WorldWideScience

Sample records for monolingual-bilingual comparisons suggest

  1. Dublin City University at CLEF 2004: experiments in monolingual, bilingual and multilingual retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Gareth J.F.; Burke, Michael; Judge, John; Khasin, Anna; Lam-Adesina, Adenike M.; Wagner, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    The Dublin City University group participated in the monolingual, bilingual and multilingual retrieval tasks this year. The main focus of our investigation this year was extending our retrieval system to document languages other than English, and completing the multilingual task comprising four languages: English, French, Russian and Finnish. Results from our French monolingual experiments indicate that working in French is more effective for retrieval than adopting document and topic translat...

  2. Exeter at CLEF 2003: Experiments with machine translation for monolingual, bilingual and multilingual retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Lam-Adesina, Adenike M.; Jones, Gareth J.F.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Exeter group participated in the monolingual, bilingual and multilingual-4 retrieval tasks this year. The main focus of our investigation this year was the small multilingual task comprising four languages, French, German, Spanish and English. We adopted a document translation strategy and tested four merging techniques to combine results from the separate document collections, as well as a merged collection strategy. For both the monolingual and bilingual tasks we explored ...

  3. A Comparison of Authoritarian and Permissive Wording of Hypnotic Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Robert B.; Church, Jay K.

    The authoritarian/permissive dimension of hypnosis refers to the manner in which hypnotic suggestions are phrased. In the authoritarian mode suggestions imply the subject is under control of the hypnotist; permissive suggestions are phrased to emphasize the subject's own thinking. To compare the permissive suggestions of the Creative Imagination…

  4. Comparison of Historic Exploration with Contemporary Space Policy Suggests a Retheorisation of Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokely, J.; Rankin, W.; Heinrich, P.; McAuliffe, M.

    The 2008 NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides one way of theorising this developing field, a way which has become the normative model for the discipline: science-and scholarship-driven funding for space. By contrast, a novel re-evaluation of funding policies is undertaken in this article to reframe astrobiology, terraforming and associated space travel and research. Textual visualisation, discourse and numeric analytical methods, and value theory are applied to historical data and contemporary sources to re-investigate significant drivers and constraints on the mechanisms of enabling space exploration. Two data sets are identified and compared: the business objectives and outcomes of major 15th-17th century European joint-stock exploration and trading companies and a case study of a current space industry entrepreneur company. Comparison of these analyses suggests that viable funding policy drivers can exist outside the normative science and scholarship-driven roadmap. The two drivers identified in this study are (1) the intrinsic value of space as a territory to be experienced and enjoyed, not just studied, and (2) the instrumental, commercial value of exploiting these experiences by developing infrastructure and retail revenues. Filtering of these results also offers an investment rationale for companies operating in, or about to enter, the space business marketplace.

  5. The Efficiency of Pubmed Query Refinement Suggestions in Comparison with MESH Terms: A Bushehr Medical Specialists Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrasoul Khosravi

    2015-05-01

    Findings: the results show that there is no significant difference between documents relevance when Pubmed suggestions or MESH terms are used during each search session. According to the findings of this study both Pubmed suggestions and MESH terms help the user with better understanding the concept and they both broaden the terminology of users. At the same time both methods are efficient in relevancy of the retrieved documents.

  6. Occurrence of an invasive coral in the southwest Atlantic and comparison with a congener suggest potential niche expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos-Júnior, Lélis A; Neves, Danilo M; Barbosa, Newton P U; Moulton, Timothy P; Creed, Joel C

    2015-06-01

    Tubastraea tagusensis, a coral native to the Galapagos Archipelago, has successfully established and invaded the Brazilian coast where it modifies native tropical rocky shore and coral reef communities. In order to understand the processes underlying the establishment of T. tagusensis, we tested whether Maxent, a tool for species distribution modeling, based on the native range of T. tagusensis correctly forecasted the invasion range of this species in Brazil. The Maxent algorithm was unable to predict the Brazilian coast as a suitable environment for the establishment of T. tagusensis. A comparison between these models and a principal component analysis (PCA) allowed us to examine the environmental dissimilarity between the two occupied regions (native and invaded) and to assess the species' occupied niche breadth. According to the PCA results, lower levels of chlorophyll-a and nitrate on the Atlantic coast segregate the Brazilian and Galapagos environments, implying that T. tagusensis may have expanded its realized niche during the invasion process. We tested the possible realized niche expansion in T. tagusensis by assuming that Tubastraea spp. have similar fundamental niches, which was supported by exploring the environmental space of T. coccinea, a tropical-cosmopolitan congener of T. tagusensis. We believe that the usage of Maxent should be treated with caution, especially when applied to biological invasion (or climate change) scenarios where the target species has a highly localized native (original) distribution, which may represent only a small portion of its fundamental niche, and therefore a violation of a SDM assumption.

  7. A comparison of facial color pattern and gazing behavior in canid species suggests gaze communication in gray wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayoko Ueda

    Full Text Available As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear, B-type (only the eye position is clear, and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear. A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication.

  8. A comparison of facial color pattern and gazing behavior in canid species suggests gaze communication in gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Sayoko; Kumagai, Gaku; Otaki, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Shinya; Kohshima, Shiro

    2014-01-01

    As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear), B-type (only the eye position is clear), and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear). A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication.

  9. Comparison of the white-nose syndrome agent Pseudogymnoascus destructans to cave-dwelling relatives suggests reduced saprotrophic enzyme activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah T Reynolds

    Full Text Available White-nose Syndrome (WNS is an emerging infectious mycosis that has impacted multiple species of North American bats since its initial discovery in 2006, yet the physiology of the causal agent, the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans ( = Geomyces destructans, is not well understood. We investigated the ability of P. destructans to secrete enzymes that could permit environmental growth or affect pathogenesis and compared enzyme activity across several Pseudogymnoascus species isolated from both hibernating bats and cave sediments. We found that P. destructans produced enzymes that could be beneficial in either a pathogenic or saprotrophic context, such as lipases, hemolysins, and urease, as well as chitinase and cellulases, which could aid in saprotrophic growth. The WNS pathogen showed significantly lower activity for urease and endoglucanase compared to con-generic species (Pseudogymnoascus, which may indicate a shift in selective pressure to the detriment of P. destructans' saprotrophic ability. Based on the positive function of multiple saprotrophic enzymes, the causal agent of White-nose Syndrome shows potential for environmental growth on a variety of substrates found in caves, albeit at a reduced level compared to environmental strains. Our data suggest that if P. destructans emerged as an opportunistic infection from an environmental source, co-evolution with its host may have led to a reduced capacity for saprotrophic growth.

  10. Whole genome comparisons suggest random distribution of Mycobacterium ulcerans genotypes in a Buruli ulcer endemic region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablordey, Anthony S; Vandelannoote, Koen; Frimpong, Isaac A; Ahortor, Evans K; Amissah, Nana Ama; Eddyani, Miriam; Durnez, Lies; Portaels, Françoise; de Jong, Bouke C; Leirs, Herwig; Porter, Jessica L; Mangas, Kirstie M; Lam, Margaret M C; Buultjens, Andrew; Seemann, Torsten; Tobias, Nicholas J; Stinear, Timothy P

    2015-03-01

    Efforts to control the spread of Buruli ulcer--an emerging ulcerative skin infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans--have been hampered by our poor understanding of reservoirs and transmission. To help address this issue, we compared whole genomes from 18 clinical M. ulcerans isolates from a 30 km2 region within the Asante Akim North District, Ashanti region, Ghana, with 15 other M. ulcerans isolates from elsewhere in Ghana and the surrounding countries of Ivory Coast, Togo, Benin and Nigeria. Contrary to our expectations of finding minor DNA sequence variations among isolates representing a single M. ulcerans circulating genotype, we found instead two distinct genotypes. One genotype was closely related to isolates from neighbouring regions of Amansie West and Densu, consistent with the predicted local endemic clone, but the second genotype (separated by 138 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs] from other Ghanaian strains) most closely matched M. ulcerans from Nigeria, suggesting another introduction of M. ulcerans to Ghana, perhaps from that country. Both the exotic genotype and the local Ghanaian genotype displayed highly restricted intra-strain genetic variation, with less than 50 SNP differences across a 5.2 Mbp core genome within each genotype. Interestingly, there was no discernible spatial clustering of genotypes at the local village scale. Interviews revealed no obvious epidemiological links among BU patients who had been infected with identical M. ulcerans genotypes but lived in geographically separate villages. We conclude that M. ulcerans is spread widely across the region, with multiple genotypes present in any one area. These data give us new perspectives on the behaviour of possible reservoirs and subsequent transmission mechanisms of M. ulcerans. These observations also show for the first time that M. ulcerans can be mobilized, introduced to a new area and then spread within a population. Potential reservoirs of M. ulcerans thus might include

  11. Whole genome comparisons suggest random distribution of Mycobacterium ulcerans genotypes in a Buruli ulcer endemic region of Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S Ablordey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to control the spread of Buruli ulcer--an emerging ulcerative skin infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans--have been hampered by our poor understanding of reservoirs and transmission. To help address this issue, we compared whole genomes from 18 clinical M. ulcerans isolates from a 30 km2 region within the Asante Akim North District, Ashanti region, Ghana, with 15 other M. ulcerans isolates from elsewhere in Ghana and the surrounding countries of Ivory Coast, Togo, Benin and Nigeria. Contrary to our expectations of finding minor DNA sequence variations among isolates representing a single M. ulcerans circulating genotype, we found instead two distinct genotypes. One genotype was closely related to isolates from neighbouring regions of Amansie West and Densu, consistent with the predicted local endemic clone, but the second genotype (separated by 138 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs] from other Ghanaian strains most closely matched M. ulcerans from Nigeria, suggesting another introduction of M. ulcerans to Ghana, perhaps from that country. Both the exotic genotype and the local Ghanaian genotype displayed highly restricted intra-strain genetic variation, with less than 50 SNP differences across a 5.2 Mbp core genome within each genotype. Interestingly, there was no discernible spatial clustering of genotypes at the local village scale. Interviews revealed no obvious epidemiological links among BU patients who had been infected with identical M. ulcerans genotypes but lived in geographically separate villages. We conclude that M. ulcerans is spread widely across the region, with multiple genotypes present in any one area. These data give us new perspectives on the behaviour of possible reservoirs and subsequent transmission mechanisms of M. ulcerans. These observations also show for the first time that M. ulcerans can be mobilized, introduced to a new area and then spread within a population. Potential reservoirs of M. ulcerans

  12. Comparison of CD45 extracellular domain sequences from divergent vertebrate species suggests the conservation of three fibronectin type III domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, M; Matthews, R J; Robb, B; Litman, G W; Bork, P; Thomas, M L

    1996-08-15

    Mammalian CD45 is a transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase expressed by all nucleated cells of hematopoietic origin. In lymphocytes, CD45 is required for Ag-induced signal transduction due to its ability to positively regulate Src family members. The mechanisms by which CD45 function is regulated are unknown. Indeed, the interactions of CD45 extracellular domains are largely undefined. To gain insight into potentially important regions of the extracellular domain, we sought to identify conserved features from divergent species. cDNAs encoding the putative CD45 homologue from Heterodontus francisci (horned shark) were isolated. The cDNA sequence predicts a protein of 1200 amino acids that contains a 452-amino acid extracellular domain, a 22-amino acid transmembrane region, and a 703-amino acid cytoplasmic domain. Alignment searches revealed that the Heterodontus cytoplasmic domain sequence was most identical to mammalian CD45 and a transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase sequence identified from chickens, ChPTP lambda. A dendrogram with other transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase sequences suggest that the Heterodontus and chicken sequences represents CD45 orthologues for their respective species. Analysis of vertebrate CD45 extracellular domain sequences indicates the conservation of three structural regions: a region containing potential O-linked carbohydrate sites, a cysteine-containing region, and a region containing three fibronectin type III domains. For each vertebrate species, multiple isoforms are generated by alternative splicing of three exons that encode a portion of the region containing potential O-linked glycosylation sites. These studies provide evidence for a conservation in CD45 extracellular domain structure between divergent species and provide a basis for understanding CD45 extracellular domain interactions.

  13. Zebrafish Wnt9a,9b paralog comparisons suggest ancestral roles for Wnt9 in neural, oral-pharyngeal ectoderm and mesendoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A A; Jezewski, P A; Fang, P-K; Payne-Ferreira, T L

    2010-09-01

    The Wnts are a highly conserved family of secreted glycoproteins involved in cell-cell signaling and pattern formation during early embryonic development. Teasing out the role of individual Wnt molecules through development is challenging. Gene duplications are one of the most important mechanisms for generating evolutionary variations. The current consensus suggests that most anatomical variation is generated by divergence of regulatory control regions rather than by coding sequence divergence. Thus phylogenetic comparisons of divergent gene expression patterns are essential to understanding ancestral morphogenetic patterns from which subsequent anatomy diversified in modern lineages. We previously demonstrated strongest expression of zebrafish wnt9b within its heart tube, limb bud and ventral/anterior ectoderm during oral and pharyngeal arch patterning. Our goal is to compare and contrast zwnt9b to its closest paralog, zwnt9a. Sequenced, fulllength zebrafish wnt9a and wnt9b cDNA clones were used for phylogenetic analysis, which suggests their derivation from a common pre-vertebrate archeolog by gene duplication and divergence. Here we demonstrate that zwnt9a expression is found within unique (CNS, pronephric ducts, sensory organs) and overlapping (pectoral fin buds) expression domains relative to zwnt9b. Apparently, Wnt9 paralogs differentially parsed common ancestral expression domains during their subsequent rounds of gene duplication, divergence and loss in different vertebrate lineages. This expression data suggests ancestral roles for Wnt9s in early patterning of neural/oral-pharyngeal ectoderm and mesendoderm derivatives.

  14. Consultation and illness behaviour in response to symptoms: a comparison of models from different disciplinary frameworks and suggestions for future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyke, Sally; Adamson, Joy; Dixon, Diane; Hunt, Kate

    2013-06-01

    We all get ill and social scientific interest in how we respond - the study of illness behaviour - continues unabated. Existing models are useful, but have been developed and applied within disciplinary silos, resulting in wasted intellectual and empirical effort and an absence of accumulation of knowledge across disciplines. We present a critical review and detailed comparison of three process models of response to symptoms: the Illness Action Model, the Common Sense Model of the Self-Regulation of Health and Illness and the Network Episode Model. We suggest an integrated framework in which symptoms, responses and actions are simultaneously interpreted and evaluated in the light of accumulated knowledge and through interactions. Evaluation may be subconscious and is influenced by the extent to which the symptoms impose themselves, expectations of outcomes, the resources available and understanding of symptoms' salience and possible outcomes. Actions taken are part of a process of problem solving through which both individuals and their immediate social network seek to (re)achieve 'normality'. Response is also influenced by social structure (directly and indirectly), cultural expectations of health, the meaning of symptoms, and access to and understandings of the legitimate use of services. Changes in knowledge, in embodied state and in emotions can all be directly influential at any point. We do not underestimate the difficulty of operationalising an integrated framework at different levels of analysis. Attempts to do so will require us to move easily between disciplinary understandings to conduct prospective, longitudinal, research that uses novel methodologies to investigate response to symptoms in the context of affective as well as cognitive responses and interactions within social networks. While challenging such an approach would facilitate accumulation of knowledge across disciplines and enable movement beyond description to change in individual and

  15. TNO at CLEF-2001: Comparing translation resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the official runs of TNO TPD for CLEF-2001. We participated in the monolingual, bilingual and multilingual tasks. The main contribution of this paper is a systematic comparison of three types of translation resources for bilingual retrieval based on query translation. We compare

  16. Comparison with ancestral diets suggests dense acellular carbohydrates promote an inflammatory microbiota, and may be the primary dietary cause of leptin resistance and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreadbury, Ian

    2012-01-01

    A novel hypothesis of obesity is suggested by consideration of diet-related inflammation and evolutionary medicine. The obese homeostatically guard their elevated weight. In rodent models of high-fat diet-induced obesity, leptin resistance is seen initially at vagal afferents, blunting the actions of satiety mediators, then centrally, with gastrointestinal bacterial-triggered SOCS3 signaling implicated. In humans, dietary fat and fructose elevate systemic lipopolysaccharide, while dietary glucose also strongly activates SOCS3 signaling. Crucially however, in humans, low-carbohydrate diets spontaneously decrease weight in a way that low-fat diets do not. Furthermore, nutrition transition patterns and the health of those still eating diverse ancestral diets with abundant food suggest that neither glycemic index, altered fat, nor carbohydrate intake can be intrinsic causes of obesity, and that human energy homeostasis functions well without Westernized foods containing flours, sugar, and refined fats. Due to being made up of cells, virtually all “ancestral foods” have markedly lower carbohydrate densities than flour- and sugar-containing foods, a property quite independent of glycemic index. Thus the “forgotten organ” of the gastrointestinal microbiota is a prime candidate to be influenced by evolutionarily unprecedented postprandial luminal carbohydrate concentrations. The present hypothesis suggests that in parallel with the bacterial effects of sugars on dental and periodontal health, acellular flours, sugars, and processed foods produce an inflammatory microbiota via the upper gastrointestinal tract, with fat able to effect a “double hit” by increasing systemic absorption of lipopolysaccharide. This model is consistent with a broad spectrum of reported dietary phenomena. A diet of grain-free whole foods with carbohydrate from cellular tubers, leaves, and fruits may produce a gastrointestinal microbiota consistent with our evolutionary condition

  17. Comparison with ancestral diets suggests dense acellular carbohydrates promote an inflammatory microbiota, and may be the primary dietary cause of leptin resistance and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spreadbury I

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ian SpreadburyGastrointestinal Diseases Research Unit, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: A novel hypothesis of obesity is suggested by consideration of diet-related inflammation and evolutionary medicine. The obese homeostatically guard their elevated weight. In rodent models of high-fat diet-induced obesity, leptin resistance is seen initially at vagal afferents, blunting the actions of satiety mediators, then centrally, with gastrointestinal bacterial-triggered SOCS3 signaling implicated. In humans, dietary fat and fructose elevate systemic lipopolysaccharide, while dietary glucose also strongly activates SOCS3 signaling. Crucially however, in humans, low-carbohydrate diets spontaneously decrease weight in a way that low-fat diets do not. Furthermore, nutrition transition patterns and the health of those still eating diverse ancestral diets with abundant food suggest that neither glycemic index, altered fat, nor carbohydrate intake can be intrinsic causes of obesity, and that human energy homeostasis functions well without Westernized foods containing flours, sugar, and refined fats. Due to being made up of cells, virtually all "ancestral foods" have markedly lower carbohydrate densities than flour- and sugar-containing foods, a property quite independent of glycemic index. Thus the "forgotten organ" of the gastrointestinal microbiota is a prime candidate to be influenced by evolutionarily unprecedented postprandial luminal carbohydrate concentrations. The present hypothesis suggests that in parallel with the bacterial effects of sugars on dental and periodontal health, acellular flours, sugars, and processed foods produce an inflammatory microbiota via the upper gastrointestinal tract, with fat able to effect a "double hit" by increasing systemic absorption of lipopolysaccharide. This model is consistent with a broad spectrum of reported dietary phenomena. A diet of grain-free whole foods with carbohydrate from cellular

  18. Biophysical comparison of ATP-driven proton pumping mechanisms suggests a kinetic advantage for the rotary process depending on coupling ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandakrishnan, Ramu; Zuckerman, Daniel M

    2017-01-01

    ATP-driven proton pumps, which are critical to the operation of a cell, maintain cytosolic and organellar pH levels within a narrow functional range. These pumps employ two very different mechanisms: an elaborate rotary mechanism used by V-ATPase H+ pumps, and a simpler alternating access mechanism used by P-ATPase H+ pumps. Why are two different mechanisms used to perform the same function? Systematic analysis, without parameter fitting, of kinetic models of the rotary, alternating access and other possible mechanisms suggest that, when the ratio of protons transported per ATP hydrolyzed exceeds one, the one-at-a-time proton transport by the rotary mechanism is faster than other possible mechanisms across a wide range of driving conditions. When the ratio is one, there is no intrinsic difference in the free energy landscape between mechanisms, and therefore all mechanisms can exhibit the same kinetic performance. To our knowledge all known rotary pumps have an H+:ATP ratio greater than one, and all known alternating access ATP-driven proton pumps have a ratio of one. Our analysis suggests a possible explanation for this apparent relationship between coupling ratio and mechanism. When the conditions under which the pump must operate permit a coupling ratio greater than one, the rotary mechanism may have been selected for its kinetic advantage. On the other hand, when conditions require a coupling ratio of one or less, the alternating access mechanism may have been selected for other possible advantages resulting from its structural and functional simplicity.

  19. Comparison of staff and family perceptions of causes of noise pollution in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit and suggested intervention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsheen Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise and excessive, unwanted sound in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU is common and has a major impact on patients′ sleep and recovery. Previous research has focused mostly on absolute noise levels or included only staff as respondents to acknowledge the causes of noise and to plan for its reduction. Thus far, the suggested interventions have not ameliorated noise, and it continues to serve as a barrier to recovery. In addition to surveying PICU providers through internet-based software, patients′ families were evaluated through in-person interviews utilizing a pretested instrument over 3 months. Families of patients admitted for more than 24 h were considered eligible for evaluation. Participants were asked to rank causes of noise from 1 to 8, with eight being highest, and identified potential interventions as effective or ineffective. In total, 50 families from 251 admissions and 65 staff completed the survey. Medical alarms were rated highest (mean ± standard deviation [SD], 4.9 ± 2.1 [2.8-7.0], followed by noise from medical equipment (mean ± SD, 4.7 ± 2.1 [2.5-6.8]. This response was consistent among PICU providers and families. Suggested interventions to reduce noise included keeping a patient′s room door closed, considered effective by 93% of respondents (98% of staff; 88% of families, and designated quiet times, considered effective by 82% (80% of staff; 84% of families. Keeping the patient′s door closed was the most effective strategy among survey respondents. Most families and staff considered medical alarms an important contributor to noise level. Because decreasing the volume of alarms such that it cannot be heard is inappropriate, alternative strategies to alert staff of changes in vital signs should be explored.

  20. Influence of crossed electric and quantizing magnetic fields on the Einstein relation in nonlinear optical, optoelectronic and related materials: Simplified theory, relative comparison and suggestion for experimental determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahari, S. [Administration Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Bhattacharya, S. [Nano Scale Device Research Laboratory, Centre for Electronics Design and Technology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); De, D. [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, West Bengal University of Technology, BF 142, Sector I, Kolkata 700 064, West Bengal (India); Adhikari, S.M.; Niyogi, A. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 70009 (India); Dey, A. [Department of Electronics, Kalyani Government of Engineering College, Kalyani, Nadia (India); Paitya, N. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 70009 (India); Saha, S.C. [Department of Electronics, Mallabhum Institute of Technology, Brajaradhanagar, Gosanipur, Bankura (India); Ghatak, K.P., E-mail: kamakhyaghatak@yahoo.co.i [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 70009 (India); Bose, P.K. [National Institute of Technology, Agartala, Jirania, Tripura (West) 799055 (India)

    2010-09-15

    An attempt is made to study the Einstein relation for the diffusivity-to-mobility ratio (DMR) under crossed fields' configuration in nonlinear optical materials on the basis of a newly formulated electron dispersion law by incorporating the crystal field in the Hamiltonian and including the anisotropies of the effective electron mass and the spin-orbit splitting constants within the framework of kp formalisms. The corresponding results for III-V, ternary and quaternary compounds form a special case of our generalized analysis. The DMR has also been investigated for II-VI and stressed materials on the basis of various appropriate dispersion relations. We have considered n-CdGeAs{sub 2}, n-Hg{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}Te, n-In{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}As{sub y}P{sub 1-y} lattice matched to InP, p-CdS and stressed n-InSb materials as examples. The DMR also increases with increasing electric field and the natures of oscillations are totally band structure dependent with different numerical values. It has been observed that the DMR exhibits oscillatory dependences with inverse quantizing magnetic field and carrier degeneracy due to the Subhnikov-de Haas effect. An experimental method of determining the DMR for degenerate materials in the present case has been suggested.

  1. Cysteamine, zinc, and thiols modify detectability of rat pituitary prolactin: a comparison with effects on bovine prolactin suggests differences in hormone storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, L.S.; Lorenson, M.Y.

    1986-03-01

    Little is known about the structure of prolactin (PRL) within secretory granules. Evidence from our previous studies in bovine tissue preparations suggests that control of secretion may reside, in part, in the conversion of storage hormone to releasable PRL. The conversion can be monitored by measuring changes in immunodetectability since the oligomeric, storage form is poorly recognized by antisera raised against monomeric PRL. Since many investigators use rats to study the secretory process and changes in detectability of rat pituitary PRL occur during lactation (depletion-transformation), we undertook the present immunodetectability studies to gain insight into the storage structure of rat (r) PRL. Cysteamine and zinc inhibited tissue PRL immunoassayability in male rat pituitary homogenates and also in partially purified secretory granules as they had inhibited bovine (b) PRL; however, zinc inhibited the rodent hormone less potently than the bovine. In vitro incubation of rat tissue samples without additions resulted in increases in rPRL detectability of up to 84% after 180 minutes; such incubation of bovine samples had no significant effect. A striking additional difference between the species was that exposure to reduced glutathione (GSH), cysteine, homocysteine, mercaptoethanol, and dithiothreitol inhibited rPRL by up to 44%. This compared to thiol stimulation of bPRL by as much as 450%. The inhibitory GSH effect on rPRL was abolished when 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was included; in contrast, the stimulatory GSH effect on bPRL did not change with added SDS. SDS alone had no effect on rat homogenate PRL, and only increased rat granule rPRL by 23% compared to its ability to increase bPRL assayability by 44%.

  2. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  3. Theories of Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W

    1928-02-01

    The word "suggestion" has been used in educational, scientific and medical literature in slightly different senses. In psychological medicine the use of suggestion has developed out of the earlier use of hypnotic influence.Charcot defined hypnosis as an artificial hysteria, Bernheim as an artificially increased suggestibility. The two definitions need to be combined to give an adequate account of hypnosis. Moreover, due allowance should be made for the factors of dissociation and of rapport in hypnotic phenomena.The relationships between dissociation, suggestibility, and hypnotizability.Theories of suggestion propounded by Pierre Janet, Freud, McDougall, Pawlow and others. Ernest Jones's theory of the nature of auto-suggestion. Janet explains suggestion in terms of ideo-motor action in which the suggested idea, because of the inactivity of competing ideas, produces its maximum effect. Freud explains rapport in terms of the sex instinct "inhibited in its aim" (transference) and brings in his distinction of "ego" and "ego-ideal" (or "super-ego") to supplement the theory. Jones explains auto-suggestion in terms of narcissism. McDougall explains hypnotic suggestion in terms of the instinct of self-abasement. But different instincts may supply the driving power to produce suggestion-effects in different circumstances. Such instincts as those of self-preservation (fear) and gregariousness may play their part. Auto-suggestion as a therapeutic factor is badly named. It supplements, but does not supplant the will, and makes complete volition possible.

  4. Suggested safeguards an

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    ... COORDINATION. (FACILITATION OR CASE MANAGEMENT) IN SOUTH AFRICA ... SUGGESTED SAFEGUARDS AND LIMITATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE AND .... professional practice.27 They have to assess the situation; educate the parents.

  5. Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.

    2003-01-01

    Based on arguments of the `reference- dependent' theory of consumer choice we assume that a retailer's discount of a manufacturer's suggested retail price changes consumers' demand. We can show that the producer benefits from suggesting a retail price. If consumers are additionally sufficiently `los

  6. Research Suggestions for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.

    1974-01-01

    Describes how to perform accurate research. Also includes suggestions for specific research projects under such headings as: (1) types; (2) environments; (3) interactions; (4) classification; (5) hexagonal model; and (6) differentiation. (HMV)

  7. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Contributors offer suggestions concerning parents as reading stimulators, book discussions, a test bank for the secondary school/college reading lab, standardized reading tests, television reading, plagiarism, vocabulary development, and book reports. (FL)

  8. Open To Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Suggests class activities in three short articles including: (1) "Students Evaluate Reading," by Lenore Sandel; (2) "Solving Verbal Analogies," by Edward J. Dwyer; and (3) "Becoming Testwise," by Dean Schoen. (RS)

  9. Attitudes to Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PETER; JOHNSON

    2007-01-01

    As an Australian expat teaching English in China for over four years, I often encourage my students to not only learn the English language but also try to understand Western culture. This includes the fact that Westerners frequently initiate proactive suggestions on any aspects of soci-

  10. Suggestions for Teaching Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Na-na

    2013-01-01

    Teacher development and teaching practice(TP) have caught the eyes of researchers at home and abroad for many years. Many western scholars hold that reflective teaching is an efficient way to promote teacher development, but traditional TP is prevailing in China. Based on the merits and demerits of traditional TP and reflective TP, the author hopes to provide some suggestions for the people involved to promote the development of teacher education.

  11. A Comparison of Vanadate to a 2'-5' Linkage at the Active Site of a Small Ribozyme Suggests a Role for Water in Transition-State Stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torelli, A.T.; Krucinska, J.; Wedekind, J.E.

    2009-06-04

    The potential for water to participate in RNA catalyzed reactions has been the topic of several recent studies. Here, we report crystals of a minimal, hinged hairpin ribozyme in complex with the transition-state analog vanadate at 2.05 A resolution. Waters are present in the active site and are discussed in light of existing views of catalytic strategies employed by the hairpin ribozyme. A second structure harboring a 2',5'-phosphodiester linkage at the site of cleavage was also solved at 2.35 A resolution and corroborates the assignment of active site waters in the structure containing vanadate. A comparison of the two structures reveals that the 2',5' structure adopts a conformation that resembles the reaction intermediate in terms of (1) the positioning of its nonbridging oxygens and (2) the covalent attachment of the 2'-O nucleophile with the scissile G+1 phosphorus. The 2',5'-linked structure was then overlaid with scissile bonds of other small ribozymes including the glmS metabolite-sensing riboswitch and the hammerhead ribozyme, and suggests the potential of the 2',5' linkage to elicit a reaction-intermediate conformation without the need to form metalloenzyme complexes. The hairpin ribozyme structures presented here also suggest how water molecules bound at each of the nonbridging oxygens of G+1 may electrostatically stabilize the transition state in a manner that supplements nucleobase functional groups. Such coordination has not been reported for small ribozymes, but is consistent with the structures of protein enzymes. Overall, this work establishes significant parallels between the RNA and protein enzyme worlds.

  12. Comparison of viral Env proteins from acute and chronic infections with subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1 identifies differences in glycosylation and CCR5 utilization and suggests a new strategy for immunogen design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Li-Hua; Joseph, Sarah B; Anderson, Jeffrey A; Abrahams, Melissa-Rose; Salazar-Gonzalez, Jesus F; Kincer, Laura P; Treurnicht, Florette K; Arney, Leslie; Ojeda, Suany; Zhang, Ming; Keys, Jessica; Potter, E Lake; Chu, Haitao; Moore, Penny; Salazar, Maria G; Iyer, Shilpa; Jabara, Cassandra; Kirchherr, Jennifer; Mapanje, Clement; Ngandu, Nobubelo; Seoighe, Cathal; Hoffman, Irving; Gao, Feng; Tang, Yuyang; Labranche, Celia; Lee, Benhur; Saville, Andrew; Vermeulen, Marion; Fiscus, Susan; Morris, Lynn; Karim, Salim Abdool; Haynes, Barton F; Shaw, George M; Korber, Bette T; Hahn, Beatrice H; Cohen, Myron S; Montefiori, David; Williamson, Carolyn; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2013-07-01

    Understanding human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission is central to developing effective prevention strategies, including a vaccine. We compared phenotypic and genetic variation in HIV-1 env genes from subjects in acute/early infection and subjects with chronic infections in the context of subtype C heterosexual transmission. We found that the transmitted viruses all used CCR5 and required high levels of CD4 to infect target cells, suggesting selection for replication in T cells and not macrophages after transmission. In addition, the transmitted viruses were more likely to use a maraviroc-sensitive conformation of CCR5, perhaps identifying a feature of the target T cell. We confirmed an earlier observation that the transmitted viruses were, on average, modestly underglycosylated relative to the viruses from chronically infected subjects. This difference was most pronounced in comparing the viruses in acutely infected men to those in chronically infected women. These features of the transmitted virus point to selective pressures during the transmission event. We did not observe a consistent difference either in heterologous neutralization sensitivity or in sensitivity to soluble CD4 between the two groups, suggesting similar conformations between viruses from acute and chronic infection. However, the presence or absence of glycosylation sites had differential effects on neutralization sensitivity for different antibodies. We suggest that the occasional absence of glycosylation sites encoded in the conserved regions of env, further reduced in transmitted viruses, could expose specific surface structures on the protein as antibody targets.

  13. User Modeling for Contextual Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    per day without charge. Each Yelp search query can return up to 20 results. The results are in JSON ( JavaScript Object Notation) format and contain...RAMA performance on metric P@5. 4.4.1 Comparison with Average Track Median Table 8 compares the two RAMA runs with the Track Median on all three...whereas RUN1 on MRR shows the least improvement (24%). Figure 6. RAMA performance compared with Track Median by User. 4.4.2 Comparison with Track

  14. Comparison of the sequences of the Aspergillus nidulans hxB and Drosophila melanogaster ma-l genes with nifS from Azotobacter vinelandii suggests a mechanism for the insertion of the terminal sulphur atom in the molybdopterin cofactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, L; Primus, J; Glatigny, A; Arcangeli, L; Scazzocchio, C; Finnerty, V

    2000-10-01

    The molybdopterin cofactor (MoCF) is required for the activity of a variety of oxidoreductases. The xanthine oxidase class of molybdoenzymes requires the MoCF to have a terminal, cyanolysable sulphur ligand. In the sulphite oxidase/nitrate reductase class, an oxygen is present in the same position. Mutations in both the ma-l gene of Drosophila melanogaster and the hxB gene of Aspergillus nidulans result in loss of activities of all molybdoenzymes that necessitate a cyanolysable sulphur in the active centre. The ma-l and hxB genes encode highly similar proteins containing domains common to pyridoxal phosphate-dependent cysteine transulphurases, including the cofactor binding site and a conserved cysteine, which is the putative sulphur donor. Key similarities were found with NifS, the enzyme involved in the generation of the iron-sulphur centres in nitrogenase. These similarities suggest an analogous mechanism for the generation of the terminal molybdenum-bound sulphur ligand. We have identified putative homologues of these genes in a variety of organisms, including humans. The human homologue is located in chromosome 18.q12.

  15. Comparison and Suggestion of Public Exposure Limits of Power Frequency Electromagnetic Fields in International Standards%国际标准工频电磁场公众曝露限值比较及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妮; 邬雄; 刘兴发; 路遥

    2013-01-01

    为了促进我国电磁场控制限值国家标准的出台,针对输变电工程的工频电场和磁场,介绍了世界卫生组织推荐的国际非电离辐射防护委员会(ICNIRP)导则和电气与电子工程师学会(IEEE)标准在电磁场基本限值、参考水平以及最大允许曝露等方面的规定和变化,比较分析曝露限值的应用原则、制定依据及防护措施,由此提出对我国电磁场控制限值的具体建议,得到结论:IEEE标准较ICNIRP导则更多地考虑了具体工程环境下的限值处理问题;用参考水平或最大允许曝露来确定是否符合或者超过基本限值;建议国家标准同时采用4kV/m和10kV/m两个电场控制限值,保留100μT作为磁场控制限值.%For the issuance of national standard on control limits of electric and magnetic fields,the regulations and their variations on such aspects as basic restrictions,reference levels and maximum permissible exposure of electric and magnetic fields in the International Commission on NonIonizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines and The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)standard recommended by World Health Organization are introduced as regard to power frequency electric and magnetic fields produced by power transmission and transformation engineering in the paper.Then,application principles,development basis and the corresponding protective measures of these exposure limits are compared,and the detailed suggestions for developing national standard on control limits of electric and magnetic fields are put forward.The conclusions are drawn that the limits under the specific project environment are more considered in IEEE standard than that in ICNIRP guidelines,the reference levels or maximum permissible exposure could be applied to determine whether the basis restrictions are satisfied or not,and the control limits are suggested with both of 4 kV/m and 10 kV/m for electric field,and 100 μT for magnetic

  16. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  17. [Suggestion and hypnosis in hysteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, P

    1995-12-15

    Suggestive influences allow to resolve ambiguities. Normally they are only accepted if they correspond with the knowledge and believes of the subject. Under hypnosis or under the impact of serious psychic perturbations one may take up reality constructions which are not in conformity with these criteria. The restriction of consciousness and the ignoring of certain functions permitting this are the common basis of hypnosis and hysteria. But suggestions do not cause the later; they may only shape the symptomatology. Hypnosis can create a terrain facilitating the resolution of the problems underlying hysteria but it does not represent the treatment of hysteria.

  18. Suggestions on photons and fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Alvargonzalez, R

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we suggest a configuration of photons consistent with a spin $\\hbar$, and a configuration of the fermions coherent with a spin $\\hbar/2$. These suggested configurations open the way to further analyses which lead to the following conclusions: - There cannot exist elementary particles of spin $\\hbar/2$ with a mass inferior to $1m_e$ or with a radius greater than $1l_e$. - The electrostatic force derives from the centrifugal forces inherent to the spin and are propagated by photons. - The derivation of the electrostatic force explains the existence of positive and negative charges and Coulomb's law. - The enormous differences between the centrifugal forces and the centripetal forces at the surface of the protons give rise to quantic fluctuations of space which generate the energy flows necessary for equilibrium. These energy flows can explain gravitation and the strong force. - The mass of the proton, $m_p$, and the mass of the neutron, $m_n$, must each have a concrete value required for the cohes...

  19. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  20. Sending Hidden Data via Google Suggest

    CERN Document Server

    Bialczak, Piotr; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Google Suggest is a service incorporated within Google Web Search which was created to help user find the right search phrase by proposing the autocompleting popular phrases while typing. The paper presents a new network steganography method called StegSuggest which utilizes suggestions generated by Google Suggest as a hidden data carrier. The detailed description of the method's idea is backed up with the analysis of the network traffic generated by the Google Suggest to prove its feasibility. The traffic analysis was also performed to discover the occurrence of two TCP options: Window Scale and Timestamp which StegSuggest uses to operate. Estimation of method steganographic bandwidth proves that it is possible to insert 100 bits of steganogram into every suggestions list sent by Google Suggest service.

  1. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.; Luijten, Harald

    2001-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional

  2. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, Roel W.; Luijten, Harald

    2001-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional sugg

  3. Hypnotizability, not suggestion, influences false memory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasse, Michelle N; Elkins, Gary R; Weaver, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotizability influences the development of false memories. In Experiment 1, participants heard a positive or negative suggestion regarding hypnosis and then listened to 8 Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm lists in a hypnotic state. Neither hypnosis nor prehypnotic suggestion affected memory. Highly hypnotizable participants were more accurate in recall and recognition. In Experiment 2, suggestions were delivered in the form of feedback. Participants heard a positive or negative suggestion about their performance prior to either the encoding or retrieval of 8 DRM lists. Neither accurate nor false memories were affected by the suggestion. Highly hypnotizable individuals recognized fewer critical lures if they received a negative suggestion about their performance. These results highlight the unusual role of hypnotizability in the creation of false memories.

  4. Interrogative suggestibility and perceptual motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1984-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between interrogative suggestibility, as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and Arrow-Dot scores. The tendency of subjects (25 men and 25 women, mean age 30.2 yr.) to alter their answers once interpersonal pressure had been applied correlated significantly with poor Arrow-Dot Ego functioning.

  5. Query term suggestion in academic search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, S.; Sappelli, M.; Kraaij, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate query term suggestion in the context of academic professional search. Our overall goal is to support scientists in their information seeking tasks. We set up an interactive search system in which terms are extracted from clicked documents and suggested to the user before e

  6. Query term suggestion in academic search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, S.; Sappelli, M.; Kraaij, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate query term suggestion in the context of academic professional search. Our overall goal is to support scientists in their information seeking tasks. We set up an interactive search system in which terms are extracted from clicked documents and suggested to the user before

  7. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  8. Suggestions for Preview in Learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Na

    2015-01-01

    Among the factors which affect the efficiency of learning English, preview stands out as an increasingly significant one in English studying.Some constructive suggestions about the preview are given to apply in the preview of English.

  9. FDA Suggests Limits on Lead in Cosmetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162726.html FDA Suggests Limits on Lead in Cosmetics Agency notes ... the authority to enforce such a limit, the FDA recommended in a draft guidance issued Thursday that ...

  10. LSD enhances suggestibility in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, R L; Kaelen, M; Whalley, M G; Bolstridge, M; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J

    2015-02-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has a history of use as a psychotherapeutic aid in the treatment of mood disorders and addiction, and it was also explored as an enhancer of mind control. The present study sought to test the effect of LSD on suggestibility in a modern research study. Ten healthy volunteers were administered with intravenous (i.v.) LSD (40-80 μg) in a within-subject placebo-controlled design. Suggestibility and cued mental imagery were assessed using the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) and a mental imagery test (MIT). CIS and MIT items were split into two versions (A and B), balanced for 'efficacy' (i.e. A ≈ B) and counterbalanced across conditions (i.e. 50 % completed version 'A' under LSD). The MIT and CIS were issued 110 and 140 min, respectively, post-infusion, corresponding with the peak drug effects. Volunteers gave significantly higher ratings for the CIS (p = 0.018), but not the MIT (p = 0.11), after LSD than placebo. The magnitude of suggestibility enhancement under LSD was positively correlated with trait conscientiousness measured at baseline (p = 0.0005). These results imply that the influence of suggestion is enhanced by LSD. Enhanced suggestibility under LSD may have implications for its use as an adjunct to psychotherapy, where suggestibility plays a major role. That cued imagery was unaffected by LSD implies that suggestions must be of a sufficient duration and level of detail to be enhanced by the drug. The results also imply that individuals with high trait conscientiousness are especially sensitive to the suggestibility-enhancing effects of LSD.

  11. The functional anatomy of suggested limb paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Toone, Brian; Bell, Vaughan; Walsh, Eamonn; Marquand, Andre F; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Suggestions of limb paralysis in highly hypnotically suggestible subjects have been employed to successfully model conversion disorders, revealing similar patterns of brain activation associated with attempted movement of the affected limb. However, previous studies differ with regard to the executive regions involved during involuntary inhibition of the affected limb. This difference may have arisen as previous studies did not control for differences in hypnosis depth between conditions and/or include subjective measures to explore the experience of suggested paralysis. In the current study we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the functional anatomy of left and right upper limb movements in eight healthy subjects selected for high hypnotic suggestibility during (i) hypnosis (NORMAL) and (ii) attempted movement following additional left upper limb paralysis suggestions (PARALYSIS). Contrast of left upper limb motor function during NORMAL relative to PARALYSIS conditions revealed greater activation of contralateral M1/S1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, consistent with the engagement of these regions in the completion of movements. By contrast, two significant observations were noted in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions. In conjunction with reports of attempts to move the paralysed limb, greater supplementary motor area (SMA) activation was observed, a finding consistent with the role of SMA in motor intention and planning. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA 24) was also significantly more active in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions - suggesting that ACC (BA 24) may be implicated in involuntary, as well as voluntary inhibition of prepotent motor responses.

  12. Suggestions of keeping L2 motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐斌

    2014-01-01

    How will we keep the motivation during the second language as long as we can, which confuses us, though what the L2 motivation is and how it is developed have been discussed by the psychologists, educators, etc. The aim of this passage is to clarify the basic content of motivation, including the definition, classification, importance, etc. how the current situation is in se-nior high students’English learning motivation, what should be done to keep such motivation. In the following part, it will be read that the introduction, the chapter stating the content and classification of (L 2) motivation, the chapter analyzing the necessity and state of L2 motivation at senor high, the chapter offering approach to keep that motivation, and the conclusion. All of them use the comparison, explanation and cites.

  13. Impulsivity, self-control, and hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, V U; Stelzel, C; Krutiak, H; Prunkl, C E; Steimke, R; Paschke, L M; Kathmann, N; Walter, H

    2013-06-01

    Hypnotic responding might be due to attenuated frontal lobe functioning after the hypnotic induction. Little is known about whether personality traits linked with frontal functioning are associated with responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions. We assessed whether hypnotic suggestibility is related to the traits of self-control and impulsivity in 154 participants who completed the Brief Self-Control Scale, the Self-Regulation Scale, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A). BIS-11 non-planning impulsivity correlated positively with HGSHS:A (Bonferroni-corrected). Furthermore, in the best model emerging from a stepwise multiple regression, both non-planning impulsivity and self-control positively predicted hypnotic suggestibility, and there was an interaction of BIS-11 motor impulsivity with gender. For men only, motor impulsivity tended to predict hypnotic suggestibility. Hypnotic suggestibility is associated with personality traits linked with frontal functioning, and hypnotic responding in men and women might differ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  15. Three Suggestions to Improve Medical English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄佳丽

    2012-01-01

    As a kind of ESP,medical English teaching has an important impact on both English teachers and medical students.A good medical English teaching can help the medical students to improve themselves smoothly and easily in the medical area.In this article,three suggestions were provided for the medical English teachers to improve their English teaching in medical field.

  16. Integrating Composition and Literature: Some Practical Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiker, Donald A.

    This paper suggests that it is possible to construct a course that integrates the teaching of composition with the teaching of literature without allowing the secondary goal of heightened literary understanding to overwhelm the primary goal of improved expository writing. It presents a syllabus for a four-week unit on Ernest Hemingway's "The Sun…

  17. Suggestions on Training MTI Translators and Interpreters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岩

    2013-01-01

    This article gives a brief review of the current state of training MTI translators and interpreters.After analyzing the problems that exist in course of the training,the author,as a student of MTI,puts forth some suggestions to improve the MTI training in colleges and universities to train practical translators and interpreters from the point of view of learning.

  18. Cable Television Report and Suggested Ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of California Cities, Sacramento.

    Guidelines and suggested ordinances for cable television regulation by local governments are comprehensively discussed in this report. The emphasis is placed on franchising the cable operator. Seventeen legal aspects of franchising are reviewed, and an exemplary ordinance is presented. In addition, current statistics about cable franchising in…

  19. BJUT at TREC 2015 Contextual Suggestion Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    of Technology, Beijing 100124, China 2. Beijing Key Laboratory of Trusted Computing, Beijing 100124, China 3. National Engineering Laboratory for...CTISCP, Beijing 100124, China ⇤yangzhen@bjut.edu.cn Abstract In this paper we described our efforts for TREC contextual suggestion task. Our goal of this

  20. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  1. Physics Courses--Some Suggested Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetman, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    To communicate the relevance and excitement of science activity to students, the use of more imaginative, and even openly speculative, case studies in physics courses is suggested. Some useful examples are Magnetic Monopoles, Constants, Black Holes, Antimatter, Zero Mass Particles, Tachyons, and the Bootstrap Hypothesis. (DF)

  2. Overview of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koolen, Marijn; Bogers, Toine; Jaap, Kamps

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the SBS 2016 Suggestion Track is to evaluate approaches for supporting users in searching collections of books who express their information needs both in a query and through example books. The track investigates the complex nature of relevance in book search and the role of traditional...

