WorldWideScience

Sample records for monolingual web documents

  1. Synchronizing Web Documents with Style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. Guimarães (Rodrigo); D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); A.J. Jansen (Jack)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we report on our efforts to define a set of document extensions to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) that allow for structured timing and synchronization of elements within a Web page. Our work considers the scenario in which the temporal structure can be decoupled from the

  2. Synchronizing Web Documents with Style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guimarães, R.L.; Bulterman, D.C.A.; Cesar Garcia, P.S.; Jansen, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report on our efforts to define a set of document extensions to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) that allow for structured timing and synchronization of elements within a Web page. Our work considers the scenario in which the temporal structure can be decoupled from the content of the W

  3. Personalized Metaheuristic Clustering Onto Web Documents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wookey Lee

    2004-01-01

    Optimal clustering for the web documents is known to complicated cornbinatorial Optimization problem and it is hard to develop a generally applicable oplimal algorithm. An accelerated simuIated arlneaIing aIgorithm is developed for automatic web document classification. The web document classification problem is addressed as the problem of best describing a match between a web query and a hypothesized web object. The normalized term frequency and inverse document frequency coefficient is used as a measure of the match. Test beds are generated on - line during the search by transforming model web sites. As a result, web sites can be clustered optimally in terms of keyword vectofs of corresponding web documents.

  4. Automated information extraction from web APIs documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Papa Alioune; Pedrinaci, Carlos; Domingue, John

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental characteristic of Web APIs is the fact that, de facto, providers hardly follow any standard practices while implementing, publishing, and documenting their APIs. As a consequence, the discovery and use of these services by third parties is significantly hampered. In order to achieve further automation while exploiting Web APIs we present an approach for automatically extracting relevant technical information from the Web pages documenting them. In particular we have devised two ...

  5. Web document clustering using hyperlink structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xiaofeng; Zha, Hongyuan; Ding, Chris H.Q; Simon, Horst D.

    2001-05-07

    With the exponential growth of information on the World Wide Web there is great demand for developing efficient and effective methods for organizing and retrieving the information available. Document clustering plays an important role in information retrieval and taxonomy management for the World Wide Web and remains an interesting and challenging problem in the field of web computing. In this paper we consider document clustering methods exploring textual information hyperlink structure and co-citation relations. In particular we apply the normalized cut clustering method developed in computer vision to the task of hyperdocument clustering. We also explore some theoretical connections of the normalized-cut method to K-means method. We then experiment with normalized-cut method in the context of clustering query result sets for web search engines.

  6. Checking Content Consistency of Integrated Web Documents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Franz Weitl; Burkhard Freitag

    2006-01-01

    A conceptual framework for the specification and verification of constraints on the content and narrative structure of documents is proposed. As a specification formalism, CTLDL is defined, which is an extension of the temporal logic CTL by description logic concepts. In contrast to existing solutions this approach allows for the integration of ontologies to achieve interoperability and abstraction from implementation aspects of documents. This makes CTLDL specifically suitable for the integration of heterogeneous and distributed information resources in the semantic web.

  7. A Type System for Dynamic Web Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Sandholm, Anders

    2000-01-01

    Many interactive Web services use the CGI interface for communication with clients. They will dynamically create HTML documents that are presented to the client who then resumes the interaction by submitting data through incorporated form fields. This protocol is difficult to statically type......-check if the dynamic documents are created by arbitrary script code using printf-like statements. Previous proposals have suggested using static document templates which trades flexibility for safety. We propose a notion of typed, higher-order templates that simultaneously achieve flexibility and safety. Our type...... system is based on a flow analysis of which we prove soundness. We present an efficient runtime implementation that respects the semantics of only well-typed programs. This work is fully implemented as part of the system for defining interactive Web services....

  8. Automatic Question Answering from Web Documents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin; HU Dawei; LI Huan; HAO Tianyong; CHEN Enhong; LIU Wenyin

    2007-01-01

    A passage retrieval strategy for web-based question answering (QA) systems is proposed in our QA system. It firstly analyzes the question based on semantic patterns to obtain its syntactic and semantic information and then form initial queries. The queries are used to retrieve documents from the World Wide Web (WWW) using the Google search engine. The queries are then rewritten to form queries for passage retrieval in order to improve the precision. The relations between keywords in the question are employed in our query rewrite method. The experimental result on the question set of the TREC-2003 passage task shows that our system performs well for factoid questions.

