01

    This study presents results from an effort to fabricate a shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) panel specimen and test the structure for dynamic response and noise transmission characteristics under the action of thermal and random acoustic loads. A method for fabricating a SMAHC laminate with bi-directional SMA reinforcement is described. Glass-epoxy unidirectional prepreg tape and Nitinol ribbon comprise the material system. Thermal activation of the Nitinol actuators was achieved through resistive heating. The experimental hardware required for mechanical support of the panel/actuators and for establishing convenient electrical connectivity to the actuators is presented. Other experimental apparatus necessary for controlling the panel temperature and acquiring structural acoustic data are also described. Deficiency in the thermal control system was discovered in the process of performing the elevated temperature tests. Discussion of the experimental results focuses on determining the causes for the deficiency and establishing means for rectifying the problem.

  6. Martensitic transformations, structure, and strengthness of processed high-nitrogen and high-carbon ferrous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaputkina, L. M.; Prokoshkina, V. G.

    2003-10-01

    Structures and properties of metastable austenitic alloys Fe-18Cr-16Ni-I2Mn-(0.17 to 0. 50)N, Fe-18Cr-12Mn-(0.48 to 1.12)N, Fe-18Cr-(0.1 to 1.18)N, and Fe-(12 to 20)Ni-(0.6 to 1.3)C, Fe-(6 to 8)Mn-(0.6 to 1.0)C, Fe-(5 to 6)Cr-(4 to 5)Mn-(0.6 to 0.8)C, Fe-6Cr-(1.0 to 1.3)C resulting from martensitic transformations under cooling and cold deformation (CD), as well as following tempering processes, were studied by magnetometry, X-ray and electron microscopy analyses, hardness measurements and mechanical properties tests. Martensite with a b.c.t. lattice was formed in all alloys with M_s{>}-196^circC during cooling. Under CD transformations of γ{to}α, γ{to}\\varepsilon{to}α, or γ{to}\\varepsilon types were realized depending on the alloy composition. Carbon increased but nitrogen decreased stacking fault energy. Thus carbon assists α-martensite formation but nitrogen promotese. As CD level and/or concentration of carbon and nitrogen increase residual stresses resulting from the CD also increase. The martensitic transformation during CD can decrease the residual stresses. Kinetic of tempering of b.c.t. thermal martensite differs from those of CD-induced martensite. In the second case, deformation aging, texture, and residual stresses are more visible. The maximal strengthening under CD takes place in (Mn+N)-steels. (Cr+N) and (Cr+Mn+N)-steels are high-strength, non-magnetic and corrosion resistant and are easily hardened by a low level of plastic deformation.

  7. Magnetic and structural properties of mechanically alloyed Tb0.257-xNdxFe0.743 alloys, with x = 0 and 0.257

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Martinez, Y.; Bustos Rodriguez, H.; Oyola Lozano, D.; Perez Alcazar, G. A.; Paz, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    The alloys between a transition metal and a rare earth present magnetic and magneto optical properties of exceptional interest for the production of magnetic devices for information storage. In this work we report the magnetic and structural properties, obtained by Moessbauer spectrometry (MS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), of Tb 0.257-x Nd x Fe 0.743 alloys with x = 0 and 0.257 prepared by mechanical alloying during 12, 24 and 48 h, to study the influence of the milling time in their magnetic and structural properties. The X-rays results show for all the samples that the α and an amorphous phase are always present. The first decreases and the second increases with the increase of the milling time. Moessbauer results show that the amorphous phase in samples with Nd is ferromagnetic and appears as a hyperfine field distribution and a broad doublet, and that as the milling time increases the paramagnetic contribution increases. For samples with Tb the amorphous phase is paramagnetic and appears as a broad doublet which increases with the milling time and for 48 h milling it appears an additional broad singlet.

  8. Structure and soft magnetic properties of Fe-Si-B-P-Cu nanocrystalline alloys with minor Mn addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjie Jia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Addition of minor Mn effectively improves the amorphous-forming ability and thermal stability of the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy. With increasing the Mn content from 0 to 3 at.%, the critical thickness for amorphous formation and onset temperature of the primary crystallization increase from 14 μm and 659 K to 27 μm and 668 K, respectively. The fine nanocrystalline structure with α-Fe grains in size (D of < 20 nm was obtained for the annealed amorphous alloys, which show excellent soft magnetic properties. The alloying of Mn reduces the coercivity (Hc by decreasing the D value and widens the optimum annealing temperature range for obtaining low Hc, although the saturation magnetic flux density (Bs is decreased slightly. The Fe83Mn2Si2B8P4Cu1 nanocrystalline alloy possesses fine structure with a D of ∼17.5 nm, and exhibits a high Bs of ∼1.75 T and a low Hc of ∼5.9 A/m. The mechanism related to the alloying effects on the structure and magnetic properties was discussed in term of the crystallization activation energy.

  9. Structure and soft magnetic properties of Fe-Si-B-P-Cu nanocrystalline alloys with minor Mn addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xingjie; Li, Yanhui; Wu, Licheng; Zhang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    Addition of minor Mn effectively improves the amorphous-forming ability and thermal stability of the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy. With increasing the Mn content from 0 to 3 at.%, the critical thickness for amorphous formation and onset temperature of the primary crystallization increase from 14 μm and 659 K to 27 μm and 668 K, respectively. The fine nanocrystalline structure with α-Fe grains in size (D) of < 20 nm was obtained for the annealed amorphous alloys, which show excellent soft magnetic properties. The alloying of Mn reduces the coercivity (Hc) by decreasing the D value and widens the optimum annealing temperature range for obtaining low Hc, although the saturation magnetic flux density (Bs) is decreased slightly. The Fe83Mn2Si2B8P4Cu1 nanocrystalline alloy possesses fine structure with a D of ˜17.5 nm, and exhibits a high Bs of ˜1.75 T and a low Hc of ˜5.9 A/m. The mechanism related to the alloying effects on the structure and magnetic properties was discussed in term of the crystallization activation energy.