  3. Studies and Suggestions on Prewriting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao; Dai, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies and suggests the need for writing instruction by which students can experience writing as a creative process in exploring and communicating meaning. The prewriting activities generate ideas which can encourage a free flow of thoughts and help students discover both what they want to say and how to say it on paper. Through the…

  4. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  5. Teaching Software Engineering: Problems and Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Shata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teaching Software Engineering is a challenging task. This paper presents some problems encountered during teaching the course of software engineering to computer science and computer engineering students for few offerings. We present problems encountered and which are related to its title and contents and present suggested solutions.

  6. Simple nonlinear models suggest variable star universality

    CERN Document Server

    Lindner, John F; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G; Ditto, William L

    2015-01-01

    Dramatically improved data from observatories like the CoRoT and Kepler spacecraft have recently facilitated nonlinear time series analysis and phenomenological modeling of variable stars, including the search for strange (aka fractal) or chaotic dynamics. We recently argued [Lindner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 (2015) 054101] that the Kepler data includes "golden" stars, whose luminosities vary quasiperiodically with two frequencies nearly in the golden ratio, and whose secondary frequencies exhibit power-law scaling with exponent near -1.5, suggesting strange nonchaotic dynamics and singular spectra. Here we use a series of phenomenological models to make plausible the connection between golden stars and fractal spectra. We thereby suggest that at least some features of variable star dynamics reflect universal nonlinear phenomena common to even simple systems.

  7. Cajal's brief experimentation with hypnotic suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidou, Maria; Solà, Carme; Kouvelas, Elias; del Cerro, Manuel; Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2007-01-01

    Spanish histologist Santiago Ramón y Cajal, one of the most notable figures in Neuroscience, and winner, along with Camillo Golgi, of the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries on the structure of the nervous system, did not escape experimenting with some of the psychiatric techniques available at the time, mainly hypnotic suggestion, albeit briefly. While a physician in his thirties, Cajal published a short article under the title, "Pains of labour considerably attenuated by hypnotic suggestion" in Gaceta Médica Catalana. That study may be Cajal's only documented case in the field of experimental psychology. We here provide an English translation of the original Spanish text, placing it historically within Cajal's involvement with some of the key scientific and philosophical issues at the time.

  8. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice.

  9. Pyridoxine dependent epilepsy: a suggestive electroclinical pattern

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To determine if there is an electroencephalographic pattern suggestive of pyridoxine dependent epilepsy that could be used to improve the chances of early diagnosis.
METHODS—A retrospective study was made of all the clinical records and electroencephalograms of neonates identified with pyridoxine dependent seizures between 1983 and 1994, at this hospital. Neonates whose seizures began after more than 28 days of life were excluded; in all, five patients from four fami...

  10. Suggestions for Improving Translation Teaching Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋蕾

    2016-01-01

    In the traditional translation teaching mode, the teacher is the main body of classroom, the teachers often explain too much and give few opportunities to students to practice. Even in terms of observation and evaluation of translation, it is also basically teacher-centered, so there is rare opportunity and time for students to debate and to express their own views. So the author gives some suggestions on solving this problem.

  11. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence for the existence of the two factors has been scarce. In the present study, more sophisticated and reliable tools for measuring suggestibility were applied than in the previous research, in the hope that better measurement would reveal the factor structure of suggestibility. Two tests of direct suggestibility were used: the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A, measuring hypnotic susceptibility, and the Barber Suggestibility Scale, measuring non-hypnotic direct imaginative suggestibility. Three tests served to measure indirect suggestibility: the Sensory Suggestibility Scale, measuring indirect suggestibility relating to perception; the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, measuring the tendency to yield to suggestive questions and changing answers after negative feedback; and the Emotional Dialogs Tests, measuring the tendency to perceive nonexistent aggression. Participants and procedure In sum, 115 participants were tested, 69 women, 49 men, mean age 22.20 years, SD = 2.20. Participants were tested in two sessions, lasting for a total of four hours. Results Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the existence of two uncorrelated factors of suggestibility: direct and indirect. Conclusions Suggestibility may indeed involve two factors, direct and indirect, and failure to discover them in previous research may be due to methodological problems.

  12. Didactic Experiments Suggest Enhanced Learning Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pals Svendsen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses a didactic experiment carried out at an MA programme at The Copenhagen Business School. The experiment aimed at encouraging students to take charge of their learning processes via a course programme design that would motivate students to take an active part in choosing...... and presenting material in the language studied, just as they were encouraged to systematically use evaluation processes to enhance learning outcomes. Eventually, increased grade point averages suggested that the experiment was successful. The article also mentions subsequent revisions to the original format...

  13. Suggestions about Taxi Service in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖

    2006-01-01

    @@ No matter what kinds1 of work we are engaged in, we usually play the role of the customers2 in life. Maybe we offer service to our clients, but at the same time, we get service from other people. So, to the society3, it is very important of the level of the service occupations4. In this essay, I want to talk about the service of the taxi in Beijing5. Because there are some problems in this service occupation, I will give three suggestions to these problems6.

  14. Suggestions for Implementing Flipped Classroom in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周婷

    2016-01-01

    Educators in the twenty-first century are constantly adopting new technologies and pedagogies. Flipped Classroom Model is one of the most promising approaches to transforming learning experiences, which has been applied to both K-12 edu-cation and higher education at home and abroad. Influenced by culture and learning styles, the effectiveness and concrete imple-mentation strategies of this teaching model is different in different countries. How to localize the model in China is an important question for educators to think about. The paper makes suggestions for implementing Flipped Classroom in China, aiming at helping teachers to flip their classrooms successfully.

  15. Responding to hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions: performance standards, imaginative suggestibility, and response expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eric C; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the relative impact of hypnotic inductions and several other variables on hypnotic and nonhypnotic responsiveness to imaginative suggestions. The authors examined how imaginative suggestibility, response expectancies, motivation to respond to suggestions, and hypnotist-induced performance standards affected participants' responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions and their suggestion-related experiences. Suggestions were administered to 5 groups of participants using a test-retest design: (a) stringent performance standards; (b) lenient performance standards; (c) hypnosis test-retest; (d) no-hypnosis test-retest; and (e) no-hypnosis/hypnosis control. The authors found no support for the influence of a hypnotic induction or performance standards on responding to suggestions but found considerable support for the role of imaginative suggestibility and response expectancies in predicting responses to both hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestions.

  16. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O. (Harvard-Med); (IIT); (NCSU); (UPENN); (Manchester); (Orthovita)

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  17. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hochhegger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation.

  18. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhegger, Bruno; de Souza, Vinícius Valério Silveira; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Souza Jr., Arthur Soares; Elias Junior, Jorge; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Araujo Neto, César Augusto; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Nin, Carlos Schuler; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation. PMID:26811555

  19. TEACHING READING:PROBLEMS AND SUGGESTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionAmong the four skills,reading has been viewed as the most basic and useful skill for Chinese learners ofEnglish.Many college students will.after leaving their English class,come into contact largely(andsometimes solely)with the written form of the language.Therefore the instruction of reading has becomevery important in English teaching Although great developments have been made both in the linguisticand pragmatic fields of reading analysis.teaching Chinese students the specific skills of reading inEnglish is still a tough problem.Many English teachers have become more and more aware of theChinese students difficulties and more and more aware of how inefficient the traditional approach is inthe design of teaching materials and leaching methods.As a result,this paper is an attempt to analysesome current theoretical achievements and suggest a revised method for teaching Chinese students.

  20. Extant mammal body masses suggest punctuated equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Tiina M; Bokma, Folmer

    2008-01-01

    Is gradual microevolutionary change within species simultaneously the source of macroevolutionary differentiation between species? Since its first publication, Darwin's original idea that phenotypic differences between species develop gradually over time, as the accumulation of small selection-induced changes in successive generations has been challenged by palaeontologists claiming that, instead, new species quickly acquire their phenotypes to remain virtually unchanged until going extinct again. This controversy, widely known as the ‘punctuated equilibrium’ debate, remained unresolved, largely owing to the difficulty of distinguishing biological species from fossil remains. We analysed body masses of 2143 existing mammal species on a phylogeny comprising 4510 (i.e. nearly all) extant species to estimate rates of gradual (anagenetic) and speciational (cladogenetic) evolution. Our Bayesian estimates from mammals as well as separate sub-clades such as primates and carnivores suggest that gradual evolution is responsible for only a small part of body size variation between mammal species. PMID:18595835

  1. Leishmania major: Parasite Interactions Suggesting Sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Maria Auxiliadora de

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In five experiments, Leishmania (Leishmania major (MRHO/SU/59/P-strain grew poorly when seeded in FYTS medium supplemented with 15% fetal calf serum, but presented several peculiar pairs of promastigotes diametrically opposed and attached at their posterior ends (5.8-13.5%. As seen in Giemsa-stained smears, a ring-like line and/or an enlargement, generally occurred at the parasite junction. A close proximity of nuclei, which sometimes were difficult to distinguish from each other, was also observed at this junction. Several of these pairs appeared to be composed of fused cells in which the nuclei could be apparently fused, as shown by fluorescence microscopy to detect ß-tubulin and DNA, and by scanning electron microscopy. Under other culture conditions these pairs were absent or occurred at very low rates (0.2-2.2%. Such pairs differ markedly from longitudinally dividing cells and resemble those described in two other Leishmania species, as well as in Herpetomonas megaseliae and Phytomonas davidi, suggesting steps of a putative sexual process

  2. PROBLEMS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR OFFICE FURNITURE MANUFACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Söğütlü

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the problems encountered in production lines for office furniture manufacturers and gives suggestions to the problems. For this response, a questionnaire was designed and conducted with directors or owners of 50 office furniture manufacturers of small, medium and large scale size enterprises which were randomly selected from different cities. The questionnaire aims to focus on identifying the fundamental obstacles for production, marketing, sales and law. The data from questionnaire was calculated with frequency numbers and percentages for statistical values. In respect to the scope of dependent variables for the study, relationships between the independent variables such as the size of the company scale and Chi Square Single Analysis of Variance (ANOVA were determined. According to the results, 52% of customers constitute owners. The biggest obstacle is the lack of qualified personnel in office furniture production while 46% of customers complain about pour designs. As a result, the study concludes with specific obstacles for logistics (30%, distributions (18%, unpaid bills after delivery (28%, and unconscious of the consumer (24% in the office furniture sector.

  3. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-05-01

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose & gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  4. Tag Correspondence Model for User Tag Suggestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂存超; 刘知远; 孙茂松

    2015-01-01

    Some microblog services encourage users to annotate themselves with multiple tags, indicating their attributes and interests. User tags play an important role for personalized recommendation and information retrieval. In order to better understand the semantics of user tags, we propose Tag Correspondence Model (TCM) to identify complex correspondences of tags from the rich context of microblog users. The correspondence of a tag is referred to as a unique element in the context which is semantically correlated with this tag. In TCM, we divide the context of a microblog user into various sources (such as short messages, user profile, and neighbors). With a collection of users with annotated tags, TCM can automatically learn the correspondences of user tags from multiple sources. With the learned correspondences, we are able to interpret implicit semantics of tags. Moreover, for the users who have not annotated any tags, TCM can suggest tags according to users’ context information. Extensive experiments on a real-world dataset demonstrate that our method can effciently identify correspondences of tags, which may eventually represent semantic meanings of tags.

  5. [Evidence that suggest the reality of reincarnation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, children can be found who reported that they have memories of a previous life. More than 2,500 cases have been studied and their specifications have been published and preserved in the archives of the Division of Perceptual Studies at the University of Virginia (United States). Many of those children come from countries where the majority of the inhabitants believe in reincarnation, but others come from countries with different cultures and religions that reject it. In many cases, the revelations of the children have been verified and have corresponded to a particular individual, already dead. A good number of these children have marks and birth defects corresponding to wounds on the body of his previous personality. Many have behaviors related to their claims to their former life: phobias, philias, and attachments. Others seem to recognize people and places of his supposed previous life, and some of their assertions have been made under controlled conditions. The hypothesis of reincarnation is controversial. We can never say that it does not occur, or will obtain conclusive evidence that it happens. The cases that have been described so far, isolated or combined, do not provide irrefutable proof of reincarnation, but they supply evidence that suggest its reality.

  6. Suggested use of vaccines in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothydev Kesavadev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has emerged as a disease of major public health importance in India affecting the rich and the poor alike. Conventionally, comprehensive diabetes management is aimed at preventing micro and macro vascular complications. However, morbidity and mortality due to infections are also significant. In developing countries like India, the concept of adult immunization is far from reality. Recently the H1N1 pandemic has triggered the necessity for considering immunization in all age groups for the prevention of vaccine-preventable fatal infectious diseases. Considering the economics of immunization in a developing country, providing free vaccines to all adults may not be a practical solution, although the free universal immunization program for children is in existence for several decades. There is no consensus on the use of vaccines in diabetes subjects in India. However, there are some clinics offering routine pneumococcal, influenza and other vaccinations. Patients with diabetes have a deranged immune system making them more prone for infections. Hospitalization and death due to pneumococcal disease and influenza are higher in diabetes patients. They, like other healthy individuals, have a normal humoral response to vaccination with clinically significant benefits. The American Diabetes Association, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, United Kingdom Guidelines and a number of other scientific organizations have well defined guidelines for vaccination in diabetes. In this article we make some suggestions for clinicians in India, regarding use of vaccines in subjects with diabetes.

  7. Employee suggestion programs: the rewards of involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, J M; McKendall, M

    1993-09-01

    Successful ESPs are the products of a great deal of effort by managers, administrators, teams, individuals, and reviewers, who are all striving to achieve the goals of increased profitability and enhanced employee involvement. A review of the literature indicates that there are several prescriptions that will increase the likelihood of a successful ESP (see the box). Today's American business prophets sound ceaseless calls to arms in the name of "world class performance," "global competitiveness," "total quality management," and a variety of other buzz terms. A burgeoning industry has evolved that promises, through speeches, teleconferences, seminars, and consulting contracts, to teach American organizations how to achieve excellence. In the face of a sputtering economy and unrelenting competitive pressure, today's managers must translate these laudatory ideals into hands-on reality without sacrificing the firm's profit margin to experimentation. If any idea can help an organization achieve improvement through a workable program, then that idea and that program deserve real consideration. An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization's employees, and by doing so, reap significant cost savings. Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs. But there is another deeper and longer term benefit inherent in an ESP. These programs allow employees to become involved in their organization; they drive deaccession to lower levels, they give employees more responsibility, they foster creative approaches to work, and they encourage creativity in pursuit of company goals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. An Investigation of a New Social Networks Contact Suggestion Based on Face Recognition Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Zelinka; Petr Saloun; Jakub Stonawski; Adam Ondrejka

    2016-01-01

    Automated comparison of faces in the photographs is a well established discipline. The main aim of this paper is to describe an approach whereby face recognition can be used in suggestion of a new contacts. The new contact suggestion is a common technique used across all main social networks. Our approach uses a freely available face comparison called "Betaface" together with our automated processig of the user´s Facebook profile. The research´s main point of interest is the comparison of fr...

  9. Hepatitis B in Bangladesh: Further Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shafiul Jamal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Iread with great interest Rashid and Rafiq's article published in the spring issue of this journal(1. The authors not only highlighted the shortcomings of the current hepatitis B vaccination strategy in Bangladesh but also prescribed awonderful policy, which is felt to be both costeffective and befitting with the country's existing programme on immunization. To complement thisI would like to add few more points: ||l|| Most neonates mount an immune response, which is believed to be adequate to reduce their risk of perinatal Hepatitis B Virus (HBV acquisition after vaccination(2. Though the pre-term babies (<37 weeks show a slower response than the term (||“||37 weeks babies, immunogenicity, which is inversely proportional to the gestational age, can be improved by increasing the vaccine dosage (2,3. l| Timing first dose of hepatitis B vaccine with BCG probably has a positive interaction: administration of BCG at the time of HBV vaccine priming at birth markedly increases the cytokines as well as ntibody responses to HBV vaccine(4. This astonishing finding might suggest that BCG has a synergistic effect on hepatitis B vaccination. Bangladesh is reported to have a very high (94% coverage of BCG vaccine(5; the uptake of HBV vaccine can be equally improved by timing it with BCG.l| The present infant vaccination policy will leave adolescents unguarded and hence nationwide prevention of the disease will be delayed. A recent survey unveils that available infrastructure in Bangladesh has sufficient spare capacity to sustain storage of an increased quantity of vaccines(5. To make good use of this unused legroom adolescent vaccination should be started along with infant vaccination. Countries such as Spain and Portugal have both neonatal and adolescent vaccination programmes in place, since 1993 and 2000 respectively, and these countries will be able to end the adolescent programme once the first immunised newborn cohort has reached the target age of the

  10. Suggestibility under Pressure: Theory of Mind, Executive Function, and Suggestibility in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, Aryn C.; Scullin, Matthew H.

    2009-01-01

    Eighty preschoolers, ages 3 to 5 years old, completed a 4-phase study in which they experienced a live event and received a pressured, suggestive interview about the event a week later. Children were also administered batteries of theory of mind and executive function tasks, as well as the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC), which…

  11. Are You Suggesting That's My Hand? The Relation Between Hypnotic Suggestibility and the Rubber Hand Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E; Guilmette, D N; Longo, M R; Moore, J W; Oakley, D A; Halligan, P W; Mehta, M A; Deeley, Q

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotic suggestibility (HS) is the ability to respond automatically to suggestions and to experience alterations in perception and behavior. Hypnotically suggestible participants are also better able to focus and sustain their attention on an experimental stimulus. The present study explores the relation between HS and susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion (RHI). Based on previous research with visual illusions, it was predicted that higher HS would lead to a stronger RHI. Two behavioral output measures of the RHI, an implicit (proprioceptive drift) and an explicit (RHI questionnaire) measure, were correlated against HS scores. Hypnotic suggestibility correlated positively with the implicit RHI measure contributing to 30% of the variation. However, there was no relation between HS and the explicit RHI questionnaire measure, or with compliance control items. High hypnotic suggestibility may facilitate, via attentional mechanisms, the multisensory integration of visuoproprioceptive inputs that leads to greater perceptual mislocalization of a participant's hand. These results may provide insight into the multisensory brain mechanisms involved in our sense of embodiment.

  12. THE ROLE OF PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENT (SUGGESTION SYSTEM IN SHAHID FAYAZBAKHSH HOSPITAL EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M MOSADEGH RAD

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The undesirable use of available resources, shortage of resources, and increasing expenses of health care services, demonstrate the need for performing studies on the productivity of health care organizations and implementing the new management techniques in these organizations. Methods: The objective of this research is to investigate the role of participative management (Suggestion system in shahid fayazbakhsh hospital effectiveness and efficiency. The study population composed of all the employees of hospital (869 persons. The data was collected through the distribution of suggestion forms among the employees of the hospital. Results: 1- The percentage of bed occupancy in 2000 has declined by 1.57 % in comparison with of 1999. 2- The average length of patient stay in 2000 has declined by 7.13 % in comparison with of 1999. 3- The bed turnover rate in 2000 has increased by 5.64 % in comparison with of 1999. 4- The bed turnover interval rate in 2000 has declined by 5.56 % in comparison with of 1999. 5- The patient satisfaction rate in 2000 has increased by 11.6 % in comparison with of 1999. Discussion: The application of suggestion system could significantly increase effectiveness and efficiency of hospital performance.

  13. An Investigation of a New Social Networks Contact Suggestion Based on Face Recognition Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Zelinka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated comparison of faces in the photographs is a well established discipline. The main aim of this paper is to describe an approach whereby face recognition can be used in suggestion of a new contacts. The new contact suggestion is a common technique used across all main social networks. Our approach uses a freely available face comparison called "Betaface" together with our automated processig of the user´s Facebook profile. The research´s main point of interest is the comparison of friend´s facial images in a social network itself, how to process such a great amount of photos and what additional sources of data should be used. In this approach we used our automated processing algorithm Betaface in the social network Facebook and for the additional data, the Flickr social network was used. The results and their quality are discussed at the end.

  14. The Journal of Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching. Volume 4, Number 2, Summer 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This issue on suggestive learning contains the following articles: (1) "A Time of Growth," by Kay U. Herr; (2) "Sophrology and Suggestology/Suggestopedia: The Same System with a Different Name?" by W. Jane Bancroft; (3) SALT-Quo Vades or Caveat Emptor," by O. L. Caskey; (4) "A Comparison of Suggestopaedia and…

  15. The Journal of Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching. Volume 4, Number 2, Summer 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This issue on suggestive learning contains the following articles: (1) "A Time of Growth," by Kay U. Herr; (2) "Sophrology and Suggestology/Suggestopedia: The Same System with a Different Name?" by W. Jane Bancroft; (3) SALT-Quo Vades or Caveat Emptor," by O. L. Caskey; (4) "A Comparison of Suggestopaedia and Conventional Learning Methods," by…

  16. The Western Tradition of Suggestion and Lozanov's Suggestology/Suggestopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    It is argued that while Georgi Lozanov's suggestology and suggestopedic methods are informed by work in the field of suggestion in the former Soviet bloc, his work has also been influenced by work on suggestion in the west, particularly in France, where suggestion is a more controversial technique. For Lozanov, suggestion is a normal phenomenon…

  17. On the Effects of Suggested Prices in Gasoline Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Faber (Riemer); M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article analyzes the role of suggested prices in the Dutch retail market for gasoline. Suggested prices are announced by large oil companies with the suggestion that retailers follow them. There are at least two competing rationales for the existence of suggested prices: they may ei

  18. EUROMET SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON - SURFACE TEXTURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koenders, L.; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    At the length meeting in Prague in Oct. 1999 a new comparison was suggested on surface texture. The last comparison on this field was finished in 1989. In the meantime the instrumentation, the standards and the written standards have been improved including some software filters. The pilot...... laboratories for this supplementary comparison on surface texture are the Centre for Geometrical Metrology at the Technical University of Denmark and the Micro- and Nanotopography laboratory at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany....

  19. [Individual difference in making temporal comparisons: development of Temporal Comparison Orientation Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namikawa, Tsutomu

    2011-02-01

    This study developed the Temporal Comparison Orientation Scale and investigated its reliability and validity. Study 1 (N = 481) examined the factor structure and correlations with other related scales (self-consciousness scale; revaluation tendency scale; self-esteem scale; depression scale; social comparison orientation scale). The results suggested that the Temporal Comparison Orientation Scale had good reliability and validity. Study 2 examined the relationship between temporal comparison orientation and affect generated by temporal comparisons. The results showed that individuals high in temporal comparison orientation experienced more negative affect after upward and downward comparisons than individuals low in temporal comparison orientation. The possible uses and limitations of the scale were discussed.

  20. Disorganized Cortical Patches Suggest Prenatal Origin of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Disorganized cortical patches suggest prenatal origin of autism NIH-funded study shows disrupted cell layering process ... study suggests that brain irregularities in children with autism can be traced back to prenatal development. “While ...

  1. Pregnancy Problems More Likely with Baby Boys, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160159.html Pregnancy Problems More Likely With Baby Boys, Study Suggests Gender-related differences seem to start ... are more likely when women are carrying baby boys, new research suggests. After analyzing more than half ...

  2. 32 CFR 1901.04 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pre-paid, customer satisfaction survey cards. Letters of suggestion or complaint should identify the... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1901.04 Section 1901... RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 General § 1901.04 Suggestions and complaints. The Agency...

  3. Valence, Implicated Actor, and Children's Acquiescence to False Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Kyndra C; Quas, Jodi A; Lyon, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Although adverse effects of suggestive interviewing on children's accuracy are well documented, it remains unclear as to whether these effects vary depending on the valence of and the actor implicated in suggestions. In this study, 124 3-8-year-olds participated in a classroom activity and were later questioned about positive and negative false details. The interviewer provided positive reinforcement when children acquiesced to suggestions and negative feedback when they did not. Following reinforcement or feedback, young children were comparably suggestible for positive and negative details. With age, resistance to suggestions about negative details emerged first, followed by resistance to suggestions about positive details. Across age, more negative feedback was required to induce acquiescence to negative than positive false details. Finally, children were less willing to acquiesce when they (versus the confederate) were implicated. Findings highlight the interactive effects of valence and children's age on their eyewitness performance in suggestive contexts.

  4. An effective suggestion method for keyword search of databases

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Hai

    2016-09-09

    This paper solves the problem of providing high-quality suggestions for user keyword queries over databases. With the assumption that the returned suggestions are independent, existing query suggestion methods over databases score candidate suggestions individually and return the top-k best of them. However, the top-k suggestions have high redundancy with respect to the topics. To provide informative suggestions, the returned k suggestions are expected to be diverse, i.e., maximizing the relevance to the user query and the diversity with respect to topics that the user might be interested in simultaneously. In this paper, an objective function considering both factors is defined for evaluating a suggestion set. We show that maximizing the objective function is a submodular function maximization problem subject to n matroid constraints, which is an NP-hard problem. An greedy approximate algorithm with an approximation ratio O((Formula presented.)) is also proposed. Experimental results show that our suggestion outperforms other methods on providing relevant and diverse suggestions. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  5. Metacognition of agency is reduced in high hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin B; Hedman, Love R A

    2017-11-01

    A disruption in the sense of agency is the primary phenomenological feature of response to hypnotic suggestions but its cognitive basis remains elusive. Here we tested the proposal that distorted volition during response to suggestions arises from poor metacognition pertaining to the sources of one's control. Highly suggestible and control participants completed a motor task in which performance was reduced through surreptitious manipulations of cursor lag and stimuli speed. Highly suggestible participants did not differ from controls in performance or metacognition of performance, but their sense of agency was less sensitive to cursor lag manipulations, suggesting reduced awareness that their control was being manipulated. These results indicate that highly suggestible individuals have aberrant metacognition of agency and may be a valuable population for studying distortions in the sense of agency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Autonomic responses to suggestions for cold and warmth in hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, A; Mariauzouls, C; Wyler, F; Bircher, A J; Wyler-Harper, J

    1999-02-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate whether suggestions for cold or warmth during hypnosis affect fingertip skin temperature. Hypnosis without specific suggestions for cold or warmth ('neutral hypnosis') caused a drop in respiration frequency, however, pulse rate, fingertip skin temperature, and electrodermal activity were not affected. The cold and warmth suggestions decreased and increased fingertip skin temperature, respectively. Compared with the neutral trance phase, the other three autonomic variables measured were also affected by suggestions for cold. However, there was no association between the changes in autonomic variables induced by suggestions and hypnotizability scores measured by the 'Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale for Adults'. Fingertip skin temperature was mostly affected when the images used for the cold and warmth suggestions during hypnosis included experiences of physical temperature and psychological stress or relaxation, indicating that the psychological content of the imagery amplified the autonomic response.

  7. Therapeutic suggestion has no effect on postoperative morphine requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Laan, W.; Leeuwen, B. van; Sebel, P.; Winograd, E; Baumann, P.; Bonke, Benno

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis study was designed to confirm the effect of therapeutic intraoperative auditory suggestion on recovery from anesthesia, to establish the effect of preoperative suggestion, and to assess implicit memory for intraoperative information using an indirect memory task. Sixty consenting unpremedicated patients scheduled for elective gynecologic surgery were randomly divided into three equal groups: Group 1 received a tape of therapeutic suggestions preoperatively and the story of Ro...

  8. Moral Education in the Schools. Some Practical Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Clive

    This document contains practical suggestions for moral education which, although tentative, are based to a considerable extent on classroom experimentation. There are three main sections. The first suggests a series of mini-courses to be incorporated in the school curriculum. It deals with personal and social values in general, human relations,…

  9. Students' Suggestions for Eliminating Bullying at a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriläinen, Matti; Puhakka, Helena; Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija

    2015-01-01

    Students' suggestions for how to eliminate bullying at universities were gathered as part of an e-questionnaire sent to each university student (N = 10,551) at a Finnish university. The suggestions (n = 2804) regarding how to address bullying at universities were divided into the following four classes: support (944), punishment (78), support and…

  10. Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching in Foreign Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Kay U.

    The suggestive-accelerative approach to foreign language instruction is described. This method, first used in Bulgaria by Georgi Lozanov, emphasizes bringing the imagination to bear on the learning task, in a relaxed classroom environment. After establishing a calm atmosphere through direct and indirect suggestion, the teacher proceeds to…

  11. Theory-of-Mind Development Influences Suggestibility and Source Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher; Wright, Daniel B.

    2008-01-01

    According to the mental-state reasoning model of suggestibility, 2 components of theory of mind mediate reductions in suggestibility across the preschool years. The authors examined whether theory-of-mind performance may be legitimately separated into 2 components and explored the memory processes underlying the associations between theory of mind…

  12. Exploration of Opinion-aware Approach to Contextual Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE NOV 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...suggestion are crawled. Approximately 60,442 candidate sug- gestions are crawled for all contexts, resulting in average 1208 candidate suggestions per

  13. Therapeutic suggestion has no effect on postoperative morphine requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van der Laan (W.); B.L. van Leeuwen (B.); P.S. Sebel (P.); E. Winograd (E.); P. Baumann (P.); B. Bonke (Benno)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis study was designed to confirm the effect of therapeutic intraoperative auditory suggestion on recovery from anesthesia, to establish the effect of preoperative suggestion, and to assess implicit memory for intraoperative information using an indirect memory task. Sixty consenting

  14. Enhancing business intelligence by means of suggestive reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Atika; Raj, Ram Gopal; Tahir, Muhammad; Cambria, Erik; Syed, Karim Bux Shah

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons.

  15. Enhancing Business Intelligence by Means of Suggestive Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Atika

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons. PMID:25054188

  16. Enhancing Business Intelligence by Means of Suggestive Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atika Qazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers’ choices and designers’ understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1 classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2 categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3 perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons.

  17. NADAC Comparison

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NADAC Weekly Comparison identifies the drug products with current NADAC rates that are replaced with new NADAC rates. Other changes (e.g. NDC additions and...

  18. Using suggestion to model different types of automatic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, E; Mehta, M A; Oakley, D A; Guilmette, D N; Gabay, A; Halligan, P W; Deeley, Q

    2014-05-01

    Our sense of self includes awareness of our thoughts and movements, and our control over them. This feeling can be altered or lost in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in phenomena such as "automatic writing" whereby writing is attributed to an external source. Here, we employed suggestion in highly hypnotically suggestible participants to model various experiences of automatic writing during a sentence completion task. Results showed that the induction of hypnosis, without additional suggestion, was associated with a small but significant reduction of control, ownership, and awareness for writing. Targeted suggestions produced a double dissociation between thought and movement components of writing, for both feelings of control and ownership, and additionally, reduced awareness of writing. Overall, suggestion produced selective alterations in the control, ownership, and awareness of thought and motor components of writing, thus enabling key aspects of automatic writing, observed across different clinical and cultural settings, to be modelled.

  19. Mechanisms of eyewitness suggestibility: tests of the explanatory role hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindal, Eric J; Chrobak, Quin M; Zaragoza, Maria S; Weihing, Caitlin A

    2017-02-07

    In a recent paper, Chrobak and Zaragoza (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3), 827-844, 2013) proposed the explanatory role hypothesis, which posits that the likelihood of developing false memories for post-event suggestions is a function of the explanatory function the suggestion serves. In support of this hypothesis, they provided evidence that participant-witnesses were especially likely to develop false memories for their forced fabrications when their fabrications helped to explain outcomes they had witnessed. In three experiments, we test the generality of the explanatory role hypothesis as a mechanism of eyewitness suggestibility by assessing whether this hypothesis can predict suggestibility errors in (a) situations where the post-event suggestions are provided by the experimenter (as opposed to fabricated by the participant), and (b) across a variety of memory measures and measures of recollective experience. In support of the explanatory role hypothesis, participants were more likely to subsequently freely report (E1) and recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (E2, source test) when the post-event suggestion helped to provide a causal explanation for a witnessed outcome than when it did not serve this explanatory role. Participants were also less likely to recollect the suggestions as part of the witnessed event (on measures of subjective experience) when their explanatory strength had been reduced by the presence of an alternative explanation that could explain the same outcome (E3, source test + warning). Collectively, the results provide strong evidence that the search for explanatory coherence influences people's tendency to misremember witnessing events that were only suggested to them.

  20. Suggestion and veridicality in the reconstruction of sexual trauma, or can a bait of suggestion catch a carp of falsehood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, M I

    1996-01-01

    Freud used the term suggestion in psychoanalysis in different ways, including suggestion as an integral part of the transference and suggestion in the sense of undue influence or technical error. This distinction can be expressed in terms of the patient's suggestibility (capacity for transference) and the analyst's unwarranted suggestion or persuasion representing countertransference, theoretical bias, or a departure from technical neutrality. Whether suggestion is explicit or implicit, the effects of suggestion and suggestibility may be mutual and reciprocal. To the extent that a psychoanalyst maintains the goal of technical neutrality, undue suggestion is likely to be minimal. To the extent that it occurs for transferential or countertransferential reasons, suggestion may itself be analyzed. Problems of suggestion are more likely to occur and persist when they are part of the analyst's theoretical orientation, influencing the course of the analysis and expressing compromise formations for both patient and analyst. At times, even tentatively stated words or unintended behaviors of the analyst can have a dynamic impact that may not be readily analyzed. The analytic situation itself may have retrospective (nachträglich) action. A previously published case is described in which an apparent enactment led the analyst to urge a reconstruction of sexual abuse even though the patient never actually recalled what was presumed to have been fellatio. The need for technical neutrality and alternative reconstructions in such cases is considered. The degree to which the personality and goals of the analyst influence the course of reconstruction remains a vexing issue for psychoanalysis as a scientific endeavor. There is a need for detailed analytic case studies in which alternative reconstructions can be compared by investigating opportunities for external confirmation or falsification.

  1. Eye Problems May Be Tied to Zika, Lab Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 165947.html Eye Problems May Be Tied to Zika, Lab Study Suggests Work with monkeys indicates birth ... 25, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists exploring how the Zika virus passes from pregnant monkeys to their fetuses ...

  2. Review Suggests Safe, Effective Ways to Relieve Pain Without Meds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160744.html Review Suggests Safe, Effective Ways to Relieve Pain Without ... appear to be effective, according to a new review. Millions of Americans seek pain relief through such ...

  3. Lifelong learning in aviation and medicine; Comments and suggestions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, Els

    2011-01-01

    Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2010, 25-27 August). Lifelong learning in aviation and medicine; Comments and suggestions. Discussion at the 5th EARLI-SIG14 Learning and Professional Development, Munich, Germany.

  4. Belief in the paranormal and suggestion in the seance room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Richard; Greening, Emma; Smith, Matthew

    2003-08-01

    In Experiment 1, participants took part in a fake seance. An actor suggested that a table was levitating when, in fact, it remained stationary. After the seance, approximately one third of participants incorrectly reported that the table had moved. Results also showed a significant relationship between the reported movement of the table and belief in the paranormal, with a greater percentage of believers than disbelievers, reporting that the table had moved. Experiment 2 varied whether the suggestion was consistent, or inconsistent, with participants' belief in the paranormal. Results again showed that believers were more susceptible to suggestion than disbelievers, but only when the suggestion was consistent with their belief in the paranormal. Approximately one fifth of participants believed that the fake seances contained genuine paranormal phenomena.

  5. Using Neurolinguistic Programming: Some Suggestions for the Remedial Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Grace M.

    1986-01-01

    The use of neurolinguistic programming techniques is suggested as a means of enhancing rapport with students. Mirroring, digital mirroring, analog mirroring, metaphors, knowing persons, and how these aid in presenting content are each discussed. (MNS)

  6. Molecular Dynamic Screening Sesquiterpenoid Pogostemon Herba as Suggested Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharjo, Sentot Joko; Kikuchi, Takeshi

    2016-10-01

    Virtual molecular dynamic sesquiterpenoid Pogostemon Herba (CID56928117, CID94275, CID107152, and CID519743) have screening as cyclooxygenase (COX-1/COX-2) selective inhibitor. Molecular interaction studies sesquiterpenoid compounds with COX-1 and COX-2 were using the molecular docking tools by Hex 8.0 and interactions were further visualized using by Discovery Studio Client 3.5 software tool and Virtual Molecular Dynamic 1.9.1 software. The binding energy calculation of molecular dynamic interaction was calculated by AMBER12 software. The analysis of the sesquiterpenoid compounds showed that CID56928117, CID94275, CID107152, and CID519743 have suggested as inhibitor of COX-1 and COX-2. Collectively, the scoring binding energy calculation (with PBSA Model Solvent) sesquiterpenoid compounds: CID519743 had suggested as candidate for non-selective inhibitor; CID56928117 and CID94275 had suggested as candidate for a selective COX-1 inhibitor; and CID107152 had suggested as candidate for a selective COX-2 inhibitor.

  7. Regulating professional behavior: codes of ethics or law? Suggested criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, Liron A

    2013-09-01

    This paper suggests considering a few parameters when making policy decisions as to the proper "tool" to regulate professional behavior: law or professional ethics. This is done on the background of understanding the place of codes of professional ethics between "pure" ethics and law. Suggested criteria are then illustrated using a few examples. Further discourse may reveal additional factors to support a more rational process of decision-making in this field.

  8. [A technical suggestion for laboratory tests in cases of rape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio Pellacchio, M C; Celli, R

    1994-01-01

    The paper suggests completing the clinical tests carried out in cases of rape by collecting material not only from the fornix of the vagina but also from the cervical canal using cotton-wool buds, and examining any spermatozoa adhering to the cotton filaments by staining with Baecchi's method. Alternatively, the paper suggests carrying out these tests in anticipation of their possible use as forensic evidence if requested by the court.

  9. Highlighting Impact and the Impact of Highlighting: PRB Editors' Suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis

    2016-01-01

    Associate Editor Manolis Antonoyiannakis discusses the highlighting, as Editors' Suggestions, of a small percentage of the papers published each week. We highlight papers primarily for their importance and impact in their respective fields, or because we find them particularly interesting or elegant. It turns out that the additional layer of scrutiny involved in the selection of papers as Editors' Suggestions is associated with a significantly elevated and sustained citation impact.

  10. Effect of preoperative suggestion on postoperative gastrointestinal motility.

    OpenAIRE

    Disbrow, E A; Bennett, H L; Owings, J T

    1993-01-01

    Autonomic behavior is subject to direct suggestion. We found that patients undergoing major operations benefit more from instruction than from information and reassurance. We compared the return of intestinal function after intra-abdominal operations in 2 groups of patients: the suggestion group received specific instructions for the early return of gastrointestinal motility, and the control group received an equal-length interview offering reassurance and nonspecific instructions. The sugges...

  11. Genome-wide analyses of recombination suggest that Giardia intestinalis assemblages represent different species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feifei; Jerlström-Hultqvist, Jon; Andersson, Jan O

    2012-10-01

    Giardia intestinalis is a major cause of waterborne enteric disease in humans. The species is divided into eight assemblages suggested to represent separate Giardia species based on host specificities and the genetic divergence of marker genes. We have investigated whether genome-wide recombination occurs between assemblages using the three available G. intestinalis genomes. First, the relative nonsynonymous substitution rates of the homologs were compared for 4,009 positional homologs. The vast majority of these comparisons indicate genetic isolation without interassemblage recombinations. Only a region of 6 kbp suggests genetic exchange between assemblages A and E, followed by gene conversion events. Second, recombination-detecting software fails to identify within-gene recombination between the different assemblages for most of the homologs. Our results indicate very low frequency of recombination between the syntenic core genes, suggesting that G. intestinalis assemblages are genetically isolated lineages and thus should be viewed as separated Giardia species.

  12. CALIPSO climatological products: evaluation and suggestions from EARLINET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Mona, Lucia; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Amiridis, Vassilis; Baars, Holger; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Bortoli, Daniele; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Giunta, Aldo; Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; Schwarz, Anja; Pereira, Sergio; Spinelli, Nicola; Wandinger, Ulla; Wang, Xuan; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-02-01

    The CALIPSO Level 3 (CL3) product is the most recent data set produced by the observations of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument onboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) space platform. The European Aerosol Research Lidar Network (EARLINET), based mainly on multi-wavelength Raman lidar systems, is the most appropriate ground-based reference for CALIPSO calibration/validation studies on a continental scale. In this work, CALIPSO data are compared against EARLINET monthly averaged profiles obtained by measurements performed during CALIPSO overpasses. In order to mitigate uncertainties due to spatial and temporal differences, we reproduce a modified version of CL3 data starting from CALIPSO Level 2 (CL2) data. The spatial resolution is finer and nearly 2° × 2° (latitude × longitude) and only simultaneous measurements are used for ease of comparison. The CALIPSO monthly mean profiles following this approach are called CALIPSO Level 3*, CL3*. We find good agreement on the aerosol extinction coefficient, yet in most of the cases a small CALIPSO underestimation is observed with an average bias of 0.02 km-1 up to 4 km and 0.003 km-1 higher above. In contrast to CL3 standard product, the CL3* data set offers the possibility to assess the CALIPSO performance also in terms of the particle backscatter coefficient keeping the same quality assurance criteria applied to extinction profiles. The mean relative difference in the comparison improved from 25 % for extinction to 18 % for backscatter, showing better performances of CALIPSO backscatter retrievals. Additionally, the aerosol typing comparison yielded a robust identification of dust and polluted dust. Moreover, the CALIPSO aerosol-type-dependent lidar ratio selection is assessed by means of EARLINET observations, so as to investigate the performance of the extinction retrievals. The aerosol types of dust, polluted dust, and clean continental

  13. Suggestions on Writing for Publication in Language Learning Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Jacobs

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides suggestions on writing for journals in the field of language learning. These suggestions are presented in three sections. The first section discusses how to begin. Suggestions in this section are that we appreciate the benefits of writing for publication, develop good ideas, work efficiently, ponder options as to what type of writing to do, choose a good topic, consider replication of other's research, and cooperate with others. The second section presents suggestions on doing the actual writing. Here, it is suggested that we connect ideas, delve deeply into the ideas we present, strive to write the reader friendly manner, use visuals, and improve our writing by noticing how other journal authors write. The third section concerns relations with editors. The advice given is that we choose carefully the journal to which we submit our work, follow that journal's directions to contributors, include a cover letter, be prepared to wait patiently, welcome critical feedback from editors and reviewers, and view editors as colleagues.

  14. Hypnosis, hypnotic suggestibility, memory, and involvement in films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Reed; Lynn, Steven Jay; Condon, Liam

    2015-05-01

    Our research extends studies that have examined the relation between hypnotic suggestibility and experiential involvement and the role of an hypnotic induction in enhancing experiential involvement (e.g., absorption) in engaging tasks. Researchers have reported increased involvement in reading (Baum & Lynn, 1981) and music-listening (Snodgrass & Lynn, 1989) tasks during hypnosis. We predicted a similar effect for film viewing: greater experiential involvement in an emotional (The Champ) versus a non-emotional (Scenes of Toronto) film. We tested 121 participants who completed measures of absorption and trait dissociation and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and then viewed the two films after either an hypnotic induction or a non-hypnotic task (i.e., anagrams). Experiential involvement varied as a function of hypnotic suggestibility and film clip. Highly suggestible participants reported more state depersonalization than less suggestible participants, and depersonalization was associated with negative affect; however, we observed no significant correlation between hypnotic suggestibility and trait dissociation. Although hypnosis had no effect on memory commission or omission errors, contrary to the hypothesis that hypnosis facilitates absorption in emotionally engaging tasks, the emotional film was associated with more commission and omission errors compared with the non-emotional film. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute skin reaction suggestive of pembrolizumab-induced radiosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibaud, Vincent; David, Isabelle; Lamant, Laurence; Resseguier, Sarah; Radut, Roxana; Attal, Justine; Meyer, Nicolas; Delord, Jean-Pierre

    2015-12-01

    The combination of localized radiotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors represents a promising therapeutic strategy for various cancers, including metastatic melanoma. Radiation therapy may enhance tumor antigen presentation and cytokine release, which may optimize the systemic antitumor immune response induced by these immunotherapeutic antibodies, with a potential delayed abscopal effect. However, clinical experience of using immune checkpoint inhibitors with concurrent radiotherapy remains scarce. We report here for the first time a case suggestive of acute skin radiosensitization induced by pembrolizumab, with a suggestive time relationship between the completion of ionizing radiation, drug administration, and rapid onset of the skin reaction. This suggests that radiation therapy may also interact rapidly with anti-programmed-death 1 antibodies. Therefore, caution should be exercised when prescribing this combination therapy in advanced cancers.

  16. Suggested Interactivity: Seeking Perceived Affordances for Information Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Jeremy; Eveillard, Louis; Detienne, Françoise; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate methods for suggesting the interactivity of online visualizations embedded with text. We first assess the need for such methods by conducting three initial experiments on Amazon's Mechanical Turk. We then present a design space for Suggested Interactivity (i. e., visual cues used as perceived affordances-SI), based on a survey of 382 HTML5 and visualization websites. Finally, we assess the effectiveness of three SI cues we designed for suggesting the interactivity of bar charts embedded with text. Our results show that only one cue (SI3) was successful in inciting participants to interact with the visualizations, and we hypothesize this is because this particular cue provided feedforward.

  17. Feasibility of Music and Hypnotic Suggestion to Manage Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alisa J; Kekecs, Zoltan; Roberts, R Lynae; Gavin, Russell; Brown, Kathleen; Elkins, Gary R

    2017-01-01

    The authors investigated the feasibility and possible effects of hypnotic suggestion and music for chronic pain. Ten people completed the 2-week intervention that consisted of daily listening to hypnotic suggestions combined with music. Averaged subjective pain intensity, pain bothersomeness, overall distress, anxiety, and depression decreased from baseline to endpoint. Participants rated pre- and postlistening pain intensity and pain bothersomeness decreased for each session. Information provided during end-of-study interviews indicated all participants were satisfied with treatment and felt they benefited from being in the study. Means and standard deviations are reported for outcome measures and a case study is provided. This preliminary study supports the use of a combined hypnotic suggestion and music intervention for chronic pain.

  18. Therapeutic suggestion has not effect on postoperative morphine requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, W H; van Leeuwen, B L; Sebel, P S; Winograd, E; Baumann, P; Bonke, B

    1996-01-01

    This study was designed to confirm the effect of therapeutic intraoperative auditory suggestion on recovery from anesthesia, to establish the effect of preoperative suggestion, and to assess implicit memory for intraoperative information using an indirect memory task. Sixty consenting unpremedicated patients scheduled for elective gynecologic surgery were randomly divided into three equal groups: Group 1 received a tape of therapeutic suggestions preoperatively, and the story of Robinson Crusoe intraoperatively; Group 2 heard the story of Peter Pan preoperatively and therapeutic suggestions intraoperatively; Group 3 heard the Crusoe story preoperatively and the Peter Pan story intraoperatively. A standardized anesthetic technique was used with fentanyl, propofol, isoflurane, and nitrous oxide. After surgery, all patients received patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with a standardized regimen. In the 24 h postsurgery, morphine use was recorded every 6 h and at 24 h an indirect memory test (free association) was used to test for memory of the stories. Anxiety scores were measured before surgery and at 6 and 24 h postsurgery. There were no significant differences between groups for postoperative morphine use, pain or nausea scores, anxiety scores, or days spent in hospital after surgery. Seven of 20 patients who heard the Pan story intraoperative gave a positive association with the word "Hook," whereas 2 of 20 who did not hear the story gave such an association. Indirect memory for the Pan story was established using confidence interval (CI) analysis. (The 95% CI for difference in proportion did not include zero). No indirect memory for the Crusoe story could be demonstrated. This study did not confirm previous work which suggested that positive therapeutic auditory suggestions, played intraoperatively, reduced PCA morphine requirements. In contrast, a positive implicit memory effect was found for a story presented intraoperatively.

