WorldWideScience

Sample records for monolithic integrated switches

  1. High-performance hybrid complementary logic inverter through monolithic integration of a MEMS switch and an oxide TFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong-Ha; Ahn, Sang-Joon Kenny; Kim, Min-Wu; Lee, Jeong-Oen; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Pi, Jae-Eun; Ko, Seung-Deok; Choi, Kwang-Wook; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Yoon, Jun-Bo

    2015-03-25

    A hybrid complementary logic inverter consisting of a microelectromechanical system switch as a promising alternative for the p-type oxide thin film transistor (TFT) and an n-type oxide TFT is presented for ultralow power integrated circuits. These heterogeneous microdevices are monolithically integrated. The resulting logic device shows a distinctive voltage transfer characteristic curve, very low static leakage, zero-short circuit current, and exceedingly high voltage gain. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Large current MOSFET on photonic silicon-on-insulator wafers and its monolithic integration with a thermo-optic 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, G W; Matsukawa, T; Chiba, T; Tadokoro, H; Yanagihara, M; Ohno, M; Kawashima, H; Kuwatsuka, H; Igarashi, Y; Masahara, M; Ishikawa, H

    2013-03-25

    n-channel body-tied partially depleted metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) were fabricated for large current applications on a silicon-on-insulator wafer with photonics-oriented specifications. The MOSFET can drive an electrical current as large as 20 mA. We monolithically integrated this MOSFET with a 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical switch having thermo-optic phase shifters. The static and dynamic performances of the integrated device are experimentally evaluated.

  3. CMOS-NEMS Copper Switches Monolithically Integrated Using a 65 nm CMOS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Muñoz-Gamarra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates the feasibility to obtain copper nanoelectromechanical (NEMS relays using a commercial complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS technology (ST 65 nm following an intra CMOS-MEMS approach. We report experimental demonstration of contact-mode nano-electromechanical switches obtaining low operating voltage (5.5 V, good ION/IOFF (103 ratio, abrupt subthreshold swing (4.3 mV/decade and minimum dimensions (3.50 μm × 100 nm × 180 nm, and gap of 100 nm. With these dimensions, the operable Cell area of the switch will be 3.5 μm (length × 0.2 μm (100 nm width + 100 nm gap = 0.7 μm2 which is the smallest reported one using a top-down fabrication approach.

  4. All-optical SR flip-flop based on SOA-MZI switches monolithically integrated on a generic InP platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitris, St.; Vagionas, Ch.; Kanellos, G. T.; Kisacik, R.; Tekin, T.; Broeke, R.; Pleros, N.

    2016-03-01

    At the dawning of the exaflop era, High Performance Computers are foreseen to exploit integrated all-optical elements, to overcome the speed limitations imposed by electronic counterparts. Drawing from the well-known Memory Wall limitation, imposing a performance gap between processor and memory speeds, research has focused on developing ultra-fast latching devices and all-optical memory elements capable of delivering buffering and switching functionalities at unprecedented bit-rates. Following the master-slave configuration of electronic Flip-Flops, coupled SOA-MZI based switches have been theoretically investigated to exceed 40 Gb/s operation, provided a short coupling waveguide. However, this flip-flop architecture has been only hybridly integrated with silica-on-silicon integration technology exhibiting a total footprint of 45x12 mm2 and intra-Flip-Flop coupling waveguide of 2.5cm, limited at 5 Gb/s operation. Monolithic integration offers the possibility to fabricate multiple active and passive photonic components on a single chip at a close proximity towards, bearing promises for fast all-optical memories. Here, we present for the first time a monolithically integrated all-optical SR Flip-Flop with coupled master-slave SOA-MZI switches. The photonic chip is integrated on a 6x2 mm2 die as a part of a multi-project wafer run using library based components of a generic InP platform, fiber-pigtailed and fully packaged on a temperature controlled ceramic submount module with electrical contacts. The intra Flip-Flop coupling waveguide is 5 mm long, reducing the total footprint by two orders of magnitude. Successful flip flop functionality is evaluated at 10 Gb/s with clear open eye diagram, achieving error free operation with a power penalty of 4dB.

  5. Monolithic Integrated Ceramic Waveguide Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, IC; Sandhu, MY

    2014-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled TEM filters with the same unloaded Q-Factor. Designs for both chebyshev and asymmetric generalized chebyshev filter are presented, with experimental results for an 1800 MHz chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  6. CMOS integrated switching power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Villar-Pique, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    This book describes the structured design and optimization of efficient, energy processing integrated circuits. The approach is multidisciplinary, covering the monolithic integration of IC design techniques, power electronics and control theory. In particular, this book enables readers to conceive, synthesize, design and implement integrated circuits with high-density high-efficiency on-chip switching power regulators. Topics covered encompass the structured design of the on-chip power supply, efficiency optimization, IC-compatible power inductors and capacitors, power MOSFET switches and effi

  7. An absorptive single-pole four-throw switch using multiple-contact MEMS switches and its application to a monolithic millimeter-wave beam-forming network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sanghyo; Kim, Jong-Man; Kim, Yong-Kweon; Kwon, Youngwoo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new absorptive single-pole four-throw (SP4T) switch based on multiple-contact switching is proposed and integrated with a Butler matrix to demonstrate a monolithic beam-forming network at millimeter waves (mm waves). In order to simplify the switching driving circuit and reduce the number of unit switches in an absorptive SP4T switch, the individual switches were replaced with long-span multiple-contact switches using stress-free single-crystalline-silicon MEMS technology. This approach improves the mechanical stability as well as the manufacturing yield, thereby allowing successful integration into a monolithic beam former. The fabricated absorptive SP4T MEMS switch shows insertion loss less than 1.3 dB, return losses better than 11 dB at 30 GHz and wideband isolation performance higher than 39 dB from 20 to 40 GHz. The absorptive SP4T MEMS switch is integrated with a 4 × 4 Butler matrix on a single chip to implement a monolithic beam-forming network, directing beam into four distinct angles. Array factors from the measured data show that the proposed absorptive SPnT MEMS switch can be effectively used for high-performance mm-wave beam-switching systems. This work corresponds to the first demonstration of a monolithic beam-forming network using switched beams

  8. Monolithically integrated 8-channel WDM reflective modulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stopinski, S.T.; Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R.; Smit, M.K.; Leijtens, X.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the design and characterization of a monolithically integrated photonic circuit acting as a reflective modulator for eight WDM channels is presented. The chip was designed and fabricated in a generic integration technology

  9. Package Holds Five Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysoor, Narayan R.; Decker, D. Richard; Olson, Hilding M.

    1996-01-01

    Packages protect and hold monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) chips while providing dc and radio-frequency (RF) electrical connections for chips undergoing development. Required to be compact, lightweight, and rugged. Designed to minimize undesired resonances, reflections, losses, and impedance mismatches.

  10. A monolithic integrated photonic microwave filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandiño, Javier S.; Muñoz, Pascual; Doménech, David; Capmany, José

    2017-02-01

    Meeting the increasing demand for capacity in wireless networks requires the harnessing of higher regions in the radiofrequency spectrum, reducing cell size, as well as more compact, agile and power-efficient base stations that are capable of smoothly interfacing the radio and fibre segments. Fully functional microwave photonic chips are promising candidates in attempts to meet these goals. In recent years, many integrated microwave photonic chips have been reported in different technologies. To the best of our knowledge, none has monolithically integrated all the main active and passive optoelectronic components. Here, we report the first demonstration of a tunable microwave photonics filter that is monolithically integrated into an indium phosphide chip. The reconfigurable radiofrequency photonic filter includes all the necessary elements (for example, lasers, modulators and photodetectors), and its response can be tuned by means of control electric currents. This is an important step in demonstrating the feasibility of integrated and programmable microwave photonic processors.

  11. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit with integral array antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, R.J.; Munson, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A monolithic microwave integrated circuit including an integral array antenna. The system includes radiating elements, feed network, phasing network, active and/or passive semiconductor devices, digital logic interface circuits and a microcomputer controller simultaneously incorporated on a single substrate by means of a controlled fabrication process sequence

  12. An integrated circuit switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, E. L.

    1969-01-01

    Multi-chip integrated circuit switch consists of a GaAs photon-emitting diode in close proximity with S1 phototransistor. A high current gain is obtained when the transistor has a high forward common-emitter current gain.

  13. Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) technology for space communications applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Denis J.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Future communications satellites are likely to use gallium arsenide (GaAs) monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) technology in most, if not all, communications payload subsystems. Multiple-scanning-beam antenna systems are expected to use GaAs MMIC's to increase functional capability, to reduce volume, weight, and cost, and to greatly improve system reliability. RF and IF matrix switch technology based on GaAs MMIC's is also being developed for these reasons. MMIC technology, including gigabit-rate GaAs digital integrated circuits, offers substantial advantages in power consumption and weight over silicon technologies for high-throughput, on-board baseband processor systems. For the more distant future pseudomorphic indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) and other advanced III-V materials offer the possibility of MMIC subsystems well up into the millimeter wavelength region. All of these technology elements are in NASA's MMIC program. Their status is reviewed.

  14. Monolithically Integrated Flexible Black Phosphorus Complementary Inverter Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanda; Ang, Kah-Wee

    2017-07-25

    Two-dimensional (2D) inverters are a fundamental building block for flexible logic circuits which have previously been realized by heterogeneously wiring transistors with two discrete channel materials. Here, we demonstrate a monolithically integrated complementary inverter made using a homogeneous black phosphorus (BP) nanosheet on flexible substrates. The digital logic inverter circuit is demonstrated via effective threshold voltage tuning within a single BP material, which offers both electron and hole dominated conducting channels with nearly symmetric pinch-off and current saturation. Controllable electron concentration is achieved by accurately modulating the aluminum (Al) donor doping, which realizes BP n-FET with a room-temperature on/off ratio >10 3 . Simultaneously, work function engineering is employed to obtain a low Schottky barrier contact electrode that facilities hole injection, thus enhancing the current density of the BP p-FET by 9.4 times. The flexible inverter circuit shows a clear digital logic voltage inversion operation along with a larger-than-unity direct current voltage gain, while exhibits alternating current dynamic signal switching at a record high frequency up to 100 kHz and remarkable electrical stability upon mechanical bending with a radii as small as 4 mm. Our study demonstrates a practical monolithic integration strategy for achieving functional logic circuits on one material platform, paving the way for future high-density flexible electronic applications.

  15. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit water vapor radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukamto, L. M.; Cooley, T. W.; Janssen, M. A.; Parks, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    A proof of concept Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) is under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). WVR's are used to remotely sense water vapor and cloud liquid water in the atmosphere and are valuable for meteorological applications as well as for determination of signal path delays due to water vapor in the atmosphere. The high cost and large size of existing WVR instruments motivate the development of miniature MMIC WVR's, which have great potential for low cost mass production. The miniaturization of WVR components allows large scale deployment of WVR's for Earth environment and meteorological applications. Small WVR's can also result in improved thermal stability, resulting in improved calibration stability. Described here is the design and fabrication of a 31.4 GHz MMIC radiometer as one channel of a thermally stable WVR as a means of assessing MMIC technology feasibility.

  16. Microwaves integrated circuits: hybrids and monolithics - fabrication technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha Pinto, J.K. da

    1983-01-01

    Several types of microwave integrated circuits are presented together with comments about technologies and fabrication processes; advantages and disadvantages in their utilization are analysed. Basic structures, propagation modes, materials used and major steps in the construction of hybrid thin film and monolithic microwave integrated circuits are described. Important technological applications are revised and main activities of the microelectronics lab. of the University of Sao Paulo (Brazil) in the field of hybrid and monolithic microwave integrated circuits are summarized. (C.L.B.) [pt

  17. MEMS based monolithic Phased array using 3-bit Switched-line Phase Shifter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karmakr

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article details the design of an electronically scanning phased array antenna with proposed fabrication process steps. Structure is based upon RF micro-electromechanical system (MEMS technology. Capacitive type shunt switches have been implemented here to cater high frequency operation. The architecture, which is deigned at 30 GHz, consists of 3-bit (11.25º, 22.5º and 45º integrated Switched-line phase shifter and a linearly polarized microstrip patch antenna. Detailed design tricks of the Ka-band phase shifter is outlined here. The whole design is targeted for future monolithic integration. So, the substrate of choice is High Resistive Silicon (ρ > 8kΩ-cm, tan δ =0.01 and ϵr =11.8. The overall circuit occupies an cross-sectional area of 20 × 5 mm2. The simulated results show that the phase shifter can provide nearly 11.25º/22.5º/45º phase shifts and their combinations at the expense of 1dB average insertion loss at 30 GHz for eight combinations. Practical fabrication process flow using surface micromachining is proposed here. Critical dimensions of the phased array structure is governed by the deign rules of the standard CMOS/MEMS foundry.

  18. Monolithic optoelectronic integrated broadband optical receiver with graphene photodetectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chuantong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical receivers with potentially high operation bandwidth and low cost have received considerable interest due to rapidly growing data traffic and potential Tb/s optical interconnect requirements. Experimental realization of 65 GHz optical signal detection and 262 GHz intrinsic operation speed reveals the significance role of graphene photodetectors (PDs in optical interconnect domains. In this work, a novel complementary metal oxide semiconductor post-backend process has been developed for integrating graphene PDs onto silicon integrated circuit chips. A prototype monolithic optoelectronic integrated optical receiver has been successfully demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, this is a firstly reported broadband optical receiver benefiting from natural broadband light absorption features of graphene material. This work is a perfect exhibition of the concept of monolithic optoelectronic integration and will pave way to monolithically integrated graphene optoelectronic devices with silicon ICs for three-dimensional optoelectronic integrated circuit chips.

  19. Monolithic optoelectronic integrated broadband optical receiver with graphene photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chuantong; Huang, Beiju; Mao, Xurui; Zhang, Zanyun; Zhang, Zan; Geng, Zhaoxin; Xue, Ping; Chen, Hongda

    2017-07-01

    Optical receivers with potentially high operation bandwidth and low cost have received considerable interest due to rapidly growing data traffic and potential Tb/s optical interconnect requirements. Experimental realization of 65 GHz optical signal detection and 262 GHz intrinsic operation speed reveals the significance role of graphene photodetectors (PDs) in optical interconnect domains. In this work, a novel complementary metal oxide semiconductor post-backend process has been developed for integrating graphene PDs onto silicon integrated circuit chips. A prototype monolithic optoelectronic integrated optical receiver has been successfully demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, this is a firstly reported broadband optical receiver benefiting from natural broadband light absorption features of graphene material. This work is a perfect exhibition of the concept of monolithic optoelectronic integration and will pave way to monolithically integrated graphene optoelectronic devices with silicon ICs for three-dimensional optoelectronic integrated circuit chips.

  20. A bit-rate flexible and power efficient all-optical demultiplexer realised by monolithically integrated Michelson interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaa, Michael; Mikkelsen, Benny; Jepsen, Kim Stokholm

    1996-01-01

    A novel bit-rate flexible and very power efficient all-optical demultiplexer using differential optical control of a monolithically integrated Michelson interferometer with MQW SOAs is demonstrated at 40 to 10 Gbit/s. Gain switched DFB lasers provide ultra stable data and control signals....

  1. Integration trends in monolithic power ICs: Application and technology challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, M.; Bergveld, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights the general trend towards further monolithic integration in power applications by enabling power management and interfacing solutions in advanced CMOS nodes. The need to combine high-density digital circuits, power-management circuits, and robust interfaces in a single

  2. A Monolithically-Integrated μGC Chemical Sensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Copic

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography (GC is used for organic and inorganic gas detection with a range of applications including screening for chemical warfare agents (CWA, breath analysis for diagnostics or law enforcement purposes, and air pollutants/indoor air quality monitoring of homes and commercial buildings. A field-portable, light weight, low power, rapid response, micro-gas chromatography (μGC system is essential for such applications. We describe the design, fabrication and packaging of mGC on monolithically-integrated Si dies, comprised of a preconcentrator (PC, μGC column, detector and coatings for each of these components. An important feature of our system is that the same mechanical micro resonator design is used for the PC and detector. We demonstrate system performance by detecting four different CWA simulants within 2 min. We present theoretical analyses for cost/power comparisons of monolithic versus hybrid μGC systems. We discuss thermal isolation in monolithic systems to improve overall performance. Our monolithically-integrated μGC, relative to its hybrid cousin, will afford equal or slightly lower cost, a footprint that is 1/2 to 1/3 the size and an improved resolution of 4 to 25%.

  3. Monolithic Chip-Integrated Absorption Spectrometer from 3-5 microns, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A monolithically integrated indium phosphide (InP) to silicon-on-sapphire (SoS) platform is being proposed for a monolithic portable or handheld spectrometer between...

  4. Thermal measurement a requirement for monolithic microwave integrated circuit design

    OpenAIRE

    Hopper, Richard; Oxley, C. H.

    2008-01-01

    The thermal management of structures such as Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMICs) is important, given increased circuit packing densities and RF output powers. The paper will describe the IR measurement technology necessary to obtain accurate temperature profiles on the surface of semiconductor devices. The measurement procedure will be explained, including the device mounting arrangement and emissivity correction technique. The paper will show how the measurement technique has be...

  5. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits: Interconnections and packaging considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Downey, A. N.; Ponchak, G. E.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Anzic, G.; Connolly, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's) above 18 GHz were developed because of important potential system benefits in cost reliability, reproducibility, and control of circuit parameters. The importance of interconnection and packaging techniques that do not compromise these MMIC virtues is emphasized. Currently available microwave transmission media are evaluated to determine their suitability for MMIC interconnections. An antipodal finline type of microstrip waveguide transition's performance is presented. Packaging requirements for MMIC's are discussed for thermal, mechanical, and electrical parameters for optimum desired performance.

  6. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology for advanced space communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1988-01-01

    Future Space Communications subsystems will utilize GaAs Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMIC's) to reduce volume, weight, and cost and to enhance system reliability. Recent advances in GaAs MMIC technology have led to high-performance devices which show promise for insertion into these next generation systems. The status and development of a number of these devices operating from Ku through Ka band will be discussed along with anticipated potential applications.

  7. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits: Interconnections and packaging considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Downey, A. N.; Ponchak, G. E.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Anzic, G.; Connolly, D. J.

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's) above 18 GHz were developed because of important potential system benefits in cost reliability, reproducibility, and control of circuit parameters. The importance of interconnection and packaging techniques that do not compromise these MMIC virtues is emphasized. Currently available microwave transmission media are evaluated to determine their suitability for MMIC interconnections. An antipodal finline type of microstrip waveguide transition's performance is presented. Packaging requirements for MMIC's are discussed for thermal, mechanical, and electrical parameters for optimum desired performance.

  8. Development of the multiwavelength monolithic integrated fiber optics terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, C. R.; Bryan, D. A.; Powers, J. K.; Rice, R. R.; Nettle, V. H.; Dalke, E. A.; Reed, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Multiwavelength Monolithic Integrated Fiber Optic Terminal (MMIFOT) for the NASA Johnson Space Center. The program objective is to utilize guided wave optical technology to develop wavelength-multiplexing and -demultiplexing units, using a single mode optical fiber for transmission between terminals. Intensity modulated injection laser diodes, chirped diffraction gratings and thin film lenses are used to achieve the wavelength-multiplexing and -demultiplexing. The video and audio data transmission test of an integrated optical unit with a Luneburg collimation lens, waveguide diffraction grating and step index condensing lens is described.

  9. Monolithically Integrated Ge-on-Si Active Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Monolithically integrated, active photonic devices on Si are key components in Si-based large-scale electronic-photonic integration for future generations of high-performance, low-power computation and communication systems. Ge has become an interesting candidate for active photonic devices in Si photonics due to its pseudo-direct gap behavior and compatibility with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS processing. In this paper, we present a review of the recent progress in Ge-on-Si active photonics materials and devices for photon detection, modulation, and generation. We first discuss the band engineering of Ge using tensile strain, n-type doping, Sn alloying, and separate confinement of Γ vs. L electrons in quantum well (QW structures to transform the material towards a direct band gap semiconductor for enhancing optoelectronic properties. We then give a brief overview of epitaxial Ge-on-Si materials growth, followed by a summary of recent investigations towards low-temperature, direct growth of high crystallinity Ge and GeSn alloys on dielectric layers for 3D photonic integration. Finally, we review the most recent studies on waveguide-integrated Ge-on-Si photodetectors (PDs, electroabsorption modulators (EAMs, and laser diodes (LDs, and suggest possible future research directions for large-scale monolithic electronic-photonic integrated circuits on a Si platform.

  10. Heterogeneous Monolithic Integration of Single-Crystal Organic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Sun; Baek, Jangmi; Park, Yoonkyung; Lee, Lynn; Hyon, Jinho; Koo Lee, Yong-Eun; Shrestha, Nabeen K; Kang, Youngjong; Sung, Myung Mo

    2017-02-01

    Manufacturing high-performance organic electronic circuits requires the effective heterogeneous integration of different nanoscale organic materials with uniform morphology and high crystallinity in a desired arrangement. In particular, the development of high-performance organic electronic and optoelectronic devices relies on high-quality single crystals that show optimal intrinsic charge-transport properties and electrical performance. Moreover, the heterogeneous integration of organic materials on a single substrate in a monolithic way is highly demanded for the production of fundamental organic electronic components as well as complex integrated circuits. Many of the various methods that have been designed to pattern multiple heterogeneous organic materials on a substrate and the heterogeneous integration of organic single crystals with their crystal growth are described here. Critical issues that have been encountered in the development of high-performance organic integrated electronics are also addressed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Temperature Characteristics of Monolithically Integrated Wavelength-Selectable Light Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Liang-Shun; Zhu Hong-Liang; Zhang Can; Ma Li; Liang Song; Wang Wei

    2013-01-01

    The temperature characteristics of monolithically integrated wavelength-selectable light sources are experimentally investigated. The wavelength-selectable light sources consist of four distributed feedback (DFB) lasers, a multimode interferometer coupler, and a semiconductor optical amplifier. The oscillating wavelength of the DFB laser could be modulated by adjusting the device operating temperature. A wavelength range covering over 8.0nm is obtained with stable single-mode operation by selecting the appropriate laser and chip temperature. The thermal crosstalk caused by the lateral heat spreading between lasers operating simultaneously is evaluated by oscillating-wavelength shift. The thermal crosstalk approximately decreases exponentially as the increasing distance between lasers

  12. Advances in gallium arsenide monolithic microwave integrated-circuit technology for space communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Connolly, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    Future communications satellites are likely to use gallium arsenide (GaAs) monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) technology in most, if not all, communications payload subsystems. Multiple-scanning-beam antenna systems are expected to use GaAs MMIC's to increase functional capability, to reduce volume, weight, and cost, and to greatly improve system reliability. RF and IF matrix switch technology based on GaAs MMIC's is also being developed for these reasons. MMIC technology, including gigabit-rate GaAs digital integrated circuits, offers substantial advantages in power consumption and weight over silicon technologies for high-throughput, on-board baseband processor systems. In this paper, current developments in GaAs MMIC technology are described, and the status and prospects of the technology are assessed.

  13. Monolithically integrated Helmholtz coils by 3-dimensional printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Longguang [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B., E-mail: yellen@duke.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, P.O. Box 90300, Hudson Hall, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2014-06-23

    3D printing technology is of great interest for the monolithic fabrication of integrated systems; however, it is a challenge to introduce metallic components into 3D printed molds to enable broader device functionality. Here, we develop a technique for constructing a multi-axial Helmholtz coil by injecting a eutectic liquid metal Gallium Indium alloy (EGaIn) into helically shaped orthogonal cavities constructed in a 3D printed block. The tri-axial solenoids each carry up to 3.6 A of electrical current and produce magnetic field up to 70 G. Within the central section of the coil, the field variation is less than 1% and is in agreement with theory. The flow rates and critical pressures required to fill the 3D cavities with liquid metal also agree with theoretical predictions and provide scaling trends for filling the 3D printed parts. These monolithically integrated solenoids may find future applications in electronic cell culture platforms, atomic traps, and miniaturized chemical analysis systems based on nuclear magnetic resonance.

  14. Monolithically integrated Helmholtz coils by 3-dimensional printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Longguang; Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    2014-01-01

    3D printing technology is of great interest for the monolithic fabrication of integrated systems; however, it is a challenge to introduce metallic components into 3D printed molds to enable broader device functionality. Here, we develop a technique for constructing a multi-axial Helmholtz coil by injecting a eutectic liquid metal Gallium Indium alloy (EGaIn) into helically shaped orthogonal cavities constructed in a 3D printed block. The tri-axial solenoids each carry up to 3.6 A of electrical current and produce magnetic field up to 70 G. Within the central section of the coil, the field variation is less than 1% and is in agreement with theory. The flow rates and critical pressures required to fill the 3D cavities with liquid metal also agree with theoretical predictions and provide scaling trends for filling the 3D printed parts. These monolithically integrated solenoids may find future applications in electronic cell culture platforms, atomic traps, and miniaturized chemical analysis systems based on nuclear magnetic resonance.

  15. Monolithic integration of microfluidic channels and semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cran-McGreehin, Simon J.; Dholakia, Kishan; Krauss, Thomas F.

    2006-08-01

    We present a fabrication method for the monolithic integration of microfluidic channels into semiconductor laser material. Lasers are designed to couple directly into the microfluidic channel, allowing submerged particles pass through the output beams of the lasers. The interaction between particles in the channel and the lasers, operated in either forward or reverse bias, allows for particle detection, and the optical forces can be used to trap and move particles. Both interrogation and manipulation are made more amenable for lab-on-a-chip applications through monolithic integration. The devices are very small, they require no external optical components, have perfect intrinsic alignment, and can be created with virtually any planar configuration of lasers in order to perform a variety of tasks. Their operation requires no optical expertise and only low electrical power, thus making them suitable for computer interfacing and automation. Insulating the pn junctions from the fluid is the key challenge, which is overcome by using photo-definable SU8-2000 polymer.

  16. Monolithic, High-Speed Fiber-Optic Switching Array for Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckow, Will; Roberts, Tony; Switzer, Gregg; Terwilliger, Chelle

    2011-01-01

    Current fiber switch technologies use mechanical means to redirect light beams, resulting in slow switch time, as well as poor reliability due to moving parts wearing out quickly at high speeds. A non-mechanical ability to switch laser output into one of multiple fibers within a fiber array can provide significant power, weight, and costs savings to an all-fiber system. This invention uses an array of crystals that act as miniature prisms to redirect light as an electric voltage changes the prism s properties. At the heart of the electro-optic fiber-optic switch is an electro- optic crystal patterned with tiny prisms that can deflect the beam from the input fiber into any one of the receiving fibers arranged in a linear array when a voltage is applied across the crystal. Prism boundaries are defined by a net dipole moment in the crystal lattice that has been poled opposite to the surrounding lattice fabricated using patterned, removable microelectrodes. When a voltage is applied across the crystal, the resulting electric field changes the index of refraction within the prism boundaries relative to the surrounding substrate, causing light to deflect slightly according to Snell s Law. There are several materials that can host the necessary monolithic poled pattern (including, but not limited to, SLT, KTP, LiNbO3, and Mg:LiNbO3). Be cause this is a solid-state system without moving parts, it is very fast, and does not wear down easily. This invention is applicable to all fiber networks, as well as industries that use such networks. The unit comes in a compact package, can handle both low and high voltages, and has a high reliability (100,000 hours without maintenance).

  17. Monolithic integration of SOI waveguide photodetectors and transimpedance amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuxia; Tarr, N. Garry; Ye, Winnie N.

    2018-02-01

    In the absence of commercial foundry technologies offering silicon-on-insulator (SOI) photonics combined with Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) transistors, monolithic integration of conventional electronics with SOI photonics is difficult. Here we explore the implementation of lateral bipolar junction transistors (LBJTs) and Junction Field Effect Transistors (JFETs) in a commercial SOI photonics technology lacking MOS devices but offering a variety of n- and p-type ion implants intended to provide waveguide modulators and photodetectors. The fabrication makes use of the commercial Institute of Microelectronics (IME) SOI photonics technology. Based on knowledge of device doping and geometry, simple compact LBJT and JFET device models are developed. These models are then used to design basic transimpedance amplifiers integrated with optical waveguides. The devices' experimental current-voltage characteristics results are reported.

  18. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit devices for active array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittra, R.

    1984-01-01

    Two different aspects of active antenna array design were investigated. The transition between monolithic microwave integrated circuits and rectangular waveguides was studied along with crosstalk in multiconductor transmission lines. The boundary value problem associated with a discontinuity in a microstrip line is formulated. This entailed, as a first step, the derivation of the propagating as well as evanescent modes of a microstrip line. The solution is derived to a simple discontinuity problem: change in width of the center strip. As for the multiconductor transmission line problem. A computer algorithm was developed for computing the crosstalk noise from the signal to the sense lines. The computation is based on the assumption that these lines are terminated in passive loads.

  19. Monolithic integration of a micromachined piezoresistive flow sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dan; Zhao, Tao; Yang, Zhenchuan; Zhang, Dacheng

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a monolithic integrated piezoresistive flow sensor is presented, which was fabricated with an intermediate CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) MEMS (micro electro mechanical system) process compatible with integrated pressure sensors. Four symmetrically arranged silicon diaphragms with piezoresistors on them were used to sense the drag force induced by the input gas flow. A signal conditioning CMOS circuit with a temperature compensation module was designed and fabricated simultaneously on the same chip with an increase of the total chip area by only 35%. An extra step of boron implantation and annealing was inserted into the standard CMOS process to form the piezoresistors. KOH anisotropic etching from the backside and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) from the front side were combined to realize the silicon diaphragms. The integrated flow sensor was packaged and tested. The testing results indicated that the addition of piezoresistor formation and structure releasing did not significantly change any of the circuitry characteristics. The measured sensor output has a quadratic relation with the input flow rate of the fluid as predicted. The tested resolution of the sensor is less than 0.1 L min −1 with a measurement range of 0.1–5 L min −1 and the sensitivity is better than 40 mV per (L min −1 ) with a measurement range of 4–5 L min −1 . The measured noise floor of the sensor is 21.7 µV rtHz −1 .

  20. A Differential Monolithically Integrated Inductive Linear Displacement Measurement Microsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Podhraški

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An inductive linear displacement measurement microsystem realized as a monolithic Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC is presented. The system comprises integrated microtransformers as sensing elements, and analog front-end electronics for signal processing and demodulation, both jointly fabricated in a conventional commercially available four-metal 350-nm CMOS process. The key novelty of the presented system is its full integration, straightforward fabrication, and ease of application, requiring no external light or magnetic field source. Such systems therefore have the possibility of substituting certain conventional position encoder types. The microtransformers are excited by an AC signal in MHz range. The displacement information is modulated into the AC signal by a metal grating scale placed over the microsystem, employing a differential measurement principle. Homodyne mixing is used for the demodulation of the scale displacement information, returned by the ASIC as a DC signal in two quadrature channels allowing the determination of linear position of the target scale. The microsystem design, simulations, and characterization are presented. Various system operating conditions such as frequency, phase, target scale material and distance have been experimentally evaluated. The best results have been achieved at 4 MHz, demonstrating a linear resolution of 20 µm with steel and copper scale, having respective sensitivities of 0.71 V/mm and 0.99 V/mm.

  1. Monolithic integration of nanoscale tensile specimens and MEMS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Kysar, Jeffrey W

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale materials often have stochastic material properties due to a random distribution of material defects and an insufficient number of defects to ensure a consistent average mechanical response. Current methods to measure the mechanical properties employ MEMS-based actuators. The nanoscale specimens are typically mounted manually onto the load platform, so the boundary conditions have random variations, complicating the experimental measurement of the intrinsic stochasticity of the material properties. Here we show methods for monolithic integration of a nanoscale specimen co-fabricated with the loading platform. The nanoscale specimen is gold with dimensions of ∼40 nm thickness, 350 ± 50 nm width, and 7 μm length and the loading platform is an interdigitated electrode electrostatic actuator. The experiment is performed in a scanning electron microscope and digital image correlation is employed to measure displacements to determine stress and strain. The ultimate tensile strength of the nanocrystalline nanoscale specimen approaches 1 GPa, consistent with measurements made by other nanometer scale sample characterization methods on other material samples at the nanometer scale, as well as gold samples at the nanometer scale. The batch-compatible microfabrication method can be used to create nominally identical nanoscale specimens and boundary conditions for a broad range of materials. (paper)

  2. Tutorial: Integrated-photonic switching structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soref, Richard

    2018-02-01

    Recent developments in waveguided 2 × 2 and N × M photonic switches are reviewed, including both broadband and narrowband resonant devices for the Si, InP, and AlN platforms. Practical actuation of switches by electro-optical and thermo-optical techniques is discussed. Present datacom-and-computing applications are reviewed, and potential applications are proposed for chip-scale photonic and optoelectronic integrated switching networks. Potential is found in the reconfigurable, programmable "mesh" switches that enable a promising group of applications in new areas beyond those in data centers and cloud servers. Many important matrix switches use gated semiconductor optical amplifiers. The family of broadband, directional-coupler 2 × 2 switches featuring two or three side-coupled waveguides deserves future experimentation, including devices that employ phase-change materials. The newer 2 × 2 resonant switches include standing-wave resonators, different from the micro-ring traveling-wave resonators. The resonant devices comprise nanobeam interferometers, complex-Bragg interferometers, and asymmetric contra-directional couplers. Although the fast, resonant devices offer ultralow switching energy, ˜1 fJ/bit, they have limitations. They require several trade-offs when deployed, but they do have practical application.

  3. Noise analysis of switched integrator preamplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hongbo; Li Yulan; Zhu Weibin

    2004-01-01

    The main noise sources of switched integrator preamplifiers are discussed, and their noise performance are given combined PSpice simulation and experiments on them. Then, some practical methods on how to reduce noise of preamplifiers in two different integrator modes are provided. (authors)

  4. Quantum gate for Q switching in monolithic photonic-band-gap cavities containing two-level atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greentree, Andrew D.; Prawer, Steven; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.; Salzman, J.

    2006-01-01

    Photonic-band-gap cavities are prime solid-state systems to investigate light-matter interactions in the strong coupling regime. However, as the cavity is defined by the geometry of the periodic dielectric pattern, cavity control in a monolithic structure can be problematic. Thus, either the state coherence is limited by the read-out channel, or in a high-Q cavity, it is nearly decoupled from the external world, making measurement of the state extremely challenging. We present here a method for ameliorating these difficulties by using a coupled cavity arrangement, where one cavity acts as a switch for the other cavity, tuned by control of the atomic transition

  5. A multiply-add engine with monolithically integrated 3D memristor crossbar/CMOS hybrid circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, B; Lastras-Montaño, M A; Adam, G; Prezioso, M; Hoskins, B; Payvand, M; Madhavan, A; Ghofrani, A; Theogarajan, L; Cheng, K-T; Strukov, D B

    2017-02-14

    Silicon (Si) based complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has been the driving force of the information-technology revolution. However, scaling of CMOS technology as per Moore's law has reached a serious bottleneck. Among the emerging technologies memristive devices can be promising for both memory as well as computing applications. Hybrid CMOS/memristor circuits with CMOL (CMOS + "Molecular") architecture have been proposed to combine the extremely high density of the memristive devices with the robustness of CMOS technology, leading to terabit-scale memory and extremely efficient computing paradigm. In this work, we demonstrate a hybrid 3D CMOL circuit with 2 layers of memristive crossbars monolithically integrated on a pre-fabricated CMOS substrate. The integrated crossbars can be fully operated through the underlying CMOS circuitry. The memristive devices in both layers exhibit analog switching behavior with controlled tunability and stable multi-level operation. We perform dot-product operations with the 2D and 3D memristive crossbars to demonstrate the applicability of such 3D CMOL hybrid circuits as a multiply-add engine. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a functional 3D CMOL hybrid circuit.

  6. Monolithic InP-based fast optical switch module for optical networks of the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xi, Chen; Regan, James; Durrant, Tim

    2015-01-01

    We summarized the development of Venture Photonics’ sub-10 ns fast optical switch which demonstrates low insertion loss, excellent crosstalk level and polarization independent switching performance.......We summarized the development of Venture Photonics’ sub-10 ns fast optical switch which demonstrates low insertion loss, excellent crosstalk level and polarization independent switching performance....

  7. A monolithically fabricated gas chromatography separation column with an integrated high sensitivity thermal conductivity detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaanta, Bradley C; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Hua

    2010-01-01

    The monolithic integration of a high sensitivity detector with a gas chromatography (GC) separation column creates many potential advantages over the discrete components of a traditional chromatography system. In miniaturized high-speed GC systems, component interconnections can cause crucial errors and loss of fidelity during detection and analysis. A monolithically integrated device would eliminate the need to create helium-tight interconnections, which are bulky and labor intensive. Additionally, batch fabrication of integrated devices that no longer require expensive and fragile detectors can decrease the cost of micro GC systems through economies of scale. We present the design, fabrication and operation of a monolithic GC separation column and detector. Our device is able to separate nitrogen, methane and carbon dioxide within 30 s. This method of device integration could be applied to the existing wealth of column geometries and chemistries designed for specialized applications.

  8. Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Phased Array Demonstrated With ACTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) arrays developed by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Air Force Rome Laboratory were demonstrated in aeronautical terminals and in mobile or fixed Earth terminals linked with NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). Four K/Ka-band experimental arrays were demonstrated between May 1994 and May 1995. Each array had GaAs MMIC devices at each radiating element for electronic beam steering and distributed power amplification. The 30-GHz transmit array used in uplinks to ACTS was developed by Lewis and Texas Instruments. The three 20-GHz receive arrays used in downlinks from ACTS were developed in cooperation with the Air Force Rome Laboratory, taking advantage of existing Air Force integrated-circuit, active-phased-array development contracts with the Boeing Company and Lockheed Martin Corporation. Four demonstrations, each related to an application of high interest to both commercial and Department of Defense organizations, were conducted. The location, type of link, and the data rate achieved for each of the applications is shown. In one demonstration-- an aeronautical terminal experiment called AERO-X--a duplex voice link between an aeronautical terminal on the Lewis Learjet and ACTS was achieved. Two others demonstrated duplex voice links (and in one case, interactive video links as well) between ACTS and an Army high-mobility, multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV, or "humvee"). In the fourth demonstration, the array was on a fixed mount and was electronically steered toward ACTS. Lewis served as project manager for all demonstrations and as overall system integrator. Lewis engineers developed the array system including a controller for open-loop tracking of ACTS during flight and HMMWV motion, as well as a laptop data display and recording system used in all demonstrations. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory supported the AERO-X program, providing elements of the ACTS Mobile Terminal. The successful

  9. Fluorescence monitoring of capillary electrophoresis separation of biomolecules with monolithically integrated optical waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongre, C.; Dekker, R.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Martinez-Vazquez, R.; Osellame, R.; Ramponi, R.; Cerullo, G.; van Weeghel, R.; Besselink, G.A.J.; van den Vlekkert, H.H.; Pollnau, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Monolithic integration of optical waveguides in a commercial lab-on-a-chip by femtosecond-laser material processing enables arbitrary 3D geometries of optical sensing structures in combination with fluidic microchannels. Integrated fluorescence monitoring of molecular separation, as applicable in

  10. Development of readout electronics for monolithic integration with diode strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosticka, B.J.; Wrede, M.; Zimmer, G.; Kemmer, J.; Hofmann, R.; Lutz, G.

    1984-03-01

    Parallel in - serial out analog readout electronics integrated with silicon strip detectors will bring a reduction of two orders of magnitude in external electronics. The readout concept and the chosen CMOS technology solve the basic problem of low noise and low power requirements. A hybrid solution is an intermediate step towards the final goal of monolithic integration of detector and electronics. (orig.)

  11. Monolithic, High-Speed Fiber-Optic Switching Array for Lidar, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed optical device is a fiber-based multi-channel switch to quickly switch a fiber-coupled laser among many possible output channels to create a fiber-based...

  12. Monolithic integration of a resonant tunneling diode and a quantum well semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grave, I.; Kan, S. C.; Griffel, G.; Wu, S. W.; Sa'Ar, A.

    1991-01-01

    A monolithic integration of a double barrier AlAs/GaAs resonant tunneling diode and a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well laser is reported. Negative differential resistance and negative differential optical response are observed at room temperature. The device displays bistable electrical and optical characteristics which are voltage controlled. Operation as a two-state optical memory is demonstrated.

  13. Wideband Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit Frequency Converters with GaAs mHEMT Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krozer, Viktor; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Djurhuus, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    We present monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) frequency converter, which can be used for up and down conversion, due to the large RF and IF port bandwidth. The MMIC converters are based on commercially available GaAs mHEMT technology and are comprised of a Gilbert mixer cell core...

  14. Label swapper device for spectral amplitude coded optical packet networks monolithically integrated on InP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz, P.; García-Olcina, R.; Habib, C.; Chen, L.R.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Vries, de T.; Robbins, D.J.; Capmany, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of an spectral amplitude coded (SAC) optical label swapper monolithically integrated on Indium Phosphide (InP) is presented. The device has a footprint of 4.8x1.5 mm2 and is able to perform label swapping operations required in

  15. Indium phosphide-based monolithically integrated PIN waveguide photodiode readout for resonant cantilever sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siwak, N. P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Laboratory for the Physical Sciences, 8050 Greenmead Drive, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Fan, X. Z.; Ghodssi, R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Kanakaraju, S.; Richardson, C. J. K. [Laboratory for the Physical Sciences, 8050 Greenmead Drive, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)

    2014-10-06

    An integrated photodiode displacement readout scheme for a microelectromechanical cantilever waveguide resonator sensing platform is presented. III-V semiconductors are used to enable the monolithic integration of passive waveguides with active optical components. This work builds upon previously demonstrated results by measuring the displacement of cantilever waveguide resonators with on-chip waveguide PIN photodiodes. The on-chip integration of the readout provides an additional 70% improvement in mass sensitivity compared to off-chip photodetector designs due to measurement stability and minimized coupling loss. In addition to increased measurement stability, reduced packaging complexity is achieved due to the simplicity of the readout design. We have fabricated cantilever waveguides with integrated photodetectors and experimentally characterized these cantilever sensors with monolithically integrated PIN photodiodes.

  16. A linear 180 nm SOI CMOS antenna switch module using integrated passive device filters for cellular applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Jie; Chen Lei; Liu Yi; Zhao Peng; Niu Xu

    2014-01-01

    A broadband monolithic linear single pole, eight throw (SP8T) switch has been fabricated in 180 nm thin film silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS technology with a quad-band GSM harmonic filter in integrated passive devices (IPD) technology, which is developed for cellular applications. The antenna switch module (ASM) features 1.2 dB insertion loss with filter on 2G bands and 0.4 dB insertion loss in 3G bands, less than −45 dB isolation and maximum −103 dB intermodulation distortion for mobile front ends by applying distributed architecture and adaptive supply voltage generator. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  17. Monolithic, High-Speed Fiber-Optic Switching Array for Lidar, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA SBIR Phase II effort will develop a 1 x 10 prototype non-mechanical fiber optic switch for use with high power lasers. The proposed optical device is a...

  18. Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits Based on GaAs Mesfet Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Inder J.

    Advanced military microwave systems are demanding increased integration, reliability, radiation hardness, compact size and lower cost when produced in large volume, whereas the microwave commercial market, including wireless communications, mandates low cost circuits. Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) technology provides an economically viable approach to meeting these needs. In this paper the design considerations for several types of MMICs and their performance status are presented. Multifunction integrated circuits that advance the MMIC technology are described, including integrated microwave/digital functions and a highly integrated transceiver at C-band.

  19. Monolithic integration of DUV-induced waveguides into plastic microfluidic chip for optical manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury Arvelo, Maria; Vannahme, Christoph; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl

    2014-01-01

    A monolithic polymer optofluidic chip for manipulation of microbeads in flow is demonstrated. On this chip, polymer waveguides induced by Deep UV lithography are integrated with microfluidic channels. The optical propagation losses of the waveguides are measured to be 0.66±0.13 dB/mm at a wavelen......A monolithic polymer optofluidic chip for manipulation of microbeads in flow is demonstrated. On this chip, polymer waveguides induced by Deep UV lithography are integrated with microfluidic channels. The optical propagation losses of the waveguides are measured to be 0.66±0.13 d......B/mm at a wavelength of λ = 808 nm. An optimized bead tracking algorithm is implemented, allowing for determination of the optical forces acting on the particles. The algorithm features a spatio-temporal mapping of coordinates for uniting partial trajectories, without increased processing time. With an external laser...

  20. A linear 180 nm SOI CMOS antenna switch module using integrated passive device filters for cellular applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Cui; Lei, Chen; Peng, Zhao; Xu, Niu; Yi, Liu

    2014-06-01

    A broadband monolithic linear single pole, eight throw (SP8T) switch has been fabricated in 180 nm thin film silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS technology with a quad-band GSM harmonic filter in integrated passive devices (IPD) technology, which is developed for cellular applications. The antenna switch module (ASM) features 1.2 dB insertion loss with filter on 2G bands and 0.4 dB insertion loss in 3G bands, less than -45 dB isolation and maximum -103 dB intermodulation distortion for mobile front ends by applying distributed architecture and adaptive supply voltage generator.

  1. Continuous terahertz-wave generation using a monolithically integrated horn antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peytavit, E.; Beck, A.; Akalin, T.; Lampin, J.-F.; Hindle, F.; Yang, C.; Mouret, G.

    2008-09-01

    A transverse electromagnetic horn antenna is monolithically integrated with a standard ultrafast interdigitated electrode photodetector on low-temperature-grown GaAs. Continuous-wave terahertz radiation is generated at frequencies up to 2 THz with a maximum power of approximately 1 μW at 780 GHz. Experimental variations in the terahertz power as function of the frequency are explained by means of electromagnetic simulations of the antenna and the photomixer vicinity.

  2. Optical displacement measurement with GaAs/AlGaAs-based monolithically integrated Michelson interferometers

    OpenAIRE

    Hofstetter, Daniel; Zappe, H. P.; Dändliker, René

    2008-01-01

    Two monolithically integrated optical displacement sensors fabricated in the GaAs/AlGaAs material system are reported. These single-chip microsystems are configured as Michelson interferometers and comprise a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser, photodetectors, phase shifters, and waveguide couplers. While the use of a single Michelson interferometer allows measurement of displacement magnitude only, a double Michelson interferometer with two interferometer signals in phase quadrature als...

  3. A 1.5 Gb/s monolithically integrated optical receiver in the standard CMOS process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Xindong; Mao Luhong; Yu Changliang; Zhang Shilin; Xie Sheng, E-mail: xxd@tju.edu.c [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A monolithically integrated optical receiver, including the photodetector, has been realized in Chartered 0.35 {mu}m EEPROM CMOS technology for 850 nm optical communication. The optical receiver consists of a differential photodetector, a differential transimpedance amplifier, three limiting amplifiers and an output circuit. The experiment results show that the receiver achieves an 875 MHz 3 dB bandwidth, and a data rate of 1.5 Gb/s is achieved at a bit-error-rate of 10{sup -9}. The chip dissipates 60 mW under a single 3.3 V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  4. A 1.5 Gb/s monolithically integrated optical receiver in the standard CMOS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Xindong; Mao Luhong; Yu Changliang; Zhang Shilin; Xie Sheng

    2009-01-01

    A monolithically integrated optical receiver, including the photodetector, has been realized in Chartered 0.35 μm EEPROM CMOS technology for 850 nm optical communication. The optical receiver consists of a differential photodetector, a differential transimpedance amplifier, three limiting amplifiers and an output circuit. The experiment results show that the receiver achieves an 875 MHz 3 dB bandwidth, and a data rate of 1.5 Gb/s is achieved at a bit-error-rate of 10 -9 . The chip dissipates 60 mW under a single 3.3 V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  5. Label swapper device for spectral amplitude coded optical packet networks monolithically integrated on InP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, P; García-Olcina, R; Habib, C; Chen, L R; Leijtens, X J M; de Vries, T; Robbins, D; Capmany, J

    2011-07-04

    In this paper the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of an spectral amplitude coded (SAC) optical label swapper monolithically integrated on Indium Phosphide (InP) is presented. The device has a footprint of 4.8x1.5 mm2 and is able to perform label swapping operations required in SAC at a speed of 155 Mbps. The device was manufactured in InP using a multiple purpose generic integration scheme. Compared to previous SAC label swapper demonstrations, using discrete component assembly, this label swapper chip operates two order of magnitudes faster.

  6. Integrated optical switch circuit operating under FPGA control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stabile, R.; Zal, M.; Williams, K.A.; Bienstman, P.; Morthier, G.; Roelkens, G.; et al., xx

    2011-01-01

    Integrated photonic circuits are enabling an abrupt step change in networking systems providing massive bandwidth and record transmission. The increasing complexity of high connectivity photonic integrated switches requires sophisticated control planes and more intimate high speed electronics. Here

  7. Monolithic integration of micromachined sensors and CMOS circuits based on SOI technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaomei; Tang Yaquan; Zhang Haitao

    2008-01-01

    This note presents a novel way to monolithically integrate micro-cantilever sensors and signal conditioning circuits by combining SOI CMOS and SOI micromachining technologies. In order to improve the sensor performance and reduce the system volume, an integrated sensor system composed of a piezoresistive cantilever array, a temperature-compensation current reference, a digitally controlled multiplexer and an instrument amplifier is designed and finally fabricated. A post-SOI CMOS process is developed to realize the integrated sensor system which is based on a standard CMOS process with one more mask to define the cantilever structure at the end of the process. Measurements on the finished SOI CMOS devices and circuits show that the integration process has good compatibility both for the cantilever sensors and for the CMOS circuits, and the SOI CMOS integration process can decrease about 25% sequences compared with the bulk silicon CMOS process. (note)

  8. Design and application of multilayer monolithic microwave integrated circuit transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Economides, S.B

    1999-07-01

    fabricated on standard foundry processes. With careful modelling it is also feasible to integrate the two couplers into a single tri-filar transformer structure. This is a robust balun topology, which could be widely adopted. A push-pull MESFET amplifier with 8 dB gain demonstrated this at 12 GHz, using the balun chips connected to amplifier circuits. (author)

  9. Monolithically Integrated, Mechanically Resilient Carbon-Based Probes for Scanning Probe Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Megerian, Krikor G.; Jennings, Andrew T.; Greer, Julia R.

    2010-01-01

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is an important tool for performing measurements at the nanoscale in imaging bacteria or proteins in biology, as well as in the electronics industry. An essential element of SPM is a sharp, stable tip that possesses a small radius of curvature to enhance spatial resolution. Existing techniques for forming such tips are not ideal. High-aspect-ratio, monolithically integrated, as-grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have been formed that show promise for SPM applications by overcoming the limitations present in wet chemical and separate substrate etching processes.

  10. A design concept for an MMIC (Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit) microstrip phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Smetana, Jerry; Acosta, Roberto

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual design for a microstrip phased array with monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplitude and phase controls is described. The MMIC devices used are 20 GHz variable power amplifiers and variable phase shifters recently developed by NASA contractors for applications in future Ka proposed design, which concept is for a general NxN element array of rectangular lattice geometry. Subarray excitation is incorporated in the MMIC phased array design to reduce the complexity of the beam forming network and the number of MMIC components required.

  11. High-performance packaging for monolithic microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkhauser, K. A.; Li, K.; Shih, Y. C.

    1992-01-01

    Packaging schemes are developed that provide low-loss, hermetic enclosure for enhanced monolithic microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuits. These package schemes are based on a fused quartz substrate material offering improved RF performance through 44 GHz. The small size and weight of the packages make them useful for a number of applications, including phased array antenna systems. As part of the packaging effort, a test fixture was developed to interface the single chip packages to conventional laboratory instrumentation for characterization of the packaged devices.

  12. Optically controlled phased array antenna concepts using GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunath, R. R.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1986-01-01

    The desire for rapid beam reconfigurability and steering has led to the exploration of new techniques. Optical techniques have been suggested as potential candidates for implementing these needs. Candidates generally fall into one of two areas: those using fiber optic Beam Forming Networks (BFNs) and those using optically processed BFNs. Both techniques utilize GaAs Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMICs) in the BFN, but the role of the MMIC for providing phase and amplitude variations is largely eliminated by some new optical processing techniques. This paper discusses these two types of optical BFN designs and provides conceptual designs of both systems.

  13. New Structure for a Six-Port Reflectometer in Monolithic Microwave Integrated-Circuit Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Wiedmann , Frank; Huyart , Bernard; Bergeault , Eric; Jallet , Louis

    1997-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a new structure for a six-port reflectometer which due to its simplicity can be implemented very easily in monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) technology. It uses nonmatched diode detectors with a high input impedance which are placed around a phase shifter in conjunction with a power divider for the reference detector. The circuit has been fabricated using the F20 GaAs process of the GEC–Marconi foundry and operates between 1.3 GHz and 3...