  10. Determining leach rates of monolithic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Dole, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    The ANS 16.1 Leach Procedure provides a conservative means of predicting long-term release from monolithic waste forms, offering a simple and relatively quick means of determining effective solid diffusion coefficients. As presented here, these coefficients can be used in a simple model to predict maximum release rates or be used in more complex site-specific models to predict actual site performance. For waste forms that pass the structural integrity test, this model also allows the prediction of EP-Tox leachate concentrations from these coefficients. Thus, the results of the ANS 16.1 Leach Procedure provide a powerful tool that can be used to predict the waste concentration limits in order to comply with the EP-Toxicity criteria for characteristically nonhazardous waste. 12 refs., 3 figs

  11. Influence of the preparation design and artificial aging on the fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitov, Gergo; Anastassova-Yoshida, Yana; Nothdurft, Frank Phillip; von See, Constantin; Pospiech, Peter

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance and fracture behavior of monolithic zirconia crowns in accordance with the preparation design and aging simulation method. An upper first molar was prepared sequentially with three different preparation designs: shoulderless preparation, 0.4 mm chamfer and 0.8 mm chamfer preparation. For each preparation design, 30 monolithic zirconia crowns were fabricated. After cementation on Cr-Co alloy dies, the following artificial aging procedures were performed: (1) thermal cycling and mechanical loading (TCML): 5000 cycles of thermal cycling 5℃-55℃ and chewing simulation (1,200,000 cycles, 50 N); (2) Low Temperature Degradation simulation (LTD): autoclave treatment at 137℃, 2 bar for 3 hours and chewing simulation; and (3) no pre-treatment (control group). After artificial aging, the crowns were loaded until fracture. The mean values of fracture resistance varied between 3414 N (LTD; 0.8 mm chamfer preparation) and 5712 N (control group; shoulderless preparation). Two-way ANOVA analysis showed a significantly higher fracture loads for the shoulderless preparation, whereas no difference was found between the chamfer preparations. In contrast to TCML, after LTD simulation the fracture strength of monolithic zirconia crowns decreased significantly. The monolithic crowns tested in this study showed generally high fracture load values. Preparation design and LTD simulation had a significant influence on the fracture strength of monolithic zirconia crowns.

  12. The Effect of Laser Surface Treatment on Structure and Mechanical Properties Aluminium Alloy ENAC-AlMg9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakieła W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the influence of a high power diode laser surface treatment on the structure and properties of aluminium alloy has been determined. The aim of this study was to improve the mechanical and tribological properties of the surface layer of the aluminium alloy by simultaneously melting and feeding tungsten carbide particles into the molten pool. During the process was used high-power diode laser HPDL. In order to remelt the aluminium alloy surface the HPDL laser of 1.8, 2.0 and 2.2 kW laser beam power has been used. The linear laser scan rate of the beam was set 0.5 cm/s. In order to protect the liquid metal during laser treatment was used argon. As a base material was used aluminium alloy ENAC-AlMg9. To improve the surface mechanical and wear properties of the applied aluminium alloy was used biphasic tungsten carbide WC/W2C. The size of alloying powder was in the range 110-210 µm. The ceramic powder was introduced in the remelting zone by a gravity feeder at a constant rate of 8 g/m.

  13. Structure and coercivity of nanocrystalline Fe–Si–B–Nb–Cu alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Fe–Si–B–Nb–Cu alloy; melt-spinning; crystallization; nanocrystalline ... to possess a unique combination of soft magnetic properties ... meability and high electrical resistivity (Yoshizawa et al ... ture and thermal stability of the alloy ribbons.

  14. A fundamental study on the structural integrity of magnesium alloys joined by friction stir welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Harish Mangebettu

    The goal of this research is to study the factors that influence the physical and mechanical properties of lap-shear joints produced using friction stir welding. This study focuses on understanding the effect of tool geometry and weld process parameters including the tool rotation rate, tool plunge depth and dwell time on the mechanical performance of similar magnesium alloy and dissimilar magnesium to aluminum alloy weld joints. A variety of experimental activities were conducted including tensile and fatigue testing, fracture surface and failure analysis, microstructure characterization, hardness measurements and chemical composition analysis. An investigation on the effect of weld process conditions in friction stir spot welding of magnesium to magnesium produced in a manner that had a large effective sheet thickness and smaller interfacial hook height exhibited superior weld strength. Furthermore, in fatigue testing of friction stir spot welded of magnesium to magnesium alloy, lap-shear welds produced using a triangular tool pin profile exhibited better fatigue life properties compared to lap-shear welds produced using a cylindrical tool pin profile. In friction stir spot welding of dissimilar magnesium to aluminum, formation of intermetallic compounds in the stir zone of the weld had a dominant effect on the weld strength. Lap-shear dissimilar welds with good material mixture and discontinues intermetallic compounds in the stir zone exhibited superior weld strength compared to lap-shear dissimilar welds with continuous formation of intermetallic compounds in the stir zone. The weld structural geometry like the interfacial hook, hook orientation and bond width also played a major role in influencing the weld strength of the dissimilar lap-shear friction stir spot welds. A wide scatter in fatigue test results was observed in friction stir linear welds of aluminum to magnesium alloys. Different modes of failure were observed under fatigue loading including crack

  15. Electronic structure of Mo1-x Re x alloys studied through resonant photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Shyam; Banik, Soma; Sharath Chandra, L. S.; Chattopadhyay, M. K.; Ganguli, Tapas; Lodha, G. S.; Pandey, Sudhir K.; Phase, D. M.; Roy, S. B.