  19. Children's suggestibility research: Things to know before interviewing a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Courtney Hritz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children's testimony is often the only evidence of alleged abuse. Thus, the importance of conducting forensic interviews that are free from bias and misleading information is immense, as these could lead to false reports. In the current paper, we review unexpected findings in children's suggestibility that illustrate the difficulty in distinguishing between false and accurate reports. We explore situations in which a younger person's memory account may be more accurate than that of an adult, when a single suggestive interview may be as detrimental as multiple interviews, and when children can make inaccurate reports spontaneously. We conclude with recommendations for interviewers to decrease false reporting by both children and adults.

  20. [Use of subconscious and conscious suggestions combined with music as a relaxation technic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloult, L; Borgeat, F; Elie, R

    1988-11-01

    A radio experiment carried out over many years, added to previous clinical tests, has shown a sustained interest of the people for using preconscious (subliminal) suggestions combined with soothing music, as a relaxation technique. The purpose of this study was to compare systematically some combinations with their own components, i.e. the suggestions alone or the music alone. Moreover, drawing inspiration from the works of a Bulgarian psychiatrist, Georgi Lozanov, there were comparisons made of the efficacy of three types of combinations whether they included different kinds of suggestions: preconscious, close to the level of consciousness or conscious. Thirty-five (35) persons were subjected to tests in five experimental sessions, (music alone, three suggestion-music combinations, and suggestions alone), according to a latin-square design (5 x 5). Physiologic and psychologic measurements were used. The physiologic measurements did not show any significant difference between the various treatments. On the other hand, the psychologic measurements favoured the combinations rather than their components alone and specially the combination where suggestions were of an intensity close to the level of consciousness.

  1. Primary graft dysfunction; possible evaluation by high resolution computed tomography, and suggestions for a scoring system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmaati, Esther; Jensen, Claus; Kofoed, Klaus F

    2009-01-01

    /exclusion criteria of patients, pilot testing, and training investigators through review of disagreements, were possibilities suggested for decreasing inter/intra observer variability. Factors affecting the image attenuation (Hounsfield numbers) and thus, the reproducibility of CT densitometric measurements were...... of minimal influence. Studies have reported on how lung tissue images, derived by HRCT, can be scored and graded. There does not seem to be a golden standard for evaluating these images, which makes comparison between methods challenging. These scoring systems assess the presence, severity, and extent...

  2. Social Class and Diagnostic Suggestion as Variables in Clinical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nardo, Peter A.

    1975-01-01

    Sixty graduate students in clinical psychology made diagnostic assessments of one of two staged interviews identical in content but enacted to convey either a middle- or lower-class impression. The results indicate the existence of a class bias and suggest a status differential between psychologists and psychiatrists. (Author)

  3. Technological Specialisation Courses in Portugal: Description and Suggested Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Nilza Maria Vilhena Nunes; Simoes, Ana Raquel; Pereira, Giselia Antunes; Pombo, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    This study is a part of the "Post-secondary Vocational Training in Portugal Project: from a description through to suggestions to improve training quality", which ran from 2003 to 2006. This article, which makes use of data obtained from interviews with Directors of Schools which offer technological specialisation courses (CETs) and from…

  4. Studies and Suggestions on English Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao

    2012-01-01

    To improve vocabulary learning and teaching in ELT settings, two questionnaires are designed and directed to more than 100 students and teachers in one of China's key universities. The findings suggest that an enhanced awareness of cultural difference, metaphorical competence, and learners' autonomy in vocabulary acquisition will effectively…

  5. An Instructional Method Suggestion: Conveying Stories through Origami (Storigami)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Aysegul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate how to convey stories through origami and suggest its use in education with the help of pre-service elementary teachers' opinions. The participants of the study were 103 elementary teacher candidates from a state university in the 2014-2015 academic year. In this qualitative study, the data were collected…

  6. Molecular Dynamic Screening Sesquiterpenoid Pogostemon Herba as Suggested Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharjo, Sentot Joko; Kikuchi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Virtual molecular dynamic sesquiterpenoid Pogostemon Herba (CID56928117, CID94275, CID107152, and CID519743) have screening as cyclooxygenase (COX-1/COX-2) selective inhibitor. Methods: Molecular interaction studies sesquiterpenoid compounds with COX-1 and COX-2 were using the molecular docking tools by Hex 8.0 and interactions were further visualized using by Discovery Studio Client 3.5 software tool and Virtual Molecular Dynamic 1.9.1 software. The binding energy calculation of molecular dynamic interaction was calculated by AMBER12 software. Result: The analysis of the sesquiterpenoid compounds showed that CID56928117, CID94275, CID107152, and CID519743 have suggested as inhibitor of COX-1 and COX-2. Conclusion: Collectively, the scoring binding energy calculation (with PBSA Model Solvent) sesquiterpenoid compounds: CID519743 had suggested as candidate for non-selective inhibitor; CID56928117 and CID94275 had suggested as candidate for a selective COX-1 inhibitor; and CID107152 had suggested as candidate for a selective COX-2 inhibitor. PMID:28077888

  7. Evidence suggesting possible SCA1 gene involvement in schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, S.R.; Wange, S.; Sun, C. [NIDR, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Several findings suggest a possible role for the SCA1 gene on chromosome 6p in some cases of schizophrenia. First, linkage analyses in Irish pedigrees provided LOD scores up to 3.0 for one model tested using microsatellites closely linked to SCA1. Reanalysis of these data using affected sibpair methods yielded a significant result (p = 0.01) for one marker. An attempt to replicate this linkage finding was made using 44 NIMH families (206 individuals, 80 affected) and 12 Utah families (120 individuals, 49 affected). LOD scores were negative in these new families, even allowing for heterogeneity, as were results using affected sibpair methods. However, one Utah family provided a LOD score of 1.3. We also screened the SCA1 trinucleotide repeat to search for expansions characteristic of this disorder in these families and in 38 additional unrelated schizophrenics. We found 1 schizophrenic with 41 repeats, which is substantially larger than the maximum size of 36 repeats observed in previous studies of several hundred controls. We are now assessing whether the distribution of SCA1 repeats differs significantly in schizophrenia versus controls. Recent reports suggest possible anticipation in schizophrenia (also characteristic of SCA1) and a few cases of psychiatric symptoms suggesting schizophrenia have been observed in the highly related disorder DRPLA (SCA2), which is also based on trinucleotide repeat expansion. These findings suggest that further investigations of this gene and chromosome region may be a priority.

  8. Suggesting a General ESP Model for Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jumaily, Samir

    2011-01-01

    The study suggests a general model that could guarantee the cooperation between teachers and their students to overcome the difficulties encountered in ESP learning. It tries to join together different perspectives in the research of adult education, specifically in the teaching of English for Specific Purposes. It also provides some sort of trust…

  9. Firo-B Interpersonal Compatibility: A Suggested Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Thomas E.; Copeland, Ellis P.

    1980-01-01

    The Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation Behavior (FIRO-B) scale is a measure of inclusion, control and affection. Examination of the component algorithms which yield its global compatibility score suggest an inconsistent use of absolute values and real numbers. A modification of Schutz's original mathematical schema is presented.…

  10. Neurogenesis suggests independent evolution of opercula in serpulid polychaetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Nora; Wanninger, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The internal phylogenetic relationships of Annelida, one of the key lophotrochozoan lineages, are still heavily debated. Recent molecular analyses suggest that morphologically distinct groups, such as the polychaetes, are paraphyletic assemblages, thus questioning the homology of a nu...... neurogenesis provide a novel set of characters that highlight the developmental plasticity of the segmented annelid nervous system....

  11. Teaching Visual Literacy across the Curriculum: Suggestions and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Deandra

    2015-01-01

    This final chapter highlights seven general suggestions and strategies for faculty (and others) working to develop visual literacy in classrooms and across the curriculum. The chapters throughout this volume illustrate and elaborate on these strategies; they are condensed here as a quick guide to effective practice.

  12. Suggested Guidelines for Screen Layouts and Design of Online Catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Joseph R.

    1987-01-01

    Presents detailed guidelines based on the literature for screen layout and design of online catalogs, and discusses the potential advantages in terms of number of transactions per hour and user satisfaction. Further research questions are suggested and an extensive bibliography is provided. (CLB)

  13. Should Authors be Requested to Suggest Peer Reviewers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Al-Khatib, Aceil

    2017-02-02

    As part of a continuous process to explore the factors that might weaken or corrupt traditional peer review, in this paper, we query the ethics, fairness and validity of the request, by editors, of authors to suggest peer reviewers during the submission process. One of the reasons for the current crisis in science pertains to a loss in trust as a result of a flawed peer review which is by nature biased unless it is open peer review. As we indicate, the fact that some editors and journals rely on authors' suggestions in terms of who should peer review their paper already instills a potential way to abuse the trust of the submission and publishing system. An author-suggested peer reviewer choice might also tempt authors to seek reviewers who might be more receptive or sympathetic to the authors' message or results, and thus favor the outcome of that paper. Authors should thus not be placed in such a potentially ethically compromising situation, especially as a mandatory condition for submission. However, the fact that they do not have an opt-out choice during the submission process-especially when using an online submission system that makes such a suggestion compulsory-may constitute a violation of authors' rights.

  14. Suggestion in Education: The Historical Path of Suggestopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Mary L.

    Although techniques of autosuggestion in personal development have a long history in some Eastern cultures, suggestibility as a character trait first came into focus in the West with the "animal magnetism" of Franz Mesmer. The uncovering of the nature and phenomena of hypnosis resulted in a steady and enduring interest in this state of…

  15. 21 CFR 1402.7 - Suggestions and complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suggestions and complaints. 1402.7 Section 1402.7 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY MANDATORY DECLASSIFICATION REVIEW § 1402.7... should be submitted, in writing, to the Security Officer, Office of National Drug Control...

  16. Constructive suggestions for the practical education of professional life counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Michael J

    2005-09-01

    Professional life counselors will serve an increasingly important role in the life quality of global citizens in the 21st century. The optimal preparation of service providers will reflect basic principles of human development, professional helping, and educational processes. The dynamic systems appreciations of constructivism offer valuable scaffoldings for mentoring and apprenticeship in human helping. Suggestions are made for practical refinements in professional education.

  17. Hotel Employees' Japanese Language Experiences: Implications and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makita-Discekici, Yasuko

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the Japanese language learning experiences of 13 hotel employees in Guam. Results of the study present implications and suggestions for a Japanese language program for the hotel industry. The project began as a result of hotel employees frustrations when they were unable to communicate effectively with their Japanese guests. (Auth/JL)

  18. 18 CFR 154.8 - Informal submission for staff suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... company may informally submit a proposed tariff or any part thereof or material relating thereto for the... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Informal submission for staff suggestions. 154.8 Section 154.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  19. Firo-B Interpersonal Compatibility: A Suggested Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Thomas E.; Copeland, Ellis P.

    1980-01-01

    The Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation Behavior (FIRO-B) scale is a measure of inclusion, control and affection. Examination of the component algorithms which yield its global compatibility score suggest an inconsistent use of absolute values and real numbers. A modification of Schutz's original mathematical schema is presented.…

  20. Suggestions for the Classical Shelves of a School Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colebourn, R., Comp.; Cleeve, Marigold, Comp.

    This bibliography is suggested for use by students and teachers of Latin, Greek and ancient civilizations. Entries are compiled under the headings of: (1) bibliographies and journals including booklists, periodicals, and books for teachers; (2) reference works in literature, mythology, history and antiquities, and language; (3) texts and…

  1. Research Directions Suggested by the A.C.L.U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandis, Harry C.

    1975-01-01

    Translates questions submitted by Alan Reitman, Associate Executive Director of the American Civil Liberties Union which the practitioners of civil liberties would like behavioral scientists to answer into researchable topics. Reviews some of the literature relevant to each, and suggests the kinds of studies needed to provide some answers.…

  2. Coping with loneliness: what do older adults suggest?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, E.; van Tilburg, T.; Fokkema, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A limited amount of information is available on how older adults cope with loneliness. Two ways of coping are distinguished here, i.e., active coping by improving relationships and regulative coping by lowering expectations about relationships. We explore how often older adults suggest t

  3. Coping with loneliness: What do older adults suggest?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, E.C.; Tilburg, van T.G.; Fokkema, T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A limited amount of information is available on how older adults cope with loneliness. Two ways of coping are distinguished here, i.e. active coping by improving relationships and regulative coping by lowering expectations about relationships. We explore how often older adults suggest th

  4. Suggestions for Responding to the Dilemma of Grading Students' Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rebecca S.; Speck, Bruce W.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the four-week summer Memphis (Tennessee) Urban Writing Institute, during which a furor erupted over the dilemma of grading. Provide a number of approaches to grading students' writing, including minimalist grading, cassette grading, collaborative grading, and portfolio grading. Suggests that teachers consider the grading dilemma and…

  5. Genomic analysis suggests higher susceptibility of children to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Danitsja M; Pedersen, Marie; Hendriksen, Peter J M;

    2008-01-01

    between parents. Very little overlap was observed between children and adults. The two most important biological processes or molecular functions significantly modulated in children, but not in adults, are nucleosome and immune response related. Our study suggests differences between children and adults...

  6. Pedagogical Suggestions for Teaching Business and Economics in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCornac, Dennis C.; Chi, Phan Thuy

    2005-01-01

    Given the overwhelming need for foreign faculty to assist Vietnam in its transition to a market economy, there will be opportunities for economics and business educators to teach at various institutions in that country. In this article, the authors provide a top-10 list of suggestions regarding pedagogical approaches and techniques for teaching in…

  7. De-Problematizing 'GMOs': Suggestions for Communicating about Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancke, Stefaan; Grunewald, Wim; De Jaeger, Geert

    2017-03-01

    The public debates concerning genetic engineering (GE) involve many non-scientific issues. The ensuing complexity is one reason why biotechnologists are reluctant to become involved. By sharing our personal experiences in science communication and suggesting ways to de-problematize GE, we aim to inspire our colleagues to engage with the public. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Suggesting a General ESP Model for Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jumaily, Samir

    2011-01-01

    The study suggests a general model that could guarantee the cooperation between teachers and their students to overcome the difficulties encountered in ESP learning. It tries to join together different perspectives in the research of adult education, specifically in the teaching of English for Specific Purposes. It also provides some sort of trust…

  9. False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false…

  10. Small Business Management. Part I, A Suggested Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    In this curriculum guide on small business management, lessons (including specific course content and teaching suggestions) are developed around general traits and practices conducive to success in small businesses, loans and other sources of capital, budgeting and planning, recordkeeping, marketing and selling, advertising and sales promotion,…

  11. A Privacy-by-Design Contextual Suggestion System for Tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efraimidis, Pavlos; Drosatos, George; Arampatzis, Avi; Stamatelatos, Giorgos; Athanasiadis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    We focus on personal data generated by the sensors and through the everyday usage of smart devices and take advantage of these data to build a non-invasive contextual suggestion system for tourism. The system, which we call Pythia, exploits the computational capabilities of modern smart devices to o

  12. Monkeys in space: primate neural data suggest volumetric representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehky, Sidney R; Sereno, Anne B; Sereno, Margaret E

    2013-10-01

    The target article does not consider neural data on primate spatial representations, which we suggest provide grounds for believing that navigational space may be three-dimensional rather than quasi-two-dimensional. Furthermore, we question the authors' interpretation of rat neurophysiological data as indicating that the vertical dimension may be encoded in a neural structure separate from the two horizontal dimensions.

  13. The Future of Higher Education: Some Speculations and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mood, Alexander M.

    After an extensive study of the effective use of resources in colleges and universities the author offers some suggestions that envision radical rearrangements of higher education. Among his ideas are the following: (1) entrance requirements should be eliminated; (2) colleges and universities should be open to everyone the first year, and all…

  14. Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

  15. SALES PROMOTION, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUBIN, ALAN J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR A BASIC COURSE IN SALES PROMOTION IS DESIGNED FOR NOT LESS THAN FIVE 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) ASPECTS OF SALES PROMOTION, (2) SALES PROMOTION TECHNIQUES, (3) NEWSPAPER ADVERTISING, (4) WINDOW AND INTERIOR DISPLAY PRINCIPLES, AND (5) SELECTED PROMOTIONAL MEDIA AND DEVICES. POSSIBLE TEACHERS INCLUDE A SALES PROMOTION…

  16. Effects of Posthypnotic Suggestions on the Overhand Volleyball Serve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Rose; Wynn, Mary Jo

    This study determines effects of posthypnotic suggestions in dealing with attitudinal impediments of students performing the overhand volleyball serve. Subjects were 54 male and female college students enrolled in beginning volleyball. Subjects were assigned either to a control or to an experimental group. After four class sessions, a 10-trial…

  17. Persistent Web References – Best Practices and New Suggestions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Nyvang, Caroline; Kromann, Thomas Hvid

    In this paper, we suggest adjustments to best practices for persistent web referencing; adjustments that aim at preservation and long time accessibility of web referenced resources in general, but with focus on web references in web archives. Web referencing is highly relevant and crucial...

  18. Overview of the TREC 2014 Contextual Suggestion Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    provided as a convenience and are synonymous with the city. They are not meant to represent the exact position of the user. Contexts represent...activities, restaurant , shopping, and nightlife). The number of venues in the top 50 suggestions from each category is determined by this probability

  19. Looking Into CALIPSO Climatological Products: Evaluation and Suggestions from EARLINET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Mona, Lucia; Alados-Alboledas, Lucas; Amiridis, Vassilis; Bortoli, Daniele; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Joao Costa, Maria; Pereira, Sergio; Spinelli, Nicola; Wandinger, Ulla; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-06-01

    CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Pathfinder Satellite Observations) Level 3 (CL3) data were compared against EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network) monthly averages obtained by profiles during satellite overpasses. Data from EARLINET stations of Évora, Granada, Leipzig, Naples and Potenza, equipped with advanced multi-wavelength Raman lidars were used for this study. Owing to spatial and temporal differences, we reproduced the CL3 filtering rubric onto the CALIPSO Level 2 data. The CALIPSO monthly mean profiles following this approach are called CALIPSO Level 3*, CL3*. This offers the possibility to achieve direct comparable datasets. In respect to CL3 data, the agreement typically improved, in particular above the areas directly affected by the anthropogenic activities within the planetary boundary layer. However in most of the cases a subtle CALIPSO underestimation was observed with an average bias of 0.03 km-1. We investigated the backscatter coefficient applying the same screening criteria, where the mean relative difference in respect to the extinction comparison improved from 15.2% to 11.4%. Lastly, the typing capabilities of CALIPSO were assessed outlining the importance of the correct aerosol type (and associated lidar ratio value) assessment to the CALIPSO aerosol properties retrieval.

  20. Looking Into CALIPSO Climatological Products: Evaluation and Suggestions from EARLINET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papagiannopoulos Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Pathfinder Satellite Observations Level 3 (CL3 data were compared against EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network monthly averages obtained by profiles during satellite overpasses. Data from EARLINET stations of Évora, Granada, Leipzig, Naples and Potenza, equipped with advanced multi-wavelength Raman lidars were used for this study. Owing to spatial and temporal differences, we reproduced the CL3 filtering rubric onto the CALIPSO Level 2 data. The CALIPSO monthly mean profiles following this approach are called CALIPSO Level 3*, CL3*. This offers the possibility to achieve direct comparable datasets. In respect to CL3 data, the agreement typically improved, in particular above the areas directly affected by the anthropogenic activities within the planetary boundary layer. However in most of the cases a subtle CALIPSO underestimation was observed with an average bias of 0.03 km-1. We investigated the backscatter coefficient applying the same screening criteria, where the mean relative difference in respect to the extinction comparison improved from 15.2% to 11.4%. Lastly, the typing capabilities of CALIPSO were assessed outlining the importance of the correct aerosol type (and associated lidar ratio value assessment to the CALIPSO aerosol properties retrieval.

  1. Quantitative analysis of TALE-DNA interactions suggests polarity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckler, Joshua F; Bhakta, Mital S; Kim, Moon-Soo; Ovadia, Robert; Habrian, Chris H; Zykovich, Artem; Yu, Abigail; Lockwood, Sarah H; Morbitzer, Robert; Elsäesser, Janett; Lahaye, Thomas; Segal, David J; Baldwin, Enoch P

    2013-04-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) have revolutionized the field of genome engineering. We present here a systematic assessment of TALE DNA recognition, using quantitative electrophoretic mobility shift assays and reporter gene activation assays. Within TALE proteins, tandem 34-amino acid repeats recognize one base pair each and direct sequence-specific DNA binding through repeat variable di-residues (RVDs). We found that RVD choice can affect affinity by four orders of magnitude, with the relative RVD contribution in the order NG > HD ≈ NN > NI > NK. The NN repeat preferred the base G over A, whereas the NK repeat bound G with 10(3)-fold lower affinity. We compared AvrBs3, a naturally occurring TALE that recognizes its target using some atypical RVD-base combinations, with a designed TALE that precisely matches 'standard' RVDs with the target bases. This comparison revealed unexpected differences in sensitivity to substitutions of the invariant 5'-T. Another surprising observation was that base mismatches at the 5' end of the target site had more disruptive effects on affinity than those at the 3' end, particularly in designed TALEs. These results provide evidence that TALE-DNA recognition exhibits a hitherto un-described polarity effect, in which the N-terminal repeats contribute more to affinity than C-terminal ones.

  2. Consumer hypnotic-like suggestibility: possible mechanism in compulsive purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prete, M Irene; Guido, Gianluigi; Pichierri, Marco

    2013-08-01

    The authors hypothesize a concept, Consumer Hypnotic-Like Suggestibility (CHLS), defined as an altered state of consciousness, as a state causing a tendency to respond positively to messages aimed at inducing consumers to make unplanned purchases. This study aims to investigate the associations of CHLS with interpersonal variables and compulsive purchasing--a frequent and uncontrollable preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy. A study was conducted on a sample of 232 subjects (n = 111 men; M age = 41 yr.), through the administration of a questionnaire, which measured: CHLS, compulsive purchasing, consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (the necessity to enhance one's image in the opinion of others through the consumption of products), and consumer atmospherics, i.e., environmental stimuli known to influence purchasing decisions. Modeling and mediation analyses suggested that internal and external drivers--Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence and atmospherics--are positively related to CHLS which affects compulsive purchasing.

  3. Ergodicity convergence test suggests telomere motion obeys fractional dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepten, E.; Bronshtein, I.; Garini, Y.

    2011-04-01

    Anomalous diffusion, observed in many biological processes, is a generalized description of a wide variety of processes, all obeying the same law of mean-square displacement. Identifying the basic mechanisms of these observations is important for deducing the nature of the biophysical systems measured. We implement a previously suggested method for distinguishing between fractional Langevin dynamics, fractional Brownian motion, and continuous time random walk based on the ergodic nature of the data. We apply the method together with the recently suggested P-variation test and the displacement correlation to the lately measured dynamics of telomeres in the nucleus of mammalian cells and find strong evidence that the telomeres motion obeys fractional dynamics. The ergodic dynamics are observed experimentally to fit fractional Brownian or Langevin dynamics.

  4. Auto Spell Suggestion for High Quality Speech Synthesis in Hindi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabra, Shikha; Agarwal, Ritika

    2014-02-01

    The goal of Text-to-Speech (TTS) synthesis in a particular language is to convert arbitrary input text to intelligible and natural sounding speech. However, for a particular language like Hindi, which is a highly confusing language (due to very close spellings), it is not an easy task to identify errors/mistakes in input text and an incorrect text degrade the quality of output speech hence this paper is a contribution to the development of high quality speech synthesis with the involvement of Spellchecker which generates spell suggestions for misspelled words automatically. Involvement of spellchecker would increase the efficiency of speech synthesis by providing spell suggestions for incorrect input text. Furthermore, we have provided the comparative study for evaluating the resultant effect on to phonetic text by adding spellchecker on to input text.

  5. Marketing Suggestions for Home Original Chicken, Hefei China

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Ran

    2014-01-01

    The research “Marketing Suggestions for Home Original Chicken, Hefei China” was commissioned by Home Original Chicken Co. Ltd, which is the biggest Chinese fast-food restaurant chain in Anhui Province. The theory needed in the research was marketing mix strategies. Marketing mix consists of product, price, place and promotion. The marketing strategies contain product decisions (including individual products decisions, product line decisions, product mix decisions), price decisions (contai...

  6. Suggestion Program and Model Installation Program - Duplication of Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    REPORTNUMBER88-26- TITL SUGESIONPROGAM ND ODE INSALLTIO PRGRAM -DULICTIO OF EFFORT AUTHR(S)MAJR DOALD . TOWBRDGEUSA FACUTY DVISRMAOR SEVE L.HANSN, CSC/824STU...NIP Evaluation Process............................ 13 FIGURE 3--USAF MIP Growth................................... 17 0. p.r vip I -.# EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...the study centers on program processes for submitting and evaluating proposals. The Suggestion Program and MIP processes are similar in that they both

  7. Compare Analysis between Chinese and Indonesian Phonetics and teaching suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Anggreani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With further development of friendly relations between China and Indonesia, coupled with a growing number of Indonesian Chinese, learning Chinese language is getting more important. Article compared Chinese and Indonesian voice and showed the voice of the Chinese language. Moreover, article provided ideas for Chinese phonetics teaching and for Indonesian students in learning Chinese pronunciation. In addition, article puts forward suggestions in order to improve foreign language teaching.

  8. Suggestions for English Culture Teaching in High School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Hongjuan

    2016-01-01

    With the implementation of the new High School English Curriculum Standards, more and more people have realized the importance of English culture teaching. To realize the goals of English teaching, teachers should cultivate students' culture awareness and develop their intercultural communicative competence. But in the actual teaching, culture teaching did not get real implementation. So the author puts forwards some suggestions for English culture teaching in high school.

  9. Overview of the TREC 2013 Contextual Suggestion Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    venue categorization, for example “landmark” or “ amusement park ”, then the system creates a language model for each category. The category-specific...Contexts represent locations at the granularity of a city- level . 2.3 Collections Participants were able to gather suggestions from either the open web...for the venue, as opposed to non- relevant documents, for example “yellow-page”-like list pages. The second approach divides venues into a two- level

  10. Epistemological Suggestions in „Entropy Low and Economic Process”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Dinga

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed to derive, on criticism basis (following, especially, the critic rationalism, as method, epistemological suggestions from the crucial work of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, “The Entropy Law and the Economic Process”, in order to these suggestions or challenges constitute going points for further logical assessments or polemical debates. By this way, four basic epistemological suggestions are identified: a inconsistency between the analytical description of the economic process and its evolutionist nature (that implies qualitative changes; b logical and epistemological bases for the possibility of a theoretical economic science (i.e. of a theory of the economic science; c impact of the qualitative changes of the economic process on the non-linearity of the economic models for prognosis; d logics, based on the entropy law, to pass off the rationality of optimality and to enter the rationality of sustainability. Each of these suggestions (explicit or implicit mentioned in the evocated work plays as rational, for the authors, to formulate epistemological assessments, critics or proposals for solutions aimed at to pass over the arisen epistemological or methodological problems. The authors believe that the entropic paradigm proposed by Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen for the economic epistemology and methodology is one of the most interesting, from the philosophic and logic points of view, having abundant resources to open a re-conceptualization of the logical bases of the economic science, to rethink the theoreticity of the sciences that study fields where evolutive processes are going, and to think, with more maturity, to the way in which the human rationality could answer the challenges the entropy law arises.

  11. Epistemological Suggestions in „Entropy Low and Economic Process”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Dinga

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed to derive, on criticism basis (following, especially, the critic rationalism, as method, epistemological suggestions from the crucial work of Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, “The Entropy Law and the Economic Process”, in order to these suggestions or challenges constitute going points for further logical assessments or polemical debates. By this way, four basic epistemological suggestions are identified: a inconsistency between the analytical description of the economic process and its evolutionist nature (that implies qualitative changes; b logical and epistemological bases for the possibility of a theoretical economic science (i.e. of a theory of the economic science; c impact of the qualitative changes of the economic process on the non-linearity of the economic models for prognosis; d logics, based on the entropy law, to pass off the rationality of optimality and to enter the rationality of sustainability. Each of these suggestions (explicit or implicit mentioned in the evocated work plays as rational, for the authors, to formulate epistemological assessments, critics or proposals for solutions aimed at to pass over the arisen epistemological or methodological problems. The authors believe that the entropic paradigm proposed by Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen for the economic epistemology and methodology is one of the most interesting, from the philosophic and logic points of view, having abundant resources to open a re-conceptualization of the logical bases of the economic science, to rethink the theoreticity of the sciences that study fields where evolutive processes are going, and to think, with more maturity, to the way in which the human rationality could answer the challenges the entropy law arises.

  12. Webis at TREC 2014: Web, Session, and Contextual Suggestion Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE NOV 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00...much to improve the result ranking. 4. CONTEXTUAL SUGGESTION TRACK The research question we examine in the Contextual Sug- gestion track is whether a... gestions we build upon state-of-the-art tools. Our first run uses descriptions without explanations while an explanation is added in the second run

  13. Analysis of existing risk assessments, and list of suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Heimsch, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The scope of this project was to analyse risk assessments made at CERN and extracting some crucial information about the different methodologies used, profiles of people who make the risk assessments, and gathering information of whether the risk matrix was used and if the acceptable level of risk was defined. Second step of the project was to trigger discussion inside HSE about risk assessment by suggesting a risk matrix and a risk assessment template.

  14. Problems and Suggestions on the Blacklist Policy of Food Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Man; ZHANG; Xu; WANG; Hui; QIAO; Fengtian; ZHENG

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase the illegal credit cost and social cost of companies,blacklist policies for food factories came into being. According to international experiences,blacklist policy,as a systematic project,is compatible with law and regulations,social credit system,and social observation movement. This paper reviewed the international experiences in blacklist policies and analyzed the existing problems in blacklist policies. In addition,three constructive suggestions were proposed in this paper.

  15. Suggested guidelines for gas emission monitoring at danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Landfill gas is produced on waste disposal sites receiving organic waste resulting in emission of methane. Regulation requires that the landfill gas is managed in order to reduce emissions, but very few suggestions exist to how the landfill gas management activities are monitored, what requirements...... measures to determine the efficiency of the performed emission mitigation is defined. Finally, several principles are presented for how criteria can be developed for when a monitoring program can be terminated....

  16. Public opinion and organ donation suggestions for overcoming barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarovich, Félix

    2005-01-01

    Getting organs for transplantation depends on people's decision; thus, public opinion is essential to finding a solution to this problem. Efforts to improve organ shortage focus on: 1) Living, unrelated donation, 2) increasing marginal donors and 3) proposing economic support for donors. Paradoxically, no initiative has been suggested to modify public opinion towards cadaver donors. Several reasons explain the resistance to donating cadaver organs: Lack of awareness, religious uncertainties, distrust of medicine, hostility to new ideas, and misinformation. Education should be used to reshape public opinion about the use of organs for transplantation. Society should accept that "using" body parts is moral and offers a source of health for everybody. The concept that using cadaver organs implies sharing a source of health might be a social agreement between all members of Society. Suggestions for improving organ shortage include: 1) Society should understand that during one's life one may be just as easily a potential organ receiver as one is an organ donor. 2) Cadaver organs are an irreplaceable source of health. 3) As self-interest is one obstacle to donating cadaver organs, the "concept that allowing the use of our organs after death represents a chance of sharing health for everybody" may be useful for a change of attitude. Even though a poll among transplant professionals supported this suggestion, an international public survey should be carried out to evaluate people's reaction to this message.

  17. CHINESE EFL UNDERGRADUATES’ ACADEMIC WRITING: RHETORICAL DIFFICULTIES AND SUGGESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Bian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties encountered by students in L2 academic writing has been a subject of research for several decades. However, to date, there still remains a lack of detailed and in-depth investigation into this area of interest. This qualitative study thoroughly investigated the rhetorical difficulties faced by Chinese EFL undergraduate academic writers, and collected suggestions on how to address these rhetorical issues. To be sufficiently detailed and thorough, this study divided students' difficulties into process- and product-related difficulties, and used triangulated data from supervisors' perspectives, students' perspectives, and supervisors' comments to address research questions. Although there were no strong generalizations derived from data from different perspectives and sources, the findings of this study showed supervisor perceptions of the rhetorical difficulties the students experienced were almost identical. In nature these rhetorical difficulties were culturallyembedded and genre-related issues; and the degree of difficulty experienced by each student varied. In this study, supervisors and students both suggested that, to solve rhetorical difficulties, teacher student communication should be improved. This study provided empirical evidence to contrastive rhetoric theory and socio-cultural theory. It also offered suggestions on how to strengthen future research in this area of inquiry, and how to improve academic writing teaching in L2 educational contexts.

  18. Perinatal pathology: practice suggestions for limited-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Drucilla J

    2013-06-01

    The practice of perinatal pathology in much of the world suffers, as do all subspecialties of anatomic pathology, from inadequate resources (equipment, consumables, and both professional and technical personnel), from lack of education (not only of the pathologist but also of the clinicians responsible for sending the specimens, and the technicians processing the specimens), and from lack of appropriate government sector support. Perinatal pathology has significant public health-related utility and should be championing its service by providing maternal and fetal/infant mortality and morbidity data to governmental health ministries. It is with this pathologic data that informed decisions can be made on health-related courses of action and allocation of resources. These perinatal pathology data are needed to develop appropriate public health initiatives, specifically toward achieving the Millennium Developmental Goals as the best way to effectively decrease infant and maternal deaths and to determine causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity. The following overview will focus on the utility of perinatal pathology specifically as related to its public health function and will suggest methods to improve its service in resource-poor settings. This article is offered not as a critique of the current practice that most pathologists find themselves working in globally, but to provide suggestions for improving perinatal pathology services, which could be implemented with the limited available resources and manpower most pathology departments currently have. In addition, we offer suggestions for graded improvements ("ramping up") over time.

  19. Known and suggested quaternary faulting in the midcontinent United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R.L.; Crone, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The midcontinent United States between the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains contains 40 known faults or other potentially tectonic features for which published geologic information shows or suggests Quaternary tectonic faulting. We report results of a systematic evaluation of published and other publicly available geologic evidence of Quaternary faulting. These results benefit seismic-hazard assessments by (1) providing some constraints on the recurrence intervals and magnitudes of large, prehistoric earthquakes, and (2) identifying features that warrant additional study. For some features, suggested Quaternary tectonic faulting has been disproved, whereas, for others, the suggested faulting remains questionable. Of the 40 features, nine have clear geologic evidence of Quaternary tectonic faulting associated with prehistoric earthquakes, and another six features have evidence of nontectonic origins. An additional 12 faults, uplifts, or historical seismic zones lack reported paleoseismological evidence of large. Quaternary earthquakes. The remaining 13 features require further paleoseismological study to determine if they have had Quaternary earthquakes that were larger than any known from local historical records; seven of these 13 features are in or near urbanized areas where their study could affect urban hazard estimates. These seven are: (1) the belt of normal faults that rings the Gulf of Mexico from Florida to Texas. (2) the Northeast Ohio seismic zone, (3) the Valmont and (4) Goodpasture faults of Colorado. (5) the Champlain lowlands normal faults of New York State and Vermont, and (6) the Lexington and (7) Kentucky River fault systems of eastern Kentucky. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  20. A Privacy-by-Design Contextual Suggestion System for Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos S. Efraimidis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We focus on personal data generated by the sensors and through the everyday usage of smart devices and take advantage of these data to build a non-invasive contextual suggestion system for tourism. The system, which we call Pythia, exploits the computational capabilities of modern smart devices to offer high quality personalized POI (point of interest recommendations. To protect user privacy, we apply a privacy by design approach within all of the steps of creating Pythia. The outcome is a system that comprises important architectural and operational innovations. The system is designed to process sensitive personal data, such as location traces, browsing history and web searches (query logs, to automatically infer user preferences and build corresponding POI-based user profiles. These profiles are then used by a contextual suggestion engine to anticipate user choices and make POI recommendations for tourists. Privacy leaks are minimized by implementing an important part of the system functionality at the user side, either as a mobile app or as a client-side web application, and by taking additional precautions, like data generalization, wherever necessary. As a proof of concept, we present a prototype that implements the aforementioned mechanisms on the Android platform accompanied with certain web applications. Even though the current prototype focuses only on location data, the results from the evaluation of the contextual suggestion algorithms and the user experience feedback from volunteers who used the prototype are very positive.

  1. Do endoscopic features suggesting eosinophilic esophagitis represent histological eosinophilia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Kazutoshi; Watari, Jiro; Fukui, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Junji; Tomita, Toshihiko; Sakurai, Jun; Kondo, Takashi; Oshima, Tadayuki; Toyoshima, Fumihiko; Yamasaki, Takahisa; Okugawa, Takuya; Miwa, Hiroto

    2014-03-01

    Esophageal linear furrows, corrugated rings, and/or white exudates are often seen in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE); however, whether these are specific to EoE remains unclear. Endoscopic surveillance of these features was conducted to determine whether these represent esophageal eosinophilia, which is essential for the diagnosis of EoE. Two thousand seven hundred and sixty-three patients were enrolled consecutively. Target biopsy was carried out when the above features were seen. Histological eosinophilia was defined as 24 or more eosinophils per high-power field (HPF). Associations between features and eosinophilia were analyzed statistically. Two thousand five hundred and forty-five patients completed the study. Linear furrows, corrugated rings and white exudates were seen in 24, 15 and 45 patients, respectively. These findings somewhat overlapped. Among 58 biopsied patients withany of the above features, these features represented eosinophilia in 14% (3/21), 23% (3/13), and 5% (2/43), respectively. None of the 199 patients who received biopsy for other features had eosinophilia. Two of five eosinophilia patients were diagnosed with EoE. Multiple comparisons revealed that eosinophil counts in linear furrows and corrugated rings but not white exudates were significantly greater than those in other features (12, 9, 1, and eosinophilia and is non-specific for EoE, although it reminds endoscopists of the presence of EoE. The diagnostic utility of linear furrows or corrugated rings for esophageal eosinophilia is superior to that of white exudates. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  2. Clionid sponge surveys on the Florida Reef Tract suggest land-based nutrient inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward-Paige, Christine A. [School of Geography and Geology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada)]. E-mail: cwardpai@dal.ca; Risk, Michael J. [School of Geography and Geology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Sherwood, Owen A. [Department of Earth Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4J1 (Canada); Jaap, Walter C. [Florida Marine Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Florida (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Bioerosion by Cliona delitrix and Cliona lampa was assessed at 43 sites along the Florida Reef Tract, USA, in the summer of 2001. Sponge abundances were estimated using rapid visual assessment. Tissue samples of sponges were taken for analysis of {delta} {sup 15}N. Comparison samples were taken from Belize. Annual trends in sponge abundance were estimated from archived videos covering the period from 1996 to 2001. Sites with the greatest boring sponge size and cover were in the Backcountry and Lower Keys, where total nitrogen, ammonium, and {delta} {sup 15}N levels were highest. The sites with the largest relative increase of C. delitrix and C. lampa over the 5 year period were in the Upper Keys, where the greatest relative decline in stony coral cover has occurred. Florida sponge {delta} {sup 15}N values were 5.2({+-}0.1)%, suggesting the influence of human waste; in comparison, offshore Belize samples were 2.1({+-}0.1)%. These results suggest sewage contamination of the Florida Reef Tract, shifting the carbonate balance from construction to destruction.

  3. Clowning and improvisation in the ESL classroom : observations and suggestions

    OpenAIRE

    Sigríður Friðriksdóttir 1976

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines how clowning and improvisation can help students in the ESL classroom. Clowning and improvisation was taught in a 6th grade ESL classroom and its effectiveness discussed. This thesis discusses the basics of clowning and why it is helpful when helping students feel at ease with speaking English. I also describe how it can be used and suggest drama-related games that are helpful. The conclusion is that drama-related games help students have fun while learning a new langu...

  4. [Suggestions for the upcoming public health law in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanos, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    The upcoming public health law must serve as the basis for public health reform. The text of the law should allow public health structures to be modernized and adapted to the country's new needs. A broader concept of public health and a redefinition of its functions and basic services are required. Some of the main suggestions for the upcoming law are the establishment of a Spanish Agency for Public Health and a Public Health Council, the design of a Spanish Strategy of Public Health, and reform of professional training.

  5. Solid-State Lighting 2017 Suggested Research Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-29

    A 2017 update to the Solid-State Lighting R&D Plan that is divided into two documents. The first document describes a list of suggested SSL priority research topics and the second document provides context and background, including information drawn from technical, market, and economic studies. Widely referenced by industry and government both here and abroad, these documents reflect SSL stakeholder inputs on key R&D topics that will improve efficacy, reduce cost, remove barriers to adoption, and add value for LED and OLED lighting solutions over the next three to five years, and discuss those applications that drive and prioritize the specific R&D.

  6. Suggestions on Strengthening Greening Construction of Ecological Residential Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng; LI

    2013-01-01

    Greening construction is an important part of the construction of ecological residential areas,but there exist some misunderstandings in greening construction of ecological residential districts at present.Based on the description of functions of green space in ecological residential areas,the summarization of principles of greening design,and the discussion of questions in greening construction of ecological residential districts,some suggestions as well as specific measures for strengthening greening construction of ecological residential areas were proposed to promote the healthy development of greening construction in ecological residential areas.

  7. Specialized Cooperative Economic Organization of Farmers: Problems and Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiangzhiKong; QiaoGuanghua

    2005-01-01

    This article analyses the problems of the specialized cooperative economic organizations of farmers in their development process. These problems are: excessive interference by local governments; low service capacity at the operating level; administrative and management confusion resulting from the lack of status as a legal entity, with rules and regulations. It is suggested that the relevant laws and regulations concerning these organizations be established as soon as possible, giving them a legal identification; that the regulations and organizational structure be perfected; that support be increased and the financial situation of the specialized cooperative economic organizations of farmers be improved.

  8. Autocomplete as Research Tool: A Study on Providing Search Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ward

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As the library website and on its online searching tools become the primary “branch” many users visit for their research, methods for providing automated, context-sensitive research assistance need to be developed to guide unmediated searching towards the most relevant results.  This study examines one such method, the use of autocompletion in search interfaces, by conducting usability tests on its use in typical academic research scenarios.  The study reports notable findings on user preference for autocomplete features, and suggests best practices for their implementation.

  9. User Suggestions Extraction from customer Reviews A Sentiment Analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwanath.J,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Customer review is a major criterion for the improvement of the quality of services rendered and enhancement of the deliverables. Blogs, articles and discussion forums, provide manufacturers or sellers with a good understanding of the reception level of their products in the competitive market. An interesting area from the business analysis perspective, this paper discusses an opinion based mining technique for the extraction of the relevant data using Natural Language Processing and text analysis, and comprehends suggestions from an actionable feedback.

  10. Six Suggestions for Research on Games in Cognitive Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabris, Christopher F

    2017-04-01

    Games are more varied and occupy more of daily life than ever before. At the same time, the tools available to study game play and players are more powerful than ever, especially massive data sets from online platforms and computational engines that can accurately evaluate human decisions. This essay offers six suggestions for future cognitive science research on games: (1) Don't forget about chess, (2) Look beyond action games and chess, (3) Use (near)-optimal play to understand human play and players, (4) Investigate social phenomena, (5) Raise the standards for studies of games as treatments, (6) Talk to real experts. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Alleviating Contingency Violations through Visual Analytics and Suggested Actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Allwardt, Craig H.; Mackey, Patrick S.

    2013-07-21

    Contingency analysis (CA) is essential in maintaining a stable and secure power grid. It is required by operating standards that contingency violations need to be alleviated within 30 minutes. In today’s practice, operators normally make decisions based on the information they have with limited support. This paper presents a new feature of user suggested actions integrated in the graphical contingency analysis (GCA) tool, developed by the authors to help the operator’s decision making process. This paper provides a few examples on showing how the decision support element of the GCA tool is further enhanced by this new feature to alleviate contingency violations for better grid reliability.

  12. A Suggested approach to teaching and learning grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jijun; Niu Conglin

    2008-01-01

    The teaching and learning of grammar used to be processed at the sentence level with paying litttle attention to discourse and context.Students Were familiar with alot of gammatical terms and were able to remember many rules .However,they often wondered why they could not use English properly and fluently and fluently although they had learned the grammatical rules quite well.This essay,taking grammar as resource for communication,suggests an approach by using ideational frameworks to the teacxhing and learning of grammar in a communicative context.

  13. Some Suggestions for College Students to Improve Listening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗琴

    2014-01-01

    Language is the tool of communication. English is a compulsory course for every student. English listening, as an essen-tial part of English learning, is an effective way to obtain new information. But for many students, the most difficult part for them is listening. The paper aims to give some suggestions to the college English learners and to help them to improve their listening comprehension abilities. Such as: to strengthen language knowledge, to build up self-confidence, to use listening strategies, to learn western culture, and to listen extensively.

  14. On the centenary of Charcot: hysteria, suggestibility and hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, L

    1984-06-01

    In studying hysteria by means of hypnosis, Charcot placed emphasis on the psychological aetiology of the neuroses. Among his pupils, Freud alone grasped this epistemological turning-point, from which he made his great discoveries. But hysteria and hypnosis still remain today largely unknown. We have not yet elucidated the 'mysterious leap' between the psychological and the somatic for the former, and between the relational and the instrumental for the latter. While psychoanalysts have constantly concerned themselves with hysteria, they have shown a lack of interest in hypnosis after Freud abandoned its practice. According to Freud, thanks to transference, affect would be controlled by cognition, a viewpoint eminently suited to satisfy his rationalistic outlook. Affect, however, remains an unknown realm. The affective relationship has, at all events, acquired an ever-increasing importance in psychoanalysis during the last few years, with the emphasis on the early mother-child relationship. The 'affective locus' remains the basic, as well as the most obscure, element in the hypno-suggestive relationship. The behaviourist approach, which quantifies the 'vertical' dimension in depth, is a limited one. The study of the 'horizontal' dimension of subjective experience represents a new line of research, which may make it possible to distinguish different forms of hypnosis. The understanding of hypno-suggestion may throw light on psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, and the human sciences in general.

  15. Synesthesia in twins: incomplete concordance in monozygotes suggests extragenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosley, Hannah G; Eagleman, David M

    2015-06-01

    Colored-sequence synesthesia (CSS) is a neurological condition in which sequential stimuli such as letters, numbers, or days of the week trigger simultaneous, involuntary color perception. Although the condition appears to run in families and several studies have sought a genetic link, the genetic contribution to synesthesia remains unclear. We conducted the first comparative twin study of CSS and found that CSS has a pairwise concordance of 73.9% in monozygotic twins, and a pairwise concordance of 36.4% in dizygotic twins. In line with previous studies, our results suggest a heritable element of synesthesia. However, consonant with the findings of previous single-pair case studies, our large sample size verifies that synesthesia is not completely conferred by genetics; if it were, monozygotic twins should have 100% concordance. These findings implicate a genetic mechanism of CSS that may work differently than previously thought: collectively, our data suggest that synesthesia is a heritable condition with incomplete penetrance that is substantially influenced by epigenetic and environmental factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Children Undergoing Radiotherapy: Swedish Parents' Experiences and Suggestions for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ångström-Brännström, Charlotte; Engvall, Gunn; Mullaney, Tara; Nilsson, Kristina; Wickart-Johansson, Gun; Svärd, Anna-Maja; Nyholm, Tufve; Lindh, Jack; Lindh, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 300 children, from 0 to 18 years old, are diagnosed with cancer in Sweden every year. Of these children, 80-90 of them undergo radiotherapy treatment for their cancer. Although radiotherapy is an encounter with advanced technology, few studies have investigated the child's and the parent's view of the procedure. As part of an ongoing multicenter study aimed to improve patient preparation and the care environment in pediatric radiotherapy, this article reports the findings from interviews with parents at baseline. The aim of the present study was twofold: to describe parents' experience when their child undergoes radiotherapy treatment, and to report parents' suggestions for improvements during radiotherapy for their children. Sixteen mothers and sixteen fathers of children between 2-16 years old with various cancer diagnoses were interviewed. Data were analyzed using content analysis. The findings showed that cancer and treatment turns people's lives upside down, affecting the entire family. Further, the parents experience the child's suffering and must cope with intense feelings. Radiotherapy treatment includes preparation by skilled and empathetic staff. The parents gradually find that they can deal with the process; and lastly, parents have suggestions for improvements during the radiotherapy treatment. An overarching theme emerged: that despair gradually turns to a sense of security, with a sustained focus on and close interaction with the child. In conclusion, an extreme burden was experienced around the start of radiotherapy, though parents gradually coped with the process.