  14. Wideband Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit Frequency Converters with GaAs mHEMT Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Krozer, Viktor; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Djurhuus, Torsten; Vidkjær, Jens

    2005-01-01

    We present monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) frequency converter, which can be used for up and down conversion, due to the large RF and IF port bandwidth. The MMIC converters are based on commercially available GaAs mHEMT technology and are comprised of a Gilbert mixer cell core, baluns and combiners. Single ended and balanced configurations DC and AC coupled have been investigated. The instantaneous 3 dB bandwidth at both the RF and the IF port of the frequency converters is ∼ 2...

  15. Fully integrated monolithic opoelectronic transducer for real.time protein and DNA detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misiakos, Konstatinos; S. Petrou, Panagiota; E. Kakabakos, Sotirios

    2010-01-01

    The development and testing of a portable bioanalytical device which was capable for real-time monitoring of binding assays was demonstrated. The device was based on arrays of nine optoelectronic transducers monolithically integrated on silicon chips. The optocouplers consisted of nine silicon av...... by exploiting wavelength filtering on photonic crystal engineered waveguides. The proposed miniaturized sensing device with proper packaging and accompanied by a portable instrument can find wide application as a platform for reliable and cost effective point-of-care diagnosis....

  16. Monolithic Ge-on-Si lasers for large-scale electronic-photonic integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jifeng; Kimerling, Lionel C.; Michel, Jurgen

    2012-09-01

    A silicon-based monolithic laser source has long been envisioned as a key enabling component for large-scale electronic-photonic integration in future generations of high-performance computation and communication systems. In this paper we present a comprehensive review on the development of monolithic Ge-on-Si lasers for this application. Starting with a historical review of light emission from the direct gap transition of Ge dating back to the 1960s, we focus on the rapid progress in band-engineered Ge-on-Si lasers in the past five years after a nearly 30-year gap in this research field. Ge has become an interesting candidate for active devices in Si photonics in the past decade due to its pseudo-direct gap behavior and compatibility with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) processing. In 2007, we proposed combing tensile strain with n-type doping to compensate the energy difference between the direct and indirect band gap of Ge, thereby achieving net optical gain for CMOS-compatible diode lasers. Here we systematically present theoretical modeling, material growth methods, spontaneous emission, optical gain, and lasing under optical and electrical pumping from band-engineered Ge-on-Si, culminated by recently demonstrated electrically pumped Ge-on-Si lasers with >1 mW output in the communication wavelength window of 1500-1700 nm. The broad gain spectrum enables on-chip wavelength division multiplexing. A unique feature of band-engineered pseudo-direct gap Ge light emitters is that the emission intensity increases with temperature, exactly opposite to conventional direct gap semiconductor light-emitting devices. This extraordinary thermal anti-quenching behavior greatly facilitates monolithic integration on Si microchips where temperatures can reach up to 80 °C during operation. The same band-engineering approach can be extended to other pseudo-direct gap semiconductors, allowing us to achieve efficient light emission at wavelengths previously

  17. Monolithic Ge-on-Si lasers for large-scale electronic–photonic integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jifeng; Kimerling, Lionel C; Michel, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    A silicon-based monolithic laser source has long been envisioned as a key enabling component for large-scale electronic–photonic integration in future generations of high-performance computation and communication systems. In this paper we present a comprehensive review on the development of monolithic Ge-on-Si lasers for this application. Starting with a historical review of light emission from the direct gap transition of Ge dating back to the 1960s, we focus on the rapid progress in band-engineered Ge-on-Si lasers in the past five years after a nearly 30-year gap in this research field. Ge has become an interesting candidate for active devices in Si photonics in the past decade due to its pseudo-direct gap behavior and compatibility with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) processing. In 2007, we proposed combing tensile strain with n-type doping to compensate the energy difference between the direct and indirect band gap of Ge, thereby achieving net optical gain for CMOS-compatible diode lasers. Here we systematically present theoretical modeling, material growth methods, spontaneous emission, optical gain, and lasing under optical and electrical pumping from band-engineered Ge-on-Si, culminated by recently demonstrated electrically pumped Ge-on-Si lasers with >1 mW output in the communication wavelength window of 1500–1700 nm. The broad gain spectrum enables on-chip wavelength division multiplexing. A unique feature of band-engineered pseudo-direct gap Ge light emitters is that the emission intensity increases with temperature, exactly opposite to conventional direct gap semiconductor light-emitting devices. This extraordinary thermal anti-quenching behavior greatly facilitates monolithic integration on Si microchips where temperatures can reach up to 80 °C during operation. The same band-engineering approach can be extended to other pseudo-direct gap semiconductors, allowing us to achieve efficient light emission at wavelengths previously

  18. Monolithic photonic integration technology platform and devices at wavelengths beyond 2 μm for gas spectroscopy applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latkowski, S.; van Veldhoven, P.J.; Hänsel, A.; D'Agostino, D.; Rabbani-Haghighi, H.; Docter, B.; Bhattacharya, N.; Thijs, P.J.A.; Ambrosius, H.P.M.M.; Smit, M.K.; Williams, K.A.; Bente, E.A.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a generic monolithic photonic integration technology platform and tunable laser devices for gas sensing applications at 2 μm will be presented. The basic set of long wavelength optical functions which is fundamental for a generic photonic integration approach is realized using planar,

  19. Multi-wavelength laser based on an arrayed waveguide grating and Sagnac loop reflectors monolithically integrated on InP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz, P.; García-Olcina, R.; Doménech, J.D.; Rius, M.; Capmany, J.; Chen, L.R.; Habib, C.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Vries, de T.; Heck, M.J.R.; Augustin, L.M.; Nötzel, R.; Robbins, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a multi-wavelength laser monolithically integrated on InP is presented. A linear laser cavity is built between two integrated Sagnac loop reflectors, with an Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) as frequency selective device, and Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (SOA) as gain sections. The

  20. Slew Rate Induced Distortion in Switched-Resistor Integrators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiraseree-Amornkun, A.; Jiraseree-amornkun, A.; Worapishet, A.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Surakampontorn, W.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract—OPAMP-RC integrators built with linear resistors and capacitors can achieve very high linearity. By means of a switched resistor, tuning of the RC time-constant is possible via the duty-cycle of the clock controlling the switched resistor. This paper analyzes the effect of OPAMP slew rate

  1. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical modulator with Semiconductor optical amplifier for short-range optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2015-04-01

    A monolithically integrated quantum dot (QD) optical gain modulator (OGM) with a QD semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was successfully developed. Broadband QD optical gain material was used to achieve Gbps-order high-speed optical data transmission, and an optical gain change as high as approximately 6-7 dB was obtained with a low OGM voltage of 2.0 V. Loss of optical power due to insertion of the device was also effectively compensated for by the SOA section. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the QD-OGM/SOA device helped achieve 6.0-Gbps error-free optical data transmission over a 2.0-km-long photonic crystal fiber. We also successfully demonstrated generation of Gbps-order, high-speed, and error-free optical signals in the >5.5-THz broadband optical frequency bandwidth larger than the C-band. These results suggest that the developed monolithically integrated QD-OGM/SOA device will be an advantageous and compact means of increasing the usable optical frequency channels for short-reach communications.

  2. Monolithic micro-electro-thermal actuator integrated with a lateral displacement sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yan; Choi, Young-Soo; Lee, Dong-Weon

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents monolithically fabricated horizontal thermal actuators integrated with piezoresistive sensors for in situ displacement sensing. The great advantage of a hybrid system is the use of closed feedback control for improving the transient response of a thermal actuator and positioning accuracy. It consists of two 'hot arms' made of doped silicon for Joule heating-induced thermal expansion when a current flow passes through them. The piezoresistor is embedded in the base of the 'cold arm' flexure for monitoring the tip deflection and for performance characterization. This 'cold arm' is not a part of the electrical circuit, which further improves the heat power efficiency and the measurement accuracy. Optimization is achieved mainly through modification of the geometry as well as the fabrication process. The fabricated micro-electro-thermal actuator with an integrated sensor is intended for use as a scanning cantilever in atomic force microscope or as a sample holder to drive the moving object through arrays configuration.

  3. Vertically integrated monolithic pixel sensors for charged particle tracking and biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratti, L.; Gaioni, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional monolithic pixel sensors have been designed following the same approach that was exploited for the development of the so-called deep N-well (DNW) MAPS in planar CMOS process. The new 3D design relies upon stacking two homogeneous layers fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS technology. One of the two tiers, which are face-to-face bonded, has to be thinned down to about 12μm to expose the through silicon vias connecting the circuits to the back-metal bond pads. As a consequence of the way the two parts of each single chip are designed and fabricated, the prototypes of the 3D monolithic detector will include both samples with a thick substrate underneath the collecting DNW electrode, suitable for charged particle tracking, and samples with a very thin (about 6μm) sensitive volume, which may be used to detect low energy particles in biomedical imaging applications. Device physics simulations have been performed to evaluate the collection properties and detection efficiency of the proposed vertically integrated structures.

  4. Vertically integrated monolithic pixel sensors for charged particle tracking and biomedical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratti, L., E-mail: lodovico.ratti@unipv.it [Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Gaioni, L. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G. [Universita di Bergamo, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Via Marconi 5, I-24044 Dalmine (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2011-10-01

    Three-dimensional monolithic pixel sensors have been designed following the same approach that was exploited for the development of the so-called deep N-well (DNW) MAPS in planar CMOS process. The new 3D design relies upon stacking two homogeneous layers fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS technology. One of the two tiers, which are face-to-face bonded, has to be thinned down to about 12{mu}m to expose the through silicon vias connecting the circuits to the back-metal bond pads. As a consequence of the way the two parts of each single chip are designed and fabricated, the prototypes of the 3D monolithic detector will include both samples with a thick substrate underneath the collecting DNW electrode, suitable for charged particle tracking, and samples with a very thin (about 6{mu}m) sensitive volume, which may be used to detect low energy particles in biomedical imaging applications. Device physics simulations have been performed to evaluate the collection properties and detection efficiency of the proposed vertically integrated structures.

  5. Boolean integration. [applied to switching network synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, J. H.; Tapia, M. A.; Bennett, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents the necessary and sufficient conditions for a given differential expression to be compatibly integrable and it presents the necessary and sufficient conditions for a given expression to be exactly integrable. Methods are given for integrating a differential expression when it is exactly integrable and when it is compatibly integrable. The physical interpretation is given of the integral of order k, of a differential expression, and it is shown that any differential expression of the proper form is integrable by parts.

  6. Monolithic integration of collimating Fresnel lens for beam quality enhancement in tapered high-power laser diode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lau, F.K.; Tee, C.W.; Zhao, Xin; Williams, K.A.; Penty, R.V.; White, I.H.; Calligaro, M.; Lecomte, M.; Parillaud, O.; Michel, N.; Krakowski, M.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, a monolithic integrated lens for wide aperture gain-guided tapered laser beam quality enhancement by compensating the quadratic phase curvature. The 3mm long tapered laser with an output aperture of 170µm adopted in this design consists of a gain-guided tapered

  7. Monolithically integrated biophotonic lab-on-a-chip for cell culture and simultaneous pH monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munoz-Berbel, Xavier; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Rosalia; Vigues, Nuria; Demming, Stefanie; Mas, Jordi; Buettgenbach, Stephanus; Verpoorte, Elisabeth; Ortiz, Pedro; Llobera, Andreu

    2013-01-01

    A poly(dimethylsiloxane) biophotonic lab-on-a-chip (bioPhLoC) containing two chambers, an incubation chamber and a monitoring chamber for cell retention/proliferation and pH monitoring, respectively, is presented. The bioPhLoC monolithically integrates a filter with 3 mu m high size-exclusion

  8. A monolithically integrated detector-preamplifier on high-resistivity silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, S.; Spieler, H.

    1990-02-01

    A monolithically integrated detector-preamplifier on high-resistivity silicon has been designed, fabricated and characterized. The detector is a fully depleted p-i-n diode and the preamplifier is implemented in a depletion-mode PMOS process which is compatible with detector processing. The amplifier is internally compensated and the measured gain-bandwidth product is 30 MHz with an input-referred noise of 15 nV/√Hz in the white noise regime. Measurements with an Am 241 radiation source yield an equivalent input noise charge of 800 electrons at 200 ns shaping time for a 1.4 mm 2 detector with on-chip amplifier in an experimental setup with substantial external pickup

  9. Monolithic exploding foil initiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, Eric J; Vianco, Paul T; Headley, Paul S; Jarrell, Jason A; Garrity, J. Emmett; Shelton, Keegan P; Marley, Stephen K

    2012-10-23

    A monolithic exploding foil initiator (EFI) or slapper detonator and the method for making the monolithic EFI wherein the exploding bridge and the dielectric from which the flyer will be generated are integrated directly onto the header. In some embodiments, the barrel is directly integrated directly onto the header.

  10. Single-frequency, fully integrated, miniature DPSS laser based on monolithic resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzik, G.; Sotor, J.; Krzempek, K.; Soboń, G.; Abramski, K. M.

    2014-02-01

    We present a single frequency, stable, narrow linewidth, miniature laser sources operating at 532 nm (or 1064 nm) based on a monolithic resonators. Such resonators utilize birefringent filters formed by YVO4 beam displacer and KTP or YVO4 crystals to force single frequency operation at 532 nm or 1064 nm, respectively. In both configurations Nd:YVO4 gain crystal is used. The resonators dimensions are 1x1x10.5 mm3 and 1x1x8.5 mm3 for green and infrared configurations, respectively. Presented laser devices, with total dimensions of 40x52x120 mm3, are fully equipped with driving electronics, pump diode, optical and mechanical components. The highly integrated (36x15x65 mm3) low noise driving electronics with implemented digital PID controller was designed. It provides pump current and resonator temperature stability of ±30 μA@650 mA and ±0,003ºC, respectively. The laser parameters can be set and monitored via the USB interface by external application. The developed laser construction is universal. Hence, the other wavelengths can be obtained only by replacing the monolithic resonator. The optical output powers in single frequency regime was at the level of 42 mW@532 nm and 0.5 W@1064 nm with the long-term fluctuations of ±0.85 %. The linewidth and the passive frequency stability under the free running conditions were Δν < 100 kHz and 3ṡ10-9@1 s integration time, respectively. The total electrical power supply consumption of laser module was only 4 W. Presented compact, single frequency laser operating at 532 nm and 1064 nm may be used as an excellent source for laser vibrometry, interferometry or seed laser for fiber amplifiers.

  11. Reconfigurable SDM Switching Using Novel Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Kamchevska, Valerija; Dalgaard, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    -division multiplexing switching using silicon photonic integrated circuit, which is fabricated on a novel silicon-oninsulator platform with buried Al mirror. The silicon photonic integrated circuit is composed of a 7x7 switch and low loss grating coupler array based multicore fiber couplers. Thanks to the Al mirror......, grating couplers with ultra-low coupling loss with optical multicore fibers is achieved. The lowest total insertion loss of the silicon integrated circuit is as low as 4.5 dB, with low crosstalk lower than -30 dB. Excellent performances in terms of low insertion loss and low crosstalk are obtained...

  12. Flexible circuits with integrated switches for robotic shape sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, C. K.

    2016-05-01

    Digital switches are commonly used for detecting surface contact and limb-position limits in robotics. The typical momentary-contact digital switch is a mechanical device made from metal springs, designed to connect with a rigid printed circuit board (PCB). However, flexible printed circuits are taking over from the rigid PCB in robotics because the circuits can bend while carrying signals and power through moving joints. This project is motivated by a previous work where an array of surface-mount momentary contact switches on a flexible circuit acted as an all-digital shape sensor compatible with the power resources of energy harvesting systems. Without a rigid segment, the smallest commercially-available surface-mount switches would detach from the flexible circuit after several bending cycles, sometimes violently. This report describes a low-cost, conductive fiber based method to integrate electromechanical switches into flexible circuits and other soft, bendable materials. Because the switches are digital (on/off), they differ from commercially-available continuous-valued bend/flex sensors. No amplification or analog-to-digital conversion is needed to read the signal, but the tradeoff is that the digital switches only give a threshold curvature value. Boundary conditions on the edges of the flexible circuit are key to setting the threshold curvature value for switching. This presentation will discuss threshold-setting, size scaling of the design, automation for inserting a digital switch into the flexible circuit fabrication process, and methods for reconstructing a shape from an array of digital switch states.

  13. Monolithically integrated fiber-to-the-home diplexers and triplexers using a bilevel etched 2 x 2 optical coupler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Lei; He, Jian-Jun

    2009-09-01

    A novel design of monolithically integrated diplexers and triplexers for fiber-to-the-home applications is presented. A bilevel etched asymmetrical 2 x 2 optical coupler is analyzed for efficient couplings of both upstream and downstream signals. The design of the diplexer is extended to a triplexer by adding an etched diffraction grating as an additional downstream demultiplexing element. The total size of the integrated diplexer and triplexer is smaller than 500 microm x 500 microm.

  14. Study of monolithic integrated solar blind GaN-based photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Zhang, Yan; Li, Xiaojuan; Xie, Jing; Wang, Jiqiang; Li, Xiangyang

    2018-02-01

    Monolithic integrated solar blind devices on the GaN-based epilayer, which can directly readout voltage signal, were fabricated and studied. Unlike conventional GaN-based photodiodes, the integrated devices can finish those steps: generation, accumulation of carriers and conversion of carriers to voltage. In the test process, the resetting voltage was square wave with the frequency of 15 and 110 Hz, its maximal voltage of ˜2.5 V. Under LEDs illumination, the maximum of voltage swing is about 2.5 V, and the rise time of voltage swing from 0 to 2.5 V is only about 1.6 ms. However, in dark condition, the node voltage between detector and capacitance nearly decline to zero with time when the resetting voltage was equal to zero. It is found that the leakage current in the circuit gives rise to discharge of the integrated charge. Storage mode operation can offer gain, which is advantage to detection of weak photo signal.

  15. Intelligent switches of integrated lightwave circuits with core telecommunication functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhaky, Nahum; Duer, Reuven; Berns, Neil; Tal, Eran; Vinikman, Shirly; Schoenwald, Jeffrey S.; Shani, Yosi

    2001-05-01

    We present a brief overview of a promising switching technology based on Silica on Silicon thermo-optic integrated circuits. This is basically a 2D solid-state optical device capable of non-blocking switching operation. Except of its excellent performance (insertion lossvariable output power control (attenuation), for instance, to equalize signal levels and compensate for unbalanced different optical input powers, or to equalize unbalanced EDFA gain curve. We examine the market segments appropriate for the switch size and technology, followed by a discussion of the basic features of the technology. The discussion is focused on important requirements from the switch and the technology (e.g., insertion loss, power consumption, channel isolation, extinction ratio, switching time, and heat dissipation). The mechanical design is also considered. It must take into account integration of optical fiber, optical planar wafer, analog electronics and digital microprocessor controls, embedded software, and heating power dissipation. The Lynx Photon.8x8 switch is compared to competing technologies, in terms of typical market performance requirements.

  16. All-optical devices for ultrafast packet switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorren, H.J.S.; HerreraDorren, J.; Raz, O.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss integrated devices for all-optical packet switching. We focus on monolithically integrated all-optical flip-flops, ultra-fast semiconductor based wavelength converters and explain the operation principles. Finally, a 160 Gb/s all-optical packet switching experiment over 110 km of field...

  17. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical modulator with semiconductor optical amplifier for thousand and original band optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    A monolithically integrated quantum dot (QD) optical gain modulator (OGM) with a QD semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was successfully developed with T-band (1.0 µm waveband) and O-band (1.3 µm waveband) QD optical gain materials for Gbps-order, high-speed optical data generation. The insertion loss due to coupling between the device and the optical fiber was effectively compensated for by the SOA section. It was also confirmed that the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device enabled >4.8 Gbps optical data generation with a clear eye opening in the T-band. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated error-free 4.8 Gbps optical data transmissions in each of the six wavelength channels over a 10-km-long photonic crystal fiber using the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device in multiple O-band wavelength channels, which were generated by the single QD gain chip. These results suggest that the monolithic QD-OGM/SOA device will be advantageous in ultra-broadband optical frequency systems that utilize the T+O-band for short- and medium-range optical communications.

  18. An integrated circuit/packet switched video conferencing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippenhan Junior, H.A.; Lidinsky, W.P.; Roediger, G.A.; Waits, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    The HEP Network Resource Center (HEPNRC) at Fermilab and the Collider Detector Facility (CDF) collaboration have evolved a flexible, cost-effective, widely accessible video conferencing system for use by high energy physics collaborations and others wishing to use video conferencing. No current systems seemed to fully meet the needs of high energy physics collaborations. However, two classes of video conferencing technology: circuit-switched and packet-switched, if integrated, might encompass most of HEPS's needs. It was also realized that, even with this integration, some additional functions were needed and some of the existing functions were not always wanted. HEPNRC with the help of members of the CDF collaboration set out to develop such an integrated system using as many existing subsystems and components as possible. This system is called VUPAC (Video conferencing Using Packets and Circuits). This paper begins with brief descriptions of the circuit-switched and packet-switched video conferencing systems. Following this, issues and limitations of these systems are considered. Next the VUPAC system is described. Integration is accomplished primarily by a circuit/packet video conferencing interface. Augmentation is centered in another subsystem called MSB (Multiport MultiSession Bridge). Finally, there is a discussion of the future work needed in the evolution of this system. (author)

  19. An integrated circuit/packet switched video conferencing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippenhan Junior, H.A.; Lidinsky, W.P.; Roediger, G.A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States). HEP Network Resource Center; Waits, T.A. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1996-07-01

    The HEP Network Resource Center (HEPNRC) at Fermilab and the Collider Detector Facility (CDF) collaboration have evolved a flexible, cost-effective, widely accessible video conferencing system for use by high energy physics collaborations and others wishing to use video conferencing. No current systems seemed to fully meet the needs of high energy physics collaborations. However, two classes of video conferencing technology: circuit-switched and packet-switched, if integrated, might encompass most of HEPS's needs. It was also realized that, even with this integration, some additional functions were needed and some of the existing functions were not always wanted. HEPNRC with the help of members of the CDF collaboration set out to develop such an integrated system using as many existing subsystems and components as possible. This system is called VUPAC (Video conferencing Using Packets and Circuits). This paper begins with brief descriptions of the circuit-switched and packet-switched video conferencing systems. Following this, issues and limitations of these systems are considered. Next the VUPAC system is described. Integration is accomplished primarily by a circuit/packet video conferencing interface. Augmentation is centered in another subsystem called MSB (Multiport MultiSession Bridge). Finally, there is a discussion of the future work needed in the evolution of this system. (author)

  20. Field-effect piezoresistors for vibration detection of nanobeams by using monolithically integrated MOS capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Haitao; Yang, Heng; Li, XinXin; Wang, Yuelin

    2013-01-01

    A novel piezoresistive sensing method is presented herein for the detection of nanobeam resonator based on a monolithically integrated MOS (metal–oxide–semiconductor) capacitor structure. The bottom layer of the nanobeam located beneath the MOS capacitor is utilized as a piezoresistor for the detection of internal stress resulting from nanobeam deformation, and therefore the challenging process of ultra-shallow junction doping is avoided. When a bias voltage applied on the MOS gate exceeds the threshold, the depletion layer width is built up to the maximum, and the piezoresistive cancellation effect beside the neutral plane is eliminated. Based on a conventional microelectromechanical (MEMS) process, an MOS capacitor is fabricated at the terminal of a double-clamped nanobeam with dimensions of 46 µm × 7 µm × 149 nm. The measured R–V curve of this MOS structure presents a 64.7 nm thick piezoresistor which closely agrees with the design. This double-clamped nanobeam is excited into mechanical resonance by mounting it on a piezoelectric ceramic, and the amplitude–frequency response is measured by a network analyzer. The measured resonant frequency is 3.97 MHz and the quality (Q)-factor is 82 in atmosphere environment. Besides, this piezoresistive sensing method is verified by a laser-Doppler vibrometry. (paper)

  1. Ni-Cr thin film resistor fabrication for GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinayak, Seema; Vyas, H.P.; Muraleedharan, K.; Vankar, V.D.

    2006-01-01

    Different Ni-Cr alloys were sputter-deposited on silicon nitride-coated GaAs substrates and covered with a spin-coated polyimide layer to develop thin film metal resistors for GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs). The contact to the resistors was made through vias in the polyimide layer by sputter-deposited Ti/Au interconnect metal. The variation of contact resistance, sheet resistance (R S ) and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of the Ni-Cr resistors with fabrication process parameters such as polyimide curing thermal cycles and surface treatment given to the wafer prior to interconnect metal deposition has been studied. The Ni-Cr thin film resistors exhibited lower R S and higher TCR compared to the as-deposited Ni-Cr film that was not subjected to thermal cycles involved in the MMIC fabrication process. The change in resistivity and TCR values of Ni-Cr films during the MMIC fabrication process was found to be dependent on the Ni-Cr alloy composition

  2. A novel symmetrical microwave power sensor based on GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, De-bo; Liao, Xiao-ping

    2009-01-01

    A novel symmetrical microwave power sensor based on GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) technology is presented in this paper. In this power sensor, the left section inputs the microwave power, while the right section inputs the dc power. Because of the symmetrical structure, this power sensor is created to provide more accurate microwave power measurement capability without mismatch uncertainty and restrain temperature drift. The loss model is built and the loss voltage is 0.8 mV at 20 GHz when the input power is 100 mW. This power sensor is designed and fabricated using GaAs MMIC technology. And it is measured in the frequency range up to 20 GHz with the input power in the −20 dBm to 19 dBm range. Over the 19 dBm dynamic range, the sensitivity can achieve about 0.2 mV mW −1 . The difference between the input powers in the two sections is below 0.1% for equal output voltages. For an amplitude modulation measurement, the carrier frequency is the main factor to influence the measurement results. In short, the key aspect of this power sensor is that the microwave power measurement can be replaced by a dc power measurement with precise wideband

  3. An electro-magnetic micromachined actuator monolithically integrated with a vertical shutter for variable optical attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Shao Hsuan; Hsieh, Hsin-Ta; John Su, Guo-Dung

    2008-01-01

    The design, fabrication and test results of an electromagnetic-actuated micromachined variable optical attenuator (VOA) are reported in this paper. Optical attenuation is achieved by moving a shutter into the light path between a pair of single mode fiber collimators. The shutter, consisting of a 500 µm × 1200 µm vertical micromirror, is monolithically integrated with an actuation flap. The micromirror was made by tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) anisotropic wet etching with a sharp edge and a smooth reflecting surface. By arranging fiber collimators in different configurations, the reported VOA can be used as either normally-on or normally-off modes due to its relatively large shutter surface. The insertion loss of the VOA is 0.2 dB and 0.4 dB for normally-on and normally-off modes, respectively. Both optical and mechanical simulation models of the device were discussed, and the theoretical calculations based on these models offered an efficient way to predict the performance of the shutter-type VOA. The controllable attenuation range is approximately 40 dB with a driving voltage less than 0.5 V, and the driving power is less than 2 mW. A response time of 5 ms is achieved by applying proper driving waveform

  4. Magneto-Optical Thin Films for On-Chip Monolithic Integration of Non-Reciprocal Photonic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Lei; Hu, Juejun; Jiang, Peng; Kim, Hyun Suk; Kim, Dong Hun; Onbasli, Mehmet Cengiz; Dionne, Gerald F; Ross, Caroline A

    2013-11-08

    Achieving monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on semiconductor substrates has been long sought by the photonics research society. One way to achieve this goal is to deposit high quality magneto-optical oxide thin films on a semiconductor substrate. In this paper, we review our recent research activity on magneto-optical oxide thin films toward the goal of monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on silicon. We demonstrate high Faraday rotation at telecommunication wavelengths in several novel magnetooptical oxide thin films including Co substituted CeO₂ -δ , Co- or Fe-substituted SrTiO 3- δ , as well as polycrystalline garnets on silicon. Figures of merit of 3~4 deg/dB and 21 deg/dB are achieved in epitaxial Sr(Ti 0.2 Ga 0.4 Fe 0.4 )O 3- δ and polycrystalline (CeY₂)Fe₅O 12 films, respectively. We also demonstrate an optical isolator on silicon, based on a racetrack resonator using polycrystalline (CeY₂)Fe₅O 12 /silicon strip-loaded waveguides. Our work demonstrates that physical vapor deposited magneto-optical oxide thin films on silicon can achieve high Faraday rotation, low optical loss and high magneto-optical figure of merit, therefore enabling novel high-performance non-reciprocal photonic devices monolithically integrated on semiconductor substrates.

  5. Magneto-Optical Thin Films for On-Chip Monolithic Integration of Non-Reciprocal Photonic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Cengiz Onbasli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Achieving monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on semiconductor substrates has been long sought by the photonics research society. One way to achieve this goal is to deposit high quality magneto-optical oxide thin films on a semiconductor substrate. In this paper, we review our recent research activity on magneto-optical oxide thin films toward the goal of monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on silicon. We demonstrate high Faraday rotation at telecommunication wavelengths in several novel magnetooptical oxide thin films including Co substituted CeO2−δ, Co- or Fe-substituted SrTiO3−δ, as well as polycrystalline garnets on silicon. Figures of merit of 3~4 deg/dB and 21 deg/dB are achieved in epitaxial Sr(Ti0.2Ga0.4Fe0.4O3−δ and polycrystalline (CeY2Fe5O12 films, respectively. We also demonstrate an optical isolator on silicon, based on a racetrack resonator using polycrystalline (CeY2Fe5O12/silicon strip-loaded waveguides. Our work demonstrates that physical vapor deposited magneto-optical oxide thin films on silicon can achieve high Faraday rotation, low optical loss and high magneto-optical figure of merit, therefore enabling novel high-performance non-reciprocal photonic devices monolithically integrated on semiconductor substrates.

  6. A graphene integrated highly transparent resistive switching memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugu, Sita; Pavunny, Shojan P.; Limbu, Tej B.; Weiner, Brad R.; Morell, Gerardo; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate the hybrid fabrication process of a graphene integrated highly transparent resistive random-access memory (TRRAM) device. The indium tin oxide (ITO)/Al2O3/graphene nonvolatile memory device possesses a high transmittance of >82% in the visible region (370-700 nm) and exhibits stable and non-symmetrical bipolar switching characteristics with considerably low set and reset voltages (ITO/Al2O3/Pt device and studied its switching characteristics for comparison and a better understanding of the ITO/Al2O3/graphene device characteristics. The conduction mechanisms in high and low resistance states were analyzed, and the observed polarity dependent resistive switching is explained based on electro-migration of oxygen ions.

  7. Stable polarization short pulse passively Q-switched monolithic microchip laser with [110] cut Cr4+:YAG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y; Gong, M; Yan, P; Huang, L; Li, D

    2009-01-01

    A monolithic Nd:YAG microchip laser with [110] cut Cr 4+ :YAG is presented. The output beam is linearly polarized with polarization ratio higher than 100:1. The polarization direction is stable, independent of pump power, crystal temperature, LD temperature. In single longitudinal mode operation, stable 259 ps pulses at 2.5 kHz with 82 kW peak power and diffraction limited beam mode are output. With a simple and compact one-pass Nd:YVO 4 amplifier, 144 kW peak power is achieved. Single longitudinal and fundamental transverse mode is kept after passing through the amplifier stage. The microchip laser can be operated in two longitudinal modes with two sets of output pulses by increasing the pump power

  8. MEMS capacitive pressure sensor monolithically integrated with CMOS readout circuit by using post CMOS processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Munseon; Yun, Kwang-Seok

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we presents a MEMS pressure sensor integrated with a readout circuit on a chip for an on-chip signal processing. The capacitive pressure sensor is formed on a CMOS chip by using a post-CMOS MEMS processes. The proposed device consists of a sensing capacitor that is square in shape, a reference capacitor and a readout circuitry based on a switched-capacitor scheme to detect capacitance change at various environmental pressures. The readout circuit was implemented by using a commercial 0.35 μm CMOS process with 2 polysilicon and 4 metal layers. Then, the pressure sensor was formed by wet etching of metal 2 layer through via hole structures. Experimental results show that the MEMS pressure sensor has a sensitivity of 11 mV/100 kPa at the pressure range of 100-400 kPa.

  9. Back End of Line Nanorelays for Ultra-low Power Monolithic Integrated NEMS-CMOS Circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Lechuga Aranda, Jesus Javier

    2016-05-01

    Since the introduction of Complementary-Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology, the chip industry has enjoyed many benefits of transistor feature size scaling, including higher speed and device density and improved energy efficiency. However, in the recent years, the IC designers have encountered a few roadblocks, namely reaching the physical limits of scaling and also increased device leakage which has resulted in a slow-down of supply voltage and power density scaling. Therefore, there has been an extensive hunt for alternative circuit architectures and switching devices that can alleviate or eliminate the current crisis in the semiconductor industry. The Nano-Electro-Mechanical (NEM) relay is a promising alternative switch that offers zero leakage and abrupt turn-on behaviour. Even though these devices are intrinsically slower than CMOS transistors, new circuit design techniques tailored for the electromechanical properties of such devices can be leveraged to design medium performance, ultra-low power integrated circuits. In this thesis, we deal with a new generation of such devices that is built in the back end of line (BEOL) CMOS process and is an ideal option for full integration with current CMOS transistor technology. Simulation and verification at the circuit and system level is a critical step in the design flow of microelectronic circuits, and this is especially important for new technologies that lack the standard design infrastructure and well-known verification platforms. Although most of the physical and electrical properties of NEM structures can be simulated using standard electronic automation software, there is no report of a reliable behavioural model for NEMS switches that enable large circuit simulations. In this work, we present an optimised model of a BEOL nano relay that encompasses all the electromechanical characteristics of the device and is robust and lightweight enough for VLSI applications that require simulation of thousands of

  10. A low-latency optical switch architecture using integrated μm SOI-based contention resolution and switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourgias-Alexandris, G.; Moralis-Pegios, M.; Terzenidis, N.; Cherchi, M.; Harjanne, M.; Aalto, T.; Vyrsokinos, K.; Pleros, N.

    2018-02-01

    The urgent need for high-bandwidth and high-port connectivity in Data Centers has boosted the deployment of optoelectronic packet switches towards bringing high data-rate optics closer to the ASIC, realizing optical transceiver functions directly at the ASIC package for high-rate, low-energy and low-latency interconnects. Even though optics can offer a broad range of low-energy integrated switch fabrics for replacing electronic switches and seamlessly interface with the optical I/Os, the use of energy- and latency-consuming electronic SerDes continues to be a necessity, mainly dictated by the absence of integrated and reliable optical buffering solutions. SerDes undertakes the role of optimally synergizing the lower-speed electronic buffers with the incoming and outgoing optical streams, suggesting that a SerDes-released chip-scale optical switch fabric can be only realized in case all necessary functions including contention resolution and switching can be implemented on a common photonic integration platform. In this paper, we demonstrate experimentally a hybrid Broadcast-and-Select (BS) / wavelength routed optical switch that performs both the optical buffering and switching functions with μm-scale Silicon-integrated building blocks. Optical buffering is carried out in a silicon-integrated variable delay line bank with a record-high on-chip delay/footprint efficiency of 2.6ns/mm2 and up to 17.2 nsec delay capability, while switching is executed via a BS design and a silicon-integrated echelle grating, assisted by SOA-MZI wavelength conversion stages and controlled by a FPGA header processing module. The switch has been experimentally validated in a 3x3 arrangement with 10Gb/s NRZ optical data packets, demonstrating error-free switching operation with a power penalty of <5dB.

  11. Simplified Monolithic Flow Cytometer Chip With Three-Dimensional Hydrodyanmic Focusing And Integrated Fiber-Free Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Motosuke, Masahiro; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam; Zhuang, Guisheng

    2011-01-01

    A miniaturized flow cytometry incorporating both fluidic and optical systems has a great possibility for portable biochemical sensing or point-of-care diagnostics. This paper presents a simple microfluidic flow cytometer combining reliable 3D hydrodynamic focusing and optical detection without...... optical fibers in a monolithic architecture fabricated by a single photolithographic process. The vertical flow focusing is achieved by the optimized inlet geometry in a PDMS lid onto the substrate with detection channel and integrated optics. The simplified approach indicates the possibility...

  12. Monolithic integration of a silica AWG and Ge photodiodes on Si photonic platform for one-chip WDM receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Hidetaka; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Kou, Rai; Shinojima, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Takashi; Kimura, Hideaki; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko; Wada, Kazumi; Yamada, Koji

    2012-04-09

    On the silicon (Si) photonic platform, we monolithically integrated a silica-based arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) and germanium (Ge) photodiodes (PDs) using low-temperature fabrication technology. We confirmed demultiplexing by the AWG, optical-electrical signal conversion by Ge PDs, and high-speed signal detection at all channels. In addition, we mounted a multichannel transimpedance amplifier/limiting amplifier (TIA/LA) circuit on the fabricated AWG-PD device using flip-chip bonding technology. The results show the promising potential of our Si photonic platform as a photonics-electronics convergence.

  13. Large microwave tunability of GaAs-based multiferroic heterostructure for applications in monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yajie; Gao Jinsheng; Vittoria, C; Harris, V G; Heiman, D

    2010-01-01

    Microwave magnetoelectric coupling in a ferroelectric/ferromagnetic/semiconductor multiferroic (MF) heterostructure, consisting of a Co 2 MnAl epitaxial film grown on a GaAs substrate bonded to a lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) crystal, is reported. Ferromagnetic resonance measurements were carried out at X-band under the application of electric fields. Results indicate a frequency tuning of 125 MHz for electric field strength of 8 kV cm -1 resulting in a magnetoelectric coupling coefficient of 3.4 Oe cm kV -1 . This work explores the potential of electronically controlled MF devices for use in future monolithic microwave integrated circuits.

  14. Experimental Demonstration of 7 Tb/s Switching Using Novel Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Kamchevska, Valerija; Dalgaard, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate BER performance <10^-9 for a 1 Tb/s/core transmission over 7-core fiber and SDM switching using a novel silicon photonic integrated circuit composed of a 7x7 fiber switch and low loss SDM couplers.......We demonstrate BER performance integrated circuit composed of a 7x7 fiber switch and low loss SDM couplers....

  15. InP-based monolithically integrated 1310/1550nm diplexer/triplexer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfvenius, C.; Swillo, M.; Claesson, J.; Forsberg, E.; Akram, N.; Chacinski, M.; Thylén, L.

    2008-11-01

    Multiple streams of high definition television (HDTV) and improved home-working infrastructure are currently driving forces for potential fiber to the home (FTTH) customers [1]. There is an interest to reduce the cost and physical size of the FTTH equipment. The current fabrication methods have reached a cost minimum. We have addressed the costchallenge by developing 1310/(1490)/1550nm bidirectional diplexers, by monolithic seamless integration of lasers, photodiodes and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) couplers into one single InP-based device. A 250nm wide optical gain profile covers the spectrum from 1310 to 1550nm and is the principal building block. The device fabrication is basically based on the established configuration of using split-contacts on continuos waveguides. Optical and electrical cross-talks are further addressed by using a Y-configuration to physically separate the components from each other and avoid inline configurations such as when the incoming signal travels through the laser component or vice versa. By the eliminated butt-joint interfaces which can reflect light between components or be a current leakage path and by leaving optically absorbing (unpumped active) material to surround the components to absorb spontaneous emission and nonintentional reflections the devices are optically and electrically isolated from each other. Ridge waveguides (RWG) form the waveguides and which also maintain the absorbing material between them. The WDM functionality is designed for a large optical bandwidth complying with the wide spectral range in FTTH applications and also reducing the polarization dependence of the WDM-coupler. Lasing is achieved by forming facet-free, λ/4-shifted, DFB (distributed feedback laser) lasers emitting directly into the waveguide. The photodiodes are waveguide photo-diodes (WGPD). Our seamless technology is also able to array the single channel diplexers to 4 to 12 channel diplexer arrays with 250μm fiber port

  16. Economic testing of large integrated switching circuits - a challenge to the test engineer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreinberg, W.

    1978-01-01

    With reference to large integrated switching circuits, one can use an incoming standard programme test or the customer's switching circuits. The author describes the development of suitable, extensive and economical test programmes. (orig.) [de

  17. Microwave monolithic integrated circuit development for future spaceborne phased array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzic, G.; Kascak, T. J.; Downey, A. N.; Liu, D. C.; Connolly, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    The development of fully monolithic gallium arsenide (GaAs) receive and transmit modules suitable for phased array antenna applications in the 30/20 gigahertz bands is presented. Specifications and various design approaches to achieve the design goals are described. Initial design and performance of submodules and associated active and passive components are presented. A tradeoff study summary is presented, highlighting the advantages of a distributed amplifier approach compared to the conventional single power source designs. Previously announced in STAR as N84-13399

  18. Microwave monolithic integrated circuit development for future spaceborne phased array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzic, G.; Kascak, T. J.; Downey, A. N.; Liu, D. C.; Connolly, D. J.

    The development of fully monolithic gallium arsenide (GaAs) receive and transmit modules suitable for phased array antenna applications in the 30/20 gigahertz bands is presented. Specifications and various design approaches to achieve the design goals are described. Initial design and performance of submodules and associated active and passive components are presented. A tradeoff study summary is presented, highlighting the advantages of a distributed amplifier approach compared to the conventional single power source designs. Previously announced in STAR as N84-13399

  19. Gallium Nitride Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit Designs Using 0.25-micro m Qorvo Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-27

    and sensor systems of interest to US Defense Department applications, particularly for next-generation radar systems. Broadband, efficient, high...A simple GaN high-electron-mobility-transistor (HEMT) TR single-pull double- throw (SPDT) switch consists of at least 2 series- and 2 shunt... simple TR switch that works well up to 6 GHz is shown in Figs. 4 (layout) and 5 (simulation). Complementary DC-bias voltages are applied at inputs A

  20. Simultaneous all-optical add and drop multiplexing of 40-Gbit/s OTDM signals using monolithically integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Stokholm; Mikkelsen, Benny; Vaa, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Simultaneous all-optical add and drop multiplexing of a 40-Gbit/s OTDM signal using a monolithically integrated semiconductor optical amplifier/Mach Zehnder interferometer (SOA-MZI) is demonstrated. While maintaining a penalty of 1.3 dB for the add operation the sensitivity for the demultiplexed ...... signal is -34.4 dBm...

  1. The use of a new PMOS monolithic integrated circuit for the electronic equipment of a large multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareyre, P.; Borgeaud, P.; Poinsignon, J.; Billion, B.

    1975-01-01

    A new monolithic 8-channel PMOS integrated circuit has been developed for an experiment to be carried out on the CERN 300 GeV accelerator. The circuit, read-out electronics and tests performed on 12 large MWPCs (total of 48 000 channels) are described and the results are presented. (Auth.)

  2. Monolithic spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajic, Slobodan (Knoxville, TN); Egert, Charles M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kahl, William K. (Knoxville, TN); Snyder, Jr., William B. (Knoxville, TN); Evans, III, Boyd M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlar, Troy A. (Knoxville, TN); Cunningham, Joseph P. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays.

  3. Practical considerations for integrating switch mode audio amplifiers and loudspeakers for a higher power efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    An integration of electrodynamic loudspeakers and switch mode amplifiers has earlier been proposed in [1]. The work presented in this paper is related to the practical aspects of integration of switch mode audio amplifiers and electro dynamic loudspeakers, using the speaker’s voice coil as output...

  4. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical gain modulator with semiconductor optical amplifier for 10-Gb/s photonic transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    Short-range interconnection and/or data center networks require high capacity and a large number of channels in order to support numerous connections. Solutions employed to meet these requirements involve the use of alternative wavebands to increase the usable optical frequency range. We recently proposed the use of the T- and O-bands (Thousand band: 1000-1260 nm, Original band: 1260-1360 nm) as alternative wavebands because large optical frequency resources (>60 THz) can be easily employed. In addition, a simple and compact Gb/s-order high-speed optical modulator is a critical photonic device for short-range communications. Therefore, to develop an optical modulator that acts as a highfunctional photonic device, we focused on the use of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) as a three-dimensional (3D) confined structure because QD structures are highly suitable for realizing broadband optical gain media in the T+O bands. In this study, we use the high-quality broadband QD optical gain to develop a monolithically integrated QD optical gain modulator (QD-OGM) device that has a semiconductor optical amplifier (QD-SOA) for Gb/s-order highspeed optical data generation in the 1.3-μm waveband. The insertion loss of the device can be compensated through the SOA, and we obtained an optical gain change of up to ~7 dB in the OGM section. Further, we successfully demonstrate a 10-Gb/s clear eye opening using the QD-OGM/SOA device with a clock-data recovery sequence at the receiver end. These results suggest that the monolithic QD-EOM/SOA is suitable for increasing the number of wavelength channels for smart short-range communications.

  5. QKD-Based Secured Burst Integrity Design for Optical Burst Switched Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, A. M.; Sivasubramanian, A.; Parvathavarthini, B.

    2016-03-01

    The field of optical transmission has undergone numerous advancements and is still being researched mainly due to the fact that optical data transmission can be done at enormous speeds. It is quite evident that people prefer optical communication when it comes to large amount of data involving its transmission. The concept of switching in networks has matured enormously with several researches, architecture to implement and methods starting with Optical circuit switching to Optical Burst Switching. Optical burst switching is regarded as viable solution for switching bursts over networks but has several security vulnerabilities. However, this work exploited the security issues associated with Optical Burst Switching with respect to integrity of burst. This proposed Quantum Key based Secure Hash Algorithm (QKBSHA-512) with enhanced compression function design provides better avalanche effect over the conventional integrity algorithms.

  6. InP-based spotsize converter for integration with switching devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulemeijer, J.; Bakker, A.F.; Moerman, I.; Groen, F.H.; Smit, M.K.

    1999-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated an InGaAsP-InP based spotsize converter (SSC), which is compatible with the waveguide structure used in monolithic integrated ADM's and OXC's. In a first experiment, a total coupling loss to a cleaved fiber of 4.2 dB for TE and 3.9 dB for TM was realized with a 1.5

  7. Development of a switched integrator amplifier for high-accuracy optical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford, John; Porrovecchio, Geiland; Smid, Marek; Smid, Radislav

    2008-01-01

    In the field of low flux optical measurements, the development and use of large area silicon detectors is becoming more frequent. The current/voltage conversion of their photocurrent presents a set of problems for traditional transimpedance amplifiers. The switched integration principle overcomes these limitations. We describe the development of a fully characterized current-voltage amplifier using the switched integrator technique. Two distinct systems have been developed in parallel at the United Kingdom's National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and Czech Metrology Institute (CMI) laboratories. We present the circuit theory and best practice in the design and construction of switched integrators. In conclusion the results achieved and future developments are discussed

  8. Development of a switched integrator amplifier for high-accuracy optical measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountford, John; Porrovecchio, Geiland; Smid, Marek; Smid, Radislav

    2008-11-01

    In the field of low flux optical measurements, the development and use of large area silicon detectors is becoming more frequent. The current/voltage conversion of their photocurrent presents a set of problems for traditional transimpedance amplifiers. The switched integration principle overcomes these limitations. We describe the development of a fully characterized current-voltage amplifier using the switched integrator technique. Two distinct systems have been developed in parallel at the United Kingdom's National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and Czech Metrology Institute (CMI) laboratories. We present the circuit theory and best practice in the design and construction of switched integrators. In conclusion the results achieved and future developments are discussed.

  9. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits for sensors, radar, and communications systems; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 2-4, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Regis F. (Editor); Bhasin, Kul B. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to MMICs for airborne phased arrays, monolithic GaAs integrated circuit millimeter wave imaging sensors, accurate design of multiport low-noise MMICs up to 20 GHz, an ultralinear low-noise amplifier technology for space communications, variable-gain MMIC module for space applications, a high-efficiency dual-band power amplifier for radar applications, a high-density circuit approach for low-cost MMIC circuits, coplanar SIMMWIC circuits, recent advances in monolithic phased arrays, and system-level integrated circuit development for phased-array antenna applications. Consideration is also given to performance enhancement in future communications satellites with MMIC technology insertion, application of Ka-band MMIC technology for an Orbiter/ACTS communications experiment, a space-based millimeter wave debris tracking radar, low-noise high-yield octave-band feedback amplifiers to 20 GHz, quasi-optical MESFET VCOs, and a high-dynamic-range mixer using novel balun structure.

  10. A fully integrated, monolithic, cryogenic charge sensitive preamplifier using N-channel JFETs and polysilicon resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, T.S.; Guckel, H.; Seefeldt, J.; Ott, G.; Ahn, Y.C.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, an integrated charge preamplifier to be used with small (10--30 mm 2 ) Si(Li) and Ge(Li) X-ray detectors is described. The preamplifier is designed to operate at cryogenic temperatures (∼100 K to 160 K) for the best performance. An N-channel JFET process technology for integrated charge sensitive preamplifiers has been developed. The process integrates multiple pinch-off voltage JFETs fabricated in an n-type epitaxial layer on a low resistivity p-type substrate. The process also incorporates polysilicon resistors integrated on the same die as the JFETs. The optimized polysilicon resistors exhibit 1/f noise nearly as good as metal film resistors at the same current. Results for integrated amplifier are discussed

  11. A novel prototyping method for die-level monolithic integration of MEMS above-IC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicek, Paul-Vahe; Zhang, Qing; Saha, Tanmoy; Mahdavi, Sareh; Allidina, Karim; Gamal, Mourad El; Nabki, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a convenient and versatile prototyping method for integrating surface-micromachined microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) directly above IC electronics, at the die level. Such localized implementation helps reduce development costs associated with the acquisition of full-sized semiconductor wafers. To demonstrate the validity of this method, variants of an IC-compatible surface-micromachining MEMS process are used to build different MEMS devices above a commercial transimpedance amplifier chip. Subsequent functional assessments for both the electronics and the MEMS indicate that the integration is successful, validating the prototyping methodology presented in this work, as well as the suitability of the selected MEMS technology for above-IC integration. (paper)

  12. Imaging and chemical surface analysis of biomolecular functionalization of monolithically integrated on silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometric immunosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajos, Katarzyna; Angelopoulou, Michailia; Petrou, Panagiota; Awsiuk, Kamil; Kakabakos, Sotirios; Haasnoot, Willem; Bernasik, Andrzej; Rysz, Jakub; Marzec, Mateusz M.; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Ioannis; Budkowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization of probe immobilization with robotic spotter printing overlapping spots. • In-situ inspection of microstructured surfaces of biosensors integrated on silicon. • Imaging and chemical analysis of immobilization, surface blocking and immunoreaction. • Insight with molecular discrimination into step-by-step sensor surface modifications. • Optimized biofunctionalization improves sensor sensitivity and response repeatability. - Abstract: Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (imaging, micro-analysis) has been employed to evaluate biofunctionalization of the sensing arm areas of Mach-Zehnder interferometers monolithically integrated on silicon chips for the immunochemical (competitive) detection of bovine κ-casein in goat milk. Biosensor surfaces are examined after: modification with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, application of multiple overlapping spots of κ-casein solutions, blocking with 100-times diluted goat milk, and reaction with monoclonal mouse anti-κ-casein antibodies in blocking solution. The areas spotted with κ-casein solutions of different concentrations are examined and optimum concentration providing homogeneous coverage is determined. Coverage of biosensor surfaces with biomolecules after each of the sequential steps employed in immunodetection is also evaluated with TOF-SIMS, supplemented by Atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Uniform molecular distributions are observed on the sensing arm areas after spotting with optimum κ-casein concentration, blocking and immunoreaction. The corresponding biomolecular compositions are determined with a Principal Component Analysis that distinguished between protein amino acids and milk glycerides, as well as between amino acids characteristic for Mabs and κ-casein, respectively. Use of the optimum conditions (κ-casein concentration) for functionalization of chips with arrays of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers provided on-chips assays

  13. Imaging and chemical surface analysis of biomolecular functionalization of monolithically integrated on silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometric immunosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajos, Katarzyna, E-mail: kasia.fornal@uj.edu.pl [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Angelopoulou, Michailia; Petrou, Panagiota [Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Awsiuk, Kamil [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Kakabakos, Sotirios [Institute of Nuclear & Radiological Sciences & Technology, Energy & Safety, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Haasnoot, Willem [RIKILT Wageningen UR, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB Wageningen (Netherlands); Bernasik, Andrzej [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Rysz, Jakub [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Marzec, Mateusz M. [Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Misiakos, Konstantinos; Raptis, Ioannis [Department of Microelectronics, Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR Demokritos, P. Grigoriou & Neapoleos St, Aghia Paraksevi 15310, Athens (Greece); Budkowski, Andrzej [M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Optimization of probe immobilization with robotic spotter printing overlapping spots. • In-situ inspection of microstructured surfaces of biosensors integrated on silicon. • Imaging and chemical analysis of immobilization, surface blocking and immunoreaction. • Insight with molecular discrimination into step-by-step sensor surface modifications. • Optimized biofunctionalization improves sensor sensitivity and response repeatability. - Abstract: Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (imaging, micro-analysis) has been employed to evaluate biofunctionalization of the sensing arm areas of Mach-Zehnder interferometers monolithically integrated on silicon chips for the immunochemical (competitive) detection of bovine κ-casein in goat milk. Biosensor surfaces are examined after: modification with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane, application of multiple overlapping spots of κ-casein solutions, blocking with 100-times diluted goat milk, and reaction with monoclonal mouse anti-κ-casein antibodies in blocking solution. The areas spotted with κ-casein solutions of different concentrations are examined and optimum concentration providing homogeneous coverage is determined. Coverage of biosensor surfaces with biomolecules after each of the sequential steps employed in immunodetection is also evaluated with TOF-SIMS, supplemented by Atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Uniform molecular distributions are observed on the sensing arm areas after spotting with optimum κ-casein concentration, blocking and immunoreaction. The corresponding biomolecular compositions are determined with a Principal Component Analysis that distinguished between protein amino acids and milk glycerides, as well as between amino acids characteristic for Mabs and κ-casein, respectively. Use of the optimum conditions (κ-casein concentration) for functionalization of chips with arrays of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers provided on-chips assays

  14. Organic Optical Sensor Based on Monolithic Integration of Organic Electronic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoi Lam Tam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel organic optical sensor that integrates a front organic light-emitting diode (OLED and an organic photodiode (OPD is demonstrated. The stripe-shaped cathode is used in the OLED components to create light signals, while the space between the stripe-shaped cathodes serves as the detection window for integrated OPD units. A MoO3 (5 nm/Ag (15 nm bi-layer inter-electrode is interposed between the vertically stacked OLED and OPD units, serving simultaneously as the cathode for the front OLED and an anode for the upper OPD units in the sensor. In the integrated sensor, the emission of the OLED units is confined by the area of the opaque stripe-shaped cathodes, optimized to maximize the reflected light passing through the window space for detection by the OPD components. This can ensure high OLED emission output, increasing the signal/noise ratio. The design and fabrication flexibility of an integrated OLED/OPD device also has low cost benefits, and is light weight and ultra-thin, making it possible for application in wearable units, finger print identification, image sensors, smart light sources, and compact information systems.