    2016-08-01

    We studied the electronic structure of Mo-rich Mo1-x Re x alloys (0≤slant x≤slant 0.4 ) using valence band photoemission spectroscopy in the photon energy range 23-70 eV and density of states calculations. Comparison of the photoemission spectra with the density of states calculations suggests that, with respect to the Fermi level E F, the d states lie mostly in the binding energy range 0 to  -6 eV, whereas s states lie in the binding energy range  -4 to  -10 eV. We observed two resonances in the photoemission spectra of each sample, one at about 35 eV photon energy and the other at about 45 eV photon energy. Our analysis suggests that the resonance at 35 eV photon energy is related to the Mo 4p-5s transition and the resonance at 45 eV photon energy is related to the contribution from both the Mo 4p-4d transition (threshold: 42 eV) and the Re 5p-5d transition (threshold: 46 eV). In the constant initial state plot, the resonance at 35 eV incident photon energy for binding energy features in the range E F (BE  =  0) to  -5 eV becomes progressively less prominent with increasing Re concentration x and vanishes for x  >  0.2. The difference plots obtained by subtracting the valence band photoemission spectrum of Mo from that of Mo1-x Re x alloys, measured at 47 eV photon energy, reveal that the Re d-like states appear near E F when Re is alloyed with Mo. These results indicate that interband s-d interaction, which is weak in Mo, increases with increasing x and influences the nature of the superconductivity in alloys with higher x.

  16. Structural investigations on nanocrystalline Ni-W alloy films by transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimenkov, M. [Institut fuer Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Haseeb, A.S.M.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Bade, K., E-mail: klaus.bade@imt.fzk.d [Institut fuer Mikrostrukturtechnik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-10-30

    Electrodeposited Ni-W alloys have been investigated in the as-deposited state by transmission electron microscopy in order to investigate the microstructural features in dependence of the tungsten content. Within the tungsten content range from 7 at.% up to 12 at.%, the microstructure is nanocrystalline characterized by a bimodal grain size distribution, consisting out of 20 to 200 nm sized grains and also larger grains with several 100 nm characteristic dimension. No clear trend in microstructure formation is visible with W content or deposition conditions in the investigated W content range. Only solid solution phase characteristics were observed. The lattice constant is 0.360 nm for 12 at.% W as derived from electron diffraction for the solid solution face centered cubic structure. Larger grains show twinning and stacking faults. Voids with diameter of a few nm were detected along with some multiple twinned particles, indicating high stress level during growth. About 2 at.% difference in the alloy composition from grain to grain was measured.

  17. Structural and elastic properties of Ni2+xMn1-xGa alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subhradip; Vitos, Levente; Sanyal, Biplab

    2011-01-01

    The structural parameters and the energetics of the Ni 2+x Mn 1-x Ga alloys have been investigated by the first-principles Exact Muffin Tin Orbital-Coherent Potential Approximation (EMTO-CPA) for 0.10 m . The qualitative behavior of δE with variation of x has been found to be in agreement with the experimentally observed variation of T m with x. The elastic constants for the entire range of x have also been calculated and the determination of a relationship between δE and the elastic shear modulus has been attempted. It is seen that δE varies linearly with elastic shear modulus C', qualitatively similar to the relation between T m and C'. The energetics calculated with the EMTO method agrees quite well with the all-electron full-potential results ensuring the accuracy of the method. These results show that the EMTO-CPA method is one of the most reliable and accurate first-principles methods, in the context of off-stoichiometric alloys which undergo martensitic phase transformations.

  18. The structural properties of InGaN alloys and the interdependence on the thermoelectric behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadir Kucukgok

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The III-Nitrides are promising candidate for high efficiency thermoelectric (TE materials and devices due to their unique features which includes high thermal stability. A systematic study of the room temperature TE properties of metalorganic chemical vapor deposition grown InxGa1-xN were investigated for x =  0.07 to 0.24. This paper investigated the role of indium composition on the TE properties of InGaN alloys in particular the structural properties for homogenous material that did not show significant phase separation. The highest Seebeck and power factor values of 507 μV K−1 and 21.84 × 10−4 Wm−1K−1 were observed, respectively for In0.07Ga0.93N at room temperature. The highest value of figure-of-merit (ZT was calculated to be 0.072 for In0.20Ga0.80N alloy at room temperature.

  19. The structural properties of InGaN alloys and the interdependence on the thermoelectric behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucukgok, Bahadir; Lu, Na, E-mail: Luna@purdue.edu [Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Wu, Xuewang; Wang, Xiaojia [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Liu, Zhiqiang [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China); Ferguson, Ian T. [College of Engineering and Computing, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The III-Nitrides are promising candidate for high efficiency thermoelectric (TE) materials and devices due to their unique features which includes high thermal stability. A systematic study of the room temperature TE properties of metalorganic chemical vapor deposition grown In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N were investigated for x =  0.07 to 0.24. This paper investigated the role of indium composition on the TE properties of InGaN alloys in particular the structural properties for homogenous material that did not show significant phase separation. The highest Seebeck and power factor values of 507 μV K{sup −1} and 21.84 × 10{sup −4} Wm{sup −1}K{sup −1} were observed, respectively for In{sub 0.07}Ga{sub 0.93}N at room temperature. The highest value of figure-of-merit (ZT) was calculated to be 0.072 for In{sub 0.20}Ga{sub 0.80}N alloy at room temperature.