  17. The strategic regulation of children's memory performance and suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebers, Claudia M; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2005-05-01

    We report two empirical studies that investigated previously reported benefits of a high accuracy motivation, and thus a high threshold, for children's and adults' event recall and for their ability to resist false suggestions. In the studies, 6-, 7-, and 8-year-olds, as well as adults, were shown a brief video about an event and were later asked unbiased and misleading questions about it. In Study 1, participants were either (a) given the typical accuracy instructions (including the option to answer with "I don't know"), (b) reminded of the accuracy instructions during the interview, or (c) immediately given feedback and a token for every correct answer. The results showed that the reminders were ineffective in stimulating strategic control behavior in children, independent of age. In Study 2, the confounding effects of feedback and incentives were disentangled by contrasting (a) free report, (b) feedback only, (c) incentives only, and (d) feedback plus incentives. Analyses on recall performance and suggestibility revealed that both feedback and incentives are necessary to increase children's accurate memory reports.

  18. Current and Suggested focus on Sustainability in Pyrometallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, J. B.; Robertson, D. G. C.; Mackey, P. J.

    The production of iron and steel and non-ferrous metals by pyrometallurgical processes will remain a critical element in meeting the demand for materials in both developed and developing nations. Given the important need to reduce and minimise greenhouse gas emissions the technological focus of future pyrometallurgical R&D by universities and industry alike must concentrate on sustainability issues such as improved energy efficiency, recycling and waste minimization. Continued efforts are also needed on process optimization and new process development with a view to reducing capital and operating costs of the new large "mega" plants. Using the academic and industrial backgrounds of the authors, the present paper reviews the current status of R&D in pyrometallurgy in university departments with a particular emphasis on sustainability issues. The role of industry and government laboratories is also reviewed although primarily for developed countries. The paper also includes comments and suggestions on the future requirements for education and R&D in pyrometallurgy in developed countries to maximise sustainability. It is also suggested that future R&D in pyrometallurgy will be even more concentrated in developing countries — most notably China.

  19. Pluralism and Objectivism: Cornerstones for Interpersonal Comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    How to make interpersonal comparisons is one of the most important questions to address in the discussion of distributive justice. This paper discusses two of the most relevant dividing lines in the literature of interpersonal comparison: between a monistic and pluralistic approach to interpersonal...... comparison, and between a subjectivist and objectivist standard of interpersonal comparison. The paper provides a normative argument for pluralism and objectivism with regard to interpersonal comparison, and it suggests that the Capability Approach as developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum fits...

  20. Candidate Gene Studies in Hypodontia Suggest Role for FGF3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; D’Souza, Rena N.; Mues, Gabriele; Deeley, Kathleen; Hsin, Hong-Yuan; Küchler, Erika C.; Meira, Raquel; Patir, Asli; Tannure, Patricia N.; Lips, Andrea; Costa, Marcelo C.; Granjeiro, Jose M.; Seymen, Figen; Modesto, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    The majority of tooth agenesis cases are mild (hypodontia) and typically not associated with the gene mutations linked to oligodontia. From this, we hypothesize that most cases of tooth agenesis fit a polygenic mode of inheritance, where several genes with small effects cause a variety of varying phenotypes. In this study, we looked at 18 not typically studied genes in this condition, to ascertain their contribution to hypodontia. Our study subjects consisted of 167 patients with hypodontia and their parents from two cohorts (one from Brazil and one from Turkey). An additional 465 DNA samples (93 cases with hypodontia and 372 controls without family history for tooth agenesis or oral clefts) from Brazil were also available for this study. 93 single nucleotide polymorphisms that maximally represent the linkage disequilibrium structure of the genes for the 18 genes were selected and genotyped using Taqman chemistry. Chi-square was used to test if genotype distributions were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and 24 markers that were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and had allele frequencies higher than 5% in a panel of 50 CEPH samples were further tested. Association between hypodontia and genetic variants was tested with the transmission disequilibrium test within the program Family-Based Association Test (FBAT) and by using chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. Alpha at a level of 0.05 was used to report results. Results suggest possible associations between several genes and hypodontia in the three populations. In the Turkish cohort (n=51 parent-affected child trios) the most significant results were as follows: FGF3 rs1893047, p=0.08; GLI3 rs929387, p=0.03; GLI3 haplotype rs929387-rs846266, p=0.002; and PAX9 rs2073242, p=0.03. In the Brazilian cohort (n=116 parent-affected child trios), the results were as follows: DLX1 rs788173, p=0.07; FGF3 rs12574452, p=0.03; GLI2 rs1992901, p=0.03; and PITX2 rs2595110, p=0.01. The second Brazilian cohort also suggested that FGF3

  1. Considerations about ISO 14001, and suggestions for the next revision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss a number of issues related to ISO 14001:2004, the international standard for environmental management systems (EMS) with the purpose of improving the next edition in order to recognize and reflect new recognitions in approaches to pollution prevention. The stan......The aim of this paper is to discuss a number of issues related to ISO 14001:2004, the international standard for environmental management systems (EMS) with the purpose of improving the next edition in order to recognize and reflect new recognitions in approaches to pollution prevention....... The standard is a process standard that leaves room for interpretation at company level as well as among lead auditors from certifying bodies. A case study is presented and shows lack of life cycle thinking in product development. The paper suggests changes of ISO 14001:2004 in order to include a clear product...

  2. Neurogenesis suggests independent evolution of opercula in serpulid polychaetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Nora; Wanninger, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The internal phylogenetic relationships of Annelida, one of the key lophotrochozoan lineages, are still heavily debated. Recent molecular analyses suggest that morphologically distinct groups, such as the polychaetes, are paraphyletic assemblages, thus questioning the homology...... of a number of polychaete morphological characters. Serpulid polychaetes are typically recognized by having fused anterior ends bearing a tentacular crown and an operculum. The latter is commonly viewed as a modified tentacle (= radiole) and is often used as an important diagnostic character in serpulid...... and the radioles in this species. Accordingly, the spirorbin operculum might not be homologous to the radioles or to the opercula of other serpulid taxa such as Serpula and Pomatoceros and is thus probably not a part of the tentacular crown. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that common morphological traits...

  3. School satisfaction and social relations: Swedish schoolchildren's improvement suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Louise; Haraldsson, Katarina; Hagquist, Curt

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to explore schoolchildren's views on how to increase school satisfaction and improve social relations among peers at school. Improvement suggestions were collected from school children aged 10-12 years with the help of a feedback model developed for the purpose. Qualitative content analysis was used. Two categories emerged from the analysis: 'psychosocial climate', which included the subcategories 'adults' roles and responsibilities' and 'classmates' norms and values'; 'influence', which included the subcategories 'changes in the physical environment' and 'flexible learning'. The categories are seen as important to increase school satisfaction and improve social relations among peers at school. Examining children's opinions is requested and promoted by the UN convention on the Rights of the Child. The findings contribute to the field by showing how school satisfaction and social relations might be improved, if the child perspective is considered in the planning of health promotion activities in school.

  4. Crisis Phones - Suicide Prevention Versus Suggestion/Contagion Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    There has been no systematic work on the short- or long-term impact of the installation of crisis phones on suicides from bridges. The present study addresses this issue. Data refer to 219 suicides from 1954 through 2013 on the Skyway Bridge in St. Petersburg, Florida. Six crisis phones with signs were installed in July 1999. In the first decade after installation, the phones were used by 27 suicidal persons and credited with preventing 26 or 2.6 suicides a year. However, the net suicide count increased from 48 in the 13 years before installation of phones to 106 the following 13 years or by 4.5 additional suicides/year (t =3.512, p < .001). Although the phones prevented some suicides, there was a net increase after installation. The findings are interpreted with reference to suggestion/contagion effects including the emergence of a controversial bridge suicide blog.

  5. Managing HCV infection in pediatric age group: Suggested recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danish Fazal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in children is different from the adult infection in many ways, like natural course of the disease; duration, therapeutic response and side effects profile of the drug therapy; and prognosis. Special considerations include consideration on what could be the appropriate time to investigate a suspected child, when to institute drug therapy and how to prevent vertical transmission. Although over the past one decade many landmark studies have greatly increased our insight on this subject, yet we are far from developing a consensus statement. In this article, a concise yet comprehensive review of HCV infection in children - diagnosis and treatment - is given, followed by suggested recommendations at the end. It is hoped that these recommendations will help develop local guidelines on this subject.

  6. Noise measurements in Omerler underground colliery and suggestions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensogut, C.; Eralp, H. [Selcuk Universitesi, Kampus-Konya (Turkey)

    1998-12-31

    People who have been exposed to an excessive noise level over a long period may have a permanent hearing loss. Additionally, due to the noise in workings, the warnings from the alarm devices may be hindered resulting in the prevention of an effective competence for communication. Therefore, it also causes a series of problems in terms of labour, health and safety. Sources of noise encountered in underground collieries were researched in a lignite mine for a period of two months together with the noise intensity both for health and safety aspects. Noise measurements taken between April and June 1997 from Omerler Underground Colliery, Western Lignite Corporation, Turkish Coal Enterprises are given in detail together with the suggestions made to the mine management. 10 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. A review of cyberbullying and suggestions for online psychological therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairéad Foody

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of cyberbullying are beginning to emerge in the scientific literature because of their implications for child and adolescent development. In particular, cyberbullying victimisation has been associated with similar negative consequences to traditional or face-to-face bullying such as lower academic achievement, anxiety, and sometimes even suicide. Research has also started to emerge investigating the impact of such incidences on the life of adults. The literature in this area has been steadily growing over the last decade and this review highlights the current situation in terms of relevant features and the psychological impact on victims. The selection process consisted of a comprehensive search that was conducted in January 2015 in the following databases: PsychInfo, ERIC, Web of Science and Medline. A total of 19 papers were included. We conclude with suggestions for online psychological treatment for victims and bullies as a means of coping with the distress caused from cyberbullying experiences.

  8. Individualist and collectivist values: hypotheses suggested by Alexis de Tocqueville.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P J; Morris, Ronald J

    2002-05-01

    The work of Alexis de Tocqueville, the 19th-century social theorist who coined the term individualism, supplied a conceptual foundation for hypothesizing that individualism and collectivism, as value systems, should be directly correlated. In previous research (D. K.-S. Chan, 1994), individualist and collectivist values were negatively correlated in a sample of men, and in a combined sample of men and women (P. J. Watson, J. Sherbak, & R. J. Morris, 1998) these values were positively correlated. In the present study, a positive relationship was in fact observed in both men and women. Linkages with other measures of self and social functioning uncovered a few small associations of individualist values with maladjustment. Collectivist values predicted adjustment. These data confirm that individualist and collectivist values are compatible, just as Tocqueville had suggested, and that gender differences do not explain the conflicting results previously reported in this literature.

  9. Suggestions for teacher education from concept mapping studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Reiska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance primary and secondary education, teaching and learning methods need to be continuously developed as well as, of course, promote teaching quality dependent on teacher personality, teacher professional development, teacher self-development, etc. Teacher professional development gives the novice teacher access to a wide set of teaching methods and assessment opportunities, especially geared to flexible learning and assessment methods, which can be considered for adoption. One such flexible method is the use of concept mapping. This article describes the results of several studies, where concept mapping method was used, giving many didactical suggestions for using concept mapping for learning and especially for assessment. Additionally, considerations are introduced on using concept maps as a research instrument.

  10. Sexual health and older adults: suggestions for social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Sharron

    2016-11-01

    The body of evidence on older adults' sexual health is beginning to grow. However, it remains an under-researched area particularly within the social sciences. This viewpoint outlines four considerations for those who carry out social science research in this area: 1. defining the age category "older adults"; 2. being clear about the types of sex under research; 3. capturing a range of diverse voices; and 4. considering the use of qualitative research methods to explore the topic in depth. These suggestions are aimed at helping researchers to avoid some of the pitfalls of research in this area, as well as improving the evidence base in order to advance recognition of the issues and drive change in service provision.

  11. Health Workforce Planning: An overview and suggested approach in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sawai, Abdulaziz; Al-Shishtawy, Moeness M

    2015-02-01

    In most countries, the lack of explicit health workforce planning has resulted in imbalances that threaten the capacity of healthcare systems to attain their objectives. This has directed attention towards the prospect of developing healthcare systems that are more responsive to the needs and expectations of the population by providing health planners with a systematic method to effectively manage human resources in this sector. This review analyses various approaches to health workforce planning and presents the Six-Step Methodology to Integrated Workforce Planning which highlights essential elements in workforce planning to ensure the quality of services. The purpose, scope and ownership of the approach is defined. Furthermore, developing an action plan for managing a health workforce is emphasised and a reviewing and monitoring process to guide corrective actions is suggested.

  12. Health Workforce Planning: An overview and suggested approach in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Al-Sawai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In most countries, the lack of explicit health workforce planning has resulted in imbalances that threaten the capacity of healthcare systems to attain their objectives. This has directed attention towards the prospect of developing healthcare systems that are more responsive to the needs and expectations of the population by providing health planners with a systematic method to effectively manage human resources in this sector. This review analyses various approaches to health workforce planning and presents the Six-Step Methodology to Integrated Workforce Planning which highlights essential elements in workforce planning to ensure the quality of services. The purpose, scope and ownership of the approach is defined. Furthermore, developing an action plan for managing a health workforce is emphasised and a reviewing and monitoring process to guide corrective actions is suggested.

  13. Molecular spectroscopic study for suggested mechanism of chrome tanned leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashy, Elshahat H. A.; Osman, Osama; Mahmoud, Abdel Aziz; Ibrahim, Medhat

    2012-03-01

    Collagen represents the structural protein of the extracellular matrix, which gives strength of hides and/or skin under tanning process. Chrome tan is the most important tanning agent all over the world. The methods for production of leather evolved over several centuries as art and engineering with little understanding of the underlying science. The present work is devoted to suggest the most probable mechanistic action of chrome tan on hide proteins. First the affect of Cr upon hide protein is indicated by the studied mechanical properties. Then the spectroscopic characterization of the hide protein as well as chrome tanned leather was carried out with Horizontal Attenuated Total Reflection (HATR) FT-IR. The obtained results indicate how the chromium can attached with the active sites of collagen. Molecular modeling confirms that chromium can react with amino as well as carboxylate groups. Four schemes were obtained to describe the possible interactions of chrome tan with hide proteins.

  14. Hemimegalencephaly: signal changes suggesting abnormal myelination on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagishita, A. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital (Japan); Arai, N. [Dept. of Clinical Neuropathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. for Neuroscience, Tokyo (Japan); Tamagawa, K. [Dept. of Neuropediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Oda, M. [Dept. of Neuropathology, Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    We reviewed the MRI of 17 patients with hemimegalencephaly to investigate abnormal myelination in this condition. On images of seven patients aged 18 months or less, the white matter on the affected side suggested advanced myelination for the age. On T1-weighted images of three patients aged 1 month, the anterior limb of the internal capsule in the affected hemisphere was myelinated, and T1 shortening was not clearly seen in the pre- and postcentral gyri. The cortical grey matter and subcortical white matter was isointense in two patients. Images of two patients aged 4 to 5 months and of five patients aged 8-18 months showed myelination that extended more peripherally in the white matter of the affected hemisphere. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  15. Relating Paleoclimate Data and Past Temperature Gradients: Some Suggestive Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, David

    1999-01-01

    Understanding tropical sensitivity is perhaps the major concern confronting researchers, for both past and future climate change issues. Tropical data has been beset by contradictions, and many techniques applicable to the extratropics are either unavailable or fraught with uncertainty when applied at low latitudes. Paleoclimate data, if interpreted within the context of the latitudinal temperature gradient data they imply, can be used to estimate what happened to tropical temperatures in the past, and provide a first guess for what might happen in the future. The approach is made possible by the modeling result that atmospheric dynamical changes, and the climate impacts they produce, respond primarily to temperature gradient changes. Here we review some "rules" obtained from GCM (General Circulation Model) experiments with different sea surface temperature gradients and different forcing, that can be used to relate paleoclimate reconstructions to the likely temperature gradient changes they suggest.

  16. Octopamine: presence in firefly lantern suggests a transmitter role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, H A; Carlson, A D

    1976-01-01

    The lantern of the adult firefly is innervated by a nerve supply with endings similar to other known monoaminergic nerves. However, catecholamines could not be detected in the nerve endings and noradrenaline and adrenaline were relatively weak agonists in eliciting a flash of light when applied to the lantern in vitro. Firefly lanterns were assayed for octopamine using a sensitive, specific enzymatic assay in which octopamine is enzymatically converted to 3H-synephrine and quantitated by liquid scintillation counting. The presence of substantial amounts (125 ng/g tissue) of octopamine was demonstrated and confirmed by thin layer chromatography. On the basis of this and earlier work, it is suggested that the nerves to the firefly lantern are octopaminergic.

  17. Suggested benchmarks for shape optimization for minimum stress concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli

    2008-01-01

    Shape optimization for minimum stress concentration is vital, important, and difficult. New formulations and numerical procedures imply the need for good benchmarks. The available analytical shape solutions rely on assumptions that are seldom satisfied, so here, we suggest alternative benchmarks....... The existence of singularities forces us to separate the design modeling (parameterization) from the analysis modeling, which from a practical point of view, is finite element (FE) modeling. Furthermore, the obtained stress concentrations depend highly on the FE modeling and cannot be used as a primary...... procedure is avoided. As examples, we use a sensitive stress concentration problem for fillets or cavities in tension (or compression). These problems are solved as three dimensional (axisymmetric) and as plane stress and plane strain cases. Further cases with design of shapes for a T-head fillet are also...

  18. Yellowish lesions of the oral cavity. Suggestion for a classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Iria; Varela, Pablo; Romero, Amparo; García, María José; Suárez, María Mercedes; Seoane, Juan

    2007-08-01

    The colour of a lesion is due to its nature and to its histological substratum. In order to ease diagnosis, oral cavity lesions have been classified according to their colour in: white, red, white and red, bluish and/or purple, brown, grey and/or black lesions. To the best of our knowledge, there is no such a classification for yellow lesions. So, a suggestion for a classification of yellowish lesions according to their semiology is made with the following headings: diffuse macular lesions, papular, hypertrophic, or pustular lesions, together with cysts and nodes. This interpretation of the lesions by its colour is the first step to diagnosis. It should be taken into account that, as happens with any other classification, the yellowish group of lesions includes items with different prognosis as well as possible markers of systemic disorders.

  19. Membrane proteomics of phagosomes suggests a connection to autophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Wenqing; Sheu, Leslie; Liu, Jun; Smart, Brian; Petzold, Christopher J.; Hsieh, Tsung-yen; Pitcher, Austin; Keasling*, Jay D.; Bertozzi*, Carolyn R.

    2008-11-25

    Phagocytosis is the central process by which macrophage cellsinternalize and eliminate infectious microbes as well as apoptoticcells. During maturation, phagosomes containing engulfed particlesfuse with various endosomal compartments through theaction of regulatory molecules on the phagosomal membrane. Inthis study, we performed a proteomic analysis of the membranefraction from latex bead-containing (LBC) phagosomes isolatedfrom macrophages. The profile, which comprised 546 proteins,suggests diverse functions of the phagosome and potential connectionsto secretory processes, toll-like receptor signaling, andautophagy. Many identified proteins were not previously knownto reside in the phagosome. We characterized several proteins inLBC phagosomes that change in abundance on induction of autophagy,a process that has been previously implicated in the hostdefense against microbial pathogens. These observations suggestcrosstalk between autophagy and phagocytosis that may be relevantto the innate immune response of macrophages.

  20. Cytokine profiles in osteoporosis suggest a proresorptive bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizieh, Fawaz; Raghupathy, Raj; Shehab, Diaa; Al-Jarallah, Khaled; Gupta, Renu

    2017-09-01

    As the immune system is suggested to contribute to the pathophysiology of osteoporosis in menopause, we compared the levels of proresorptive and antiresorptive cytokines produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from postmenopausal women with normal and low bone mineral density (BMD). Seventy-one postmenopausal women were studied; 25 had normal BMD and 46 had low BMD. Participants were categorized as normal (n = 25), osteopenic (n = 31), and osteoporotic (n = 15) based on T-scores. Levels of 10 cytokines produced by mitogen-stimulated PBMCs were measured by Multiplex ELISA. PBMCs from women with low BMD produced higher levels of the proresorptive cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, and IL-17 (P = 0.014, 0.012, 0.011, and 0.049), and lower levels of the antiresorptive cytokines IL-4, IL-10, and IL-23 (P = 0.003, 0.018, and 0.025) compared with women with normal BMD. Proresorptive cytokines were similar in osteopenic and osteoporotic women, but both had higher levels than women with normal BMD. Osteoporotic women produced lower levels of the antiresorptive cytokines IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and IL-23 compared with the normal BMD group (P = 0.001, 0.05, 0.05, and 0.026), and lower levels of IL-4 as compared with osteopenic women (P = 0.05). Osteopenic women produced lower levels of IL-4 and IL-10 compared with the normal BMD group (P = 0.025 and 0.038). Ratios of proresorptive to antiresorptive cytokines suggest a stronger proresorptive cytokine bias in women with low BMD. Most of the ratios are lowest in the normal BMD group, modest in osteopenic women, and highest in the osteoporotic group. Women with low BMD have a proresorptive cytokine bias.

  1. Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae): target species and suggestions for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begossi, Alpina; Salivonchyk, Svetlana V; Araujo, Luciana G; Andreoli, Tainá B; Clauzet, Mariana; Martinelli, Claudia M; Ferreira, Allan G I; Oliveira, Luiz E C; Silvano, Renato A M

    2011-03-16

    In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction) and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers) of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae), including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State) and the southeast (SE) Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.).We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis) and lane snapper (L. synagris), are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages.Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population.

  2. Ethnobiology of snappers (Lutjanidae: target species and suggestions for management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clauzet Mariana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we sought to investigate the biology (diet and reproduction and ethnobiology (fishers knowledge and fishing spots used to catch snappers of five species of snappers (Lutjanidae, including Lutjanus analis, Lutjanus synagris, Lutjanus vivanus, Ocyurus chrysurus, and Romboplites saliens at five sites along the northeast (Riacho Doce, Maceió in Alagoas State, and Porto do Sauípe, Entre Rios at Bahia State and the southeast (SE Brazilian coast (Paraty and Rio de Janeiro cities at Rio de Janeiro State, and Bertioga, at São Paulo State.. We collected 288 snappers and interviewed 86 fishermen. The stomach contents of each fish were examined and macroscopic gonad analysis was performed. Snappers are very important for the fisheries of NE Brazil, and our results indicated that some populations, such as mutton snapper (L. analis and lane snapper (L. synagris, are being caught when they are too young, at early juvenile stages. Local knowledge has been shown to be a powerful tool for determining appropriate policies regarding management of target species, and artisanal fishermen can be included in management processes. Other suggestions for managing the fisheries are discussed, including proposals that could provide motivation for artisanal fishermen to participate in programs to conserve resources, such as co-management approaches that utilize local knowledge, the establishment of fishing seasons, and compensation of fishermen, through 'payment for environmental services'. These suggestions may enhance the participation of local artisanal fishermen in moving to a more realistic and less top-down management approach of the fish population.

  3. Suggestions for Forest Conservation Policy under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, H.; Thorne, J. H.; Lee, D. K.; Seo, C.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change and the destruction of natural habitats by land-use change are two main factors in decreasing terrestrial biodiversity. Studying land-use and climate change and their impact under different scenarios can help suggest policy directions for future events. This study explores the spatial results of different land use and climate models on the extent of species rich areas in South Korea. We built land use models of forest conversion and created four 2050 scenarios: (1) a loss trend following current levels, resulting in 15.5% lost; (2) similar loss, but with forest conservation in areas with suitable future climates; (3) a reduction of forest loss by 50%; and (4) a combination of preservation of forest climate refugia and overall reduction of loss by 50%. Forest climate refugia were identified through the use of species distribution models run on 1,031 forest plant species to project current and 2050 distributions. We calculated change in species richness under four climate projections, permitting an assessment of forest refugia zones. We then crossed the four land use models with the climate-driven change in species richness. Forest areas predominantly convert to agricultural areas, while climate-suitable extents for forest plants decline and move northward, especially to higher elevations. Scenario 2, that has the higher level of deforestation but protects future species rich areas, conserves nearly as much future biodiversity as scenario 3, which reduced deforestation rates by 50%. This points to the importance of including biogeographic climate dynamics in forest policy. Scenario 4 was the most effective at conserving forest biodiversity. We suggest conserving forest areas with suitable climates for biodiversity conservation and the establishment of monoculture plantations targeted to areas where species richness will decline based on our results.

  4. Dynamic multibody protein interactions suggest versatile pathways for copper trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Aaron M; Benítez, Jaime J; Klarin, Derek; Zhong, Linghao; Goldfogel, Matthew; Yang, Feng; Chen, Tai-Yen; Chen, Peng

    2012-05-30

    As part of intracellular copper trafficking pathways, the human copper chaperone Hah1 delivers Cu(+) to the Wilson's Disease Protein (WDP) via weak and dynamic protein-protein interactions. WDP contains six homologous metal binding domains (MBDs) connected by flexible linkers, and these MBDs all can receive Cu(+) from Hah1. The functional roles of the MBD multiplicity in Cu(+) trafficking are not well understood. Building on our previous study of the dynamic interactions between Hah1 and the isolated fourth MBD of WDP, here we study how Hah1 interacts with MBD34, a double-domain WDP construct, using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) combined with vesicle trapping. By alternating the positions of the smFRET donor and acceptor, we systematically probed Hah1-MBD3, Hah1-MBD4, and MBD3-MBD4 interaction dynamics within the multidomain system. We found that the two interconverting interaction geometries were conserved in both intermolecular Hah1-MBD and intramolecular MBD-MBD interactions. The Hah1-MBD interactions within MBD34 are stabilized by an order of magnitude relative to the isolated single-MBDs, and thermodynamic and kinetic evidence suggest that Hah1 can interact with both MBDs simultaneously. The enhanced interaction stability of Hah1 with the multi-MBD system, the dynamic intramolecular MBD-MBD interactions, and the ability of Hah1 to interact with multiple MBDs simultaneously suggest an efficient and versatile mechanism for the Hah1-to-WDP pathway to transport Cu(+).

  5. The technique of «Subliminal verbal suggestion for the treatment of [pseudo]obsessions»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Danilevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available [Pseudo]obsessions therapy in patients with endogenous diseases of schizophrenic round accompanied with difficulties, caused by both psycho etio pathogenetic features of the disease. Disadvantages of the existing methods of therapy are associated with therapeutic conflict between two nosologies. Aim: to develop and test etiopsychopathogenetic technique "Subliminal verbal suggestion for the treatment of [pseudo]obsessions" as a subsidiary method of treatment of schizophrenia patients with [pseudo] obsessions in the structure of the disease. Methods and results. 137 patients who underwent hospital treatment 65 schizophrenia patients (F20 with the [pseudo]obsessive symptoms in the structure of the disease were examined on the basis of Public Health Institution «Regional clinical mental hospital» of the Zaporizhzhian regional council. 30 patients received standard pharmacotherapy (antipsychotic drugs according to clinical protocols that was combined with proposed technique "Subliminal verbal suggestion for the treatment of [pseudo]obsessions". The comparison group consisted of 35 patients treated with the use of standard pharmacotherapy: antipsychotic drugs. The next methods were used: medical history assessment, follow-up, clinical-psychopathological, psychodiagnostic. "Subliminal verbal suggestion for the treatment of [pseudo]obsessions" technique was developed. This technique is a combination of suggestion in the waking state and neurolinguistic programming, implemented with specially compiled auditory complex listening. The main therapeutic component s realized through the subthreshold perception of the verbal formulas that are unavailable to awareness. The technique consists of two components – primary and secondary, and three stages. The methodology was tested, its therapeutic efficacy was confirmed. Conclusion. "Subliminal verbal suggestion for the treatment of [pseudo]obsessions" technique was developed as a subsidiary method of the

  6. Some suggestions for the DSM-5 schizotypal personality disorder construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummelen, Benjamin; Pedersen, Geir; Karterud, Sigmund

    2012-05-01

    This study relates to the schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) proposal of the upcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) by investigating the construct validity of SPD as defined by DSM-IV in a large sample of patients from the Norwegian Network of Personality-Focused Treatment Programs (N = 2619), assessed by structured diagnostic interviews and the Longitudinal, Expert All Data standard. We investigated factor structure and psychometric properties of the SPD criteria, as well as co-occurrence patterns between SPD and other PDs. Thirty-six patients were diagnosed with SPD and 513 patients (21%) endorsed at least 2 schizotypal criteria. We found that 2 factors were specific for SPD, a cognitive-perceptual factor (ideas of reference, magical thinking, and unusual perceptual experiences) and an oddness factor (odd thinking and speech, constricted affect, and odd appearance or behavior). The criteria belonging to these factors had appropriate psychometric properties. The criteria of the cognitive-perceptual factor were more strongly associated with borderline personality disorder (PD) than with the other PDs. We did not find support for a consistent factor that reflected interpersonal problems. The criteria that used to be part of this factor (suspiciousness, lack of friends or confidants, and excessive social anxiety) performed poorly as specific SPD criteria. SPD was more strongly associated with antisocial PD and paranoid PD than with the other PDs. We suggest that ideas of reference should be included explicitly under the schizotypal facet of cognitive dysregulation in DSM-5, with less emphasis on the social phobic aspects of this feature. Furthermore, there should be more emphasis on the cognitive aspects of suspiciousness in SPD, and it should be considered to split up the affectivity criterion into constricted affect and inappropriate affect, with the latter type of affect being the expression of problems with

  7. In vitro model suggests oxidative stress involved in keratoconus disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamichos, D.; Hutcheon, A. E. K.; Rich, C. B.; Trinkaus-Randall, V.; Asara, J. M.; Zieske, J. D.

    2014-04-01

    Keratoconus (KC) affects 1:2000 people and is a disorder where cornea thins and assumes a conical shape. Advanced KC requires surgery to maintain vision. The role of oxidative stress in KC remains unclear. We aimed to identify oxidative stress levels between human corneal keratocytes (HCKs), fibroblasts (HCFs) and keratoconus cells (HKCs). Cells were cultured in 2D and 3D systems. Vitamin C (VitC) and TGF-β3 (T3) were used for 4 weeks to stimulate self-assembled extracellular matrix (ECM). No T3 used as controls. Samples were analyzed using qRT-PCR and metabolomics. qRT-PCR data showed low levels of collagen I and V, as well as keratocan for HKCs, indicating differentiation to a myofibroblast phenotype. Collagen type III, a marker for fibrosis, was up regulated in HKCs. We robustly detected more than 150 metabolites of the targeted 250 by LC-MS/MS per condition and among those metabolites several were related to oxidative stress. Lactate levels, lactate/malate and lactate/pyruvate ratios were elevated in HKCs, while arginine and glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio were reduced. Similar patterns found in both 2D and 3D. Our data shows that fibroblasts exhibit enhanced oxidative stress compared to keratocytes. Furthermore the HKC cells exhibit the greatest level suggesting they may have a myofibroblast phenotype.

  8. Understanding Nanocalcification: A Role Suggested for Crystal Ghosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermanno Bonucci

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present survey deals with the initial stage of the calcification process in bone and other hard tissues, with special reference to the organic-inorganic relationship and the transformation that the early inorganic particles undergo as the process moves towards completion. Electron microscope studies clearly exclude the possibility that these particles might be crystalline structures, as often believed, by showing that they are, instead, organic-inorganic hybrids, each comprising a filamentous organic component (the crystal ghost made up of acidic proteins. The hypothesis is suggested that the crystal ghosts bind and stabilize amorphous calcium phosphate and that their subsequent degradation allows the calcium phosphate, once released, to acquire a hydroxyapatite, crystal-like organization. A conclusive view of the mechanism of biological calcification cannot yet be proposed; even so, however, the role of crystal ghosts as a template of the structures usually called “crystallites” is a concept that has gathered increasing support and can no longer be disregarded.

  9. Cytological Findings Suggesting Sexuality in Phytomonas davidi (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora de Sousa

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available On few occasions, Phytomonas davidi (McGhee & Postell isolate cultures in LIT (liver infusion-tryptose medium around 27oC presented, as seen in Giemsa-stained smears, a set of peculiar morphological features, among them being noticeable the pairs of apposed cells attached by their posterior ends, where occurred a stained line and/or a dilatation, usually bulb-like in shape; sometimes this dilatation could occupy one of the cells or hold both together. In some pairs, the nucleus of each parasite seemed migrating towards the other, entering into such dilatation; in others, both nuclei were inside it, sometimes in close proximity or seeming fused; peculiar chromatin arrangements involving both nuclei were occasionally observed. Several mono or binucleate round forms bearing one or two flagella, as well as flagellate slender cells without nucleus were concomitantly seen there. In some instances, an intriguing small stained body occurred beside a single large nucleus, either in pairs presenting the bulb-like structure or in round cells. These cytological findings seemed steps of a dynamic process suggesting sexuality, since in several of them nuclear interactions following fusion of two parasites appeared to occur

  10. Foreign accents: suggested competencies for improving communicative pronunciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Lorna D

    2005-05-01

    In the past 20 years, many speech-language pathologists (SLPs) have joined their English as a Second Language (ESL) colleagues to address the pronunciation skills of second language speakers of English. This paper introduces SLPs to the ESL term "communicative pronunciation" as the underpinning for the commonly accepted terms "accent modification" or "accent reduction." Initially, professionals in both speech pathology and ESL felt that accent intervention was outside the scope of speech pathology practice, though that stance is softening. If an essential part of our mission as speech pathologists is to improve communicative competence for all persons, then making pronunciation more intelligible falls under that heading. This article on foreign accents limits discussion to: (1) the rationale for intervening with foreign accented adults; (2) an outline of a broader scope and definition of effective instruction for this population; (3) suggestions for trainer preparation; (4) recommendations for productive literature searches; and (5) a brief discussion of principles guiding assessment and instruction planning. The article includes relevant research and references outside the field of speech pathology that should stimulate future productive research efforts as well as more in-depth papers on specific instruction and assessment issues. While this article is intended to stand alone, readers may benefit from the content and references in another article in this issue by the same author.

  11. Wave-particle duality: suggestion for an experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, R N

    2012-01-01

    Feynman contended that the double-slit experiment contained the `only mystery' in quantum mechanics. The mystery was that electrons traverse the interferometer as waves, but are detected as particles. This note was motivated by the question whether single electrons can be detected as waves. It suggests a double-slit interferometry experiment with atoms of noble gases in which it may be possible to detect an individual atom as a probability wave, using a detector which can execute two different types of simple harmonic motion: as a simple pendulum, and as a torsion pendulum. In the experiment, a torsional oscillation will never be induced by the impact of a probability wave, but will always be induced by the impact of a particle. Detection as a wave is contingent on the atom interacting much more strongly with the macroscopic detector as a whole than with its microscopic constituents. This requirement may be more difficult to meet with electrons, protons, neutrons or photons than with atoms.

  12. Modelling of Arabidopsis LAX3 expression suggests auxin homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Nathan; Péret, Benjamin; Porco, Silvana; Sairanen, Ilkka; Ljung, Karin; Bennett, Malcolm; King, John

    2015-02-07

    Emergence of new lateral roots from within the primary root in Arabidopsis has been shown to be regulated by the phytohormone auxin, via the expression of the auxin influx carrier LAX3, mediated by the ARF7/19 IAA14 signalling module (Swarup et al., 2008). A single cell model of the LAX3 and IAA14 auxin response was formulated and used to demonstrate that hysteresis and bistability may explain the experimentally observed 'all-or-nothing' LAX3 spatial expression pattern in cortical cells containing a gradient of auxin concentrations. The model was tested further by using a parameter fitting algorithm to match model output with qRT-PCR mRNA expression data following exogenous auxin treatment. It was found that the model is able to show good agreement with the data, but only when the exogenous auxin signal is degraded over time, at a rate higher than that measured in the experimental medium, suggesting the triggering of an endogenous auxin homeostasis mechanism. Testing the model over a more physiologically relevant range of extracellular auxin shows bistability and hysteresis still occur when using the optimised parameters, providing the rate of LAX3 active auxin transport is sufficiently high relative to passive diffusion.

  13. Preparing gender inclusive science teachers: Suggestions from the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinburgh, Molly

    1995-03-01

    It is imperative that the education given to United States children include adequate science taught in a way that will encourage the retention of all students; however, as half the population is female and females are underrepresented in the fields of mathematics and science, it is especially important that females be encouraged in these areas. Teacher education has been challenged to develop programs that produce teachers who understand the need for equitable science classrooms and who have the skills necessary to produce them. Several suggestions have been given for teacher education programs in science. First, college professors must examine their courses for gender bias. They must model equitable classroom strategies by planning activities that encourage the females to become active participants in the learning process and by using language that is gender inclusive. Second, definite instruction should be given to help the preservice and inservice teachers address their own attitudes toward science and children. Third, specific attention must be paid to assessing teachers in the following areas: (a) developing active, inquiry-based instruction; (b) developing classrooms in which constructive talking is the norm; (c) using cooperative groups correctly; (d) decreasing stereotyping of males, females, and scientists; and (e) using language that is gender inclusive.

  14. Unsaturated and Saturated Permeabilities of Fiber Reinforcement: Critics and Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Hae ePARK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In general, permeability measurement results show a strong scattering according to the measurement method, the type of test fluid and the fluid injection condition, even though permeability is regarded as a unique property of porous medium. In particular, the discrepancy between the unsaturated and saturated permeabilities for the same fabric has been widely reported. In the literature, relative permeability has been adopted to model the unsaturated flow. This approach has some limits in the modeling of double-scale porosity medium. We address this issue of permeability measurement by rigorously examining the mass conservation condition. Finally, we identify that the pressure gradient is non-linear with positive curvature in the unsaturated flow and a misinterpretation of pressure gradient is the main reason for the difference between the saturated and unsaturated permeabilities of the same fiber reinforcement. We propose to use a fixed value of permeability and to modify the mass conservation equation if there are air voids which are entrapped inside the fiber tow. Finally, we also suggest some guidelines and future perspectives to obtain more consistent permeability measurement results.

  15. Niche convergence suggests functionality of the nocturnal fovea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Gillian L; Melin, Amanda D; Tuh Yit Yu, Fred; Bernard, Henry; Ong, Perry S; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-01

    The fovea is a declivity of the retinal surface associated with maximum visual acuity. Foveae are widespread across vertebrates, but among mammals they are restricted to haplorhine primates (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans), which are primarily diurnal. Thus primates have long contributed to the view that foveae are functional adaptations to diurnality. The foveae of tarsiers, which are nocturnal, are widely interpreted as vestigial traits and therefore evidence of a diurnal ancestry. This enduring premise is central to adaptive hypotheses on the origins of anthropoid primates; however, the question of whether tarsier foveae are functionless anachronisms or nocturnal adaptations remains open. To explore this question, we compared the diets of tarsiers (Tarsius) and scops owls (Otus), taxa united by numerous anatomical homoplasies, including foveate vision. A functional interpretation of these homoplasies predicts dietary convergence. We tested this prediction by analyzing stable isotope ratios that integrate dietary information. In Borneo and the Philippines, the stable carbon isotope compositions of Tarsius and Otus were indistinguishable, whereas the stable nitrogen isotope composition of Otus was marginally higher than that of Tarsius. Our results indicate that species in both genera consumed mainly ground-dwelling prey. Taken together, our findings support a functional interpretation of the many homoplasies shared by tarsiers and scops owls, including a retinal fovea. We suggest that the fovea might function similarly in tarsiers and scops owls by calibrating the auditory localization pathway. The integration of auditory localization and visual fixation during prey detection and acquisition might be critical at low light levels.

  16. The Current State of China's Freshwater Resources and Related Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Ruijin

    2001-01-01

    China has many lakes, marshlands and rivers. Due to their uneven geographical distribution and varied degrees of salinity, their exploitable freshwater resources are limited. In the wake of the highspeed growth of national economy in recent years, human infringement upon their natural settings has been increasingly intense, leading to the degeneration of China's lacustrine ecosystems and the degradation of their surrounding environments. Lakes are shrinking and becoming more saline. In arid and semi-arid inland areas, some of them have even disappeared. In addition, lake water pollution and eutrophication in densely populated areas are getting worse, resulting in serious water shortages in some places. Silt deposition in lake basins, water surface shrinkage caused by hectic and irrational reclamation for farmland, the prevalence of flooding and water-logging calamities and ecosystem depletion caused by predatory exploitation of fishery resources, all of these have become restrictive factors in regional sustainable development. The author of this article suggests measures for the protection and sustainable exploitation of limnetic settings in China.

  17. Intragenomic distribution of RTE retroelements suggests intrachromosomal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Eugenia E; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Cabrero, Josefa; Marchal, Juan Alberto; Sánchez, Antonio; Perfectti, Francisco; López-León, María Dolores; Camacho, Juan Pedro M

    2015-06-01

    Much is known about the abundance of transposable elements (TEs) in eukaryotic genomes, but much is still unknown on their behaviour within cells. We employ here a combination of cytological, molecular and genomic approaches providing information on the intragenomic distribution and behaviour of non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon-like elements (RTE). We microdissected every chromosome in a single first meiotic metaphase cell of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified a fragment of the RTE reverse transcriptase gene with specific primers. PCR products were cloned and 139 clones were sequenced. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed significant intragenomic structure for these elements, with 4.6 % of molecular variance being found between chromosomes. A maximum likelihood tree built with the RTE sequences revealed the frequent presence of two or more elements showing very high similarity and being located on the same chromosome, thus suggesting intrachromosome movement. The 454 pyrosequencing of genomic DNA gave strong support to the microdissection results and provided evidence for the existence of 5' truncated elements. Our results thus indicate a tendency of RTE elements to reinsert into the same chromosome from where they were transcribed, which could be achieved if retrotranscription and insertion takes place immediately after transcription.

  18. Dehumanizing Communication Reified among Undergraduates and Lecturers: Issues and Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duvie Adanma Nnekwu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses dehumanizing communication reified among undergraduates and t lecturers. Dehumanization is the act of degrading people with respect to their best qualities and denial of humanness to others. On the other hand, communication is human interaction and learning. Communication becomes rude when it is deliberately directed resulting in dehumanizing communication. The paper, therefore, examines dehumanizing communication in terms of its being intentional and unintentional and dehumanizing communication between lecturers and students and among students. It also took a swipe on the effects of dehumanizing communication on students and lecturers as well as proffer solutions to mitigating effect of dehumanizing communication between lecturer and students and among students. The suggested solutions among others include inter-group dialogue programme among contending groups in the student community, establishment of multicultural centers on campus in order to bring contending groups together (i.e. lecturers and students of all races and ethnicity. A compulsory course on “pedagogy of positiveness” is also recommended in the university curriculum to instill in the students the value of respecting people who may be different. Keywords: Dehumanization, Intentional and Unintentional Communication, Reified, Lecturers, Undergraduates, Teaching and Learning, Classroom

  19. Unsaturated and Saturated Permeabilities of Fiber Reinforcement: Critics and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chung Hae; Krawczak, Patricia

    2015-04-01

    In general, permeability measurement results show a strong scattering according to the measurement method, the type of test fluid and the fluid injection condition, even though permeability is regarded as a unique property of porous medium. In particular, the discrepancy between the unsaturated and saturated permeabilities for the same fabric has been widely reported. In the literature, relative permeability has been adopted to model the unsaturated flow. This approach has some limits in the modeling of double-scale porosity medium. We address this issue of permeability measurement by rigorously examining the mass conservation condition. Finally, we identify that the pressure gradient is non-linear with positive curvature in the unsaturated flow and a misinterpretation of pressure gradient is the main reason for the difference between the saturated and unsaturated permeabilities of the same fiber reinforcement. We propose to use a fixed value of permeability and to modify the mass conservation equation if there are air voids which are entrapped inside the fiber tow. Finally, we also suggest some guidelines and future perspectives to obtain more consistent permeability measurement results.

  20. Psychiatric vulnerability: suggestions from animal models and role of neurotrophins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleva, Enrico; Francia, Nadia

    2009-04-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are well-studied neurotrophins involved in the neurogenesis, differentiation, growth and maintenance of selected peripheral and central populations of neuronal cells during development and at adulthood. Neurotrophins, in concert to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, play a key role in modulating brain plasticity and behavioral coping, especially during ontogenetic critical periods, when developing brain is particularly sensitive to external stimulations. Indeed, early life events, such psychophysical stress, affect NGF and BDNF levels, and induce dysregulation of the HPA axis. Thus, early life experiences can affect brain development, contributing to shape interindividual differences in vulnerability to stress or psychiatric disorders. At adulthood, intermale aggressive interactions in mice, representing a psychosocial stressful condition, has been shown to markedly alter NGF and BDNF levels both in plasma as well as in selected brain areas, including the hypothalamus and hippocampus. These results have been extended to humans, showing that blood NGF levels are enhanced in psychological contexts mainly associated to anxiety and fear, such as first skydiving experience. Recent studies indicate a role for neurotrophins also in vulnerability and resilience to stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Overall, these findings suggest a role of neurotrophins as factors mediating both short- and long-term experience effects on brain structure and function.

  1. Corporate Governance Reforms in Nigeria: Challenges and Suggested Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Adelaja Adekoya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the challenges to corporate governance reforms in Nigeria from the promulgation of the Corporate and Allied Matters Act of 1990, the introduction of the 2003 Security and Exchange Commission (SEC code of best practices in corporate governance to the 2006 Central Bank of Nigeria(CBN code of corporate governance for banks in Nigeria. It uses related literature to review and discuss the identified challenges. It discovers that some of the challenges to corporate governance reforms in Nigeria stem from the country’s culture of institutionalized corruption and political patronage which is characterized by weak regulatory frameworks and refusal of government agencies to enforce and monitor compliance. The complexity of these challenges are compounded by the wide spread poverty and high unemployment which discourages a culture of whistle blowing. A set of suggested solutions were made including the separation of business from politics, the establishment of a special corporate affairs tribunals within the judiciary to try violators, promoting the culture of whistle blowing, enhancing business through moral education and promoting resource based development through fiscal federalism.

  2. Function of Hexagenia (Mayfly) Burrows: Fluid Model Suggests Bacterial Gardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynham, B.; Furbish, D.; Miller, M.; White, D.