  15. InP monolithically integrated label swapper device for spectral amplitude coded optical packet networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz, P.; García-Olcina, R.; Doménech, J.D.; Rius, M.; Sancho, J.C.; Capmany, J.; Chen, L.R.; Habib, C.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Vries, de T.; Heck, M.J.R.; Augustin, L.M.; Nötzel, R.; Robbins, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a label swapping device, for spectral amplitude coded optical packet networks, fully integrated using InP technology is presented. Compared to previous demonstrations using discrete component assembly, the device footprint is reduced by a factor of 105 and the operation speed is

  16. An Integrated Model of Cognitive Control in Task Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Erik M.; Gray, Wayne D.

    2008-01-01

    A model of cognitive control in task switching is developed in which controlled performance depends on the system maintaining access to a code in episodic memory representing the most recently cued task. The main constraint on access to the current task code is proactive interference from old task codes. This interference and the mechanisms that…

  17. Compact integrated optical devices for optical sensor and switching applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauppinen, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the design, fabrication, and characterization of compact optical devices for sensing and switching applications. Our focus has been to realize the devices using CMOS-compatible fabrication processes. Particularly the silicon photonics fabrication platform, ePIXfab, has been

  18. Integrated Very High Frequency Switch Mode Power Supplies: Design Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Jens Christian; Nour, Yasser; Knott, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    simulations. The required spiral inductors was modeled, and simulations show Q values of as high as 14 at a switching frequency of 250 MHz. Simulations of the converter show an efficiency of 55 % with a self oscillating gate drive. However the modeled inductor was not adequate for operating with the self...

  19. Optical Sensitivity of a Monolithic Integrated InP PIN-HEMT-HBT Transimpedance Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Matiss, A.; Janssen, G.; Bertenburg, R. M.; Brockerhoff, W.; Tegude, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    To improve sensitivity of optical receivers, a special integration concept is chosen that includes a pinphotodiode, high-electron mobility transistors (HEMT) and heterostructure bipolar transistors (HBT) on a single substrate. This work focuses on the optimization of the amplifier design to achieve lowest input noise currents of a transimpedance amplifier, and thus highest receiver sensitivity. The respective advantages of the components used are investigated with respect...

  20. Monolithic nanoscale photonics-electronics integration in silicon and other group IV elements

    CERN Document Server

    Radamson, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Silicon technology is evolving rapidly, particularly in board-to-board or chip-to chip applications. Increasingly, the electronic parts of silicon technology will carry out the data processing, while the photonic parts take care of the data communication. For the first time, this book describes the merging of photonics and electronics in silicon and other group IV elements. It presents the challenges, the limitations, and the upcoming possibilities of these developments. The book describes the evolution of CMOS integrated electronics, status and development, and the fundamentals of silicon p

  1. Monolithic integration of optical waveguides for absorbance detection in microfabricated electrophoresis devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Petersen, Nickolaj Jacob; Hübner, Jörg

    2001-01-01

    . The waveguides on the device were connected to optical fibers, which enabled alignment free operation due to the absence of free-space optics. A 750 mum long U-shaped detection cell was used to facilitate longitudinal absorption detection. To minimize geometrically induced band broadening at the turn in the U......The fabrication and performance of an electrophoretic separation chip with integrated of optical waveguides for absorption detection is presented. The device was fabricated on a silicon substrate by standard microfabrication techniques with the use of two photolithographic mask steps...

  2. Monolithic photonic integrated circuit with a GaN-based bent waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wei; Qin, Chuan; Zhang, Shuai; Yuan, Jialei; Zhang, Fenghua; Wang, Yongjin

    2018-06-01

    Integration of a transmitter, waveguide and receiver into a single chip can generate a multicomponent system with multiple functionalities. Here, we fabricate and characterize a GaN-based photonic integrated circuit (PIC) on a GaN-on-silicon platform. With removal of the silicon and back wafer thinning of the epitaxial film, ultrathin membrane-type devices and highly confined suspended GaN waveguides were formed. Two suspended-membrane InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well diodes (MQW-diodes) served as an MQW light-emitting diode (MQW-LED) to emit light and an MQW photodiode (MQW-PD) to sense light. The optical interconnects between the MQW-LED and MQW-PD were achieved using the GaN bent waveguide. The GaN-based PIC consisting of an MQW-LED, waveguides and an MQW-PD forms an in-plane light communication system with a data transmission rate of 70 Mbps.

  3. Monolithic beam steering in a mid-infrared, surface-emitting, photonic integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slivken, Steven; Wu, Donghai; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2017-08-16

    The mid-infrared (2.5 < λ < 25 μm) spectral region is utilized for many purposes, such as chemical/biological sensing, free space communications, and illuminators/countermeasures. Compared to near-infrared optical systems, however, mid-infrared component technology is still rather crude, with isolated components exhibiting limited functionality. In this manuscript, we make a significant leap forward in mid-infrared technology by developing a platform which can combine functions of multiple mid-infrared optical elements, including an integrated light source. In a single device, we demonstrate wide wavelength tuning (240 nm) and beam steering (17.9 degrees) in the mid-infrared with a significantly reduced beam divergence (down to 0.5 degrees). The architecture is also set up to be manufacturable and testable on a wafer scale, requiring no cleaved facets or special mirror coating to function.

  4. Software-defined networking control plane for seamless integration of multiple silicon photonic switches in Datacom networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yiwen; Hattink, Maarten H N; Samadi, Payman; Cheng, Qixiang; Hu, Ziyiz; Gazman, Alexander; Bergman, Keren

    2018-04-16

    Silicon photonics based switches offer an effective option for the delivery of dynamic bandwidth for future large-scale Datacom systems while maintaining scalable energy efficiency. The integration of a silicon photonics-based optical switching fabric within electronic Datacom architectures requires novel network topologies and arbitration strategies to effectively manage the active elements in the network. We present a scalable software-defined networking control plane to integrate silicon photonic based switches with conventional Ethernet or InfiniBand networks. Our software-defined control plane manages both electronic packet switches and multiple silicon photonic switches for simultaneous packet and circuit switching. We built an experimental Dragonfly network testbed with 16 electronic packet switches and 2 silicon photonic switches to evaluate our control plane. Observed latencies occupied by each step of the switching procedure demonstrate a total of 344 µs control plane latency for data-center and high performance computing platforms.

  5. Process Optimization for Monolithic Integration of Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor and MOSFET Amplifier with SOI Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V Vinoth; Dasgupta, A; Bhat, K N; KNatarajan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present the design and process optimization for fabricating piezoresitive pressure sensor and MOSFET Differential Amplifier simultaneously on the same chip. Silicon On Insulator approach has been used for realizing the membrane as well as the electronics on the same chip. The amplifier circuit has been configured in the common source connection and it has been designed with PSPICE simulation to achieve a voltage gain of about 5. In the initial set of experiments the Pressure sensor and the amplifier were fabricated on separate chips to optimize the process steps and tested in the hybrid mode. In the next set of experiments, SOI wafer having the SOI layer thickness of about 11 microns was used for realizing the membrane by anisotropic etching from the backside. The piezo-resistive pressure sensor was realized on this membrane by connecting the polysilicon resistors in the form of a Wheatstone bridge. The MOSFET source follower amplifier was also fabricated on the same SOI wafer by tailoring the process steps to suit the requirement of simultaneous fabrication of piezoresistors and the amplifier for achieving MOSFET Integrated Pressure Sensor. Reproducible results have been achieved on the SOI wafers, with the process steps developed in the laboratory. Sensitivity of 270 mV /Bar/10V, with the on chip amplifier gain of 4.5, has been achieved with this process

  6. Integrated Design Software Predicts the Creep Life of Monolithic Ceramic Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Significant improvements in propulsion and power generation for the next century will require revolutionary advances in high-temperature materials and structural design. Advanced ceramics are candidate materials for these elevated-temperature applications. As design protocols emerge for these material systems, designers must be aware of several innate features, including the degrading ability of ceramics to carry sustained load. Usually, time-dependent failure in ceramics occurs because of two different, delayedfailure mechanisms: slow crack growth and creep rupture. Slow crack growth initiates at a preexisting flaw and continues until a critical crack length is reached, causing catastrophic failure. Creep rupture, on the other hand, occurs because of bulk damage in the material: void nucleation and coalescence that eventually leads to macrocracks which then propagate to failure. Successful application of advanced ceramics depends on proper characterization of material behavior and the use of an appropriate design methodology. The life of a ceramic component can be predicted with the NASA Lewis Research Center's Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures (CARES) integrated design programs. CARES/CREEP determines the expected life of a component under creep conditions, and CARES/LIFE predicts the component life due to fast fracture and subcritical crack growth. The previously developed CARES/LIFE program has been used in numerous industrial and Government applications.

  7. Ultra-thin silicon (UTSi) on insulator CMOS transceiver and time-division multiplexed switch chips for smart pixel integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Sawchuk, Alexander A.

    2001-12-01

    We describe the design, fabrication and functionality of two different 0.5 micron CMOS optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) chips based on the Peregrine Semiconductor Ultra-Thin Silicon on insulator technology. The Peregrine UTSi silicon- on-sapphire (SOS) technology is a member of the silicon-on- insulator (SOI) family. The low-loss synthetic sapphire substrate is optically transparent and has good thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion properties, which meet the requirements for flip-chip bonding of VCSELs and other optoelectronic input-output components. One chip contains transceiver and network components, including four channel high-speed CMOS transceiver modules, pseudo-random bit stream (PRBS) generators, a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) and other test circuits. The transceiver chips can operate in both self-testing mode and networking mode. An on- chip clock and true-single-phase-clock (TSPC) D-flip-flop have been designed to generate a PRBS at over 2.5 Gb/s for the high-speed transceiver arrays to operate in self-testing mode. In the networking mode, an even number of transceiver chips forms a ring network through free-space or fiber ribbon interconnections. The second chip contains four channel optical time-division multiplex (TDM) switches, optical transceiver arrays, an active pixel detector and additional test devices. The eventual applications of these chips will require monolithic OEICs with integrated optical input and output. After fabrication and testing, the CMOS transceiver array dies will be packaged with 850 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), and metal-semiconductor- metal (MSM) or GaAs p-i-n detector die arrays to achieve high- speed optical interconnections. The hybrid technique could be either wire bonding or flip-chip bonding of the CMOS SOS smart-pixel arrays with arrays of VCSELs and photodetectors onto an optoelectronic chip carrier as a multi-chip module (MCM).

  8. A G-band terahertz monolithic integrated amplifier in 0.5-μm InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ou-Peng; Zhang Yong; Xu Rui-Min; Cheng Wei; Wang Yuan; Niu Bing; Lu Hai-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Design and characterization of a G-band (140–220 GHz) terahertz monolithic integrated circuit (TMIC) amplifier in eight-stage common-emitter topology are performed based on the 0.5-μm InGaAs/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT). An inverted microstrip line is implemented to avoid a parasitic mode between the ground plane and the InP substrate. The on-wafer measurement results show that peak gains are 20 dB at 140 GHz and more than 15-dB gain at 140–190 GHz respectively. The saturation output powers are −2.688 dBm at 210 GHz and −2.88 dBm at 220 GHz, respectively. It is the first report on an amplifier operating at the G-band based on 0.5-μm InP DHBT technology. Compared with the hybrid integrated circuit of vacuum electronic devices, the monolithic integrated circuit has the advantage of reliability and consistency. This TMIC demonstrates the feasibility of the 0.5-μm InGaAs/InP DHBT amplifier in G-band frequencies applications. (paper)

  9. InGaAsP Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical modulator monolithically integrated with InGaAs driver MOSFET on a III-V CMOS photonics platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Kown; Takagi, Shinichi; Takenaka, Mitsuru

    2018-02-19

    We demonstrated the monolithic integration of a carrier-injection InGaAsP Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) optical modulator and InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) on a III-V-on-insulator (III-V-OI) wafer. A low-resistivity lateral PIN junction was formed along an InGaAsP rib waveguide by Zn diffusion and Ni-InGaAsP alloy, enabling direct driving of the InGaAsP optical modulator by the InGaAs MOSFET. A π phase shift of the InGaAsP optical modulator was obtained through the injection of a drain current from the InGaAs MOSFET with a gate voltage of approximately 1 V. This proof-of-concept demonstration of the monolithic integration of the InGaAsP optical modulator and InGaAs driver MOSFET will enable us to develop high-performance and low-power electronic-photonic integrated circuits on a III-V CMOS photonics platform.

  10. Selective epitaxial growth of monolithically integrated GaN-based light emitting diodes with AlGaN/GaN driving transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhaojun; Ma, Jun; Huang, Tongde; Liu, Chao; May Lau, Kei

    2014-01-01

    In this Letter, we report selective epitaxial growth of monolithically integrated GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) drivers. A comparison of two integration schemes, selective epitaxial removal (SER), and selective epitaxial growth (SEG) was made. We found the SER resulted in serious degradation of the underlying LEDs in a HEMT-on-LED structure due to damage of the p-GaN surface. The problem was circumvented using the SEG that avoided plasma etching and minimized device degradation. The integrated HEMT-LEDs by SEG exhibited comparable characteristics as unintegrated devices and emitted modulated blue light by gate biasing

  11. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits for sensors, radar, and communications systems; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 2-4, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Regis F.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    Consideration is given to MMICs for airborne phased arrays, monolithic GaAs integrated circuit millimeter wave imaging sensors, accurate design of multiport low-noise MMICs up to 20 GHz, an ultralinear low-noise amplifier technology for space communications, variable-gain MMIC module for space applications, a high-efficiency dual-band power amplifier for radar applications, a high-density circuit approach for low-cost MMIC circuits, coplanar SIMMWIC circuits, recent advances in monolithic phased arrays, and system-level integrated circuit development for phased-array antenna applications. Consideration is also given to performance enhancement in future communications satellites with MMIC technology insertion, application of Ka-band MMIC technology for an Orbiter/ACTS communications experiment, a space-based millimeter wave debris tracking radar, low-noise high-yield octave-band feedback amplifiers to 20 GHz, quasi-optical MESFET VCOs, and a high-dynamic-range mixer using novel balun structure. (For individual items see A93-25777 to A93-25814)

  12. Integrated hybrid switched-capacitor converter for LED drivers in 180 nm CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Rodriguez, J.; Delos, J.; Hendrix, M.A.M.; Van Roermund, A.; Cantatore, E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a LED driver based on a new Hybrid-Switched Capacitor Converter (H-SCC) operating in the MHz range, which uses the internal pulsed nodes of a Dickson converter and an LC output network to provide output current dimming. The converter is implemented using 5V integrated capacitors

  13. A multidimensional superposition principle and wave switching in integrable and nonintegrable soliton models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeyev, Alexander A [Laboratory of Computer Physics and Mathematical Simulation, Research Division, Room 247, Faculty of Phys.-Math. and Natural Sciences, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, 6 Miklukho-Maklaya street, Moscow 117198 (Russian Federation) and Department of Mathematics 1, Faculty of Cybernetics, Moscow State Institute of Radio Engineering, Electronics and Automatics, 78 Vernadskogo Avenue, Moscow 117454 (Russian Federation)

    2004-11-26

    In the framework of a multidimensional superposition principle a series of computer experiments with integrable and nonintegrable models are carried out with the goal of verifying the existence of switching effect and superposition in soliton-perturbation interactions for a wide class of nonlinear PDEs. (letter to the editor)

  14. Area-Efficiency Trade-Offs in Integrated Switched-Capacitor DC-DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Frederik Monrad; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Knott, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between efficiency and chip area in a fully integrated switched capacitor voltage divider dc-dc converter implemented in 180nm-technology and a 1/2 topology. A numerical algorithm for choosing the optimal sizes of individual components, in terms of power loss...

  15. Monolithic solid-state lasers for spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Stephen, Mark A.; Merritt, Scott; Glebov, Leonid; Glebova, Larissa; Ryasnyanskiy, Aleksandr; Smirnov, Vadim; Mu, Xiaodong; Meissner, Stephanie; Meissner, Helmuth

    2015-02-01

    A new solution for building high power, solid state lasers for space flight is to fabricate the whole laser resonator in a single (monolithic) structure or alternatively to build a contiguous diffusion bonded or welded structure. Monolithic lasers provide numerous advantages for space flight solid-state lasers by minimizing misalignment concerns. The closed cavity is immune to contamination. The number of components is minimized thus increasing reliability. Bragg mirrors serve as the high reflector and output coupler thus minimizing optical coatings and coating damage. The Bragg mirrors also provide spectral and spatial mode selection for high fidelity. The monolithic structure allows short cavities resulting in short pulses. Passive saturable absorber Q-switches provide a soft aperture for spatial mode filtering and improved pointing stability. We will review our recent commercial and in-house developments toward fully monolithic solid-state lasers.

  16. Development of control rod position indicator using seismic-resistance reed switches for integral reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Je Yong; Kim, Ji Ho; Huh, Hyung; Choi, Myoung Hwan; Sohn, Dong Seong

    2008-01-01

    The Reed Switch Position Transmitter (RSPT) is used as a position indicator for the control rod in commercial nuclear power plants made by ABB-CE. But this position indicator has some problems when directly adopting it to the integral reactor. The Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) for the integral reactor is designed to raise and lower the control rod in steps of 2mm in order to satisfy the design features of the integral reactor which are the soluble boron free operation and the use of a nuclear heating for the reactor start-up. Therefore the resolution of the position indicator for the integral reactor should be achieved to sense the position of the control rod more precisely than that of the RSPT of the ABB-CE. This paper adopts seismic resistance reed switches to the position indicator in order to reduce the damages or impacts during the handling of the position indicator and earthquake

  17. Systems and methods for switched-inductor integrated voltage regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Kenneth L.; Sturcken, Noah Andrew

    2017-12-12

    Power controller includes an output terminal having an output voltage, at least one clock generator to generate a plurality of clock signals and a plurality of hardware phases. Each hardware phase is coupled to the at least one clock generator and the output terminal and includes a comparator. Each hardware phase is configured to receive a corresponding one of the plurality of clock signals and a reference voltage, combine the corresponding clock signal and the reference voltage to produce a reference input, generate a feedback voltage based on the output voltage, compare the reference input and the feedback voltage using the comparator and provide a comparator output to the output terminal, whereby the comparator output determines a duty cycle of the power controller. An integrated circuit including the power controller is also provided.

  18. Complete achromatic and robustness electro-optic switch between two integrated optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Kyoseva, Elica

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel design of electro-optic modulator and optical switching device, based on current integrated optics technique. The advantages of our optical switching device are broadband of input light wavelength, robustness against varying device length and operation voltages, with reference to previous design. Conforming to our results of previous paper [Huang et al, phys. lett. a, 90, 053837], the coupling of the waveguides has a hyperbolic-secant shape. while detuning has a sign flip at maximum coupling, we called it as with a sign flip of phase mismatch model. The a sign flip of phase mismatch model can produce complete robust population transfer. In this paper, we enhance this device to switch light intensity controllable, by tuning external electric field based on electro-optic effect.

  19. Monoliths in Bioprocess Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignesh Rajamanickam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic columns are a special type of chromatography column, which can be used for the purification of different biomolecules. They have become popular due to their high mass transfer properties and short purification times. Several articles have already discussed monolith manufacturing, as well as monolith characteristics. In contrast, this review focuses on the applied aspect of monoliths and discusses the most relevant biomolecules that can be successfully purified by them. We describe success stories for viruses, nucleic acids and proteins and compare them to conventional purification methods. Furthermore, the advantages of monolithic columns over particle-based resins, as well as the limitations of monoliths are discussed. With a compilation of commercially available monolithic columns, this review aims at serving as a ‘yellow pages’ for bioprocess engineers who face the challenge of purifying a certain biomolecule using monoliths.

  20. Contraceptive discontinuation and switching among couples receiving integrated HIV and family planning services in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Lisa; Wall, Kristin M; Vwalika, Bellington; Khu, Naw Htee; Brill, Ilene; Kilembe, William; Stephenson, Rob; Chomba, Elwyn; Vwalika, Cheswa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

    2013-10-01

    To describe predictors of contraceptive method discontinuation and switching behaviours among HIV-positive couples receiving couples' voluntary HIV counselling and testing services in Lusaka, Zambia. Couples were randomized in a factorial design to two-family planning educational intervention videos, received comprehensive family planning services and were assessed every 3 months for contraceptive initiation, discontinuation and switching. We modelled factors associated with contraceptive method upgrading and downgrading via multivariate Andersen-Gill models. Most women continued the initial method selected after randomization. The highest rates of discontinuation/switching were observed for injectable contraceptive and intrauterine device users. Time to discontinuing the more effective contraceptive methods or downgrading to oral contraceptives or condoms was associated with the women's younger age, desire for more children within the next year, heavy menstrual bleeding, bleeding between periods and cystitis/dysuria. Health concerns among women about contraceptive implants and male partners not wanting more children were associated with upgrading from oral contraceptives or condoms. HIV status of the woman or the couple was not predictive of switching or stopping. We found complicated patterns of contraceptive use. The predictors of contraception switching indicate that interventions targeted to younger couples that address common contraception-related misconceptions could improve effective family planning utilization. We recommend these findings be used to increase the uptake and continuation of contraception, especially long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods, and that fertility goal based, LARC-focused family planning be offered as an integral part of HIV prevention services.

  1. Automatic and integrated micro-enzyme assay (AIμEA) platform for highly sensitive thrombin analysis via an engineered fluorescence protein-functionalized monolithic capillary column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lihua; Liu, Shengquan; Nie, Zhou; Chen, Yingzhuang; Lei, Chunyang; Wang, Zhen; Yin, Chao; Hu, Huiping; Huang, Yan; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2015-04-21

    Nowadays, large-scale screening for enzyme discovery, engineering, and drug discovery processes require simple, fast, and sensitive enzyme activity assay platforms with high integration and potential for high-throughput detection. Herein, a novel automatic and integrated micro-enzyme assay (AIμEA) platform was proposed based on a unique microreaction system fabricated by a engineered green fluorescence protein (GFP)-functionalized monolithic capillary column, with thrombin as an example. The recombinant GFP probe was rationally engineered to possess a His-tag and a substrate sequence of thrombin, which enable it to be immobilized on the monolith via metal affinity binding, and to be released after thrombin digestion. Combined with capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF), all the procedures, including thrombin injection, online enzymatic digestion in the microreaction system, and label-free detection of the released GFP, were integrated in a single electrophoretic process. By taking advantage of the ultrahigh loading capacity of the AIμEA platform and the CE automatic programming setup, one microreaction column was sufficient for many times digestion without replacement. The novel microreaction system showed significantly enhanced catalytic efficiency, about 30 fold higher than that of the equivalent bulk reaction. Accordingly, the AIμEA platform was highly sensitive with a limit of detection down to 1 pM of thrombin. Moreover, the AIμEA platform was robust and reliable to detect thrombin in human serum samples and its inhibition by hirudin. Hence, this AIμEA platform exhibits great potential for high-throughput analysis in future biological application, disease diagnostics, and drug screening.

  2. Controllable Organic Resistive Switching Achieved by One-Step Integration of Cone-Shaped Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Haifeng; Yi, Mingdong; Nagai, Masaru; Xie, Linghai; Wang, Laiyuan; Hu, Bo; Huang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Conductive filaments (CFs)-based resistive random access memory possesses the ability of scaling down to sub-nanoscale with high-density integration architecture, making it the most promising nanoelectronic technology for reclaiming Moore's law. Compared with the extensive study in inorganic switching medium, the scientific challenge now is to understand the growth kinetics of nanoscale CFs in organic polymers, aiming to achieve controllable switching characteristics toward flexible and reliable nonvolatile organic memory. Here, this paper systematically investigates the resistive switching (RS) behaviors based on a widely adopted vertical architecture of Al/organic/indium-tin-oxide (ITO), with poly(9-vinylcarbazole) as the case study. A nanoscale Al filament with a dynamic-gap zone (DGZ) is directly observed using in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) , which demonstrates that the RS behaviors are related to the random formation of spliced filaments consisting of Al and oxygen vacancy dual conductive channels growing through carbazole groups. The randomicity of the filament formation can be depressed by introducing a cone-shaped contact via a one-step integration method. The conical electrode can effectively shorten the DGZ and enhance the localized electric field, thus reducing the switching voltage and improving the RS uniformity. This study provides a deeper insight of the multiple filamentary mechanisms for organic RS effect. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Monolithic Integration of Sampled Grating DBR with Electroabsorption Modulator by Combining Selective-Area-Growth MOCVD and Quantum-Well Intermixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Bo, Liu; Ling-Juan, Zhao; Jiao-Qing, Pan; Hong-Liang, Zhu; Fan, Zhou; Bao-Jun, Wang; Wei, Wang

    2008-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of a sampled-grating distributed Bragg reflector (SG-DBR) laser with a quantum-well electroabsorption modulator (QW-EAM) by combining ultra-low-pressure (55mbar) selective-area-growth (SAG) metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) and quantum-well intermixing (QWI) for the first time. The QW-EAM and the gain section can be grown simultaneously by using SAG MOCVD technology. Meanwhile, the QWI technology offers an abrupt band-gap change between two functional sections, which reduces internal absorption loss. The experimental results show that the threshold current Ith = 62 mA, and output power reaches 3.6mW. The wavelength tuning range covers 30nm, and all the corresponding side mode suppression ratios are over 30 dB. The extinction ratios at available wavelength channels can reach more than 14 dB with bias of -5 V

  4. Consensus of Fractional-Order Multiagent Systems with Double Integrator under Switching Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyun Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complexity of the practical environments, many systems can only be described with the fractional-order dynamics. In this paper, the consensus of fractional-order multiagent systems with double integrator under switching topologies is investigated. By applying Mittag-Leffler function, Laplace transform, and dwell time technique, a sufficient condition on consensus is obtained. Finally, a numerical simulation is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical result.

  5. Monolithic multinozzle emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daojing [Daly City, CA; Yang, Peidong [Kensington, CA; Kim, Woong [Seoul, KR; Fan, Rong [Pasadena, CA

    2011-09-20

    Novel and significantly simplified procedures for fabrication of fully integrated nanoelectrospray emitters have been described. For nanofabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (NM.sup.2 emitters), a bottom up approach using silicon nanowires on a silicon sliver is used. For microfabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (M.sup.3 emitters), a top down approach using MEMS techniques on silicon wafers is used. The emitters have performance comparable to that of commercially-available silica capillary emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry.

  6. Module Integrated GaN Power Stage for High Switching Frequency Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour, Yasser; Knott, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    is integrated on a high glass transition temperature 0.4 mmthick FR4 substrate configured as a 70 pin ball grid arraypackage. The power stage is tested up to switching frequency of12 MHz. The power stage achieved 88.5 % peak efficiency whenconfigured as a soft switching buck converter operating at 7MHz......An increased attention has been detected todevelop smaller and lighter high voltage power converters in therange of 50 V to 400 V domains. The applications for theseconverters are mainly focused for Power over Ethernet (PoE),LED lighting and ac adapters. Design for high power density isone...... of the targets for next generation power converters. Thispaper presents an 80 V input capable multi-chip moduleintegration of enhancement mode gallium nitride (GaN) fieldeffect transistors (FETs) based power stage. The module design ispresented and validated through experimental results. The powerstage...

  7. Robotic Tactile Sensors Fabricated from a Monolithic Silicon Integrated Circuit and a Piezoelectric Polyvinylidene Fluoride Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    thi efecs could be accounted for. A high impedance switch network resulted in the aityto etally apply a fix&. ,zw the entire electrode array structure...sesrCmnipo-wil (if a I wo-itmetsitiial array of clusely spared : axels should be cajpable -it fundmental image seivsinm and thius. renile: iii ,fbIot Willh...is said to be piezoresistive. Piezoresistive tactile sensors incorporate this principle in tile design of tile sensor as the transducing material

  8. A Monolithic CMOS Magnetic Hall Sensor with High Sensitivity and Linearity Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiyun; Wang, Dejun; Xu, Yue

    2015-10-27

    This paper presents a fully integrated linear Hall sensor by means of 0.8 μm high voltage complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. This monolithic Hall sensor chip features a highly sensitive horizontal switched Hall plate and an efficient signal conditioner using dynamic offset cancellation technique. An improved cross-like Hall plate achieves high magnetic sensitivity and low offset. A new spinning current modulator stabilizes the quiescent output voltage and improves the reliability of the signal conditioner. The tested results show that at the 5 V supply voltage, the maximum Hall output voltage of the monolithic Hall sensor microsystem, is up to ±2.1 V and the linearity of Hall output voltage is higher than 99% in the magnetic flux density range from ±5 mT to ±175 mT. The output equivalent residual offset is 0.48 mT and the static power consumption is 20 mW.

  9. 125 GHz sine wave gating InGaAs/InP single-photon detector with a monolithically integrated readout circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen-Hao; Liu, Jian-Hong; Liu, Yin; Jin, Ge; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-12-01

    InGaAs/InP single-photon detectors (SPDs) are the key devices for applications requiring near-infrared single-photon detection. Gating mode is an effective approach to synchronous single-photon detection. Increasing gating frequency and reducing module size are important challenges for the design of such detector system. Here we present for the first time an InGaAs/InP SPD with 1.25 GHz sine wave gating using a monolithically integrated readout circuit (MIRC). The MIRC has a size of 15 mm * 15 mm and implements the miniaturization of avalanche extraction for high-frequency sine wave gating. In the MIRC, low-pass filters and a low-noise radio frequency amplifier are integrated based on the technique of low temperature co-fired ceramic, which can effectively reduce the parasitic capacitance and extract weak avalanche signals. We then characterize the InGaAs/InP SPD to verify the functionality and reliability of MIRC, and the SPD exhibits excellent performance with 27.5 % photon detection efficiency, 1.2 kcps dark count rate, and 9.1 % afterpulse probability at 223 K and 100 ns hold-off time. With this MIRC, one can further design miniaturized high-frequency SPD modules that are highly required for practical applications.

  10. 1.25  GHz sine wave gating InGaAs/InP single-photon detector with a monolithically integrated readout circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen-Hao; Liu, Jian-Hong; Liu, Yin; Jin, Ge; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-12-15

    InGaAs/InP single-photon detectors (SPDs) are the key devices for applications requiring near-infrared single-photon detection. The gating mode is an effective approach to synchronous single-photon detection. Increasing gating frequency and reducing the module size are important challenges for the design of such a detector system. Here we present for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, an InGaAs/InP SPD with 1.25 GHz sine wave gating (SWG) using a monolithically integrated readout circuit (MIRC). The MIRC has a size of 15  mm×15  mm and implements the miniaturization of avalanche extraction for high-frequency SWG. In the MIRC, low-pass filters and a low-noise radio frequency amplifier are integrated based on the technique of low temperature co-fired ceramic, which can effectively reduce the parasitic capacitance and extract weak avalanche signals. We then characterize the InGaAs/InP SPD to verify the functionality and reliability of the MIRC, and the SPD exhibits excellent performance with 27.5% photon detection efficiency, a 1.2 kcps dark count rate, and 9.1% afterpulse probability at 223 K and 100 ns hold-off time. With this MIRC, one can further design miniaturized high-frequency SPD modules that are highly required for practical applications.

  11. Integration of look-ahead multicast and unicast scheduling for input-queued cell switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an integration of multicast and unicast traffic scheduling algorithms for input-queued cell switches. The multi-level round-robin multicast scheduling (ML-RRMS) algorithm with the look-ahead (LA) mechanism provides a highly scalable architecture and is able to reduce the head...... module that filters out the conflicting requests to ensure fairness. Simulation results show that comparing with the scheme using WBA for the multicast scheduling, the scheme proposed in this paper reduces the HOL blocking problem for multicast traffic and provides a significant improvement in terms...

  12. A novel high voltage start up circuit for an integrated switched mode power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Hao; Chen Xingbi, E-mail: huhao21@uestc.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2010-09-15

    A novel high voltage start up circuit for providing an initial bias voltage to an integrated switched mode power supply (SMPS) is presented. An enhanced mode VDMOS transistor, the gate of which is biased by a floating p-island, is used to provide start up current and sustain high voltage. An NMOS transistor having a high source to ground breakdown voltage is included to extend the bias voltage range to the SMPS. Simulation results indicate that the high voltage start up circuit can start and restart as designed. The proposed structure is believed to be more energy saving and cost-effective compared with other solutions. (semiconductor devices)

  13. Single Switch Nonisolated Ultra-Step-Up DC-DC Converter with an Integrated Coupled Inductor for High Boost Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam P.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a new single-switch nonisolated dc-dc converter with very high voltage gain and reduced semiconductor voltage stress. The converter utilizes an integrated autotransformer and a coupled inductor on the same core in order to achieve a very high voltage gain without using extreme...... duty cycle. Furthermore, a passive lossless clamp circuit recycles the leakage energy of the coupled magnetics and alleviates the voltage spikes across the main switch. This feature along with low stress on the switching device enables the designer to use a low voltage and low RDS-on MOSFET, which...

  14. Uricase-free on-demand colorimetric biosensing of uric acid enabled by integrated CoP nanosheet arrays as a monolithic peroxidase mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanfang; Qi, Fei; Niu, Xiangheng; Zhang, Wenchi; Zhang, Xifeng; Pan, Jianming

    2018-08-27

    In clinical diagnosis, monitoring of uric acid (UA) is generally realized by combining uricase with natural peroxidase. The use of bio-enzymes, however, shadows some highlights of these methods due to their vulnerable activities against environments. Herein, we report a novel biosensor for the natural enzyme-free colorimetric detection of UA by using CoP nanosheet arrays grown on Ni foam (NF) as a monolithic peroxidase mimic. The integrated nanozyme can be put into and taken out from reaction systems conveniently with only tweezers, making it possible for on-demand analysis. As demonstrated, the obtained CoP/NF exhibits outstanding peroxidase-like activity to trigger the oxidation reaction of colorless 3,3'5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) to a blue product (TMBox) mediated by H 2 O 2 . It is found that the blue TMBox can be reduced to colorless TMB again by UA selectively, thus the presence of UA in solutions will suppress the color reaction of TMB. Based on this principle, an uricase-free biosensor is developed for the photometric determination of UA, providing a wide detection range of 1-200 μM and a limit of detection down to 1.0 μM. In addition, the fabricated biosensor can be applied for measuring UA in clinical samples with merits of simple operation and good reliability, exhibiting its great promise in clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fabrication of an electro-absorption transceiver with a monolithically integrated optical amplifier for fiber transmission of 40–60 GHz radio signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Andy Zhenzhong; Wang, Qin; Fonjallaz, Pierre-Yves; Almqvist, Susanne; Karlsson, Stefan; Kjebon, Olle; Schatz, Richard; Chacinski, Marek; Thylén, Lars; Berggren, Jesper; Hammar, Mattias; Honecker, Jörg; Steffan, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of a monolithically integrated semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a reflective electro-absorption transceiver (EAT) for 40–60 GHz radio-over-fiber applications. The EAT can either function as a transmitter (reflective modulator) or as a receiver (photodetector) depending on operation mode. The SOA and the EAT sections are based on different InGaAsP multiple quantum-well active layers connected by a butt joint. Benzocyclobutene is used to reduce the capacitance beside the ridge mesa. Devices are designed to have a peaked response at the operating frequency through the design of microwave waveguides on top of the devices. The packaged device exhibits at 0.1 mW optical input power an amplified DC responsivity of 18.5 mA mW −1 and a modulation efficiency of 0.67 mW V −1 . The estimated radio frequency loss at 40 GHz of an optical link consisting of two SOA–EAT devices was 23 dB using an unmodulated optical input carrier to the transmitter of 0.94 mW

  16. Observing others stay or switch - How social prediction errors are integrated into reward reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihssen, Niklas; Mussweiler, Thomas; Linden, David E J

    2016-08-01

    Reward properties of stimuli can undergo sudden changes, and the detection of these 'reversals' is often made difficult by the probabilistic nature of rewards/punishments. Here we tested whether and how humans use social information (someone else's choices) to overcome uncertainty during reversal learning. We show a substantial social influence during reversal learning, which was modulated by the type of observed behavior. Participants frequently followed observed conservative choices (no switches after punishment) made by the (fictitious) other player but ignored impulsive choices (switches), even though the experiment was set up so that both types of response behavior would be similarly beneficial/detrimental (Study 1). Computational modeling showed that participants integrated the observed choices as a 'social prediction error' instead of ignoring or blindly following the other player. Modeling also confirmed higher learning rates for 'conservative' versus 'impulsive' social prediction errors. Importantly, this 'conservative bias' was boosted by interpersonal similarity, which in conjunction with the lack of effects observed in a non-social control experiment (Study 2) confirmed its social nature. A third study suggested that relative weighting of observed impulsive responses increased with increased volatility (frequency of reversals). Finally, simulations showed that in the present paradigm integrating social and reward information was not necessarily more adaptive to maximize earnings than learning from reward alone. Moreover, integrating social information increased accuracy only when conservative and impulsive choices were weighted similarly during learning. These findings suggest that to guide decisions in choice contexts that involve reward reversals humans utilize social cues conforming with their preconceptions more strongly than cues conflicting with them, especially when the other is similar. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B

  17. Concept and design of a beam blanker with integrated photoconductive switch for ultrafast electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weppelman, I G C; Moerland, R J; Hoogenboom, J P; Kruit, P

    2018-01-01

    We present a new method to create ultrashort electron pulses by integrating a photoconductive switch with an electrostatic deflector. This paper discusses the feasibility of such a system by analytical and numerical calculations. We argue that ultrafast electron pulses can be achieved for micrometer scale dimensions of the blanker, which are feasible with MEMS-based fabrication technology. According to basic models, the design presented in this paper is capable of generating 100 fs electron pulses with spatial resolutions of less than 10 nm. Our concept for an ultrafast beam blanker (UFB) may provide an attractive alternative to perform ultrafast electron microscopy, as it does not require modification of the microscope nor realignment between DC and pulsed mode of operation. Moreover, only low laser pulse energies are required. Due to its small dimensions the UFB can be inserted in the beam line of a commercial microscope via standard entry ports for blankers or variable apertures. The use of a photoconductive switch ensures minimal jitter between laser and electron pulses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Process-Based Cost Modeling of Photonics Manufacture: The Cost Competitiveness of Monolithic Integration of a 1550-nm DFB Laser and an Electroabsorptive Modulator on an InP Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Erica R. H.; Bruce, E. J.; Ram, R. J.; Kirchain, Randolph E.

    2006-08-01

    The monolithic integration of components holds promise to increase network functionality and reduce packaging expense. Integration also drives down yield due to manufacturing complexity and the compounding of failures across devices. Consensus is lacking on the economically preferred extent of integration. Previous studies on the cost feasibility of integration have used high-level estimation methods. This study instead focuses on accurate-to-industry detail, basing a process-based cost model of device manufacture on data collected from 20 firms across the optoelectronics supply chain. The model presented allows for the definition of process organization, including testing, as well as processing conditions, operational characteristics, and level of automation at each step. This study focuses on the cost implications of integration of a 1550-nm DFB laser with an electroabsorptive modulator on an InP platform. Results show the monolithically integrated design to be more cost competitive over discrete component options regardless of production scale. Dominant cost drivers are packaging, testing, and assembly. Leveraging the technical detail underlying model projections, component alignment, bonding, and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are identified as processes where technical improvements are most critical to lowering costs. Such results should encourage exploration of the cost advantages of further integration and focus cost-driven technology development.

  19. Measuring fragmentation in dissociative identity disorder: the integration measure and relationship to switching and time in therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, M Rose; Chu, James A

    2014-01-01

    Some people with dissociative identity disorder (DID) have very little communication or awareness among the parts of their identity, while others experience a great deal of cooperation among alternate identities. Previous research on this topic has been sparse. Currently, there is no empirical measure of integration versus fragmentation in a person with DID. In this study, we report the development of such a measure. The goal of this study was to pilot the integration measure (IM) and to address its psychometric properties and relationships to other measures. The IM is the first standardized measure of integration in DID. Eleven women with DID participated in an experiment that included a variety of tasks. They filled out questionnaires about trauma and dissociation as well as the IM. They also provided verbal results about switching among alternate identities during the study sessions. Participants switched among identities an average of 5.8 times during the first session, and switching was highly correlated with trauma. Integration was related to switching, though this relationship may be non-linear. Integration was not related to time in psychotherapy. The IM provides a useful beginning to quantify and study integration and fragmentation in DID. Directions for future research are also discussed, including expanding the IM from this pilot. The IM may be useful in treatment settings to assess progress or change over time.

  20. Measuring fragmentation in dissociative identity disorder: the integration measure and relationship to switching and time in therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Rose Barlow

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some people with dissociative identity disorder (DID have very little communication or awareness among the parts of their identity, while others experience a great deal of cooperation among alternate identities. Previous research on this topic has been sparse. Currently, there is no empirical measure of integration versus fragmentation in a person with DID. In this study, we report the development of such a measure. Objective: The goal of this study was to pilot the integration measure (IM and to address its psychometric properties and relationships to other measures. The IM is the first standardized measure of integration in DID. Method: Eleven women with DID participated in an experiment that included a variety of tasks. They filled out questionnaires about trauma and dissociation as well as the IM. They also provided verbal results about switching among alternate identities during the study sessions. Results: Participants switched among identities an average of 5.8 times during the first session, and switching was highly correlated with trauma. Integration was related to switching, though this relationship may be non-linear. Integration was not related to time in psychotherapy. Conclusions: The IM provides a useful beginning to quantify and study integration and fragmentation in DID. Directions for future research are also discussed, including expanding the IM from this pilot. The IM may be useful in treatment settings to assess progress or change over time.

  1. Monolithic distributed power management for systems-on-chip (SoC); Gestion monolithique distribuee de puissance pour les systemes sur puce (SOC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedinpour, S. [Motorola, Semiconductor Products Sector, Tempe (United States); Bakkaloglu, B. [Texas Instruments, Broadband Communications Group, Dallas, Texas (United States); Kiaei, S. [Arizona State Univ., Connection one Research Center, Tempe (United States)

    2004-08-01

    With increasing drive towards higher level of integration, lower cost, and longer battery life in wireless applications, there is a need for efficient monolithic DC-DC power converters. This tutorial paper summarizes the topology tradeoffs that are involved in the implementation of monolithic distributed power management in the future generations of SoCs for portable wireless applications. These circuits have a broad range of requirements including high power density, high energy efficiency, low noise, small size, and low cost. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the competing topologies, namely low-dropout linear, switched capacitor, and switched-mode DC-DC converters are examined in light of these requirements. (authors)

  2. Monolithic photonic integration for visible and short near-infrared wavelengths: technologies and platforms for bio and life science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, Marco A. G.; Artundo, Iñigo; Domenech, J. David; Geuzebroek, Douwe; Sunarto, Rino; Hoofman, Romano

    2018-04-01

    This tutorial aims to provide a general overview on the state-of-the-art of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) in the visible and short near-infrared (NIR) wavelength ranges, mostly focusing in silicon nitride (SiN) substrates, and a guide to the necessary steps in the design toward the fabrication of such PICs. The focus is put on bio- and life sciences, given the adequacy and, thus, a large number of applications in this field.

  3. Sampled-data consensus in switching networks of integrators based on edge events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Feng; Meng, Xiangyu; Chen, Tongwen

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates the event-driven sampled-data consensus in switching networks of multiple integrators and studies both the bidirectional interaction and leader-following passive reaction topologies in a unified framework. In these topologies, each information link is modelled by an edge of the information graph and assigned a sequence of edge events, which activate the mutual data sampling and controller updates of the two linked agents. Two kinds of edge-event-detecting rules are proposed for the general asynchronous data-sampling case and the synchronous periodic event-detecting case. They are implemented in a distributed fashion, and their effectiveness in reducing communication costs and solving consensus problems under a jointly connected topology condition is shown by both theoretical analysis and simulation examples.

  4. Vertically integrated ZnO-Based 1D1R structure for resistive switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yang; Duan Ziqing; Li Rui; Ku, Chieh-Jen; Reyes, Pavel I; Ashrafi, Almamun; Zhong Jian; Lu Yicheng

    2013-01-01

    We report a ZnO-based 1D1R structure, which is formed by a vertical integration of a FeZnO/MgO switching resistor (1R) and an Ag/MgZnO Schottky diode (1D). The multifunctional ZnO and its compounds are grown through MOCVD with in situ doping. For the R element, the current ratio of the high-resistance state (HRS) over the low-resistance state (LRS) at 1 V is 2.4 × 10 6 . The conduction mechanisms of the HRS and LRS are Poole–Frenkel emission and resistive conduction, respectively. The D element shows the forward/reverse current ratio at ±1 V to be 2.4 × 10 7 . This 1D1R structure exhibits high R HRS /R LRS ratio, excellent rectifying characteristics and robust retention. (paper)

  5. Monolithic integration of InGaAs/InP multiple quantum wells on SOI substrates for photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhibo; Wang, Mengqi; Fang, Xin; Li, Yajie; Zhou, Xuliang; Yu, Hongyan; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Wei; Pan, Jiaoqing

    2018-02-01

    A direct epitaxy of III-V nanowires with InGaAs/InP multiple quantum wells on v-shaped trenches patterned silicon on insulator (SOI) substrates was realized by combining the standard semiconductor fabrication process with the aspect ratio trapping growth technique. Silicon thickness as well as the width and gap of each nanowire were carefully designed to accommodate essential optical properties and appropriate growth conditions. The III-V element ingredient, crystalline quality, and surface topography of the grown nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and scanning electron microscope. Geometrical details and chemical information of multiple quantum wells were revealed by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Numerical simulations confirmed that the optical guided mode supported by one single nanowire was able to propagate 50 μm with ˜30% optical loss. This proposed integration scheme opens up an alternative pathway for future photonic integrations of III-V devices on the SOI platform at nanoscale.

  6. Monolithic integration of AlGaInP laser diodes on SiGe/Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, O.; Boeckl, J. J.; Lee, M. L.; Pitera, A. J.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Ringel, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    Room temperature operation of visible AlGaInP laser diodes epitaxially integrated on Si was demonstrated. Compressively strained laser heterostructures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on low dislocation density SiGe/Si substrates, where the threading dislocation density of the top relaxed Ge layers was measured in the range of 2x10 6 cm -2 . A threshold current density of J th ∼1.65 kA/cm 2 for the as-cleaved, gain-guided AlGaInP laser grown on SiGe/Si was obtained at the peak emission wavelength of 680 nm under pulsed mode current injection. These results show that not only can high quality AlGaInP materials grown by MBE be achieved on Si via relaxed SiGe interlayers, but the prototype demonstration of laser diode operation on Si illustrates that very defect sensitive optoelectronics in the III-P system can indeed be integrated with Si substrates by heteroepitaxial methods

  7. Monolithic JFET preamplifier for ionization chamber calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; Rescia, S.; Manfredi, P.F.; Speziali, V.

    1990-10-01

    A monolithic charge sensitive preamplifier using exclusively n-channel diffused JFETs has been designed and is now being fabricated by INTERFET Corp. by means of a dielectrically isolated process which allows preserving as much as possible the technology upon which discrete JFETs are based. A first prototype built by means of junction isolated process has been delivered. The characteristics of monolithically integrated JFETs compare favorably with discrete devices. First results of tests of a preamplifier which uses these devices are reported. 4 refs

  8. Technology development for SOI monolithic pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczewski, J.; Domanski, K.; Grabiec, P.; Grodner, M.; Jaroszewicz, B.; Kociubinski, A.; Kucharski, K.; Tomaszewski, D.; Caccia, M.; Kucewicz, W.; Niemiec, H.

    2006-01-01

    A monolithic detector of ionizing radiation has been manufactured using silicon on insulator (SOI) wafers with a high-resistivity substrate. In our paper the integration of a standard 3 μm CMOS technology, originally designed for bulk devices, with fabrication of pixels in the bottom wafer of a SOI substrate is described. Both technological sequences have been merged minimizing thermal budget and providing suitable properties of all the technological layers. The achieved performance proves that fully depleted monolithic active pixel matrix might be a viable option for a wide spectrum of future applications

  9. New Integrated Multilevel Converter for Switched Reluctance Motor Drives in Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Flexible Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Chun; Wu, Jianhua; Hu, Yihua

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated multilevel converter of switched reluctance motors (SRMs) fed by a modular front-end circuit for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications. Several operating modes can be achieved by changing the on-off states of the switches in the front-end circuit......, the battery can be charged by the external AC source or generator when the vehicle is in standstill condition. The SRM-based PHEV can operate at different speeds by coordinating power flow from the generator and battery. Simulation in MATLAB/Simulink and experiments on a three-phase 12/8 SRM confirm...

  10. Synthesis and design of a fully integrated multi-topology switched capacitor DC-DC converter with gearbox control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jeppe Gaardsted; Yosef-Hay, Yoni; Larsen, Dennis Øland

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses a methodology of minimizing the amount of switches in a multi-topology fully integrated switched capacitor dc-dc converter powered by a super capacitor for energy harvesting purposes. The design of a simple controlling circuit for the multi-topology power stage using a gearbox...... approach is presented with all the required circuits. The converter is able to generate a output voltage of 1.2 V from a 470 mF capacitor charged to 3 V down to 1.4 V. The output voltage is regulated with a ripple voltage below 7 mV. The controlling circuit including buffers with ideal comparators has...

  11. Sensory systems for a control rod position using reed switches for the integral reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J. Y.; Choi, S.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, D. J.