  20. Deformation structure of water atomised and extruded Cu-Cr-Zr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, J.B.; Davies, H.A.; Sellars, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Copper alloy powders containing Cr and/or Zr were produced via water atomisation and consolidated by extrusion. The crystallographic orientations relative to the extrusion axis, both in the as-extruded condition and after heat treatment were assessed by an inverse pole figure texture determination method using X-ray diffraction. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was also used for microstructural observations. The as-extruded materials showed a clear double fibre texture ( left angle 111 right angle + left angle 100 right angle ), the left angle 111 right angle component being the stronger. After isochronal 1 hour heat treatments in the temperature range 400-700 C, a clear trend of a decreasing left angle 111 right angle component with increasing temperatures was seen. For the highest heat treatment temperature used (700 C), the alloys approached a random crystallographic distribution. The microstructure of the as-extruded material showed a banded structure with sharp boundaries parallel to the extrusion direction. Also, the left angle 111 right angle or left angle 100 right angle directions were generally parallel to the extrusion direction. TEM observation of longitudinal sections after exposure to increasingly high temperature, notably above 500 C, indicated that boundaries started to lose their sharpness and to spread sideways. When the same materials were observed in transverse sections, the competitive growth of some subgrains was clearly seen. (orig.)

  1. Structure-Property Correlations in Al-Li Alloy Integrally Stiffened Extrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Stephen J.; Hafley, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to establish the relationship between mechanical property anisotropy, microstructure and crystallographic texture in integrally 'T'-stiffened extruded panels fabricated from the Al-Li alloys 2195, 2098 and 2096. In-plane properties were measured as a function of orientation at two locations in the panels, namely mid-way between (Skin), and directly beneath (Base), the integral 'T' stiffeners. The 2195 extrusion exhibited the best combination of strength and toughness, but was the most anisotropic. The 2098 extrusion exhibited lower strength and comparable toughness, but was more isotropic than 2195. The 2096 extrusion exhibited the lowest strength and poor toughness, but was the most isotropic. All three alloys exhibited highly elongated grain structures and similar location-dependent variations in grain morphology. The textural characteristics comprised a beta + fiber texture, similar to rolled product, in the Skin regions and alpha + fiber texture, comparable to axisymmetric extruded product, in the Base regions. In an attempt to quantitatively correlate texture with yield strength anisotropy, the original 'full constraint' Taylor model and a variant of the 'relaxed constraint' model, explored by Wert et al., were applied to the data. A comparison of the results revealed that the Wert model was consistently more accurate than the Taylor model.

  2. Influence of laser alloyed layer of carbon steel with tantalum on the structure and surface layer properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woldan, A.; Kusinski, J.; Kac, S.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the microstructure and properties (chemical composition and microhardness) of the surface laser alloyed layer with tantalum. The surface alloyed zones varied in microstructure, zones depth and width, as well as Ta content according to the thickness of the coated layer, bonding paint type and process parameters (power and scanning velocity). The electron microprobe analysis of melts showed that higher tantalum content in the melted zone resulted from the thicker original Ta coating as well as slower scanning velocity. Scanning electron microscopy examinations show that dendritic structure of the melted zone becomes evident when carbon was used as one of the components of the binder, while structure is typically martensitic when silicon containing binder was used for powder deposition. Samples covered with Ta and carbon containing binder showed after laser alloying higher hardness than in case of using silicon containing binder. (author)

  3. Local atomic structure and chemical order in amorphous SiGe:H and SiC:H alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarkiewicz, T.; Stapinski, T.

    1994-01-01

    The local structure and chemical ordering in amorphous hydrogenated silicon-germanium and silicon-carbon alloys were analyzed mainly with the help of extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, Raman scattering and electron diffraction. Ge-Ge and Ge-Si distances were found to be independent of concentration and the composition of the first coordination shell around Ge is consistent with a random mixing of the two species in a-Si 1-x Ge:H alloy. The first-coordination-shell average bond lengths for Si-Si and SiC in a-Si 1-x C x :H are also constant with concentration x and the comparison of the first coordination shell composition around Si with average concentration indicates that the alloys tends to be chemically ordered. The degree of crystallinity in microcrystalline Si films determined by EXAFS is in agreement with that obtained in Raman scattering analysis. (author). 16 refs, 5 figs

  4. Static structure, microscopic dynamics and electronic properties of the liquid Bi–Li alloy. An ab initio molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souto, J; Alemany, M M G; Gallego, L J; González, L E; González, D J

    2013-01-01

    We report an ab initio molecular dynamics study of the static, dynamic and electronic properties of the liquid Bi x Li 1−x alloy, which is a complex binary system with a marked tendency to heterocoordination. The calculated total static structure factors are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The partial dynamic structure factors exhibit side peaks indicative of propagating density fluctuations, and for some concentrations we have found a density fluctuation mode with phase velocity greater than the hydrodynamic sound velocity. We have also evaluated other dynamical properties such as the diffusion coefficients, the shear viscosity and the adiabatic sound velocity. The electronic density of states show that the liquid Bi x Li 1−x alloy has a metallic character, although with strong deviations from the free-electron parabolic curve. The results reported improve the understanding of binary liquid alloys with both fast and slow propagating collective modes. (paper)

  5. Review on structural fatigue of NiTi shape memory alloys: Pure mechanical and thermo-mechanical ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozheng Kang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Structural fatigue of NiTi shape memory alloys is a key issue that should be solved in order to promote their engineering applications and utilize their unique shape memory effect and super-elasticity more sufficiently. In this paper, the latest progresses made in experimental and theoretical analyses for the structural fatigue features of NiTi shape memory alloys are reviewed. First, macroscopic experimental observations to the pure mechanical and thermo-mechanical fatigue features of the alloys are summarized; then the state-of-arts in the mechanism analysis of fatigue rupture are addressed; further, advances in the construction of fatigue failure models are provided; finally, summary and future topics are outlined.