    2006-12-01

    Lake and stream bottoms experience an array of physical, chemical, and biological processes that create spatial variations both in the fluid column and in the sediment that provide a physical template for distinct niches. Burrowing insects are major ecological engineers of communities where they structure large areas of the benthic habitat through bioturbation and other activities including respiration, feeding, and defecation. The burrowing mayfly Hexagenia, when present in high densities, has a large impact on food-web dynamics and provides essential ecosystem services within the fluid column and benthic substrate, including sediment mixing, nutrient cycling, and ultimately, energy flow through the freshwater food web. It has long been recognized that particular benthic species are important in linking detrital energy resources to higher trophic levels and for determining how organic matter is processed in freshwater ecosystems; however, the unique contributions made by individual benthic species is largely absent from the literature. Here we present a model that describes the structure and function of a Hexagenia burrow. If testing supports this hypothesis, the model suggests that when high food concentration is available to Hexagenia, there exists a favorable tube length for harvesting bacteria that grow on the burrow walls. The burrow microhabitat created by Hexagenia serves as a case-study in understanding the influence of benthic burrowers on both energy flow through freshwater food webs and nutrient cycling.

  3. Elegy as a film genre. Adaptation — inspiration — suggestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Koschany

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The question that this is article is concerned to answer is how the position of the film elegy can be best formally established — with its artistic representations, as well as its functioning in the genology of the genre. An attempt to provide definitive answers that emerge from interdisciplinary, film and literary discourse brings a number of substantial threads. Firstly, there is, indeed, no theoretical description of the elegy as a film genre, though the very name does appear in many titles. Secondly, it seems that a juxtaposition of available examples of film ad-aptations of elegies does not lead to any consistent conclusion, since, apart from the suggestion proposed by the author, they are different in terms of formal and thematic elements involved. Thirdly, any attempt at a genological profiling has to, somehow, refer to a more or less fixed literary genre and the relevant theory behind it. In a most general way, one can state, albeit with a number of reservations, that the elegiac film is characterized by a distinguishable style, often simply called the elegiac style, and the theme, very broadly associated with time and the theme of passing.

  4. Current Situation in Vocational Schools: Issues and Some Suggested Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reha Metin ALKAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vocational Schools which have undertaken various missions throughout history were established in order to train intermediate staff s with suff icient knowledge and skills in their fields, in accordance with the requirements of trade, industry and services sectors and they are the most important components of ‘vocational and technical education system' today. Analyzing the education given in the vocational schools in accordance with the national and international requirements, developing technologies and the needs of business world and making the necessary arrangements in line with these will contribute to the employability and preferability of graduates of these schools in an eff icient way. Many industrialists/businessmen in our country stated that they experienced serious problems in the supply of qualified staff with suff icient knowledge and skills needed in sectors. Although much progress has been achieved in this subject, it is a fact that there are still a lot of work to be done. In this study, current situation and main troubles in vocational schools are discussed in the light of the experiences gained at Hitit University Vocational School which was established about 40 years ago in Çorum and which is one of the first high schools in Turkey and some solutions are suggested in accordance with the problems mentioned.

  5. Economic Evaluation of Childhood Obesity Interventions: Reflections and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Emma

    2016-08-01

    Rising levels of childhood obesity present a serious global public health problem amounting to 7 % of GDP in developed countries and affecting 14 % of children. As such, many countries are investing increasingly large quantities of resource towards treatment and prevention. Whilst it is important to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of any intervention, it is equally as important to demonstrate cost effectiveness as policy makers strive to get the best value for money from increasingly limited public resources. Economic evaluation assists with making these investment decisions and whilst it can offer considerable support in many healthcare contexts, applying it to a childhood obesity context is not straightforward. Childhood obesity is a complex disease with interventions being multi-component in nature. Furthermore, the interventions are implemented in a variety of settings such as schools, the community, and the home, and have costs and benefits that fall outside the health sector. This paper provides a reflection from a UK perspective on the application of the conventional approach to economic evaluation to childhood obesity. It offers suggestions for how evaluations should be designed to fit better within this context, and to meet the needs of local decision makers. An excellent example is the need to report costs using a micro-costing format and for benefit measurement to go beyond a health focus. This is critical as the organisation and commissioning of childhood obesity services is done from a Local Authority setting and this presents further challenges for what is the most appropriate economic evaluation approach to use. Given that adult obesity is now of epidemic proportions, the accurate assessment of childhood obesity interventions to support public health decision making is critical.

  6. Pre-hospital Obstacles in Thrombolytic Therapy and Suggested Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Tekin Güveli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute ischemic stroke is frequently encountered in emergency neurology clinics. Especially when administered within 3 hours of symptom onset, thrombolytic therapy is important in reducing ischemic injury and neurological disability. In this study, we aimed to investigate the demographic and clinical characteristics according to application time, to identify situations which pose an obstacle to thrombolytic therapy and to review the thrombolytic therapy results in patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: The patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke were evaluated and their age, gender, complaints, risk factors, previous history of stroke, with whom they live, how they arrived at the hospital and their application time information were recorded. Those who were admitted within 3 hours of symptom onset were assessed as early, those admitted after 3 hours were assessed as late admission. Then the rate of thrombolytic therapy, final results and the clinical status in early admission patients and the reasons for delay in late admission patients were discussed. RESULTS: Among 361 acute ischemic stroke patients, the mean age was 66±14,1. 111 patients were admitted within 3 hours of symptom onset, 246 patients were admitted after three hours. Patients arriving to emergency room with 112 Ambulance Service were admitted earlier than those brought in by family, and this difference was statistically significant. The most common causes of time loss in late admissions were the patients being referred from other centers and the unawareness of family about the importance of the disease. There were 13 patients treated with thrombolytic therapy, and complications occurred in one patient. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Thrombolytic therapy is important in acute ischemic stroke for suitable patients.Our study suggested that the most important factors in spreading of performing the thrombolytic therapy are informing the public about

  7. Niche convergence suggests functionality of the nocturnal fovea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian L. Moritz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The fovea is a declivity of the retinal surface associated with maximum visual acuity. Foveae are widespread across vertebrates, but among mammals they are restricted to haplorhine primates (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans, which are primarily diurnal. Thus primates have long contributed to the prevailing view that the fovea is a functional adaptation to diurnal color vision. The foveae of nocturnal taxa, such as tarsiers, are widely interpreted as vestigial traits and therefore evidence of a diurnal ancestry. This enduring premise has been central to adaptive hypotheses on the origins of anthropoid primates; however, the question of whether the fovea of tarsiers is a functionless anachronism or a nocturnal adaptation remains open. To address this question, we focused on the diets of tarsiers (Tarsius and scops owls (Otus, two taxa united by numerous anatomical homoplasies, including foveate vision. A functional interpretation of these homoplasies predicts dietary convergence and competition. This prediction can be tested with an analysis of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in tissues, which integrate dietary information. As predicted, the isotopic niches of Tarsius and Otus overlapped. In both Borneo and the Philippines, the δ13C values were indistinguishable, whereas the δ15N values of Otus were marginally higher than those of Tarsius. Our results indicate that both diets consisted mainly of ground-dwelling prey and raise the possibility of some resource partitioning. Taken together, our isotopic analysis supports a functional interpretation of the many homoplasies shared by tarsiers and scops owls, including a retinal fovea. We suggest that the fovea might function similarly in tarsiers and scops owls by calibrating the auditory localization pathway. The integration of auditory localization and visual fixation during prey detection and acquisition might be critical at low light levels.

  8. Precise synaptic efficacy alignment suggests potentiation dominated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eHartmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that parallel synapses from the same axonal branch onto the same dendritic branch have almost identical strength. It has been proposed that this alignment is only possible through learning rules that integrate activity over long time spans. However, learning mechanisms such as spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP are commonly assumed to be temporally local. Here, we propose that the combination of temporally local STDP and a multiplicative synaptic normalization mechanism is sufficient to explain the alignment of parallel synapses.To address this issue, we introduce three increasingly complex models: First, we model the idealized interaction of STDP and synaptic normalization in a single neuron as a simple stochastic process and derive analytically that the alignment effect can be described by a so-called Kesten process. From this we can derive that synaptic efficacy alignment requires potentiation-dominated learning regimes. We verify these conditions in a single-neuron model with independent spiking activities but more realistic synapses. As expected, we only observe synaptic efficacy alignment for long-term potentiation-biased STDP. Finally, we explore how well the findings transfer to recurrent neural networks where the learning mechanisms interact with the correlated activity of the network. We find that due to the self-reinforcing correlations in recurrent circuits under STDP, alignment occurs for both long-term potentiation- and depression-biased STDP, because the learning will be potentiation dominated in both cases due to the potentiating events induced by correlated activity. This is in line with recent results demonstrating a dominance of potentiation over depression during waking and normalization during sleep. This leads us to predict that individual spine pairs will be more similar in the morning than they are after sleep depriviation.In conclusion, we show that synaptic normalization in conjunction with

  9. Suggestions for revised definitions of noise quantities, including quantum effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, A. R.

    1999-03-01

    Recent advances in millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength receivers and the development of low-noise optical amplifiers focus attention on inconsistencies and ambiguities in the standard definitions of noise quantities and the procedures for measuring them. The difficulty is caused by the zero-point (quantum) noise hf/2 W/Hz, which is present even at absolute zero temperature, and also by the nonlinear dependence at low temperature of the thermal noise power of a resistor on its physical temperature, as given by the Planck law. Until recently, these effects were insignificant in all but the most exotic experiments, and the familiar Rayleigh-Jeans noise formula P=kT W/Hz could safely be used in most situations, Now, particularly in low-noise millimeter-wave and photonic devices, the quantum noise is prominent and the nonlinearity of the Planck law can no longer be neglected. The IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms gives several definitions of the noise temperature of a resistor or a port, which include: 1) the physical temperature of the resistor and 2) its available noise power density divided by Boltzmann's constant-definitions which are incompatible because of the nature of the Planck radiation law. In addition, there is no indication of whether the zero-point noise should be included as part of the noise temperature. Revised definitions of the common noise quantities are suggested, which resolve the shortcomings of the present definitions. The revised definitions have only a small effect on most RF and microwave measurements, but they provide a common consistent noise terminology from dc to light frequencies.

  10. Opsin clines in butterflies suggest novel roles for insect photopigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentiu, Francesca D; Yuan, Furong; Savage, Wesley K; Bernard, Gary D; Mullen, Sean P; Briscoe, Adriana D

    2015-02-01

    Opsins are ancient molecules that enable animal vision by coupling to a vitamin-derived chromophore to form light-sensitive photopigments. The primary drivers of evolutionary diversification in opsins are thought to be visual tasks related to spectral sensitivity and color vision. Typically, only a few opsin amino acid sites affect photopigment spectral sensitivity. We show that opsin genes of the North American butterfly Limenitis arthemis have diversified along a latitudinal cline, consistent with natural selection due to environmental factors. We sequenced single nucleotide (SNP) polymorphisms in the coding regions of the ultraviolet (UVRh), blue (BRh), and long-wavelength (LWRh) opsin genes from ten butterfly populations along the eastern United States and found that a majority of opsin SNPs showed significant clinal variation. Outlier detection and analysis of molecular variance indicated that many SNPs are under balancing selection and show significant population structure. This contrasts with what we found by analysing SNPs in the wingless and EF-1 alpha loci, and from neutral amplified fragment length polymorphisms, which show no evidence of significant locus-specific or genome-wide structure among populations. Using a combination of functional genetic and physiological approaches, including expression in cell culture, transgenic Drosophila, UV-visible spectroscopy, and optophysiology, we show that key BRh opsin SNPs that vary clinally have almost no effect on spectral sensitivity. Our results suggest that opsin diversification in this butterfly is more consistent with natural selection unrelated to spectral tuning. Some of the clinally varying SNPs may instead play a role in regulating opsin gene expression levels or the thermostability of the opsin protein. Lastly, we discuss the possibility that insect opsins might have important, yet-to-be elucidated, adaptive functions in mediating animal responses to abiotic factors, such as temperature or photoperiod.

  11. Suggestions on the development strategy of shale gas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhong Dong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From the aspects of shale gas resource condition, main exploration and development progress, important breakthrough in key technologies and equipment, this paper systematically summarized and analyzed current situation of shale gas development in China and pointed out five big challenges such as misunderstandings, lower implementation degree and higher economic uncertainty of shale gas resource, and still no breakthrough in exploration and development core technologies and equipment for shale gas buried depth more than 3500 m, higher cost and other non-technical factors that restrict the development pace. Aiming at the above challenges, we put forward five suggestions to promote the shale gas development in China: (1 Make strategies and set goals according to our national conditions and exploration and development stages. That is, make sure to realize shale gas annual production of 20 × 109 m3, and strives to reach 30 × 109 m3. (2 Attach importance to the research of accumulation and enrichment geological theory and exploration & development key engineering technologies for lower production and lower pressure marine shale gas reservoir, and at the same time orderly promote the construction of non-marine shale gas exploration & development demonstration areas. (3 The government should introduce further policies and set special innovation funds to support the companies to carry out research and development of related technologies and equipment, especially to strengthen the research and development of technology, equipment and process for shale gas bellow 3500 m in order to achieve breakthrough in deep shale gas. (4 Continue to promote the geological theory, innovation in technology and management, and strengthen cost control on drilling, fracturing and the whole process in order to realize efficient, economic and scale development of China's shale gas. (5 Reform the mining rights management system, establish information platform of shale

  12. Genome of the Actinomycete Plant Pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus Suggests Recent Niche Adaptation▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Stephen D.; Corton, Craig; Brown, Susan E.; Barron, Andrew; Clark, Louise; Doggett, Jon; Harris, Barbara; Ormond, Doug; Quail, Michael A.; May, Georgiana; Francis, David; Knudson, Dennis; Parkhill, Julian; Ishimaru, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus is a plant-pathogenic bacterium and the causative agent of bacterial ring rot, a devastating agricultural disease under strict quarantine control and zero tolerance in the seed potato industry. This organism appears to be largely restricted to an endophytic lifestyle, proliferating within plant tissues and unable to persist in the absence of plant material. Analysis of the genome sequence of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus and comparison with the genome sequences of related plant pathogens revealed a dramatic recent evolutionary history. The genome contains 106 insertion sequence elements, which appear to have been active in extensive rearrangement of the chromosome compared to that of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. There are 110 pseudogenes with overrepresentation in functions associated with carbohydrate metabolism, transcriptional regulation, and pathogenicity. Genome comparisons also indicated that there is substantial gene content diversity within the species, probably due to differential gene acquisition and loss. These genomic features and evolutionary dating suggest that there was recent adaptation for life in a restricted niche where nutrient diversity and perhaps competition are low, correlated with a reduced ability to exploit previously occupied complex niches outside the plant. Toleration of factors such as multiplication and integration of insertion sequence elements, genome rearrangements, and functional disruption of many genes and operons seems to indicate that there has been general relaxation of selective pressure on a large proportion of the genome. PMID:18192393

  13. Genome of the actinomycete plant pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus suggests recent niche adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Stephen D; Corton, Craig; Brown, Susan E; Barron, Andrew; Clark, Louise; Doggett, Jon; Harris, Barbara; Ormond, Doug; Quail, Michael A; May, Georgiana; Francis, David; Knudson, Dennis; Parkhill, Julian; Ishimaru, Carol A

    2008-03-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus is a plant-pathogenic bacterium and the causative agent of bacterial ring rot, a devastating agricultural disease under strict quarantine control and zero tolerance in the seed potato industry. This organism appears to be largely restricted to an endophytic lifestyle, proliferating within plant tissues and unable to persist in the absence of plant material. Analysis of the genome sequence of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus and comparison with the genome sequences of related plant pathogens revealed a dramatic recent evolutionary history. The genome contains 106 insertion sequence elements, which appear to have been active in extensive rearrangement of the chromosome compared to that of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. There are 110 pseudogenes with overrepresentation in functions associated with carbohydrate metabolism, transcriptional regulation, and pathogenicity. Genome comparisons also indicated that there is substantial gene content diversity within the species, probably due to differential gene acquisition and loss. These genomic features and evolutionary dating suggest that there was recent adaptation for life in a restricted niche where nutrient diversity and perhaps competition are low, correlated with a reduced ability to exploit previously occupied complex niches outside the plant. Toleration of factors such as multiplication and integration of insertion sequence elements, genome rearrangements, and functional disruption of many genes and operons seems to indicate that there has been general relaxation of selective pressure on a large proportion of the genome.

  14. Gestational Pityriasis Rosea: Suggestions for Approaching Affected Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastirli, Alexandra; Pasmatzi, Efstathia; Badavanis, George; Tsambaos, Dionysios

    2016-12-01

    pityriasis rosea, for intrauterine fetal death. All miscarrying women reportedly revealed an aggressive course of widespread eruption and severe constitutional symptoms; all of them had HHV-6 DNA in the plasma, placenta, skin lesions, and fetal tissues, whereas HHV-7 DNA was detected in the plasma and skin lesions in 3 out of 8 (37.5%) miscarrying women. HHV-6 DNA was found only in the plasma of 2 out of 31 women (6.45%) with normal pregnancy, whereas HHV-7 DNA was detected in the plasma of 3 (9.45%) and in the skin lesions of 2 women (6.45%) with normal pregnancy. The total abortion rate in women who developed pityriasis rosea during their pregnancy (13%) does not differ from that observed in the general population. Nevertheless, it is markedly higher in cases affected during the first 15 gestational weeks (57%) (4,5). Surprisingly, this devastating impact of pityriasis rosea on the outcome of pregnancy is almost completely unknown not only to the public but also to many members of the medical community. It is also largely unknown that, particularly during the first 15 gestational weeks, all pregnant women should avoid any contact with patients known to have pityriasis rosea. Since we have received a considerable number of requests for consultation with pregnant women with pityriasis rosea over the last few years, our group has compiled suggestions approaching the affected patients: 1. If an eruption suggestive for pityriasis rosea occurs in a pregnant woman, the following factors should be excluded: a. Exposure to drugs prior to the development of the rash (biologic agents, captopril, clonidine, hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, lamotrigine, nortriptyline, barbiturates, metronidazole, terbinafine, omeprazole, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and isotretinoin), which are capable of inducing a pityriasis rosea-like eruption (6) and b. Disorders included in the differential diagnosis (syphilis and infections due to parvovirus, herpes virus, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein

  15. Concentrations of mercury in tissues of striped dolphins suggest decline of pollution in Mediterranean open waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, A; Aguilar, A; Tornero, V; Drago, M

    2014-07-01

    The Mediterranean is a semi-enclosed sea subject to high mercury (Hg) pollution from both natural and anthropogenic sources. With the objective of discerning temporal changes in marine Hg pollution in the oceanic waters of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, we analysed liver and kidney from striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) collected during 2007-2009 and compared them with previous results from a similar sample from 1990-1993. The effect of body length and sex on tissue Hg concentrations was investigated to ensure an unbiased comparison between the periods. The Hg concentrations did not show significant sex-related differences in any tissue or period but were correlated positively with body length. Using body length as a covariate, Hg concentrations in liver and kidney were higher in 1990-1993 than in 2007-2009. This result suggests that measures to reduce emissions in Western European countries have been effective in reducing mercury pollution in Mediterranean open waters.

  16. Exceptional sea turtle nest records in 2011 suggest an underestimated nesting potential in Sicily (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Casale

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We report seven nesting events by loggerhead sea turtles in Sicily (Italy in 2011. In comparison to past records, this number is relatively high and may be at least in part due to an awareness campaign carried out in 2011 to solicit such reports. This suggests that Sicily may host a much higher nesting activity than previously thought and higher monitoring effort is recommended, especially in certain coastal tracts. Sand temperatures and incubation periods indicate that the beaches monitored so far in the southern coast are not optimal for development, resulting in low hatching success, and produce a majority of males. Five 2011 nests and two past nests from the same area had mtDNA haplotype CC-A2.1, the most common in the Mediterranean.

  17. Compensation in Swedish infrastructure projects and suggestions on policy improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Persson

    2015-07-01

    were never explicitly mentioned in permits, but in practice a ratio of 1:1 (often measured as area or length was usually applied. The compensation measures typically consisted in recreating the same kind of natural asset that was affected, in a location close to the damaged area. In the two cases specially studied, the road and railway planning processes were not properly adjusted to integrate compensation issues, resulting in unnecessary bureaucracy and insufficient co-ordination between different projects, such as between the environmental-impact assessment process and the compensation process or between closely related sub-projects in the same region. To meet the EU’s goal of no net loss of biodiversity, we suggest that policy requirements should be made stricter and that incentives for voluntary compensation should be created. In line with the goals of Swedish national transport policy and the European Landscape Convention, account should be taken of social and cultural aspects, and there should be a shift from a narrow focus on individual projects to a broader planning approach, since this would allow compensation measures to be taken where they can deliver the greatest environmental benefits.

  18. Cost comparisons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    How much does the LHC cost? And how much does this represent in other currencies? Below we present a table showing some comparisons with the cost of other projects. Looking at the figures, you will see that the cost of the LHC can be likened to that of three skyscrapers, or two seasons of Formula 1 racing! One year's budget of a single large F1 team is comparable to the entire materials cost of the ATLAS or CMS experiments.   Please note that all the figures are rounded for ease of reading.    CHF € $   LHC 4.6 billions 3 billions  4 billions   Space Shuttle Endeavour (NASA) 1.9 billion 1.3 billion 1.7 billion   Hubble Space Telescope (cost at launch – NASA/...

  19. Feeding Infants With Cleft Lip and/or Palate in Brazil: Suggestions to Improve Health Policy and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-Da-Silva-Lopes, VL; Xavier, AC; Klein-Antunes, D; Ferreira, ACRG; Tonocchi, R; Fett-Conte, AC; Silva, RN; Leiriao, VHV; Caramori, LPC; Magna, LA; Amstalden-Mendes, LG

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To verify feeding resources used prior to corrective surgery among cleft babies from Brazil and to discuss suggestions to improve common feeding problems around the world. Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at eight medical centers. Participants: A total of 215 parents or guardians of cleft children. Methods: Interview based upon a prevalidated questionnaire. The chi-square test and comparison of means by analysis of variance were used; significance level adopted w...

  20. Visual comparison for information visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Gleicher, M.

    2011-09-07

    Data analysis often involves the comparison of complex objects. With the ever increasing amounts and complexity of data, the demand for systems to help with these comparisons is also growing. Increasingly, information visualization tools support such comparisons explicitly, beyond simply allowing a viewer to examine each object individually. In this paper, we argue that the design of information visualizations of complex objects can, and should, be studied in general, that is independently of what those objects are. As a first step in developing this general understanding of comparison, we propose a general taxonomy of visual designs for comparison that groups designs into three basic categories, which can be combined. To clarify the taxonomy and validate its completeness, we provide a survey of work in information visualization related to comparison. Although we find a great diversity of systems and approaches, we see that all designs are assembled from the building blocks of juxtaposition, superposition and explicit encodings. This initial exploration shows the power of our model, and suggests future challenges in developing a general understanding of comparative visualization and facilitating the development of more comparative visualization tools. © The Author(s) 2011.

  1. Comparative skull analysis suggests species-specific captivity-related malformation in lions (Panthera leo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Saragusty

    Full Text Available Lion (Panthera leo populations have dramatically decreased worldwide with a surviving population estimated at 32,000 across the African savannah. Lions have been kept in captivity for centuries and, although they reproduce well, high rates of stillbirths as well as morbidity and mortality of neonate and young lions are reported. Many of these cases are associated with bone malformations, including foramen magnum (FM stenosis and thickened tentorium cerebelli. The precise causes of these malformations and whether they are unique to captive lions remain unclear. To test whether captivity is associated with FM stenosis, we evaluated 575 lion skulls of wild (N = 512 and captive (N = 63 origin. Tiger skulls (N = 276; 56 captive, 220 wild were measured for comparison. While no differences were found between males and females or between subadults and adults in FM height (FMH, FMH of captive lions (17.36±3.20 mm was significantly smaller and with greater variability when compared to that in wild lions (19.77±2.11 mm. There was no difference between wild (18.47±1.26 mm and captive (18.56±1.64 mm tigers in FMH. Birth origin (wild vs. captive as a factor for FMH remained significant in lions even after controlling for age and sex. Whereas only 20/473 wild lions (4.2% had FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile of the wild population (16.60 mm, this was evident in 40.4% (23/57 of captive lion skulls. Similar comparison for tigers found no differences between the captive and wild populations. Lions with FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile had wider skulls with smaller cranial volume. Cranial volume remained smaller in both male and female captive lions when controlled for skull size. These findings suggest species- and captivity-related predisposition for the pathology in lions.

  2. The Performance versus Ability Distinction Following Social Comparison Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Justin T.; LeBeau, Lavonia Smith; Klein, William M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that self-evaluations can be influenced by social comparison feedback. The present study tested whether social comparison feedback has stronger effects on self-evaluations of performance than ability. Participants received social comparison feedback indicating that they had performed above or below average. In addition…

  3. Do we really know how to evaluate tooth prognosis? A systematic review and suggested approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin-Sternfeld, Michal; Levin, Liran

    2013-05-01

    Periodontal treatment is based on tooth prognosis evaluation. Different approaches for determining tooth prognosis have been described in the literature. The vast majority are based on clinical and radiographic findings, as well as patient-related factors. The availability of various systems for assigning tooth prognosis complicates both the assignment process and the communication between clinicians regarding patient status and treatment plan. In addition, performance evaluation of several systems reveals that the accuracy of prediction differs between teeth of various conditions in most methods, as well as the factors providing significant predictive power. As a standardized prognostic classification system is still lacking, an overall evaluation based on a uniform dataset could provide an objective comparison of all methods, and help progress towards developing novel approaches. The main features of such approaches should include the selection of predictive factors, their assigned weights in accordance with different tooth conditions, and the estimated period of time applicable for reevaluation of prognosis. In this paper, we propose a different approach for prognosis evaluation, suggesting reevaluating tooth prognosis at several time points during the treatment plan, and taking into consideration some of the most important issues of patient compliance, oral hygiene, and plaque control. The suggested approach attempts to address prognosis from a different perspective, viewing the process as a dynamic and recurring evaluation embedded within each step of the treatment plan. Due to the fact that accurate tooth prognosis evaluation is still (and might forever be) unavailable, a more humble and less aggressive approach should be adopted, trying to preserve more and extract less.

  4. What do population-level welfare indices suggest about the well-being of zoo elephants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Georgia J; Veasey, Jake S

    2010-01-01

    To assess zoo elephants' welfare using objective population-level indices, we sought data from zoos and other protected populations (potential "benchmarks") on variables affected by poor well-being. Such data were available on fecundity, potential fertility, stillbirths, infant mortality, adult survivorship, and stereotypic behavior. Most of these can also be affected by factors unrelated to well-being; therefore, for each, we analyzed the potential role of these other factors. Population-level comparisons generally indicate poor reproduction, and poor infant and adult survivorship in zoos compared with benchmark populations (with some differences between zoo regions and over time). Stereotypic behavior also occurs in c. 60% of zoo elephants; as the population-level welfare index least open to alternative interpretations, this represents the strongest evidence that well-being is/has been widely compromised. Poor well-being is a parsimonious explanation for the diverse range of population-level effects seen, but to test this hypothesis properly, data are now needed on, for example, potential confounds that can affect these indices (to partition out effects of factors unrelated to well-being), and causes of the observed temporal effects, and differences between species and zoo regions. Regardless of whether such additional data implicate poor well-being, our findings suggest that elephant management has generally been sub-optimal. We also discuss the selection and utilization of benchmark data, as a useful future approach for evaluating such issues.

  5. Model selection approach suggests causal association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Zgaga

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC, but causal relationship has not yet been confirmed. We investigate the direction of causation between vitamin D and CRC by extending the conventional approaches to allow pleiotropic relationships and by explicitly modelling unmeasured confounders.Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD, genetic variants associated with 25-OHD and CRC, and other relevant information was available for 2645 individuals (1057 CRC cases and 1588 controls and included in the model. We investigate whether 25-OHD is likely to be causally associated with CRC, or vice versa, by selecting the best modelling hypothesis according to Bayesian predictive scores. We examine consistency for a range of prior assumptions.Model comparison showed preference for the causal association between low 25-OHD and CRC over the reverse causal hypothesis. This was confirmed for posterior mean deviances obtained for both models (11.5 natural log units in favour of the causal model, and also for deviance information criteria (DIC computed for a range of prior distributions. Overall, models ignoring hidden confounding or pleiotropy had significantly poorer DIC scores.Results suggest causal association between 25-OHD and colorectal cancer, and support the need for randomised clinical trials for further confirmations.

  6. Redox-Dependent Conformational Changes in Cytochrome c Oxidase Suggest a Gating Mechanism for Proton Uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Ling; Liu, Jian; Mills, Denise A.; Proshlyakov, Denis A.; Hiser, Carrie; Ferguson-Miller, Shelagh; (MSU)

    2009-08-05

    A role for conformational change in the coupling mechanism of cytochrome c oxidase is the subject of controversy. Relatively small conformational changes have been reported in comparisons of reduced and oxidized crystal structures of bovine oxidase but none in bacterial oxidases. Comparing the X-ray crystal structures of the reduced (at 2.15 {angstrom} resolution) and oxidized forms of cytochrome c oxidase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, we observe a displacement of heme a3 involving both the porphyrin ring and the hydroxyl farnesyl tail, accompanied by protein movements in nearby regions, including the mid part of helix VIII of subunit I which harbors key residues of the K proton uptake path, K362 and T359. The conformational changes in the reduced form are reversible upon reoxidation. They result in an opening of the top of the K pathway and more ordered waters being resolved in that region, suggesting an access path for protons into the active site. In all high-resolution structures of oxidized R. sphaeroides cytochrome c oxidase, a water molecule is observed in the hydrophobic region above the top of the D path, strategically positioned to facilitate the connection of residue E286 of subunit I to the active site or to the proton pumping exit path. In the reduced and reduced plus cyanide structures, this water molecule disappears, implying disruption of proton conduction from the D path under conditions when the K path is open, thus providing a mechanism for alternating access to the active site.

  7. Structures of Two Melanoma-Associated Antigens Suggest Allosteric Regulation of Effector Binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A Newman

    Full Text Available The MAGE (melanoma associated antigen protein family are tumour-associated proteins normally present only in reproductive tissues such as germ cells of the testis. The human genome encodes over 60 MAGE genes of which one class (containing MAGE-A3 and MAGE-A4 are exclusively expressed in tumours, making them an attractive target for the development of targeted and immunotherapeutic cancer treatments. Some MAGE proteins are thought to play an active role in driving cancer, modulating the activity of E3 ubiquitin ligases on targets related to apoptosis. Here we determined the crystal structures of MAGE-A3 and MAGE-A4. Both proteins crystallized with a terminal peptide bound in a deep cleft between two tandem-arranged winged helix domains. MAGE-A3 (but not MAGE-A4, is predominantly dimeric in solution. Comparison of MAGE-A3 and MAGE-A3 with a structure of an effector-bound MAGE-G1 suggests that a major conformational rearrangement is required for binding, and that this conformational plasticity may be targeted by allosteric binders.

  8. Adult Onset Vitiligo: Multivariate Analysis Suggests the Need for a Thyroid Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, L; Colucci, R; Cammi, A; Dragoni, F; Moretti, S

    2016-01-01

    Background. There are limited epidemiological studies evaluating the effect of age at onset on disease features in vitiligo. Objectives. To identify factors associated with adult onset vitiligo in comparison with childhood onset vitiligo. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively collected medical records of 191 patients. Such records included clinical examination, personal and familial medical history, laboratory evaluations, concomitant vitiligo treatment and drug assumption. Results. 123 patients with a disease onset after the age of 40 (adult onset vitiligo) were compared with 68 patients who developed vitiligo before the age of 12 (childhood onset vitiligo). Multivariate analysis revealed that personal history of thyroid diseases (P = 0.04; OR 0.4), stress at onset (P = 0.002; OR = 0.34), personal history of autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) (P = 0.003; OR = 0.23), and thyroid nodules (P = 0.001; OR 0.90) were independently associated with adult onset vitiligo, whereas family history of dermatological diseases (P = 0.003; OR = 2.87) and Koebner phenomenon (P < 0.001; OR = 4.73) with childhood onset vitiligo. Moreover, in the adult onset group, concomitant thyroid disease preceded vitiligo in a statistically significant number of patients (P = 0.014). Conclusions. Childhood onset and adult onset vitiligo have different clinical features. In particular, ATD and thyroid nodules were significantly associated with adult onset vitiligo, suggesting that a thyroid screening should be recommended in this group of patients.

  9. Vertical jumping performance of bonobo (Pan paniscus) suggests superior muscle properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Melanie N; D'Août, Kristiaan; Bobbert, Maarten F; Aerts, Peter

    2006-09-07

    Vertical jumping was used to assess muscle mechanical output in bonobos and comparisons were drawn to human jumping. Jump height, defined as the vertical displacement of the body centre of mass during the airborne phase, was determined for three bonobos of varying age and sex. All bonobos reached jump heights above 0.7 m, which greatly exceeds typical human maximal performance (0.3-0.4m). Jumps by one male bonobo (34 kg) and one human male (61.5 kg) were analysed using an inverse dynamics approach. Despite the difference in size, the mechanical output delivered by the bonobo and the human jumper during the push-off was similar: about 450 J, with a peak power output close to 3000 W. In the bonobo, most of the mechanical output was generated at the hips. To account for the mechanical output, the muscles actuating the bonobo's hips (directly and indirectly) must deliver muscle-mass-specific power and work output of 615 Wkg-1 and 92 Jkg-1, respectively. This was twice the output expected on the basis of muscle mass specific work and power in other jumping animals but seems physiologically possible. We suggest that the difference is due to a higher specific force (force per unit of cross-sectional area) in the bonobo.

  10. [Suggestion of new slice thickness mensuration using partial volume effect in magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tetsuya; Higashida, Mitsuji; Takatsu, Yasuo; Ogura, Akio

    2011-01-01

    The wedge and the slab methods are standard procedures as slice thickness mensuration of the MRI needs an expensive and exclusive phantom, and they are poor in versatility. We suggest a new method, that we call "differential edge response function method". This is a modified version of the partial method which Higashida and others proposed. In this method, we use an original phantom which has an acrylic disk on the bottom, and take an image of it while moving a slice position so it includes the disk part. We established the region of interest on an image set up and got the edge response function (ERF) from the mean signal intensity and relations of the Z position of the image. In this method, the effective slice thickness is the half width of the slice profile, which is differentiated ERF. This method can be measured even if the linearity of the signal intensity is poor compared to the partial method. It is possible to correct the alignment. In this method the measurement accuracy was approximately equal to the wedge method. This method is minimally influenced by signal-to-noise ratio in comparison with the wedge method. Furthermore, versatility is high, because it is simple and relatively easy to use.

  11. Characterization of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. NAC transcription factors suggests conserved functions compared to both monocots and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregersen Per L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The NAC transcription factor family is involved in the regulation of traits in both monocots and dicots of high agronomic importance. Understanding the precise functions of the NAC genes can be of utmost importance for the improvement of cereal crop plants through plant breeding. For the cereal crop plant barley (Hordeum vulgare L. only a few NAC genes have so far been investigated. Results Through searches in publicly available barley sequence databases we have obtained a list of 48 barley NAC genes (HvNACs with 43 of them representing full-length coding sequences. Phylogenetic comparisons to Brachypodium, rice, and Arabidopsis NAC proteins indicate that the barley NAC family includes members from all of the eight NAC subfamilies, although by comparison to these species a number of HvNACs still remains to be identified. Using qRT-PCR we investigated the expression profiles of 46 HvNACs across eight barley tissues (young flag leaf, senescing flag leaf, young ear, old ear, milk grain, late dough grain, roots, and developing stem and two hormone treatments (abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate. Conclusions Comparisons of expression profiles of selected barley NAC genes with the published functions of closely related NAC genes from other plant species, including both monocots and dicots, suggest conserved functions in the areas of secondary cell wall biosynthesis, leaf senescence, root development, seed development, and hormone regulated stress responses.

  12. Genomic survey, gene expression analysis and structural modeling suggest diverse roles of DNA methyltransferases in legumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Garg

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays a crucial role in development through inheritable gene silencing. Plants possess three types of DNA methyltransferases (MTases, namely Methyltransferase (MET, Chromomethylase (CMT and Domains Rearranged Methyltransferase (DRM, which maintain methylation at CG, CHG and CHH sites. DNA MTases have not been studied in legumes so far. Here, we report the identification and analysis of putative DNA MTases in five legumes, including chickpea, soybean, pigeonpea, Medicago and Lotus. MTases in legumes could be classified in known MET, CMT, DRM and DNA nucleotide methyltransferases (DNMT2 subfamilies based on their domain organization. First three MTases represent DNA MTases, whereas DNMT2 represents a transfer RNA (tRNA MTase. Structural comparison of all the MTases in plants with known MTases in mammalian and plant systems have been reported to assign structural features in context of biological functions of these proteins. The structure analysis clearly specified regions crucial for protein-protein interactions and regions important for nucleosome binding in various domains of CMT and MET proteins. In addition, structural model of DRM suggested that circular permutation of motifs does not have any effect on overall structure of DNA methyltransferase domain. These results provide valuable insights into role of various domains in molecular recognition and should facilitate mechanistic understanding of their function in mediating specific methylation patterns. Further, the comprehensive gene expression analyses of MTases in legumes provided evidence of their role in various developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle and response to various abiotic stresses. Overall, our study will be very helpful in establishing the specific functions of DNA MTases in legumes.

  13. Long distance linkage disequilibrium and limited hybridization suggest cryptic speciation in atlantic cod.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R Bradbury

    Full Text Available Hybrid zones provide unprecedented opportunity for the study of the evolution of reproductive isolation, and the extent of hybridization across individuals and genomes can illuminate the degree of isolation. We examine patterns of interchromosomal linkage disequilibrium (ILD and the presence of hybridization in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, in previously identified hybrid zones in the North Atlantic. Here, previously identified clinal loci were mapped to the cod genome with most (∼70% occurring in or associated with (<5 kb coding regions representing a diverse array of possible functions and pathways. Despite the observation that clinal loci were distributed across three linkage groups, elevated ILD was observed among all groups of clinal loci and strongest in comparisons involving a region of low recombination along linkage group 7. Evidence of ILD supports a hypothesis of divergence hitchhiking transitioning to genome hitchhiking consistent with reproductive isolation. This hypothesis is supported by Bayesian characterization of hybrid classes present and we find evidence of common F1 hybrids in several regions consistent with frequent interbreeding, yet little evidence of F2 or backcrossed individuals. This work suggests that significant barriers to hybridization and introgression exist among these co-occurring groups of cod either through strong selection against hybrid individuals, or genetic incompatibility and intrinsic barriers to hybridization. In either case, the presence of strong clinal trends, and little gene flow despite extensive hybridization supports a hypothesis of reproductive isolation and cryptic speciation in Atlantic cod. Further work is required to test the degree and nature of reproductive isolation in this species.

  14. Widespread sequence variations in VAMP1 across vertebrates suggest a potential selective pressure from botulinum neurotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lisheng; Adler, Michael; Demogines, Ann; Borrell, Andrew; Liu, Huisheng; Tao, Liang; Tepp, William H; Zhang, Su-Chun; Johnson, Eric A; Sawyer, Sara L; Dong, Min

    2014-07-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT/A-G), the most potent toxins known, act by cleaving three SNARE proteins required for synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Previous studies on BoNTs have generally utilized the major SNARE homologues expressed in brain (VAMP2, syntaxin 1, and SNAP-25). However, BoNTs target peripheral motor neurons and cause death by paralyzing respiratory muscles such as the diaphragm. Here we report that VAMP1, but not VAMP2, is the SNARE homologue predominantly expressed in adult rodent diaphragm motor nerve terminals and in differentiated human motor neurons. In contrast to the highly conserved VAMP2, BoNT-resistant variations in VAMP1 are widespread across vertebrates. In particular, we identified a polymorphism at position 48 of VAMP1 in rats, which renders VAMP1 either resistant (I48) or sensitive (M48) to BoNT/D. Taking advantage of this finding, we showed that rat diaphragms with I48 in VAMP1 are insensitive to BoNT/D compared to rat diaphragms with M48 in VAMP1. This unique intra-species comparison establishes VAMP1 as a physiological toxin target in diaphragm motor nerve terminals, and demonstrates that the resistance of VAMP1 to BoNTs can underlie the insensitivity of a species to members of BoNTs. Consistently, human VAMP1 contains I48, which may explain why humans are insensitive to BoNT/D. Finally, we report that residue 48 of VAMP1 varies frequently between M and I across seventeen closely related primate species, suggesting a potential selective pressure from members of BoNTs for resistance in vertebrates.

  15. Bone inner structure suggests increasing aquatic adaptations in Desmostylia (Mammalia, Afrotheria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Hayashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The paleoecology of desmostylians has been discussed controversially with a general consensus that desmostylians were aquatic or semi-aquatic to some extent. Bone microanatomy can be used as a powerful tool to infer habitat preference of extinct animals. However, bone microanatomical studies of desmostylians are extremely scarce. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the histology and microanatomy of several desmostylians using thin-sections and CT scans of ribs, humeri, femora and vertebrae. Comparisons with extant mammals allowed us to better understand the mode of life and evolutionary history of these taxa. Desmostylian ribs and long bones generally lack a medullary cavity. This trait has been interpreted as an aquatic adaptation among amniotes. Behemotops and Paleoparadoxia show osteosclerosis (i.e. increase in bone compactness, and Ashoroa pachyosteosclerosis (i.e. combined increase in bone volume and compactness. Conversely, Desmostylus differs from these desmostylians in displaying an osteoporotic-like pattern. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In living taxa, bone mass increase provides hydrostatic buoyancy and body trim control suitable for poorly efficient swimmers, while wholly spongy bones are associated with hydrodynamic buoyancy control in active swimmers. Our study suggests that all desmostylians had achieved an essentially, if not exclusively, aquatic lifestyle. Behemotops, Paleoparadoxia and Ashoroa are interpreted as shallow water swimmers, either hovering slowly at a preferred depth, or walking on the bottom, and Desmostylus as a more active swimmer with a peculiar habitat and feeding strategy within Desmostylia. Therefore, desmostylians are, with cetaceans, the second mammal group showing a shift from bone mass increase to a spongy inner organization of bones in their evolutionary history.

  16. Genomic survey, gene expression analysis and structural modeling suggest diverse roles of DNA methyltransferases in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rohini; Kumari, Romika; Tiwari, Sneha; Goyal, Shweta

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation plays a crucial role in development through inheritable gene silencing. Plants possess three types of DNA methyltransferases (MTases), namely Methyltransferase (MET), Chromomethylase (CMT) and Domains Rearranged Methyltransferase (DRM), which maintain methylation at CG, CHG and CHH sites. DNA MTases have not been studied in legumes so far. Here, we report the identification and analysis of putative DNA MTases in five legumes, including chickpea, soybean, pigeonpea, Medicago and Lotus. MTases in legumes could be classified in known MET, CMT, DRM and DNA nucleotide methyltransferases (DNMT2) subfamilies based on their domain organization. First three MTases represent DNA MTases, whereas DNMT2 represents a transfer RNA (tRNA) MTase. Structural comparison of all the MTases in plants with known MTases in mammalian and plant systems have been reported to assign structural features in context of biological functions of these proteins. The structure analysis clearly specified regions crucial for protein-protein interactions and regions important for nucleosome binding in various domains of CMT and MET proteins. In addition, structural model of DRM suggested that circular permutation of motifs does not have any effect on overall structure of DNA methyltransferase domain. These results provide valuable insights into role of various domains in molecular recognition and should facilitate mechanistic understanding of their function in mediating specific methylation patterns. Further, the comprehensive gene expression analyses of MTases in legumes provided evidence of their role in various developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle and response to various abiotic stresses. Overall, our study will be very helpful in establishing the specific functions of DNA MTases in legumes.

  17. Analysis of pea HMG-I/Y expression suggests a role in defence gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Steven J; Choi, Jane J; Hadwiger, Lee A

    2003-07-01

    SUMMARY HMG-I/Y proteins are characterized by the presence of AT-hook motifs, DNA binding domains that recognize AT-rich tracts of DNA. By facilitating protein:protein and protein:DNA interactions in the vicinity of these AT-rich binding sites, HMG-I/Y positively or negatively regulates gene expression. Several pea defence gene promoters have AT-rich tracts of DNA that are potential targets for modulation via HMG-I/Y. In this study, a comparison of the expression of a pea defence gene (DRR206) mRNA relative to the expression of HMG-I/Y mRNA was monitored by Northern analysis following the inoculation of a fungal pathogen, Fusarium solani or treatment with chitosan and a F. solani DNase (Fsph DNase). In pea pod endocarp tissue, HMG-I/Y expression was observed at high levels in untreated tissue and at lower levels 6 h following inoculation or wounding of the tissue. Western blots with an antipea HMG-I/Y polyclonal antibody also revealed that pea HMG-I/Y is expressed at decreased levels 6 h following inoculation or elicitor treatment. HMG-I/Y extracted from pea caused alterations in the gel migration of radio-labelled AT-rich sequences from the pea DRR206 promoter, suggesting that similar interactions could exist in vivo. Agroinfiltration was utilized to express the pea HMG-I/Y gene in tobacco containing a chimeric gene fusion of a promoter from the PR gene, DRR206, and the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Transient expression of pea HMG-I/Y led to a decrease in GUS reporter gene activity in the heterologous tobacco system. These data implicate pea HMG-I/Y abundance in the down-regulation of DRR206 gene expression, and possibly HMG-I/Y depletion in the expression of defence genes in pea.

  18. Genome-wide analysis of KAP1 binding suggests autoregulation of KRAB-ZNFs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette O'Geen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We performed a genome-scale chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-chip comparison of two modifications (trimethylation of lysine 9 [H3me3K9] and trimethylation of lysine 27 [H3me3K27] of histone H3 in Ntera2 testicular carcinoma cells and in three different anatomical sources of primary human fibroblasts. We found that in each of the cell types the two modifications were differentially enriched at the promoters of the two largest classes of transcription factors. Specifically, zinc finger (ZNF genes were bound by H3me3K9 and homeobox genes were bound by H3me3K27. We have previously shown that the Polycomb repressive complex 2 is responsible for mediating trimethylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 in human cancer cells. In contrast, there is little overlap between H3me3K9 targets and components of the Polycomb repressive complex 2, suggesting that a different histone methyltransferase is responsible for the H3me3K9 modification. Previous studies have shown that SETDB1 can trimethylate H3 on lysine 9, using in vitro or artificial tethering assays. SETDB1 is thought to be recruited to chromatin by complexes containing the KAP1 corepressor. To determine if a KAP1-containing complex mediates trimethylation of the identified H3me3K9 targets, we performed ChIP-chip assays and identified KAP1 target genes using human 5-kb promoter arrays. We found that a large number of genes of ZNF transcription factors were bound by both KAP1 and H3me3K9 in normal and cancer cells. To expand our studies of KAP1, we next performed a complete genomic analysis of KAP1 binding using a 38-array tiling set, identifying ~7,000 KAP1 binding sites. The identified KAP1 targets were highly enriched for C2H2 ZNFs, especially those containing Krüppel-associated box (KRAB domains. Interestingly, although most KAP1 binding sites were within core promoter regions, the binding sites near ZNF genes were greatly enriched within transcribed regions of the target genes. Because KAP1 is

  19. Do author-suggested reviewers rate submissions more favorably than editor-suggested reviewers? A study on atmospheric chemistry and physics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Bornmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ratings in journal peer review can be affected by sources of bias. The bias variable investigated here was the information on whether authors had suggested a possible reviewer for their manuscript, and whether the editor had taken up that suggestion or had chosen a reviewer that had not been suggested by the authors. Studies have shown that author-suggested reviewers rate manuscripts more favorably than editor-suggested reviewers do. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Reviewers' ratings on three evaluation criteria and the reviewers' final publication recommendations were available for 552 manuscripts (in total 1145 reviews that were submitted to Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, an interactive open access journal using public peer review (authors' and reviewers' comments are publicly exchanged. Public peer review is supposed to bring a new openness to the reviewing process that will enhance its objectivity. In the statistical analysis the quality of a manuscript was controlled for to prevent favorable reviewers' ratings from being attributable to quality instead of to the bias variable. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results agree with those from other studies that editor-suggested reviewers rated manuscripts between 30% and 42% less favorably than author-suggested reviewers. Against this backdrop journal editors should consider either doing without the use of author-suggested reviewers or, if they are used, bringing in more than one editor-suggested reviewer for the review process (so that the review by author-suggested reviewers can be put in perspective.