    2007-01-01

    The system-integrated modular advanced reactor (SMART) currently under development at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is being designed with a soluble boron free operation and the use of nuclear heating for the reactor start-up. These design features require a Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) for the SMART to have a fine-step movement capability as well as a high reliability for a fine reactivity control. Also the reliability and accuracy of the information for the control rod position is very important to the reactor safety as well as the design of the core protection system. The position indicator is classified as a Class 1E component because the rod position signal of the position indicator is used in the safety related systems. Therefore it will be separated from the control systems to the extent that a failure of any single control system component of a channel and shall have sufficient independence, redundancy, and testability to perform its safety functions assuming a single failure. The position indicator is composed of a permanent magnet, reed switches and a voltage divider. Four independent position indicators around the upper pressure housing provide an indication of the position of a control rod comprising of a permanent magnet with a magnetic field concentrator which moves with the extension shaft connected to the control rod. The zigzag arranged reed switches are positioned along a line parallel to the path of the movement of the permanent magnet and it is activated selectively when the permanent magnet passes by. A voltage divider electrically connected to the reed switches provides a signal commensurate with the position of the control rod. The signal may then be transmitted to a position indicating device. In order to monitor the operating condition of the rotary step motor of CEDM, the angular position detector was installed at the top of the rotary step motor by means of connecting between the planetary gear and the rotating

  12. Synthesis of Porous Carbon Monoliths Using Hard Templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepel, Olaf; Danneberg, Nina; Dräger, Matti; Erlitz, Marcel; Taubert, Michael

    2016-03-21

    The preparation of porous carbon monoliths with a defined shape via template-assisted routes is reported. Monoliths made from porous concrete and zeolite were each used as the template. The porous concrete-derived carbon monoliths exhibited high gravimetric specific surface areas up to 2000 m²·g -1 . The pore system comprised macro-, meso-, and micropores. These pores were hierarchically arranged. The pore system was created by the complex interplay of the actions of both the template and the activating agent as well. On the other hand, zeolite-made template shapes allowed for the preparation of microporous carbon monoliths with a high volumetric specific surface area. This feature could be beneficial if carbon monoliths must be integrated into technical systems under space-limited conditions.

  13. Monolithic integrated photoreceiver for 1.3--1.55-μm wavelengths: Association of a Schottky photodiode and a field-effect transistor on GaInP-GaInAs heteroepitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therani, A.H.; Decoster, D.; Vilcot, J.P.; Razeghi, M.

    1988-01-01

    We present a monolithic integrated circuit associating a Schottky photodiode and a field-effect transistor which has been fabricated, for the first time, on Ga/sub 0.49/In/sub 0.51/P/Ga/sub 0.47/In/sub 0.53/As strained heteroepitaxial material. Static, dynamic, and noise properties of the Schottky photodiode, the field-effect transistor, and the integrated circuit have been investigated and are reported. As an example, dynamic responsivity up to 50 A/W can be achieved at 1.3-μm wavelength for the integrated photoreceiver. The performance of the device is discussed, taking into account the integrated circuit design and the main characteristics of the material

  14. Analysis of bovine milk caseins on organic monolithic columns: an integrated capillary liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry approach for the study of time-dependent casein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierri, Giuseppe; Kotoni, Dorina; Simone, Patrizia; Villani, Claudio; Pepe, Giacomo; Campiglia, Pietro; Dugo, Paola; Gasparrini, Francesco

    2013-10-25

    Casein proteins constitute approximately 80% of the proteins present in bovine milk and account for many of its nutritional and technological properties. The analysis of the casein fraction in commercially available pasteurized milk and the study of its time-dependent degradation is of considerable interest in the agro-food industry. Here we present new analytical methods for the study of caseins in fresh and expired bovine milk, based on the use of lab-made capillary organic monolithic columns. An integrated capillary high performance liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry (Cap-LC-HRMS) approach was developed, exploiting the excellent resolution, permeability and biocompatibility of organic monoliths, which is easily adaptable to the analysis of intact proteins. The resolution obtained on the lab-made Protein-Cap-RP-Lauryl-γ-Monolithic column (270 mm × 0.250 mm length × internal diameter, L × I.D.) in the analysis of commercial standard caseins (αS-CN, β-CN and κ-CN) through Cap-HPLC-UV was compared to the one observe using two packed capillary C4 columns, the ACE C4 (3 μm, 150 mm × 0.300 mm, L × I.D.) and the Jupiter C4 column (5 μm, 150 mm × 0.300 mm, L × I.D.). Thanks to the higher resolution observed, the monolithic capillary column was chosen for the successive degradation studies of casein fractions extracted from bovine milk 1-4 weeks after expiry date. The comparison of the UV chromatographic profiles of skim, semi-skim and whole milk showed a major stability of whole milk towards time-dependent degradation of caseins, which was further sustained by high-resolution analysis on a 50-cm long monolithic column using a 120-min time gradient. Contemporarily, the exact monoisotopic and average molecular masses of intact αS-CN and β-CN protein standards were obtained through high resolution mass spectrometry and used for casein identification in Cap-LC-HRMS analysis. Finally, the proteolytic degradation of β-CN in skim milk

  15. Optical buffer based on monolithic InP phased-array 1×16 switch with silica-PLC pitch converter and ultra-compact coiled fiber delay lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanemura, T.; Soganci, I. M.; Oyama, T.; Ohyama, T.; Mino, S.; Williams, K. A.; Calabretta, N.; Dorren, H. J S; Nakano, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate large-capacity high-resolution optical buffer, comprising 1×16 InP switch and ultra-compact delay lines based on thin-cladding highly nonlinear fibers. Silica-PLC-based pitch converter is employed to realize uniform coupling from all 16 switch ports simultaneously.

  16. "Cul-de-sac" microstrip resonators for high-speed integrated optical commutator switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Nicolas A.; Chen, Mingche

    1993-04-01

    A novel microstrip resonator structure for use with integrated Y-branch optical modulators fabricated in Ti:LiNbO3 is proposed. The legs of the structure are intended to act as the electrodes of the modulator, with light being directed into each of the output waveguides of the Y-branch on alternate half-cycles of the standing wave excited in the resonator; forming an optical commutator switch. Such resonators having Al2O3 substrates were designed, fabricated, and tested. Measurements on one such resonator, operating at 7.12 GHz and having an unloaded quality factor of 123, indicating that 50 V should develop across the ends of its legs for 35 mW dissipated power; the corresponding values, from the model used to design the resonator, were 179, 50 V,and 24 mW, respectively. Using the model it is shown that a similar resonator fabricated on LiNbO3 should be able to develop about 50 V for 100 mW dissipated power at 15 GHz.

  17. Design of photonic phased array switches using nano electromechanical systems on silicon-on-insulator integration platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Ali Abdulsattar

    This thesis presents an introduction to the design and simulation of a novel class of integrated photonic phased array switch elements. The main objective is to use nano-electromechanical (NEMS) based phase shifters of cascaded under-etched slot nanowires that are compact in size and require a small amount of power to operate them. The structure of the switch elements is organized such that it brings the phase shifting elements to the exterior sides of the photonic circuits. The transition slot couplers, used to interconnect the phase shifters, are designed to enable biasing one of the silicon beams of each phase shifter from an electrode located at the side of the phase shifter. The other silicon beam of each phase shifter is biased through the rest of the silicon structure of the switch element, which is taken as a ground. Phased array switch elements ranging from 2x2 up to 8x8 multiple-inputs/multiple-outputs (MIMO) are conveniently designed within reasonable footprints native to the current fabrication technologies. Chapter one presents the general layout of the various designs of the switch elements and demonstrates their novel features. This demonstration will show how waveguide disturbances in the interconnecting network from conventional switch elements can be avoided by adopting an innovative design. Some possible applications for the designed switch elements of different sizes and topologies are indicated throughout the chapter. Chapter two presents the design of the multimode interference (MMI) couplers used in the switch elements as splitters, combiners and waveguide crossovers. Simulation data and design methodologies for the multimode couplers of interest are detailed in this chapter. Chapter three presents the design and analysis of the NEMS-operated phase shifters. Both simulations and numerical analysis are utilized in the design of a 0°-180° capable NEMS-operated phase shifter. Additionally, the response of some of the designed photonic phased

  18. Fibrous monolithic ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovar, D.; King, B.H.; Trice, R.W.; Halloran, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Fibrous monolithic ceramics are an example of a laminate in which a controlled, three-dimensional structure has been introduced on a submillimeter scale. This unique structure allows this all-ceramic material to fail in a nonbrittle manner. Materials have been fabricated and tested with a variety of architectures. The influence on mechanical properties at room temperature and at high temperature of the structure of the constituent phases and the architecture in which they are arranged are discussed. The elastic properties of these materials can be effectively predicted using existing models. These models also can be extended to predict the strength of fibrous monoliths with an arbitrary orientation and architecture. However, the mechanisms that govern the energy absorption capacity of fibrous monoliths are unique, and experimental results do not follow existing models. Energy dissipation occurs through two dominant mechanisms--delamination of the weak interphases and then frictional sliding after cracking occurs. The properties of the constituent phases that maximize energy absorption are discussed. In this article, the authors examine the structure of Si 3 N 4 -BN fibrous monoliths from the submillimeter scale of the crack-deflecting cell-cell boundary features to the nanometer scale of the BN cell boundaries

  19. Anterior cingulate cortex instigates adaptive switches in choice by integrating immediate and delayed components of value in ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economides, Marcos; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Dolan, Raymond J

    2014-02-26

    Actions can lead to an immediate reward or punishment and a complex set of delayed outcomes. Adaptive choice necessitates the brain track and integrate both of these potential consequences. Here, we designed a sequential task whereby the decision to exploit or forego an available offer was contingent on comparing immediate value and a state-dependent future cost of expending a limited resource. Crucially, the dynamics of the task demanded frequent switches in policy based on an online computation of changing delayed consequences. We found that human subjects choose on the basis of a near-optimal integration of immediate reward and delayed consequences, with the latter computed in a prefrontal network. Within this network, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was dynamically coupled to ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) when adaptive switches in choice were required. Our results suggest a choice architecture whereby interactions between ACC and vmPFC underpin an integration of immediate and delayed components of value to support flexible policy switching that accommodates the potential delayed consequences of an action.

  20. Pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} on amorphous dielectric layers towards monolithic 3D photonic integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haofeng; Brouillet, Jeremy; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng, E-mail: Jifeng.Liu@dartmouth.edu [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2014-11-17

    We demonstrate pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} crystallized on amorphous layers at <450 °C towards 3D Si photonic integration. We developed two approaches to seed the lateral single crystal growth: (1) utilize the Gibbs-Thomson eutectic temperature depression at the tip of an amorphous GeSn nanotaper for selective nucleation; (2) laser-induced nucleation at one end of a GeSn strip. Either way, the crystallized Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} is dominated by a single grain >18 μm long that forms optoelectronically benign twin boundaries with others grains. These pseudo single crystal, direct-band-gap Ge{sub 0.89}Sn{sub 0.11} patterns are suitable for monolithic 3D integration of active photonic devices on Si.

  1. Evaluation of DC/DC switching power regulation with small-scale integrated inductors for PET/MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagi, Laura [IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris and Fondazione Imago 7, Calambrone, Pisa (Italy); Bisogni, Maria Giuseppina; Camarlinghi, Niccolo [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Costagli, Mauro [IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris and Fondazione Imago 7, Calambrone, Pisa (Italy); Sportelli, Giancarlo [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Tosetti, Michela [IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris and Fondazione Imago 7, Calambrone, Pisa (Italy); Del Guerra, Alberto; Belcari, Nicola [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, Pisa (Italy)

    2015-05-18

    We present a feasibility study that has been carried out to determine the best power regulation strategy for the PET front-end electronics of the trimodal PET/MRI/EEG TRIMAGE scanner. Conventional power regulation strategies cannot be applied to PET/MRI because standard switching regulators stop working in presence of a high magnetic field. At the state of the art, linear regulators are used instead. However, linear regulators are inefficient and might not allow to fulfill power and thermal constraints if the electronics becomes more power demanding, such as in the case of FPGA based front-ends. Very recently, a new generation of switching power supplies has been introduced for EMI critical applications where the discrete inductor energy buffer is not allowed. These supplies have very small footprint, need few biasing peripherals and they use on-chip integrated inductors for energy storage. These switching power regulators coupled with an adequate EMI shield could be an achievable power solution for our PET front-end electronics. Test procedures for Enpirion. EN2390QI and the Enpirion. EN6347QI switching power regulators are presented. Measurements have been performed at GE 1.5T MRI scanner with the support of IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris. All the board have been tested in two different configurations: with and without an additional EMI shield. Performance of these two switching power regulators have been compared with a linear power regulator (Enpirion. EY1501DI). Output voltage, output current and temperature have been measured. The stability of these three main characteristic will be presented in different operation conditions and will be discussed (output voltage vs. temperature, output voltage vs. output current and output current vs. temperature).

  2. Monolith electroplating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarrwal, Rajev R.

    2001-01-01

    An electroplating process for preparing a monolith metal layer over a polycrystalline base metal and the plated monolith product. A monolith layer has a variable thickness of one crystal. The process is typically carried in molten salts electrolytes, such as the halide salts under an inert atmosphere at an elevated temperature, and over deposition time periods and film thickness sufficient to sinter and recrystallize completely the nucleating metal particles into one single crystal or crystals having very large grains. In the process, a close-packed film of submicron particle (20) is formed on a suitable substrate at an elevated temperature. The temperature has the significance of annealing particles as they are formed, and substrates on which the particles can populate are desirable. As the packed bed thickens, the submicron particles develop necks (21) and as they merge into each other shrinkage (22) occurs. Then as micropores also close (23) by surface tension, metal density is reached and the film consists of unstable metal grain (24) that at high enough temperature recrystallize (25) and recrystallized grains grow into an annealed single crystal over the electroplating time span. While cadmium was used in the experimental work, other soft metals may be used.

  3. Test of the TRAPPISTe monolithic detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soung Yee, L.; Álvarez, P.; Martin, E.; Cortina, E.; Ferrer, C.

    2013-12-01

    A monolithic pixel detector named TRAPPISTe-2 has been developed in Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) technology. A p-n junction is implanted in the bottom handle wafer and connected to readout electronics integrated in the top active layer. The two parts are insulated from each other by a buried oxide layer resulting in a monolithic detector. Two small pixel matrices have been fabricated: one containing a 3-transistor readout and a second containing a charge sensitive amplifier readout. These two readout structures have been characterized and the pixel matrices were tested with an infrared laser source. The readout circuits are adversely affected by the backgate effect, which limits the voltage that can be applied to the metal back plane to deplete the sensor, thus narrowing the depletion width of the sensor. Despite the low depletion voltages, the integrated pixel matrices were able to respond to and track a laser source.

  4. Molecular beam epitaxy of InP single junction and InP/In0.53Ga0.47As monolithically integrated tandem solar cells using solid phosphorous source material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaney, A.; Chin, K.; Street, S.; Newman, F.; Aguilar, L.; Ignatiev, A.; Monier, C.; Velela, M.; Freundlich, A.

    1998-01-01

    This work reports the first InP solar cells, InP/In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As tandem solar cells and InP tunnel junctions to be grown using a solid phosphorous source cracker cell in a molecular beam epitaxy system. High p-type doping achieved with this system allowed for the development of InP tunnel junctions. These junctions which allow for improved current matching in subsequent monolithically integrated tandem devices also do not absorb photons which can be utilized in the InGaAs structure. Photocurrent spectral responses compared favorably to devices previously grown in a chemical beam epitaxy system. High resolution x-ray scans demonstrated good lattice matching between constituent parts of the tandem cell. AM0 efficiencies of both InP and InP/InGaAs tandem cells are reported

  5. Porous polymer monolithic col

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Terborg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new approach has been developed for the preparation of mixed-mode stationary phases to separate proteins. The pore surface of monolithic poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate capillary columns was functionalized with thiols and coated with gold nanoparticles. The final mixed mode surface chemistry was formed by attaching, in a single step, alkanethiols, mercaptoalkanoic acids, and their mixtures on the free surface of attached gold nanoparticles. Use of these mixtures allowed fine tuning of the hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance. The amount of attached gold nanoparticles according to thermal gravimetric analysis was 44.8 wt.%. This value together with results of frontal elution enabled calculation of surface coverage with the alkanethiol and mercaptoalkanoic acid ligands. Interestingly, alkanethiols coverage in a range of 4.46–4.51 molecules/nm2 significantly exceeded that of mercaptoalkanoic acids with 2.39–2.45 molecules/nm2. The mixed mode character of these monolithic stationary phases was for the first time demonstrated in the separations of proteins that could be achieved in the same column using gradient elution conditions typical of reverse phase (using gradient of acetonitrile in water and ion exchange chromatographic modes (applying gradient of salt in water, respectively.

  6. Advantages of horizontal and vertical integration in process- and switch gear control; Vorteile einer horizontalen und vertikalen Integration in Prozess- und Schaltanlagenautomatisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erning, Peter; Langlotz, Kati [ABB AG, Mannheim (Germany). Div. Energietechnik

    2010-07-01

    Higher operating efficiency in power generation is more and more in the focus. Traditional control systems are frequently confined to the vertical integration of process control. It is quite common to use separate SCADA systems for controlling electrical auxiliary systems. However, there exists an overlap between these domains: major loads though belonging to the process are operated by medium-voltage switch gear. Until now the necessary control interconnections required the installation of costly and inflexible marshalling racks. Integrated operation and diagnostics was difficult to implement. These disadvantages apply accordingly in case of implementation of the entire sub-station via direct wiring. State-of-the-art control systems connect these two worlds in one system by integration of sub-station automation using the open standard IEC 61850 which allows freedom of choice in equipment and full access to all sub-station data. (orig.)

  7. Extended Leach Testing of Simulated LAW Cast Stone Monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Benjamin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jung, H. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-09

    This report describes the results from long-term laboratory leach tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the release of key constituents from monoliths of Cast Stone prepared with four simulated low-activity waste (LAW) liquid waste streams. Specific objectives of the Cast Stone long-term leach tests described in this report focused on four activities: 1. Extending the leaching times for selected ongoing EPA-1315 tests on monoliths made with LAW simulants beyond the conventional 63-day time period up to 609 days reported herein (with some tests continuing that will be documented later) in an effort to evaluate long-term leaching properties of Cast Stone to support future performance assessment activities. 2. Starting new EPA-1315 leach tests on archived Cast Stone monoliths made with four LAW simulants using two leachants (deionized water [DIW] and simulated Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Site vadose zone pore water [VZP]). 3. Evaluating the impacts of varying the iodide loading (starting iodide concentrations) in one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) Average) by manufacturing new Cast Stone monoliths and repeating the EPA-1315 leach tests using DIW and the VZP leachants. 4. Evaluating the impacts of using a non-pertechnetate form of Tc that is present in some Hanford tanks. In this activity one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na HTWOS Average) was spiked with a Tc(I)-tricarbonyl gluconate species and then solidified into Cast Stone monoliths. Cured monoliths were leached using the EPA-1315 leach protocol with DIW and VZP. The leach results for the Tc-Gluconate Cast Stone monoliths were compared to Cast Stone monoliths pertechnetate.

  8. A Monolithic CMOS Magnetic Hall Sensor with High Sensitivity and Linearity Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyun Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fully integrated linear Hall sensor by means of 0.8 μm high voltage complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS technology. This monolithic Hall sensor chip features a highly sensitive horizontal switched Hall plate and an efficient signal conditioner using dynamic offset cancellation technique. An improved cross-like Hall plate achieves high magnetic sensitivity and low offset. A new spinning current modulator stabilizes the quiescent output voltage and improves the reliability of the signal conditioner. The tested results show that at the 5 V supply voltage, the maximum Hall output voltage of the monolithic Hall sensor microsystem, is up to ±2.1 V and the linearity of Hall output voltage is higher than 99% in the magnetic flux density range from ±5 mT to ±175 mT. The output equivalent residual offset is 0.48 mT and the static power consumption is 20 mW.

  9. Carbon emission reduction targeting through process integration and fuel switching with mathematical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiew, B.J.; Shuhaimi, M.; Hashim, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CO 2 emissions reduction targeting for existing plant were categorized into three groups. ► Model for CO 2 emissions reduction targeting via combination approach was developed. ► Effect of combination approach onto HEN area efficiency was discussed. ► Proposed execution strategy can avoid HEN area efficiency deterioration. -- Abstract: Carbon emission reduction targeting is an important and effective effort for industry to contribute in controlling greenhouse gases concentration in atmosphere. Graphical approach has been proposed for CO 2 emissions reduction targeting via HEN retrofit and fuel switching. However, it involves potentially time consuming manual procedures and the quality of solutions produced greatly depends on designer’s experience and judgment. Besides, graphical approach hardly account for the cost factor during the design phase, thus potentially generate complex design. This paper introduces an MINLP model for simultaneous CO 2 emissions reduction targeting via fuel switching and HEN retrofit. A sequential model execution was proposed along with the proposed model. The application of the model on a crude preheat train case study has demonstrated its workability to generate optimal solution for targeted CO 2 emissions reduction at minimum payback period.

  10. Monolithic integration of a silicon nanowire field-effect transistors array on a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor chip for biochemical sensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livi, Paolo; Kwiat, Moria; Shadmani, Amir; Pevzner, Alexander; Navarra, Giulio; Rothe, Jörg; Stettler, Alexander; Chen, Yihui; Patolsky, Fernando; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2015-10-06

    We present a monolithic complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based sensor system comprising an array of silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) and the signal-conditioning circuitry on the same chip. The silicon nanowires were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition methods and then transferred to the CMOS chip, where Ti/Pd/Ti contacts had been patterned via e-beam lithography. The on-chip circuitry measures the current flowing through each nanowire FET upon applying a constant source-drain voltage. The analog signal is digitized on chip and then transmitted to a receiving unit. The system has been successfully fabricated and tested by acquiring I-V curves of the bare nanowire-based FETs. Furthermore, the sensing capabilities of the complete system have been demonstrated by recording current changes upon nanowire exposure to solutions of different pHs, as well as by detecting different concentrations of Troponin T biomarkers (cTnT) through antibody-functionalized nanowire FETs.

  11. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric thin films and their applications for integrated capacitors, piezoelectric ultrasound transducers and piezoelectric switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, M; Boots, H; Kumar, B; Heesch, C van; Mauczok, R; Keur, W; Wild, M de; Esch, H van; Roest, A L; Reimann, K; Leuken, L van; Wunnicke, O; Zhao, J; Schmitz, G; Mienkina, M; Mleczko, M; Tiggelman, M

    2010-01-01

    Ferroelectric and piezoelectric thin films are gaining more and more importance for the integration of high performance devices in small modules. High-K 'Integrated Discretes' devices have been developed, which are based on thin film ferroelectric capacitors integrated together with resistors and ESD protection diodes in a small Si-based chip-scale package. Making use of ferroelectric thin films with relative permittivity of 950-1600 and stacking processes of capacitors, extremely high capacitance densities of 20-520 nF/mm 2 , high breakdown voltages up to 140 V and lifetimes of more than 10 years at operating voltages of 5 V and 85 deg. C are achieved. Thin film high-density capacitors play also an important role as tunable capacitors for applications such as tuneable matching circuits for RF sections of mobile phones. The performance of thin film tuneable capacitors at frequencies between 1 MHz and 1 GHz is investigated. Finally thin film piezoelectric ultrasound transducers, processed in Si- related processes, are attractive for medical imaging, since they enable large bandwidth (>100%), high frequency operation and have the potential to integrate electronics. With these piezoelectric thin film ultrasound transducers real time ultrasound images have been realized. Finally, piezoelectric thin films are used to manufacture galvanic MEMS switches. A model for the quasi-static mechanical behaviour is presented and compared with measurements.

  12. Fully integrated Q-switch for commercial high-power resonator with solitary XLMA-fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, R.; Bachert, C.; Rehmann, G.; Weber, H.; Luxen, R.; Enns, H.; Schenk, M.; Hosdorf, S.; Marfels, S.; Bay, M.; Kösters, A.; Krause, V.; Giesberts, M.; Fitzau, O.; Hoffmann, H.-D.

    2018-02-01

    In surface processing applications the correlation of laser power to processing speed demands a further enhancement of the performance of short-pulsed laser sources with respect to the investment costs. The frequently applied concept of master oscillator power amplifier relies on a complex structure, parts of which are highly sensitive to back reflected amplified radiation. Aiming for a simpler, robust source using only a single ytterbium doped XLMA fiber in a q-switched resonator appears as promising design approach eliminating the need for subsequent amplification. This concept requires a high power-tolerant resonator which is provided by the multikilowatt laser platform of Laserline including directly water-cooled active fiber thermal management. Laserline GmbH and Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology joined their forces1 to upgrade standard high power laser sources for short-pulsed operation exceeding 1 kW of average power. Therefor a compact, modular qswitch has been developed. In this paper the implementation of a polarization independent q-switch into an off-the-shelf multi-kilowatt diodepumped continuous wave fiber source is shown. In this early step of implementation we demonstrated more than 1000 W of average power at pulse lengths below 50 ns FWHM and 7.5 mJ pulse energy. The M2 corresponds to 9.5. Reliability of the system is demonstrated based on measurements including temperature and stability records. We investigated the variation possibilities concerning pulse parameters and shape as well as upcoming challenges in power up-scaling.

  13. Boost Converter with Three-State Switching Cell and Integrated Magnetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimczak, Pawel; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2009-01-01

    Fuel cell systems often require high voltage gain and dc-dc step-up converter is a critical part. Scope of this paper is integration of inductor and transformer on a single core. Usage of integrated magnetics improves utilization of magnetic core and thus size and weight of the converter may...

  14. Identities in Harmony: Gender-Work Identity Integration Moderates Frame Switching in Cognitive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacharin, Vera; Lee, Fiona; Gonzalez, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Professional women's identity integration--the perceived compatibility between work and gender identities--plays a role in how task or relationship information is processed. Seventy female business school students were primed with either their professional or their gender identity. Business women with higher identity integration showed an…

  15. A 60-GHz rectenna for monolithic wireless sensor tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Johannsen, U.; Matters - Kammerer, M.; Milosevic, D.; Smolders, A.B.; Roermund, van A.H.M.; Baltus, P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a 60-GHz rectenna with an on-chip antenna and rectifier in 65nm CMOS technology. The rectenna is often the bottleneck in realizing a fully-integrated monolithic wireless sensor tag. In this paper, problems of the mm-wave rectifier are discussed, and the

  16. Monolitni katalizatori i reaktori: osnovne značajke, priprava i primjena (Monolith catalysts and reactors: preparation and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašić, V.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic (honeycomb catalysts are continuous unitary structures containing many narrow, parallel and usually straight channels (or passages. Catalytically active components are dispersed uniformly over the whole porous ceramic monolith structure (so-called incorporated monolithic catalysts or are in a layer of porous material that is deposited on the walls of channels in the monolith's structure (washcoated monolithic catalysts. The material of the main monolithic construction is not limited to ceramics but includes metals, as well. Monolithic catalysts are commonly used in gas phase catalytic processes, such as treatment of automotive exhaust gases, selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides, catalytic removal of volatile organic compounds from industrial processes, etc. Monoliths continue to be the preferred support for environmental applications due to their high geometric surface area, different design options, low pressure drop, high temperature durability, mechanical strength, ease of orientation in a reactor and effectiveness as a support for a catalytic washcoat. As known, monolithic catalysts belong to the class of the structured catalysts and/or reactors (in some cases the distinction between "catalyst" and "reactor" has vanished. Structured catalysts can greatly intensify chemical processes, resulting in smaller, safer, cleaner and more energy efficient technologies. Monolith reactors can be considered as multifunctional reactors, in which chemical conversion is advantageously integrated with another unit operation, such as separation, heat exchange, a secondary reaction, etc. Finally, structured catalysts and/or reactors appear to be one of the most significant and promising developments in the field of heterogeneous catalysis and chemical engineering of the recent years. This paper gives a description of the background and perspectives for application and development of monolithic materials. Different methods and techniques

  17. Novel WSi/Au T-shaped gate GaAs metal-semiconductor field-effect-transistor fabrication process for super low-noise microwave monolithic integrated circuit amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, H.; Hosogi, K.; Kato, T.

    1995-01-01

    A fully ion-implanted self-aligned T-shaped gate Ga As metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MESFET) with high frequency and extremely low-noise performance has been successfully fabricated for super low-noise microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifiers. A subhalf-micrometer gate structure composed of WSi/Ti/Mo/Au is employed to reduce gate resistance effectively. This multilayer gate structure is formed by newly developed dummy SiON self-alignment technology and a photoresist planarization process. At an operating frequency of 12 GHz, a minimum noise figure of 0.87 dB with an associated gain of 10.62 dB has been obtained. Based on the novel FET process, a low-noise single-stage MMIC amplifier with an excellent low-noise figure of 1.2 dB with an associated gain of 8 dB in the 14 GHz band has been realized. This is the lowest noise figure ever reported at this frequency for low-noise MMICs based on ion-implanted self-aligned gate MESFET technology. 14 refs., 9 figs

  18. Data quality objectives summary report for the 105-N monolith off-gas issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarcik, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The 105-N Basin hardware waste with radiation exposure rates high enough to make above-water handling and packaging impractical has been designated high exposure rate hardware (HERH) waste. This material, consisting primarily of irradiated reactor components, is packaged underwater for subsequent disposal as a grout-encapsulated solid monolith. The third HERH waste package that was created (Monolith No. 3) was not immediately removed from the basin because of administrative delays. During a routine facility walkdown, Monolith No. 3 was observed to be emitting bubbles. Mass spectroscopic analysis of a gas sample from Monolith No. 3 indicated that the gas was 85.2% hydrogen along with a trace of fission gases (stable isotopes of xenon). Gamma energy analysis of a gas sample from Monolith No. 3 also identified trace quantities of 85 Kr. The monolith off-gas Data Quality Objective (DQO) process concluded the following: Monolith No. 3 and similar monoliths can be safely transported following installation of spacers between the lids of the L3-181 transport cask to vent the hydrogen gas; The 85 Kr does not challenge personnel or environmental safety; Fumaroles in the surface of gassing monoliths renders them incompatible with Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria requirements unless placed in a qualified high integrity container overpack; and Gassing monoliths do meet Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria requirements. This DQO Summary Report is both an account of the Monolith Off-Gas DQO Process and a means of documenting the concurrence of each of the stakeholder organizations

  19. Acoustic of monolithic dome structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Refat Ismail

    2018-03-01

    The interior of monolithic domes have perfect, concave shapes to ensure that sound travels through the dome and perfectly collected at different vocal points. These dome structures are utilized for domestic use because the scale allows the focal points to be positioned across daily life activities, thereby affecting the sonic comfort of the internal space. This study examines the various acoustic treatments and parametric configurations of monolithic dome sizes. A geometric relationship of acoustic treatment and dome radius is established to provide architects guidelines on the correct selection of absorption needed to maintain the acoustic comfort of these special spaces.

  20. A CMOS-compatible large-scale monolithic integration of heterogeneous multi-sensors on flexible silicon for IoT applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2017-02-07

    We report CMOS technology enabled fabrication and system level integration of flexible bulk silicon (100) based multi-sensors platform which can simultaneously sense pressure, temperature, strain and humidity under various physical deformations. We also show an advanced wearable version for body vital monitoring which can enable advanced healthcare for IoT applications.

  1. Monolithically integrated enhancement/depletion-mode AlGaN/GaN HEMT D flip-flop using fluorine plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yuanbin; Quan Si; Ma Xiaohua; Zhang Jincheng; Li Qingmin; Hao Yue

    2011-01-01

    Depletion-mode and enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN HEMTs using fluorine plasma treatment were integrated on one wafer. Direct-coupled FET logic circuits, such as an E/D HEMT inverter, NAND gate and D flip-flop, were fabricated on an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure. The D flip-flop and NAND gate are demonstrated in a GaN system for the first time. The dual-gate AlGaN/GaN E-HEMT substitutes two single-gate E-HEMTs for simplifying the NAND gate and shrinking the area, integrating with a conventional AlGaN/GaN D-HEMT and demonstrating a NAND gate. E/D-mode D flip-flop was fabricated by integrating the inverters and the NAND gate on the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure. At a supply voltage of 2 V, the E/D inverter shows an output logic swing of 1.7 V, a logic-low noise margin of 0.49 V and a logic-high noise margin of 0.83 V. The NAND gate and D flip-flop showed correct logic function demonstrating promising potential for GaN-based digital ICs. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  2. A CMOS-compatible large-scale monolithic integration of heterogeneous multi-sensors on flexible silicon for IoT applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.; Sevilla, Galo T.; Velling, Seneca J.; Cordero, Marlon D.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    We report CMOS technology enabled fabrication and system level integration of flexible bulk silicon (100) based multi-sensors platform which can simultaneously sense pressure, temperature, strain and humidity under various physical deformations. We also show an advanced wearable version for body vital monitoring which can enable advanced healthcare for IoT applications.

  3. A hybrid optical switch architecture to integrate IP into optical networks to provide flexible and intelligent bandwidth on demand for cloud computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Hall, Trevor J.

    2013-12-01

    The Internet is entering an era of cloud computing to provide more cost effective, eco-friendly and reliable services to consumer and business users. As a consequence, the nature of the Internet traffic has been fundamentally transformed from a pure packet-based pattern to today's predominantly flow-based pattern. Cloud computing has also brought about an unprecedented growth in the Internet traffic. In this paper, a hybrid optical switch architecture is presented to deal with the flow-based Internet traffic, aiming to offer flexible and intelligent bandwidth on demand to improve fiber capacity utilization. The hybrid optical switch is capable of integrating IP into optical networks for cloud-based traffic with predictable performance, for which the delay performance of the electronic module in the hybrid optical switch architecture is evaluated through simulation.

  4. Active and passive silica waveguide integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hübner, Jörg; Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas

    2001-01-01

    . The increasing complexity and functionality of optical networks prompts a demand for highly integrated optical circuits. On-board optical amplifiers, monolithically integrated with functionalities like switching or multiplexing/demultiplexing will allow flexible incorporation of optical integrated circuits...... in existing and future networks without affecting the power budget of the system. Silica on silicon technology offers a unique possibility to selectively dope sections of the integrated circuit with erbium where amplification is desired. Some techniques for active/passive integration are reviewed and a silica......Integrated optical amplifiers are currently regaining interest. Stand-alone single integrated amplifiers offer only limited advantage over current erbium doped fiber amplifiers, whereas arrays of integrated amplifiers are very attractive due to miniaturization and the possibility of mass production...

  5. Safety analysis of switching between reductive and oxidative conditions in a reaction coupling reverse flow reactor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2001-01-01

    A new reverse flow reactor is developed where endothermic reactants (propane dehydrogenation) and exothermic reactants (fuel combustion) are fed sequentially to a monolithic catalyst, while periodically alternating the inlet and outlet positions. Upon switching from reductive to oxidative conditions

  6. Development of a chromosomally integrated metabolite-inducible Leu3p-alpha-IPM "off-on" gene switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Poulou

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Present technology uses mostly chimeric proteins as regulators and hormones or antibiotics as signals to induce spatial and temporal gene expression.Here, we show that a chromosomally integrated yeast 'Leu3p-alpha-IotaRhoMu' system constitutes a ligand-inducible regulatory "off-on" genetic switch with an extensively dynamic action area. We find that Leu3p acts as an active transcriptional repressor in the absence and as an activator in the presence of alpha-isopropylmalate (alpha-IotaRhoMu in primary fibroblasts isolated from double transgenic mouse embryos bearing ubiquitously expressing Leu3p and a Leu3p regulated GFP reporter. In the absence of the branched amino acid biosynthetic pathway in animals, metabolically stable alpha-IPM presents an EC(50 equal to 0.8837 mM and fast "OFF-ON" kinetics (t(50ON = 43 min, t(50OFF = 2.18 h, it enters the cells via passive diffusion, while it is non-toxic to mammalian cells and to fertilized mouse eggs cultured ex vivo.Our results demonstrate that the 'Leu3p-alpha-IotaRhoMu' constitutes a simpler and safer system for inducible gene expression in biomedical applications.

  7. Monolithic fiber optic sensor assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Scott

    2015-02-10

    A remote sensor element for spectrographic measurements employs a monolithic assembly of one or two fiber optics to two optical elements separated by a supporting structure to allow the flow of gases or particulates therebetween. In a preferred embodiment, the sensor element components are fused ceramic to resist high temperatures and failure from large temperature changes.

  8. Protective Skins for Aerogel Monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Johnston, James C.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Meador, Ann B.

    2007-01-01

    A method of imparting relatively hard protective outer skins to aerogel monoliths has been developed. Even more than aerogel beads, aerogel monoliths are attractive as thermal-insulation materials, but the commercial utilization of aerogel monoliths in thermal-insulation panels has been inhibited by their fragility and the consequent difficulty of handling them. Therefore, there is a need to afford sufficient protection to aerogel monoliths to facilitate handling, without compromising the attractive bulk properties (low density, high porosity, low thermal conductivity, high surface area, and low permittivity) of aerogel materials. The present method was devised to satisfy this need. The essence of the present method is to coat an aerogel monolith with an outer polymeric skin, by painting or spraying. Apparently, the reason spraying and painting were not attempted until now is that it is well known in the aerogel industry that aerogels collapse in contact with liquids. In the present method, one prevents such collapse through the proper choice of coating liquid and process conditions: In particular, one uses a viscous polymer precursor liquid and (a) carefully controls the amount of liquid applied and/or (b) causes the liquid to become cured to the desired hard polymeric layer rapidly enough that there is not sufficient time for the liquid to percolate into the aerogel bulk. The method has been demonstrated by use of isocyanates, which, upon exposure to atmospheric moisture, become cured to polyurethane/polyurea-type coats. The method has also been demonstrated by use of commercial epoxy resins. The method could also be implemented by use of a variety of other resins, including polyimide precursors (for forming high-temperature-resistant protective skins) or perfluorinated monomers (for forming coats that impart hydrophobicity and some increase in strength).

  9. Morphological analysis of GeTe in inline phase change switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Matthew R., E-mail: matthew.king2@ngc.com [Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems, Advanced Concepts and Technologies Division, 1212 Winterson Rd., Linthicum, Maryland 21090 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); El-Hinnawy, Nabil [Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems, Advanced Concepts and Technologies Division, 1212 Winterson Rd., Linthicum, Maryland 21090 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Salmon, Mike; Gu, Jitty [Evans Analytical Group, 628 Hutton St., Raleigh, North Carolina 27606 (United States); Wagner, Brian P.; Jones, Evan B.; Howell, Robert S.; Nichols, Doyle T.; Young, Robert M. [Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems, Advanced Concepts and Technologies Division, 1212 Winterson Rd., Linthicum, Maryland 21090 (United States); Borodulin, Pavel [Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems, Advanced Concepts and Technologies Division, 1212 Winterson Rd., Linthicum, Maryland 21090 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2015-09-07

    Crystallization and amorphization phenomena in indirectly heated phase change material-based devices were investigated. Scanning transmission electron microscopy was utilized to explore GeTe phase transition processes in the context of the unique inline phase change switch (IPCS) architecture. A monolithically integrated thin film heating element successfully converted GeTe to ON and OFF states. Device cycling prompted the formation of an active area which sustains the majority of structural changes during pulsing. A transition region on both sides of the active area consisting of polycrystalline GeTe and small nuclei (<15 nm) in an amorphous matrix was also observed. The switching mechanism, determined by variations in pulsing parameters, was shown to be predominantly growth-driven. A preliminary model for crystallization and amorphization in IPCS devices is presented.

  10. Morphological analysis of GeTe in inline phase change switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Matthew R.; El-Hinnawy, Nabil; Salmon, Mike; Gu, Jitty; Wagner, Brian P.; Jones, Evan B.; Howell, Robert S.; Nichols, Doyle T.; Young, Robert M.; Borodulin, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Crystallization and amorphization phenomena in indirectly heated phase change material-based devices were investigated. Scanning transmission electron microscopy was utilized to explore GeTe phase transition processes in the context of the unique inline phase change switch (IPCS) architecture. A monolithically integrated thin film heating element successfully converted GeTe to ON and OFF states. Device cycling prompted the formation of an active area which sustains the majority of structural changes during pulsing. A transition region on both sides of the active area consisting of polycrystalline GeTe and small nuclei (<15 nm) in an amorphous matrix was also observed. The switching mechanism, determined by variations in pulsing parameters, was shown to be predominantly growth-driven. A preliminary model for crystallization and amorphization in IPCS devices is presented

  11. Integrated network analysis identifies fight-club nodes as a class of hubs encompassing key putative switch genes that induce major transcriptome reprogramming during grapevine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Maria Concetta; Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Massonnet, Mélanie; Farina, Lorenzo; Castiglione, Filippo; Pezzotti, Mario; Paci, Paola

    2014-12-01

    We developed an approach that integrates different network-based methods to analyze the correlation network arising from large-scale gene expression data. By studying grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene expression atlases and a grapevine berry transcriptomic data set during the transition from immature to mature growth, we identified a category named "fight-club hubs" characterized by a marked negative correlation with the expression profiles of neighboring genes in the network. A special subset named "switch genes" was identified, with the additional property of many significant negative correlations outside their own group in the network. Switch genes are involved in multiple processes and include transcription factors that may be considered master regulators of the previously reported transcriptome remodeling that marks the developmental shift from immature to mature growth. All switch genes, expressed at low levels in vegetative/green tissues, showed a significant increase in mature/woody organs, suggesting a potential regulatory role during the developmental transition. Finally, our analysis of tomato gene expression data sets showed that wild-type switch genes are downregulated in ripening-deficient mutants. The identification of known master regulators of tomato fruit maturation suggests our method is suitable for the detection of key regulators of organ development in different fleshy fruit crops. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  12. Fully integrated graphene electronic biosensor for label-free detection of lead (II) ion based on G-quadruplex structure-switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yijun; Wang, Cheng; Zhu, Yibo; Zhou, Xiaohong; Xiang, Yu; He, Miao; Zeng, Siyu

    2017-03-15

    This work presents a fully integrated graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) biosensor for the label-free detection of lead ions (Pb 2+ ) in aqueous-media, which first implements the G-quadruplex structure-switching biosensing principle in graphene nanoelectronics. We experimentally illustrate the biomolecular interplay that G-rich DNA single-strands with one-end confined on graphene surface can specifically interact with Pb 2+ ions and switch into G-quadruplex structures. Since the structure-switching of electrically charged DNA strands can disrupt the charge distribution in the vicinity of graphene surface, the carrier equilibrium in graphene sheet might be altered, and manifested by the conductivity variation of GFET. The experimental data and theoretical analysis show that our devices are capable of the label-free and specific quantification of Pb 2+ with a detection limit down to 163.7ng/L. These results first verify the signaling principle competency of G-quadruplex structure-switching in graphene electronic biosensors. Combining with the advantages of the compact device structure and convenient electrical signal, a label-free GFET biosensor for Pb 2+ monitoring is enabled with promising application potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Determining leach rates of monolithic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Dole, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    The ANS 16.1 Leach Procedure provides a conservative means of predicting long-term release from monolithic waste forms, offering a simple and relatively quick means of determining effective solid diffusion coefficients. As presented here, these coefficients can be used in a simple model to predict maximum release rates or be used in more complex site-specific models to predict actual site performance. For waste forms that pass the structural integrity test, this model also allows the prediction of EP-Tox leachate concentrations from these coefficients. Thus, the results of the ANS 16.1 Leach Procedure provide a powerful tool that can be used to predict the waste concentration limits in order to comply with the EP-Toxicity criteria for characteristically nonhazardous waste. 12 refs., 3 figs

  14. Monolithic fuel injector and related manufacturing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve [Greenville, SC; Johnson, Thomas Edward [Greenville, SC; Lacy, Benjamin [Greenville, SC; York, William David [Greenville, SC; Stevenson, Christian Xavier [Greenville, SC

    2012-05-22

    A monolithic fuel injection head for a fuel nozzle includes a substantially hollow vesicle body formed with an upstream end face, a downstream end face and a peripheral wall extending therebetween, an internal baffle plate extending radially outwardly from a downstream end of the bore, terminating short of the peripheral wall, thereby defining upstream and downstream fuel plenums in the vesicle body, in fluid communication by way of a radial gap between the baffle plate and the peripheral wall. A plurality of integral pre-mix tubes extend axially through the upstream and downstream fuel plenums in the vesicle body and through the baffle plate, with at least one fuel injection hole extending between each of the pre-mix tubes and the upstream fuel plenum, thereby enabling fuel in the upstream plenum to be injected into the plurality of pre-mix tubes. The fuel injection head is formed by direct metal laser sintering.

  15. Principles of broadband switching and networking

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Soung C

    2010-01-01

    An authoritative introduction to the roles of switching and transmission in broadband integrated services networks Principles of Broadband Switching and Networking explains the design and analysis of switch architectures suitable for broadband integrated services networks, emphasizing packet-switched interconnection networks with distributed routing algorithms. The text examines the mathematical properties of these networks, rather than specific implementation technologies. Although the pedagogical explanations in this book are in the context of switches, many of the fundamenta

  16. Exciter switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcpeak, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A new exciter switch assembly has been installed at the three DSN 64-m deep space stations. This assembly provides for switching Block III and Block IV exciters to either the high-power or 20-kW transmitters in either dual-carrier or single-carrier mode. In the dual-carrier mode, it provides for balancing the two drive signals from a single control panel located in the transmitter local control and remote control consoles. In addition to the improved switching capabilities, extensive monitoring of both the exciter switch assembly and Transmitter Subsystem is provided by the exciter switch monitor and display assemblies.

  17. Attention Switching and Multimedia Learning: The Impact of Executive Resources on the Integrative Comprehension of Texts and Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baadte, Christiane; Rasch, Thorsten; Honstein, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The ability to flexibly allocate attention to goal-relevant information is pivotal for the completion of high-level cognitive processes. For instance, in comprehending illustrated texts, the reader permanently has to switch the attentional focus between the text and the corresponding picture in order to extract relevant information from both…

  18. A monolithic silicon detector telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardella, G.; Amorini, F.; Cabibbo, M.; Di Pietro, A.; Fallica, G.; Franzo, G.; Figuera, P.; Papa, M.; Pappalardo, G.; Percolla, G.; Priolo, F.; Privitera, V.; Rizzo, F.; Tudisco, S.

    1996-01-01

    An ultrathin silicon detector (1 μm) thick implanted on a standard 400 μm Si-detector has been built to realize a monolithic telescope detector for simultaneous charge and energy determination of charged particles. The performances of the telescope have been tested using standard alpha sources and fragments emitted in nuclear reactions with different projectile-target colliding systems. An excellent charge resolution has been obtained for low energy (less than 5 MeV) light nuclei. A multi-array lay-out of such detectors is under construction to charge identify the particles emitted in reactions induced by low energy radioactive beams. (orig.)

  19. Imaging monolithic silicon detector telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorini, F.; Sipala, V.; Cardella, G.; Boiano, C.; Carbone, B.; Cosentino, L.; Costa, E.; Di Pietro, A.; Emanuele, U.; Fallica, G.; Figuera, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; La Guidara, E.; Marchetta, C.; Pappalardo, A.; Piazza, A.; Randazzo, N.; Rizzo, F.; Russo, G.V.; Russotto, P.

    2008-01-01

    We show the results of some test beams performed on a new monolithic strip silicon detector telescope developed in collaboration with the INFN and ST-microelectronics. Using an appropriate design, the induction on the ΔE stages, generated by the charge released in the E stage, was used to obtain the position of the detected particle. The position measurement, together with the low threshold for particle charge identification, allows the new detector to be used for a large variety of applications due to its sensitivity of only a few microns measured in both directions

  20. A micromachined inline type microwave power sensor with working state transfer switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Lei

    2011-01-01

    A wideband 8-12 GHz inline type microwave power sensor, which has both working and non-working states, is presented. The power sensor measures the microwave power coupled from a CPW line by a MEMS membrane. In order to reduce microwave losses during the non-working state, a new structure of working state transfer switches is proposed to realize the two working states. The fabrication of the power sensor with two working states is compatible with the GaAs MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) process. The experimental results show that the power sensor has an insertion loss of 0.18 dB during the non-working state and 0.24 dB during the working state at a frequency of 10 GHz. This means that no microwave power has been coupled from the CPW line during the non-working state. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  1. Tailoring the graphene/silicon carbide interface for monolithic wafer-scale electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, S; Waldmann, D; Jobst, J; Albert, A; Albrecht, M; Reshanov, S; Schöner, A; Krieger, M; Weber, H B

    2012-07-17

    Graphene is an outstanding electronic material, predicted to have a role in post-silicon electronics. However, owing to the absence of an electronic bandgap, graphene switching devices with high on/off ratio are still lacking. Here in the search for a comprehensive concept for wafer-scale graphene electronics, we present a monolithic transistor that uses the entire material system epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide (0001). This system consists of the graphene layer with its vanishing energy gap, the underlying semiconductor and their common interface. The graphene/semiconductor interfaces are tailor-made for ohmic as well as for Schottky contacts side-by-side on the same chip. We demonstrate normally on and normally off operation of a single transistor with on/off ratios exceeding 10(4) and no damping at megahertz frequencies. In its simplest realization, the fabrication process requires only one lithography step to build transistors, diodes, resistors and eventually integrated circuits without the need of metallic interconnects.

  2. Emerging roles of microRNAs as molecular switches in the integrated circuit of the cancer cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulou, Georgia; Pampalakis, Georgios; Lianidou, Evi; Mourelatos, Zissimos

    2009-01-01

    Transformation of normal cells into malignant tumors requires the acquisition of six hallmark traits, e.g., self-sufficiency in growth signals, insensitivity to antigrowth signals and self-renewal, evasion of apoptosis, limitless replication potential, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis, which are common to all cancers (Hanahan and Weinberg 2000). These new cellular traits evolve from defects in major regulatory microcircuits that are fundamental for normal homeostasis. The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) as a new class of small non-protein-coding RNAs that control gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to various mRNA targets suggests that these tiny RNA molecules likely act as molecular switches in the extensive regulatory web that involves thousands of transcripts. Most importantly, accumulating evidence suggests that numerous microRNAs are aberrantly expressed in human cancers. In this review, we discuss the emergent roles of microRNAs as switches that function to turn on/off known cellular microcircuits. We outline recent compelling evidence that deregulated microRNA-mediated control of cellular microcircuits cooperates with other well-established regulatory mechanisms to confer the hallmark traits of the cancer cell. Furthermore, these exciting insights into aberrant microRNA control in cancer-associated circuits may be exploited for cancer therapies that will target deregulated miRNA switches. PMID:19561119

  3. Recent progress in low-temperature-process monolithic three dimension technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Chao; Hsieh, Tung-Ying; Huang, Wen-Hsien; Shen, Chang-Hong; Shieh, Jia-Min; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Wu, Meng-Chyi

    2018-04-01

    Monolithic three-dimension (3D) integration is an ultimate alternative method of fabricating high density, high performance, and multi-functional integrated circuits. It offers the promise of being a new approach to increase system performance. How to manage the thermal impact of multi-tiered processes, such as dopant activation, source/drain silicidation, and channel formation, and to prevent the degradation of pre-existing devices/circuits become key challenges. In this paper, we provide updates on several important monolithic 3D works, particularly in sequentially stackable channels, and our recent achievements in monolithic 3D integrated circuit (3D-IC). These results indicate that the advanced 3D architecture with novel design tools enables ultrahigh-density stackable circuits to have superior performance and low power consumption for future artificial intelligence (AI) and internet of things (IoTs) application.

  4. Pseudospark switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billault, P.; Riege, H.; Gulik, M. van; Boggasch, E.; Frank, K.

    1987-01-01

    The pseudospark discharge is bound to a geometrical structure which is particularly well suited for switching high currents and voltages at high power levels. This type of discharge offers the potential for improvement in essentially all areas of switching operation: peak current and current density, current rise, stand-off voltage, reverse current capability, cathode life, and forward drop. The first pseudospark switch was built at CERN at 1981. Since then, the basic switching characteristics of pseudospark chambers have been studied in detail. The main feature of a pseudospark switch is the confinement of the discharge plasma to the device axis. The current transition to the hollow electrodes is spread over a rather large surface area. Another essential feature is the easy and precise triggering of the pseudospark switch from the interior of the hollow electrodes, relatively far from the main discharge gap. Nanosecond delay and jitter values can be achieved with trigger energies of less than 0.1 mJ, although cathode heating is not required. Pseudospark gaps may cover a wide range of high-voltage, high-current, and high-pulse-power switching at repetition rates of many kilohertz. This report reviews the basic researh on pseudospark switches which has been going on at CERN. So far, applications have been developed in the range of thyratron-like medium-power switches at typically 20 to 40 kV and 0.5 to 10 kA. High-current pseudospark switches have been built for a high-power 20 kJ pulse generator which is being used for long-term tests of plasma lenses developed for the future CERN Antiproton Collector (ACOL). The high-current switches have operated for several hundred thousand shots, with 20 to 50 ns jitter at 16 kV charging voltage and more than 100 kA peak current amplitude. (orig.)