  6. Structure, phase stability, and gaps of wurtzite MgZnO and CdZnO alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenacher, Matthias; Schleife, Andre; Furthmueller, Juergen; Bechstedt, Friedhelm; Kuehl Teles, Lara

    2008-01-01

    Recently II-VI compounds became more and more important as materials with potential applications in optoelectronic devices. For pseudomorphic heterostructures it is highly desirable to adjust the material properties carefully. Alloys allow to tailor a certain material property. Also from a theoretical point of view the investigation of mixed crystals is a challenge. We apply density functional theory and the generalized quasichemical approximation together with a cluster approximation to study MgZnO and CdZnO alloys in the wurtzite structure. The combination of these ab initio approaches enables us to study the thermodynamics of these systems as well as the structural and electronic properties with varying composition. We construct phase diagrams versus composition and temperature and calculate bond lengths as well as gap-bowing parameters for the two alloys versus average composition

  7. Efficient analytical expressions for dynamic structure of liquid binary alloys: K–Cs as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wax, Jean-François; Bryk, Taras; Johnson, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    A fitting scheme for analysis of collective dynamics in liquid binary alloys is proposed. It is based on explicit treatment of contributions from three relaxing modes and two types of propagating modes to the partial density–density time correlation functions and corresponding partial dynamic structure factors. Exact sum rules for each partial dynamic structure factor were taken into account. The proposed fitting scheme was applied to the liquid equimolar K–Cs alloy. Analysis of simulation-derived partial time correlation functions as well as of their corresponding Bhatia–Thornton ‘number-concentration’ combinations allowed dispersion and damping of the two branches of collective excitations and the behaviour of relaxing modes in a wide range of wave numbers to be obtained. A comparison with the inelastic neutron-scattering intensities for the liquid K–Cs alloy was performed. (paper)

  8. Effects of Nd-addition on the structural, hydrogen storage, and electrochemical properties of C14 metal hydride alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, D.F. [BASF/Battery Materials-Ovonic, 2983 Waterview Drive, Rochester Hills, MI 48309 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Young, K., E-mail: kwo.young@basf.com [BASF/Battery Materials-Ovonic, 2983 Waterview Drive, Rochester Hills, MI 48309 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Nei, J.; Wang, L. [BASF/Battery Materials-Ovonic, 2983 Waterview Drive, Rochester Hills, MI 48309 (United States); Ng, K.Y.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

    2015-10-25

    Nd-addition to the AB{sub 2}-based alloy Ti{sub 12}Zr{sub 22.8−x}V{sub 10}Cr{sub 7.5}Mn{sub 8.1}Co{sub 7.0}Ni{sub 32.2}Al{sub 0.4}Nd{sub x} is studied for its effects on the structure, gaseous-phase hydrogen storage, and electrochemical properties. This study follows a series of Cu, Mo, Fe, Y, Si, and La doping studies in similar AB{sub 2}-based alloys. Limited solubility of Nd in the main Laves phase promotes the formation of secondary phases (AB and Zr{sub 7}Ni{sub 10}) to provide catalytic effects and synergies for improved capacity and high-rate dischargeability (HRD) performance. The main C14 storage phase has smaller lattice constants and cell volumes, and these effects reduce the storage capacity at higher Nd levels. Different hydrogen absorption mechanisms can occur in these multi-component, multi-phase alloys depending on the interfaces of the phases, and they have effects on the alloy properties. Higher Nd-levels improve the HRD performance despite having lower bulk diffusion and surface exchange current. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate large percentage of larger metallic nickel clusters are present in the surface oxide of alloys with higher Nd-content, and AC impedance studies show very low charge-transfer resistance with high catalytic capability in the alloys. The −40 °C charge-transfer resistance of 8.9 Ω g in this Nd-series of alloys is the lowest measured out of the studies investigating doped AB{sub 2}-based MH alloys for improved low-temperature characteristics. The improvement in HRD and low-temperature performance appears to be related to the proportion of the highly catalytic NdNi-phase at the surface, which must offset the increased bulk diffusion resistance in the alloy. - Graphical abstract: Schematics of hydrogen flow and corresponding PCT isotherms in funneling mode. - Highlights: • Structural and hydrogen storage properties of Nd-substituted AB{sub 2} metal hydride are reported. • Nd contributes to the lowest

  9. Fabrication of the micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by sulfuric acid anodizing and polypropylene coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruomei; Liang, Shuquan; Liu, Jun; Pan, Anqiang; Yu, Y; Tang, Yan

    2013-03-01

    The preparation of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy by anodizing and polypropylene (PP) coating was reported. Both the different anodizing process and different PP coatings of aluminum alloy were investigated. The effects of different anodizing conditions, such as electrolyte concentration, anodization time and current on the superhydrophobic surface were discussed. By PP coating after anodizing, a good superhydrophobic surface was facilely fabricated. The optimum conditions for anodizing were determined by orthogonal experiments. After the aluminium-alloy was grinded with 600# sandpaper, pretreated by 73 g/L hydrochloric acid solution at 1 min, when the concentration of sulfuric acid was 180 g/L, the concentration of oxalic acid was 5 g/L, the concentration of potassium dichromate was 10 g/L, the concentration of chloride sodium was 50 g/L and 63 g/L of glycerol, anodization time was 20 min, and anodization current was 1.2 A/dm2, anodization temperature was 30-35 degrees C, the best micro-nanostructure aluminum alloy films was obtained. On the other hand, the PP with different concentrations was used to the PP with different concentrations was used to coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was achieved by coating PP, and the duration of the superhydrophobic surface was improved by modifying the coat the aluminum alloy surface after anodizing. The results showed that the best superhydrophobicity was surface with high concentration PP. The morphologies of micro/nano-structure superhydrophobic surface were further confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The material of PP with the low surface free energy combined with the micro/nano-structures of the surface resulted in the superhydrophobicity of the aluminum alloy surface.