  20. Application of the ex-Gaussian function to the effect of the word blindness suggestion on Stroop task performance suggests no word blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Andrew Parris

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to apply the ex-Gaussian function to data reported by Parris et al. (2012 given its utility in studies involving the Stroop task. Parris et al. showed an effect of the word blindness suggestion when Response-Stimulus Interval (RSI was 500ms but not when it was 3500ms. Analysis revealed that: 1 The effect of the suggestion on interference is observed in µ, supporting converging evidence indicating the suggestion operates over response competition mechanisms; and, 2 Contrary to Parris et al., an effect of the suggestion was observed in µ when RSI was 3500ms. The reanalysis of the data from Parris et al. (2012 supports the utility of ex-Gaussian analysis in revealing effects that might otherwise be thought of as absent. We suggest that word reading itself is not suppressed by the suggestion but instead that response conflict is dealt with more effectively.

  1. Genome trees constructed using five different approaches suggest new major bacterial clades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatusov Roman L

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of multiple complete genome sequences from diverse taxa prompts the development of new phylogenetic approaches, which attempt to incorporate information derived from comparative analysis of complete gene sets or large subsets thereof. Such attempts are particularly relevant because of the major role of horizontal gene transfer and lineage-specific gene loss, at least in the evolution of prokaryotes. Results Five largely independent approaches were employed to construct trees for completely sequenced bacterial and archaeal genomes: i presence-absence of genomes in clusters of orthologous genes; ii conservation of local gene order (gene pairs among prokaryotic genomes; iii parameters of identity distribution for probable orthologs; iv analysis of concatenated alignments of ribosomal proteins; v comparison of trees constructed for multiple protein families. All constructed trees support the separation of the two primary prokaryotic domains, bacteria and archaea, as well as some terminal bifurcations within the bacterial and archaeal domains. Beyond these obvious groupings, the trees made with different methods appeared to differ substantially in terms of the relative contributions of phylogenetic relationships and similarities in gene repertoires caused by similar life styles and horizontal gene transfer to the tree topology. The trees based on presence-absence of genomes in orthologous clusters and the trees based on conserved gene pairs appear to be strongly affected by gene loss and horizontal gene transfer. The trees based on identity distributions for orthologs and particularly the tree made of concatenated ribosomal protein sequences seemed to carry a stronger phylogenetic signal. The latter tree supported three potential high-level bacterial clades,: i Chlamydia-Spirochetes, ii Thermotogales-Aquificales (bacterial hyperthermophiles, and ii Actinomycetes-Deinococcales-Cyanobacteria. The latter group also

  2. [Anemia: guidelines comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    The development of recombinant human erythropoietin and its introduction into the market in the late 1980s has significantly improved the quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and reduced the need for blood transfusions. Starting from a cautious target, a progressive increase in the recommended hemoglobin levels has been observed over the years, in parallel with an increase in the obtained levels. This trend has gone together with the publication of findings of observational studies showing a relationship between the increase in hemoglobin levels and a reduction in the mortality risk, with the conduction of clinical trials testing the effects of complete anemia correction, and with the compilation of guidelines on anemia control in CKD patients by scientific societies and organizations. In the last two years, evidence of a possible increase in the mortality risk in those patients who were randomized to high hemoglobin levels has resulted in a decrease in the upper limit of the recommended Hb target to be obtained with erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESA), and consequently in a narrowing of the target range. Comparison of guidelines on anemia control in CKD patients is an interesting starting point to discuss single recommendations, strengthen their importance, or suggest new topics of research to fill up important gaps in knowledge.

  3. The homeodomain complement of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi suggests that Ctenophora and Porifera diverged prior to the ParaHoxozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph F; Pang, Kevin; Mullikin, James C; Martindale, Mark Q; Baxevanis, Andreas D

    2010-10-04

    The much-debated phylogenetic relationships of the five early branching metazoan lineages (Bilateria, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Placozoa and Porifera) are of fundamental importance in piecing together events that occurred early in animal evolution. Comparisons of gene content between organismal lineages have been identified as a potentially useful methodology for phylogenetic reconstruction. However, these comparisons require complete genomes that, until now, did not exist for the ctenophore lineage. The homeobox superfamily of genes is particularly suited for these kinds of gene content comparisons, since it is large, diverse, and features a highly conserved domain. We have used a next-generation sequencing approach to generate a high-quality rough draft of the genome of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and subsequently identified a set of 76 homeobox-containing genes from this draft. We phylogenetically categorized this set into established gene families and classes and then compared this set to the homeodomain repertoire of species from the other four early branching metazoan lineages. We have identified several important classes and subclasses of homeodomains that appear to be absent from Mnemiopsis and from the poriferan Amphimedon queenslandica. We have also determined that, based on lineage-specific paralog retention and average branch lengths, it is unlikely that these missing classes and subclasses are due to extensive gene loss or unusually high rates of evolution in Mnemiopsis. This paper provides a first glimpse of the first sequenced ctenophore genome. We have characterized the full complement of Mnemiopsis homeodomains from this species and have compared them to species from other early branching lineages. Our results suggest that Porifera and Ctenophora were the first two extant lineages to diverge from the rest of animals. Based on this analysis, we also propose a new name - ParaHoxozoa - for the remaining group that includes Placozoa, Cnidaria and

  4. The homeodomain complement of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi suggests that Ctenophora and Porifera diverged prior to the ParaHoxozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Joseph F

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The much-debated phylogenetic relationships of the five early branching metazoan lineages (Bilateria, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Placozoa and Porifera are of fundamental importance in piecing together events that occurred early in animal evolution. Comparisons of gene content between organismal lineages have been identified as a potentially useful methodology for phylogenetic reconstruction. However, these comparisons require complete genomes that, until now, did not exist for the ctenophore lineage. The homeobox superfamily of genes is particularly suited for these kinds of gene content comparisons, since it is large, diverse, and features a highly conserved domain. Results We have used a next-generation sequencing approach to generate a high-quality rough draft of the genome of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and subsequently identified a set of 76 homeobox-containing genes from this draft. We phylogenetically categorized this set into established gene families and classes and then compared this set to the homeodomain repertoire of species from the other four early branching metazoan lineages. We have identified several important classes and subclasses of homeodomains that appear to be absent from Mnemiopsis and from the poriferan Amphimedon queenslandica. We have also determined that, based on lineage-specific paralog retention and average branch lengths, it is unlikely that these missing classes and subclasses are due to extensive gene loss or unusually high rates of evolution in Mnemiopsis. Conclusions This paper provides a first glimpse of the first sequenced ctenophore genome. We have characterized the full complement of Mnemiopsis homeodomains from this species and have compared them to species from other early branching lineages. Our results suggest that Porifera and Ctenophora were the first two extant lineages to diverge from the rest of animals. Based on this analysis, we also propose a new name - ParaHoxozoa - for

  5. The homeodomain complement of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi suggests that Ctenophora and Porifera diverged prior to the ParaHoxozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The much-debated phylogenetic relationships of the five early branching metazoan lineages (Bilateria, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Placozoa and Porifera) are of fundamental importance in piecing together events that occurred early in animal evolution. Comparisons of gene content between organismal lineages have been identified as a potentially useful methodology for phylogenetic reconstruction. However, these comparisons require complete genomes that, until now, did not exist for the ctenophore lineage. The homeobox superfamily of genes is particularly suited for these kinds of gene content comparisons, since it is large, diverse, and features a highly conserved domain. Results We have used a next-generation sequencing approach to generate a high-quality rough draft of the genome of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and subsequently identified a set of 76 homeobox-containing genes from this draft. We phylogenetically categorized this set into established gene families and classes and then compared this set to the homeodomain repertoire of species from the other four early branching metazoan lineages. We have identified several important classes and subclasses of homeodomains that appear to be absent from Mnemiopsis and from the poriferan Amphimedon queenslandica. We have also determined that, based on lineage-specific paralog retention and average branch lengths, it is unlikely that these missing classes and subclasses are due to extensive gene loss or unusually high rates of evolution in Mnemiopsis. Conclusions This paper provides a first glimpse of the first sequenced ctenophore genome. We have characterized the full complement of Mnemiopsis homeodomains from this species and have compared them to species from other early branching lineages. Our results suggest that Porifera and Ctenophora were the first two extant lineages to diverge from the rest of animals. Based on this analysis, we also propose a new name - ParaHoxozoa - for the remaining group that

  6. Physical appearance comparisons in ethnically diverse college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Lauren M; Thibodaux, Lia K; Krenik, Daniel; Arnold, Elysse; Thompson, J Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Research demonstrates ethnic differences in rates of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. Appearance comparison frequency is related to these outcomes, however, research has not examined possible ethnic differences in levels of appearance comparisons nor their relation to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. The current study examined the frequency of appearance comparisons and the strength of the relationships between appearance comparisons, appearance evaluation, and disordered eating among White, Black, and Hispanic women. Measures of appearance comparison, appearance evaluation, and disordered eating were administered to 895 college women. Compared with White and Hispanic women, Black women reported fewer appearance comparisons, more positive appearance evaluation, and lower levels of disordered eating. Associations between examined variables were generally weaker among Black women. Results suggest that the reduced frequency and impact of appearance comparisons may contribute to more positive appearance evaluation and reduced levels of disordered eating among Black women.

  7. Dimensional comparison theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Jens; Marsh, Herb W

    2013-07-01

    Although social comparison (Festinger, 1954) and temporal comparison (Albert, 1977) theories are well established, dimensional comparison is a largely neglected yet influential process in self-evaluation. Dimensional comparison entails a single individual comparing his or her ability in a (target) domain with his or her ability in a standard domain (e.g., "How good am I in math compared with English?"). This article reviews empirical findings from introspective, path-analytic, and experimental studies on dimensional comparisons, categorized into 3 groups according to whether they address the "why," "with what," or "with what effect" question. As the corresponding research shows, dimensional comparisons are made in everyday life situations. They impact on domain-specific self-evaluations of abilities in both domains: Dimensional comparisons reduce self-concept in the worse off domain and increase self-concept in the better off domain. The motivational basis for dimensional comparisons, their integration with recent social cognitive approaches, and the interdependence of dimensional, temporal, and social comparisons are discussed.

  8. Lysine conservation and context in TGFbeta and Wnt signaling suggest new targets and general themes for posttranslational modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikoff, Charlotte E; Wisotzkey, Robert G; Newfeld, Stuart J

    2008-10-01

    TGFbeta and Wnt pathways play important roles in the development of animals from sponges to humans. In both pathways posttranslational modification as a means of regulating their function, such as lysine modification by ubiquitination and sumoylation, has been observed. However, a gap exists between the immunological observation of posttranslational modification and the identification of the target lysine. To fill this gap, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of lysine conservation and context in TGFbeta and Wnt pathway receptors and signal transducers and suggest numerous high-probability candidates for posttranslational modification. Further comparison of results from both pathways suggests two general features for biochemical regulation of intercellular signaling: receptors are less frequent targets for modification than signal transduction agonists, and a lysine adjacent to an upstream hydrophobic residue may be a preferred context for modification. Overall the results suggest numerous applications for an evolutionary approach to the biochemical regulation of developmental pathways, including (1) streamlining of the identification of the target lysine, (2) determination of when members of a multigene family acquire distinct activities, (3) application to any conserved protein family, and (4) application to any modification of a specific amino acid.

  9. Meta-analysis of crowdsourced data compendia suggests pan-disease transcriptional signatures of autoimmunity [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Lau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proliferation of publicly accessible large-scale biological data together with increasing availability of bioinformatics tools have the potential to transform biomedical research. Here we report a crowdsourcing Jamboree that explored whether a team of volunteer biologists without formal bioinformatics training could use OMiCC, a crowdsourcing web platform that facilitates the reuse and (meta- analysis of public gene expression data, to compile and annotate gene expression data, and design comparisons between disease and control sample groups. Methods: The Jamboree focused on several common human autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, multiple sclerosis (MS, type I diabetes (DM1, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and the corresponding mouse models. Meta-analyses were performed in OMiCC using comparisons constructed by the participants to identify 1 gene expression signatures for each disease (disease versus healthy controls at the gene expression and biological pathway levels, 2 conserved signatures across all diseases within each species (pan-disease signatures, and 3 conserved signatures between species for each disease and across all diseases (cross-species signatures. Results: A large number of differentially expressed genes were identified for each disease based on meta-analysis, with observed overlap among diseases both within and across species. Gene set/pathway enrichment of upregulated genes suggested conserved signatures (e.g., interferon across all human and mouse conditions. Conclusions: Our Jamboree exercise provides evidence that when enabled by appropriate tools, a "crowd" of biologists can work together to accelerate the pace by which the increasingly large amounts of public data can be reused and meta-analyzed for generating and testing hypotheses. Our encouraging experience suggests that a similar crowdsourcing approach can be used to explore other biological questions.

  10. Task Characteristics and Target Choice in Social Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenflo, Daniel W.

    Festinger's (1954) theory of social comparison holds that in the absence of objective standards, people use the attitudes or judgments of similar others to determine the correctness of their own positions. More recent studies have suggested, however, that people often prefer dissimilar comparison targets. A study was undertaken to examine the…

  11. Acquisition of Comparison Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohaus, Vera; Tiemann, Sonja; Beck, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study on the time course of the acquisition of comparison constructions. The order in which comparison constructions (comparatives, measure phrases, superlatives, degree questions, etc.) show up in English- and German-learning children's spontaneous speech is quite fixed. It is shown to be insufficiently determined by…

  12. Satisfaction and 'comparison sharing'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2009-01-01

    the probability of satisfaction. Results show that comparison sharing impacts satisfaction for women, and that those women who share more equally than their peers are more likely to be satisfied, whereas comparison sharing has no influence on satisfaction for men. Also, parents are less likely to be satisfied...

  13. Routine endoscopy for esophageal cancer is suggestive for patients with oral, oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Han Hung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study attempted to reveal the incidence and risk of synchronous and metachronous esophageal cancer in subjects with oral, oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer based on a population-wide database in Taiwan. METHODS: We retrieved data for this cross-sectional study from the Taiwanese Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. The study group included 2,965 subjects who had received their first-time diagnosis of oral/oropharyngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer in 2002∼2009. We assigned the date of their first diagnosis of oral/oropharyngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer as the index date. We also randomly retrieved 29,650 comparison subjects matched with the study subjects in terms of gender and age group. We assigned their first medical utilization that occurred in the index year as the index date for the comparison group. We further performed a conditional logistic regression to investigate the association between esophageal cancer and oral cancer. RESULTS: Results showed that prevalences of esophageal cancer within 3 months before and after the index date were respectively 2.19% and 0.04% for the study and comparison groups. A conditional logistic regression revealed that the odds ratio (OR of esophageal cancer for subjects with oral/oropharyngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer was 55.33 (95% confidence interval (CI: 29.86∼102.52 compared to comparison subjects. Furthermore, compared to comparison subjects, ORs for esophageal cancer were respectively 18.41 (95% CI: 8.50-39.85, 40.49 (95% CI: 15.11∼108.64, and 240.96 (95% CI: 125.49-462.69 for study subjects with a malignancy of the oral cavity, oropharynx, and hypopharynx. CONCLUSION: We concluded that there were relatively high chances for synchronous and metachronous esophageal cancers being detected through panendoscopy in patients with oral, oropharyngeal, and hypopharyngeal cancers. The routine use of panendoscopy in such patients should be encouraged with a higher priority.

  14. 1978 Suggested Fungicide Guide: Fungicide Guide for Commercial Vegetable Growers. Circular 999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Barry; Shurtleff, M. C.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides and fungicides for the control of pests and disease by commercial vegetable growers. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of fungicides to control infestation in all crops of commercial importance. (CS)

  15. Data Processing: Fifteen Suggestions for Computer Training in Your Business Education Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Lowell L.

    1980-01-01

    Presents 15 suggestions for training business education students in the use of computers. Suggestions involve computer language, method of presentation, laboratory time, programing assignments, instructions and handouts, problem solving, deadlines, reviews, programming concepts, programming logic, documentation, and defensive programming. (CT)

  16. The Predictive Utility of Hypnotizability: The Change in Suggestibility Produced by Hypnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milling, Leonard S.; Coursen, Elizabeth L.; Shores, Jessica S.; Waszkiewicz, Jolanta A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The predictive utility of hypnotizability, conceptualized as the change in suggestibility produced by a hypnotic induction, was investigated in the suggested reduction of experimental pain. Method: One hundred and seventy-three participants were assessed for nonhypnotic imaginative suggestibility. Thereafter, participants experienced…

  17. The Predictive Utility of Hypnotizability: The Change in Suggestibility Produced by Hypnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milling, Leonard S.; Coursen, Elizabeth L.; Shores, Jessica S.; Waszkiewicz, Jolanta A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The predictive utility of hypnotizability, conceptualized as the change in suggestibility produced by a hypnotic induction, was investigated in the suggested reduction of experimental pain. Method: One hundred and seventy-three participants were assessed for nonhypnotic imaginative suggestibility. Thereafter, participants experienced…

  18. Statistical Group Comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Tim Futing

    2011-01-01

    An incomparably useful examination of statistical methods for comparisonThe nature of doing science, be it natural or social, inevitably calls for comparison. Statistical methods are at the heart of such comparison, for they not only help us gain understanding of the world around us but often define how our research is to be carried out. The need to compare between groups is best exemplified by experiments, which have clearly defined statistical methods. However, true experiments are not always possible. What complicates the matter more is a great deal of diversity in factors that are not inde

  19. Identifying the management barriers for establishing suggestions system: A case study of educational system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Nouri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Suggestions system is one of the new cooperative management plans, which affects making good decisions, self-confidence and employees occupational approval. The aim of this research is to survey the barriers for establishment of suggestion system. The proposed study designs and distributes a questionnaire among 195 out of 26550 managers who work for educational system in city of Kermanshah, Iran. The primary purpose of this survey is to learn whether lack of accepting any risk on behalf of management team, conflict of interest in management style, lack of belief on suggestions system in an organization are important barriers of executing suggestions system in an organization or not. The results of Freedman test confirm all seven components of the hypothesis. As a result, lack of accepting risk among management team is number one barrier in having suggestion system followed by existing conflict between management style and suggestions system and lack of management's belief to suggestions system, weakness in education for suggestions system and fear in management disruption because of having suggestions system. The other barriers coming in the last priority in terms of their relative importance include lack of management's support to suggestions system and weakness in management position because of accepting suggestions system.

  20. A qualitative investigation into the effects of pragmatic instruction on Iranian EFL learners’ production of suggestions and requests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maedeh Ghavamnia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that unlike grammatical errors, pragmatic errors may cause communication breakdown, studies in the area of interlanguage pragmatics have placed greater emphasis on the instruction of second/foreign language pragmatics. As thus, the present study investigated the relative effectiveness of four types of input-based instruction on the type of strategies the Iranian learners’ of English used in making suggestions and requests. Over a 16 week course, input delivered through video clips was enhanced through: a metapragmatic explanation (N=21, b form-comparison (N=21, c meaning-focused (N=28, and d typographically enhanced input at a university in Iran with female undergraduates majoring in English Translation. The four treatment groups were compared with a control group (N=15 on the strategies they used for making suggestions and requests on the pre-tests and post-tests, consisting of two production tasks: leaving a message on an answering machine and sending an email. The qualitative analysis of the utterances produced by the participants indicated that there was a great shift in the strategies the participants used from informal and inappropriate to appropriate strategies. The results are discussed with implications for classroom practices and future research.

  1. Diversity of murine norovirus in wild-rodent populations: species-specific associations suggest an ancient divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald B; McFadden, Nora; Blundell, Richard J; Meredith, Anna; Simmonds, Peter

    2012-02-01

    A survey of wild-rodent populations has revealed that murine norovirus (MNV) is present and diverse in wild-house mice Mus musculus. This virus is genetically similar to MNV infecting show mice and previously described variants circulating in laboratory mice. The detection of MNV in wild-mouse populations suggests that MNV infection of laboratory mice and show mice (from which laboratory mice are derived) derives from contact with or their origins from wild-mouse progenitors. The survey additionally identified frequent infection of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) with genetically divergent variants of MNV. These viruses are distinct from previously described MNV variants, differing by 22-23 % over the complete genome sequence compared with a maximum of 13 % between M. musculus-derived strains. Comparison with other noroviruses reveals that the Apodemus MNV groups with MNV in genogroup V and shares the same overall genome organization, predicted lengths of proteins encoded by ORFs 1-3 and the existence of a conserved alternative reading frame in VP1 encoding a homologue of the MNV ORF4. Different Apodemus MNV isolates were as variable as MNV isolates and showed evidence for inter-isolate recombination. Our observation of species-specific associations of MNV variants in wild populations suggests that murine noroviruses have an ancient origin, a feature that they may share with other norovirus genogroups.

  2. Investigation of genetic diversity and inbreeding in a Japanese native horse breed for suggestions on its conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onogi, Akio; Shirai, Kouichi; Amano, Tomoko

    2017-07-21

    Because native breeds can serve as genetic resources for adapting to environment changes, their conservation is important for future agroecosystems. Using pedigree analysis, we investigated genetic diversity and inbreeding in Japanese Hokkaido native horses, which have adapted to a cold climate and roughage diet. Genetic diversity was measured as the number of founders and the effective number of founders, ancestors and genomes. All metrics imply a decrease in genetic diversity. A comparison of these metrics suggested that pedigree bottlenecks contributed more than did random gene losses to the reduction of genetic diversity. Estimates of marginal contributions of ancestors suggest that the bottlenecks arose mainly because related stallions had been used for breeding. A tendency for an increase in inbreeding coefficients was observed. F-statistics revealed that a small effective population size majorly contributed to this increase, although non-random mating in particular regions also contributed. Because the bottlenecks are thought to have reduced the effective population size, our results imply that mitigation of bottlenecks is important for conservation. To this end, breeding should involve genetically diverse stallions. In addition, to prevent non-random mating observed in particular regions, efforts should be made to plan mating with consideration of kinships. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Genes related to inflammation and bone loss process in periodontitis suggested by bioinformatics methods

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite of numerous studies on periodontitis, the mechanism underlying the progression of periodontitis still remains largely unknown. This study aimed to have an expression profiling comparison between periodontitis and normal control and to identify more candidate genes involved in periodontitis and to gain more insights into the molecular mechanisms of periodontitis progression. Methods The gene expression profile of GSE16134, comprising 241 gingival tissue specimens and 69 heal...

  4. Public opinion: Country comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Debbie

    2015-11-01

    Climate change awareness, risk perception and policy support vary between and within countries. National-scale comparisons can help to explain this variability and be used to develop targeted interventions.

  5. Matrix comparison, Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Borlund, Pia

    2007-01-01

    The present two-part article introduces matrix comparison as a formal means for evaluation purposes in informetric studies such as cocitation analysis. In the first part, the motivation behind introducing matrix comparison to informetric studies, as well as two important issues influencing...... such comparisons, matrix generation, and the composition of proximity measures, are introduced and discussed. In this second part, the authors introduce and thoroughly demonstrate two related matrix comparison techniques the Mantel test and Procrustes analysis, respectively. These techniques can compare...... important. Alternatively, or as a supplement, Procrustes analysis compares the actual ordination results without investigating the underlying proximity measures, by matching two configurations of the same objects in a multidimensional space. An advantage of the Procrustes analysis though, is the graphical...

  6. Correlation between white matter microstructure and executive functions suggests early developmental influence on long fibre tracts in preterm born adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Brigitte; Lundequist, Aiko; Mårtensson, Gustaf; Nagy, Zoltan; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte; Forssberg, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Executive functions are frequently a weakness in children born preterm. We examined associations of executive functions and general cognitive abilities with brain structure in preterm born adolescents who were born with appropriate weight for gestational age and who have no radiological signs of preterm brain injury on neuroimaging. The Stockholm Neonatal Project (SNP) is a longitudinal, population-based study of children born preterm (born and 94 full term participants underwent psychological assessment (general intelligence, executive function measures). Of these, 71 preterm and 63 full term participants underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) at mean 15.2 years (range 12-18 years), including 3D T1-weighted images for volumetric analyses and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) for assessment of white matter microstructure. Group comparisons of regional grey and white matter volumes and fractional anisotropy (FA, as a measure of white matter microstructure) and, within each group, correlation analyses of cognitive measures with MRI metrics were carried out. Significant differences in grey and white matter regional volumes and widespread differences in FA were seen between the two groups. No significant correlations were found between cognitive measures and brain volumes in any group after correction for multiple comparisons. However, there were significant correlations between FA in projection fibres and long association fibres, linking frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes, and measures of executive function and general cognitive abilities in the preterm born adolescents, but not in the term born adolescents. In persons born preterm, in the absence of perinatal brain injury on visual inspection of MRI, widespread alterations in regional brain tissue volumes and microstructure are present in adolescence/young adulthood. Importantly, these alterations in WM tracts are correlated with measures of executive function and general cognitive abilities. Our

  7. A hierarchical recurrent encoder-decoder for generative context-aware query suggestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sordoni, Alessandro; Bengio, Yoshua; Vahabi, Hossein;

    2015-01-01

    awareness is challenging due to data sparsity. We present a probabilistic suggestion model that is able to account for sequences of previous queries of arbitrary lengths. Our novel hierarchical recurrent encoder-decoder architecture allows the model to be sensitive to the order of queries in the context...... while avoiding data sparsity. Additionally, our model can suggest for rare, or long-tail, queries. The produced suggestions are synthetic and are sampled one word at a time, using computationally cheap decoding techniques. This is in contrast to current synthetic suggestion models relying upon machine...

  8. Stable isotopes suggest differences in diet between historic and reintroduced Przewalskís horses in the Gobi desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnik Šturm, Martina; Spasskaya, Natalia N.; Sablin, Mikhail V.; Voigt, Christian C.; Kaczensky, Petra

    2016-04-01

    In historic times, two wild equid species, the Przewalski᾽s horse (PH; Equus ferus przewalskii) and the Asiatic wild ass (khulan, KH; Equus hemionus), roamed the Eurasian steppes. By the end of the 1960s, PHs had been driven to extinction in the wild and the range of KHs became severely restricted to the least productive habitats. However, PHs survived in captivity and reintroductions since the 1990s have brought the species back to parts of its native range in Mongolia and northern China where they again overlap with KHs. Ecological research on PHs and KHs has increased in recent years, but very little information is available on the ecology of the original PHs prior to extinction in the wild. We applied stable isotope analysis (13C, 15N, and 2H) of segmentally cut tail hair of PHs and KHs, collected during expeditions in NW China and SW Mongolia in 1889-1899, to draw inferences about the species feeding ecology. We compared tail hair isotope patterns of historic individuals to those of their extant counterparts from the Mongolian Gobi. A previous study of isotopic tail hair signatures of extant PHs (N=6) and KHs (N=6) suggested species specific differences in diet, with PHs being year-round grazers, but KHs switching between being grazers in summer and mixed feeders in winter (Burnik Šturm et al., in prep.). The comparison of isotope patterns of extant with historic samples confirms diet seasonality in historic KHs (N=3), but detects the same seasonality in five out of six PHs, suggesting that historic PHs had a different isotopic dietary niche than extant PHs. While we are still unable to fully understand the underlying reasons for this change in PHs, our results clearly suggest that the isotopic dietary niche of PHs was wider in the past, suggesting a higher diet flexibility, and overlapped with that of KHs, suggesting a high competition potential over Gobi pastures between the two equid species in historic times. Reference: Burnik Šturm, M., Ganbaatar, O

  9. Suggested Activities on Sociological Health Problems: Drugs, Alcoholism, Smoking for Student Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samalonis, Bernice

    This is a list of recommendations for a neophyte teacher for discussions with students on drugs, alcoholism, and smoking. Included are suggested readings, suggested questions for the school's drug education coordinator, recommended readings, and New York sources of information. (Related document is SP 006 468.) (JA)

  10. 77 FR 12903 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental Cooperation Agreement ACTION: Notice of preparation of the 2012-2014 U.S.-Chile Environmental Cooperation Work Program... suggestions regarding items for inclusion in a new work program for implementing the U.S.-Chile...

  11. Why Did Early Industrial Capitalists Suggest Minimum Wages and Social Insurance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    of Aachen (Prussian Rhineprovince) suggested to implement collective labour rules regulating working hours and wages. In the 1860s – 20 years before Bismarck – they proposed a mandatory pension system with equal contributions of employers and employees; they suggested labour conflict resolution by joint...

  12. Why Did Early Industrial Capitalists Suggest Minimum Wages and Social Insurance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    of Aachen (Prussian Rhineprovince) suggested to implement collective labour rules regulating working hours and wages. In the 1860s –20 years before Bismarck– they proposed a mandatory pension system with equal contributions of employers and employees; they suggested labour conflict resolution by joint...

  13. Undergraduate Psychology Students' Knowledge and Exposure to School Psychology: Suggestions for Diversifying the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Gubi, Aaron A.; Fan, Chung-Hau; Hansmann, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Trainers within school psychology have struggled to recruit racial/ethnic minority graduate students, with a recent demographic survey suggesting that racial/ethnic minorities comprise 9.3% of school-based practitioners (Curtis, Castillo, & Gelley, 2012). Furthermore, research has suggested that school psychology training programs have also…

  14. Mediation and Moderation of Psychological Pain Treatments: Response Expectancies and Hypnotic Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milling, Leonard S.; Reardon, John M.; Carosella, Gina M.

    2006-01-01

    The mediator role of response expectancies and the moderator role of hypnotic suggestibility were evaluated in the analogue treatment of pain. Approximately 1,000 participants were assessed for hypnotic suggestibility. Later, as part of a seemingly unrelated experiment, 188 of these individuals were randomly assigned to distraction,…

  15. The Journal of Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching, Volume 3, Number 1, Spring 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Donald H., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Contents of this issue are as follows: "Applied Suggestology in the United States: Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching" by Dean F. Held; "A Study of Suggestopedia Features that Can Be Omitted Once Students Learn How to Learn" by D.H. Schuster and P.J. Wardell; "Evaluation of the Suggestive-Accelerative Lozanov…

  16. The Journal of Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching, Volume 3, Number 2, Summer 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Donald H., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Contents of this issue are as follows: "Suggestopedia: The Use of Music and Suggestion in Learning and Hypermnesia:" by Elizabeth Risova Philipov; "A Two Year Evaluation of the Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching (SALT) Method in Central Iowa Public Schools" by D.H. Schuster and R.A. Prichard; "Improving Lecturer…

  17. Suggestions To Buy: Television Commercials from the U.S., Japan, China, and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Richard; And Others

    This study examined the differences in the use of language in television commercials from the United States, Japan, South Korea, and China to persuade viewers (consumers) to buy a product. Because cultural norms in these East Asian nations favor indirectness when suggesting or recommending, it was hypothesized that: 1) suggestions would be more…

  18. Social and Economic Indicators of Rural Development from a Sociological Viewpoint. A Suggested Empirical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Leslie D.; And Others

    An empirical approach to the development of a system of social indicators was suggested in this paper. The paper also suggested research developed around a more inductive approach to social indicator research with 3 methodological phases representing increasing levels of methodological sophistication. The first steps attempted to conceptualize…

  19. Suggested Model (Related to the Student Portfolio) Used in Evaluation the Students in University Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasneh, Omar M.; Murad, Odeh S.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a suggested model related to the student's portfolio used in evaluating the students in the university courses. After revising the theoretical literature and previous studies, two tools of the study have been constructed: Suggested model related to the student portfolio, and identifying the specifications towards using…

  20. Better Contextual Suggestions in ClueWeb12 Using Domain Knowledge Inferred from The Open Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Samar (Thaer); A. Bellogín Kouki (Alejandro); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractThis paper provides an overview of our participation in the Contextual Suggestion Track. The TREC 2014 Contextual Suggestion Track allowed participants to submit personalized rankings using documents either from the Open Web or from an archived, static Web collection (ClueWeb12)

  1. Competence-Based System Self-Study System for Suggesting Study Materials Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitchot, Athitaya; Gilbert, Lester; Wills, Gary B.

    2014-01-01

    The article proposes a self-study system which suggests web links to learners. The suggestions depend upon the learner's chosen competences selected from a competence structure for a particular knowledge domain. Three experiments were conducted, where the first compared the perceived usefulness and value of the links generated by different…

  2. Maltreatment increases spontaneous false memories but decreases suggestion-induced false memories in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Muris, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We examined the creation of spontaneous and suggestion-induced false memories in maltreated and non-maltreated children. Maltreated and non-maltreated children were involved in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory paradigm where they studied and remembered negative and neutral word lists. Suggest

  3. How to Apply the Psychological Suggestion to the Rural Junior English Classroom Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨六兰; Yang; Man’li

    2015-01-01

    In order to fill the gap between the rural and the urban junior English classroom teaching,this paper gives the suggestion to the educators to adopt psychological suggestion methods to arise the motivation of these poor students and improve their English scores when updating the knowledge structure and the teaching organization,improving teaching arts and capabilities.

  4. Undergraduate Psychology Students' Knowledge and Exposure to School Psychology: Suggestions for Diversifying the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Gubi, Aaron A.; Fan, Chung-Hau; Hansmann, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Trainers within school psychology have struggled to recruit racial/ethnic minority graduate students, with a recent demographic survey suggesting that racial/ethnic minorities comprise 9.3% of school-based practitioners (Curtis, Castillo, & Gelley, 2012). Furthermore, research has suggested that school psychology training programs have also…

  5. The Journal of Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching, Volume 3, Number 2, Summer 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Donald H., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Contents of this issue are as follows: "Suggestopedia: The Use of Music and Suggestion in Learning and Hypermnesia:" by Elizabeth Risova Philipov; "A Two Year Evaluation of the Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching (SALT) Method in Central Iowa Public Schools" by D.H. Schuster and R.A. Prichard; "Improving Lecturer Performance Through…

  6. The Journal of Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching, Volume 3, Number 1, Spring 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Donald H., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Contents of this issue are as follows: "Applied Suggestology in the United States: Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching" by Dean F. Held; "A Study of Suggestopedia Features that Can Be Omitted Once Students Learn How to Learn" by D.H. Schuster and P.J. Wardell; "Evaluation of the Suggestive-Accelerative Lozanov Teaching (SALT) Method in…

  7. Oxytocin impedes the effect of the word blindness post-hypnotic suggestion on Stroop task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, Benjamin A; Dienes, Zoltan; Bate, Sarah; Gothard, Stace

    2014-07-01

    The ability to enhance sensitivity to relevant (post)hypnotic suggestions has implications for creating clinically informed analogues of psychological and neuropsychological conditions and for the use of hypnotic interventions in psychological and medical conditions. The aim of this study was to test the effect of oxytocin inhalation on a post-hypnotic suggestion that previously has been shown to improve the selectivity of attention in the Stroop task. In a double-blind placebo-controlled between-subjects study, medium hypnotizable individuals performed the Stroop task under normal conditions and when they had been given a post-hypnotic suggestion that they would perceive words as meaningless symbols. In line with previous research, Stroop interference was substantially reduced by the suggestion in the placebo condition. However, contrary to expectations, oxytocin impeded the effect of the word blindness suggestion on performance. The results are explained in terms of the requirement for the re-implementation of the word blindness suggestion on a trial-by-trial basis and the need to sustain activation of the suggestion between trials. The findings contrast with a recent study showing a beneficial effect of oxytocin on sensitivity to (post)hypnotic suggestions but are consistent with findings showing a detrimental effect of oxytocin on memory processes. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Effects of Differences in Suggestibility within Self- and External-Control Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souheaver, Gary T.; Schuldt, W. John

    1978-01-01

    Studied effects of suggestibility on performance within self- and external-control conditions. Subjects were assigned to experimental conditions--self-control, external-control, and no reward. Response rates of self and external groups were highest. Response rates of high-suggestibles in self-control conditions were not significantly different…

  9. Research issues in Elderly patients: gaps in knowledge and suggested directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; Fassett, Robert G; Morton, Rachael L

    2013-04-16

    Concentration of research is recommended in the following areas: Prospective studies of the appropriateness, relevance, timing and sustainability of dialysis in elderly patients Health related quality of life (HRQoL) in older patients choosing not to dialyse and in those choosing to dialyse with comparison to a matched population without renal disease Methods of communication of prognosis and factors affecting decision making Models of care - comparative studies to delineate how best to deliver renal supportive care Treatment preferences amongst indigenous patients Symptom control, focussing on those areas specific to the needs of renal patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Can expectation enhance response to suggestion? De-automatization illuminates a conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Michael; Howells, Catherine; Raz, Amir

    2012-06-01

    Disparate theoretical viewpoints construe hypnotic suggestibility either as a stable trait, largely determined by underlying cognitive aptitude, or as a flexible skill amenable to attitudinal factors including beliefs and expectations. Circumscribed findings support both views. The present study attempted to consolidate these orthogonal perspectives through the lens of expectancy modification. We surreptitiously controlled light and sound stimuli to convince participants that they were responding strongly to hypnotic suggestions for visual and auditory hallucinations. Extending our previous findings, we indexed hypnotic suggestibility by de-automatizing an involuntary audiovisual phenomenon-the McGurk effect. Here we show that, regardless of expectancy modification, the experimental procedure led to heightened expectations concerning future hypnotic response. We found little effect of expectation, however, on actual response to suggestion. Our findings intimate that, at least in the present experimental context, expectation hardly correlates with--and is unlikely to be a primary determinant of--high hypnotic suggestibility.

  11. Speech Act of Suggestion Across Language Proficiency and Gender in Iranian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Aminifard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to investigate how Iranian EFL learners employ suggestion speech act. With this aim, 105 Iranian EFL learners participated in this study. A Discourse Completion Test (DCT was used to produce data related to the suggestion forms utilized by the participants. Percentage and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Research findings revealed similarities and differences between English natives and Iranian EFL learners in terms of suggestion forms produced. The findings further showed that different language proficiency level did not produce any significant differences in production of suggestion speech act. However, participants’ performances considering different gender reached statistical significance. It was also found that Iranian EFL learners transferred their L1 structures in using suggestion forms.

  12. Comparison of live and dead molluscan assemblages suggests recent human-driven decline in benthic diversity in Phetchaburi (NW Gulf of Thailand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Mauro Pietro; Sanfilippo, Rossana; Basso, Daniela; Rosso, Antonietta

    2015-12-01

    Dead and live molluscan assemblages from the coastal area of Phetchaburi (NW Gulf of Thailand) were compared by means of multivariate analysis. Seven thanatofacies were recognized, thriving in the area after the 1960s. Five of them, scattered along the tidal flat, represent oligotypic intertidal biotopes linked to a variety of environmental factors; the remaining two mirror high-diversity infralittoral associations. Conversely, only two poor, ill-defined biofacies thrive at present between the intertidal and the shallow infralittoral zones, somewhat resembling two of the thanatofacies. Diversity indexes reveal a dramatic biodiversity decline occurred from the 1960s onwards, far beyond the effects of time-averaging and accumulation. The responsibility for this reduction is largely attributable to the high impact of human activities, such as the intensive sea bottom trawling, the wastewaters from aquaculture (shrimp and fish ponds) and dense coastal villages, and, at a minor extent, the digging of edible molluscs from the tidal flat.

  13. Consultation and illness behaviour in response to symptoms: A comparison of models from different disciplinary frameworks and suggestions for future research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyke, S.; Adamson, J.; Dixon, D.; Hunt, K.

    2013-01-01

    We all get ill and social scientific interest in how we respond - the study of illness behaviour - continues unabated. Existing models are useful, but have been developed and applied within disciplinary silos, resulting in wasted intellectual and empirical effort and an absence of accumulation of kn

  14. Histopathological comparison of Kearns-Sayre syndrome and PGC-1α-deficient mice suggests a novel concept for vacuole formation in mitochondrial encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalardy, L; Molnar, M; Torok, R; Zadori, D; Vecsei, L; Klivenyi, P; Liberski, P; Kovacs, G G

    2016-01-01

    Despite the current hypotheses about myelinic and astrocytic ion-dyshomeostasis underlying white (WM) and grey matter (GM) vacuolation in mitochondrial encephalopathies, there is a paucity of data on the exact mechanism of vacuole formation. To revisit the concepts of vacuole formation associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, we performed a comparative neuropathological analysis in Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) and full-length peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-g coactivator-1a (FL-PGC-1a)-deficient mice, a recently proposed morphological model of mitochondrial encephalopathies. Brain tissues from an individual with genetically proven KSS (22-year-old man) and aged FL-PGC-1a-deficient and wild-type (male, 70-75-week-old) mice were analysed using ultrastructural and immunohistochemical methods, with a specific focus on myelin-related, oligodendroglial, axonal and astrocytic pathologies. Besides demonstrating remarkable similarities in the lesion profile of KSS and FL-PGC-1a-deficient mice, this study first provides morphological evidence for the identical origin of WM and GM vacuolation as well as for the presence of intracytoplasmic oligodendroglial vacuoles in mitochondriopathies. Based on these observations, the paper proposes a theoretical model for the development of focal myelin vacuolation as opposed to the original concepts of intramyelin oedema. Placing oligodendrocytes in the centre of tissue lesioning in conditions related to defects in mitochondria, our observations support the rationale for cytoprotective targeting of oligodendrocytes in mitochondrial encephalopathies, and may also have implications in brain aging and multiple sclerosis, as discussed.

  15. Histopathological comparison of Kearns-Sayre syndrome and PGC-1α-deficient mice suggests a novel concept for vacuole formation in mitochondrial encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levente Szalardy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the current hypotheses about myelinic and astrocytic ion-dyshomeostasis underlying white (WM and grey matter (GM vacuolation in mitochondrial encephalopathies, there is a paucity of data on the exact mechanism of vacuole formation. To revisit the concepts of vacuole formation associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, we performed a comparative neuropathological analysis in Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS and full-length peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-g coactivator-1a (FL-PGC-1a-deficient mice, a recently proposed morphological model of mitochondrial encephalopathies. Brain tissues from an individual with genetically proven KSS (22-year-old man and aged FL-PGC-1a-deficient and wild-type (male, 70-75-week-old mice were analysed using ultrastructural and immunohistochemical methods, with a specific focus on myelin-related, oligodendroglial, axonal and astrocytic pathologies. Besides demonstrating remarkable similarities in the lesion profile of KSS and FL-PGC-1a-deficient mice, this study first provides morphological evidence for the identical origin of WM and GM vacuolation as well as for the presence of intracytoplasmic oligodendroglial vacuoles in mitochondriopathies. Based on these observations, the paper proposes a theoretical model for the development of focal myelin vacuolation as opposed to the original concepts of intramyelin oedema. Placing oligodendrocytes in the centre of tissue lesioning in conditions related to defects in mitochondria, our observations support the rationale for cytoprotective targeting of oligodendrocytes in mitochondrial encephalopathies, and may also have implications in brain aging and multiple sclerosis, as discussed.

  16. Anchored paired comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, E. N.; Handley, J. C.; Wu, W.; Wang, J.

    2008-01-01

    The method of paired comparisons is often used in image quality evaluations. Psychometric scale values for quality judgments are modeled using Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgment in which distance in a psychometric scale space is a function of the probability of preference. The transformation from psychometric space to probability is a cumulative probability distribution. The major drawback of a complete paired comparison experiment is that every treatment is compared to every other, thus the number of comparisons grows quadratically. We ameliorate this difficulty by performing paired comparisons in two stages, by precisely estimating anchors in the psychometric scale space which are spaced apart to cover the range of scale values and comparing treatments against those anchors. In this model, we employ a generalized linear model where the regression equation has a constant offset vector determined by the anchors. The result of this formulation is a straightforward statistical model easily analyzed using any modern statistics package. This enables model fitting and diagnostics. This method was applied to overall preference evaluations of color pictorial hardcopy images. The results were found to be compatible with complete paired comparison experiments, but with significantly less effort.

  17. Do young children understand relative value comparisons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benenson, Joyce F; Markovits, Henry; Whitmore, Bjorn; Van, Christophe; Margolius, Sara; Wrangham, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Many forms of judgments, such as those used in economic games or measures of social comparison, require understanding relative value, as well as the more complex ability to make comparisons between relative values. To examine whether young children can accurately compare relative values, we presented children 4 to 7 years with simple judgments of relative value in two scenarios. Children then were asked to compare the relative values in the two scenarios. Results show that even the youngest children downgraded evaluations of a reward when another has a larger amount, indicating the ability to make relative value judgments. When asked to compare relative values however, only the oldest children were able to make these comparisons consistently. We then extended this analysis to economic game performance. Specifically, previous results using economic games suggest that younger children are more generous than older ones. We replicate this result, and then show that a simple change in procedure, based on the initial study, is sufficient to change young children's choices. Our results strongly suggest that conclusions regarding young children's pro-social motives based on relative value comparisons should be viewed cautiously.

  18. Do young children understand relative value comparisons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce F Benenson

    Full Text Available Many forms of judgments, such as those used in economic games or measures of social comparison, require understanding relative value, as well as the more complex ability to make comparisons between relative values. To examine whether young children can accurately compare relative values, we presented children 4 to 7 years with simple judgments of relative value in two scenarios. Children then were asked to compare the relative values in the two scenarios. Results show that even the youngest children downgraded evaluations of a reward when another has a larger amount, indicating the ability to make relative value judgments. When asked to compare relative values however, only the oldest children were able to make these comparisons consistently. We then extended this analysis to economic game performance. Specifically, previous results using economic games suggest that younger children are more generous than older ones. We replicate this result, and then show that a simple change in procedure, based on the initial study, is sufficient to change young children's choices. Our results strongly suggest that conclusions regarding young children's pro-social motives based on relative value comparisons should be viewed cautiously.

  19. A hierarchical recurrent encoder-decoder for generative context-aware query suggestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sordoni, Alessandro; Bengio, Yoshua; Vahabi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Users may strive to formulate an adequate textual query for their information need. Search engines assist the users by presenting query suggestions. To preserve the original search intent, suggestions should be context-aware and account for the previous queries issued by the user. Achieving conte...... learning pipelines and hand-engineered feature sets. Results show that it outperforms existing context-aware approaches in a next query prediction setting. In addition to query suggestion, our model is general enough to be used in a variety of other applications....... awareness is challenging due to data sparsity. We present a probabilistic suggestion model that is able to account for sequences of previous queries of arbitrary lengths. Our novel hierarchical recurrent encoder-decoder architecture allows the model to be sensitive to the order of queries in the context...... while avoiding data sparsity. Additionally, our model can suggest for rare, or long-tail, queries. The produced suggestions are synthetic and are sampled one word at a time, using computationally cheap decoding techniques. This is in contrast to current synthetic suggestion models relying upon machine...