  5. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Anson V; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay V

    2014-04-22

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  6. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  7. Detachable strong cation exchange monolith, integrated with capillary zone electrophoresis and coupled with pH gradient elution, produces improved sensitivity and numbers of peptide identifications during bottom-up analysis of complex proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenbin; Yan, Xiaojing; Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Dovichi, Norman J

    2015-04-21

    A detachable sulfonate-silica hybrid strong cation-exchange monolith was synthesized in a fused silica capillary, and used for solid phase extraction with online pH gradient elution during capillary zone electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CZE-MS/MS) proteomic analysis. Tryptic digests were prepared in 50 mM formic acid and loaded onto the strong cation-exchange monolith. Fractions were eluted using a series of buffers with lower concentration but higher pH values than the 50 mM formic acid background electrolyte. This combination of elution and background electrolytes results in both sample stacking and formation of a dynamic pH junction and allows use of relatively large elution buffer volumes while maintaining reasonable peak efficiency and resolution. A series of five pH bumps were applied to elute E. coli tryptic peptides from the monolith, followed by analysis using CZE coupled to an LTQ-Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer; 799 protein groups and 3381 peptides were identified from 50 ng of the digest in a 2.5 h analysis, which approaches the identification rate for this organism that was obtained with an Orbitrap Fusion. We attribute the improved numbers of peptide and protein identifications to the efficient fractionation by the online pH gradient elution, which decreased the complexity of the sample in each elution step and improved the signal intensity of low abundance peptides. We also performed a comparative analysis using a nanoACQUITY UltraPerformance LCH system. Similar numbers of protein and peptide identifications were produced by the two methods. Protein identifications showed significant overlap between the two methods, whereas peptide identifications were complementary.

  8. A Ferrite LTCC-Based Monolithic SIW Phased Antenna Array

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Ahmed

    2016-11-17

    In this work, we present a novel configuration for realizing monolithic SIW-based phased antenna arrays using Ferrite LTCC technology. Unlike the current common schemes for realizing SIW phased arrays that rely on surface-mount component (p-i-n diodes, etc) for controlling the phase of the individual antenna elements, here the phase is tuned by biasing of the ferrite filling of the SIW. This approach eliminates the need for mounting of any additional RF components and enables seamless monolithic integration of phase shifters and antennas in SIW technology. As a proof of concept, a two-element slotted SIW-based phased array is designed, fabricated and measured. The prototype exhibits a gain of 4.9 dBi at 13.2 GHz and a maximum E-plane beam-scanning of 28 degrees using external windings for biasing the phase shifters. Moreover, the array can achieve a maximum beam-scanning of 19 degrees when biased with small windings that are embedded in the package. This demonstration marks the first time a fully monolithic SIW-based phased array is realized in Ferrite LTCC technology and paves the way for future larger-size implementations.

  9. A Ferrite LTCC-Based Monolithic SIW Phased Antenna Array

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Ahmed A.; Ghaffar, Farhan A.; Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad; Shamim, Atif

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel configuration for realizing monolithic SIW-based phased antenna arrays using Ferrite LTCC technology. Unlike the current common schemes for realizing SIW phased arrays that rely on surface-mount component (p-i-n diodes, etc) for controlling the phase of the individual antenna elements, here the phase is tuned by biasing of the ferrite filling of the SIW. This approach eliminates the need for mounting of any additional RF components and enables seamless monolithic integration of phase shifters and antennas in SIW technology. As a proof of concept, a two-element slotted SIW-based phased array is designed, fabricated and measured. The prototype exhibits a gain of 4.9 dBi at 13.2 GHz and a maximum E-plane beam-scanning of 28 degrees using external windings for biasing the phase shifters. Moreover, the array can achieve a maximum beam-scanning of 19 degrees when biased with small windings that are embedded in the package. This demonstration marks the first time a fully monolithic SIW-based phased array is realized in Ferrite LTCC technology and paves the way for future larger-size implementations.

  10. Integrated one diode-one resistor architecture in nanopillar SiOx resistive switching memory by nanosphere lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Li; Chang, Yao-Feng; Fowler, Burt; Chen, Ying-Chen; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Chen, Min-Chen; Chang, Ting-Chang; Sze, Simon M; Yu, Edward T; Lee, Jack C

    2014-02-12

    We report on a highly compact, one diode-one resistor (1D-1R) nanopillar device architecture for SiOx-based ReRAM fabricated using nanosphere lithography (NSL). The intrinsic SiOx-based resistive switching element and Si diode are self-aligned on an epitaxial silicon wafer using NSL and a deep-Si-etch process without conventional photolithography. AC-pulse response in 50 ns regime, multibit operation, and good reliability are demonstrated. The NSL process provides a fast and economical approach to large-scale patterning of high-density 1D-1R ReRAM with good potential for use in future applications.

  11. New switching processes using the integrated protections of power semi-conductors: application to the development of static converters with self-switching process; nouveaux mecanismes de commutation exploitant les protections integrees des semi-conducteurs de puissance: application a la conception de convertisseurs statiques a commutation automatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, N.

    2004-07-15

    This thesis deals with a new switching process which integrates the semiconductor protection directly in the switching principle, in order to generate new static converters. It consists of a self-controlled transition which proceeds on a non-zero current or voltage level. 2 It can be associated with controlled or naturally switching processes making it possible to go from two to five change of state types of a switching cell. So, new elementary operation rules of a switching cell emerge. Considering the great number of possible switches, a synthesis methodology of cells with a source reversibility, whose switches are identical, is presented making it possible to reveal various solutions, of which two seem particularly interesting: the self-breaking inverter and rectifier cells, both using the self-breaking thyristor-dual. This last is used as study support of the self-breaking principle. Then, the manuscript concentrates on the study of converters, associations of elementary cells, revealing in particular the DC-current transformer and the reversible three-phase self-breaking rectifier. This last had been developed as an industrial prototype. Lastly, starting from the concept of a wind chain, our assembly has been compared with what is presently done as network converters, revealing lesser losses as well as a higher energetic efficiency. (author)

  12. Properties of glass-bonded zeolite monoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.A.; Fischer, D.F.; Murphy, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    It has been shown that mineral waste forms can be used to immobilize waste salt generated during the pyrochemical processing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). Solid, leach resistant monoliths were formed by hot-pressing mixtures of salt-occluded zeolite A powders and glass frit at 990 K and 28 MPa. Additional samples have now been fabricated and tested. Normalized release rates for all elements, including iodide and chloride, were less than 1 g/m 2 d in 28-day tests in deionized water and in brine at 363 K (90 degrees C). Preliminary results indicate that these rates fall with time with both leachants and that the zeolite phase in the glass-bonded zeolite does not function as an ion exchanger. Some material properties were measured. The Poisson ratio and Young's modulus were slightly smaller in glass-bonded zeolite than in borosilicate glass. Density depended on zeolite fraction. The glass-bonded zeolite represents a promising mineral waste form for IFR salt

  13. Monolithic CMOS imaging x-ray spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenter, Almus; Kraft, Ralph; Gauron, Thomas; Murray, Stephen S.

    2014-07-01

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in collaboration with SRI/Sarnoff is developing monolithic CMOS detectors optimized for x-ray astronomy. The goal of this multi-year program is to produce CMOS x-ray imaging spectrometers that are Fano noise limited over the 0.1-10keV energy band while incorporating the many benefits of CMOS technology. These benefits include: low power consumption, radiation "hardness", high levels of integration, and very high read rates. Small format test devices from a previous wafer fabrication run (2011-2012) have recently been back-thinned and tested for response below 1keV. These devices perform as expected in regards to dark current, read noise, spectral response and Quantum Efficiency (QE). We demonstrate that running these devices at rates ~> 1Mpix/second eliminates the need for cooling as shot noise from any dark current is greatly mitigated. The test devices were fabricated on 15μm, high resistivity custom (~30kΩ-cm) epitaxial silicon and have a 16 by 192 pixel format. They incorporate 16μm pitch, 6 Transistor Pinned Photo Diode (6TPPD) pixels which have ~40μV/electron sensitivity and a highly parallel analog CDS signal chain. Newer, improved, lower noise detectors have just been fabricated (October 2013). These new detectors are fabricated on 9μm epitaxial silicon and have a 1k by 1k format. They incorporate similar 16μm pitch, 6TPPD pixels but have ~ 50% higher sensitivity and much (3×) lower read noise. These new detectors have undergone preliminary testing for functionality in Front Illuminated (FI) form and are presently being prepared for back thinning and packaging. Monolithic CMOS devices such as these, would be ideal candidate detectors for the focal planes of Solar, planetary and other space-borne x-ray astronomy missions. The high through-put, low noise and excellent low energy response, provide high dynamic range and good time resolution; bright, time varying x-ray features could be temporally and

  14. Software Switching for Data Acquisition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Malone, David

    2016-01-01

    In this talk we discuss the feasibility of replacing telecom-class routers with a topology of commodity servers acting as software switches in data acquisition. We extend the popular software switch, Open vSwitch, with a dedicated, throughput-oriented buffering mechanism. We compare the performance under heavy many-to-one congestion to typical Ethernet switches and evaluate the scalability when building larger topologies, exploiting the integration with software-defined networking technologies. Please note that David Malone will speak on behalf of Grzegorz Jereczek.

  15. Transferrable monolithic III-nitride photonic circuit for multifunctional optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zheng; Gao, Xumin; Yuan, Jialei; Zhang, Shuai; Jiang, Yan; Zhang, Fenghua; Jiang, Yuan; Zhu, Hongbo; Wang, Yongjin

    2017-12-01

    A monolithic III-nitride photonic circuit with integrated functionalities was implemented by integrating multiple components with different functions into a single chip. In particular, the III-nitride-on-silicon platform is used as it integrates a transmitter, a waveguide, and a receiver into a suspended III-nitride membrane via a wafer-level procedure. Here, a 0.8-mm-diameter suspended device architecture is directly transferred from silicon to a foreign substrate by mechanically breaking the support beams. The transferred InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well diode (MQW-diode) exhibits a turn-on voltage of 2.8 V with a dominant electroluminescence peak at 453 nm. The transmitter and receiver share an identical InGaN/GaN MQW structure, and the integrated photonic circuit inherently works for on-chip power monitoring and in-plane visible light communication. The wire-bonded monolithic photonic circuit on glass experimentally demonstrates in-plane data transmission at 120 Mb/s, paving the way for diverse applications in intelligent displays, in-plane light communication, flexible optical sensors, and wearable III-nitride optoelectronics.

  16. Decomposition of monolithic web application to microservices

    OpenAIRE

    Zaymus, Mikulas

    2017-01-01

    Solteq Oyj has an internal Wellbeing project for massage reservations. The task of this thesis was to transform the monolithic architecture of this application to microservices. The thesis starts with a detailed comparison between microservices and monolithic application. It points out the benefits and disadvantages microservice architecture can bring to the project. Next, it describes the theory and possible strategies that can be used in the process of decomposition of an existing monoli...

  17. Cognitive structure, flexibility, and plasticity in human multitasking-An integrative review of dual-task and task-switching research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Iring; Poljac, Edita; Müller, Hermann; Kiesel, Andrea

    2018-06-01

    Numerous studies showed decreased performance in situations that require multiple tasks or actions relative to appropriate control conditions. Because humans often engage in such multitasking activities, it is important to understand how multitasking affects performance. In the present article, we argue that research on dual-task interference and sequential task switching has proceeded largely separately using different experimental paradigms and methodology. In our article we aim at organizing this complex set of research in terms of three complementary research perspectives on human multitasking. One perspective refers to structural accounts in terms of cognitive bottlenecks (i.e., critical processing stages). A second perspective refers to cognitive flexibility in terms of the underlying cognitive control processes. A third perspective emphasizes cognitive plasticity in terms of the influence of practice on human multitasking abilities. With our review article we aimed at highlighting the value of an integrative position that goes beyond isolated consideration of a single theoretical research perspective and that broadens the focus from single experimental paradigms (dual task and task switching) to favor instead a view that emphasizes the fundamental similarity of the underlying cognitive mechanisms across multitasking paradigms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Activated Carbon Fiber Monoliths as Supercapacitor Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelines Moreno-Fernandez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon fibers (ACF are interesting candidates for electrodes in electrochemical energy storage devices; however, one major drawback for practical application is their low density. In the present work, monoliths were synthesized from two different ACFs, reaching 3 times higher densities than the original ACFs’ apparent densities. The porosity of the monoliths was only slightly decreased with respect to the pristine ACFs, the employed PVDC binder developing additional porosity upon carbonization. The ACF monoliths are essentially microporous and reach BET surface areas of up to 1838 m2 g−1. SEM analysis reveals that the ACFs are well embedded into the monolith structure and that their length was significantly reduced due to the monolith preparation process. The carbonized monoliths were studied as supercapacitor electrodes in two- and three-electrode cells having 2 M H2SO4 as electrolyte. Maximum capacitances of around 200 F g−1 were reached. The results confirm that the capacitance of the bisulfate anions essentially originates from the double layer, while hydronium cations contribute with a mixture of both, double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance.

  19. Effects of doping concentration ratio on electrical characterization in pseudomorphic HEMT-based MMIC switches for ICT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Jae-Kyoung; Oh, Jung-Hun; Sung, Ho-Kun; Wang, Cong

    2015-12-01

    The effects of the doping concentration ratios between upper and lower silicon planar-doping layers on the DC and RF characteristics of the double planar doped pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors (pHEMTs) are investigated. From the device simulation, an increase of maximum extrinsic transconductance and a decrease of total on- and off-state capacitances are observed, as well as an increase of the upper to lower planar-doping concentration ratios (UTLPDR), which give rise to an enhancement of the switching speed and isolation characteristics. On the basis of simulation results, two types of pHEMTs are fabricated with two different UTLPDRs of 4:1 and 1:2. After applying these two types' pHEMTs, single-pole-double-throw (SPDT) transmitter/receiver monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) switches are also designed and fabricated. The SPDT MMIC switch with a 4:1 UTLPDR shows an insertion loss of 0.58 dB, isolation of 40.2 dB, and switching speed of 100 ns, respectively, which correspondingly indicate a 0.23 dB lower insertion loss, 2.90 dB higher isolation and 2.5 times faster switching speed than those of 1:2 UTLPDR at frequency range of 2-6 GHz. From the simulation results and comparative studies, we propose that the UTLPDR must be greater than 4:1 for the best switching performance. With the abovementioned excellent performances, the proposed switch would be quite promising in the application of information and communications technology system.

  20. Isolated converter with synchronized switching leg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2003-01-01

    An amplification device is disclosed providing a way of integrating a switch mode power supply and a class D amplifier (switch mode amplifier). This results in the usage of basically one magnetic component (1), one major energy storage element (4) and switches (20, 30) that are controlled in such a

  1. Uncooled monolithic ferroelectric IRFPA technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, James F.; Hanson, Charles M.; Beratan, Howard R.; Udayakumar, K. R.; Soch, Kevin L.

    1998-10-01

    Once relegated to expensive military platforms, occasionally to civilian platforms, and envisioned for individual soldiers, uncooled thermal imaging affords cost-effective solutions for police cars, commercial surveillance, driving aids, and a variety of other industrial and consumer applications. System prices are continuing to drop, and swelling production volume will soon drive prices substantially lower. The impetus for further development is to improve performance. Hybrid barium strontium titanate (BST) detectors currently in production are relatively inexpensive, but have limited potential for improved performance. The MTF at high frequencies is limited by thermal conduction through the optical coating. Microbolometer arrays in development at Raytheon have recently demonstrated performance superior to hybrid detectors. However, microbolometer technology lacks a mature, low-cost system technology and an abundance of upgradable, deployable system implementations. Thin-film ferroelectric (TFFE) detectors have all the performance potential of microbolometers. They are also compatible with numerous fielded and planned system implementations. Like the resistive microbolometer, the TFFE detector is monolithic; i.e., the detector material is deposited directly on the readout IC rather than being bump bonded to it. Imaging arrays of 240 X 320 pixels have been produced, demonstrating the feasibility of the technology.

  2. System analysis and energy model for radio-triggered battery-less monolithic wireless sensor receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Wu, Y.; Matters - Kammerer, M.; Roermund, van Arthur; Baltus, P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Monolithic wireless sensors with integrated antenna, on-chip transceiving, sensing and energy scavenging are low-cost and robust, thus very suitable for mass production and deployment. The design of such a sensor node requires a proper architecture with careful trade-offs and joint considerations

  3. Fabrication and Characterisation of Low-noise Monolithic Mode-locked Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, David

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterisation of monolithic semiconductor mode-locked lasers for use in optical communication systems. Other foreseeable applications may be as sources in microwave photonics and optical sampling. The thesis also deals with the design and fabrication...... of intracavity monolithically integrated filters. The common dnominator among the diffrent parts of the thesis is how to achieve and measure the lowest possible noise. Achieving low noise has been pinpointed as one of the most important and difficult challenges for semiconductor mode-locked lasers. The main...... result of this thesis are a fabrication process of a monolithic and deeply etched distributed Bragg reflector and a characterisation system for measurement of quantum limitid timing noise at high repetition rates. The Bragg reflector is a key component in achieving transform limited pulses with low noise...

  4. Switching Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Mazza, M. G.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.; Stokely, K.; Xu, L.

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines can suddenly "switch" from one behavior to another, even though they possess no perfect metronome in time. As if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many temporal patterns in physics, economics, and medicine and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enable a system to pass from one state to another. We discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understanding switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water's anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the "tipping point" immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not "outliers" (another Gladwell immortalization).

  5. Fire resistance of prefabricated monolithic slab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravit Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A prefabricated monolithic slab (PMS has a number of valuable advantages, they allow to significantly decrease the weight of construction keeping the necessary structural-load capacity, to speed up and cheapen work conduction, to increase the heat isolating properties of an enclosure structure [1]. In order to create a design method of prefabricated monolithic slab fire-resistance, it's necessary to perform a series of PMS testing, one of which is being described in this article. Subjected to the test is a fragment of prefabricated monolithic slab with polystyrene concrete inserts along the beams with bent metal profile 250 mm thick, with a 2.7 m span loaded with evenly spread load equal to 600 kg/m2. After 3 hour testing for fire-resistance [2] no signs of construction ultimate behavior were detected.

  6. Amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.; Smith, Casey; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is an interesting ultra-low power option which can operate in the harsh environment and can be a complementary element in complex digital circuitry. Although significant advancement is happening in this field, report on ultra-low voltage (pull-in) switch which offers high switching speed and area efficiency is yet to be made. One key challenge to achieve such characteristics is to fabricate nano-scale switches with amorphous metal so the shape and dimensional integrity are maintained to achieve the desired performance. Therefore, we report a tungsten alloy based amorphous metal with fabrication process development of laterally actuated dual gated NEM switches with 100 nm width and 200 nm air-gap to result in <5 volts of actuation voltage (Vpull-in). © 2013 IEEE.

  7. Amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2013-04-01

    Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is an interesting ultra-low power option which can operate in the harsh environment and can be a complementary element in complex digital circuitry. Although significant advancement is happening in this field, report on ultra-low voltage (pull-in) switch which offers high switching speed and area efficiency is yet to be made. One key challenge to achieve such characteristics is to fabricate nano-scale switches with amorphous metal so the shape and dimensional integrity are maintained to achieve the desired performance. Therefore, we report a tungsten alloy based amorphous metal with fabrication process development of laterally actuated dual gated NEM switches with 100 nm width and 200 nm air-gap to result in <5 volts of actuation voltage (Vpull-in). © 2013 IEEE.

  8. 10Gbps monolithic silicon FTTH transceiver for PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Liow, T. Y.; Lo, G. Q.; Kwong, D. L.

    2010-05-01

    We propose a new passive optical network (PON) configuration and a novel silicon photonic transceiver architecture for optical network unit (ONU), eliminating the need for an internal laser source in ONU. We adopt dual fiber network configuration. The internal light source in each of the ONUs is eliminated. Instead, an extra seed laser source in the optical line termination (OLT) operates in continuous wave mode to serve the ONUs in the PON as a shared and centralized laser source. λ1 from OLT Tx and λ2 from the seed laser are combined by using a WDM combiner and connected to serve the multiple ONUs through the downstream fibers. The ONUs receive the data in λ1. Meanwhile, the ONUs encode and transmit data in λ2, which are sent back to OLT. The monolithic ONU transceiver contains a wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) filter component, a silicon modulator and a Ge photo-detector. The WDM in ONU selectively guides λ1 to the Ge-PD where the data in λ1 are detected and converted to electrical signals, and λ2 to the transmitter where the light is modulated by upstream data. The modulated optical signals in λ2 from ONUs are connected back to OLT through upstream fibers. The monolithic ONU transceiver chip size is only 2mm by 4mm. The crosstalk between the Tx and Rx is measured to be less than -20dB. The transceiver chip is integrated on a SFP+ transceiver board. Both Tx and Rx demonstrated data rate capabilities of up to 10Gbps. By implementing this scheme, the ONU transceiver size can be significantly reduced and the assembly processes will be greatly simplified. The results demonstrate the feasibility of mass manufacturing monolithic silicon ONU transceivers via low cost

  9. Increased thermal conductivity monolithic zeolite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, James; Klett, Lynn; Kaufman, Jonathan

    2008-11-25

    A monolith comprises a zeolite, a thermally conductive carbon, and a binder. The zeolite is included in the form of beads, pellets, powders and mixtures thereof. The thermally conductive carbon can be carbon nano-fibers, diamond or graphite which provide thermal conductivities in excess of about 100 W/mK to more than 1,000 W/mK. A method of preparing a zeolite monolith includes the steps of mixing a zeolite dispersion in an aqueous colloidal silica binder with a dispersion of carbon nano-fibers in water followed by dehydration and curing of the binder is given.

  10. Dual Layer Monolith ATR of Pyrolysis Oil for Distributed Synthesis Gas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawal, Adeniyi [Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point Hoboken NJ 07030

    2012-09-29

    We have successfully demonstrated a novel reactor technology, based on BASF dual layer monolith catalyst, for miniaturizing the autothermal reforming of pyrolysis oil to syngas, the second and most critical of the three steps for thermochemically converting biomass waste to liquid transportation fuel. The technology was applied to aged as well as fresh samples of pyrolysis oil derived from five different biomass feedstocks, namely switch-grass, sawdust, hardwood/softwood, golden rod and maple. Optimization of process conditions in conjunction with innovative reactor system design enabled the minimization of carbon deposit and control of the H2/CO ratio of the product gas. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis of the integrated process using in part, experimental data from the project, indicates (1) net energy recovery of 49% accounting for all losses and external energy input, (2) weight of diesel oil produced as a percent of the biomass to be ~14%, and (3) for a demonstration size biomass to Fischer-Tropsch liquid plant of ~ 2000 daily barrels of diesel, the price of the diesel produced is ~$3.30 per gallon, ex. tax. However, the extension of catalyst life is critical to the realization of the projected economics. Catalyst deactivation was observed and the modes of deactivation, both reversible and irreversible were identified. An effective catalyst regeneration strategy was successfully demonstrated for reversible catalyst deactivation while a catalyst preservation strategy was proposed for preventing irreversible catalyst deactivation. Future work should therefore be focused on extending the catalyst life, and a successful demonstration of an extended (> 500 on-stream hours) catalyst life would affirm the commercial viability of the process.

  11. Personalized Medicine: how to Switch from the Concept to the Integration into the Clinical Development Plan to Obtain Marketing Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becquemont, Laurent; Bordet, Régis; Cellier, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges of the coming years is to personalize medicine in order to provide each patient with an individualized treatment plan. The three objectives of personalized medicine are to refine diagnosis, rationalize treatment and engage patients in a preventive approach. Personalization can be characterized by various descriptors whether related to the field, biology, imaging, type of lesion of the entity to be treated, comorbidity factors, coprescriptions or the environment As part of personalized medicine focused on biological markers including genetics or genomics, the integration of the clinical development plan to obtain marketing authorization may be segmented in 3 stages with a known descriptor identified before clinical development, a known descriptor discovered during clinical development or a known descriptor known after clinical development. For each stage, it is important to clearly define the technical optimization elements, to specify the expectations and objectives, to examine the methodological aspects of each clinical development phase and finally to consider the fast changing regulatory requirements in view of the few registered therapeutics complying with the definition of personalized medicine as well as the significant technological breakthroughs according to the screened and selected biomarkers. These considerations should be integrated in view of the time required for clinical development from early phase to MA, i.e. more than 10 years. Moreover, business models related to the economic environment should be taken into account when deciding whether or not to retain a biomarker allowing the selection of target populations in a general population. © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  12. Monolithic Carbide-Derived Carbon Films for Micro-Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiola, John; Largeot, Celine; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Simon, Patrice; Gogotsi, Yury

    2010-04-01

    Microbatteries with dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers that are produced by common microfabrication techniques are poised to provide integration of power sources onto electronic devices, but they still suffer from poor cycle lifetime, as well as power and temperature range of operation issues that are alleviated with the use of supercapacitors. There have been a few reports on thin-film and other micro-supercapacitors, but they are either too thin to provide sufficient energy or the technology is not scalable. By etching supercapacitor electrodes into conductive titanium carbide substrates, we demonstrate that monolithic carbon films lead to a volumetric capacity exceeding that of micro- and macroscale supercapacitors reported thus far, by a factor of 2. This study also provides the framework for integration of high-performance micro-supercapacitors onto a variety of devices.

  13. A fully integrated, wide-load-range, high-power-conversion-efficiency switched capacitor DC-DC converter with adaptive bias comparator for ultra-low-power power management integrated circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hiroki; Hirose, Tetsuya; Kojima, Yuta; Kuroki, Nobutaka; Numa, Masahiro

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present a wide-load-range switched-capacitor DC-DC buck converter with an adaptive bias comparator for ultra-low-power power management integrated circuit. The proposed converter is based on a conventional one and modified to operate in a wide load range by developing a load current monitor used in an adaptive bias comparator. Measurement results demonstrated that our proposed converter generates a 1.0 V output voltage from a 3.0 V input voltage at a load of up to 100 µA, which is 20 times higher than that of the conventional one. The power conversion efficiency was higher than 60% in the load range from 0.8 to 100 µA.

  14. Monolithic Inorganic ZnO/GaN Semiconductors Heterojunction White Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seonghoon; Oh, Seung Kyu; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Song, Keun Man; Kim, Hyunsoo

    2018-01-31

    Monolithic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that can generate white color at the one-chip level without the wavelength conversion through packaged phosphors or chip integration for photon recycling are of particular importance to produce compact, cost-competitive, and smart lighting sources. In this study, monolithic white LEDs were developed based on ZnO/GaN semiconductor heterojunctions. The electroluminescence (EL) wavelength of the ZnO/GaN heterojunction could be tuned by a post-thermal annealing process, causing the generation of an interfacial Ga 2 O 3 layer. Ultraviolet, violet-bluish, and greenish-yellow broad bands were observed from n-ZnO/p-GaN without an interfacial layer, whereas a strong greenish-yellow band emission was the only one observed from that with an interfacial layer. By controlled integration of ZnO/GaN heterojunctions with different postannealing conditions, monolithic white LED was demonstrated with color coordinates in the range (0.3534, 0.3710)-(0.4197, 0.4080) and color temperatures of 4778-3349 K in the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage 1931 chromaticity diagram. Furthermore, the monolithic white LED produced approximately 2.1 times higher optical output power than a conventional ZnO/GaN heterojunction due to the carrier confinement effect at the Ga 2 O 3 /n-ZnO interface.

  15. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER MONOLITH FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C

    2006-01-01

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as an alternative technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of aqueous high sodium containing radioactive wastes at various DOE facilities in the United States. The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants converts aqueous Low Activity Wastes (LAW) to a granular or ''mineralized'' waste form while converting organic components to CO 2 and steam, and nitrate/nitrite components, if any, to N 2 . The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like structures that atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and anions such as SO 4 , I, F, and Cl. The granular product has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Shallow land burial requires that the mineralized waste form be able to sustain the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations. The strength requirement necessitates binding the granular product into a monolith. FBSR mineral products were formulated into a variety of monoliths including various cements, Ceramicrete, and hydroceramics. All but one of the nine monoliths tested met the 2 durability specification for Na and Re (simulant for Tc-99) when tested using the Product Consistency Test (PCT; ASTM C1285). Of the nine monoliths tested the cements produced with 80-87 wt% FBSR product, the Ceramicrete, and the hydroceramic produced with 83.3 wt% FBSR product, met the compressive strength and durability requirements for an LAW waste form

  16. CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors for high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoeys, W., E-mail: walter.snoeys@cern.ch

    2014-11-21

    Monolithic pixel detectors integrating sensor matrix and readout in one piece of silicon are only now starting to make their way into high energy physics. Two major requirements are radiation tolerance and low power consumption. For the most extreme radiation levels, signal charge has to be collected by drift from a depletion layer onto a designated collection electrode without losing the signal charge elsewhere in the in-pixel circuit. Low power consumption requires an optimization of Q/C, the ratio of the collected signal charge over the input capacitance [1]. Some solutions to combine sufficient Q/C and collection by drift require exotic fabrication steps. More conventional solutions up to now require a simple in-pixel readout circuit. Both high voltage CMOS technologies and Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) technologies with high resistivity epitaxial layers offer high voltage diodes. The choice between the two is not fundamental but more a question of how much depletion can be reached and also of availability and cost. This paper tries to give an overview.

  17. III-Vs on Si for photonic applications-A monolithic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhechao, E-mail: Zhechao.Wang@intec.ugent.be [School of ICT, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, Isafjordsgatan 22, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Junesand, Carl; Metaferia, Wondwosen; Hu, Chen; Wosinski, Lech [School of ICT, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, Isafjordsgatan 22, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Lourdudoss, Sebastian, E-mail: slo@kth.se [School of ICT, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, Isafjordsgatan 22, 164 40 Kista (Sweden)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monolithic evanescently coupled silicon laser (MECSL) structure treated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical mode profiles and thermal resistivity of MECSL optimized by simulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MECSL through epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) of InP on Si exemplified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Passive waveguide in MECSL also acts as the defect filtering mask in ELOG. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth of dislocation free thin InP layer on Si by ELOG for MECSL demonstrated. - Abstract: Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) technology is demonstrated as a viable technology to realize monolithic integration of III-Vs on silicon. As an alternative to wafer-to-wafer bonding and die-to-wafer bonding, ELOG provides an attractive platform for fabricating discrete and integrated components in high volume at low cost. A possible route for monolithic integration of III-Vs on silicon for silicon photonics is exemplified by the case of a monolithic evanescently coupled silicon laser (MECSL) by combining InP on Si/SiO{sub 2} through ELOG. Passive waveguide in MECSL also acts as the defect filtering mask in ELOG. The structural design of a monolithic evanescently coupled silicon laser (MECSL) and its thermal resistivity are established through simulations. Material studies to realize the above laser through ELOG are undertaken by studying appropriate ELOG pattern designs to achieve InP on narrow regions of silicon. We show that defect-free InP can be obtained on SiO{sub 2} as the first step which paves the way for realizing active photonic devices on Si/SiO{sub 2} waveguides, e.g. an MECSL.

  18. III–Vs on Si for photonic applications—A monolithic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhechao; Junesand, Carl; Metaferia, Wondwosen; Hu, Chen; Wosinski, Lech; Lourdudoss, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Monolithic evanescently coupled silicon laser (MECSL) structure treated. ► Optical mode profiles and thermal resistivity of MECSL optimized by simulation. ► MECSL through epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) of InP on Si exemplified. ► Passive waveguide in MECSL also acts as the defect filtering mask in ELOG. ► Growth of dislocation free thin InP layer on Si by ELOG for MECSL demonstrated. - Abstract: Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) technology is demonstrated as a viable technology to realize monolithic integration of III-Vs on silicon. As an alternative to wafer-to-wafer bonding and die-to-wafer bonding, ELOG provides an attractive platform for fabricating discrete and integrated components in high volume at low cost. A possible route for monolithic integration of III–Vs on silicon for silicon photonics is exemplified by the case of a monolithic evanescently coupled silicon laser (MECSL) by combining InP on Si/SiO 2 through ELOG. Passive waveguide in MECSL also acts as the defect filtering mask in ELOG. The structural design of a monolithic evanescently coupled silicon laser (MECSL) and its thermal resistivity are established through simulations. Material studies to realize the above laser through ELOG are undertaken by studying appropriate ELOG pattern designs to achieve InP on narrow regions of silicon. We show that defect-free InP can be obtained on SiO 2 as the first step which paves the way for realizing active photonic devices on Si/SiO 2 waveguides, e.g. an MECSL.

  19. Methacrylate monolithic columns functionalized with epinephrine for capillary electrochromatography applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Correa, Enrique Javier; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel

    2013-07-12

    Epinephrine-bonded polymeric monoliths for capillary electrochromatography (CEC) were developed by nucleophilic substitution reaction of epoxide groups of poly(glycidyl-methacrylate-co-ethylenedimethacrylate) (poly(GMA-co-EDMA)) monoliths using epinephrine as nucleophilic reagent. The ring opening reaction under dynamic conditions was optimized. Successful chemical modification of the monolith surface was ascertained by in situ Raman spectroscopy characterization. In addition, the amount of epinephrine groups that was bound to the monolith surface was evaluated by oxidation of the catechol groups with Ce(IV), followed by spectrophotometric measurement of unreacted Ce(IV). About 9% of all theoretical epoxide groups of the parent monolith were bonded to epinephrine. The chromatographic behavior of the epinephrine-bonded monolith in CEC conditions was assessed with test mixtures of alkyl benzenes, aniline derivatives and substituted phenols. In comparison to the poly(GMA-co-EDMA) monoliths, the epinephrine-bonded monoliths exhibited a much higher retention and slight differences in selectivity. The epinephrine-bonded monolith was further modified by oxidation with a Ce(IV) solution and compared with the epinephrine-bonded monoliths. The resulting monolithic stationary phases were evaluated in terms of reproducibility, giving RSD values below 9% in the parameters investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. All-optical header recognizer for optical packet switched networks : exploiting nonlinear gain and index dynamics in semiconductor optical amplifiers for low power operation and photonic integration device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calabretta, N.; Dorren, H.J.S.

    2009-01-01

    The increase of the internet traffic leads to future optical networks requiring tens of Tb/s of capacity. Current electronic circuit switches are limited by the scalability of the electronic switching fabrics, power consumption and dissipation in the opto- electronic conversion. All-optical packet

  1. Detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms using an ON-OFF switching of regenerated biosensor based on a locked nucleic acid-integrated and toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhong Feng; Ling, Yu; Lu, Lu; Chen, Ning Yu; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing

    2014-03-04

    Although various strategies have been reported for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detection, development of a time-saving, specific, and regenerated electrochemical sensing platform still remains a realistic goal. In this study, an ON-OFF switching of a regenerated biosensor based on a locked nucleic acid (LNA)-integrated and toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction technique is constructed for detection of SNPs. The LNA-integrated and methylene blue-labeled capture probe with an external toehold is designed to switch on the sensing system. The mutant-type DNA probe completes complementary with the capture probe to trigger the strand displacement reaction, which switches off the sensing system. However, when the single-base mismatched wild-type DNA probe is presented, the strand displacement reaction cannot be achieved; therefore, the sensing system still keeps the ON state. This DNA sensor is stable over five reuses. We further testify that the LNA-integrated sequence has better recognition ability for SNPs detection compared to the DNA-integrated sequence. Moreover, this DNA senor exhibits a remarkable discrimination capability of SNPs among abundant wild-type targets and 6000-fold (m/m) excess of genomic DNA. In addition, it is selective enough in complex and contaminant-ridden samples, such as human urine, soil, saliva, and beer. Overall, these results demonstrate that this reliable DNA sensor is easy to be fabricated, simple to operate, and stable enough to be readily regenerated.

  2. Design of a 2.4-GHz CMOS monolithic fractional-N frequency synthesizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Keliu

    The wireless communication technology and market have been growing rapidly since a decade ago. The high demand market is a driving need for higher integration in the wireless transceivers. The trend is to achieve low-cost, small form factor and low power consumption. With the ever-reducing feature size, it is becoming feasible to integrate the RF front-end together with the baseband in the low-cost CMOS technology. The frequency synthesizer is a key building block in the RF front-end of the transceivers. It is used as a local oscillator for frequency translation and channel selection. The design of a 2.4-GHz low-power frequency synthesizer in 0.35mum CMOS is a challenging task mainly due to the high-speed prescaler. In this dissertation, a brief review of conventional PLL and frequency synthesizers is provided. Design techniques of a 2.4-GHz monolithic SigmaDelta fractional-N frequency synthesizer are investigated. Novel techniques are proposed to tackle the speed and integration bottlenecks of high-frequency PLL. A low-power and inherently glitch-free phase-switching prescaler and an on-chip loop filter with capacitance multiplier are developed. Compared with the existing and popular dual-path topology, the proposed loop filter reduces circuit complexity and its power consumption and noise are negligible. Furthermore, a third-order three-level digital SigmaDelta modulator topology is employed to reduce the phase noise generated by the modulator. Suitable PFD and charge-pump designs are employed to reduce their nonlinearity effects and thus minimize the folding of the SigmaDelta modulator-shaped phase noise. A prototype of the fractional-N synthesizer together with some standalone building blocks is designed and fabricated in TSMC 0.35mum CMOS through MOSIS. The prototype frequency synthesizer and standalone prescaler and loop filter are characterized. The feasibility and practicality of the proposed prescaler and loop filter are experimentally verified.

  3. Optical Multidimensional Switching for Data Center Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamchevska, Valerija

    2017-01-01

    . Software controlled switching using an on-chip integrated fiber switch is demonstrated and enabling of additional network functionalities such as multicast and optical grooming is experimentally confirmed. Altogether this work demonstrates the potential of optical switching technologies...... for the purpose of deploying optical switching within the network. First, the Hi-Ring data center architecture is proposed. It is based on optical multidimensional switching nodes that provide switching in hierarchically layered space, wavelength and time domain. The performance of the Hi-Ring architecture...... is evaluated experimentally and successful switching of both high capacity wavelength connections and time-shared subwavelengthconnections is demonstrated. Error-free performance is also achieved when transmitting 7 Tbit/s using multicore fiber, confirming the ability to scale the network. Moreover...

  4. Transferrable monolithic multicomponent system for near-ultraviolet optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chuan; Gao, Xumin; Yuan, Jialei; Shi, Zheng; Jiang, Yuan; Liu, Yuhuai; Wang, Yongjin; Amano, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    A monolithic near-ultraviolet multicomponent system is implemented on a 0.8-mm-diameter suspended membrane by integrating a transmitter, waveguide, and receiver into a single chip. Two identical InGaN/Al0.10Ga0.90N multiple-quantum well (MQW) diodes are fabricated using the same process flow, which separately function as a transmitter and receiver. There is a spectral overlap between the emission and detection spectra of the MQW diodes. Therefore, the receiver can respond to changes in the emission of the transmitter. The multicomponent system is mechanically transferred from silicon, and the wire-bonded transmitter on glass experimentally demonstrates spatial light transmission at 200 Mbps using non-return-to-zero on–off keying modulation.

  5. Monolithic optofluidic ring resonator lasers created by femtosecond laser nanofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrahalim, Hengky; Chen, Qiushu; Said, Ali A; Dugan, Mark; Fan, Xudong

    2015-05-21

    We designed, fabricated, and characterized a monolithically integrated optofluidic ring resonator laser that is mechanically, thermally, and chemically robust. The entire device, including the ring resonator channel and sample delivery microfluidics, was created in a block of fused-silica glass using a 3-dimensional femtosecond laser writing process. The gain medium, composed of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) dissolved in quinoline, was flowed through the ring resonator. Lasing was achieved at a pump threshold of approximately 15 μJ mm(-2). Detailed analysis shows that the Q-factor of the optofluidic ring resonator is 3.3 × 10(4), which is limited by both solvent absorption and scattering loss. In particular, a Q-factor resulting from the scattering loss can be as high as 4.2 × 10(4), suggesting the feasibility of using a femtosecond laser to create high quality optical cavities.

  6. EDITORIAL: Molecular switches at surfaces Molecular switches at surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinelt, Martin; von Oppen, Felix

    2012-10-01

    In nature, molecules exploit interaction with their environment to realize complex functionalities on the nanometer length scale. Physical, chemical and/or biological specificity is frequently achieved by the switching of molecules between microscopically different states. Paradigmatic examples are the energy production in proton pumps of bacteria or the signal conversion in human vision, which rely on switching molecules between different configurations or conformations by external stimuli. The remarkable reproducibility and unparalleled fatigue resistance of these natural processes makes it highly desirable to emulate nature and develop artificial systems with molecular functionalities. A promising avenue towards this goal is to anchor the molecular switches at surfaces, offering new pathways to control their functional properties, to apply electrical contacts, or to integrate switches into larger systems. Anchoring at surfaces allows one to access the full range from individual molecular switches to self-assembled monolayers of well-defined geometry and to customize the coupling between molecules and substrate or between adsorbed molecules. Progress in this field requires both synthesis and preparation of appropriate molecular systems and control over suitable external stimuli, such as light, heat, or electrical currents. To optimize switching and generate function, it is essential to unravel the geometric structure, the electronic properties and the dynamic interactions of the molecular switches on surfaces. This special section, Molecular Switches at Surfaces, collects 17 contributions describing different aspects of this research field. They analyze elementary processes, both in single molecules and in ensembles of molecules, which involve molecular switching and concomitant changes of optical, electronic, or magnetic properties. Two topical reviews summarize the current status, including both challenges and achievements in the field of molecular switches on

  7. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER MONOLITH FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C

    2006-12-22

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as an alternative technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of aqueous high sodium containing radioactive wastes at various DOE facilities in the United States. The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants converts aqueous Low Activity Wastes (LAW) to a granular or ''mineralized'' waste form while converting organic components to CO{sub 2} and steam, and nitrate/nitrite components, if any, to N{sub 2}. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like structures that atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The granular product has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Shallow land burial requires that the mineralized waste form be able to sustain the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations. The strength requirement necessitates binding the granular product into a monolith. FBSR mineral products were formulated into a variety of monoliths including various cements, Ceramicrete, and hydroceramics. All but one of the nine monoliths tested met the <2g/m{sup 2} durability specification for Na and Re (simulant for Tc-99) when tested using the Product Consistency Test (PCT; ASTM C1285). Of the nine monoliths tested the cements produced with 80-87 wt% FBSR product, the Ceramicrete, and the hydroceramic produced with 83.3 wt% FBSR product, met the compressive strength and durability requirements for an LAW waste form.

  8. Integrated Network Analysis Identifies Fight-Club Nodes as a Class of Hubs Encompassing Key Putative Switch Genes That Induce Major Transcriptome Reprogramming during Grapevine Development[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Maria Concetta; Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Massonnet, Mélanie; Farina, Lorenzo; Castiglione, Filippo; Pezzotti, Mario; Paci, Paola

    2014-01-01

    We developed an approach that integrates different network-based methods to analyze the correlation network arising from large-scale gene expression data. By studying grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene expression atlases and a grapevine berry transcriptomic data set during the transition from immature to mature growth, we identified a category named “fight-club hubs” characterized by a marked negative correlation with the expression profiles of neighboring genes in the network. A special subset named “switch genes” was identified, with the additional property of many significant negative correlations outside their own group in the network. Switch genes are involved in multiple processes and include transcription factors that may be considered master regulators of the previously reported transcriptome remodeling that marks the developmental shift from immature to mature growth. All switch genes, expressed at low levels in vegetative/green tissues, showed a significant increase in mature/woody organs, suggesting a potential regulatory role during the developmental transition. Finally, our analysis of tomato gene expression data sets showed that wild-type switch genes are downregulated in ripening-deficient mutants. The identification of known master regulators of tomato fruit maturation suggests our method is suitable for the detection of key regulators of organ development in different fleshy fruit crops. PMID:25490918

  9. Microwave integrated circuits for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Regis F.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC), which incorporate all the elements of a microwave circuit on a single semiconductor substrate, offer the potential for drastic reductions in circuit weight and volume and increased reliability, all of which make many new concepts in electronic circuitry for space applications feasible, including phased array antennas. NASA has undertaken an extensive program aimed at development of MMICs for space applications. The first such circuits targeted for development were an extension of work in hybrid (discrete component) technology in support of the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS). It focused on power amplifiers, receivers, and switches at ACTS frequencies. More recent work, however, focused on frequencies appropriate for other NASA programs and emphasizes advanced materials in an effort to enhance efficiency, power handling capability, and frequency of operation or noise figure to meet the requirements of space systems.

  10. An overview of monolithic zirconia in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Malkondu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zirconia restorations have been used successfully for years in dentistry owing to their biocompatibility and good mechanical properties. Because of their lack of translucency, zirconia cores are generally veneered with porcelain, which makes restorations weaker due to failure of the adhesion between the two materials. In recent years, all-ceramic zirconia restorations have been introduced in the dental sector with the intent to solve this problem. Besides the elimination of chipping, the reduced occlusal space requirement seems to be a clear advantage of monolithic zirconia restorations. However, scientific evidence is needed to recommend this relatively new application for clinical use. This mini-review discusses the current scientific literature on monolithic zirconia restorations. The results of in vitro studies suggested that monolithic zirconia may be the best choice for posterior fixed partial dentures in the presence of high occlusal loads and minimal occlusal restoration space. The results should be supported with much more in vitro and particularly in vivo studies to obtain a final conclusion.

  11. Characterization of SOI monolithic detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Rengifo, P. L.; Soung Yee, L.; Martin, E.; Cortina, E.; Ferrer, C.

    2013-12-01

    A monolithic active pixel sensor for charged particle tracking was developed. This research is performed within the framework of an R&D project called TRAPPISTe (Tracking Particles for Physics Instrumentation in SOI Technology) whose aim is to evaluate the feasibility of developing a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) with Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) technology. Two chips were fabricated: TRAPPISTe-1 and TRAPPISTe-2. TRAPPISTe-1 was produced at the WINFAB facility at the Université catholique de Louvain (UCL), Belgium, in a 2 μm fully depleted (FD-SOI) CMOS process. TRAPPISTe-2 was fabricated with the LAPIS 0.2 μm FD-SOI CMOS process. The electrical characterization on single transistor test structures and of the electronic readout for the TRAPPISTe series of monolithic pixel detectors was carried out. The behavior of the prototypes’ electronics as a function of the back voltage was studied. Results showed that both readout circuits exhibited sensitivity to the back voltage. Despite this unwanted secondary effect, the responses of TRAPPISTe-2 amplifiers can be improved by a variation in the circuit parameters.

  12. Metal oxide nanorod arrays on monolithic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Pu-Xian; Guo, Yanbing; Ren, Zheng

    2018-01-02

    A metal oxide nanorod array structure according to embodiments disclosed herein includes a monolithic substrate having a surface and multiple channels, an interface layer bonded to the surface of the substrate, and a metal oxide nanorod array coupled to the substrate surface via the interface layer. The metal oxide can include ceria, zinc oxide, tin oxide, alumina, zirconia, cobalt oxide, and gallium oxide. The substrate can include a glass substrate, a plastic substrate, a silicon substrate, a ceramic monolith, and a stainless steel monolith. The ceramic can include cordierite, alumina, tin oxide, and titania. The nanorod array structure can include a perovskite shell, such as a lanthanum-based transition metal oxide, or a metal oxide shell, such as ceria, zinc oxide, tin oxide, alumina, zirconia, cobalt oxide, and gallium oxide, or a coating of metal particles, such as platinum, gold, palladium, rhodium, and ruthenium, over each metal oxide nanorod. Structures can be bonded to the surface of a substrate and resist erosion if exposed to high velocity flow rates.

  13. Fracture-resistant monolithic dental crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Mai, Zhisong; Barani, Amir; Bush, Mark; Lawn, Brian

    2016-03-01

    To quantify the splitting resistance of monolithic zirconia, lithium disilicate and nanoparticle-composite dental crowns. Fracture experiments were conducted on anatomically-correct monolithic crown structures cemented to standard dental composite dies, by axial loading of a hard sphere placed between the cusps. The structures were observed in situ during fracture testing, and critical loads to split the structures were measured. Extended finite element modeling (XFEM), with provision for step-by-step extension of embedded cracks, was employed to simulate full failure evolution. Experimental measurements and XFEM predictions were self-consistent within data scatter. In conjunction with a fracture mechanics equation for critical splitting load, the data were used to predict load-sustaining capacity for crowns on actual dentin substrates and for loading with a sphere of different size. Stages of crack propagation within the crown and support substrate were quantified. Zirconia crowns showed the highest fracture loads, lithium disilicate intermediate, and dental nanocomposite lowest. Dental nanocomposite crowns have comparable fracture resistance to natural enamel. The results confirm that monolithic crowns are able to sustain high bite forces. The analysis indicates what material and geometrical properties are important in optimizing crown performance and longevity. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  14. Monolithic circuits for barium fluoride detectors used in nuclear physics experiments. CRADA final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varner, R.L.; Blankenship, J.L.; Beene, J.R.; Todd, R.A.

    1998-02-01

    Custom monolithic electronic circuits have been developed recently for large detector applications in high energy physics where subsystems require tens of thousands of channels of signal processing and data acquisition. In the design and construction of these enormous detectors, it has been found that monolithic circuits offer significant advantages over discrete implementations through increased performance, flexible packaging, lower power and reduced cost per channel. Much of the integrated circuit design for the high energy physics community is directly applicable to intermediate energy heavy-ion and electron physics. This STTR project conducted in collaboration with researchers at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, sought to develop a new integrated circuit chip set for barium fluoride (BaF 2 ) detector arrays based upon existing CMOS monolithic circuit designs created for the high energy physics experiments. The work under the STTR Phase 1 demonstrated through the design, simulation, and testing of several prototype chips the feasibility of using custom CMOS integrated circuits for processing signals from BaF 2 detectors. Function blocks including charge-sensitive amplifiers, comparators, one shots, time-to-amplitude converters, analog memory circuits and buffer amplifiers were implemented during Phase 1 effort. Experimental results from bench testing and laboratory testing with sources were documented

  15. Mechanical design of a single-axis monolithic accelerometer for advanced seismic attenuation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Pisa and INFM, Largo Pontecorvo 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy) and LIGO Project, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)]. E-mail: alessandro.bertolini@desy.de; DeSalvo, Riccardo [LIGO Project, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fidecaro, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Pisa and INFM, Largo Pontecorvo 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Francesconi, Mario [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Pisa and INFM, Largo Pontecorvo 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Marka, Szabolcs [Department of Physics, Columbia University, 538 W. 120th St., New York, NY 10027 (United States); Sannibale, Virginio [LIGO Project, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Simonetti, Duccio [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Pisa and INFM, Largo Pontecorvo 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Takamori, Akiteru [LIGO Project, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Tariq, Hareem [LIGO Project, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2006-01-15

    The design and mechanics for a new very-low noise low frequency horizontal accelerometer is presented. The sensor has been designed to be integrated in an advanced seismic isolation system for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. The motion of a small monolithic folded-pendulum (FP) is monitored by a high resolution capacitance displacement sensor; a feedback force actuator keeps the mass at the equilibrium position. The feedback signal is proportional to the ground acceleration in the frequency range 0-150Hz. The very high mechanical quality factor, Q{approx}3000 at a resonant frequency of 0.5Hz, reduces the Brownian motion of the proof mass of the accelerometer below the resolution of the displacement sensor. This scheme enables the accelerometer to detect the inertial displacement of a platform with a root-mean-square noise less than 1nm, integrated over the frequency band from 0.01 to 150Hz. The FP geometry, combined with the monolithic design, allows the accelerometer to be extremely directional. A vertical-horizontal coupling ranging better than 10{sup -3} has been achieved. A detailed account of the design and construction of the accelerometer is reported here. The instrument is fully ultra-high vacuum compatible and has been tested and approved for integration in seismic attenuation system of japanese TAMA 300 gravitational wave detector. The monolithic design also makes the accelerometer suitable for cryogenic operation.

  16. Scalable optical switches for computing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, I.H.; Aw, E.T.; Williams, K.A.; Wang, Haibo; Wonfor, A.; Penty, R.V.

    2009-01-01

    A scalable photonic interconnection network architecture is proposed whereby a Clos network is populated with broadcast-and-select stages. This enables the efficient exploitation of an emerging class of photonic integrated switch fabric. A low distortion space switch technology based on recently

  17. Switched on!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Like a star arriving on stage, impatiently followed by each member of CERN personnel and by millions of eyes around the world, the first beam of protons has circulated in the LHC. After years in the making and months of increasing anticipation, today the work of hundreds of people has borne fruit. WELL DONE to all! Successfully steered around the 27 kilometres of the world’s most powerful particle accelerator at 10:28 this morning, this first beam of protons circulating in the ring marks a key moment in the transition from over two decades of preparation to a new era of scientific discovery. "It’s a fantastic moment," said the LHC project leader Lyn Evans, "we can now look forward to a new era of understanding about the origins and evolution of the universe". Starting up a major new particle accelerator takes much more than flipping a switch. Thousands of individual elements have to work in harmony, timings have to be synchronize...