  10. A monolithic silicon detector telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardella, G.; Amorini, F.; Cabibbo, M.; Di Pietro, A.; Fallica, G.; Franzo, G.; Figuera, P.; Papa, M.; Pappalardo, G.; Percolla, G.; Priolo, F.; Privitera, V.; Rizzo, F.; Tudisco, S.

    1996-01-01

    An ultrathin silicon detector (1 μm) thick implanted on a standard 400 μm Si-detector has been built to realize a monolithic telescope detector for simultaneous charge and energy determination of charged particles. The performances of the telescope have been tested using standard alpha sources and fragments emitted in nuclear reactions with different projectile-target colliding systems. An excellent charge resolution has been obtained for low energy (less than 5 MeV) light nuclei. A multi-array lay-out of such detectors is under construction to charge identify the particles emitted in reactions induced by low energy radioactive beams. (orig.)

  11. Imaging monolithic silicon detector telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorini, F.; Sipala, V.; Cardella, G.; Boiano, C.; Carbone, B.; Cosentino, L.; Costa, E.; Di Pietro, A.; Emanuele, U.; Fallica, G.; Figuera, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; La Guidara, E.; Marchetta, C.; Pappalardo, A.; Piazza, A.; Randazzo, N.; Rizzo, F.; Russo, G.V.; Russotto, P.

    2008-01-01

    We show the results of some test beams performed on a new monolithic strip silicon detector telescope developed in collaboration with the INFN and ST-microelectronics. Using an appropriate design, the induction on the ΔE stages, generated by the charge released in the E stage, was used to obtain the position of the detected particle. The position measurement, together with the low threshold for particle charge identification, allows the new detector to be used for a large variety of applications due to its sensitivity of only a few microns measured in both directions

  12. Structure characterization of nanocrystalline Ni–W alloys obtained by electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indyka, P., E-mail: paulina.indyka@uj.edu.pl [Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Chemistry, 3 Ingardena St., 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Beltowska-Lehman, E.; Tarkowski, L.; Bigos, A. [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, 25 Reymonta St., 30-059 Krakow (Poland); García-Lecina, E. [Surface Finishing Department, CIDETEC-IK4 – Centre for Electrochemical Technologies, P° Miramón 196, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain)

    2014-03-25

    Highlights: • Ni–W alloy coatings were electrodeposited from an aqueous electrolyte solutions. • The microstructure was studied with respect to electrodeposition process parameters. • We report optimal plating conditions for crack-free, nanocrystalline Ni–W coatings. • Crystalline Ni–W coatings exhibited the phase structure of an α-Ni(W) solid solution. • Coatings revealed tensile residual stresses and weakly pronounced 〈1 1 0〉 fiber texture. -- Abstract: Ni–W coatings of different tungsten content (2–50 wt%) were electrodeposited on a steel substrates from an aqueous complex sulfate–citrate galvanic baths, under controlled hydrodynamic conditions in a Rotating Disk Electrode (RDE) system. The optimum conditions for the electrodeposition of crack-free, homogeneous nanocrystalline Ni–W coatings were determined on the basis of the microstructure investigation results. The XRD structural characterizations of Ni–W alloy coatings obtained under different experimental conditions were complemented by SEM and TEM analysis. Results of the study revealed that the main factor influencing the microstructure formation of the Ni–W coatings is the chemical composition of an electrolyte solution. X-ray and electron diffraction patterns of all nanocrystalline Ni–W coatings revealed mainly the fcc phase structure of an α-Ni(W) solid solution with a lattice parameter increased along with tungsten content. The use of additives in the plating bath resulted in the formation of equiaxial/quasifibrous, nanocrystalline Ni–W grains of an average size of about 10 nm. The coatings were characterized by relatively high tensile residual stresses (500–1000 MPa), depending on the electrodeposition conditions. Ni–W coatings exhibited weakly pronounced fiber type 〈1 1 0〉 crystallographic texture, consistent with the symmetry of the plating process. Coatings of the highest tungsten content 50 wt% were found to be amorphous.

  13. Theoretical investigation of the structural, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of CdS1-xSex alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Debing; Li, Mingkai; Meng, Dongxue; Ahuja, Rajeev; He, Yunbin

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the structural, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of wurtzite (WZ) and zincblende (ZB) CdS1-xSex alloys are investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) and the cluster expansion method. A special quasirandom structure containing 16 atoms is constructed to calculate the band structures of random alloys. The band gaps of CdS1-xSex alloys are direct and decrease as the Se content increases. The delta self-consistent-field method is applied to correct band gaps that are underestimated by DFT. The band offsets clearly reflect the variation in valence band maxima and conduction band minima, thus providing information useful to the design of relevant quantum well structures. The positive formation enthalpies of both phases imply that CdS1-xSex is an immiscible system and tends to phase separate. The influence of lattice vibrations on the phase diagram is investigated by calculating the phonon density of states. Lattice vibration effects can reduce the critical temperature Tc and increase alloy solid solubilities. This influence is especially significant in the ZB structure. When only chemical interactions are present, the Tc values for WZ- and ZB-CdS1-xSex are 260 K and 249 K, respectively. The lattice vibration enthalpy and entropy lower the Tc to 255 K and 233 K, respectively.