  20. Induction of nocebo and placebo effects on itch and pain by verbal suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laarhoven, Antoinette I M; Vogelaar, Michiel L; Wilder-Smith, Oliver H; van Riel, Piet L C M; van de Kerkhof, Peter C M; Kraaimaat, Floris W; Evers, Andrea W M

    2011-07-01

    Physical complaints, such as pain, can be effectively reduced by placebo effects through induction of positive expectations, or increased by nocebo effects through induction of negative expectations. In the present study, verbally induced nocebo and placebo effects on itch were experimentally investigated for the first time. In part 1, the role of verbal suggestions in inducing nocebo effects on itch and pain was investigated. All subjects received the same somatosensory quantitative sensory testing stimuli, that is, mechanical and electrical stimuli and application of histamine, and verbal suggestions to manipulate expectations regarding the stimuli. The suggestions were designed to produce either high expectations for itch (itch nocebo) or pain (pain nocebo) or low expectations for itch (itch nocebo control) or pain (pain nocebo control). Results showed that high itch and pain expectations resulted in higher levels of itch and pain, respectively. When comparing nocebo effects, induced by verbal suggestions, results were more pronounced for itch than for pain. In part 2, verbal suggestions designed to produce a placebo effect on itch (itch placebo) or pain (pain placebo), or neutral suggestions (itch placebo control and pain placebo control) were given regarding a second application of histamine and compared with the first application applied in part 1. Results of placebo effects only showed a significantly larger decrease in itch in the itch placebo condition than in the pain placebo condition. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that nocebo and possibly placebo responses can be induced on itch by verbal suggestions.

  1. Individual Differences in the Rubber Hand Illusion Are Related to Sensory Suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Angela; Tinazzi, Michele; Cavedini, Clelia; Zampini, Massimiliano; Fiorio, Mirta

    2016-01-01

    In the rubber hand illusion (RHI), watching a rubber hand being stroked in synchrony with one's own hidden hand may induce a sense of ownership over the rubber hand. The illusion relies on bottom-up multisensory integration of visual, tactile, and proprioceptive information, and on top-down processes through which the rubber hand is incorporated into pre-existing representations of the body. Although the degree of illusory experience varies largely across individuals, the factors influencing individual differences are unknown. We investigated whether sensory suggestibility might modulate susceptibility to the RHI. Sensory suggestibility is a personality trait related to how individuals react to sensory information. Because of its sensory nature, this trait could be relevant for studies using the RHI paradigm. Seventy healthy volunteers were classified by Sensory Suggestibility Scale (SSS) scores as having high or low suggestibility and assigned to either a high- (High-SSS) or a low-suggestibility (Low-SSS) group. Two components of the RHI were evaluated in synchronous and asynchronous stroking conditions: subjective experience of sense of ownership over the rubber hand via a 9-statement questionnaire, and proprioceptive drift as measured with a ruler. The High-SSS group was generally more susceptible to the subjective component; in the synchronous condition, they rated the statement assessing the sense of ownership higher than the Low-SSS group. The scores for this statement significantly correlated with the total SSS score, indicating that the higher the sensory suggestibility, the stronger the sense of ownership. No effect of sensory suggestibility on proprioceptive drift was observed, suggesting that the effect is specific for the subjective feeling of ownership. This study demonstrates that sensory suggestibility may contribute to participants' experience of the illusion and should be considered when using the RHI paradigm.

  2. Focused suggestion with somatic anchoring technique: rapid self-hypnosis for pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatone, Brooke

    2013-04-01

    This article details a self-hypnosis technique designed to teach patients how to manage acute or chronic pain through directed focus. The focused suggestion with somatic anchoring technique has been used with various types of pain, including somatic pain (arthritis, post-injury pain from bone breaks, or muscle tears), visceral pain (related to irritable bowel disease), and neuropathic pain (related to multiple sclerosis). This technique combines cognitive restructuring and mindfulness meditation with indirect and direct suggestions during hypnosis. The case examples demonstrate how the focused suggestion with somatic anchoring technique is used with both acute and chronic pain conditions when use of long-term medication has been relatively ineffective.

  3. Linguistic and Cultural Strategies in ELT Dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrius, Montse; Pujol, Didac

    2010-01-01

    There are three main types of ELT dictionaries: monolingual, bilingual, and bilingualized. Each type of dictionary, while having its own advantages, also hinders the learning of English as a foreign language and culture in so far as it is written from a homogenizing (linguistic- and culture-centric) perspective. This paper presents a new type of…

  4. Translation Resources, Merging Strategies and Relevance Feedback for Cross-language Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Kraaij, Wessel; Pohlmann, Renée; Westerveld, Thijs; Peters, Carol

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the official runs of the Twenty-One group for the first CLEF workshop. The Twenty-One group participated in the monolingual, bilingual and multilingual tasks. The following new techniques are introduced in this paper. In the bilingual task we experimented with different methods

  5. Bimodal Bilinguals Reveal the Source of Tip-of-the-Tongue States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyers, Jennie E.; Gollan, Tamar H.; Emmorey, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Bilinguals report more tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) failures than monolinguals. Three accounts of this disadvantage are that bilinguals experience between-language interference at (a) semantic and/or (b) phonological levels, or (c) that bilinguals use each language less frequently than monolinguals. Bilinguals who speak one language and sign another…

  6. Model comparison in ANOVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N; Engelhardt, Christopher R; McCabe, Simon; Morey, Richard D

    2016-12-01

    Analysis of variance (ANOVA), the workhorse analysis of experimental designs, consists of F-tests of main effects and interactions. Yet, testing, including traditional ANOVA, has been recently critiqued on a number of theoretical and practical grounds. In light of these critiques, model comparison and model selection serve as an attractive alternative. Model comparison differs from testing in that one can support a null or nested model vis-a-vis a more general alternative by penalizing more flexible models. We argue this ability to support more simple models allows for more nuanced theoretical conclusions than provided by traditional ANOVA F-tests. We provide a model comparison strategy and show how ANOVA models may be reparameterized to better address substantive questions in data analysis.

  7. CCF model comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulkkinen, U. [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland)

    2004-04-01

    The report describes a simple comparison of two CCF-models, the ECLM, and the Beta-model. The objective of the comparison is to identify differences in the results of the models by applying the models in some simple test data cases. The comparison focuses mainly on theoretical aspects of the above mentioned CCF-models. The properties of the model parameter estimates in the data cases is also discussed. The practical aspects in using and estimating CCFmodels in real PSA context (e.g. the data interpretation, properties of computer tools, the model documentation) are not discussed in the report. Similarly, the qualitative CCF-analyses needed in using the models are not discussed in the report. (au)

  8. Teaching Languages to the Blind or Visually Impaired: Problems and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, Philip Redwine

    2002-01-01

    Provides a list of possible explanations for difficulties the visually impaired may face in second or foreign language classes and offers suggestions for making their language learning experience more pleasant and successful. (Author/VWL)

  9. 78 FR 73518 - Notice Inviting Suggestions for New Experiments for the Experimental Sites Initiative; Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... based experiments designed to test alternative ways of administering the student financial assistance... the suggestions submitted in response to this notice the Secretary will design experiments and... the Congress. ] We are particularly interested in experiments that are designed to improve...

  10. Expertise in Medicine – Analysing and Fostering Professional Vision. Comments and suggestions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, Els

    2011-01-01

    Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2010, 25-27 August). Expertise in Medicine – Analysing and Fostering Professional Vision. Comments and suggestions. Discussion at the 5th EARLI-SIG14 Learning and Professional Development, Munich, Germany.

  11. Relations between episodic memory, suggestibility, theory of mind, and cognitive inhibition in the preschool child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinder, Annika; Endestad, Tor; Magnussen, Svein

    2006-12-01

    The development of episodic memory, its relation to theory of mind (ToM), executive functions (e.g., cognitive inhibition), and to suggestibility was studied. Children (n= 115) between 3 and 6 years of age saw two versions of a video film and were tested for their memory of critical elements of the videos. Results indicated similar developmental trends for all memory measures, ToM, and inhibition, but ToM and inhibition were not associated with any memory measures. Correlations involving source memory was found in relation to specific questions, whereas inhibition and ToM were significantly correlated to resistance to suggestions. A regression analysis showed that age was the main contributor to resistance to suggestions, to correct source monitoring, and to correct responses to specific questions. Inhibition was also a significant main predictor of resistance to suggestive questions, whereas the relative contribution of ToM was wiped out when an extended model was tested.

  12. Increasing Comorbidities Suggest that Atopic Dermatitis Is a Systemic Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunner, Patrick M.; Silverberg, Jonathan I.; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Paller, Amy S.; Kabashima, Kenji; Amagai, Masayuki; Luger, Thomas A.; Deleuran, Mette; Werfel, Thomas; Eyerich, Kilian; Stingl, Georg; Bagot, Martine; Hijnen, Dirk Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304815519; Ardern-Jones, Michael; Reynolds, Nick; Spuls, Phyllis; Taieb, Alain

    Atopic dermatitis comorbidities extend well beyond the march to allergic conditions (food allergy, asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and eosinophilic esophagitis), suggesting both cutaneous and systemic immune activation. In reviewing atopic dermatitis comorbidities, Councilors of

  13. Acquisition of Mathematical Language: Suggestions and Activities for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Michelle; Bruna, Katherine Richardson; Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we describe aspects of mathematical language that could be problematic to English-language learners, provide recommendations for teaching English-language learners, and suggest activities intended to foster language development in mathematics. (Contains 1 figure.)

  14. Responses to Deficiencies and Suggestions, AIHA Site Assessment July 12-14, 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Jack T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Harding, Ruth N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-11

    These are the responses to the deficiencies and suggestions found during the American Industrial Hygiene Association external site assessment carried out July 12-14, 2016 in the Analytical Services and Instrumentation Division Analytical Laboratory.

  15. Acquisition of Mathematical Language: Suggestions and Activities for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Michelle; Bruna, Katherine Richardson; Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we describe aspects of mathematical language that could be problematic to English-language learners, provide recommendations for teaching English-language learners, and suggest activities intended to foster language development in mathematics. (Contains 1 figure.)

  16. Post-Editing Error Correction Algorithm for Speech Recognition using Bing Spelling Suggestion

    CERN Document Server

    Bassil, Youssef

    2012-01-01

    ASR short for Automatic Speech Recognition is the process of converting a spoken speech into text that can be manipulated by a computer. Although ASR has several applications, it is still erroneous and imprecise especially if used in a harsh surrounding wherein the input speech is of low quality. This paper proposes a post-editing ASR error correction method and algorithm based on Bing's online spelling suggestion. In this approach, the ASR recognized output text is spell-checked using Bing's spelling suggestion technology to detect and correct misrecognized words. More specifically, the proposed algorithm breaks down the ASR output text into several word-tokens that are submitted as search queries to Bing search engine. A returned spelling suggestion implies that a query is misspelled; and thus it is replaced by the suggested correction; otherwise, no correction is performed and the algorithm continues with the next token until all tokens get validated. Experiments carried out on various speeches in differen...

  17. 78 FR 47046 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Colombia Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Colombia Environmental Cooperation... the first United States--Colombia Environmental Cooperation Work Program. SUMMARY: The Department... Program for implementing the United States--Colombia Environmental Cooperation Agreement, which...

  18. Phylogenetic distribution of intron positions in alpha-amylase genes of bilateria suggests numerous gains and losses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Da Lage

    Full Text Available Most eukaryotes have at least some genes interrupted by introns. While it is well accepted that introns were already present at moderate density in the last eukaryote common ancestor, the conspicuous diversity of intron density among genomes suggests a complex evolutionary history, with marked differences between phyla. The question of the rates of intron gains and loss in the course of evolution and factors influencing them remains controversial. We have investigated a single gene family, alpha-amylase, in 55 species covering a variety of animal phyla. Comparison of intron positions across phyla suggests a complex history, with a likely ancestral intronless gene undergoing frequent intron loss and gain, leading to extant intron/exon structures that are highly variable, even among species from the same phylum. Because introns are known to play no regulatory role in this gene and there is no alternative splicing, the structural differences may be interpreted more easily: intron positions, sizes, losses or gains may be more likely related to factors linked to splicing mechanisms and requirements, and to recognition of introns and exons, or to more extrinsic factors, such as life cycle and population size. We have shown that intron losses outnumbered gains in recent periods, but that "resets" of intron positions occurred at the origin of several phyla, including vertebrates. Rates of gain and loss appear to be positively correlated. No phase preference was found. We also found evidence for parallel gains and for intron sliding. Presence of introns at given positions was correlated to a strong protosplice consensus sequence AG/G, which was much weaker in the absence of intron. In contrast, recent intron insertions were not associated with a specific sequence. In animal Amy genes, population size and generation time seem to have played only minor roles in shaping gene structures.

  19. Genetic Analyses of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences Suggest Introgression and Duplication in the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    Full Text Available The internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster is widely used in fungal taxonomy and phylogeographic studies. The medicinal and edible mushroom Agaricus subrufescens has a worldwide distribution with a high level of polymorphism in the ITS region. A previous analysis suggested notable ITS sequence heterogeneity within the wild French isolate CA487. The objective of this study was to investigate the pattern and potential mechanism of ITS sequence heterogeneity within this strain. Using PCR, cloning, and sequencing, we identified three types of ITS sequences, A, B, and C with a balanced distribution, which differed from each other at 13 polymorphic positions. The phylogenetic comparisons with samples from different continents revealed that the type C sequence was similar to those found in Oceanian and Asian specimens of A. subrufescens while types A and B sequences were close to those found in the Americas or in Europe. We further investigated the inheritance of these three ITS sequence types by analyzing their distribution among single-spore isolates from CA487. In this analysis, three co-dominant markers were used firstly to distinguish the homokaryotic offspring from the heterokaryotic offspring. The homokaryotic offspring were then analyzed for their ITS types. Our genetic analyses revealed that types A and B were two alleles segregating at one locus ITSI, while type C was not allelic with types A and B but was located at another unlinked locus ITSII. Furthermore, type C was present in only one of the two constitutive haploid nuclei (n of the heterokaryotic (n+n parent CA487. These data suggest that there was a relatively recent introduction of the type C sequence and a duplication of the ITS locus in this strain. Whether other genes were also transferred and duplicated and their impacts on genome structure and stability remain to be investigated.

  20. Genetic Analyses of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences Suggest Introgression and Duplication in the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus subrufescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Moinard, Magalie; Xu, Jianping; Wang, Shouxian; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Zhao, Ruilin; Hyde, Kevin D.; Callac, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster is widely used in fungal taxonomy and phylogeographic studies. The medicinal and edible mushroom Agaricus subrufescens has a worldwide distribution with a high level of polymorphism in the ITS region. A previous analysis suggested notable ITS sequence heterogeneity within the wild French isolate CA487. The objective of this study was to investigate the pattern and potential mechanism of ITS sequence heterogeneity within this strain. Using PCR, cloning, and sequencing, we identified three types of ITS sequences, A, B, and C with a balanced distribution, which differed from each other at 13 polymorphic positions. The phylogenetic comparisons with samples from different continents revealed that the type C sequence was similar to those found in Oceanian and Asian specimens of A. subrufescens while types A and B sequences were close to those found in the Americas or in Europe. We further investigated the inheritance of these three ITS sequence types by analyzing their distribution among single-spore isolates from CA487. In this analysis, three co-dominant markers were used firstly to distinguish the homokaryotic offspring from the heterokaryotic offspring. The homokaryotic offspring were then analyzed for their ITS types. Our genetic analyses revealed that types A and B were two alleles segregating at one locus ITSI, while type C was not allelic with types A and B but was located at another unlinked locus ITSII. Furthermore, type C was present in only one of the two constitutive haploid nuclei (n) of the heterokaryotic (n+n) parent CA487. These data suggest that there was a relatively recent introduction of the type C sequence and a duplication of the ITS locus in this strain. Whether other genes were also transferred and duplicated and their impacts on genome structure and stability remain to be investigated. PMID:27228131

  1. Intelligence, previous convictions and interrogative suggestibility: a path analysis of alleged false-confession cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, R; Gudjonsson, G H

    1993-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between interrogative suggestibility and previous convictions among 108 defendants in criminal trials, using a path analysis technique. It was hypothesized that previous convictions, which may provide defendants with interrogative experiences, would correlate negatively with 'shift' as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (Gudjonsson, 1984a), after intelligence and memory had been controlled for. The hypothesis was partially confirmed and the theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  2. Passive mechanical properties of rat abdominal wall muscles suggest an important role of the extracellular connective tissue matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen H M; Carr, John Austin; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L

    2012-08-01

    Abdominal wall muscles have a unique morphology suggesting a complex role in generating and transferring force to the spinal column. Studying passive mechanical properties of these muscles may provide insights into their ability to transfer force among structures. Biopsies from rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transverse abdominis (TrA) were harvested from male Sprague-Dawley rats, and single muscle fibers and fiber bundles (4-8 fibers ensheathed in their connective tissue matrix) were isolated and mechanically stretched in a passive state. Slack sarcomere lengths were measured and elastic moduli were calculated from stress-strain data. Titin molecular mass was also measured from single muscle fibers. No significant differences were found among the four abdominal wall muscles in terms of slack sarcomere length or elastic modulus. Interestingly, across all four muscles, slack sarcomere lengths were quite long in individual muscle fibers (>2.4 µm), and demonstrated a significantly longer slack length in comparison to fiber bundles (p muscle lengths. Titin molecular mass was significantly less in TrA compared to each of the other three muscles (p < 0.0009), but this difference did not correspond to hypothesized differences in stiffness.

  3. Sequence and domain conservation of the coelacanth Hsp40 and Hsp90 chaperones suggests conservation of function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Özlem Tastan; Edkins, Adrienne Lesley; Blatch, Gregory Lloyd

    2014-09-01

    Molecular chaperones and their associated co-chaperones play an important role in preserving and regulating the active conformational state of cellular proteins. The chaperone complement of the Indonesian Coelacanth, Latimeria menadoensis, was elucidated using transcriptomic sequences. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and heat shock protein 40 (Hsp40) chaperones, and associated co-chaperones were focused on, and homologous human sequences were used to search the sequence databases. Coelacanth homologs of the cytosolic, mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homologs of human Hsp90 were identified, as well as all of the major co-chaperones of the cytosolic isoform. Most of the human Hsp40s were found to have coelacanth homologs, and the data suggested that all of the chaperone machinery for protein folding at the ribosome, protein translocation to cellular compartments such as the ER and protein degradation were conserved. Some interesting similarities and differences were identified when interrogating human, mouse, and zebrafish homologs. For example, DnaJB13 is predicted to be a non-functional Hsp40 in humans, mouse, and zebrafish due to a corrupted histidine-proline-aspartic acid (HPD) motif, while the coelacanth homolog has an intact HPD. These and other comparisons enabled important functional and evolutionary questions to be posed for future experimental studies.

  4. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Young

    Full Text Available Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 "Bunker C" fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes. Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels.

  5. Transcriptome analysis suggests that starch synthesis may proceed via multiple metabolic routes in high yielding potato cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacper Piotr Kaminski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate is imported into the amyloplast of potato tubers and thought to constitute the precursor for starch synthesis in potato tubers. However, recently it was shown that glucose-1-phosphate can also be imported into the amyloplast and incorporated into starch via an ATP independent mechanism under special conditions. Nonetheless, glucose-6-phosphate is believed to be the quantitatively important precursor for starch synthesis in potato. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Potato tubers of the high yielding cv Kuras had low gene expression of plastidial phophoglucomutase (PGM and normal levels of transcripts for other enzymes involved in starch metabolism in comparison with medium and low yielding cultivars as determined by DeepSAGE transcriptome profiling. The decrease in PGM activity in Kuras was confirmed by measuring the enzyme activity from potato tuber extracts. Contrary to expectations, this combination lead to a higher level of intracellular glucose-1-phosphate (G1P in Kuras suggesting that G1P is directly imported into plastids and can be quantitatively important for starch synthesis under normal conditions in high yielding cultivars. SIGNIFICANCE: This could open entirely new possibilities for metabolic engineering of the starch metabolism in potato via the so far uncharacterized G1P transporter. The perspectives are to increase yield and space efficiency of this important crop. In the light of the increasing demands imposed on agriculture to support a growing global population this presents an exciting new possibility.

  6. Salient features of otoacoustic emissions are common across tetrapod groups and suggest shared properties of generation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergevin, Christopher; Manley, Geoffrey A; Köppl, Christine

    2015-03-17

    Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are faint sounds generated by healthy inner ears that provide a window into the study of auditory mechanics. All vertebrate classes exhibit OAEs to varying degrees, yet the biophysical origins are still not well understood. Here, we analyzed both spontaneous (SOAE) and stimulus-frequency (SFOAE) otoacoustic emissions from a bird (barn owl, Tyto alba) and a lizard (green anole, Anolis carolinensis). These species possess highly disparate macromorphologies of the inner ear relative to each other and to mammals, thereby allowing for novel insights into the biomechanical mechanisms underlying OAE generation. All ears exhibited robust OAE activity, and our chief observation was that SFOAE phase accumulation between adjacent SOAE peak frequencies clustered about an integral number of cycles. Being highly similar to published results from human ears, we argue that these data indicate a common underlying generator mechanism of OAEs across all vertebrates, despite the absence of morphological features thought essential to mammalian cochlear mechanics. We suggest that otoacoustic emissions originate from phase coherence in a system of coupled oscillators, which is consistent with the notion of "coherent reflection" but does not explicitly require a mammalian-type traveling wave. Furthermore, comparison between SFOAE delays and auditory nerve fiber responses for the barn owl strengthens the notion that most OAE delay can be attributed to tuning.

  7. Degradation of Bunker C Fuel Oil by White-Rot Fungi in Sawdust Cultures Suggests Potential Applications in Bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Darcy; Rice, James; Martin, Rachael; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna; Grigoriev, Igor; Hibbett, David

    2015-01-01

    Fungal lignocellulolytic enzymes are promising agents for oxidizing pollutants. This study investigated degradation of Number 6 "Bunker C" fuel oil compounds by the white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus, Trichaptum biforme, Phlebia radiata, Trametes versicolor, and Pleurotus ostreatus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes). Averaging across all studied species, 98.1%, 48.6%, and 76.4% of the initial Bunker C C10 alkane, C14 alkane, and phenanthrene, respectively were degraded after 180 days of fungal growth on pine media. This study also investigated whether Bunker C oil induces changes in gene expression in the white-rot fungus Punctularia strigosozonata, for which a complete reference genome is available. After 20 days of growth, a monokaryon P. strigosozonata strain degraded 99% of the initial C10 alkane in both pine and aspen media but did not affect the amounts of the C14 alkane or phenanthrene. Differential gene expression analysis identified 119 genes with ≥ log2(2-fold) greater expression in one or more treatment comparisons. Six genes were significantly upregulated in media containing oil; these genes included three enzymes with potential roles in xenobiotic biotransformation. Carbohydrate metabolism genes showing differential expression significantly accumulated transcripts on aspen vs. pine substrates, perhaps reflecting white-rot adaptations to growth on hardwood substrates. The mechanisms by which P. strigosozonata may degrade complex oil compounds remain obscure, but degradation results of the 180-day cultures suggest that diverse white-rot fungi have promise for bioremediation of petroleum fuels.

  8. Application of the suggestion system in the improvement of the production process and product quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołaś, H.; Mazur, A.; Gruszka, J.; Szafer, P.

    2016-08-01

    The elaboration is a case study and the research was carried out in the company Alco-Mot Ltd., which employs 120 people. The company specializes in the production of lead poles for industrial and traction batteries using gravity casting. The elements embedded in the cast are manufactured on a machining centre, which provides the stability of the process and of the dimensions of the product as well as a very short production time. As a result of observation and analysis the authors have developed a concept for the implementation of a dynamic suggestion system in ALCO-MOT, including, among others, a standard for actions in the implementation of the suggestion system, as well as clear guidelines for the processing and presentation of the activities undertaken in the time between the establishment of the concept (suggestions) and the benefits analysis after the proposed solutions have been implemented. The authors also present how suggestions proposed by ALCO-MOT staff contributed to the improvement of the processes of production and quality control. Employees offered more than 30 suggestions, of which more than a half are being implemented now and further actions are being prepared for implementation. The authors will present the results of improvements in, for example, tool replacement time, scrap reduction. The authors will present how kaizen can improve the production and quality control processes. They will present how the production and quality control processes looked before and after the implementation of employee suggestions.

  9. Brief report: the effect of suggestion on unpleasant dreams induced by ketamine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Soon Ho; Lee, Kun Moo; Lim, Se Hun; Cho, Kwang Rae; Kim, Myoung Hun; Ko, Myoung Jin; Shim, Joo Cheol; Oh, Min Kyung; Kim, Yong Han; Lee, Sang Eun

    2011-05-01

    The use of ketamine may be associated with the recall of unpleasant dreams after sedation. We hypothesized that a positive suggestion before sedation could reduce the incidence of ketamine-induced unpleasant dreams. To test this hypothesis, we randomized 100 patients receiving sedation with ketamine for their procedure into 2 groups with 1 group having an anesthesiologist provide a mood-elevating suggestion to the patient before ketamine administration (suggestion group), whereas in the control group no suggestion was provided. Patients were provided with a pleasantness/unpleasantness scale to rate "the overall mood of the dream" as very unpleasant (grade 1), quite unpleasant (grade 2), neither or mixed (grade 3), quite pleasant (grade 4), and very pleasant (grade 5). In those patients who lost consciousness, the frequencies of grades 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 0%, 0%, 46%, 24%, and 30% in the suggestion group and were 6%, 2%, 70%, 12%, and 10%, respectively, in the control group (P=0.01). In the intent-to-treat population the overall frequency between groups was very similar. This study implies that when administering ketamine as part of a sedation regimen, positive suggestion may help reduce the recall of unpleasant dreaming.

  10. Suggestion-Induced Modulation of Semantic Priming during Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Martin; Kiefer, Markus; Bongartz, Walter; Grön, Georg; Hoenig, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a primed visual lexical decision task, we investigated the neural and functional mechanisms underlying modulations of semantic word processing through hypnotic suggestions aimed at altering lexical processing of primes. The priming task was to discriminate between target words and pseudowords presented 200 ms after the prime word which was semantically related or unrelated to the target. In a counterbalanced study design, each participant performed the task once at normal wakefulness and once after the administration of hypnotic suggestions to perceive the prime as a meaningless symbol of a foreign language. Neural correlates of priming were defined as significantly lower activations upon semantically related compared to unrelated trials. We found significant suggestive treatment-induced reductions in neural priming, albeit irrespective of the degree of suggestibility. Neural priming was attenuated upon suggestive treatment compared with normal wakefulness in brain regions supporting automatic (fusiform gyrus) and controlled semantic processing (superior and middle temporal gyri, pre- and postcentral gyri, and supplementary motor area). Hence, suggestions reduced semantic word processing by conjointly dampening both automatic and strategic semantic processes. PMID:25923740

  11. Is working memory working against suggestion susceptibility? Results from extended version of DRM paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciaszek Patrycja

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates relationship between working memory efficiency, defined as the result of its’ processing & storage capacity (Oberauer et al., 2003 and the tendency to (1 create assosiative memory distortions (false memories, FM; (2 yield under the influence of external, suggesting factors. Both issues were examined using extended version of Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure (1959, 1995, modified in order to meet the study demands. Suggestion was contained in an ostentatious feedback information the participants (N=88 received during the DRM procedure. Working memory (WM was measured by standardized tasks (n-back, Jaeggi et al., 2010; automatic-ospan, Unsworth et al., 2005. Study included 3 conditions, differing in the quality of suggestion (positive, negative or neutral. Participants were assigned into 3 groups, depending on results they achieved completing the WM tasks. Obtained results alongside the previously set hypothesis, revealed that (1 WM impacts individuals’ tendency to create false memories in DRM and (2 that the individuals showing higher rates in WM tasks are less willing to yield to suggestion compared to those with lesser ones. It also showed that the greater amount to shift (Gudjonsson, 2003, emerges under the negative suggestion condition (collating positive. Notwithstanding that the interaction effect did not achieve saliency, both analyzed factors (WM and suggesting content are considered as meaningful to explain memory suggestion susceptibility in presented study. Although, obtained results emphasize the crucial role of WM efficiency, that is believed to decide the magnitude of feedback that is influential in every subject. Therefore, issue demands further exploration.

  12. Dimensional Comparison Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Helm

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dimensional comparison theory (DCT defines dimensional comparisons as intraindividual comparisons that a person draws between his or her own achievements in two domains or subjects. DCT assumes that dimensional comparisons influence students’ academic self-concepts, causing stronger self-concept differences between subjects perceived as dissimilar, such as math and English, than between subjects perceived as more similar, like math and physics. However, there have been no experimental studies testing the causal effect of perceived subject similarity on domain-specific self-concepts. In the present research, three experimental studies analyzed the effects of experimentally induced higher or lower perceived subject similarity on academic self-concept differences: Study 1 (N = 351, with math and German; Study 2a (N = 148, with math and physics; and Study 2b (N = 161, with English and German, show that, in line with expectations, induced lower perceived subject similarity led to stronger self-concept differences than did higher perceived similarity. Some implications of the results for DCT are discussed.

  13. MCNP and GADRAS Comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasky, Marc Louis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); James, Michael R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mayo, Douglas R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-19

    To facilitate the timely execution of System Threat Reviews (STRs) for DNDO, and also to develop a methodology for performing STRs, LANL performed comparisons of several radiation transport codes (MCNP, GADRAS, and Gamma-Designer) that have been previously utilized to compute radiation signatures. While each of these codes has strengths, it is of paramount interest to determine the limitations of each of the respective codes and also to identify the most time efficient means by which to produce computational results, given the large number of parametric cases that are anticipated in performing STR's. These comparisons serve to identify regions of applicability for each code and provide estimates of uncertainty that may be anticipated. Furthermore, while performing these comparisons, examination of the sensitivity of the results to modeling assumptions was also examined. These investigations serve to enable the creation of the LANL methodology for performing STRs. Given the wide variety of radiation test sources, scenarios, and detectors, LANL calculated comparisons of the following parameters: decay data, multiplicity, device (n,γ) leakages, and radiation transport through representative scenes and shielding. This investigation was performed to understand potential limitations utilizing specific codes for different aspects of the STR challenges.

  14. Vizualizing Interfirm Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Vermeulen (Erik); J. Spronk (Jaap); D. van der Wijst (Nico)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we present a new way to visualize the results obtained with interfirm comparison. It will be shown how these results can be visualized even if the explanatory variable is explained by more than one firm characteristic. As a result, the new visualization method enables us t

  15. Comparison of OMI NO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ialongo, Iolanda; Herman, Jay; Krotkov, Nick; Lamsal, Lok; Boersma, Folkert; Hovila, Jari; Tamminen, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    We present the comparison of satellite-based OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) NO2 products with ground-based observations in Helsinki. OMI NO2 total columns, available from NASA's standard product (SP) and KNMI DOMINO product, are compared with the measurements performed by

  16. What the stories children tell can tell about their memory: narrative skill and young children's suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkofsky, Sarah; Klemfuss, J Zoe

    2008-09-01

    The authors examined the relation between children's narrative ability, which has been identified as an important contributor to memory development, and suggestibility. Across 2 studies, a total of 112 preschool-aged children witnessed a staged event and were subsequently questioned suggestively. Results from Study 1 indicated that children's ability to provide a high-quality narrative of the event was related to resistance to suggestive questions, and narrative ability appeared to supersede age as a predictor of such resistance. In Study 2, children's general language and narrative abilities were measured in addition to their ability to produce a high-quality narrative about the target event. These results replicated Study 1's findings that children's ability to produce a high-quality narrative of a previously experienced event predicted resistance to suggestion. However, the quality of children's autobiographical memory narratives predicted shifting from denial to assent. Findings are considered in light of narrative's role in memory development and underlying mechanisms that may explain children's suggestibility.

  17. The Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS1) in a sample of inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Rute; Silva, Danilo R; Ferreira, Ana Sousa

    2014-01-01

    This paper comprises two studies which address the validity of the Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, GSS1. In study 1, the means and standard deviations for the suggestibility results of a sample of Portuguese inmates (N=40, Mage=37.5 years, SD=8.1) were compared to those of a sample of Icelandic inmates (Gudjonsson, 1997; Gudjonsson & Sigurdsson, 1996). Portuguese inmates' results were in line with the original results. In study 2, the means and standard deviations for the suggestibility results of the sample of Portuguese inmates were compared to those of a general Portuguese population sample (N=57, Mage=36.1 years, SD=12.7). The forensic sample obtained significantly higher scores in suggestibility measures than the general population sample. ANOVA confirmed that the increased suggestibility in the inmates sample was due to the limited memory capacity of this latter group. Given that the results of both studies 1 and 2 are in keeping with the author's original results (Gudjonsson, 1997), this may be regarded as a confirmation of the validity of the Portuguese GSS1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Defining hypnosis as a trance vs. cooperation: hypnotic inductions, suggestibility, and performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Vanderhoff, Holly; Shindler, Kelley; Stafford, Jane

    2002-01-01

    We compared participants' responsiveness to a standard administration of a hypnotic suggestibility scale (CURSS; Spanos, Radtke, Hodgins, Bertrand, Stam, & Moretti, 1983) that defined the ability to experience hypnosis in terms of cooperation (SI; standard induction, N = 27) with a version of the same scale administered with all references to cooperation removed (CR; cooperation removed, N = 34) and with a version of the scale with the "induction" removed (NI; no induction, N = 35). In a fourth condition, participants were informed that the ability to experience hypnosis depended on their ability to achieve an altered state of consciousness or "trance" (AS; altered state, N = 33). Removing instructions for cooperation had an effect on objective (CR performance standards theory (Lynn & Rhue, 1991), participants who received the altered state set responded to fewer suggestions than did participants who received the standard induction (SI). Estimates of suggestions passed that were assessed before and after test suggestions were administered were, respectively, weakly to moderately correlated with objective and subjective measures of hypnotic suggestibility.

  19. Structural Studies of Bacterioferritin B from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Suggest a Gating Mechanism for Iron Uptake via the Ferroxidase Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeratunga, Saroja K.; Lovell, Scott; Yao, Huili; Battaile, Kevin P.; Fischer, Christopher J.; Gee, Casey E.; Rivera, Mario (Kansas); (HWMRI)

    2010-03-16

    The structure of recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterioferritin B (Pa BfrB) has been determined from crystals grown from protein devoid of core mineral iron (as-isolated) and from protein mineralized with {approx}600 iron atoms (mineralized). Structures were also obtained from crystals grown from mineralized BfrB after they had been soaked in an FeSO{sub 4} solution (Fe soak) and in separate experiments after they had been soaked in an FeSO{sub 4} solution followed by a soak in a crystallization solution (double soak). Although the structures consist of a typical bacterioferritin fold comprised of a nearly spherical 24-mer assembly that binds 12 heme molecules, comparison of microenvironments observed in the distinct structures provided interesting insights. The ferroxidase center in the as-isolated, mineralized, and double-soak structures is empty. The ferroxidase ligands (except His130) are poised to bind iron with minimal conformational changes. The His130 side chain, on the other hand, must rotate toward the ferroxidase center to coordinate iron. In comparison, the structure obtained from crystals soaked in an FeSO{sub 4} solution displays a fully occupied ferroxidase center and iron bound to the internal, Fe{sub (in)}, and external, Fe{sub (out)}, surfaces of Pa BfrB. The conformation of His130 in this structure is rotated toward the ferroxidase center and coordinates an iron ion. The structures also revealed a pore on the surface of Pa BfrB that likely serves as a port of entry for Fe{sup 2+} to the ferroxidase center. On its opposite end, the pore is capped by the side chain of His130 when it adopts its 'gate-closed' conformation that enables coordination to a ferroxidase iron. A change to its 'gate-open', noncoordinative conformation creates a path for the translocation of iron from the ferroxidase center to the interior cavity. These structural observations, together with findings obtained from iron incorporation measurements in

  20. BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER IN THE MEDICAL SETTING: Suggestive Behaviors, Syndromes, and Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder is a personality dysfunction that is characterized by disinhibition and impulsivity, which oftentimes manifest as self-regulation difficulties. Patients with this disorder have always been present in medical settings, but have been described as "difficult patients" rather than patients with borderline personality disorder. According to empirical findings, a number of behaviors and medical syndromes/diagnoses are suggestive of borderline personality disorder. Suggestive behaviors in the medical setting may include aggressive or disruptive behaviors, the intentional sabotage of medical care, and excessive healthcare utilization. Suggestive medical syndromes and diagnoses in the medical setting may include alcohol and substance misuse (including the abuse of prescription medications), multiple somatic complaints, chronic pain, obesity, sexual impulsivity, and hair pulling. While not all-inclusive or diagnostic, these behaviors and syndromes/diagnoses may invite further clinical evaluation of the patient for borderline personality disorder.

  1. Small calcified lesions suggestive of neurocysticercosis are associated with mesial temporal sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos C. B. Oliveira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested a possible relationship between temporal lobe epilepsy with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS and neurocysticercosis (NC. We performed a case-control study to evaluate the association of NC and MTS. Method: We randomly selected patients with different epilepsy types, including: MTS, primary generalized epilepsy (PGE and focal symptomatic epilepsy (FSE. Patients underwent a structured interview, followed by head computed tomography (CT. A neuroradiologist evaluated the scan for presence of calcified lesions suggestive of NC. CT results were matched with patients’ data. Results: More patients in the MTS group displayed calcified lesions suggestive of NC than patients in the other groups (p=0.002. On multivariate analysis, MTS was found to be an independent predictor of one or more calcified NC lesions (p=0.033. Conclusion: After controlling for confounding factors, we found an independent association between NC calcified lesions and MTS.

  2. Is the dissociative adult suggestible? A test of the trauma and fantasy models of dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluemper, Nicole S; Dalenberg, Constance

    2014-01-01

    Psychologists have long assumed a connection between traumatic experience and psychological dissociation. This hypothesis is referred to as the trauma model of dissociation. In the past decade, a series of papers have been published that question this traditional causal link, proposing an alternative fantasy model of dissociation. In the present research, the relationship among dissociation, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness was examined. Suggestibility was measured through the Gudjonsson Scale of Interrogative Suggestibility (GSS) as well as an autobiographically based version of this measure based on the events of September 11, 2001. Consistent with prior research and with the trauma model, dissociation correlated positively with trauma severity (r = .32, p fantasy proneness (r = .60, p fantasy model, dissociation did not correlate with the neutral form of the GSS and correlated negatively (r = -.24, p fantasy model of dissociation.

  3. Economic Benefit Assignment in Environmental Cost Allocation: Toward a Suggestion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins C. Ngwakwe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to suggest a model to reward a ‘dirty product’ whichhas the potential to offer sales promotion services to other ‘clean products’in a multiple product firm. The paper suggests a model – economicbenefit assignment (EBA for apportionment of direct wastecosts where a polluting product offers a sales promotion benefit to other‘clean products’ of the same company, which proposes that benefitingproducts should be assigned a proportion of the direct waste cost ofthe polluting product (as a service charge based on the proportion ofpromotion benefit (sales benefit received from the polluting product.The idea is that, based on transfer pricing theory, such promotion servicewould be paid for, if offered by an outside agent. Whilst academicdebate is expected to ensue from this suggestion model, further caseresearch is imperative to demonstrate industrial applicability.

  4. The ISRM suggested methods for rock characterization, testing and monitoring 2007-2014

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of ISRM suggested methods for testing or measuring properties of rocks and rock masses both in the laboratory and in situ, as well as for monitoring the performance of rock engineering structures. The first collection (Yellow Book) has been published in 1981. In order to provide access to all the Suggested Methods in one volume, the ISRM Blue Book was published in 2007 (by the ISRM via the Turkish National Group) and contains the complete set of Suggested Methods from 1974 to 2006 inclusive. The papers in this most recent volume have been published during the last seven years in international journals, mainly in Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering. They offer guidance for rock characterization procedures and laboratory and field testing and monitoring in rock engineering. These methods provide a definitive procedure for the identification, measurement and evaluation of one or more qualities, characteristics, or properties of rocks or rock systems that produces a test result.

  5. The effects of encoding in hypnosis and post-hypnotic suggestion on academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nicholas; Kramer, Sam; Tharp, Amanda; Costa, Salvatore; Hawley, Phillip

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between proactive learning in hypnosis, post-hypnotic suggestion, and academic performance. Participants (N = 56) were randomly assigned to a control group or a treatment group. The treatment group was hypnotized and read a passage while in hypnosis. Concurrently, they were given a post-hypnotic suggestion, which attempted to aid recognition and performance on a test immediately following the hypnosis session. Both groups completed a multiple-choice test based on the aforementioned passage. An analysis of covariance discerned the effect of proactive learning and post-hypnotic suggestion on test performance, while controlling for the variance introduced by scholastic aptitude as measured by the ACT. Results indicated that the hypnosis sessions predicted significantly impaired test performance.

  6. Improving working memory performance in brain-injured patients using hypnotic suggestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeløv, Jonas Kristoffer; Overgaard, Rikke; Overgaard, Morten

    2017-01-01

    be effectively restored by suggesting to hypnotized patients that they have regained their pre-injury level of working memory functioning. Following four 1-h sessions, 27 patients had a medium-sized improvement relative to 22 active controls (Bayes factors of 342 and 37.5 on the two aggregate outcome measures...... group was crossed over to the working memory suggestion and showed superior improvement. By the end of the study, both groups reached a performance level at or above the healthy population mean with standardized mean differences between 1.55 and 2.03 relative to the passive control group. We conclude...... that, if framed correctly, hypnotic suggestion can effectively improve working memory following acquired brain injury. The speed and consistency with which this improvement occurred, indicate that there may be a residual capacity for normal information processing in the injured brain....

  7. Dissociation, personality, suggestibility, alexithymia, and problems with emotional regulation: A correlational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles Serrano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explores the relationship between psychological and somatic dissociation and different personality and emotional variables, including suggestibility, alexithymia, and emotional regulation and dysregulation. The results with a sample of 355 partipants of a normal population reveal that there is a positive relationship between both types of dissociation, suggestibility and emotional dysregulation. Likewise, there were different patterns of personality associated both to psychological and somatic dissociation. Correlations found in this study put forward the importance to take into account both types of dissociactive symptoms, psychological and somatic ones.

  8. Welfare assessment in porcine biomedical research – Suggestion for an operational tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lene Vammen; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Herskin, Mette S

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, increasing interest in using the pig (Sus scrofa) for biomedical research has become evident. Today, the pig is considered an advantageous alternative animal model for various human diseases and conditions. However, even though a considerable amount of biomedical research has been...... of the extent of welfare assessment in pigs used in biomedical research and to suggest a welfare assessment standard for research facilities based on an exposition of ethological considerations relevant for the welfare of pigs in biomedical research. The tools for porcine welfare assessment presented suggest...

  9. Sinonasal myospherulosis and paraffin retention cysts suggested by CT: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulier, Bruno; Desgain, Olivier; Gielen, Isabelle

    2012-06-01

    Sinonasal myospherulosis is a foreign body reaction to lipid material used on nasal packing at the conclusion of paranasal sinus surgery. Rare cases have been sporadically reported. We report a case found in a 79-year-old female 8 months after functional endoscopic sinus surgery during which sinus cavities had been packed with gauze coated with Terra-Cortril (a paraffin-based tetracycline/steroid ointment). The preoperative diagnosis was suggested during CT of the paranasal sinuses by the presence of macroscopic paraffin retention cysts having a characteristic fat density. To our knowledge, our case represents the first report of sinonasal myospherulosis suggested by CT.

  10. Polyarteritis nodosa presenting with clinical and radiologic features suggestive of polymyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroon, Muhammad; Bermingham, Niamh; Keohane, Catherine; Harney, Sinead

    2012-04-01

    We report a patient who presented with clinical and MRI findings suggestive of polymyositis but, in whom, muscle biopsy disclosed a strikingly different diagnosis. A 65-year-old woman presented with 3-week history of bilateral proximal muscle pain and weakness. Laboratory investigations showed markedly elevated inflammatory markers and mildly elevated muscle enzymes. MRI scans of lower limbs showed features suggestive of polymyositis. However, muscle biopsy showed features of a polyarteritis-type vasculitis affecting an intramuscular blood vessel. Our reports highlight the critical role of muscle biopsy in establishing the correct diagnosis in patients with suspected myositis.

  11. A systematic review of suggestive seizure induction for the diagnosis of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkirov, Stoyan; Grönheit, Wenke; Wellmer, Jörg

    2015-09-01

    Suggestive seizure induction is a widely used method for diagnosing psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Despite seven decades of multidisciplinary research, however, there is still no unified protocol, no definitive agreement on the ethical framework and no consensus on diagnostic utility. This systematic review surveys the evidence at hand and addresses clinically relevant aspects of suggestive seizure induction. In addition to its use for facilitating the diagnostic process, its mechanism of action and utility in elucidating the psychopathology of PNES will be discussed. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Polyarteritis nodosa presenting with clinical and radiologic features suggestive of polymyositis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Haroon, Muhammad

    2011-02-18

    We report a patient who presented with clinical and MRI findings suggestive of polymyositis but, in whom, muscle biopsy disclosed a strikingly different diagnosis. A 65-year-old woman presented with 3-week history of bilateral proximal muscle pain and weakness. Laboratory investigations showed markedly elevated inflammatory markers and mildly elevated muscle enzymes. MRI scans of lower limbs showed features suggestive of polymyositis. However, muscle biopsy showed features of a polyarteritis-type vasculitis affecting an intramuscular blood vessel. Our reports highlight the critical role of muscle biopsy in establishing the correct diagnosis in patients with suspected myositis.

  13. Sommelier Suggestions: The Arthroscopy Association of North America Annual Meeting Inspires a Content Collection Worth Tasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Timothy J; Brand, Jefferson C; Provencher, Matthew T; Rossi, Michael J; Lubowitz, James H

    2017-05-01

    The 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America Annual Meeting Program inspires a Content Collection of Arthroscopy journal articles worthy of review. A foundation of a credible podium presentation is the published medical literature. Your Editors thus suggest recent publications that seem particularly relevant in the context of the 2017 annual meeting. Consider these articles as one would a suggestion for a good glass of wine to complement a delicious meal. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Genome-wide Ancestry Patterns in Rapanui Suggest Pre-European Admixture with Native Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Rasmussen, Simon; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Rapa Nui (Easter Island), located in the easternmost corner of the Polynesian Triangle, is one of the most isolated locations on the planet inhabited by humans. Archaeological and genetic evidence suggests that the island was first colonized by Polynesians around AD 1200, during...... their eastward expansion. Although it remains contentious whether Polynesians reached South America, suggestive evidence has been brought forward supporting the possibility of Native American contact prior to the European “discovery” of the island in AD 1722. Results: We generated genome-wide data for 27 Rapanui...

  15. Suggestions for a Web based universal exchange and inference language for medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Barry; Caruso, Thomas P; Balis, Ulysses G J

    2013-12-01

    Mining biomedical and pharmaceutical data generates huge numbers of interacting probabilistic statements for inference, which can be supported by mining Web text sources. This latter can also be probabilistic, in a sense described in this report. However, the diversity of tools for probabilistic inference is troublesome, suggesting a need for a unifying best practice. Physicists often claim that quantum mechanics is the universal best practice for probabilistic reasoning. We discuss how the Dirac notation and algebra suggest the form and algebraic and semantic meaning of XML-like Web tags for a clinical and biomedical universal exchange language formulated to make sense directly to the eye of the physician and biomedical researcher.