  18. Comprehensive theory of the Deans' switch as a variable flow splitter: fluid mechanics, mass balance, and system behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeker, Peter; Leppert, Jan; Mysliwietz, Bodo; Lammers, Peter Schulze

    2013-10-01

    The Deans' switch is an effluent switching device based on controlling flows of carrier gas instead of mechanical valves in the analytical flow path. This technique offers high inertness and a wear-free operation. Recently new monolithic microfluidic devices have become available. In these devices the whole flow system is integrated into a small metal device with low thermal mass and leak-tight connections. In contrast to a mechanical valve-based system, a flow-controlled system is more difficult to calculate. Usually the Deans' switch is used to switch one inlet to one of two outlets, by means of two auxiliary flows. However, the Deans' switch can also be used to deliver the GC effluent with a specific split ratio to both outlets. The calculation of the split ratio of the inlet flow to the two outlets is challenging because of the asymmetries of the flow resistances. This is especially the case, if one of the outlets is a vacuum device, such as a mass spectrometer, and the other an atmospheric detector, e.g. a flame ionization detector (FID) or an olfactory (sniffing) port. The capillary flows in gas chromatography are calculated with the Hagen-Poiseuille equation of the laminar, isothermal and compressible flow in circular tubes. The flow resistances in the new microfluidic devices have to be calculated with the corresponding equation for rectangular cross-section microchannels. The Hagen-Poiseuille equation underestimates the flow to a vacuum outlet. A corrected equation originating from the theory of rarefied flows is presented. The calculation of pressures and flows of a Deans' switch based chromatographic system is done by the solution of mass balances. A specific challenge is the consideration of the antidiffusion resistor between the two auxiliary gas lines of the Deans' switch. A full solution for the calculation of the Deans' switch including this restrictor is presented. Results from validation measurements are in good accordance with the developed

  19. A high‐isolation switch based on a standard GaAs process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2011-01-01

    The design and evaluation of an ultra‐wideband nonreflective single port single throw switch integrated circuit is described. The switch has a measured insertion loss of......The design and evaluation of an ultra‐wideband nonreflective single port single throw switch integrated circuit is described. The switch has a measured insertion loss of...

  20. Selective oxidation of cyclohexene through gold functionalized silica monolith microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Mohammed T.; Taylor, Martin J.; Liu, Dan; Beaumont, Simon K.; Kyriakou, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Two simple, reproducible methods of preparing evenly distributed Au nanoparticle containing mesoporous silica monoliths are investigated. These Au nanoparticle containing monoliths are subsequently investigated as flow reactors for the selective oxidation of cyclohexene. In the first strategy, the silica monolith was directly impregnated with Au nanoparticles during the formation of the monolith. The second approach was to pre-functionalize the monolith with thiol groups tethered within the silica mesostructure. These can act as evenly distributed anchors for the Au nanoparticles to be incorporated by flowing a Au nanoparticle solution through the thiol functionalized monolith. Both methods led to successfully achieving even distribution of Au nanoparticles along the length of the monolith as demonstrated by ICP-OES. However, the impregnation method led to strong agglomeration of the Au nanoparticles during subsequent heating steps while the thiol anchoring procedure maintained the nanoparticles in the range of 6.8 ± 1.4 nm. Both Au nanoparticle containing monoliths as well as samples with no Au incorporated were tested for the selective oxidation of cyclohexene under constant flow at 30 °C. The Au free materials were found to be catalytically inactive with Au being the minimum necessary requirement for the reaction to proceed. The impregnated Au-containing monolith was found to be less active than the thiol functionalized Au-containing material, attributable to the low metal surface area of the Au nanoparticles. The reaction on the thiol functionalized Au-containing monolith was found to depend strongly on the type of oxidant used: tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) was more active than H2O2, likely due to the thiol induced hydrophobicity in the monolith.

  1. A nanoplasmonic switch based on molecular machines

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing; Yang, Ying-Wei; Jensen, Lasse; Fang, Lei; Juluri, Bala Krishna; Weiss, Paul S.; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Huang, Tony Jun

    2009-01-01

    We aim to develop a molecular-machine-driven nanoplasmonic switch for its use in future nanophotonic integrated circuits (ICs) that have applications in optical communication, information processing, biological and chemical sensing. Experimental

  2. Digital switched hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min; Plummer, Andrew

    2018-06-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in digital switched hydraulics particularly the switched inertance hydraulic systems (SIHSs). The performance of SIHSs is presented in brief with a discussion of several possible configurations and control strategies. The soft switching technology and high-speed switching valve design techniques are discussed. Challenges and recommendations are given based on the current research achievements.

  3. Safety characteristics of the monolithic CFC divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.; Merola, M.; Matera, R.

    1994-01-01

    The main distinguishing feature of the monolithic CFC divertor is the use of a single material, a carbon fibre reinforced carbon, for the protective armour, the heat sink and the cooling channels. This removes joint interface problems which are one of the most important concerns related to the reference solutions of the ITER CDA divertor. An activation analysis of the different coolant options for this concept is presented. It turns out that neither short-term nor long-term activation are a concern for any coolants investigated. Therefore the proposed concept proves to be attractive from a safety stand-point also. ((orig.))

  4. Safety characteristics of the monolithic CFC divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchetti, M.; Merola, M.; Matera, R.

    1994-09-01

    The main distinguishing feature of the monolithic CFC divertor is the use of a single material, a carbon fibre reinforced carbon, for the protective armour, the heat sink and the cooling channels. This removes joint interface problems which are one of the most important concerns related to the reference solutions of the ITER CDA divertor. An activation analysis of the different coolant options for this concept is presented. It turns out that neither short-term nor long-term activation are a concern for any coolants investigated. Therefore the proposed concept proves to be attractive from a safety stand-point also.

  5. Improvement of input power dynamic range for 20 Gbit/s optical WDM switch nodes using an integrated Michelson wavelength converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Jørgensen, Carsten

    1997-01-01

    be improved compared to switch blocks without IWCs. This is especially important at high bit rates where the cascadability of the SOA gates decreases. Here, more than 15 dB improvement of the input power dynamic range is achieved at 20 Gbit/s using a high-speed Michelson interferometer wavelength converter...

  6. A novel photocatalytic monolith reactor for multiphase heterogeneous photocatalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, P.; Carneiro, J.T.; Moulijn, J.A.; Mul, Guido

    2008-01-01

    A novel reactor for multi-phase photocatalysis is presented, the so-called internally illuminated monolith reactor (IIMR). In the concept of the IIMR, side light emitting fibers are placed inside the channels of a ceramic monolith, equipped with a TiO2 photocatalyst coated on the wall of each

  7. Immobilisation of shredded soft waste in cement monolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.J.; Dalton, M.J.; Smith, D.L.

    1983-04-01

    A grouting process for the immobilisation of shredded contaminated laboratory waste in a cement monolith is being developed at the Atomic Energy Establishment Winfrith. The objective is to produce a 'monolithic' type package which is acceptable both for sea and land disposal. The work carried out on this project in the period April 1982 - March 1983 is summarised in this report. (author)

  8. Fabrication of mesoporous polymer monolith: a template-free approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Keisuke; Nandi, Mahasweta; Maruyama, Jun; Oka, Tatsuya; Tsujimoto, Takashi; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2011-07-14

    Mesoporous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) monolith has been fabricated by a template-free approach using the unique affinity of PAN towards a water/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixture. A newly developed Thermally Induced Phase Separation Technique (TIPS) has been used to obtain the polymer monoliths and their microstructures have been controlled by optimizing the concentration and cooling temperature.

  9. Creating deep soil core monoliths: Beyond the solum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil monoliths serve as useful teaching aids in the study of the Earth’s critical zone where rock, soil, water, air, and organisms interact. Typical monolith preparation has so far been confined to the 1 to 2-m depth of the solum. Critical ecosystem services provided by soils include materials from ...

  10. A Monolithic Perovskite Structure for Use as a Magnetic Regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini; Clemens, Frank; Menon, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    A La0.67Ca0.26Sr0.07Mn1.05O3 (LCSM) perovskite was prepared for the first time as a ceramic monolithic regenerator used in a regenerative magnetic refrigeration device. The parameters influencing the extrusion process and the performance of the regenerator, such as the nature of the monolith paste...

  11. Fine-grain concrete from mining waste for monolithic construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesovik, R. V.; Ageeva, M. S.; Lesovik, G. A.; Sopin, D. M.; Kazlitina, O. V.; Mitrokhin, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    The technology of a monolithic construction is a well-established practice among most Russian real estate developers. The strong points of the technology are low cost of materials and lower demand for qualified workers. The monolithic construction uses various types of reinforced slabs and foamed concrete, since they are easy to use and highly durable; they also need practically no additional treatment.

  12. Energy Absorption of Monolithic and Fibre Reinforced Aluminium Cylinders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kanter, J.L.C.G.

    2006-01-01

    Summary accompanying the thesis: Energy Absorption of Monolithic and Fibre Reinforced Aluminium Cylinders by Jens de Kanter This thesis presents the investigation of the crush behaviour of both monolithic aluminium cylinders and externally fibre reinforced aluminium cylinders. The research is based

  13. Media Presentation Synchronisation for Non-monolithic Rendering Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Vaishnavi (Ishan); D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); B. Gao (Bo)

    2007-01-01

    htmlabstractNon-monolithic renderers are physically distributed media playback engines. Non-monolithic renderers may use a number of different underlying network connection types to transmit media items belonging to a presentation. There is therefore a need for a media based and inter-network- type

  14. Regional waste treatment facilities with underground monolith disposal for all low-heat-generating nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    An alternative system for treatment and disposal of all ''low-heat-generating'' nuclear wastes from all sources is proposed. The system, Regional Waste Treatment Facilities with Underground Monolith Disposal (RWTF/UMD), integrates waste treatment and disposal operations into single facilities at regional sites. Untreated and/or pretreated wastes are transported from generation sites such as reactors, hospitals, and industries to regional facilities in bulk containers. Liquid wastes are also transported in bulk after being gelled for transport. The untreated and pretreated wastes are processed by incineration, crushing, and other processes at the RWTF. The processed wastes are mixed with cement. The wet concrete mixture is poured into large low-cost, manmade caverns or deep trenches. Monolith dimensions are from 15 to 25 m wide, and 20 to 60 m high and as long as required. This alternative waste system may provide higher safety margins in waste disposal at lower costs

  15. Application of the monolithic solid oxide fuel cell to space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myles, K.M.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    The monolithic solid-oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) is a promising electrochemical power generation device that is currently under development at Argonne National Laboratory. The extremely high power density of the MSOFC leads to MSOFC systems that have sufficiently high energy densities that they are excellent candidates for a number of space missions. The fuel cell can also be operated in reverse, if it can be coupled to an external power source, to regenerate the fuel and oxidant from the water product. This feature further enhances the potential mission applications of the MSOFC. In this paper, the current status of the fuel cell development is presented---the focus being on fabrication and currently achievable performance. In addition, a specific example of a space power system, featuring a liquid metal cooled fast spectrum nuclear reactor and a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, is presented to demonstrate the features of an integrated system

  16. Application of the monolithic solid oxide fuel cell to space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Kevin M.; Bhattacharyya, Samit K.

    1991-01-01

    The monolithic solid-oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) is a promising electrochemical power generation device that is currently under development at Argonne National Laboratory. The extremely high power density of the MSOFC leads to MSOFC systems that have sufficiently high energy densities that they are excellent candidates for a number of space missions. The fuel cell can also be operated in reverse, if it can be coupled to an external power source, to regenerate the fuel and oxidant from the water product. This feature further enhances the potential mission applications of the MSOFC. In this paper, the current status of the fuel cell development is presented—the focus being on fabrication and currently achievable performance. In addition, a specific example of a space power system, featuring a liquid metal cooled fast spectrum nuclear reactor and a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, is presented to demonstrate the features of an integrated system.

  17. Test beam results of a depleted monolithic active pixel sensor (DMAPS) prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obermann, Theresa; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Bonn Univ. (Germany); Schwenker, Benjamin [Goettingen Univ. (Germany); Collaboration: ATLAS Pixel-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    New monolithic detector concepts are currently being explored for future particle physics experiments, in particular for the upgrade of the ATLAS detector. Common to monolithic pixel detectors is the integration of the front-end circuitry and the sensor on the same silicon substrate. The DMAPS concept makes use of high resistive silicon as substrate. It enables the application of a high bias voltage to create a drift field for the charge collection in the sensor part as well as the full usage of CMOS logic in the same piece of silicon. DMAPS prototypes from several foundries are available since three years and have been extensively characterized in the lab. In this talk, results of test beam campaigns, with neutron irradiated prototypes implemented in the ESPROS process, are presented.

  18. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER (FBSR) PRODUCT: MONOLITH FORMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C

    2006-01-01

    The most important requirement for Hanford's low activity waste (LAW) form for shallow land disposal is the chemical durability of the product. A secondary, but still essential specification, is the compressive strength of the material with regards to the strength of the material under shallow land disposal conditions, e.g. the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations, because the term ''near-surface disposal'' indicates disposal in the uppermost portion, or approximately the top 30 meters, of the earth's surface. The THOR(reg s ign) Treatment Technologies (TTT) mineral waste form for LAW is granular in nature because it is formed by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). As a granular product it has been shown to be as durable as Hanford's LAW glass during testing with ASTM C-1285-02 known as the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and with the Single Pass Flow Through Test (SPFT). Hanford Envelope A and Envelope C simulants both performed well during PCT and SPFT testing and during subsequent performance assessment modeling. This is partially due to the high aluminosilicate content of the mineral product which provides a natural aluminosilicate buffering mechanism that inhibits leaching and is known to occur in naturally occurring aluminosilicate mineral analogs. In order for the TTT Na-Al-Si (NAS) granular mineral product to meet the compressive strength requirements (ASTM C39) for a Hanford waste form, the granular product needs to be made into a monolith or disposed of in High Integrity Containers (HIC's). Additionally, the Hanford intruder scenario for disposal in the Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) trench is mitigated as there is reduced intruder exposure when a waste form is in a monolithic form. During the preliminary testing of a monolith binder for TTT's FBSR mineral product, four parameters were monitored: (1) waste loading (not optimized for each waste form tested); (2) density; (3) compressive strength; and (4

  19. Growth techniques for monolithic YBCO solenoidal magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scruggs, S.J.; Putman, P.T.; Fang, H.; Alessandrini, M.; Salama, K.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of growing large single domain YBCO solenoids by the use of a large seed has been investigated. There are two known methods for producing a similar solenoid. This first is a conventional top seeded melt growth process followed by a post processing machining step to create the bore. The second involves using multiple seeds spaced around the magnet bore. The appeal of the new technique lies in decreasing processing time compared to the single seed technique, while avoiding alignment problems found in the multiple seeding technique. By avoiding these problems, larger diameter monoliths can be produced. Large diameter monoliths are beneficial because the maximum magnetic field produced by a trapped field magnet is proportional to the radius of the sample. Furthermore, the availability of trapped field magnets with large diameter could enable their use in applications that traditionally have been considered to require wound electromagnets, such as beam bending magnets for particle accelerators or electric propulsion. A comparison of YBCO solenoids grown by the use of a large seed and grown by the use of two small seeds simulating multiple seeding is made. Trapped field measurements as well as microstructure evaluation were used in characterization of each solenoid. Results indicate that high quality growth occurs only in the vicinity of the seeds for the multiple seeded sample, while the sample with the large seeded exhibited high quality growth throughout the entire sample

  20. Growth techniques for monolithic YBCO solenoidal magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scruggs, S.J. [Texas Center for Superconductivity at University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)]. E-mail: Sscruggs2@uh.edu; Putman, P.T. [Texas Center for Superconductivity at University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Fang, H. [Texas Center for Superconductivity at University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Alessandrini, M. [Texas Center for Superconductivity at University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Salama, K. [Texas Center for Superconductivity at University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2006-10-01

    The possibility of growing large single domain YBCO solenoids by the use of a large seed has been investigated. There are two known methods for producing a similar solenoid. This first is a conventional top seeded melt growth process followed by a post processing machining step to create the bore. The second involves using multiple seeds spaced around the magnet bore. The appeal of the new technique lies in decreasing processing time compared to the single seed technique, while avoiding alignment problems found in the multiple seeding technique. By avoiding these problems, larger diameter monoliths can be produced. Large diameter monoliths are beneficial because the maximum magnetic field produced by a trapped field magnet is proportional to the radius of the sample. Furthermore, the availability of trapped field magnets with large diameter could enable their use in applications that traditionally have been considered to require wound electromagnets, such as beam bending magnets for particle accelerators or electric propulsion. A comparison of YBCO solenoids grown by the use of a large seed and grown by the use of two small seeds simulating multiple seeding is made. Trapped field measurements as well as microstructure evaluation were used in characterization of each solenoid. Results indicate that high quality growth occurs only in the vicinity of the seeds for the multiple seeded sample, while the sample with the large seeded exhibited high quality growth throughout the entire sample.

  1. Integrated MMIC for Phase-Locked Oscillators and Frequency Synthesizers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microwave Monolithic Integrated Circuits (MMIC) provide the technology base for miniaturization of microwave payloads in spacecraft. While MMIC chips are widely...

  2. On-chip multi-wavelength laser sources fabricated using generic photonic integration technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latkowski, S.; Williams, K.A.; Bente, E.A.J.M.

    Generic photonic integration technology platforms allow for design and fabrication of large complexity application specific photonic integrated circuits. Monolithic active-passive integration on indium phosphide substrate naturally enables a reliable co-integration of optical gain elements and

  3. Components for monolithic fiber chirped pulse amplification laser systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Michael Craig

    The first portion of this work develops techniques for generating femtosecond-pulses from conventional fabry-perot laser diodes using nonlinear-spectral-broadening techniques in Yb-doped positive dispersion fiber ampliers. The approach employed an injection-locked fabry-perot laser diode followed by two stages of nonlinear-spectral-broadening to generate sub-200fs pulses. This thesis demonstrated that a 60ps gain-switched fabry-perot laser-diode can be injection-locked to generate a single-longitudinal-mode pulse and compressed by nonlinear spectral broadening to 4ps. Two problems have been identified that must be resolved before moving forward with this approach. First, gain-switched pulses from a standard diode-laser have a number of characteristics not well suited for producing clean self-phase-modulation-broadened pulses, such as an asymmetric temporal shape, which has a long pulse tail. Second, though parabolic pulse formation occurs for any arbitrary temporal input pulse profile, deviation from the optimum parabolic input results in extensively spectrally modulated self-phase-modulation-broadened pulses. In conclusion, the approach of generating self-phase-modulation-broadened pulses from pulsed laser diodes has to be modified from the initial approach explored in this thesis. The first Yb-doped chirally-coupled-core ber based systems are demonstrated and characterized in the second portion of this work. Robust single-mode performance independent of excitation or any other external mode management techniques have been demonstrated in Yb-doped chirally-coupled-core fibers. Gain and power efficiency characteristics are not compromised in any way in this novel fiber structure up to the 87W maximum power achieved. Both the small signal gain at 1064nm of 30.3dB, and the wavelength dependence of the small signal gain were comparable to currently deployed large-mode-area-fiber technology. The efficiencies of the laser and amplifier were measured to be 75% and 54

  4. A monolithic RF transceiver for DC-OFDM UWB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yunfeng; Li Wei; Fu Haipeng; Gao Ting; Chen Danfeng; Zhou Feng; Cai Deyun; Li Dan; Niu Yangyang; Zhou Hanchao; Zhu Ning; Li Ning; Ren Junyan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a first monolithic RF transceiver for DC-OFDM UWB applications. The proposed direct-conversion transceiver integrates all the building blocks including two receiver (Rx) cores, two transmitter (Tx) cores and a dual-carrier frequency synthesizer (DC-FS) as well as a 3-wire serial peripheral interface (SPI) to set the operating status of the transceiver. The ESD-protected chip is fabricated by a TSMC 0.13-μm RF CMOS process with a die size of 4.5 × 3.6 mm 2 . The measurement results show that the wideband Rx achieves an NF of 5–6.2 dB, a max gain of 76–84 dB with 64-dB variable gain, an in-/out-of-band IIP3 of −6/+4 dBm and an input loss S 11 of < −10 in all bands. The Tx achieves an LOLRR/IMGRR of −34/-33 dBc, a typical OIP3 of +6 dBm and a maximum output power of −5 dBm. The DC-FS outputs two separate carriers simultaneously with an inter-band hopping time of < 1.2 ns. The full chip consumes a maximum current of 420 mA under a 1.2-V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  5. Application-specific architectures of CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szelezniak, Michal [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France)]. E-mail: michal.szelezniak@ires.in2p3.fr; Besson, Auguste [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Claus, Gilles; Colledani, Claude; [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Degerli, Yavuz [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Deptuch, Grzegorz [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Deveaux, Michael [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); GSI, Planckstrasse 1, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); Dorokhov, Andrei [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Dulinski, Wojciech [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Fourches, Nicolas [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Goffe, Mathieu [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Grandjean, Damien; Guilloux, Fabrice [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Heini, Sebastien [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France)]|[GSI, Planckstrasse 1, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); Himmi, Abdelkader [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Hu, Christine [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Jaaskelainen, Kimmo; Li, Yan; Lutz, Pierre; Orsini, Fabienne [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Pellicioli, Michel; Shabetai, Alexandre; Valin, Isabelle; Winter, Marc [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France)

    2006-11-30

    Several development directions intended to adapt and optimize monolithic active pixel sensors for specific applications are presented in this work. The first example, compatible with the STAR microvertex upgrade, is based on a simple two-transistor pixel circuitry. It is suited for a long integration time, room-temperature operation and minimum power dissipation. In another approach for this application, a specific readout method is proposed, allowing optimization of the integration time independently of the full frame-readout time. The circuit consists of an in-pixel front-end voltage amplifier, with a gain on the order of five, followed by two analog memory cells. The extended version of this scheme, based on the implementation of more memory cells per pixel, is the solution considered for the outer layers of a microvertex detector at the international linear collider. For the two innermost layers, a circuit allowing fast frame scans together with on-line, on-chip data sparsification is proposed. The first results of this prototype demonstrate that the fixed pattern dispersion is reduced below a noise level of 15 e{sup -}, allowing the use of a single comparator or a low-resolution ADC per pixel column. A common element for most of the mentioned readout schemes is a low-noise, low power consumption, layout efficient in-pixel amplifier. A review of possible solutions for this element together with some experimental results is presented.

  6. Latching micro optical switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A

    2013-05-21

    An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.

  7. Translucency and Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium-Oxide Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    Capt Todd D. Church APPROVED: Translucency and Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide Materials C~t) Kraig/[ Vandewalle Date...copyrighted material in the thesis/dissertation manuscript entitled: "Translucency arid Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide...Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide Materials Abstract Dental materials manufacturers have developed more translucent monolithic zirconium oxide

  8. Influence of different carbon monolith preparation parameters on pesticide adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukčević Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of carbon monolith for pesticide removal from water, and the mechanism of pesticide interaction with carbon surface were examined. Different carbon monolith samples were obtained by varying the carbonization and activation parameters. In order to examine the role of surface oxygen groups in pesticide adsorption, carbon monolith surface was functionalized by chemical treatment in HNO3, H2O2 and KOH. The surface properties of the obtained samples were investigated by BET surface area, pore size distribution and temperature-programmed desorption. Adsorption of pesticides from aqueous solution onto activated carbon monolith samples was studied by using five pesticides belonging to different chemical groups (acetamiprid, dimethoate, nicosulfuron, carbofuran and atrazine. Presented results show that higher temperature of carbonization and the amount of activating agent allow obtaining microporous carbon monolith with higher amount of surface functional groups. Adsorption properties of the activated carbon monolith were more readily affected by the amount of the surface functional groups than by specific surface area. Results obtained by carbon monolith functionalisation showed that π-π interactions were the main force for adsorption of pesticides with aromatic structure, while acidic groups play an important role in adsorption of pesticides with no aromatic ring in the chemical structure.

  9. Biomimetic small peptide functionalized affinity monoliths for monoclonal antibody purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangyu; Xia, Donghai; Han, Hai; Peng, Kun; Zhu, Peijie; Crommen, Jacques; Wang, Qiqin; Jiang, Zhengjin

    2018-08-09

    The rapid development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in therapeutic and diagnostic applications has necessitated the advancement of mAbs purification technologies. In this study, a biomimetic small peptide ligand 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid-Arg-Arg-Gly (DAAG) functionalized monolith was fabricated through a metal ion chelation-based multi-step approach. The resulting monolith showed good chromatographic performance. Compared with the Ni 2+ based IMAC monolith, the DAAG functionalized monolith exhibited not only excellent specificity but also higher dynamic binding capacity (DBC). The 10% DBC and 50% DBC for hIgG reached as high values as 26.0 and 34.6 mg/mL, respectively, at a ligand density of 8.8 μmol/mL, due to the high porosity and accessibility of the monolithic matrix. Moreover, the stability of the DAAG functionalized monolith in successive breakthrough experiments indicates that it has a promising potential for long-term use in mAbs purification. Finally, the DAAG functionalized monolith was successfully applied to the purification of trastuzumab or human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) from biological samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Multi-layered hierarchical nanostructures for transparent monolithic dye-sensitized solar cell architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoni, Luca; Fumagalli, Francesco; Perego, Andrea; Bellani, Sebastiano; Mazzolini, Piero; Di Fonzo, Fabio

    2017-06-01

    Monolithic dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) architectures hold great potential for building-integrated photovoltaics applications. They indeed benefit from lower weight and manufacturing costs as they avoid the use of a transparent conductive oxide (TCO)-coated glass counter electrode. In this work, a transparent monolithic DSC comprising a hierarchical 1D nanostructure stack is fabricated by physical vapor deposition techniques. The proof of concept device comprises hyperbranched TiO2 nanostructures, sensitized by the prototypical N719, as photoanode, a hierarchical nanoporous Al2O3 spacer, and a microporous indium tin oxide (ITO) top electrode. An overall 3.12% power conversion efficiency with 60% transmittance outside the dye absorption spectral window is demonstrated. The introduction of a porous TCO layer allows an efficient trade-off between transparency and power conversion. The porous ITO exhibits submicrometer voids and supports annealing temperatures above 400 °C without compromising its optoelectronical properties. After thermal annealing at 500 °C, the resistivity, mobility, and carrier concentration of the 800 nm-thick porous ITO layer are found to be respectively 2.3 × 10-3 Ω cm-1, 11 cm2 V-1 s-1, and 1.62 × 1020 cm-3, resulting in a series resistance in the complete device architecture of 45 Ω. Electrochemical impedance and intensity-modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy give insight into the electronic charge dynamic within the hierarchical monolithic DSCs, paving the way for potential device architecture improvements.

  11. Regional waste treatment with monolith disposal for low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    An alternative system is proposed for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste. This system, called REgional Treatment with MOnolith Disposal (RETMOD), is based on integrating three commercial technologies: automated package warehousing, whole-barrel rotary kiln incineration, and cement-based grouts for radioactive waste disposal. In the simplified flowsheet, all the sludges, liquids, resins, and combustible wastes are transported to regional facilities where they are incinerated. The ash is then mixed with special cement-based grouts, and the resulting mixture is poured into trenches to form large waste-cement monoliths. Wastes that do not require treatment, such as damaged and discarded equipment, are prepositioned in the trenches with the waste-cement mixture poured on top. The RETMOD system may provide higher safety margins by conversion of wastes into a solidified low-leach form, creation of low-surface area waste-cement monoliths, and centralization of waste processing into a few specialized facilities. Institutional problems would be simplified by placing total responsibility for safe disposal on the disposal site operator. Lower costs may be realized through reduced handling costs, the economics of scale, simplified operations, and less restrictive waste packaging requirements

  12. Silver deposition on chemically treated carbon monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Zoran M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monolith was treated with HNO3, KOH and H2O2. Effects of these treatments on the surface functional groups and on the amount of silver deposited on the CM surface were studied by temperature programmed desorption (TPD and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. As a result of chemical treatment there was an increase in the amount of surface oxygen complexes. The increase in the amount of silver deposit is proportional to the amount of surface groups that produce CO under decomposition. However, the high amount of CO groups, decomposing above 600°C, induces the smaller Ag crystallite size. Therefore, the high temperature CO evolving oxides are, most likely, the initial centers for Ag deposition.

  13. Present status of the MONOLITH project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrukhin, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    MONOLITH is a proposed massive (34 kt) magnetized tracking calorimeter at the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, optimized for the detection of atmospheric muon neutrinos. The main goal is to establish (or reject) the neutrino oscillation hypothesis through an explicit observation of the full first oscillation swing. The Δm 2 sensitivity range for this measurement comfortably covers the complete Super-Kamiokande allowed region. Other measurements include studies of matter effects, the NC up/down ratio, ν bar / ν ratio, the study of cosmic ray muons in the multi-TeV range, and auxiliary measurements from the CERN to Gran Sasso neutrino beam. Depending on approval, data taking with the part of the detector could start towards the end of 2004

  14. Bioinspired Synthesis of Monolithic and Layered Aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Hassan, Khalil T; Harvey, Alan; Kulijer, Dejan; Oila, Adrian; Hunt, Michael R C; Šiller, Lidija

    2018-04-25

    Aerogels are the least dense and most porous materials known to man, with potential applications from lightweight superinsulators to smart energy materials. To date their use has been seriously hampered by their synthesis methods, which are laborious and expensive. Taking inspiration from the life cycle of the damselfly, a novel ambient pressure-drying approach is demonstrated in which instead of employing low-surface-tension organic solvents to prevent pore collapse during drying, sodium bicarbonate solution is used to generate pore-supporting carbon dioxide in situ, significantly reducing energy, time, and cost in aerogel production. The generic applicability of this readily scalable new approach is demonstrated through the production of granules, monoliths, and layered solids with a number of precursor materials. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Highly-stable monolithic femtosecond Yb-fiber laser system based on photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    in the oscillator cavity for dispersion balancing and nonlinear optical limiting, and another one is used for low nonlinearity final pulse recompression. The chirped-pulse amplification and recompression of the 232-fs, 45-pJ/pulse oscillator output yields a final direct fiber-end delivery of 7.3-nJ energy pulses......A self-starting, passively stabilized, monolithic all polarizationmaintaining femtosecond Yb-fiber master oscillator / power amplifier with very high operational and environmental stability is demonstrated. The system is based on the use of two different photonic crystal fibers. One is used...... of around 297 fs duration. Our laser shows exceptional stability. No Q-switched modelocking events were detected during 4-days long observation. An average fluctuation of only 7.85 · 10−4 over the mean output power was determined as a result of more than 6-hours long measurement. The laser is stable towards...

  16. Design of a GaAs X-ray imaging sensor with integrated HEMT readout circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, D

    2002-01-01

    A new monolithic semi-insulating (SI) GaAs sensor design for X-ray imaging applications between 10-100keV has been proposed. Monolithic pixel detectors offer a number of advantages over hybrid bump-bonded detectors, such as high device yield, low costs and are easier to produce large scale arrays. In this thesis, an investigation is made of the use of a SI GaAs wafer as both a detector element and substrate for the epitaxially grown High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). The design of the HEMT transistors, optimised for this application, were produced with the aid of the Silvaco 'Virtual Wafer Fab' simulation package. It was determined that the device characteristics would consist of a small positive threshold voltage, a low off-state drain current and high transconductance. The final HEMT transistor design, that would be integrated to a pixel detector, had a threshold voltage of 0.17V, an off-state leakage current of {approx}1nA and a transconductance of 7.4mS. A number of test detectors were characterised using an ion beam induced charge technique. Charge collection efficiency maps of the test detectors were produced to determine their quality as a X-ray detection material. From the results, the inhomogeneity of SI GaAs, homogeneity of epitaxial GaAs and granular nature of polycrystalline GaAs, were observed. The best of these detectors was used in conjunction with a commercial field effect transistor to produce a hybrid device. The charge switching nature of the hybrid device was shown and a sensitivity of 0.44pC/{mu}Gy mm{sup 2}, for a detector bias of 60V, was found. The functionality of the hybrid sensor was the same to that proposed for the monolithic sensor. The fabrication of the monolithic sensor, with an integrated HEMT transistor and external capacitor, was achieved. To reach the next stage of producing a monolithic sensor that integrates charge, requires further work in the design and the fabrication process. (author)

  17. Design of a GaAs X-ray imaging sensor with integrated HEMT readout circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, D.

    2002-01-01

    A new monolithic semi-insulating (SI) GaAs sensor design for X-ray imaging applications between 10-100keV has been proposed. Monolithic pixel detectors offer a number of advantages over hybrid bump-bonded detectors, such as high device yield, low costs and are easier to produce large scale arrays. In this thesis, an investigation is made of the use of a SI GaAs wafer as both a detector element and substrate for the epitaxially grown High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). The design of the HEMT transistors, optimised for this application, were produced with the aid of the Silvaco 'Virtual Wafer Fab' simulation package. It was determined that the device characteristics would consist of a small positive threshold voltage, a low off-state drain current and high transconductance. The final HEMT transistor design, that would be integrated to a pixel detector, had a threshold voltage of 0.17V, an off-state leakage current of ∼1nA and a transconductance of 7.4mS. A number of test detectors were characterised using an ion beam induced charge technique. Charge collection efficiency maps of the test detectors were produced to determine their quality as a X-ray detection material. From the results, the inhomogeneity of SI GaAs, homogeneity of epitaxial GaAs and granular nature of polycrystalline GaAs, were observed. The best of these detectors was used in conjunction with a commercial field effect transistor to produce a hybrid device. The charge switching nature of the hybrid device was shown and a sensitivity of 0.44pC/μGy mm 2 , for a detector bias of 60V, was found. The functionality of the hybrid sensor was the same to that proposed for the monolithic sensor. The fabrication of the monolithic sensor, with an integrated HEMT transistor and external capacitor, was achieved. To reach the next stage of producing a monolithic sensor that integrates charge, requires further work in the design and the fabrication process. (author)

  18. Effects of ambient temperature changes on integral bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Integral bridges (IBs) are jointless bridges whereby the deck is continuous and monolithic with abutment walls. IBs are outperforming their non-integral counterparts in economy and safety. Their principal advantages are derived from the absence of ex...

  19. Catalytic Oxidation of Cyanogen Chloride over a Monolithic Oxidation Catalyst

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    The catalytic oxidation of cyanogen chloride was evaluated over a monolithic oxidation catalyst at temperatures between 200 and 300 deg C in air employing feed concentrations between 100 and 10,000 ppm...

  20. Effect of accelerated aging on translucency of monolithic zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Abdelbary

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Thickness of zirconia has significant effect on translucency. Aging has significant effect on thinner sections of zirconia. More research is required on zirconia towards making the material more translucent for its potential use as esthetic monolithic restoration.

  1. Microchip-based monolithic column for high performance liquid chromatography

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have developed microchip based monolithic columns that can be used for liquid chromatography of small organic molecules, as well as, macromolecules such as...

  2. Monolithic Perovskite Silicon Tandem Solar Cells with Advanced Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Jan C.; Bett, Alexander J.; Bivour, Martin; Blasi, Benedikt; Eisenlohr, Johannes; Kohlstadt, Markus; Lee, Seunghun; Mastroianni, Simone; Mundt, Laura; Mundus, Markus; Ndione, Paul; Reichel, Christian; Schubert, Martin; Schulze, Patricia S.; Tucher, Nico; Veit, Clemens; Veurman, Welmoed; Wienands, Karl; Winkler, Kristina; Wurfel, Uli; Glunz, Stefan W.; Hermle, Martin

    2016-11-14

    For high efficiency monolithic perovskite silicon tandem solar cells, we develop low-temperature processes for the perovskite top cell, rear-side light trapping, optimized perovskite growth, transparent contacts and adapted characterization methods.

  3. Shear bond strength of indirect composite material to monolithic zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Fatih; Secilmis, Asli; Simsek, Irfan; Ozsevik, Semih

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of indirect composite material (Tescera Indirect Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The indirect composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD tests (α=.05). Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (Pcomposite material and monolithic zirconia.

  4. Reliability Analysis and Optimal Design of Monolithic Vertical Wall Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, Hans F.; Christiani, E.

    1994-01-01

    Reliability analysis and reliability-based design of monolithic vertical wall breakwaters are considered. Probabilistic models of the most important failure modes, sliding failure, failure of the foundation and overturning failure are described . Relevant design variables are identified...

  5. Plant oil-based shape memory polymer using acrylic monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tsujimoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the synthesis of a plant oil-based material using acrylic monolith. An acrylic monolith bearing oxirane groups was prepared via simple technique that involved the dissolution of poly(glycidyl methacrylate-comethyl methacrylate (PGMA in ethanolic – aqueous solution by heating and subsequent cooling. The PGMA monolith had topologically porous structure, which was attributed to the phase separation of the polymer solution. The PGMA monolith was impregnated by epoxidized soybean oil (ESO containing thermally-latent catalyst, and the subsequent curing produced a crosslinked material with relatively good transparency. The Young’s modulus and the tensile strength of polyESO/PGMA increased compared with the ESO homopolymer. The strain at break of polyESO/PGMA was larger than that of the ESO homopolymer and crosslinked PGMA. Furthermore, polyESO/PGMA exhibited good shape memory-recovery behavior.

  6. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Nixon [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Slipher, Geoffrey A., E-mail: geoffrey.a.slipher.civ@mail.mil; Mrozek, Randy A. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); O' Brien, Benjamin M. [StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Anderson, Iain A. [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Department of Engineering Science, School of Engineering, The University of Auckland, Level 3, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand)

    2016-03-07

    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease of manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.

  7. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, Nixon; Slipher, Geoffrey A.; Mrozek, Randy A.; O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease of manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.

  8. Irradiation performance of U-Mo monolithic fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M. K.; Gan, J.; Jue, J. F.; Keiser, D. D.; Perez, E.; Robinson, A.; Wachs, D. M.; Woolstenhulme, N. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.S.; Hofman, G. L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont (United States)

    2014-04-15

    High-performance research reactors require fuel that operates at high specific power to high fission density, but at relatively low temperatures. Research reactor fuels are designed for efficient heat rejection, and are composed of assemblies of thin-plates clad in aluminum alloy. The development of low-enriched fuels to replace high-enriched fuels for these reactors requires a substantially increased uranium density in the fuel to offset the decrease in enrichment. Very few fuel phases have been identified that have the required combination of very-high uranium density and stable fuel behavior at high burnup. U-Mo alloys represent the best known tradeoff in these properties. Testing of aluminum matrix U-Mo aluminum matrix dispersion fuel revealed a pattern of breakaway swelling behavior at intermediate burnup, related to the formation of a molybdenum stabilized high aluminum intermetallic phase that forms during irradiation. In the case of monolithic fuel, this issue was addressed by eliminating, as much as possible, the interfacial area between U-Mo and aluminum. Based on scoping irradiation test data, a fuel plate system composed of solid U-10Mo fuel meat, a zirconium diffusion barrier, and Al6061 cladding was selected for development. Developmental testing of this fuel system indicates that it meets core criteria for fuel qualification, including stable and predictable swelling behavior, mechanical integrity to high burnup, and geometric stability. In addition, the fuel exhibits robust behavior during power-cooling mismatch events under irradiation at high power.

  9. IRRADIATION PERFORMANCE OF U-Mo MONOLITHIC FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. MEYER

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available High-performance research reactors require fuel that operates at high specific power to high fission density, but at relatively low temperatures. Research reactor fuels are designed for efficient heat rejection, and are composed of assemblies of thin-plates clad in aluminum alloy. The development of low-enriched fuels to replace high-enriched fuels for these reactors requires a substantially increased uranium density in the fuel to offset the decrease in enrichment. Very few fuel phases have been identified that have the required combination of very-high uranium density and stable fuel behavior at high burnup. UMo alloys represent the best known tradeoff in these properties. Testing of aluminum matrix U-Mo aluminum matrix dispersion fuel revealed a pattern of breakaway swelling behavior at intermediate burnup, related to the formation of a molybdenum stabilized high aluminum intermetallic phase that forms during irradiation. In the case of monolithic fuel, this issue was addressed by eliminating, as much as possible, the interfacial area between U-Mo and aluminum. Based on scoping irradiation test data, a fuel plate system composed of solid U-10Mo fuel meat, a zirconium diffusion barrier, and Al6061 cladding was selected for development. Developmental testing of this fuel system indicates that it meets core criteria for fuel qualification, including stable and predictable swelling behavior, mechanical integrity to high burnup, and geometric stability. In addition, the fuel exhibits robust behavior during power-cooling mismatch events under irradiation at high power.

  10. Monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) in a VLSI CMOS technology

    CERN Document Server

    Turchetta, R; Manolopoulos, S; Tyndel, M; Allport, P P; Bates, R; O'Shea, V; Hall, G; Raymond, M

    2003-01-01

    Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) designed in a standard VLSI CMOS technology have recently been proposed as a compact pixel detector for the detection of high-energy charged particle in vertex/tracking applications. MAPS, also named CMOS sensors, are already extensively used in visible light applications. With respect to other competing imaging technologies, CMOS sensors have several potential advantages in terms of low cost, low power, lower noise at higher speed, random access of pixels which allows windowing of region of interest, ability to integrate several functions on the same chip. This brings altogether to the concept of 'camera-on-a-chip'. In this paper, we review the use of CMOS sensors for particle physics and we analyse their performances in term of the efficiency (fill factor), signal generation, noise, readout speed and sensor area. In most of high-energy physics applications, data reduction is needed in the sensor at an early stage of the data processing before transfer of the data to ta...

  11. Microwave monolithic filter and phase shifter using magnetic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Shehreen; Khanna, Manoj; Veenugopal, Veerakumar; Kuanr, Bijoy K.

    2018-05-01

    Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) have major impact on the development of microwave communication technology. Transition metal based ferromagnetic nano-wired (FMNWs) substrate are of special interest in order to fabricate these MMIC devices. Their saturation magnetization is comparatively higher than ferrites which makes them suitable for high frequency (>10 ˜ 40 GHz) operation at zero or a small applied magnetic field. The CoFeB nanowires in anodic alumina templates were synthesized using three-electrode electro-deposition system. After electro-deposition, 1μm thick Cu layer was sputtered on the top surface of FMNW substrate and lithography was done to design microstrip lines. These microstrip transmission lines were tested for band-stop filters and phase shifters based on ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) over a wide applied magnetic field (H) range. It was observed that attenuation and frequency increase with the increase of magnetic field (upto 5.3 kOe). For phase shifter, the influence of magnetic material was studied for two frequency regions: (i) below FMR and (ii) above FMR. These two frequency regions were suitable for many practical device applications as the insertion loss was very less in these regions in comparison to resonance frequency regions. In the high frequency region (at 35 GHz), the optimal differential phase shift increased significantly to ˜ 250 deg/cm and around low frequency region (at 24 GHz), the optimal differential phase shift is ˜175 deg/cm at the highest field (H) value.

  12. Microwave monolithic filter and phase shifter using magnetic nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehreen Aslam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC have major impact on the development of microwave communication technology. Transition metal based ferromagnetic nano-wired (FMNWs substrate are of special interest in order to fabricate these MMIC devices. Their saturation magnetization is comparatively higher than ferrites which makes them suitable for high frequency (>10 ∼ 40 GHz operation at zero or a small applied magnetic field. The CoFeB nanowires in anodic alumina templates were synthesized using three-electrode electro-deposition system. After electro-deposition, 1μm thick Cu layer was sputtered on the top surface of FMNW substrate and lithography was done to design microstrip lines. These microstrip transmission lines were tested for band-stop filters and phase shifters based on ferromagnetic resonance (FMR over a wide applied magnetic field (H range. It was observed that attenuation and frequency increase with the increase of magnetic field (upto 5.3 kOe. For phase shifter, the influence of magnetic material was studied for two frequency regions: (i below FMR and (ii above FMR. These two frequency regions were suitable for many practical device applications as the insertion loss was very less in these regions in comparison to resonance frequency regions. In the high frequency region (at 35 GHz, the optimal differential phase shift increased significantly to ∼ 250 deg/cm and around low frequency region (at 24 GHz, the optimal differential phase shift is ∼175 deg/cm at the highest field (H value.

  13. Monolithic approach for solid-state detector electronics: Design implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanstraelen, G.

    1990-01-01

    The monolithic integration is obtained using a p-well CMOS technology in which the p-channel devices are located in the high-resistivity silicon. The latter has enormous implications on their behavior, as compared to standard devices. In this paper it is shown for pMOS transistors on HR-Si that a real saturation operation is never reached, but that they keep operating in a quasi-linear mode, due to the 2-D nature of the potential profile. Based on an analytical current model for the quasi-linear mode, it is shown that if the p-channel length is not carefully chosen, the active operation of the device in analog circuits is lost completely due to the low output resistance. The second topic investigated is the p-channel noise behavior. Experiments lead to the conclusion that a low 1/f noise in on mode is only guaranteed if the surface current is much larger than the punch-through current. In off mode the device can be used as a low noise resistor. Furthermore it is found that the white noise is due to the substrate resistance, instead of the channel resistance

  14. A monolithic charge multiplexer with 0.5% accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.; McPherson, G.M.; Morrissey, M.C.; Thompson, J.C.; Tucker, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a 16 channel monolithic charge multiplexer providing a close tolerance, low cost, low power solution to the problem of handling the signals from detectors with large numbers of channels. Outputs may be wire-orred to increase the degree of multiplexing. A system designed with this chip and with suitable close tolerance processing downstream will have a gain match of ±0.5% and a front end chip cost of approximately $1 per channel. The chip is fabricated in CMOS technology and the test of a 1500 channel system has demonstrated the feasibility of CMOS in this context. The chip produces a prompt sum of the charges from the 16 signal sources and integrates and stores the individual charges for later serial readout. A single network provides amplifier bias and releases area to facilitate optimum noise performance and signal handling. Amplifier and bias network design together with p-well screens to isolate storage capacitors from the substrate provide the power line rejection essential in systems generating a trigger from large numbers of channels. (orig.)

  15. Monolithic array of 32 SPAD pixels for single-photon imaging at high frame rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisa, Simone; Guerrieri, Fabrizio; Zappa, Franco

    2009-01-01

    We present a single-chip monolithic array of 32 Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD) and associated electronics for imaging at high frame rates and high sensitivity. Photodetectors, front-end circuitry and control electronics used to manage the array are monolithically integrated on the same chip in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS high-voltage technology. The array is composed of 32 'smart' pixels working in photon counting mode and functioning in a parallel fashion. Every cell comprises of an integrated SPAD photodetector, a novel quenching circuit named as Variable Load Quenching Circuit (VLQC), counting electronics and a buffer memory. Proper ancillary electronics that perform the arbitration of photon counts between two consecutive frames is integrated as well. Thanks to the presence of in-pixel memory registers, the inter-frame dead time between subsequent frames is limited to few nanoseconds. Since integration and download are performed simultaneously and the array can be addressed like a standard digital memory, the achievable maximum frame rate is very high in the order of hundreds of thousands of frame/s.

  16. Towards a Technique for Extracting Microservices from Monolithic Enterprise Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Levcovitz, Alessandra; Terra, Ricardo; Valente, Marco Tulio

    2016-01-01

    The idea behind microservices architecture is to develop a single large, complex application as a suite of small, cohesive, independent services. On the other way, monolithic systems get larger over the time, deviating from the intended architecture, and becoming risky and expensive to evolve. This paper describes a technique to identify and define microservices on monolithic enterprise systems. As the major contribution, our evaluation shows that our approach was able to identify relevant ca...

  17. Translucency and Strength of High Translucency Monolithic Zirconium Oxide Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-17

    Zirconium -Oxide Materials presented at/published to the Journal of General Dentistry with MDWI 41-108, and has been assigned local file #16208. 2...Zirconia-Oxide Materials 6. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED: Translucency and Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide...OBSOLETE 48. DATE Page 3 of 3 Pages Translucency and Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide Materials Abstract Dental materials

  18. Electroactive Ionic Soft Actuators with Monolithically Integrated Gold Nanocomposite Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yunsong; Santaniello, Tommaso; Bettini, Luca Giacomo; Minnai, Chloé; Bellacicca, Andrea; Porotti, Riccardo; Denti, Ilaria; Faraone, Gabriele; Merlini, Marco; Lenardi, Cristina; Milani, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    Electroactive ionic gel/metal nanocomposites are produced by implanting supersonically accelerated neutral gold nanoparticles into a novel chemically crosslinked ion conductive soft polymer. The ionic gel consists of chemically crosslinked poly(acrylic acid) and polyacrylonitrile networks, blended with halloysite nanoclays and imidazolium-based ionic liquid. The material exhibits mechanical properties similar to that of elastomers (Young's modulus ≈ 0.35 MPa) together with high ionic conductivity. The fabrication of thin (≈100 nm thick) nanostructured compliant electrodes by means of supersonic cluster beam implantation (SCBI) does not significantly alter the mechanical properties of the soft polymer and provides controlled electrical properties and large surface area for ions storage. SCBI is cost effective and suitable for the scaleup manufacturing of electroactive soft actuators. This study reports the high-strain electromechanical actuation performance of the novel ionic gel/metal nanocomposites in a low-voltage regime (from 0.1 to 5 V), with long-term stability up to 76 000 cycles with no electrode delamination or deterioration. The observed behavior is due to both the intrinsic features of the ionic gel (elasticity and ionic transport capability) and the electrical and morphological features of the electrodes, providing low specific resistance (<100 Ω cm -2 ), high electrochemical capacitance (≈mF g -1 ), and minimal mechanical stress at the polymer/metal composite interface upon deformation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. From VHF to UHF CMOS-MEMS Monolithically Integrated Resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teva, Jordi; Berini, Abadal Gabriel; Uranga, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of microresonators exhibiting resonance frequencies in the VHF and UHF bands, fabricated using the available layers of the standard and commercial CMOS technology, AMS-0.35mum. The resonators are released in a post-CMOS process cons...

  20. Nano-Doped Monolithic Materials for Molecular Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Acquah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoliths are continuous adsorbents that can easily be synthesised to possess tuneable meso-/macropores, convective fluid transport, and a plethora of chemistries for ligand immobilisation. They are grouped into three main classes: organic, inorganic, and hybrid, based on their chemical composition. These classes may also be differentiated by their unique morphological and physicochemical properties which are significantly relevant to their specific separation applications. The potential applications of monoliths for molecular separation have created the need to enhance their characteristic properties including mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, and chemical and thermal stability. An effective approach towards monolith enhancement has been the doping and/or hybridization with miniaturized molecular species of desirable functionalities and characteristics. Nanoparticles are usually preferred as dopants due to their high solid phase dispersion features which are associated with improved intermolecular adsorptive interactions. Examples of such nanomaterials include, but are not limited to, carbon-based, silica-based, gold-based, and alumina nanoparticles. The incorporation of these nanoparticles into monoliths via in situ polymerisation and/or post-modification enhances surface adsorption for activation and ligand immobilisation. Herein, insights into the performance enhancement of monoliths as chromatographic supports by nanoparticles doping are presented. In addition, the potential and characteristics of less common nanoparticle materials such as hydroxyapatite, ceria, hafnia, and germania are discussed. The advantages and challenges of nanoparticle doping of monoliths are also discussed.

  1. Mechanically stable, hierarchically porous Cu3(btc)2 (HKUST-1) monoliths via direct conversion of copper(II) hydroxide-based monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitra, Nirmalya; Fukumoto, Shotaro; Reboul, Julien; Sumida, Kenji; Zhu, Yang; Nakanishi, Kazuki; Furukawa, Shuhei; Kitagawa, Susumu; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi

    2015-02-28

    The synthesis of highly crystalline macro-meso-microporous monolithic Cu3(btc)2 (HKUST-1; btc(3-) = benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate) is demonstrated by direct conversion of Cu(OH)2-based monoliths while preserving the characteristic macroporous structure. The high mechanical strength of the monoliths is promising for possible applications to continuous flow reactors.

  2. Detector block based on arrays of 144 SiPMs and monolithic scintillators: A performance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, A.J.; Conde, P.; Iborra, A.; Aguilar, A.; Bellido, P.; García-Olcina, R.; Hernández, L.; Moliner, L.; Rigla, J.P.; Rodríguez-Álvarez, M.J.; Sánchez, F.; Seimetz, M.; Soriano, A.; Torres, J.; Vidal, L.F.; Benlloch, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a detector block composed by a monolithic LYSO scintillator coupled to a custom made 12×12 SiPMs array. The design is mainly focused to applications such as Positron Emission Tomography. The readout electronics is based on 3 identical and scalable Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC). We have determined the main performance of the detector block namely spatial, energy, and time resolution but also the system capability to determine the photon depth of interaction, for different crystal surface treatments. Intrinsic detector spatial resolution values as good as 1.7 mm FWHM and energies of 15% for black painted crystals were measured

  3. Monte: A compact and versatile multidetector system based on monolithic telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorini, F.; Bonanno, A.; Cardella, G.; Di Pietro, A.; Fallica, G.; Figuera, P.; Morea, A.; Musumarra, A.; Papa, M.; Pappalardo, G.; Pinto, A.; Rizzo, F.; Tian, W.; Tudisco, S.; Valvo, G.