  14. Li-atoms-induced structure changes of Guinier–Preston–Bagaryatsky zones in AlCuLiMg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, S.Y.; Le, Z.; Chen, Z.K.; Gao, Z. [Center for High-Resolution Electron Microscopy, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Chen, J.H., E-mail: jhchen123@hnu.edu.cn [Center for High-Resolution Electron Microscopy, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Advanced Research Center, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Ming, W.Q.; Li, S.Y.; Wu, C.L. [Center for High-Resolution Electron Microscopy, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China); Yan, N. [Advanced Research Center, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Guinier–Preston–Bagaryatsky (GPB) zones are the well-known strengthening precipitates of AlCuMg alloys formed upon thermal ageing. Here we report that when formed in AlCuLiMg alloys the GPB zones can change significantly in morphology and structure. It is shown that though they do still consist of Al, Cu and Mg elements fundamentally, the GPB zones in AlCuLiMg alloys have a rather different structure due to a featured Li-segregation at their interfaces with the matrix and possible Li-replacement of partial Mg atoms in the structure. As such the Li-containing GPB zones often develop from one-dimensional to quasi-two-dimensional precipitates. - Highlights: • We observe Guinier–Preston–Bagaryatsky zone variants in AlCuLiMg alloys. • We obtain atomic-resolution images of the precipitates and model their structures. • Li-atoms play a key role in modifying the structure of these precipitate variants.

  15. The effect of Mn and B on the magnetic and structural properties of nanostructured Fe60Al40 alloys produced by mechanical alloying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, M M; Alcázar, G A Pérez; Zamora, L E; González, C; Greneche, J M

    2008-06-01

    The effect of Mn and B on the magnetic and structural properties of nanostructured samples of the Fe60Al40 system, prepared by mechanical alloying, was studied by 57Fe Mössbauer spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. In the case of the Fe(60-x)Mn(x)Al40 system, 24 h milling time is required to achieve the BCC ternary phase. Different magnetic structures are observed according to the temperature and the Mn content for alloys milled during 48 h: ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, spin-glass, reentrant spin-glass and superparamagnetic behavior. They result from the bond randomness behaviour induced by the atomic disorder introduced by the MA process and from the competitive interactions of the Fe-Fe ferromagnetic interactions and the Mn-Mn and Fe-Mn antiferromagnetic interactions and finally the presence of Al atoms acting as dilutors. When B is added in the Fe60Al40 alloy and milled for 12 and 24 hours, two crystalline phases were found: a prevailing FeAl BCC phase and a Fe2B phase type. In addition, one observes an additional contribution attributed to grain boundaries which increases when both milling time and boron composition increase. Finally Mn and B were added to samples of the Fe60Al40 system prepared by mechanical alloying during 12 and 24 hours. Mn content was fixed to 10 at.% and B content varied between 0 and 20 at.%, substituting Al. X-ray patterns show two crystalline phases, the ternary FeMnAl BCC phase, and a (Fe,Mn)2B phase type. The relative proportion of the last phase increases when the B content increases, in addition to changes of the grain size and the lattice parameter. Such behavior was observed for both milling periods. On the other hand, the magnetic hyperfine field distributions show that both phases exhibit chemical disorder, and that the contribution attributed to the grain boundaries is less important when the B content increases. Coercive field values of about 10(2) Oe slightly increase with boron content

  16. Influence of cobalt content on the structure and hard magnetic properties of nanocomposite (Fe,Co)-Pt-B alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabias, A., E-mail: agnieszka.grabias@itme.edu.pl [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Kopcewicz, M. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Latuch, J.; Oleszak, D. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Pękała, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Al. Żwirki i Wigury 101, 02-089 Warsaw (Poland); Kowalczyk, M. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Nanocomposite alloys were formed by annealing of the rapidly quenched alloys. • Magnetically hard L1{sub 0} (Fe,Co)Pt and soft (Fe,Co){sub 2}B or (Fe,Co)B were formed. • Mössbauer spectra revealed Co substitution for Fe in L1{sub 0} FePt, FeB and Fe{sub 2}B phases. • Annealed alloys exhibit hard magnetic properties which depend on phase compositions. • Co addition was found to decrease the magnetization and the energy product. - Abstract: The influence of Co content on the structural and hard magnetic properties of two sets of nanocrystalline Fe{sub 52−x}Co{sub x}Pt{sub 28}B{sub 20} (x = 0–26) and Fe{sub 60−y}Co{sub y}Pt{sub 25}B{sub 15} (y = 0–40) alloys was studied. The alloys were prepared as ribbons by the rapid quenching technique. The nanocomposite structure in the alloys was obtained by annealing at 840–880 K for 30 min. Structural characterization of the samples was performed using the Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Magnetic properties of the samples were studied by the measurements of the hysteresis loops and of the magnetization at increasing temperatures. An amorphous phase prevailed in the as-quenched Fe{sub 52−x}Co{sub x}Pt{sub 28}B{sub 20} alloys while a disordered solid solution of fcc-(Fe,Co)Pt was a dominating phase in the Fe{sub 60−y}Co{sub y}Pt{sub 25}B{sub 15} ribbons. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements revealed one or two exothermic peaks at temperatures up to 993 K, depending on the composition of the alloys. Thermal treatment of the samples led to the formation of the magnetically hard ordered L1{sub 0} tetragonal (Fe,Co)Pt nanocrystallites and magnetically softer phases of (Fe,Co)B (for Fe{sub 52−x}Co{sub x}Pt{sub 28}B{sub 20}) or (Fe,Co){sub 2}B (for Fe{sub 60−y}Co{sub y}Pt{sub 25}B{sub 15}). Detailed Mössbauer spectroscopy studies revealed that cobalt substituted for iron in both the L1{sub 0} phase and in iron borides. The nanocomposite Fe{sub 60−y}Co{sub y