  16. Teachers' Perspectives and Suggestions for Improving Teacher Education to Facilitate Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkenhoker, Dina L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study is to give teachers a voice to express their self-efficacy beliefs, their opinions about the content and the effectiveness of their teacher preparation programs to facilitate student learning, and to hear their suggestions for improving teacher education to enable future educators to…

  17. Experiential Response to Auditory and Visual Hallucination Suggestions in Hypnotic Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanos, Nicholas P.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The effects of several attitudinal, cognitive skill, and personality variables in response to auditory and visual hallucination suggestions to hypnotic subjects are assessed. Cooperative attitudes toward hypnosis and involvement in everyday imaginative activities (absorption) correlated with response to auditory and visual hallucination…

  18. The Nuts and Bolts of Michaelis-Menten Enzyme Kinetics: Suggestions and Clarifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Matthew Junker's recent article describes a useful and effective enzyme kinetics application and analogy in which students simulate enzyme activity by unscrewing nut-bolt "substrate molecules", thus, converting them into separate nuts and bolts "products". A number of suggestions and corrections are presented that improve the clarity and accuracy…

  19. Using Controversial Mock Trials in "Psychology and Law" Courses: Suggestions from Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, James L., Jr.; Harvey, James; McNamara, Rebecca; Svoboda, Andrea; Gulbrandson, Raina; Hendren, Jennifer; Greedy, Tiffany; Leybold, Christie

    2002-01-01

    Describes a mock trial focused on Jack Kevorkian and an euthanasia case that was included in a psychology and law course. Discusses the course format, provides the reactions to the mock trial by students and consultants, and includes suggestions for improving the mock trial. (CMK)

  20. [Suggestion of an improved technique of general anaesthesia for ophthalmological experiments on rabbits (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtmann, H W; Stein, H J

    1975-02-01

    The potentiated general anaesthesia with ethyl urethane and propionylpromazine for long-time ophthalmological experiments on rabbits is not adequate. It is suggested to apply additional ketamin (i.v. and i.m.). With this procedure a satisfactory position of rest is obtained for more than two hours.

  1. Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept.

  2. Professional Problems Experienced by Information Technology Teachers and Suggested Solutions: Longitudinal Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Hafize; Cetinkaya, Levent

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the opinions of teacher candidates in the fourth year of Computer Education & Instructional Technologies department (CEIT) on the Problems Experienced by Information Technology (IT) Teachers and Suggested Solutions and it has been designed in case study routine taking place within qualitative research tradition and…

  3. Antimicrobials and Non-Healing Wounds. Evidence, controversies and suggestions-key messages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottrup, Finn; Apelqvist, Jan; Bjarnsholt, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    This article constitutes an extraction of key messages originally presented in the Document: Antimicrobials and Non-Healing Wounds. Evidence, controversies and suggestions written by the European Wound Management Association (EWMA), and originally published by the Journal of Wound Care in 2013. All...

  4. Suggested Cognitive and Behavioral Strategies for Coaches to Prevent Drug Abuse in Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshel, Mark H.

    In this discussion of the prevalence of drug abuse by athletes, suggestions are made for coaches to prevent or reduce the abusive intake of drugs by athletes who participate on their teams. The following cognitive strategies deal with eliminating unwanted drug use: (1) show concern; (2) articulate ethical issues; (3) set behavior limits; (4)…

  5. Problems Confronting China's Petroleum Refining Industry During the High Oil Price Period and Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Lingli; Lü Jiahuan

    2006-01-01

    This article has suggested that high oil price could loom many years in the future and has analyzed the impact of this trend on the oil product mix and petroleum refining industry in China. This article has also put forward measures for sharpening the international competitive edge of China's petroleum refining industry to cope with the challenges of high oil price.

  6. Academic Library Use of NTIS: Suggestions for Services and Core Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Charles R.; Hernon, Peter

    Intended to assist academic librarians and other information professionals in better exploiting the information resources available through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), this two-part manual offers practical suggestions and strategies for making NTIS information services and products available through academic libraries.…

  7. Suggesting a NOS Map for Nature of Science for Science Education Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jun-Young

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this research are 1) to explore the inter-relationships within the individual elements or tenets of Nature of Science (NOS), based on the dimensions of scientific knowledge in science learning, and 2) to consider Kuhn's concept of how scientific revolution takes place. This study suggests that instruction according to our NOS Flowchart…

  8. Guidelines and Suggestions for Developing a Vocational Agribusiness Program in Secondary Educational Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutshall, Dan

    This booklet contains guidelines and suggestions for starting or expanding an existing agricultural production/ mechanics program to include an agribusiness program in secondary schools. The ideas and recommendations were prepared and field tested in an agribusiness program started and currently in progress in Tonganoxie High School (Kansas). The…

  9. Event Memory and Suggestibility in Abused and Neglected Children: Trauma-Related Psychopathology and Cognitive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yoojin; Goodman, Gail S.; Eisen, Mitchell L.; Qin, Jianjian

    2011-01-01

    This study examined event memory and suggestibility in 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of child maltreatment. A total of 322 children were interviewed about a play activity with an unfamiliar adult. Comprehensive measures of individual differences in trauma-related psychopathology and cognitive functioning were administered.…

  10. Long-tern monitoring in the Netherlands suggests that lichens respond to global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herk, van C.M.; Aptroot, A.; Dobben, van H.F.

    2002-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest that part of the recent changes in the lichen flora of the Netherlands is attributable to an increase in temperature. Changes which have occurred over the last 22 years were studied in detail, and were subjected to a statistical treatment by comparing the change of

  11. CCSS-ELA Suggestions and Cautions for Addressing Text Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wixson, Karen K.; Valencia, Sheila W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide guidance on the implementation of the Common Core State Standards for English language arts (CCSS-ELA). Toward this end, suggestions and cautions are provided that focus on understanding the vision, understanding the anchor and grade-level standards, and understanding the implications for instruction. In…

  12. CCSS-ELA: Suggestions and Cautions for Implementing the Reading Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Sheila W.; Wixson, Karen K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide guidance on the implementation of the Common Core State Standards for English language arts (CCSS-ELA). Toward this end, suggestions and cautions are provided that focus on understanding the vision, understanding the anchor and grade-level standards, and understanding the implications for instruction. In…

  13. Assessment of Dog Guides by Users in Japan and Suggestions for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Naoko; Kubo, Masumi; Ishigami, Tomomi; Furuhashi, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    Dog guide users in Japan were mostly satisfied with and used their dogs frequently; however, they requested some improvements in training and in basic guiding work. The findings of the study suggest the need for further improvement of training methods, considering cultural factors and individual users' needs. (Contains 3 tables.)

  14. Constraints and Suggestions in Adopting Seasonal Climate Forecasts by Farmers in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, K. Ravi; Nagasree, K.; Venkateswarlu, B.; Maraty, Pochaiah

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine constraints and suggestions of farmers towards adopting seasonal climate forecasts. It addresses the question: Which forms of providing forecasts will be helpful to farmers in agricultural decision making? For the study, farmers were selected from Andhra Pradesh state of South India. One hundred…

  15. The Journal of Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching, Volume 4, Number 4, Winter 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Donald, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This issue of a journal on suggestive learning-teaching-therapy counseling within the procedural confines of Suggestology or Suggestopedia includes the following articles: "Suggestopedia in an American High School Setting" (Carl W. Pullen), a description of the use of Suggestopedia in a German class; "Optimizing the Presentation of…

  16. The Journal of Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching. Volume 4, Number 1, Spring 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Donald, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This volume presents articles on aspects of suggestive learning with emphasis on foreign language instruction. The following articles and reviews are included: (1) "Biofeedback in Holistic Education," by Larry O. Rouse; (2) "Report on the Helsinki Suggestopedia Seminar, June, 1978," by Kjell Weinius; (3) "Suggestology and…

  17. The Journal of Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching, Vol. 1, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Donald H., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Five papers are presented that deal with the theory and methodology of suggestive learning. The psychological basis of suggestopedia and its application to language instruction are outlined by Gabriel Racle in "The Key Principles of Suggestopedia." An outline of the organization of a classical suggestopedic language course is appended to…

  18. The Journal of Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching. Volume 4, Number 3, Fall 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Donald, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    The six articles in this issue concern aspects of suggestive teaching and learning and the application of the theory of suggestology in the classroom. The articles are as follows: (1) "Music, Pedagogy, Therapy: Suggestopaedia," by Gabriel Racle; (2) "Suggestopedia in Budapest: Around a Language in 50 Days," by Stanley Krippner;…

  19. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Acute Dietary Restriction? Unobtrusive Observational Data Suggest Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Lowe, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The finding that dietary restraint scales predict onset of bulimic pathology has been interpreted as suggesting that dieting causes this eating disturbance, despite the dearth of evidence that these scales are valid measures of dietary restriction. The authors conducted 4 studies that tested whether dietary restraint scales were inversely…

  20. 21 CFR 369.4 - Warnings suggested for drugs by formal or informal statements of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warnings suggested for drugs by formal or informal statements of policy. 369.4 Section 369.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INTERPRETATIVE STATEMENTS RE WARNINGS ON DRUGS...

  1. Suggestions of Policy Direction to Improve the Housing Quality in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyeon Park

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the recent global climate changes, many countries, including developed nations, are announcing greenhouse gas (GHG reduction targets and are actively participating in reducing GHG. Therefore, the role of the building sector on reducing GHG is being emphasized, and the establishment of policy structures for both making environmentally friendly capacity compulsory and improving the housing quality is being demanded. South Korea is also developing a policy for improving housing quality, but in order to achieve more competitive growth, this must be preceded by an analysis of current policy status within various countries on improving housing quality. This study aims to suggest direction about policies that will improve the housing quality in South Korea. For this, the policies of major countries were able to categorize and compare according to three major categories (performance, function, and aesthetics, and seven factors (safety, durability, cost and maintenance, response to residents’ needs, habitability, energy saving, and building design regarding housing quality. As a result, from the performance aspect, policy directions were suggested for safe housing, the urban environment, regeneration of quality stock, and the usage of existing stock; from the functional aspect, policies for improving housing quality that responds to the aging population and energy saving housing were suggested; from the aesthetic aspect, housing designs that consider the urban environment were suggested.

  2. CWI and TU Delft at TREC 2013: Contextual Suggestion, Federated Web Search, KBA, and Web Tracks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellogín Kouki, A.; Gebremeskel, G.G.; He, J.; Lin, J.J.P.; Said, A.; Samar, T.; Vries, A.P. de; Vuurens, J.B.P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the work done at the Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI) and Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) for different tracks of TREC 2013. We participated in the Contextual Suggestion Track, the Federated Web Search Track, the Knowledge Base Acceleration (KBA) Trac

  3. Unexpected Genome Variability at Multiple Loci Suggests Cacao Swollen Shoot Virus Comprises Multiple, Divergent Molecular Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) [Badnavirus, Caulimoviridae] causes swollen shoot disease of Theobroma cacao L. in West Africa. Since ~2000, various diagnostic tests have failed to detect CSSV in ~50-70% of symptomatic cacao plants, suggesting the possible emergence of new, previously uncharacteriz...

  4. Energy and Water: Conservation Suggestions for California's Elementary and Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This publication contains conservation suggestions for schools in California to save water and energy. Contents include: (1) a list of sources of additional energy education assistance and materials; (2) a discussion of energy conservation in schools including HVAC system operations, lighting and building design; (3) a summary outline of actions…

  5. The Teaching of Mechanics: Some Criticisms, and Suggestions for a Rational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Keith

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the common confusion associated with the meaning of mass encountered in modern textbooks, and describes some of the misconceptions to be found in the teaching of mechanics. A new teaching approach is suggested, which may provide a more logical basis for these important ideas.

  6. Transforming School Leadership and Stakeholders' Perceptions Regarding Cyberbullying, Its Effects, and Suggestions for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Wesley; Fenn, Walter L.

    2014-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a growing phenomenon influencing schools, which must be addressed. Transformational school leaders, as the literature suggests, employ strategies for addressing cyberbullying including forming partnerships, implementing education and awareness programs, and applying disciplinary action. The purpose of this study is to understand…

  7. Beavers as Agents of Biogeomorphic Change: A Review and Suggestions for Teaching Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, David R.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses beavers and their geomorphic impacts on their environment. Considers dam building, bank burrowing, and canal building. Suggests using the beaver as a classroom and field trip example to illustrate animals' effects on the physical landscape. Provides a review of published works on beavers in their roles as geomorphic agents. (DK)

  8. The I-Xe System in Lodranites Suggests Impact-related Rapid Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, S. A.; Whitby, J. A.; Busfield, A.; Holland, G.; Busemann, H.; Gilmour, J. D.

    2009-03-01

    The I-Xe system of three lodranites has been investigated. Two metal and one silicate separate from GRA 95209 gave ages consistent with each other (and the I-Xe age of Acapulco feldspar), suggesting the parent material underwent a period of rapid cooling.

  9. THE TEACHING OF READING ENGLISH FOR ACADEMICPURPOSES IN CHINA: PROBLEMS AND SUGGESTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of the problems Chinese universities face when they try to develop reading courses for English for Academic Purposes. Two contrastive ideas about EAP are discussed, and some suggestions on preparing EAP materials and training teachers on their use are put forward.

  10. Alpha-Blockade improves symptoms suggestive of bladder outlet obstruction but fails to relieve it.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, C.; Kortmann, B.B.M.; Sonke, G.S.; Floratus, D.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Wijkstra, H.; Rosette, J.J.M.H.C. de la

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the effect of the alpha-blockers alfuzosin, terazosin and tamsulosin on urodynamic parameters after 6 months of therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between February 1992 and June 1998, 163 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of bladder outlet obstruction were t

  11. Long-tern monitoring in the Netherlands suggests that lichens respond to global warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herk, van C.M.; Aptroot, A.; Dobben, van H.F.

    2002-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest that part of the recent changes in the lichen flora of the Netherlands is attributable to an increase in temperature. Changes which have occurred over the last 22 years were studied in detail, and were subjected to a statistical treatment by comparing the change of speci

  12. Male or Female Therapists for Eating-Disordered Adolescents: Guidelines Suggested by Research and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilker, Larry

    1993-01-01

    Explores which therapist-patient gender matches facilitate most patient growth and avoid detriment to female patients with eating disorders. Distills relevant variables from literature on eating disorders, adolescence, transference and countertransference, and psychotherapy to suggest guidelines for effective matches. Sees therapist and patient…

  13. Suggesting a NOS Map for Nature of Science for Science Education Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jun-Young

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this research are 1) to explore the inter-relationships within the individual elements or tenets of Nature of Science (NOS), based on the dimensions of scientific knowledge in science learning, and 2) to consider Kuhn's concept of how scientific revolution takes place. This study suggests that instruction according to our NOS Flowchart…

  14. Regulations and Ethical Considerations for Astronomy Education Research III: A Suggested Code of Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogt, Erik; Foster, Tom; Dokter, Erin; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

    2009-01-01

    We present an argument for, and suggested implementation of, a code of ethics for the astronomy education research community. This code of ethics is based on legal and ethical considerations set forth by U.S. federal regulations and the existing code of conduct of the American Educational Research Association. We also provide a fictitious research…

  15. A study on efficiency and effectiveness of suggestion system: A case study of oil products distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amaneh Bahraminasab

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important tools for improving the relative efficiencies of any organization is to establish suggestion system. Having a reliable system, which could reflect all employees’ comments and concerns, helps managers take necessary actions to remove any possible obstacle in the system. In this paper, we measure efficiency and effectiveness of suggestion system in the National Iranian Oil Products Distribution. We also provide practical suggestions for improvement and necessary actions required to review the system. The proposed study of this paper uses a sample of 297 people from 1294 employees who work in different position for some of the regional offices of this firm in north part of Iran. The study has used two separate questionnaires, where the first one consists of 40 questions in Likert scale trying to measure the efficiency and effectiveness of the suggestion system. In addition, we use another questionnaire to rank important factors detected in the first stage. The results of questionnaires have been analyzed using different statistical tests.

  16. Public Opinion Research as a Basis for Student Learning: A Suggested Teaching Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Brian J.

    This paper provides a suggested teaching model enabling students to conduct extensive, hands-on survey research as the basis of part or all of a political science class. The model emphasizes active student learning and development of applied skills. The components of this model can be modified for use in a broad array of undergraduate political…

  17. Conferencing with Confidence: Suggestions for Using Portfolios in Student-Led Conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kristin

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the theoretical framework behind, the benefits of, the implementation of, and the perspectives on student-led conferences using portfolios. Presents suggestions for preparing a class to share their portfolios during their conferences. Notes that it gives students a clear sense of their strengths, their weaknesses, where they stand, and…

  18. A TWO-PERSON INFINITE GAME SUGGESTED FROM A QUIZ OF GUESSING A NUMBER

    OpenAIRE

    Teraoka, Yoshinobu

    1983-01-01

    This paper is purposed to formulate and analyze a two-person infinite game suggested from a quiz of guessing a number which is applicable to a plan of production under an uncertain demand, waiting for a person who arrives at a random time, etc. Shown are the two types of mode, shopping and shooting.

  19. Male or Female Therapists for Eating-Disordered Adolescents: Guidelines Suggested by Research and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilker, Larry

    1993-01-01

    Explores which therapist-patient gender matches facilitate most patient growth and avoid detriment to female patients with eating disorders. Distills relevant variables from literature on eating disorders, adolescence, transference and countertransference, and psychotherapy to suggest guidelines for effective matches. Sees therapist and patient…

  20. Boolean queries for news monitoring: Suggesting new query terms to expert users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, S.; Wabeke, T.; Kaptein, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate query suggestion for Boolean queries in a news monitoring system. Users of this system receive news articles that match their running query on a daily basis. Because the news for a topic continuously changes, the queries need regular updating. We first investigated the

  1. Memory and Suggestibility in Maltreated Children: Age, Stress Arousal, Dissociation, and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S.; Davis, Suzanne L.

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed 3- to 17-year-olds' memory and suggestibility in the context of ongoing child maltreatment investigations. Results from 189 subjects indicated that general psychopathology, short-term memory, and intellectual ability predicted facets of children's memory performance. Older compared to young children evinced fewer memory errors…

  2. The strange case of reproducibility versus representativeness in contextual suggestion test collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samar, T.; Bellogin, A.; De Vries, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    The most common approach to measuring the effectiveness of Information Retrieval systems is by using test collections. The Contextual Suggestion (CS) TREC track provides an evaluation framework for systems that recommend items to users given their geographical context. The specific nature of this

  3. Genotype-Property Patient-Phenotype Relations Suggest that Proteome Exhaustion Can Cause Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2015-01-01

    number, expressed as an exponential function of the experimental stabilities (R-2 = 0.31, p = 0.002), and this phenotype is further aggravated by charge (R-2 = 0.51, p = 1.8 x 10-5). This finding suggests that disease relates to the copy number of misfolded proteins. Exhaustion of motor neurons due...

  4. The strange case of reproducibility versus representativeness in contextual suggestion test collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samar, T.; Bellogin, A.; De Vries, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    The most common approach to measuring the effectiveness of Information Retrieval systems is by using test collections. The Contextual Suggestion (CS) TREC track provides an evaluation framework for systems that recommend items to users given their geographical context. The specific nature of this tr

  5. Adipose gene expression patterns of weight gain suggest counteracting steroid hormone synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Franssen-Hal, van N.L.W.; Schaap, M.M.; Pennings, J.; Hoebee, B.; Keijer, J.

    2005-01-01

    VAN SCHOTHORST, EVERT M., NICOLE FRANSSEN-VAN HAL, MIRJAM M. SCHAAP, JEROEN PENNINGS, BARBARA HOEBEE, AND JAAP KEIJER. Adipose gene expression patterns of weight gain suggest counteracting steroid hormone synthesis. Obes Res. 2005;13:1031-1041. Objective: To identify early molecular changes in weigh

  6. The Journal of Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching. Volume 4, Number 1, Spring 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Donald, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This volume presents articles on aspects of suggestive learning with emphasis on foreign language instruction. The following articles and reviews are included: (1) "Biofeedback in Holistic Education," by Larry O. Rouse; (2) "Report on the Helsinki Suggestopedia Seminar, June, 1978," by Kjell Weinius; (3) "Suggestology and Suggestopedia Revisited,"…

  7. The Journal of Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching. Volume 4, Number 3, Fall 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Donald, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    The six articles in this issue concern aspects of suggestive teaching and learning and the application of the theory of suggestology in the classroom. The articles are as follows: (1) "Music, Pedagogy, Therapy: Suggestopaedia," by Gabriel Racle; (2) "Suggestopedia in Budapest: Around a Language in 50 Days," by Stanley Krippner; (3) "Indirect…

  8. The Journal of Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching, Vol. 1, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Donald H., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Five papers are presented that deal with the theory and methodology of suggestive learning. The psychological basis of suggestopedia and its application to language instruction are outlined by Gabriel Racle in "The Key Principles of Suggestopedia." An outline of the organization of a classical suggestopedic language course is appended to this…

  9. The Nuts and Bolts of Michaelis-Menten Enzyme Kinetics: Suggestions and Clarifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Matthew Junker's recent article describes a useful and effective enzyme kinetics application and analogy in which students simulate enzyme activity by unscrewing nut-bolt "substrate molecules", thus, converting them into separate nuts and bolts "products". A number of suggestions and corrections are presented that improve the clarity and accuracy…

  10. Pythia: A Privacy-enhanced Personalized Contextual Suggestion System for Tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drosatos, G.; Efraimidis, P.S.; Arampatzis, A.; Stamatelatos, G.; Athanasiadis, I.N.

    2015-01-01

    We present Pythia, a privacy-enhanced non-invasive contextual suggestion system for tourists, with important architectural innovations. The system offers high quality personalized recommendations, non-invasive operation and protection of user privacy. A key feature of Pythia is the exploitation of t

  11. 24 CFR 3500.3 - Questions or suggestions from public and copies of public guidance documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questions or suggestions from public and copies of public guidance documents. 3500.3 Section 3500.3 Housing and Urban...

  12. Placebo Effect upon Complex Reaction Time When Hypnotic Suggestibility is Controlled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskridge, Veronica L.

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of a placebo (sugar pill) accompanied by suggestions that the pill would either (1) improve performance as a stimulant or (2) cause a deterioration in performance as a depressant when the performance in question was the subjects' complex reaction time to a light stimulus. The Harvard Group Scale of…

  13. Analysis and Suggestions on Management Strategies in Eco-industrial Parks in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfang ZHOU; Zhonghong YANG

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In the research, management strategies and problems of eco-industrial parks were mainly analyzed and some suggestions were proposed based on eco-in- dustrial park, circular economy and ecologization of industrial park in China, providing references for ecologica~ization policy design of industrial parks in China.

  14. Features described and illustrated in 1684 suggesting Meckel-Gruber syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompanje, Erwin J O

    2003-01-01

    In 1684, Mr. Christopher Krahe described a monstrous child, born in Denmark on Friday, February 29, 1684. The description is suggestive of a diagnosis of Meckel-Gruber syndrome (dysencephalia splanchnocystica). This may represent the oldest description and illustration of the syndrome, of which the first detailed description is attributed to Johann Friedrich der Jüngere in 1822.

  15. Vocabulary Matching for Book Indexing Suggestion in Linked Libraries - A Prototype Implementation and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Antoine; Kramer, Dirk; van der Meij, Lourens; Wang, Shenghui; Schlobach, Stefan; Stapel, Johan

    In this paper, we report on a technology-transfer effort on using the Semantic Web (SW) technologies, esp. ontology matching, for solving a real-life library problem: book subject indexing. Our purpose is to streamline one library's book description process by suggesting new subjects based on descriptions created by other institutions, even when the vocabularies used are different. The case at hand concerns the National Library of the Netherlands (KB) and the network of Dutch local public libraries. We present a prototype subject suggestion tool, which is directly connected to the KB production cataloguing environment. We also report on the results of a user study and evaluation to assess the feasibility of exploiting state-of-the art techniques in such a real-life application. Our prototype demonstrates that SW components can be seamlessly plugged into the KB production environment, which potentially brings a higher level of flexibility and openness to networked Cultural Heritage (CH) institutions. Technical hurdles can be tackled and the suggested subjects are often relevant, opening up exciting new perspectives on the daily work of the KB. However, the general performance level should be made higher to warrant seamless embedding in the production environment—notably by considering more contextual metadata for the suggestion process.

  16. Eliminating Age Differences in Children's and Adults' Suggestibility and Memory Conformity Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L.; Brackmann, Nathalie; van Helvoort, Daniël H. J.

    2017-01-01

    We examined whether typical developmental trends in suggestion-induced false memories (i.e., age-related decrease) could be changed. Using theoretical principles from the spontaneous false memory field, we adapted 2 often-used false memory procedures: misinformation (Experiment 1) and memory conformity (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, 7- to…

  17. Abolition Of The Lead-Acid Battery Consumption Tax Is Suggested

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Zhang Tianren,an NPC representative and chairman of Tianneng Group suggests cessation or deferment in the collection or differentiated collection of lead-acid battery consumption taxes.Lead-acid batteries play a fundamental role in China’s transport,communications,power generation and wind energy storage,smart grid

  18. Suggestion for a Theoretical Model for Secondary-Tertiary Transition in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Megan; Lovric, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    One of most notable features of existing body of research in transition seems to be the absence of a theoretical model. The suggestion we present in this paper--to view and understand the high school to university transition in mathematics as a modern-day rite of passage--is an attempt at defining such framework. Although dominantly reflecting…

  19. The Difficulties of Female Primary School Administrators in the Administration Process and Solution Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosar, Didem; Altunay, Esen; Yalçinkaya, Mu¨nevver

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the administration experiences of female administrators, find out the troubles they have had during their administration process, and suggest some solutions according to these experiences. The qualitative method was used in this research and data was collected via the semi-structured interview form…

  20. Behavioral and neurophysiological investigation of the influence of verbal suggestion on tactile perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorio, M; Recchia, S; Corrà, F; Tinazzi, M

    2014-01-31

    Recently we demonstrated that it is possible to influence tactile perception by applying a placebo manipulation consisting of verbal suggestion and conditioning and that this influence is associated to changes in the late components (N140 and P200) of somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) (Fiorio et al., 2012). Due to the powerful effects of words in changing symptoms perception in the clinical domain, aim of this study was to investigate whether even in the tactile modality, perception can be changed by the mere use of persuasive words in a specific context. To this purpose, we adopted the same experimental setting of our previous study, apart from the conditioning procedure. A group of subjects (experimental group) has been verbally suggested about the effect of an inert cream in enhancing tactile perception, while a control group was informed about the inefficacy of the cream. In order to unveil the neurophysiological underpinnings of this effect, we compared the amplitude of late SEPs (P100, N140, P200), before and after treatment. Results showed that the experimental group did not perceive an increase of tactile sensation after the treatment and no modification occurred in the late SEPs. This study proves that verbal suggestion alone is not sufficient to induce enhanced tactile perception (at least with this experimental setting), suggesting that a conditioning procedure may be necessary in the tactile modality. The absence of changes in the late SEP components could reflect the lack of strong expectation following the placebo procedure.

  1. Authority Delegation in Boyerahmad Health Centers through Model to Combine Suggestions System and Delphi Method 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Momeninezhad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Authority delegation means to transmit part of organization`s manager and leader`s special authorities and executive duties, regardless its root to subordinates and heads of units and related offices to speed up implementing affairs and organizational purposes quickly and on time. The purpose of this study was to inspect authority delegation in health centers of Boyerahmad district through using model to combine suggestions (to identify process and Delphi method (expert`s opinions . Methods: This cross-sectional study was implemented in two stages at first stage, research community was authorities of Boyerahmad health centers (58 persons, their suggestions about requested processes to delegate were gathered by total count through open questionnaires and in second stage, which was Delphi, suggestions gathered from previous stage judged by 30 experts. Data of both stages analyzed by help of Chi-square, correlation coefficient tests. Results: Findings showed that 73.85% of suggestions were able to be delegated, based on expert`s opinion. 40% of suggestions were in domain of official, 36.92% financial and 23.08% hygienic. 88% less than 6 years management background. 20.69% had no academic studies and only 27% were general physicians. Conclusion: By participation of environmental management levels, several processes may be specified and identify cases which are possible to delegate them executively using Delphi (expert`s opinion and this model can be used as a trust worthy method to delegate authority for decentralization. Key words: Participation Management, Health centers, Authority delegation

  2. Stress hormones suggest opposite trends of food availability for planktivorous and piscivorous seabirds in 2 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz-Fredericks, Z. Morgan; Shultz, Michael T.; Kitaysky, Alexander S.

    2008-08-01

    Apex predators can provide valuable information about effects of climate variability on trophodynamics in the Bering Sea. We used corticosterone (the primary avian stress hormone, "CORT") as a proxy of changes in prey availability for planktivorous and piscivorous seabirds. CORT secretion reflects energy balance in breeding individuals and can be used to monitor changes in the marine environment that alter food availability. We tested whether CORT in planktivorous least auklets ( Aethia pusilla) and piscivorous thick-billed murres ( Uria lomvia) on two Pribilof Islands differed spatially or temporally in 2003 and 2004. During June-September of each year, we sampled birds breeding on St. Paul and St. George Islands. We found that seasonal dynamics of CORT varied between years. Although the seasonal dynamics were similar between islands in a year, in 2004 there were inter-island differences in CORT levels for both species. In 2003, CORT in murres was low throughout the season, suggesting that their prey availability (primarily forage fishes) was consistently good. In 2004, CORT levels suggested that overall food availability was poor for murres and declined as the season progressed. For auklets, inter-annual variability was associated with contrasting intra-seasonal patterns in the availability of zooplankton prey (primarily Neocalanus spp.). In 2003, high early-season (June) CORT indicated that auklets were food-limited, but CORT decreased in July, suggesting that the availability of zooplankton improved as the season progressed. In 2004, CORT was low early in the season (June), but an abrupt increase late in the season (July) suggests that food became scarce. Our data indicate that environmental differences between 2003 and 2004 affected prey availability for planktivorous and piscivorous alcids in opposite ways. These results suggest that in the shelf regions of the Bering Sea, the populations of apex predators feeding on zooplankton may be affected by

  3. Kaizen practice in healthcare: a qualitative analysis of hospital employees' suggestions for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocato, Pamela; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Hasson, Henna; Nyström, Monica Elisabeth

    2016-07-29

    Kaizen, or continuous improvement, lies at the core of lean. Kaizen is implemented through practices that enable employees to propose ideas for improvement and solve problems. The aim of this study is to describe the types of issues and improvement suggestions that hospital employees feel empowered to address through kaizen practices in order to understand when and how kaizen is used in healthcare. We analysed 186 structured kaizen documents containing improvement suggestions that were produced by 165 employees at a Swedish hospital. Directed content analysis was used to categorise the suggestions into following categories: type of situation (proactive or reactive) triggering an action; type of process addressed (technical/administrative, support and clinical); complexity level (simple or complex); and type of outcomes aimed for (operational or sociotechnical). Compliance to the kaizen template was calculated. 72% of the improvement suggestions were reactions to a perceived problem. Support, technical and administrative, and primary clinical processes were involved in 47%, 38% and 16% of the suggestions, respectively. The majority of the kaizen documents addressed simple situations and focused on operational outcomes. The degree of compliance to the kaizen template was high for several items concerning the identification of problems and the proposed solutions, and low for items related to the test and implementation of solutions. There is a need to combine kaizen practices with improvement and innovation practices that help staff and managers to address complex issues, such as the improvement of clinical care processes. The limited focus on sociotechnical aspects and the partial compliance to kaizen templates may indicate a limited understanding of the entire kaizen process and of how it relates to the overall organisational goals. This in turn can hamper the sustainability of kaizen practices and results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  4. Inflammation in low back pain may be detected from the peripheral blood: suggestions for biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Liu, Jun; Liu, Zong-Zhi; Duan, Da-Peng

    2016-08-01

    Biomarker for prediction of development of low back pain, and disease progression in chronic conditions are virtually non-existent. In the present study, we examined evidence of inflammation in the peripheral blood and demonstrated significant changes in neuroinflammation markers in subjects with chronic low back pain in comparison with control subjects. The present study was performed using peripheral blood from subjects with chronic low back pain and age-matched control subjects. Western blotting, real-time RT-PCR, cell culture and in vitro assays were incorporated to perform the current study. We obtained evidence that the balance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines is misaligned, with decrease in interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression and increase in interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression. Furthermore, we demonstrated increase in CD16 monocyte expression. Cells were cultured under differential conditions to generate M1/M2 macrophages. In the macrophages, opioid secretory capacity was shown to be diminished. Finally, Dragon (repulsive guidance molecule b, RGMb) expression was shown diminished in M1 macrophages, which serves as a key transcriptional inhibitor of IL-6 expression. These biochemical and cellular alterations in chronic low back pain can serve as potential biomarkers for assessing disease initiation, intensity and progression.

  5. Suggestion for aircraft flying qualities requirements of a short-range air combat mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin WANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the lack of a direct link with the operations in short-range air combat, conventional aircraft flying qualities criteria are inappropriate to guide the design of a task-tailored flight control law. By applying the mission-oriented flying qualities evaluation approach, various aircraft with different control law parameters are evaluated on a ground-based simulator. This paper compares the evaluation results with several conventional flying qualities criteria, and discusses the appropriate parameter combination to reflect the flying qualities requirements of short-range air combat. The comparison and analysis show that a short-range air combat mission requires a higher minimum short period mode natural frequency and a smaller maximum roll mode time constant, and allows a lower minimum pitch attitude bandwidth and a higher maximum short period mode damp ratio than those of conventional flying qualities criteria. Furthermore, a combination of the pitch attitude bandwidth, the pitch attitude magnitude at the bandwidth frequency, and the pitch attitude transfer function gain can define the flying qualities requirements of short-range air combat. The new metric can successfully predict the flying quality levels of aircraft in a short-range air combat mission.

  6. Phylogenetic findings suggest possible new habitat and routes of infection of human eumyctoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Sybren de Hoog

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a traumatic fungal infection in tropical and subtropical areas that may lead to severe disability. Madurella mycetomatis is one of the prevalent etiologic agents in arid Northeastern Africa. The source of infection has not been clarified. Subcutaneous inoculation from plant thorns has been hypothesized, but attempts to detect the fungus in relevant material have remained unsuccessful. The present study aims to find clues to reveal the natural habitat of Madurella species using a phylogenetic approach, i.e. by comparison of neighboring taxa with known ecology. Four species of Madurella were included in a large data set of species of Chaetomium, Chaetomidium, Thielavia, and Papulaspora (n = 128 using sequences of the universal fungal barcode gene rDNA ITS and the partial LSU gene sequence. Our study demonstrates that Madurella species are nested within the Chaetomiaceae, a family of fungi that mainly inhabit animal dung, enriched soil, and indoor environments. We hypothesize that cattle dung, ubiquitously present in rural East Africa, plays a significant role in the ecology of Madurella. If cow dung is an essential factor in inoculation by Madurella, preventative measures may involve the use of appropriate footwear in addition to restructuring of villages to reduce the frequency of contact with etiologic agents of mycetoma. On the other hand, the Chaetomiaceae possess a hidden clinical potential which needs to be explored.

  7. Phylogenetic Findings Suggest Possible New Habitat and Routes of Infection of Human Eumyctoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoog, G. Sybren; Ahmed, Sarah A.; Najafzadeh, Mohammad J.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Keisari, Maryam Saradeghi; Fahal, Ahmed H.; Eberhardt, Ursala; Verkleij, Gerard J.; Xin, Lian; Stielow, Benjamin; van de Sande, Wendy W. J.

    2013-01-01

    Eumycetoma is a traumatic fungal infection in tropical and subtropical areas that may lead to severe disability. Madurella mycetomatis is one of the prevalent etiologic agents in arid Northeastern Africa. The source of infection has not been clarified. Subcutaneous inoculation from plant thorns has been hypothesized, but attempts to detect the fungus in relevant material have remained unsuccessful. The present study aims to find clues to reveal the natural habitat of Madurella species using a phylogenetic approach, i.e. by comparison of neighboring taxa with known ecology. Four species of Madurella were included in a large data set of species of Chaetomium, Chaetomidium, Thielavia, and Papulaspora (n = 128) using sequences of the universal fungal barcode gene rDNA ITS and the partial LSU gene sequence. Our study demonstrates that Madurella species are nested within the Chaetomiaceae, a family of fungi that mainly inhabit animal dung, enriched soil, and indoor environments. We hypothesize that cattle dung, ubiquitously present in rural East Africa, plays a significant role in the ecology of Madurella. If cow dung is an essential factor in inoculation by Madurella, preventative measures may involve the use of appropriate footwear in addition to restructuring of villages to reduce the frequency of contact with etiologic agents of mycetoma. On the other hand, the Chaetomiaceae possess a hidden clinical potential which needs to be explored. PMID:23696914

  8. Immunocalization of telomerase in cells of lizard tail after amputation suggests cell activation for tail regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, L

    2016-02-01

    Tail amputation (autotomy) in most lizards elicits a remarkable regenerative response leading to a new although simplified tail. No information on the trigger mechanism following wounding is known but cells from the stump initiate to proliferate and form a regenerative blastema. The present study shows that telomerases are mainly activated in the nuclei of various connective and muscle satellite cells of the stump, and in other tissues, probably responding to the wound signals. Western blotting detection also indicates that telomerase positive bands increases in the regenerating blastema in comparison to the normal tail. Light and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry localization of telomerase shows that 4-14 days post-amputation in lizards immunopositive nuclei of sparse cells located among the wounded tissues are accumulating into the forming blastema. These cells mainly include fibroblasts and fat cells of the connective tissue and satellite cells of muscles. Also some immature basophilic and polychromatophilic erytroblasts, lymphoblasts and myelocytes present within the Bone Marrow of the vertebrae show telomerase localization in their nuclei, but their contribution to the formation of the regenerative blastema remains undetermined. The study proposes that one of the initial mechanisms triggering cell proliferation for the formation of the blastema in lizards involve gene activation for the production of telomerase that stimulates the following signaling pathways for cell division and migration.

  9. HST Data Suggest Proper Motion for the Optical Counterpart of GRB 970228

    CERN Document Server

    Caraveo, P A; Tavani, M; Bignami, Giovanni Fabrizio

    1997-01-01

    After a quarter of a century of gamma-ray burst (GRB) astronomy, the Italian-Dutch satellite BeppoSAX on Feb 28th, 1997 detected a soft X-ray afterglow from GRB 970228 and positioned it accurately. This made possible the successful detection of an optical transient. Two public Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of the GRB/optical transient region were taken on March 26th and April 7th, 1997. They are analyzed here, with the purpose of understanding the nature of GRB 970228. We find that the position of the faint point-like object V ~ 26 seen at the transient location changed by 0.40 +/-0.10 pixels in 12 days, corresponding to a proper motion of ~ 550 mas/year. By comparison, four adjacent sources in the same field do not show any significant displacement, with astrometric residuals close to zero and average absolute displacements less than 0.09 pixels. If confirmed, this result would strongly support the galactic nature of GRB 970228.

  10. On molecular graph comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Jenny A; Daza, Edgar

    2011-06-01

    Since the last half of the nineteenth century, molecular graphs have been present in several branches of chemistry. When used for molecular structure representation, they have been compared after mapping the corresponding graphs into mathematical objects. However, direct molecular comparison of molecular graphs is a research field less explored. The goal of this mini-review is to show some distance and similarity coefficients which were proposed to directly compare molecular graphs or which could be useful to do so.

  11. Comparison of galled trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Gabriel; Llabrés, Mercè; Rosselló, Francesc; Valiente, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Galled trees, directed acyclic graphs that model evolutionary histories with isolated hybridization events, have become very popular due to both their biological significance and the existence of polynomial-time algorithms for their reconstruction. In this paper, we establish to which extent several distance measures for the comparison of evolutionary networks are metrics for galled trees, and hence, when they can be safely used to evaluate galled tree reconstruction methods.

  12. Emission Inventory for PFOS in China: Review of Past Methodologies and Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Chao Lim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS is a persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemical that has the potential for long-range transport in the environment. Its use in a wide variety of consumer products and industrial processes makes a detailed characterization of its emissions sources very challenging. These varied emissions sources all contribute to PFOS' existence within nearly all environmental media. Currently, China is the only country documented to still be producing PFOS, though there is no China PFOS emission inventory available. This study reviews the inventory methodologies for PFOS in other countries to suggest a China-specific methodology framework for a PFOS emission inventory. The suggested framework combines unknowns for PFOS-containing product penetration into the Chinese market with product lifecycle assumptions, centralizing these diverse sources into municipal sewage treatment plants. Releases from industrial sources can be quantified separately using another set of emission factors. Industrial sources likely to be relevant to the Chinese environment are identified.

  13. Cutaneous epithelioid cell histiocytoma: immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings suggesting endothelial origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manente, L; Schmitt, I; Onetti, A M; Peris, K; Caracciolo, E; Chimenti, S

    1997-10-01

    A 13-year-old boy presented with a polypoid nodule localized in the groin. Although the clinical and histopathological features corresponded to previously described diagnostic criteria of epithelioid cell histiocytoma, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings suggested vascular differentiation of the epithelioid cells. In particular, the immunohistochemical negativity of the epithelioid cell elements for Factor XIIIa failed to substantiate the previously forwarded hypothesis that this lesion represents a dendrocytoma. Instead, the presence of histiocytoid, vacuolated cells occasionally containing sparse red blood cells, positive staining for Factor VIII-related antigen, and ultrastructural evidence of endothelial characteristics in epithelioid neoplastic cells favor the hypothesis that "epithelioid cell histiocytoma" is of endothelial origin. We suggest the descriptive term cutaneous histiocytoid hemangioendothelioma for this lesion.

  14. Surface changes on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko suggest a more active past

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Maarry, M. Ramy; Groussin, O.; Thomas, N.; Pajola, M.; Auger, A.-T.; Davidsson, B.; Hu, X.; Hviid, S. F.; Knollenberg, J.; Güttler, C.; Tubiana, C.; Fornasier, S.; Feller, C.; Hasselmann, P.; Vincent, J.-B.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Keller, H. U.; Rickman, H.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Besse, S.; Bodewits, D.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Deller, J.; Deshapriya, J. D. P.; Fulle, M.; Gutierrez, P. J.; Hofmann, M.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Kovacs, G.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lin, Z.-Yi; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marchi, S.; Marzari, F.; Mottola, S.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Pommerol, A.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Shi, X.

    2017-03-01

    The Rosetta spacecraft spent ~2 years orbiting comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, most of it at distances that allowed surface characterization and monitoring at submeter scales. From December 2014 to June 2016, numerous localized changes were observed, which we attribute to cometary-specific weathering, erosion, and transient events driven by exposure to sunlight and other processes. While the localized changes suggest compositional or physical heterogeneity, their scale has not resulted in substantial alterations to the comet’s landscape. This suggests that most of the major landforms were created early in the comet’s current orbital configuration. They may even date from earlier if the comet had a larger volatile inventory, particularly of CO or CO2 ices, or contained amorphous ice, which could have triggered activity at greater distances from the Sun.

  15. Exome Sequence Analysis Suggests that Genetic Burden Contributes to Phenotypic Variability and Complex Neuropathy

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    Claudia Gonzaga-Jauregui

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT disease is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous distal symmetric polyneuropathy. Whole-exome sequencing (WES of 40 individuals from 37 unrelated families with CMT-like peripheral neuropathy refractory to molecular diagnosis identified apparent causal mutations in ∼45% (17/37 of families. Three candidate disease genes are proposed, supported by a combination of genetic and in vivo studies. Aggregate analysis of mutation data revealed a significantly increased number of rare variants across 58 neuropathy-associated genes in subjects versus controls, confirmed in a second ethnically discrete neuropathy cohort, suggesting that mutation burden potentially contributes to phenotypic variability. Neuropathy genes shown to have highly penetrant Mendelizing variants (HPMVs and implicated by burden in families were shown to interact genetically in a zebrafish assay exacerbating the phenotype established by the suppression of single genes. Our findings suggest that the combinatorial effect of rare variants contributes to disease burden and variable expressivity.

  16. Computer- and Suggestion-based Cognitive Rehabilitation following Acquired Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeløv, Jonas Kristoffer

    This thesis is an empirical investigation into two cost-effective treatment options for patients with acquired brain injury. Based on an experiment and a review, I argue that in general computer-based cognitive rehabilitation, as it is currently practiced, has virtually no effect on untrained tasks....... That is, training does not cause cognitive transfer and thus does not constitute “brain training” or “brain exercise” of any clinical relevance. A larger study found more promising results for a suggestion-based treatment in a hypnotic procedure. Patients improved to above population average in a matter...... of 4-8 hours, making this by far the most effective treatment compared to computer-based training, physical exercise, phamaceuticals, meditation, and attention process training. The contrast between computer-based methods and the hypnotic suggestion treatment may be reflect a more general discrepancy...

  17. Every scientist is a memory researcher: Suggestions for making research more memorable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Christopher R

    2015-01-01

    Independent of the actual results, some scientific articles are more memorable than others. As anyone who has written an article collaboratively knows, there are numerous ways a manuscript can be written to convey the same general ideas. To aid with this, many scientific writing books and editorials provide advice, often anecdotal, on how to make articles more memorable. Here I ground these suggestions with empirical support from memory research. Specifically, I suggest that researchers consider how to emphasize their work's novelty, strive to describe their work using concrete, easy-to-understand terms, and use caution when attempting to evoke an emotional response in the reader. I also discuss considerations in title selections and conference presentations.

  18. Monitoring the outcomes of interventions against Taenia solium: options and suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowlers, M W; Garcia, H H; Gauci, C G; Donadeu, M; Abela-Ridder, B

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in reducing the incidence of human neurocysticercosis, caused by infection with the larval stage of Taenia solium. Several intervention trials are currently assessing various options for control of T. solium transmission. A critical aspect of these trials will be the evaluation of whether the interventions have been successful. However, there is no consensus about the most appropriate or valuable methods that should be used. Here, we undertake a critical assessment of the diagnostic tests which are currently available for human T. solium taeniasis and human and porcine cysticercosis, as well as their suitability for evaluation of intervention trial outcomes. Suggestions are made about which of the measures that are available for evaluation of T. solium interventions would be most suitable, and which methodologies are the most appropriate given currently available technologies. Suggestions are also made in relation to the most urgent research needs in order to address deficiencies in current diagnostic methods.

  19. Analysis on Protection of GI Product Liupao Tea and Suggestions of its Industrial Supervision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From humanistic characteristics,historical origin,fame,quality,and the correlation between quality and production region,we analyze key factors of protection for Geographic Indication product Liupao Tea.We also analyze industrial development of Liupao Tea from processing threshold,scale of processing enterprises,standard and index,planting base,research and development and technology popularization,and pesticide control.In line with these situations,we put forward following suggestions.First,it is proposed to raise standard index and formulate national standard for Liupao Tea.Second,we should popularize the industrial mode of "market + association(enterprise) + base" and establish demonstration area for protection of Geographic Indication product Liupao Tea.Third,it is recommended to raise the production and processing threshold.Fourth,we should establish special production inspection and research and development institution.Fifth,it is suggested to set up independent supervision organization.

  20. Business Communication in Less Commonly Taught Languages: Teaching Suggestions through Discourse Analysis:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia V. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge generated by studies in discourse analysis is rarely brought into the teaching of business communication in a foreign language. Instead of presenting learners with "samples" of language after which they will pattern their production, foreign language instructors may invite learners to analyze the interplay between text and context in their own and in others' discourses. Therefore, the teaching of communicative functions (such as requesting, apologizing, suggesting, etc. in foreign languages should go beyond the presentation, production and practice of textual forms: learners should be actively involved in doing discourse analysis in order to be able to make principled decisions when formulating suggestions in the workplace. In the case of less commonly taught languages, this approach is especially important, since textbooks and other teaching materials are not likely to include analysis and/ or focused applications of communicative functions. The recommendations included in this article contribute to fulfill this need in the teaching of LCTLs.