    2005-01-01

    We present the characteristics of a new multidetector based on monolithic silicon telescopes: MONTE. By using high-energy ion implantation techniques, the ΔE and residual energy stages of such telescopes have been integrated on the same silicon chip, obtaining extremely thin ΔE stages of the order of 1μm. This allowed one to obtain a very low charge identification energy threshold and a very good β background suppression in reactions induced by radioactive ion beams. The multidetector has a modular structure and can be assembled in different geometrical configurations according to experimental needs

  4. Integrated Silicon Carbide Power Electronic Block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Rahul [Global Power Technologies Group, Inc., Lake Forest, CA (United States)

    2017-11-07

    Research involved in this project is aimed at monolithically integrating an anti-parallel diode to the SiC MOSFET switch, so as to avoid having to use an external anti-parallel diode in power circuit applications. SiC MOSFETs are replacing Si MOSFETs and IGBTs in many applications, yet the high bandgap of the body diode in SiC MOSFET and consequent need for an external anti-parallel diode increases costs and discourages circuit designers from adopting this technology. Successful demonstration and subsequent commercialization of this technology would reduce SiC MOSFET cost and additionally reduce component count as well as other costs at the power circuit level. In this Phase I project, we have created multiple device designs, set up a process for device fabrication at the 150mm SiC foundry XFAB Texas, demonstrated unit-processes for device fabrication in short loops and started full flow device fabrication. Key findings of the development activity were: The limits of coverage of photoresist over the topology of thick polysilicon structures covered with oxide, which required larger feature dimensions to overcome; and The insufficient process margin for removing oxide spacers from polysilicon field ring features which could result in loss of some features without further process development No fundamental obstacles were uncovered during the process development. Given sufficient time for additional development it is likely that processes could be tuned to realize the monolithically integrated SiC JBS diode and MOSFET. Sufficient funds were not available in this program to resolve processing difficulties and fabricate the devices.

  5. Implementation and integration in the L3 experimentation of a level-2 trigger with event building, based on C104 data driven cross-bar switches and on T9000 transputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masserot, A.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes the new level-2 trigger system. It has been developed to fit the L3 requirements induced by the LEP phase 2 conditions. At each beam crossing, the system memorizes the trigger data, builds-up the events selected by the level-1 hard-wired processors and finally rejects on-line the background identified by algorithms coded in Fortran. Based on T9000 Transputers and on C104 data driven cross-bar switches, the system uses prototypes designed by INMOS/SGS THOMSON for parallel processing applications. Emphasis is set on a new event building technic, on its integration in L3 and on performance. (author). 38 refs., 68 figs., 36 tabs

  6. Neutron spectrometry with a monolithic silicon telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosteo, S; D'Angelo, G; Fazzi, A; Para, A Foglio; Pola, A; Zotto, P

    2007-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer was set-up by coupling a polyethylene converter with a monolithic silicon telescope, consisting of a DeltaE and an E stage-detector (about 2 and 500 microm thick, respectively). The detection system was irradiated with monoenergetic neutrons at INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Legnaro, Italy). The maximum detectable energy, imposed by the thickness of the E stage, is about 8 MeV for the present detector. The scatter plots of the energy deposited in the two stages were acquired using two independent electronic chains. The distributions of the recoil-protons are well-discriminated from those due to secondary electrons for energies above 0.350 MeV. The experimental spectra of the recoil-protons were compared with the results of Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA code. An analytical model that takes into account the geometrical structure of the silicon telescope was developed, validated and implemented in an unfolding code. The capability of reproducing continuous neutron spectra was investigated by irradiating the detector with neutrons from a thick beryllium target bombarded with protons. The measured spectra were compared with data taken from the literature. Satisfactory agreement was found.

  7. Long-Wavelength InAs/GaAs Quantum-Dot Light Emitting Sources Monolithically Grown on Si Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siming Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Direct integration of III–V light emitting sources on Si substrates has attracted significant interest for addressing the growing limitations for Si-based electronics and allowing the realization of complex optoelectronics circuits. However, the high density of threading dislocations introduced by large lattice mismatch and incompatible thermal expansion coefficient between III–V materials and Si substrates have fundamentally limited monolithic epitaxy of III–V devices on Si substrates. Here, by using the InAlAs/GaAs strained layer superlattices (SLSs as dislocation filter layers (DFLs to reduce the density of threading dislocations. We firstly demonstrate a Si-based 1.3 µm InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD laser that lases up to 111 °C, with a low threshold current density of 200 A/cm2 and high output power over 100 mW at room temperature. We then demonstrate the operation of InAs/GaAs QD superluminescent light emitting diodes (SLDs monolithically grown on Si substrates. The fabricated two-section SLD exhibits a 3 dB linewidth of 114 nm, centered at ~1255 nm with a corresponding output power of 2.6 mW at room temperature. Our work complements hybrid integration using wafer bonding and represents a significant milestone for direct monolithic integration of III–V light emitters on Si substrates.

  8. Optical packet switched networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Bukhave

    1999-01-01

    Optical packet switched networks are investigated with emphasis on the performance of the packet switch blocks. Initially, the network context of the optical packet switched network is described showing that a packet network will provide transparency, flexibility and bridge the granularity gap...... in interferometric wavelength converters is investigated showing that a 10 Gbit/s 19 4x4 swich blocks can be cascaded at a BER of 10-14. An analytical traffic model enables the calculation of the traffice performance of a WDM packet network. Hereby the importance of WDM and wavelegth conversion in the switch blocks...... is established as a flexible means to reduce the optical buffer, e.g., the number of fibre delay lines for a 16x16 switch block is reduced from 23 to 6 by going from 2 to 8 wavelength channels pr. inlet. Additionally, a component count analysis is carried out to illustrate the trade-offs in the switch block...

  9. Saturated Switching Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Benzaouia, Abdellah

    2012-01-01

    Saturated Switching Systems treats the problem of actuator saturation, inherent in all dynamical systems by using two approaches: positive invariance in which the controller is designed to work within a region of non-saturating linear behaviour; and saturation technique which allows saturation but guarantees asymptotic stability. The results obtained are extended from the linear systems in which they were first developed to switching systems with uncertainties, 2D switching systems, switching systems with Markovian jumping and switching systems of the Takagi-Sugeno type. The text represents a thoroughly referenced distillation of results obtained in this field during the last decade. The selected tool for analysis and design of stabilizing controllers is based on multiple Lyapunov functions and linear matrix inequalities. All the results are illustrated with numerical examples and figures many of them being modelled using MATLAB®. Saturated Switching Systems will be of interest to academic researchers in con...

  10. Effective switching frequency multiplier inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui-Jia [Oak Ridge, TN; Peng, Fang Z [Okemos, MI

    2007-08-07

    A switching frequency multiplier inverter for low inductance machines that uses parallel connection of switches and each switch is independently controlled according to a pulse width modulation scheme. The effective switching frequency is multiplied by the number of switches connected in parallel while each individual switch operates within its limit of switching frequency. This technique can also be used for other power converters such as DC/DC, AC/DC converters.

  11. Ultra-Stable, New Generation Q-Switched Monolithic Laser Cleaners for Fine Art Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioschi, F.; Salvadeo, P.

    The increasing use of laser cleaners in fine art conservation boosts the demand on improvements of the laser performances. More power and more wavelengths are required by the current applications, while laser should be more reliable, rugged and compact. The characteristics and performances of a new generation of laser cleaners are presented as a result of a dedicated research and development program.

  12. FreeSWITCH Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Minessale, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    This is a problem-solution approach to take your FreeSWITCH skills to the next level, where everything is explained in a practical way. If you are a system administrator, hobbyist, or someone who uses FreeSWITCH on a regular basis, this book is for you. Whether you are a FreeSWITCH expert or just getting started, this book will take your skills to the next level.

  13. Elements of magnetic switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaland, K.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter describes magnetic switching as a method of connecting a capacitor bank (source) to a load; reviews several successful applications of magnetic switching, and discusses switching transformers, limitations and future possibilities. Some of the inflexibility and especially the high cost of magnetic materials may be overcome with the availability of the new splash cooled ribbons (Metglas). Experience has shown that magnetics works despite shock, radiation or noise interferences

  14. Pemodelan Markov Switching Autoregressive

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyani, Fiqria Devi; Warsito, Budi; Yasin, Hasbi

    2014-01-01

    Transition from depreciation to appreciation of exchange rate is one of regime switching that ignored by classic time series model, such as ARIMA, ARCH, or GARCH. Therefore, economic variables are modeled by Markov Switching Autoregressive (MSAR) which consider the regime switching. MLE is not applicable to parameters estimation because regime is an unobservable variable. So that filtering and smoothing process are applied to see the regime probabilities of observation. Using this model, tran...

  15. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musich, Mark; Swanson, Michael; Dunham, Grant; Stanislowski, Joshua

    2010-10-05

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most

  16. ADVANCED GASIFICATION MERCURY/TRACE METAL CONTROL WITH MONOLITH TRAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Musich; Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Joshua J. Stanislowski

    2010-07-31

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m3 (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m3 (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most effective arsine

  17. Edge chipping and flexural resistance of monolithic ceramics☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Lee, James J.-W.; Srikanth, Ramanathan; Lawn, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Test the hypothesis that monolithic ceramics can be developed with combined esthetics and superior fracture resistance to circumvent processing and performance drawbacks of traditional all-ceramic crowns and fixed-dental-prostheses consisting of a hard and strong core with an esthetic porcelain veneer. Specifically, to demonstrate that monolithic prostheses can be produced with a much reduced susceptibility to fracture. Methods Protocols were applied for quantifying resistance to chipping as well as resistance to flexural failure in two classes of dental ceramic, microstructurally-modified zirconias and lithium disilicate glass–ceramics. A sharp indenter was used to induce chips near the edges of flat-layer specimens, and the results compared with predictions from a critical load equation. The critical loads required to produce cementation surface failure in monolithic specimens bonded to dentin were computed from established flexural strength relations and the predictions validated with experimental data. Results Monolithic zirconias have superior chipping and flexural fracture resistance relative to their veneered counterparts. While they have superior esthetics, glass–ceramics exhibit lower strength but higher chip fracture resistance relative to porcelain-veneered zirconias. Significance The study suggests a promising future for new and improved monolithic ceramic restorations, with combined durability and acceptable esthetics. PMID:24139756

  18. Preparation of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane based imprinted monolith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Chen, Xiu-Xiu; Huang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Zhao-Sheng

    2015-12-18

    Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) was successfully applied, for the first time, to prepare imprinted monolithic column with high porosity and good permeability. The imprinted monolithic column was synthesized with a mixture of PSS-(1-Propylmethacrylate)-heptaisobutyl substituted (MA 0702), naproxon (template), 4-vinylpyridine, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, in ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF4). The influence of synthesis parameters on the retention factor and imprinting effect, including the amount of MA 0702, the ratio of template to monomer, and the ratio of monomer to crosslinker, was investigated. The greatest imprinting factor on the imprinted monolithic column prepared with MA 0702 was 22, about 10 times higher than that prepared in absence of POSS. The comparisons between MIP monoliths synthesized with POSS and without POSS were made in terms of permeability, column efficiency, surface morphology and pore size distribution. In addition, thermodynamic and Van Deemter analysis were used to evaluate the POSS-based MIP monolith. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Aspartic acid incorporated monolithic columns for affinity glycoprotein purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armutcu, Canan; Bereli, Nilay; Bayram, Engin; Uzun, Lokman; Say, Rıdvan; Denizli, Adil

    2014-02-01

    Novel aspartic acid incorporated monolithic columns were prepared to efficiently affinity purify immunoglobulin G (IgG) from human plasma. The monolithic columns were synthesised in a stainless steel HPLC column (20 cm × 5 mm id) by in situ bulk polymerisation of N-methacryloyl-L-aspartic acid (MAAsp), a polymerisable derivative of L-aspartic acid, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). Monolithic columns [poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-L-aspartic acid) (PHEMAsp)] were characterised by swelling studies, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The monolithic columns were used for IgG adsorption/desorption from aqueous solutions and human plasma. The IgG adsorption depended on the buffer type, and the maximum IgG adsorption from aqueous solution in phosphate buffer was 0.085 mg/g at pH 6.0. The monolithic columns allowed for one-step IgG purification with a negligible capacity decrease after ten adsorption-desorption cycles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Monolithic View of Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Chiosi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We review and critically discuss the current understanding of galaxy formation and evolution limited to Early Type Galaxies (ETGs as inferred from the observational data and briefly contrast the hierarchical and quasi-monolithic paradigms of formation and evolution. Since in Cold Dark Matter (CDM cosmogony small scale structures typically collapse early and form low-mass haloes that subsequently can merge to assembly larger haloes, galaxies formed in the gravitational potential well of a halo are also expected to merge thus assembling their mass hierarchically. Mergers should occur all over the Hubble time and large mass galaxies should be in place only recently. However, recent observations of high redshift galaxies tell a different story: massive ETGs are already in place at high redshift. To this aim, we propose here a revision of the quasi-monolithic scenario as an alternative to the hierarchical one, in which mass assembling should occur in early stages of a galaxy lifetime and present recent models of ETGs made of Dark and Baryonic Matter in a Λ-CDM Universe that obey the latter scheme. The galaxies are followed from the detachment from the linear regime and Hubble flow at z ≥ 20 down to the stage of nearly complete assembly of the stellar content (z ∼ 2 − 1 and beyond.  It is found that the total mass (Mh = MDM + MBM and/or initial over-density of the proto-galaxy drive the subsequent star formation histories (SFH. Massive galaxies (Mh ~ _1012M⊙ experience a single, intense burst of star formation (with rates ≥ 103M⊙/yr at early epochs, consistently with observations, with a weak dependence on the initial over-density; intermediate mass haloes (Mh~_ 1010 − 1011M⊙ have star formation histories that strongly depend on their initial over-density; finally, low mass haloes (Mh ~_ 109M⊙ always have erratic, burst-like star forming histories. The present-day properties (morphology, structure, chemistry and photometry of the

  1. Proton-Controlled Organic Microlaser Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenhua; Zhang, Wei; Yan, Yongli; Yi, Jun; Dong, Haiyun; Wang, Kang; Yao, Jiannian; Zhao, Yong Sheng

    2018-05-25

    Microscale laser switches have been playing irreplaceable roles in the development of photonic devices with high integration levels. However, it remains a challenge to switch the lasing wavelengths across a wide range due to relatively fixed energy bands in traditional semiconductors. Here, we report a strategy to switch the lasing wavelengths among multiple states based on a proton-controlled intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) process in organic dye-doped flexible microsphere resonant cavities. The protonic acids can effectively bind onto the ICT molecules, which thus enhance the ICT strength of the dyes and lead to a red-shifted gain behavior. On this basis, the gain region was effectively modulated by using acids with different proton-donating ability, and as a result, laser switching among multiple wavelengths was achieved. The results will provide guidance for the rational design of miniaturized lasers with performances based on the characteristic of organic optoelectronic materials.

  2. Transient-Switch-Signal Suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Circuit delays transmission of switch-opening or switch-closing signal until after preset suppression time. Used to prevent transmission of undesired momentary switch signal. Basic mode of operation simple. Beginning of switch signal initiates timing sequence. If switch signal persists after preset suppression time, circuit transmits switch signal to external circuitry. If switch signal no longer present after suppression time, switch signal deemed transient, and circuit does not pass signal on to external circuitry, as though no transient switch signal. Suppression time preset at value large enough to allow for damping of underlying pressure wave or other mechanical transient.

  3. Optimal switching using coherent control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Heuck, Mikkel; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    that the switching time, in general, is not limited by the cavity lifetime. Therefore, the total energy required for switching is a more relevant figure of merit than the switching speed, and for a particular two-pulse switching scheme we use calculus of variations to optimize the switching in terms of input energy....

  4. Switched reluctance motor drives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davis RM, Ray WF, Blake RJ 1981 Inverter drive for switched reluctance: circuits and component ratings. Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc. B128: 126-136. Ehsani M. 1991 Position Sensor elimination technique for the switched reluctance motor drive. US Patent No. 5,072,166. Ehsani M, Ramani K R 1993 Direct control strategies based ...

  5. Manually operated coded switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnette, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure related to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made

  6. Switch on, switch off: stiction in nanoelectromechanical switches

    KAUST Repository

    Wagner, Till J W

    2013-06-13

    We present a theoretical investigation of stiction in nanoscale electromechanical contact switches. We develop a mathematical model to describe the deflection of a cantilever beam in response to both electrostatic and van der Waals forces. Particular focus is given to the question of whether adhesive van der Waals forces cause the cantilever to remain in the \\'ON\\' state even when the electrostatic forces are removed. In contrast to previous studies, our theory accounts for deflections with large slopes (i.e. geometrically nonlinear). We solve the resulting equations numerically to study how a cantilever beam adheres to a rigid electrode: transitions between \\'free\\', \\'pinned\\' and \\'clamped\\' states are shown to be discontinuous and to exhibit significant hysteresis. Our findings are compared to previous results from linearized models and the implications for nanoelectromechanical cantilever switch design are discussed. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF MONOLITHIC FUEL FOIL PROPERTIES AND BOND STRENGTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D E Burkes; D D Keiser; D M Wachs; J S Larson; M D Chapple

    2007-01-01

    Understanding fuel foil mechanical properties, and fuel/cladding bond quality and strength in monolithic plates is an important area of investigation and quantification. Specifically, what constitutes an acceptable monolithic fuel--cladding bond, how are the properties of the bond measured and determined, and what is the impact of fabrication process or change in parameters on the level of bonding? Currently, non-bond areas are quantified employing ultrasonic determinations that are challenging to interpret and understand in terms of irradiation impact. Thus, determining mechanical properties of the fuel foil and what constitutes fuel/cladding non-bonds is essential to successful qualification of monolithic fuel plates. Capabilities and tests related to determination of these properties have been implemented at the INL and are discussed, along with preliminary results

  8. A poly(vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate blend monolith with nanoscale porous structure

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xiaoxia; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    A stimuli-responsive poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sodium alginate (SA) blend monolith with nanoscale porous (mesoporous) structure is successfully fabricated by thermally impacted non-solvent induced phase separation (TINIPS) method. The PVA/SA blend monolith with different SA contents is conveniently fabricated in an aqueous methanol without any templates. The solvent suitable for the fabrication of the present blend monolith by TINIPS is different with that of the PVA monolith. The nanostructu...

  9. Avalanche photoconductive switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocha, M. D.; Druce, R. L.; Wilson, M. J.; Hofer, W. W.

    This paper describes work being done at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the avalanche mode of operation of laser triggered photoconductive switches. We have been able to generate pulses with amplitudes of 2 kV to 35 kV and rise times of 300 to 500 ps, and with a switching gain (energy of output electrical pulse vs energy of trigger optical pulse) of 10(exp 3) to over 10(exp 5). Switches with two very different physical configurations and with two different illumination wavelengths (1.06 micrometer, 890 nm) exhibit very similar behavior. The avalanche switching behavior, therefore, appears to be related to the material parameters rather than the optical wavelength or switch geometry. Considerable further work needs to be done to fully characterize and understand this mode of operation.

  10. Avalanche photoconductive switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocha, M.D.; Druce, R.L.; Wilson, M.J.; Hofer, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes work being done at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the avalanche mode of operation of laser triggered photoconductive switches. We have been able to generate pulses with amplitudes of 2 kV--35 kV and rise times of 300--500 ps, and with a switching gain (energy of output electrical pulse vs energy of trigger optical pulse) of 10{sup 3} to over 10{sup 5}. Switches with two very different physical configurations and with two different illumination wavelengths (1.06 {mu}m, 890 nm) exhibit very similar behavior. The avalanche switching behavior, therefore, appears to be related to the material parameters rather than the optical wavelength or switch geometry. Considerable further work needs to be done to fully characterize and understand this mode of operation. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  11. A monolithic pixel sensor (TRAPPISTe-2) for particle physics instrumentation in OKI 0.2μm SOI technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soung Yee, L.; Alvarez, P.; Martin, E.; Cortina, E.; Ferrer, C.

    2012-12-01

    A monolithic active pixel sensor for charged particle tracking has been developed within the frame of a research and development project called TRAPPISTe (Tracking Particles for Physics Instrumentation in SOI Technology). TRAPPISTe aims to study the feasibility of developing a monolithic pixel sensor with SOI technology. TRAPPISTe-2 is the second prototype in this series and was fabricated with an OKI 0.20μm fully depleted (FD-SOI) CMOS process. This device contains test transistors and amplifiers, as well as two pixel matrices with integrated 3-transistor and amplifier readout electronics. The results presented are based on the first electrical measurements performed on the test structures and laser measurements on the pixel matrices.

  12. Random laser emission from a Rhodamine B-doped GPTS/TEOS-derived organic/silica monolithic xerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegão, Luis M. G.; Manoel, D. S.; Otuka, A. J. G.; Ferreira, P. H. D.; Vollet, D. R.; Donatti, D. A.; De Boni, L.; Mendonça, C. R.; De Vicente, F. S.; Rodrigues, J. J., Jr.; Alencar, M. A. R. C.

    2017-06-01

    A Rhodamine B-doped 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTS)/tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)-derived organic/silica monolithic xerogel with excellent optical properties was prepared and its potential as a random laser host investigated. This hybrid material has a non-porous organic/inorganic morphology with silica-rich nanoparticles of less than 10 nm in diameter homogeneously dispersed within the matrix. Random laser emission with incoherent feedback, centered at 618 nm, was observed from Rhodamine B incorporated into the monolithic xerogel when excited by a 532 nm pulsed laser. This hybrid system is shown to be very promising for the development of a new class of random laser-based integrated devices, with applications ranging from optical bio-imaging to sensing.

  13. From control switches to integrated process control systems. 60 years of power plant control technology; Vom Steuerquittierschalter zum integrierten Prozessleitsystem. 60 Jahre Kraftwerksleittechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagel, Peter [ABB AG, Mannheim (Germany). Marketing

    2009-07-01

    Power plant control has always been based on the process requirements and on the need to reduce the process cost. Modern power plant control systems also take account of the need for emission reduction. They have developed into integrated navigation platforms with functional confectioning of workstations, focusing on the aspects of functionality, efficiency, ergonomics, plant availability and life cycle cost. The contribution outlines important developments of power plant control technology during the past few decades. (orig.)

  14. Numerical Simulation of Fluid Dynamics in a Monolithic Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Yamamoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As for the measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC is used for PAH identification and densitometry. However, when a solvent containing a substance to be identified passes through a column of UPLC, a dedicated high-pressure-proof device is required. Recently, a liquid chromatography instrument using a monolithic column technology has been proposed to reduce the pressure of UPLC. The present study tested five types of monolithic columns produced in experiments. To simulate the flow field, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM was used. The velocity profile was discussed to decrease the pressure drop in the ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC system.

  15. Paladin Enterprises: Monolithic particle physics models global climate.

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Paladin Enterprises presents a monolithic particle model of the universe which will be used by them to build an economical fusion energy system. The model is an extension of the work done by James Clerk Maxwell. Essentially, gravity is unified with electro-magnetic forces and shown to be a product of a closed loop current system, i.e. a particle - monolithic or sub atomic. This discovery explains rapid global climate changes which are evident in the geological record and also provides an explanation for recent changes in the global climate.

  16. Constitutive Theory Developed for Monolithic Ceramic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosik, Lesley A.

    1998-01-01

    with these service conditions by developing a multiaxial viscoplastic constitutive model that accounts for time-dependent hereditary material deformation (such as creep and stress relaxation) in monolithic structural ceramics. Using continuum principles of engineering mechanics, we derived the complete viscoplastic theory from a scalar dissipative potential function.

  17. Polyurea-Based Aerogel Monoliths and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Je Kyun

    2012-01-01

    aerogel insulation material was developed that will provide superior thermal insulation and inherent radiation protection for government and commercial applications. The rubbery polyureabased aerogel exhibits little dustiness, good flexibility and toughness, and durability typical of the parent polyurea polymer, yet with the low density and superior insulation properties associated with aerogels. The thermal conductivity values of polyurea-based aerogels at lower temperature under vacuum pressures are very low and better than that of silica aerogels. Flexible, rubbery polyurea-based aerogels are able to overcome the weak and brittle nature of conventional inorganic and organic aerogels, including polyisocyanurate aerogels, which are generally prepared with the one similar component to polyurethane rubber aerogels. Additionally, with higher content of hydrogen in their structures, the polyurea rubber-based aerogels will also provide inherently better radiation protection than those of inorganic and carbon aerogels. The aerogel materials also demonstrate good hydrophobicity due to their hydrocarbon molecular structure. There are several strategies to overcoming the drawbacks associated with the weakness and brittleness of silica aerogels. Development of the flexible fiber-reinforced silica aerogel composite blanket has proven to be one promising approach, providing a conveniently fielded form factor that is relatively robust in industrial environments compared to silica aerogel monoliths. However, the flexible, silica aerogel composites still have a brittle, dusty character that may be undesirable, or even intolerable, in certain application environments. Although the cross - linked organic aerogels, such as resorcinol- formaldehyde (RF), polyisocyanurate, and cellulose aerogels, show very high impact strength, they are also very brittle with little elongation (i.e., less rubbery). Also, silica and carbon aerogels are less efficient radiation shielding materials due

  18. Integrated tunable quantum-dot laser for optical coherence tomography in the 1.7 μm wavelength region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilma, B.W.; Jiao, Y.; Kotani, J.; Smalbrugge, B.; Ambrosius, H.P.M.M.; Thijs, P.J.A.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Nötzel, R.; Smit, M.K.; Bente, E.A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the design and characterization of a monolithically integrated tunable laser for optical coherence tomography in medicine. This laser is the first monolithic photonic integrated circuit containing quantum-dot amplifiers, phase modulators and passive components. We

  19. Energy losses in switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.; Seamen, J.F.; Jobe, D.O.

    1993-01-01

    The authors experiments show energy losses between 2 and 10 times that of the resistive time predictions. The experiments used hydrogen, helium, air, nitrogen, SF 6 polyethylene, and water for the switching dielectric. Previously underestimated switch losses have caused over predicting the accelerator outputs. Accurate estimation of these losses is now necessary for new high-efficiency pulsed power devices where the switching losses constitute the major portion of the total energy loss. They found that the switch energy losses scale as (V peak I peak ) 1.1846 . When using this scaling, the energy losses in any of the tested dielectrics are almost the same. This relationship is valid for several orders of magnitude and suggested a theoretical basis for these results. Currents up to .65 MA, with voltages to 3 MV were applied to various gaps during these experiments. The authors data and the developed theory indicates that the switch power loss continues for a much longer time than the resistive time, with peak power loss generally occurring at peak current in a ranging discharge instead of the early current time. All of the experiments were circuit code modeled after developing a new switch loss version based on the theory. The circuit code predicts switch energy loss and peak currents as a function of time. During analysis of the data they noticed slight constant offsets between the theory and data that depended on the dielectric. They modified the plasma conductivity for each tested dielectric to lessen this offset

  20. Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration......Bidraget diskuterer de forskellige intergrationsopfattelse i Danmark - og hvad der kan forstås ved vellykket integration...

  1. Electromechanical magnetization switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College and Graduate School, The City University of New York, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, New York 10468-1589 (United States); Jaafar, Reem [Department of Mathematics, Engineering and Computer Science, LaGuardia Community College, The City University of New York, 31-10 Thomson Avenue, Long Island City, New York 11101 (United States)

    2015-03-14

    We show that the magnetization of a torsional oscillator that, in addition to the magnetic moment also possesses an electrical polarization, can be switched by the electric field that ignites mechanical oscillations at the frequency comparable to the frequency of the ferromagnetic resonance. The 180° switching arises from the spin-rotation coupling and is not prohibited by the different symmetry of the magnetic moment and the electric field as in the case of a stationary magnet. Analytical equations describing the system have been derived and investigated numerically. Phase diagrams showing the range of parameters required for the switching have been obtained.

  2. Electromechanical magnetization switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M.; Jaafar, Reem

    2015-01-01

    We show that the magnetization of a torsional oscillator that, in addition to the magnetic moment also possesses an electrical polarization, can be switched by the electric field that ignites mechanical oscillations at the frequency comparable to the frequency of the ferromagnetic resonance. The 180° switching arises from the spin-rotation coupling and is not prohibited by the different symmetry of the magnetic moment and the electric field as in the case of a stationary magnet. Analytical equations describing the system have been derived and investigated numerically. Phase diagrams showing the range of parameters required for the switching have been obtained

  3. JUNOS Enterprise Switching

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, Harry

    2009-01-01

    JUNOS Enterprise Switching is the only detailed technical book on Juniper Networks' new Ethernet-switching EX product platform. With this book, you'll learn all about the hardware and ASIC design prowess of the EX platform, as well as the JUNOS Software that powers it. Not only is this extremely practical book a useful, hands-on manual to the EX platform, it also makes an excellent study guide for certification exams in the JNTCP enterprise tracks. The authors have based JUNOS Enterprise Switching on their own Juniper training practices and programs, as well as the configuration, maintenanc

  4. Switch mode power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hui Jun

    1993-06-01

    This book concentrates on switch mode power supply. It has four parts, which are introduction of switch mode power supply with DC-DC converter such as Buck converter boost converter, Buck-boost converter and PWM control circuit, explanation for SMPS with DC-DC converter modeling and power mode control, resonance converter like resonance switch, converter, multi resonance converter and series resonance and parallel resonance converters, basic test of SMPS with PWM control circuit, Buck converter, Boost converter, flyback converter, forward converter and IC for control circuit.

  5. Room-Temperature Quantum Ballistic Transport in Monolithic Ultrascaled Al-Ge-Al Nanowire Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistani, Masiar; Staudinger, Philipp; Greil, Johannes; Holzbauer, Martin; Detz, Hermann; Bertagnolli, Emmerich; Lugstein, Alois

    2017-08-09

    Conductance quantization at room temperature is a key requirement for the utilizing of ballistic transport for, e.g., high-performance, low-power dissipating transistors operating at the upper limit of "on"-state conductance or multivalued logic gates. So far, studying conductance quantization has been restricted to high-mobility materials at ultralow temperatures and requires sophisticated nanostructure formation techniques and precise lithography for contact formation. Utilizing a thermally induced exchange reaction between single-crystalline Ge nanowires and Al pads, we achieved monolithic Al-Ge-Al NW heterostructures with ultrasmall Ge segments contacted by self-aligned quasi one-dimensional crystalline Al leads. By integration in electrostatically modulated back-gated field-effect transistors, we demonstrate the first experimental observation of room temperature quantum ballistic transport in Ge, favorable for integration in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor platform technology.

  6. CMOS switched current phase-locked loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaerts, D.M.W.; Persoon, G.G.; Putter, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    The authors present an integrated circuit realisation of a switched current phase-locked loop (PLL) in standard 2.4 µm CMOS technology. The centre frequency is tunable to 1 MHz at a clock frequency of 5.46 MHz. The PLL has a measured maximum phase error of 21 degrees. The chip consumes

  7. Smooth invariant densities for random switching on the torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtin, Yuri; Hurth, Tobias; Lawley, Sean D.; Mattingly, Jonathan C.

    2018-04-01

    We consider a random dynamical system obtained by switching between the flows generated by two smooth vector fields on the 2d-torus, with the random switchings happening according to a Poisson process. Assuming that the driving vector fields are transversal to each other at all points of the torus and that each of them allows for a smooth invariant density and no periodic orbits, we prove that the switched system also has a smooth invariant density, for every switching rate. Our approach is based on an integration by parts formula inspired by techniques from Malliavin calculus.

  8. Development and characterization of methacrylate-based hydrazide monoliths for oriented immobilization of antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brne, P; Lim, Y-P; Podgornik, A; Barut, M; Pihlar, B; Strancar, A

    2009-03-27

    Convective interaction media (CIM; BIA Separations) monoliths are attractive stationary phases for use in affinity chromatography because they enable fast affinity binding, which is a consequence of convectively enhanced mass transport. This work focuses on the development of novel CIM hydrazide (HZ) monoliths for the oriented immobilization of antibodies. Adipic acid dihydrazide (AADH) was covalently bound to CIM epoxy monoliths to gain hydrazide groups on the monolith surface. Two different antibodies were afterwards immobilized to hydrazide functionalized monolithic columns and prepared columns were tested for their selectivity. One column was further tested for the dynamic binding capacity.

  9. Optically coupled cavities for wavelength switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costazo-Caso, Pablo A; Granieri, Sergio; Siahmakoun, Azad, E-mail: pcostanzo@ing.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: granieri@rose-hulman.edu, E-mail: siahmako@rose-hulman.edu [Department of Physics and Optical Engineering, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, 5500 Wabash Avenue, Terre Haute, IN 47803 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    An optical bistable device which presents hysteresis behavior is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The system finds applications in wavelength switching, pulse reshaping and optical bistability. It is based on two optically coupled cavities named master and slave. Each cavity includes a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), acting as the gain medium of the laser, and two pair of fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) which define the lasing wavelength (being different in each cavity). Finally, a variable optical coupler (VOC) is employed to couple both cavities. Experimental characterization of the system performance is made analyzing the effects of the coupling coefficient between the two cavities and the driving current in each SOA. The properties of the hysteretic bistable curve and switching can be controlled by adjusting these parameters and the loss in the cavities. By selecting the output wavelength ({lambda}{sub 1} or {lambda}{sub 2}) with an external filter it is possible to choose either the invert or non-invert switched signal. Experiments were developed employing both optical discrete components and a photonic integrated circuit. They show that for 8 m-long cavities the maximum switching frequency is about 500 KHz, and for 4 m-long cavities a minimum rise-time about 21 ns was measured. The switching time can be reduced by shortening the cavity lengths and using photonic integrated circuits.

  10. Comparison of monolithic silica and polymethacrylate capillary columns for LC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, D.; Jandera, P.; Urban, J.; Planeta, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 27, 10-11 (2004), s. 789-800 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/0023 Keywords : monolithic column s * capillary HPLC * column testing Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.927, year: 2004

  11. Characterization of polymer monolithic stationary phases for capillary HPLC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, D.; Jandera, P.; Urban, J.; Planeta, Josef

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 11 (2003), s. 1005-1016 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919; CEZ:MSM 253100002 Keywords : monolithic column s * capillary HPLC * column testing Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.108, year: 2003

  12. Monolithic Yb-fiber femtosecond laser using photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate, both experimentally and theoretically, an environmentally stable monolithic all-PM modelocked femtosecond Yb-fiber laser, with laser output pulse compressed in a spliced-on low-loss hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Our laser provides direct fiber-end delivery of 4 nJ pulses...

  13. High density fuels using dispersion and monolithic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Daniel S.; Silva, Antonio T.; Abe, Alfredo Y.; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Giovedi, Claudia; Universidade de São Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Fuel plates used in high-performance research reactors need to be converted to low-enrichment uranium fuel; the fuel option based on a monolithic formulation requires alloys to contain 6 - 10 wt% Mo. In this case, the fuel plates are composed of the metallic alloy U-10Mo surrounded by a thin zirconium layer encapsulated in aluminum cladding. This study reviewed the physical properties of monolithic forms. The constraints produced during the manufacturing process were analyzed and compared to those of dispersed fuel. The bonding process used for dispersion fuels differs from the techniques applied to foil bonding used for pure alloys. The quality of monolithic plates depends on the fabrication method, which usually involves hot isostatic pressing and the thermal annealing effect of residual stress, which degrades the uranium cubic phase. The preservation of the metastable phase has considerable influence on fuel performance. The physical properties of the foil fuel under irradiation are superior to those of aluminum-dispersed fuels. The fuel meat, using zirconium as the diffusion barrier, prevents the interaction layer from becoming excessively thick. The problem with dispersed fuel is breakaway swelling with a medium fission rate. It has been observed that the fuel dispersed in aluminum was minimized in monolithic forms. The pure alloys exhibited a suitable response from a rate at least twice as much as the fission rate of dispersions. The foils can support fissile material concentration combined with a reduced swelling rate. (author)

  14. Material Engineering for Monolithic Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkova, Irina

    This thesis is devoted to the materials engineering for semiconductor monolithic passively mode-locked lasers (MLLs) as a compact energy-efficient source of ultrashort optical pulses. Up to the present day, the achievement of low-noise sub-picosecond pulse generation has remained a challenge...

  15. High density fuels using dispersion and monolithic fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Daniel S.; Silva, Antonio T.; Abe, Alfredo Y.; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Giovedi, Claudia, E-mail: dsgomes@ipen.br, E-mail: teixeira@ipen.br, E-mail: alfredo@ctmsp.mar.mil.br, E-mail: rafael.orm@gmail.com, E-mail: claudia.giovedi@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Naval e Oceânica

    2017-07-01

    Fuel plates used in high-performance research reactors need to be converted to low-enrichment uranium fuel; the fuel option based on a monolithic formulation requires alloys to contain 6 - 10 wt% Mo. In this case, the fuel plates are composed of the metallic alloy U-10Mo surrounded by a thin zirconium layer encapsulated in aluminum cladding. This study reviewed the physical properties of monolithic forms. The constraints produced during the manufacturing process were analyzed and compared to those of dispersed fuel. The bonding process used for dispersion fuels differs from the techniques applied to foil bonding used for pure alloys. The quality of monolithic plates depends on the fabrication method, which usually involves hot isostatic pressing and the thermal annealing effect of residual stress, which degrades the uranium cubic phase. The preservation of the metastable phase has considerable influence on fuel performance. The physical properties of the foil fuel under irradiation are superior to those of aluminum-dispersed fuels. The fuel meat, using zirconium as the diffusion barrier, prevents the interaction layer from becoming excessively thick. The problem with dispersed fuel is breakaway swelling with a medium fission rate. It has been observed that the fuel dispersed in aluminum was minimized in monolithic forms. The pure alloys exhibited a suitable response from a rate at least twice as much as the fission rate of dispersions. The foils can support fissile material concentration combined with a reduced swelling rate. (author)

  16. Dopamine-imprinted monolithic column for capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aşır, Süleyman; Sarı, Duygu; Derazshamshir, Ali; Yılmaz, Fatma; Şarkaya, Koray; Denizli, Adil

    2017-11-01

    A dopamine-imprinted monolithic column was prepared and used in capillary electrochromatography as stationary phase for the first time. Dopamine was selectively separated from aqueous solution containing the competitor molecule norepinephrine, which is similar in size and shape to the template molecule. Morphology of the dopamine-imprinted column was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The influence of the organic solvent content of mobile phase, applied pressure and pH of the mobile phase on the recognition of dopamine by the imprinted monolithic column has been evaluated, and the imprinting effect in the dopamine-imprinted monolithic polymer was verified. Developed dopamine-imprinted monolithic column resulted in excellent separation of dopamine from structurally related competitor molecule, norepinephrine. Separation was achieved in a short period of 10 min, with the electrophoretic mobility of 5.81 × 10 -5  m 2 V -1 s -1 at pH 5.0 and 500 mbar pressure. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Environmentally Benign Production of Stretchable and Robust Superhydrophobic Silicone Monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alexander; Surdo, Salvatore; Caputo, Gianvito; Bayer, Ilker S; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2018-01-24

    Superhydrophobic materials hold an enormous potential in sectors as important as aerospace, food industries, or biomedicine. Despite this great promise, the lack of environmentally friendly production methods and limited robustness remain the two most pertinent barriers to the scalability, large-area production, and widespread use of superhydrophobic materials. In this work, highly robust superhydrophobic silicone monoliths are produced through a scalable and environmentally friendly emulsion technique. It is first found that stable and surfactantless water-in-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) emulsions can be formed through mechanical mixing. Increasing the internal phase fraction of the precursor emulsion is found to increase porosity and microtexture of the final monoliths, rendering them superhydrophobic. Silica nanoparticles can also be dispersed in the aqueous internal phase to create micro/nanotextured monoliths, giving further improvements in superhydrophobicity. Due to the elastomeric nature of PDMS, superhydrophobicity can be maintained even while the material is mechanically strained or compressed. In addition, because of their self-similarity, the monoliths show outstanding robustness to knife-scratch, tape-peel, and finger-wipe tests, as well as rigorous sandpaper abrasion. Superhydrophobicity was also unchanged when exposed to adverse environmental conditions including corrosive solutions, UV light, extreme temperatures, and high-energy droplet impact. Finally, important properties for eventual adoption in real-world applications including self-cleaning, stain-repellence, and blood-repellence are demonstrated.

  18. Study of monolithic prestressed reinforced concrete overhead road.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya.I. Kovalchyk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of inspection and testing of monolithic prestressed reinforced concrete road trestle built in Kyiv are considered. The analysis of the gained results has shown that parametres correspond to the requirements of current standards on design of bridges.

  19. Crosstalk performance of integrated optical cross-connects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herben, C.G.P.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Maat, D.H.P.; Blok, H.; Smit, M.K.

    1999-01-01

    Crosstalk performance of monolithically integrated multiwavelength optical cross-connects (OXC's) depends strongly on their architecture. In this paper, a semiquantitative analysis of crosstalk in 11 different architectures is presented. Two architectures are analyzed numerically in more detail and

  20. A monolithic 180 nm CMOS dosimeter for wireless In Vivo Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villani, E.G.; Crepaldi, M.; DeMarchi, D.; Gabrielli, A.; Khan, A.; Pikhay, E.; Roizin, Y.; Rosenfeld, A.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The design, fabrication and testing of a novel monolithic system-on-chip dosimeter fabricated in a standard 180 nm CMOS technology is described. The device, implementing a radiation sensor and an RF transmitter, is proposed to address the need for real-time In Vivo Dosimetry (IVD) of radiation during Linac radiotherapy sessions. Owing to its small size, of approximately 1 mm"3, such solution could be made in-body implantable and, as such, provide a much-enhanced high-resolution, real-time dose measurement to improve Quality Assurance (QA) in radiation therapy. The device transmits the related information on dose of radiation wirelessly to a remote receiver operating in the Medical Implant Communication Service (MICS) band. Comprehensive description of the various phases of this project, including the development of the radiation sensors and integrated RF transmitter to perform the readout, along with the final test results using a radiation beam, will be given. - Highlights: • A Monolithic Dosimeter for real time dosimetry during radiotherapy is proposed. • The proposed device is 1 mm3 in size and could potentially be body implantable. • The device includes a radiation sensor and RF readout, operating in the MICS band. • Detailed tests have been performed under radiation beam in a clinical environment. • Reported sensitivity is 1 cGy over 50 Gy, with an accuracy of better than 3%.

  1. A monolithic 180 nm CMOS dosimeter for In Vivo Dosimetry medical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villani, E.G.; Crepaldi, M.; DeMarchi, D.; Gabrielli, A.; Khan, A.; Pikhay, E.; Roizin, Y.; Rosenfeld, A.; Zhang, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The design and development of a monolithic system-on-chip dosimeter fabricated in a standard 180 nm CMOS technology is described. The device is intended for real time In Vivo measurement of dose of radiation during radiotherapy sessions. Owing to its proposed small size, of approximately 1 mm 3 , such solution could be made in-body implantable and, as such, provide a much-enhanced high-resolution, real-time dose measurement for quality assurance in radiation therapy. The device transmits the related information on dose of radiation wirelessly to an external receiver operating in the MICS band. The various phases of this two years project, started in 2011, including the design and development of radiation sensors and integrated RF to perform the readout, will be described. - Highlights: • A novel monolithic CMOS dosimeter of size of 1 mm 3 has been proposed. • Three different fabrications using a CMOS 180 nm technology have been carried out. • Radiation tests results showed a sensitivity of 1 cGy with accuracy better than 3%. • Preliminary RF tests showed that an RF signal is detectable in free air

  2. Design of Semiconductor-Based Back Reflectors for High Voc Monolithic Multijunction Solar Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, I.; Geisz, J.; Steiner, M.; Olson, J.; Friedman, D.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-06-01

    State-of-the-art multijunction cell designs have the potential for significant improvement before going to higher number of junctions. For example, the Voc can be substantially increased if the photon recycling taking place in the junctions is enhanced. This has already been demonstrated (by Alta Devices) for a GaAs single-junction cell. For this, the loss of re-emitted photons by absorption in the underlying layers or substrate must be minimized. Selective back surface reflectors are needed for this purpose. In this work, different architectures of semiconductor distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) are assessed as the appropriate choice for application in monolithic multijunction solar cells. Since the photon re-emission in the photon recycling process is spatially isotropic, the effect of the incident angle on the reflectance spectrum is of central importance. In addition, the DBR structure must be designed taking into account its integration into the monolithic multijunction solar cells, concerning series resistance, growth economics, and other issues. We analyze the tradeoffs in DBR design complexity with all these requirements to determine if such a reflector is suitable to improve multijunction solar cells.

  3. [Integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  4. Modelling, development and optimization of integrated power LDMOS transistor. Performance limits in terms of energy; Modelisation, conception et optimisation de composant de puissance lateral DMOS integre. Etude des limites de performance en energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farenc, D.

    1997-12-16

    Technologies for Smart Power Integrated Circuits combine into a single chip Bipolar and CMOS transistors, plus power with lateral or vertical DMOS transistors. Complexity which has been increasing dramatically since the mid-80`s has allowed to integrate, into a single monolithic solution, entire systems. This thesis deals with the modelling, conception and test of the power integrated LDMOS transistor. The power LDMOS transistor is used as a switching device. It is characterized by two parameters which are the Specific On-resistance R{sub sp} and the breakdown voltage BV{sub DSS}. The LDMOS transistor developed for the new Smart Power technology exhibits a Specific On-resistance of 200 m{Omega}{sup *}mm{sup 2} and a breakdown voltage of 60 V. This device is dedicated to automotive applications. A reduction of the power device which is achieved with a low Specific On-resistance puts forward new issues such as the maximum Energy capability. When the power device is switched-off on an inductive load, a certain amount of energy is dissipated; if it is beyond a certain limit, the device is destroyed. Our goal is to determine the energy limits which are associated with our new Power integrated LDMOS transistor. (author) 28 refs.

  5. Free Energies by Thermodynamic Integration Relative to an Exact Solution, Used to Find the Handedness-Switching Salt Concentration for DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Joshua T; Schilling, Tanja

    2013-01-08

    Sets of free energy differences are useful for finding the equilibria of chemical reactions, while absolute free energies have little physical meaning. However finding the relative free energy between two macrostates by subtraction of their absolute free energies is a valuable strategy in certain important cases. We present calculations of absolute free energies of biomolecules, using a combination of the well-known Einstein molecule method (for treating the solute) with a conceptually related method of recent genesis for computing free energies of liquids (to treat the solvent and counterions). The approach is based on thermodynamic integration from a detailed atomistic model to one which is simplified but analytically solvable, thereby giving the absolute free energy as that of the tractable model plus a correction term found numerically. An example calculation giving the free energy with respect to salt concentration for the B- and Z-isomers of all-atom duplex DNA in explicit solvent and counterions is presented. The coexistence salt concentration is found with unprecedented accuracy.

  6. Attaching Copper Wires to Magnetic-Reed-Switch Leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamila, Rudolf

    1987-01-01

    Bonding method reliably joins copper wires to short iron-alloy leads from glass-encased dry magnetic-reed switch without disturbing integrity of glass-to-metal seal. Joint resistant to high temperatures and has low electrical resistance.

  7. Optical switching systems using nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems.......High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems....

  8. Contribution to the electrothermal simulation in power electronics. Development of a simulation methodology applied to switching circuits under variable operating conditions; Contribution a la simulation electrothermique en electronique de puissance. Developpement d`une methode de simulation pour circuits de commutation soumis a des commandes variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vales, P.

    1997-03-19

    In modern hybrid or monolithic integrated power circuits, electrothermal effects can no longer be ignored. A methodology is proposed in order to simulate electrothermal effects in power circuits, with a significant reduction of the computation time while taking into account electrical and thermal time constants which are usually widely different. A supervising program, written in Fortran, uses system call sequences and manages an interactive dialog between a fast thermal simulator and a general electrical simulator. This explicit coupling process between two specific simulators requires a multi-task operating system. The developed software allows for the prediction of the electrothermal power dissipation drift in the active areas of components, and the prediction of thermally-induced coupling effects between adjacent components. An application to the study of hard switching circuits working under variable operating conditions is presented

  9. Influence de l'alteration physique sur les caracteristiques physico-chimiques de monolithes de sols contamines traites par stabilisation/solidification au ciment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remillard, Jonathan

    affected, even though some samples were highly altered. This demonstrates that in some cases, damages may have little impact on long-term performance of the monoliths in terms of contaminant immobilization. However, integrating the study of long-term behaviors of monoliths in a process of formulation for contaminated soil treatment with S/S can become paramount, as seen for chromium in this present study. Keywords: stabilization / solidification, deterioration, alteration, leachability, contaminants.

  10. A Novel Silicon-based Wideband RF Nano Switch Matrix Cell and the Fabrication of RF Nano Switch Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xiu YANG

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of RF nano switch matrix cell and the fabrication of RF nano switch. The nano switch matrix cell can be implemented into complex switch matrix for signal routing. RF nano switch is the decision unit for the matrix cell; in this research, it is fabricated on a tri-layer high-resistivity-silicon substrate using surface micromachining approach. Electron beam lithography is introduced to define the pattern and IC compatible deposition process is used to construct the metal layers. Silicon-based nano switch fabricated by IC compatible process can lead to a high potential of system integration to perform a cost effective system-on-a-chip solution. In this paper, simulation results of the designed matrix cell are presented; followed by the details of the nano structure fabrication and fabrication challenges optimizations; finally, measurements of the fabricated nano structure along with analytical discussions are also discussed.

  11. Iaverage current mode (ACM) control for switching power converters

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Providing a fast current sensor direct feedback path to a modulator for controlling switching of a switched power converter in addition to an integrating feedback path which monitors average current for control of a modulator provides fast dynamic response consistent with system stability and average current mode control. Feedback of output voltage for voltage regulation can be combined with current information in the integrating feedback path to limit bandwidth of the voltage feedback signal.

  12. Toolbox for the design of LiNbO3-based passive and active integrated quantum circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapova, P. R.; Luo, K. H.; Herrmann, H.; Reichelt, M.; Meier, T.; Silberhorn, C.

    2017-12-01

    We present and discuss perspectives of current developments on advanced quantum optical circuits monolithically integrated in the lithium niobate platform. A set of basic components comprising photon pair sources based on parametric down conversion (PDC), passive routing elements and active electro-optically controllable switches and polarisation converters are building blocks of a toolbox which is the basis for a broad range of diverse quantum circuits. We review the state-of-the-art of these components and provide models that properly describe their performance in quantum circuits. As an example for applications of these models we discuss design issues for a circuit providing on-chip two-photon interference. The circuit comprises a PDC section for photon pair generation followed by an actively controllable modified mach-Zehnder structure for observing Hong-Ou-Mandel interference. The performance of such a chip is simulated theoretically by taking even imperfections of the properties of the individual components into account.

  13. A nanoplasmonic switch based on molecular machines

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing

    2009-06-01

    We aim to develop a molecular-machine-driven nanoplasmonic switch for its use in future nanophotonic integrated circuits (ICs) that have applications in optical communication, information processing, biological and chemical sensing. Experimental data show that an Au nanodisk array, coated with rotaxane molecular machines, switches its localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) reversibly when it is exposed to chemical oxidants and reductants. Conversely, bare Au nanodisks and disks coated with mechanically inert control compounds, do not display the same switching behavior. Along with calculations based on time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), these observations suggest that the nanoscale movements within surface-bound "molecular machines" can be used as the active components in plasmonic devices. ©2009 IEEE.

  14. Fatigue properties of piezoelectric-electrostrictive Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 monolithic bilayer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A.; Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.

    2006-11-01

    The fatigue response of monolithic piezoelectric 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3-electrostrictive 0.90Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.10PbTiO3 bilayer composites was investigated experimentally. The monomorph bilayers were cosintered at 1150°C, and the polarization hysteresis, relative permittivity, displacement, and cyclic fatigue (107cycles) were measured as a function of piezoelectric-electrostrictive volume fraction (PEVF) ratio. The highest tip displacement of bilayers was found in the 3:1 PEVF monolith, reaching 40μm at 5kV/cm applied field strength. By minimizing the electrostrictive layer thickness, tip displacement substantially increased, while maintaining a lower hysteresis than the purely piezoelectric counterpart. Fatigue measurements indicated a 31% decrease in displacement after 107cycles in 3:1 monoliths, whereas the 1:3 PEVF only showed a 12% decrease under the same conditions. There is a 30% increase in polarization after 107cycles for 1:1 PEVF bilayers, which is attributed to self-poling due to a diffuse transition layer in the vicinity of the interface. It was found that partial 90° domain switching occurred prior to poling because of the residual stresses in the composite, imposed by the electrostrictive layer and the spontaneous strain associated with the cubic-tetragonal transition in the ferroelectric layer. The results indicate that the electrostrictive layer, which is electrically in series with the piezoelectric one, enhances the fatigue resistance of the monolithic bilayer composites in addition to the increase in tip displacement.