  17. Structural, electronic, magnetic and optical properties of Ni,Ti/Al-based Heusler alloys. A first-principles approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adebambo, Paul O. [Univ. of Agriculture. Abeokuta (Nigeria). Dept. of Physics; McPherson Univ., Abeokuta (Nigeria). Dept. of Physical and Computer Sciences; Adetunji, Bamidele I. [Univ. of Agriculture. Abeokuta (Nigeria). Dept. of Physics; Bells Univ. of Technology, Oto (Nigeria). Dept. of Mathematics; Olowofela, Joseph A. [Univ. of Agriculture. Abeokuta (Nigeria). Dept. of Physics; Oguntuase, James A. [Univ. of Agriculture. Abeokuta (Nigeria). Dept. of Mathematics; Adebayo, Gboyega A. [Univ. of Agriculture. Abeokuta (Nigeria). Dept. of Physics; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    2016-05-01

    In this work, detailed first-principles calculations within the generalised gradient approximation (GGA) of electronic, structural, magnetic, and optical properties of Ni,Ti, and Al-based Heusler alloys are presented. The lattice parameter of C1{sub b} with space group F anti 43m (216) NiTiAl alloys is predicted and that of Ni{sub 2}TiAl is in close agreement with available results. The band dispersion along the high symmetry points W→L→Γ→X→W→K in Ni{sub 2}TiAl and NiTiAl Heusler alloys are also reported. NiTiAl alloy has a direct band gap of 1.60 eV at Γ point as a result of strong hybridization between the d state of the lower and higher valence of both the Ti and Ni atoms. The calculated real part of the dielectric function confirmed the band gap of 1.60 eV in NiTiAl alloys. The present calculations revealed the paramagnetic state of NiTiAl. From the band structure calculations, Ni{sub 2}TiAl with higher Fermi level exhibits metallic properties as in the case of both NiAl and Ni{sub 3}Al binary systems.

  18. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structure Technology Program Supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of the study "Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft" which had the objectives (1) to identify the most promising aluminum-based materials with respect to major structural use on the HSCT and to further develop those materials and (2) to assess the materials through detailed trade and evaluation studies with respect to their structural efficiency on the HSCT. The research team consisted of ALCOA, Allied-Signal, Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, Reynolds Metals and the University of Virginia. Four classes of aluminum alloys were investigated: (1) I/M 2XXX containing Li and I/M 2XXX without Li, (2) I/M 6XXX, (3) two P/M 2XXX alloys, and (4) two different aluminum-based metal matrix composites (MMC). The I/M alloys were targeted for a Mach 2.0 aircraft and the P/M and MMC alloys were targeted for a Mach 2.4 aircraft. Design studies were conducted using several different concepts including skin/stiffener (baseline), honeycomb sandwich, integrally stiffened and hybrid adaptations (conventionally stiffened thin-sandwich skins). Alloy development included fundamental studies of coarsening behavior, the effect of stress on nucleation and growth of precipitates, and fracture toughness as a function of temperature were an integral part of this program. The details of all phases of the research are described in this final report.

  19. The influence of chemical composition on the properties and structure Al-Si-Cu(Mg) alloys

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kaczorowski; A. Krzyńska

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical properties of different chemical composition AlSiCuMg type cast alloys after precipitation hardening are presented. The aim of the study was to find out how much the changes in chemistry of aluminum cast alloys permissible by EN-PN standards may influence the mechanical properties of these alloys. Eight AlSi5Cu3(Mg) type cast alloys of different content alloying elements were selected for the study. The specimens cut form test castings were subjected to precipitation hardening ...

  20. Structure and electrochemical hydrogen storage properties of Ti2Ni alloy synthesized by ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosni, B.; Li, X.; Khaldi, C.; ElKedim, O.; Lamloumi, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The Ti 2 Ni alloy activation requires only one cycle of charge and discharge, regardless of the temperature. • By increasing the temperature the capacity loss, undergoes an increase and it is more pronounced for the 60 °C. • A good correlation is found between the evolutions of the different electrochemical parameters according to the temperature. - Abstract: The structure and the electrochemical hydrogen storage properties of amorphous Ti 2 Ni alloy synthesized by ball milling and used as an anode in nickel–metal hydride batteries were studied. Nominal Ti 2 Ni was synthesized under argon atmosphere at room temperature using a planetary high-energy ball mill. The structural and morphological characterization of the amorphous Ti 2 Ni alloy is carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical characterization of the Ti 2 Ni electrodes is carried out by the galvanostatic charging and discharging, the constant potential discharge, the open circuit potential and the potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The Ti 2 Ni alloy activation requires only one cycle of charge and discharge, regardless of the temperature. The electrochemical discharge capacity of the Ti 2 Ni alloy, during the first eight cycles, and at a temperature of 30 °C, remained practically unchanged and a good held cycling is observed. By increasing the temperature, the electrochemical discharge capacity loss after eight cycles undergoes an increase and it is more pronounced for the temperature 60 °C. At 30 °C, the anodic corrosion current density is 1 mA cm −2 and then it undergoes a rapid drop, remaining substantially constant (0.06 mA cm −2 ) in the range 40–60 °C, before undergoing a slight increase to 70 °C (0.3 mA cm −2 ). This variation is in good agreement with the maximum electrochemical discharge capacity values found for the different temperatures. By increasing the