  15. Energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.; Smith, Casey; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    We report observation of energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch. For ultra-low power electronics, NEM switches can be used as a complementary switching element in many nanoelectronic system applications. Its inherent zero power consumption because of mechanical detachment is an attractive feature. However, its operating voltage needs to be in the realm of 1 volt or lower. Appropriate design and lower Young's modulus can contribute achieving lower operating voltage. Therefore, we have developed amorphous metal with low Young's modulus and in this paper reporting the energy reversible switching from a laterally actuated double electrode NEM switch. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. Energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2013-08-01

    We report observation of energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch. For ultra-low power electronics, NEM switches can be used as a complementary switching element in many nanoelectronic system applications. Its inherent zero power consumption because of mechanical detachment is an attractive feature. However, its operating voltage needs to be in the realm of 1 volt or lower. Appropriate design and lower Young\\'s modulus can contribute achieving lower operating voltage. Therefore, we have developed amorphous metal with low Young\\'s modulus and in this paper reporting the energy reversible switching from a laterally actuated double electrode NEM switch. © 2013 IEEE.

  17. Optical computer switching network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clymer, B.; Collins, S. A., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The design for an optical switching system for minicomputers that uses an optical spatial light modulator such as a Hughes liquid crystal light valve is presented. The switching system is designed to connect 80 minicomputers coupled to the switching system by optical fibers. The system has two major parts: the connection system that connects the data lines by which the computers communicate via a two-dimensional optical matrix array and the control system that controls which computers are connected. The basic system, the matrix-based connecting system, and some of the optical components to be used are described. Finally, the details of the control system are given and illustrated with a discussion of timing.

  18. A piezoresistive cantilever for lateral force detection fabricated by a monolithic post-CMOS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xu; Li Zhihong; Li Juan; Wang Yangyuan; Xi Jianzhong

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a post-CMOS process to monolithically integrate a piezoresistive cantilever for lateral force detection and signal processing circuitry. The fabrication process includes a standard CMOS process and one more lithography step to micromachine the cantilever structure in the post-CMOS process. The piezoresistors are doped in the CMOS process but defined in the post-CMOS micromachining process without any extra process required. A partially split cantilever configuration is developed for the lateral force detection. The piezoresistors are self-aligned to the split cantilever, and therefore the width of the beam is only limited by lithography. Consequently, this kind of cantilever potentially has a high resolution. The preliminary experimental results show expected performances of the fabricated piezoresistors and electronic circuits

  19. Design of monolithic preamplifiers employing diffused n-JFETs for ionization chamber colorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demicheli, M.; Manfredi, P.F.; Speziali, V.; Radeka, V.; Rescia, S.

    1990-01-01

    Silicon n-channel JFETs obtained by diffusing the gate into the epitaxial layer which contains the channel still feature unsurpassed noise performances in charge measurements with radiation detectors. Compared to implanted-gate junction field-effect devices, they have a better behaviour in the low-frequency noise, while the thermal noise in the channel more closely conforms to the expected g m -dependence. With respect to MOSFETs they feature, besides lower noise, superior radiation hardness and resistance to electrostatic discharges into the gate. The actual paper discusses the basic design considerations of a preamplifier for ionization chamber calorimeters, which is intended for monolithic integration based on a dielectrically isolated process. (orig.)

  20. Innovative monolithic detector for tri-spectral (THz, IR, Vis) imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocas, S.; Perenzoni, M.; Massari, N.; Simoens, F.; Meilhan, J.; Rabaud, W.; Martin, S.; Delplanque, B.; Imperinetti, P.; Goudon, V.; Vialle, C.; Arnaud, A.

    2012-10-01

    Fusion of multispectral images has been explored for many years for security and used in a number of commercial products. CEA-Leti and FBK have developed an innovative sensor technology that gathers monolithically on a unique focal plane arrays, pixels sensitive to radiation in three spectral ranges that are terahertz (THz), infrared (IR) and visible. This technology benefits of many assets for volume market: compactness, full CMOS compatibility on 200mm wafers, advanced functions of the CMOS read-out integrated circuit (ROIC), and operation at room temperature. The ROIC houses visible APS diodes while IR and THz detections are carried out by microbolometers collectively processed above the CMOS substrate. Standard IR bolometric microbridges (160x160 pixels) are surrounding antenna-coupled bolometers (32X32 pixels) built on a resonant cavity customized to THz sensing. This paper presents the different technological challenges achieved in this development and first electrical and sensitivity experimental tests.

  1. Growth and Transfer of Monolithic Horizontal ZnO Nanowire Superstructures onto Flexible Substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Sheng

    2010-04-28

    A method of fabricating horizontally aligned ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays with full control over the width and length is demonstrated. A cross-sectional view of the NWs by transmission electron microscopy shows a "mushroom-like" structure. Novel monolithic multisegment superstructures are fabricated by making use of the lateral overgrowth. Ultralong horizontal ZnO NWs of an aspect ratio on the order often thousand are also demonstrated. These horizontal NWs are lifted off and transferred onto a flexible polymer substrate, which may have many great applications in horizontal ZnO NW-based nanosensor arrays, light-emitting diodes, optical gratings, integrated circuit interconnects, and high-output-power alternating-current nanogenerators. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  2. Depleted Monolithic Pixels (DMAPS) in a 150 nm technology: lab and beam results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermann, T.; Hemperek, T.; Hügging, F.; Krüger, H.; Pohl, D.-L.; Wermes, N.; Schwenker, B.

    2017-01-01

    The fully depleted monolithic active pixel sensor (DMAPS) is a new concept integrating full CMOS circuitry onto a fully depletable silicon substrate wafer. The realization of prototypes of the DMAPS concept relies on the availability of multiple well CMOS processes and high resistive substrates. The CMOS foundry ESPROS Photonics offers both and was chosen for prototyping. Two prototypes, EPCB01 and EPCB02, were developed in a 150 nm process on a high resistive n-type wafer of 50 μm thickness. The prototypes have 352 square pixels of 40 μm pitch and small n-well charge collection node with very low capacitance (n + -implantation size: 5 μm by 5 μm) and about 150 transistors per pixel (CSA and discriminator plus a small digital part).

  3. Inlay-Retained Fixed Dental Prosthesis: A Clinical Option Using Monolithic Zirconia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Augusti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different indirect restorations to replace a single missing tooth in the posterior region are available in dentistry: traditional full-coverage fixed dental prostheses (FDPs, implant-supported crowns (ISC, and inlay-retained FDPs (IRFDP. Resin bonded FDPs represent a minimally invasive procedure; preexisting fillings can minimize tooth structure removal and give retention to the IRFDP, transforming it into an ultraconservative option. New high strength zirconia ceramics, with their stiffness and high mechanical properties, could be considered a right choice for an IRFDP rehabilitation. The case report presented describes an IRFDP treatment using a CAD/CAM monolithic zirconia IRFDP; clinical and laboratory steps are illustrated, according to the most recent scientific protocols. Adhesive procedures are focused on the Y-TZP and tooth substrate conditioning methods. Nice esthetic and functional integration of indirect restoration at two-year follow-up confirmed the success of this conservative approach.

  4. A radiation-hardened two transistor memory cell for monolithic active pixel sensors in STAR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, X; Dorokhov, A; Hu, Y; Gao, D

    2011-01-01

    Radiation tolerance of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) is dramatically decreased when intellectual property (IP) memories are integrated for fast readout application. This paper presents a new solution to improve radiation hardness and avoid latch-up for memory cell design. The tradeoffs among radiation tolerance, area and speed are significantly considered and analyzed. The cell designed in 0.35 μm process satisfies the radiation tolerance requirements of STAR experiment. The cell size is 4.55 x 5.45 μm 2 . This cell is smaller than the IP memory cell based on the same process and is only 26% of a radiation tolerant 6T SRAM cell used in previous contribution. The write access time of the cell is less than 2 ns, while the read access time is 80 ns.

  5. High efficiency, monolithic fiber chirped pulse amplification system for high energy femtosecond pulse generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiang; Kim, Kyungbum; Mielke, Michael; Jennings, Stephen; Masor, Gordon; Stohl, Dave; Chavez-Pirson, Arturo; Nguyen, Dan T; Rhonehouse, Dan; Zong, Jie; Churin, Dmitriy; Peyghambarian, N

    2013-10-21

    A novel monolithic fiber-optic chirped pulse amplification (CPA) system for high energy, femtosecond pulse generation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. By employing a high gain amplifier comprising merely 20 cm of high efficiency media (HEM) gain fiber, an optimal balance of output pulse energy, optical efficiency, and B-integral is achieved. The HEM amplifier is fabricated from erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber and yields gain of 1.443 dB/cm with slope efficiency >45%. We experimentally demonstrate near diffraction-limited beam quality and near transform-limited femtosecond pulse quality at 1.55 µm wavelength. With pulse energy >100 µJ and pulse duration of 636 fs (FWHM), the peak power is estimated to be ~160 MW. NAVAIR Public Release Distribution Statement A-"Approved for Public release; distribution is unlimited".

  6. Monolithic silicon photonics in a sub-100nm SOI CMOS microprocessor foundry: progress from devices to systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Miloš A.; Wade, Mark T.; Orcutt, Jason S.; Shainline, Jeffrey M.; Sun, Chen; Georgas, Michael; Moss, Benjamin; Kumar, Rajesh; Alloatti, Luca; Pavanello, Fabio; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Nammari, Kareem; Notaros, Jelena; Atabaki, Amir; Leu, Jonathan; Stojanović, Vladimir; Ram, Rajeev J.

    2015-02-01

    We review recent progress of an effort led by the Stojanović (UC Berkeley), Ram (MIT) and Popović (CU Boulder) research groups to enable the design of photonic devices, and complete on-chip electro-optic systems and interfaces, directly in standard microelectronics CMOS processes in a microprocessor foundry, with no in-foundry process modifications. This approach allows tight and large-scale monolithic integration of silicon photonics with state-of-the-art (sub-100nm-node) microelectronics, here a 45nm SOI CMOS process. It enables natural scale-up to manufacturing, and rapid advances in device design due to process repeatability. The initial driver application was addressing the processor-to-memory communication energy bottleneck. Device results include 5Gbps modulators based on an interleaved junction that take advantage of the high resolution of the sub-100nm CMOS process. We demonstrate operation at 5fJ/bit with 1.5dB insertion loss and 8dB extinction ratio. We also demonstrate the first infrared detectors in a zero-change CMOS process, using absorption in transistor source/drain SiGe stressors. Subsystems described include the first monolithically integrated electronic-photonic transmitter on chip (modulator+driver) with 20-70fJ/bit wall plug energy/bit (2-3.5Gbps), to our knowledge the lowest transmitter energy demonstrated to date. We also demonstrate native-process infrared receivers at 220fJ/bit (5Gbps). These are encouraging signs for the prospects of monolithic electronics-photonics integration. Beyond processor-to-memory interconnects, our approach to photonics as a "More-than- Moore" technology inside advanced CMOS promises to enable VLSI electronic-photonic chip platforms tailored to a vast array of emerging applications, from optical and acoustic sensing, high-speed signal processing, RF and optical metrology and clocks, through to analog computation and quantum technology.

  7. Stochastic Switching Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Maria

    This thesis treats stochastic systems with switching dynamics. Models with these characteristics are studied from several perspectives. Initially in a simple framework given in the form of stochastic differential equations and, later, in an extended form which fits into the framework of sliding...... mode control. It is investigated how to understand and interpret solutions to models of switched systems, which are exposed to discontinuous dynamics and uncertainties (primarily) in the form of white noise. The goal is to gain knowledge about the performance of the system by interpreting the solution...

  8. Monolithic millimeter-wave and picosecond electronic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talley, W.K.; Luhmann, N.C.

    1996-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies into monolithic millimeter-wave and picosecond electronic technologies have been undertaken as a collaborative project between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California Department of Applied Science Coherent Millimeter-Wave Group under the auspices of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL. The work involves the design and fabrication of monolithic frequency multiplier, beam control, and imaging arrays for millimeter-wave imaging and radar, as well as the development of high speed nonlinear transmission lines for ultra-wideband radar imaging, time domain materials characterization and magnetic fusion plasma applications. In addition, the Coherent Millimeter-Wave Group is involved in the fabrication of a state-of-the-art X-band (∼8-11 GHz) RF photoinjector source aimed at producing psec high brightness electron bunches for advanced accelerator and coherent radiation generation studies

  9. Silicon monolithic microchannel-cooled laser diode array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skidmore, J. A.; Freitas, B. L.; Crawford, J.; Satariano, J.; Utterback, E.; DiMercurio, L.; Cutter, K.; Sutton, S.

    2000-01-01

    A monolithic microchannel-cooled laser diode array is demonstrated that allows multiple diode-bar mounting with negligible thermal cross talk. The heat sink comprises two main components: a wet-etched Si layer that is anodically bonded to a machined glass block. The continuous wave (cw) thermal resistance of the 10 bar diode array is 0.032 degree sign C/W, which matches the performance of discrete microchannel-cooled arrays. Up to 1.5 kW/cm 2 is achieved cw at an emission wavelength of ∼808 nm. Collimation of a diode array using a monolithic lens frame produced a 7.5 mrad divergence angle by a single active alignment. This diode array offers high average power/brightness in a simple, rugged, scalable architecture that is suitable for large two-dimensional areas. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  10. Dual-functional Memory and Threshold Resistive Switching Based on the Push-Pull Mechanism of Oxygen Ions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yi-Jen; Chao, Shih-Chun; Lien, Der-Hsien; Wen, Cheng-Yen; He, Jr-Hau; Lee, Si-Chen

    2016-01-01

    The combination of nonvolatile memory switching and volatile threshold switching functions of transition metal oxides in crossbar memory arrays is of great potential for replacing charge-based flash memory in very-large-scale integration. Here, we

  11. Porous polyacrylamide monoliths in hydrophilic interaction capillary electrochromatography of oligosaccharides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guryča, Vilém; Mechref, Y.; Palm, A. K.; Michálek, Jiří; Pacáková, V.; Novotny, M. V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 1 (2007), s. 3-13 ISSN 0165-022X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538 Grant - others:U.S. Department of Health and Human Services(US) GM24349 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyacrylamide monoliths * analytical glycobiology * capillary electrochromatography Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.338, year: 2007

  12. Improved monolithic reinforced concrete construction for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, P.; Fischer, K.

    1983-01-01

    Experience has shown that in applying monolithic reinforced concrete in nuclear power plant construction the following auxiliary means are useful: measuring sheets in assembling, welding gauges for reaching high tolerance accuracies of prefabricated reinforced concrete members, suitable lining materials, formwork anchorage and formwork release agents, concrete workability agents, mechanized procedures for finishing and assembling. These means were successfully tested in constructing the Greifswald nuclear power station

  13. Optical properties of pre-colored dental monolithic zirconia ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2016-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the optical properties of recently marketed pre-colored monolithic zirconia ceramics and to compare with those of veneered zirconia and lithium disilicate glass ceramics. Various shades of pre-colored monolithic zirconia, veneered zirconia, and lithium disilicate glass ceramic specimens were tested (17.0×17.0×1.5mm, n=5). CIELab color coordinates were obtained against white, black, and grey backgrounds with a spectrophotometer. Color differences of the specimen pairs were calculated by using the CIEDE2000 (ΔE 00 ) formula. The translucency parameter (TP) was derived from ΔE 00 of the specimen against a white and a black background. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the crystalline phases of monolithic zirconia specimens. Data were analyzed with 1-way ANOVA, Scheffé post hoc, and Pearson correlation testing (α=0.05). For different shades of the same ceramic brand, there were significant differences in L * , a * , b * , and TP values in most ceramic brands. With the same nominal shade (A2), statistically significant differences were observed in L * , a * , b * , and TP values among different ceramic brands and systems (Pceramics of the corresponding nominal shades ranged beyond the acceptability threshold. Due to the high L * values and low a * and b * values, pre-colored monolithic zirconia ceramics can be used with additional staining to match neighboring restorations or natural teeth. Due to their high value and low chroma, unacceptable color mismatch with adjacent ceramic restorations might be expected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Monolithic femtosecond Yb-fiber laser with photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    We demonstrate a monolithic stable SESAM-modelocked self-starting Yb-fiber laser. A novel PM all-solid photonic bandgap fiber is used for intra-cavity of dispersion management. The ex-cavity final pulse compression is performed in a spliced-on PM hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. The laser...... directly delivers 9 nJ pulses of 275 fs duration with pulse repetition of 26.7MHz....

  15. A Symmetric Positive Definite Formulation for Monolithic Fluid Structure Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    more likely to converge than simply iterating the partitioned approach to convergence in a simple Gauss - Seidel manner. Our approach allows the use of...conditions in a second step. These approaches can also be iterated within a given time step for increased stability, noting that in the limit if one... converges one obtains a monolithic (albeit expensive) approach. Other approaches construct strongly coupled systems and then solve them in one of several

  16. Electroactive monolithic μchip for electrochemically-responsive chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Aoife

    2013-01-01

    The EMμ project’s focus is ultimately, the development of an electroactive monolith that can be incorporated into a microfluidic system for electroanalytical applications such as sensing and electrochemically-controlled extractions and separations. To date our have made several significant advances to achieving this end goal. Firstly a facile fabrication method which allows for the production of fully disposable, gasket–free thin–layer cells suitable for EMμ was developed. A polydimethylsilox...

  17. Extended Leach Testing of Simulated LAW Cast Stone Monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lanigan, David C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Benjamin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jung, H. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-12

    This revision to the original report adds two longer term leach sets of data to the report and provides more discussion and graphics on how to interpret the results from long-term laboratory leach tests. The leach tests were performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the release of key constituents from monoliths of Cast Stone prepared with four simulated low-activity waste (LAW) liquid waste streams.

  18. Very high plasma switches. Basic plasma physics and switch technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, H.J.; Roche, M.; Buzzi, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A review of some high power switches recently developed for very high power technology is made with a special attention to the aspects of plasma physics involved in the mechanisms, which determine the limits of the possible switching parameters

  19. Monolithic pixels on moderate resistivity substrate and sparsifying readout architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubilato, P.; Battaglia, M.; Bisello, D.; Caselle, M.; Chalmet, P.; Demaria, L.; Ikemoto, Y.; Kloukinas, K.; Mansuy, S.C.; Mattiazzo, S.; Marchioro, A.; Mugnier, H.; Pantano, D.; Potenza, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rousset, J.; Silvestrin, L.; Snoeys, W.

    2013-01-01

    The LePix projects aim realizing a new generation monolithic pixel detectors with improved performances at lesser cost with respect to both current state of the art monolithic and hybrid pixel sensors. The detector is built in a 90 nm CMOS process on a substrate of moderate resistivity. This allows charge collection by drift while maintaining the other advantages usually offered by MAPS, like having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line. The collection by drift mechanism, coupled to the low capacitance design of the collecting node made possible by the monolithic approach, provides an excellent signal to noise ratio straight at the pixel cell together with a radiation tolerance far superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. The excellent signal-to-noise performance is demonstrated by the device ability to separate the 6 keV 55 Fe double peak at room temperature. To achieve high granularity (10–20 µm pitch pixels) over large detector areas maintaining high readout speed, a completely new compressing architecture has been devised. This architecture departs from the mainstream hybrid pixel sparsification approach, which uses in-pixel logic to reduce data, by using topological compression to minimize pixel area and power consumption

  20. Application of monolithic polycapillary focusing optics in MXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, N.; Ponomarev, I.; Xiao, Q.F.; Gibson, W.M.

    1996-01-01

    A monolithic polycapillary focusing optic, consisting of hundreds of thousands of small tapered glass capillaries, can collect a large solid angle of x rays from a point source and guide them through the capillaries by multiple total reflections to form an intense focused beam. Such a focused beam has many applications in microbeam x-ray fluorescence (MXRF) analysis. Two monolithic polycapillary focusing optics were tested and characterized in a MXRF set-up using a microfocusing x-ray source (50microm x 10microm). For the Cu K α line, the measured focal spot sizes of these optics were 105microm and 43microm Full-Width-Half-Maximum (FWHM), respectively. When the source was operated at 16W, the average Cu K α intensities over the focal spots were measured to be 2.4 x 10 4 photons/s/microm 2 and 8.9 x 10 4 photons/s/microm 2 , respectively. When the authors compared the monolithic optics to straight monocapillary optics (single channel capillary) with approximately the same output beam sizes, intensity gains of 16 and 44 were obtained. The optics were applied to the MXRF set-up to analyze trace elements in various samples and a Minimum Detection Limit (MDL) of about 2 pg was achieved for the transition elements (V, Cr, Mn, and Fe). The optics were also used to map the distributions of trace elements in various samples

  1. Tannin-based monoliths from emulsion-templating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczurek, A.; Martinez de Yuso, A.; Fierro, V.; Pizzi, A.; Celzard, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Efficient preparation procedures are presented for new and “green” tannin-based organic polyHIPEs. • Highest homogeneity and strength are obtained at an oil fraction near the close-packing value. • Structural and mechanical properties abruptly change above such critical value. - Abstract: Highly porous monoliths prepared by emulsion-templating, frequently called polymerised High Internal Phase Emulsions (polyHIPEs) in the literature, were prepared from “green” precursors such as Mimosa bark extract, sunflower oil and ethoxylated castor oil. Various oil fractions, ranging from 43 to 80 vol.%, were used and shown to have a dramatic impact on the resultant porous structure. A critical oil fraction around 70 vol.% was found to exist, close to the theoretical values of 64% and 74% for random and compact sphere packing, respectively, at which the properties of both emulsions and derived porous monoliths changed. Such change of behaviour was observed by many different techniques such as viscosity, electron microscopy, mercury intrusion, and mechanical studies. We show and explain why this critical oil fraction is the one leading to the strongest and most homogeneous porous monoliths

  2. Cholesterol-imprinted macroporous monoliths: Preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, Mariia А; Kinziabulatova, Lilia R; Nikitina, Anna A; Korzhikova-Vlakh, Evgenia G; Tennikova, Tatiana B

    2017-11-01

    The development of sorbents for selective binding of cholesterol, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, has a great importance for analytical science and medicine. In this work, two series of macroporous cholesterol-imprinted monolithic sorbents differing in the composition of functional monomers (methacrylic acid, butyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and ethylene dimethacrylate), amount of a template (4, 6 and 8 mol%) used for molecular imprinting, as well as mean pore size were synthesized by in situ free-radical process in stainless steel housing of 50 mm × 4.6 mm i.d. All prepared materials were characterized regarding to their hydrodynamic permeability and porous properties, as well as examined by BET and SEM methods. Imprinting factors, apparent dynamic dissociation constants, the maximum binding capacity, the number of theoretical plates and the height equivalent to a theoretical palate of MIP monoliths at different mobile phase flow rates were determined. The separation of a mixture of structural analogues, namely, cholesterol and prednisolone, was demonstrated. Additionally, the possibility of using the developed monoliths for cholesterol solid-phase extraction from simulated biological solution was shown. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Monolithic pixels on moderate resistivity substrate and sparsifying readout architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Giubilato, P; Snoeys, W; Bisello, D; Marchioro, A; Battaglia, M; Demaria, L; Mansuy, S C; Pantano, D; Rousset, J; Mattiazzo, S; Kloukinas, K; Potenza, A; Ikemoto, Y; Rivetti, A; Chalmet, P; Mugnier, H; Silvestrin, L

    2013-01-01

    The LePix projects aim realizing a new generation monolithic pixel detectors with improved performances at lesser cost with respect to both current state of the art monolithic and hybrid pixel sensors. The detector is built in a 90 nm CMOS process on a substrate of moderate resistivity. This allows charge collection by drift while maintaining the other advantages usually offered by MAPS, like having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line. The collection by drift mechanism, coupled to the low capacitance design of the collecting node made possible by the monolithic approach, provides an excellent signal to noise ratio straight at the pixel cell together with a radiation tolerance far superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. The excellent signal-to-noise performance is demonstrated by the device ability to separate the 6 keV Fe-55 double peak at room temperature. To achieve high granularity (10-20 mu m pitch pixels) over large detector areas maintaining high readout speed, a complet...

  4. On Frequency Combs in Monolithic Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savchenkov A. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical frequency combs have become indispensable in astronomical measurements, biological fingerprinting, optical metrology, and radio frequency photonic signal generation. Recently demonstrated microring resonator-based Kerr frequency combs point the way towards chip scale optical frequency comb generator retaining major properties of the lab scale devices. This technique is promising for integrated miniature radiofrequency and microwave sources, atomic clocks, optical references and femtosecond pulse generators. Here we present Kerr frequency comb development in a historical perspective emphasizing its similarities and differences with other physical phenomena. We elucidate fundamental principles and describe practical implementations of Kerr comb oscillators, highlighting associated solved and unsolved problems.

  5. On Frequency Combs in Monolithic Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, A. A.; Matsko, A. B.; Maleki, L.

    2016-06-01

    Optical frequency combs have become indispensable in astronomical measurements, biological fingerprinting, optical metrology, and radio frequency photonic signal generation. Recently demonstrated microring resonator-based Kerr frequency combs point the way towards chip scale optical frequency comb generator retaining major properties of the lab scale devices. This technique is promising for integrated miniature radiofrequency and microwave sources, atomic clocks, optical references and femtosecond pulse generators. Here we present Kerr frequency comb development in a historical perspective emphasizing its similarities and differences with other physical phenomena. We elucidate fundamental principles and describe practical implementations of Kerr comb oscillators, highlighting associated solved and unsolved problems.

  6. Ultrafast gas switching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes Khz at > 100 kV/m E field

  7. The Octopus switch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2000-01-01

    This chapter1 discusses the interconnection architecture of the Mobile Digital Companion. The approach to build a low-power handheld multimedia computer presented here is to have autonomous, reconfigurable modules such as network, video and audio devices, interconnected by a switch rather than by a

  8. Untriggered water switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Devender, J.P.; Martin, T.H.

    Recent experiments indicate that synchronous untriggered multichannel switching in water will permit the development of relatively simple, ultra-low impedance, short pulse, relativistic electron beam (REB) accelerators. These experiments resulted in the delivery of a 1.5 MV, 0.75 MA, 15 ns pulse into a two-ohm line with a current risetime of 2 x 10 14 A/sec. The apparatus consisted of a 3 MV Marx generator and a series of three 112 cm wide strip water lines separated by two edge-plane water-gap switches. The Marx generator charged the first line in less than 400 ns. The first switch then formed five or more channels. The second line was charged in 60 ns and broke down with 10 to 25 channels at a mean field of 1.6 MV/cm. The closure time of each spark channel along both switches was measured with a streak camera and showed low jitter. The resulting fast pulse line construction is simpler and should provide considerable costs savings from previous designs. Multiples of these low impedance lines in parallel can be employed to obtain power levels in the 10 14 W range for REB fusion studies. (U.S.)

  9. High capacity photonic integrated switching circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albores Mejia, A.

    2011-01-01

    As the demand for high-capacity data transfer keeps increasing in high performance computing and in a broader range of system area networking environments; reconfiguring the strained networks at ever faster speeds with larger volumes of traffic has become a huge challenge. Formidable bottlenecks

  10. Development of high-throughput analysis system using highly-functional organic polymer monoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemura, Tomonari; Kojima, Norihisa; Ueki, Yuji

    2008-01-01

    The growing demand for high-throughput analysis in the current competitive life sciences and industries has promoted the development of high-speed HPLC techniques and tools. As one of such tools, monolithic columns have attracted increasing attention and interest in the last decade due to the low flow-resistance and excellent mass transfer, allowing for rapid separations and reactions at high flow rates with minimal loss of column efficiency. Monolithic materials are classified into two main groups: silica- and organic polymer-based monoliths, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. Organic polymer monoliths have several distinct advantages in life-science research, including wide pH stability, less irreversible adsorption, facile preparation and modification. Thus, we have so far tried to develop organic polymer monoliths for various chemical operations, such as separation, extraction, preconcentration, and reaction. In the present paper, recent progress in the development of organic polymer monoliths is discussed. Especially, the procedure for the preparation of methacrylate-based monoliths with various functional groups is described, where the influence of different compositional and processing parameters on the monolithic structure is also addressed. Furthermore, the performance of the produced monoliths is demonstrated through the results for (1) rapid separations of alklybenzenes at high flow rates, (2) flow-through enzymatic digestion of cytochrome c on a trypsin-immobilized monolithic column, and (3) separation of the tryptic digest on a reversed-phase monolithic column. The flexibility and versatility of organic polymer monoliths will be beneficial for further enhancing analytical performance, and will open the way for new applications and opportunities both in scientific and industrial research. (author)

  11. Photoinitiated grafting of porous polymer monoliths and thermoplastic polymers for microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frechet, Jean M. J. [Oakland, CA; Svec, Frantisek [Alameda, CA; Rohr, Thomas [Leiden, NL

    2008-10-07

    A microfluidic device preferably made of a thermoplastic polymer that includes a channel or a multiplicity of channels whose surfaces are modified by photografting. The device further includes a porous polymer monolith prepared via UV initiated polymerization within the channel, and functionalization of the pore surface of the monolith using photografting. Processes for making such surface modifications of thermoplastic polymers and porous polymer monoliths are set forth.

  12. Control synthesis of switched systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xudong; Niu, Ben; Wu, Tingting

    2017-01-01

    This book offers its readers a detailed overview of the synthesis of switched systems, with a focus on switching stabilization and intelligent control. The problems investigated are not only previously unsolved theoretically but also of practical importance in many applications: voltage conversion, naval piloting and navigation and robotics, for example. The book considers general switched-system models and provides more efficient design methods to bring together theory and application more closely than was possible using classical methods. It also discusses several different classes of switched systems. For general switched linear systems and switched nonlinear systems comprising unstable subsystems, it introduces novel ideas such as invariant subspace theory and the time-scheduled Lyapunov function method of designing switching signals to stabilize the underlying systems. For some typical switched nonlinear systems affected by various complex dynamics, the book proposes novel design approaches based on inte...

  13. Molecularly Imprinted Porous Monolithic Materials from Melamine-Formaldehyde for Selective Trapping of Phosphopeptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingquan; Tran, Tri Minh; Abbas Elhaj, Ahmed Awad

    2017-01-01

    monoliths, chosen based on the combination of meso- and macropores providing optimal percolative flow and accessible surface area, was synthesized in the presence of N-Fmoc and O-Et protected phosphoserine and phosphotyrosine to prepare molecularly imprinted monoliths with surface layers selective...... for phosphopeptides. These imprinted monoliths were characterized alongside nonimprinted monoliths by a variety of techniques and finally evaluated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in the capillary format to assess their abilities to trap and release phosphorylated amino acids and peptides from partly...

  14. A poly(vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate blend monolith with nanoscale porous structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoxia; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2013-10-04

    A stimuli-responsive poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sodium alginate (SA) blend monolith with nanoscale porous (mesoporous) structure is successfully fabricated by thermally impacted non-solvent induced phase separation (TINIPS) method. The PVA/SA blend monolith with different SA contents is conveniently fabricated in an aqueous methanol without any templates. The solvent suitable for the fabrication of the present blend monolith by TINIPS is different with that of the PVA monolith. The nanostructural control of the blend monolith is readily achieved by optimizing the fabrication conditions. Brunauer Emmett Teller measurement shows that the obtained blend monolith has a large surface area. Pore size distribution plot for the blend monolith obtained by the non-local density functional theory method reveals the existence of the nanoscale porous structure. Fourier transform infrared analysis reveals the strong interactions between PVA and SA. The pH-responsive property of the blend monolith is investigated on the basis of swelling ratio in different pH solutions. The present blend monolith of biocompatible and biodegradable PVA and SA with nanoscale porous structure has large potential for applications in biomedical and environmental fields.

  15. A nonlinear plasmonic waveguide based all-optical bidirectional switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bana, Xiaoqiang; Pang, Xingxing; Li, Xiaohui; Hu, Bin; Guo, Yixuan; Zheng, Hairong

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, an all-optical switching with a nanometer coupled ring resonator is demonstrated based on the nonlinear material. By adjusting the light intensity, we implement the resonance wavelength from 880 nm to 940 nm in the nonlinear material structure monocyclic. In the bidirectional switch structure, the center wavelength (i.e. 880 nm) is fixed. By changing the light intensity from I = 0 to I = 53 . 1 MW /cm2, the function of optical switching can be obtained. The results demonstrate that both the single-ring cavity and the T-shaped double-ring structure can realize the optical switching effect. This work takes advantage of the simple structure. The single-ring cavity plasmonic switches have many advantages, such as nanoscale size, low pumping light intensity, ultrafast response time (femtosecond level), etc. It is expected that the proposed all-optical integrated devices can be potentially applied in optical communication, signal processing, and signal sensing, etc.

  16. Synchronization Between Two Different Switched Chaotic Systems By Switching Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Li Ming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the synchronization problem of two different switched chaotic systems, considering the general case that the master-slave switched chaotic systems have uncertainties. Two basic problems are considered: one is projective synchronization of switched chaotic systems under arbitrary switching; the other is projective synchronization of switched chaotic systems by design of switching when synchronization cannot achieved by using any subsystems alone. For the two problems, common Lyapunov function method and multiple Lyapunov function method are used respectively, an adaptive control scheme has been presented, some sufficient synchronization conditions are attainted, and the switching signal is designed. Finally, the numerical simulation is provide to show the effectiveness of our method.

  17. Laser activated superconducting switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    A superconducting switch or bistable device is described consisting of a superconductor in a cryogen maintaining a temperature just below the transition temperature, having a window of the proper optical frequency band for passing a laser beam which may impinge on the superconductor when desired. The frequency of the laser is equal to or greater than the optical absorption frequency of the superconducting material and is consistent with the ratio of the gap energy of the switch material to Planck's constant, to cause depairing of electrons, and thereby normalize the superconductor. Some embodiments comprise first and second superconducting metals. Other embodiments feature the two superconducting metals separated by a thin film insulator through which the superconducting electrons tunnel during superconductivity

  18. Optical fiber switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2002-01-01

    Optical fiber switches operated by electrical activation of at least one laser light modulator through which laser light is directed into at least one polarizer are used for the sequential transport of laser light from a single laser into a plurality of optical fibers. In one embodiment of the invention, laser light from a single excitation laser is sequentially transported to a plurality of optical fibers which in turn transport the laser light to separate individual remotely located laser fuel ignitors. The invention can be operated electro-optically with no need for any mechanical or moving parts, or, alternatively, can be operated electro-mechanically. The invention can be used to switch either pulsed or continuous wave laser light.

  19. Coulomb Blockade Plasmonic Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dao; Wu, Jian; Gordon, Reuven

    2017-04-12

    Tunnel resistance can be modulated with bias via the Coulomb blockade effect, which gives a highly nonlinear response current. Here we investigate the optical response of a metal-insulator-nanoparticle-insulator-metal structure and show switching of a plasmonic gap from insulator to conductor via Coulomb blockade. By introducing a sufficiently large charging energy in the tunnelling gap, the Coulomb blockade allows for a conductor (tunneling) to insulator (capacitor) transition. The tunnelling electrons can be delocalized over the nanocapacitor again when a high energy penalty is added with bias. We demonstrate that this has a huge impact on the plasmonic resonance of a 0.51 nm tunneling gap with ∼70% change in normalized optical loss. Because this structure has a tiny capacitance, there is potential to harness the effect for high-speed switching.

  20. Cryogenic switched MOSFET characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Both p channel and n channel enhancement mode MOSFETs can be readily switched on and off at temperatures as low as 2.8 K so that switch sampled readout of a VLWIR Ge:Ga focal plane is electronically possible. Noise levels as low as 100 rms electrons per sample (independent of sample rate) can be achieved using existing p channel MOSFETs, at overall rates up to 30,000 samples/second per multiplexed channel (e.g., 32 detectors at a rate of almost 1,000 frames/second). Run of the mill devices, including very low power dissipation n channel FETs would still permit noise levels of the order of 500 electrons/sample.

  1. Practical switching power supply design

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Martin C

    1990-01-01

    Take the ""black magic"" out of switching power supplies with Practical Switching Power Supply Design! This is a comprehensive ""hands-on"" guide to the theory behind, and design of, PWM and resonant switching supplies. You'll find information on switching supply operation and selecting an appropriate topology for your application. There's extensive coverage of buck, boost, flyback, push-pull, half bridge, and full bridge regulator circuits. Special attention is given to semiconductors used in switching supplies. RFI/EMI reduction, grounding, testing, and safety standards are also deta

  2. Preparation of organic monolithic columns in polytetrafluoroethylene tubes for reversed-phase liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalá-Icardo, M.; Torres-Cartas, S.; Meseguer-Lloret, S.; Gómez-Benito, C.; Carrasco-Correa, E.; Simó-Alfonso, E.F.; Ramis-Ramos, G.; Herrero-Martínez, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a method for the preparation and anchoring of polymeric monoliths in a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubing as a column housing for microbore HPLC is described. In order to assure a covalent attachment of the monolith to the inner wall of the PTFE tube, a two-step procedure was developed. Two surface etching reagents, a commercial sodium naphthalene solution (Fluoroetch"®), or mixtures of H_2O_2 and H_2SO_4, were tried and compared. Then, the obtained hydroxyl groups on the PTFE surface were modified by methacryloylation. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the successful modification of the tubing wall and the stable anchorage of monolith to the wall, respectively. Special emphasis was also put on the reduction of the unwanted effects of shrinking of monolith during polymerization, by using an external proper mold and by selecting the adequate monomers in order to increase the flexibility of the polymer. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-divinylbenzene) monoliths were in situ synthesized by thermal polymerization within the confines of surface-vinylized PTFE tubes. The modified PTFE tubing tightly held the monolith, and the monolithic column exhibited good pressure resistance up to 20 MPa. The column performance was also evaluated via the isocratic separation of a series of alkylbenzenes in the reversed-phase mode. The optimized monolithic columns gave plate heights ranged between 70 and 80 μm. The resulting monoliths were also satisfactorily applied to the separation of proteins. - Highlights: • Successful surface etching of PTFE inner wall tubing was done. • The modified PTFE support was next methacryloylated with GMA. • Organic polymeric monolith was in situ prepared in the functionalized PTFE tube. • The monolithic columns gave suitable pressure resistance and separation of proteins.

  3. Preparation of organic monolithic columns in polytetrafluoroethylene tubes for reversed-phase liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalá-Icardo, M., E-mail: mocaic@qim.upv.es [Research Institute for Integrated Management of Coastal Areas, Universitat Politècnica de València, Paranimf 1, 46730, Grao de Gandía, Valencia (Spain); Torres-Cartas, S.; Meseguer-Lloret, S.; Gómez-Benito, C. [Research Institute for Integrated Management of Coastal Areas, Universitat Politècnica de València, Paranimf 1, 46730, Grao de Gandía, Valencia (Spain); Carrasco-Correa, E.; Simó-Alfonso, E.F.; Ramis-Ramos, G. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Universitat de València, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Herrero-Martínez, J.M., E-mail: jmherrer@uv.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Universitat de València, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2017-04-01

    In this work, a method for the preparation and anchoring of polymeric monoliths in a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubing as a column housing for microbore HPLC is described. In order to assure a covalent attachment of the monolith to the inner wall of the PTFE tube, a two-step procedure was developed. Two surface etching reagents, a commercial sodium naphthalene solution (Fluoroetch{sup ®}), or mixtures of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, were tried and compared. Then, the obtained hydroxyl groups on the PTFE surface were modified by methacryloylation. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the successful modification of the tubing wall and the stable anchorage of monolith to the wall, respectively. Special emphasis was also put on the reduction of the unwanted effects of shrinking of monolith during polymerization, by using an external proper mold and by selecting the adequate monomers in order to increase the flexibility of the polymer. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-divinylbenzene) monoliths were in situ synthesized by thermal polymerization within the confines of surface-vinylized PTFE tubes. The modified PTFE tubing tightly held the monolith, and the monolithic column exhibited good pressure resistance up to 20 MPa. The column performance was also evaluated via the isocratic separation of a series of alkylbenzenes in the reversed-phase mode. The optimized monolithic columns gave plate heights ranged between 70 and 80 μm. The resulting monoliths were also satisfactorily applied to the separation of proteins. - Highlights: • Successful surface etching of PTFE inner wall tubing was done. • The modified PTFE support was next methacryloylated with GMA. • Organic polymeric monolith was in situ prepared in the functionalized PTFE tube. • The monolithic columns gave suitable pressure resistance and separation of proteins.

  4. Composite Material Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Hamid (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A device to protect electronic circuitry from high voltage transients is constructed from a relatively thin piece of conductive composite sandwiched between two conductors so that conduction is through the thickness of the composite piece. The device is based on the discovery that conduction through conductive composite materials in this configuration switches to a high resistance mode when exposed to voltages above a threshold voltage.

  5. MCT/MOSFET Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1990-01-01

    Metal-oxide/semiconductor-controlled thyristor (MCT) and metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) connected in switching circuit to obtain better performance. Offers high utilization of silicon, low forward voltage drop during "on" period of operating cycle, fast turnon and turnoff, and large turnoff safe operating area. Includes ability to operate at high temperatures, high static blocking voltage, and ease of drive.

  6. Python Switch Statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Python programming language does not have a built in switch/case control structure as found in many other high level programming languages. It is thought by some that this is a deficiency in the language, and the control structure should be added. This paper demonstrates that not only is the control structure not needed, but that the methods available in Python are more expressive than built in case statements in other high level languages.

  7. 'Integration'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2011-01-01

    , while the countries have adopted disparate policies and ideologies, differences in the actual treatment and attitudes towards immigrants and refugees in everyday life are less clear, due to parallel integration programmes based on strong similarities in the welfare systems and in cultural notions...... of equality in the three societies. Finally, it shows that family relations play a central role in immigrants’ and refugees’ establishment of a new life in the receiving societies, even though the welfare society takes on many of the social and economic functions of the family....

  8. Ferroelectric switching of elastin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanming; Cai, Hong-Ling; Zelisko, Matthew; Wang, Yunjie; Sun, Jinglan; Yan, Fei; Ma, Feiyue; Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Zheng, Hairong; Meng, Xiangjian; Sharma, Pradeep; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu

    2014-01-01

    Ferroelectricity has long been speculated to have important biological functions, although its very existence in biology has never been firmly established. Here, we present compelling evidence that elastin, the key ECM protein found in connective tissues, is ferroelectric, and we elucidate the molecular mechanism of its switching. Nanoscale piezoresponse force microscopy and macroscopic pyroelectric measurements both show that elastin retains ferroelectricity at 473 K, with polarization on the order of 1 μC/cm2, whereas coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations predict similar polarization with a Curie temperature of 580 K, which is higher than most synthetic molecular ferroelectrics. The polarization of elastin is found to be intrinsic in tropoelastin at the monomer level, analogous to the unit cell level polarization in classical perovskite ferroelectrics, and it switches via thermally activated cooperative rotation of dipoles. Our study sheds light onto a long-standing question on ferroelectric switching in biology and establishes ferroelectricity as an important biophysical property of proteins. This is a critical first step toward resolving its physiological significance and pathological implications. PMID:24958890

  9. Design of Integrated Circuits Approaching Terahertz Frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Lei

    In this thesis, monolithic microwave integrated circuits(MMICs) are presented for millimeter-wave and submillimeter-wave or terahertz(THz) applications. Millimeter-wave power generation from solid state devices is not only crucial for the emerging high data rate wireless communications but also...... heterodyne receivers with requirements of room temperature operation, low system complexity, and high sensitivity, monolithic integrated Schottky diode technology is chosen for the implementation of submillimeterwave components. The corresponding subharmonic mixer and multiplier for a THz radiometer system...

  10. Frontend Receiver Electronics for High Frequency Monolithic CMUT-on-CMOS Imaging Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurun, Gokce; Hasler, Paul; Degertekin, F. Levent

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design of CMOS receiver electronics for monolithic integration with capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays for high-frequency intravascular ultrasound imaging. A custom 8-inch wafer is fabricated in a 0.35 μm two-poly, four-metal CMOS process and then CMUT arrays are built on top of the application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) on the wafer. We discuss advantages of the single-chip CMUT-on-CMOS approach in terms of receive sensitivity and SNR. Low-noise and high-gain design of a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) optimized for a forward-looking volumetric-imaging CMUT array element is discussed as a challenging design example. Amplifier gain, bandwidth, dynamic range and power consumption trade-offs are discussed in detail. With minimized parasitics provided by the CMUT-on-CMOS approach, the optimized TIA design achieves a 90 fA/√Hz input referred current noise, which is less than the thermal-mechanical noise of the CMUT element. We show successful system operation with a pulse-echo measurement. Transducer noise-dominated detection in immersion is also demonstrated through output noise spectrum measurement of the integrated system at different CMUT bias voltages. A noise figure of 1.8 dB is obtained in the designed CMUT bandwidth of 10 MHz to 20 MHz. PMID:21859585

  11. Front-end receiver electronics for high-frequency monolithic CMUT-on-CMOS imaging arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurun, Gokce; Hasler, Paul; Degertekin, F

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes the design of CMOS receiver electronics for monolithic integration with capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays for highfrequency intravascular ultrasound imaging. A custom 8-inch (20-cm) wafer is fabricated in a 0.35-μm two-poly, four-metal CMOS process and then CMUT arrays are built on top of the application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) on the wafer. We discuss advantages of the single-chip CMUT-on-CMOS approach in terms of receive sensitivity and SNR. Low-noise and high-gain design of a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) optimized for a forward-looking volumetric-imaging CMUT array element is discussed as a challenging design example. Amplifier gain, bandwidth, dynamic range, and power consumption trade-offs are discussed in detail. With minimized parasitics provided by the CMUT-on-CMOS approach, the optimized TIA design achieves a 90 fA/√Hz input-referred current noise, which is less than the thermal-mechanical noise of the CMUT element. We show successful system operation with a pulseecho measurement. Transducer-noise-dominated detection in immersion is also demonstrated through output noise spectrum measurement of the integrated system at different CMUT bias voltages. A noise figure of 1.8 dB is obtained in the designed CMUT bandwidth of 10 to 20 MHz.

  12. A 30 Mbps in-plane full-duplex light communication using a monolithic GaN photonic circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xumin; Yuan, Jialei; Yang, Yongchao; Li, Yuanhang; Yuan, Wei; Zhu, Guixia; Zhu, Hongbo; Feng, Meixin; Sun, Qian; Liu, Yuhuai; Wang, Yongjin

    2017-07-01

    We propose, fabricate and characterize photonic integration of a InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diode (MQW-LED), waveguide, ring resonator and InGaN/GaN MQW-photodiode on a single chip, in which the photonic circuit is suspended by the support beams. Both experimental observations and simulation results illustrate the manipulation of in-plane light coupling and propagation by the waveguide and the ring resonator. The monolithic photonic circuit forms an in-plane data communication system using visible light. When the two suspended InGaN/GaN MQW-diodes simultaneously serve as the transmitter and the receiver, an in-plane full-duplex light communication is experimentally demonstrated with a transmission rate of 30 Mbps, and the superimposed signals are extracted using the self-interference cancellation method. The suspended photonic circuit creates new possibilities for exploring the in-plane full-duplex light communication and manufacturing complex GaN-based monolithic photonic integrations.

  13. Fiber-based monolithic columns for liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladisch, Michael; Zhang, Leyu

    2016-10-01

    Fiber-based monoliths for use in liquid chromatographic separations are defined by columns packed with aligned fibers, woven matrices, or contiguous fiber structures capable of achieving rapid separations of proteins, macromolecules, and low molecular weight components. A common denominator and motivating driver for this approach, first initiated 25 years ago, was reducing the cost of bioseparations in a manner that also reduced residence time of retained components while achieving a high ratio of mass to momentum transfer. This type of medium, when packed into a liquid chromatography column, minimized the fraction of stagnant liquid and resulted in a constant plate height for non-adsorbing species. The uncoupling of dispersion from eluent flow rate enabled the surface chemistry of the stationary phase to be considered separately from fluid transport phenomena and pointed to new ways to apply chemistry for the engineering of rapid bioseparations. This paper addresses developments and current research on fiber-based monoliths and explains how the various forms of this type of chromatographic stationary phase have potential to provide new tools for analytical and preparative scale separations. The different stationary phases are discussed, and a model that captures the observed constant plate height as a function of mobile phase velocity is reviewed. Methods that enable hydrodynamically stable fiber columns to be packed and operated over a range of mobile phase flow rates, together with the development of new fiber chemistries, are shown to provide columns that extend the versatility of liquid chromatography using monoliths, particularly at the preparative scale. Graphical Abstract Schematic representation of a sample mixture being separated by a rolled-stationary phase column, resulting separated peaks shown in the chromatogram.

  14. Development of Buffer Layer Technologies for LWIR and VLWIR HgCdTe Integration on Si

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golding, Terry D

    2005-01-01

    This program proposed to develop manufacturable, cost-effective buffer layer technologies that would allow either hybrid or monolithic integration of LWIR and VLWIR HgCdTe infrared focal plane arrays...

  15. Integration of Magneto-Optical Materials for Novel Optical Devices & Magnetophotonic Crystals, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work proposes to capitalize on our Phase I success in monolithically integrating magneto-optic and magnetic materials with semiconductor platforms in order to...

  16. Integration of Solar Cells on Top of CMOS Chips - Part II: CIGS Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Liu, Wei; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Sun, Yun; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of deepsubmicrometer complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) microchips with copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) solar cells. Solar cells are manufactured directly on unpackaged CMOS chips. The microchips maintain comparable electronic performance,

  17. Transverse mode selection in a monolithic microchip laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Darryl

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available selection in a monolithic microchip laser Darryl Naidooa,b, Thomas Godinc, Michael Fromagerc, Emmanuel Cagniotc, Nicolas Passillyd, Andrew Forbesa,b and Kamel A?t-Ameurc1 a:CSIR National Laser Centre, P. O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa b.... Lett. 77 (2000) 34-36. [14] W. Zhao, J. Tan and L. Qui, ?Improvement of confocal microscope performance by shaped annular beam and heterodyne confocal techniques,? Optik 116 (2005) 111-117. [15] T. Shiina, K. Yoshida, M. Ito and Y. Okamura, ?Long...

  18. A hybrid FIA/HPLC system incorporating monolithic column chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adcock, Jacqui L.; Francis, Paul S.; Agg, Kent M.; Marshall, Graham D.; Barnett, Neil W.

    2007-01-01

    We have combined the generation of solvent gradients using milliGAT pumps, chromatographic separations with monolithic columns and chemiluminescence detection in an instrument manifold that approaches the automation and separation efficiency of HPLC, whilst maintaining the positive attributes of flow injection analysis (FIA), such as manifold versatility, speed of analysis and portability. As preliminary demonstrations of this hybrid FIA/HPLC system, we have determined six opiate alkaloids (morphine, pseudomorphine, codeine, oripavine, ethylmorphine and thebaine) and four biogenic amines (vanilmandelic acid, serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid and homovanillic acid) in human urine, using tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(III) and acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection

  19. Inherent polarization entanglement generated from a monolithic semiconductor chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Rolf T.; Kolenderski, Piotr; Kang, Dongpeng

    2013-01-01

    Creating miniature chip scale implementations of optical quantum information protocols is a dream for many in the quantum optics community. This is largely because of the promise of stability and scalability. Here we present a monolithically integratable chip architecture upon which is built...... a photonic device primitive called a Bragg reflection waveguide (BRW). Implemented in gallium arsenide, we show that, via the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion, the BRW is capable of directly producing polarization entangled photons without additional path difference compensation, spectral...... as a serious contender on which to build large scale implementations of optical quantum processing devices....

  20. On drift fields in CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deveaux, Michael [Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-MVD-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) combine an excellent spatial resolution of few μm with a very low material budget of 0.05% X{sub 0}. To extend their radiation tolerance to the level needed for future experiments like e.g. CBM, it is regularly considered to deplete their active volume. We discuss the limits of this strategy accounting for the specific features of the sensing elements of MAPS. Moreover, we introduce an alternative approach to generate the drift fields needed to provoke a faster charge collection by means of doping gradients.