  9. Relation Based Mining Model for Enhancing Web Document Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Reka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The design of web Information management system becomes more complex one with more time complexity. Information retrieval is a difficult task due to the huge volume of web documents. The way of clustering makes the retrieval easier and less time consuming. Thisalgorithm introducesa web document clustering approach, which use the semantic relation between documents, which reduces the time complexity. It identifies the relations and concepts in a document and also computes the relation score between documents. This algorithm analyses the key concepts from the web documents by preprocessing, stemming, and stop word removal. Identified concepts are used to compute the document relation score and clusterrelation score. The domain ontology is used to compute the document relation score and cluster relation score. Based on the document relation score and cluster relation score, the web document cluster is identified. This algorithm uses 2,00,000 web documents for evaluation and 60 percentas trainingset and 40 percent as testing set.

  10. WEBCAP: Web Scheduler for Distance Learning Multimedia Documents with Web Workload Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Sami; Safar, Maytham

    2008-01-01

    In many web applications, such as the distance learning, the frequency of refreshing multimedia web documents places a heavy burden on the WWW resources. Moreover, the updated web documents may encounter inordinate delays, which make it difficult to retrieve web documents in time. Here, we present an Internet tool called WEBCAP that can schedule…

  11. Hierarchical Subtopic Segmentation of Web Document

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The paper proposes a novel method for subtopics segmentation of Web document. An effective retrieval results may be obtained by using subtopics segmentation. The proposed method can segment hierarchically subtopics and identify the boundary of each subtopic. Based on the term frequency matrix, the method measures the similarity between adjacent blocks, such as paragraphs, passages. In the real-world sample experiment, the macro-averaged precision and recall reach 73.4% and 82.5%, and the micro-averaged precision and recall reach 72.9% and 83.1%. Moreover, this method is equally efficient to other Asian languages such as Japanese and Korean, as well as other western languages.

  12. Named Entity Recognition Using Web Document Corpus

    CERN Document Server

    Karaa, Wahiba Ben Abdessalem

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a named entity recognition approach in textual corpus. This Named Entity (NE) can be a named: location, person, organization, date, time, etc., characterized by instances. A NE is found in texts accompanied by contexts: words that are left or right of the NE. The work mainly aims at identifying contexts inducing the NE's nature. As such, The occurrence of the word "President" in a text, means that this word or context may be followed by the name of a president as President "Obama". Likewise, a word preceded by the string "footballer" induces that this is the name of a footballer. NE recognition may be viewed as a classification method, where every word is assigned to a NE class, regarding the context. The aim of this study is then to identify and classify the contexts that are most relevant to recognize a NE, those which are frequently found with the NE. A learning approach using training corpus: web documents, constructed from learning examples is then suggested. Frequency representatio...

  13. How Google Web Search copes with very similar documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mettrop, W.; Nieuwenhuysen, P.; Smulders, H.

    2006-01-01

    A significant portion of the computer files that carry documents, multimedia, programs etc. on the Web are identical or very similar to other files on the Web. How do search engines cope with this? Do they perform some kind of “deduplication”? How should users take into account that web search resul

  14. Towards Web Documents Quality Assessment for Digital Humanities Scholars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceolin, D.; Noordegraaf, J.; Aroyo, L.; van Son, C.; Wolfgang, N.

    2016-01-01

    We present a framework for assessing the quality of Web documents, and a baseline of three quality dimensions: trustworthiness, objectivity and basic scholarly quality. Assessing Web document quality is a "deep data" problem necessitating approaches to handle both data size and complexity.

  15. Towards Web Documents Quality Assessment for Digital Humanities Scholars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceolin, D.; Noordegraaf, J.; Aroyo, L.; van Son, C.; Wolfgang, N.

    2016-01-01

    We present a framework for assessing the quality of Web documents, and a baseline of three quality dimensions: trustworthiness, objectivity and basic scholarly quality. Assessing Web document quality is a "deep data" problem necessitating approaches to handle both data size and complexity.

  16. Research of Web Documents Clustering Based on Dynamic Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yun-hua; CHEN Shi-hong

    2004-01-01

    Conceptual clustering is mainly used for solving the deficiency and incompleteness of domain knowledge.Based on conceptual clustering technology and aiming at the institutional framework and characteristic of Web theme information, this paper proposes and implements dynamic conceptual clustering algorithm and merging algorithm for Web documents, and also analyses the super performance of the clustering algorithm in efficiency and clustering accuracy.

  17. Supporting B2B Business Documents in XML Web Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Hyoungdo

    2004-01-01

    While XML web services become recognized as a solution to business-to-business transactions, there are many problems that should be solved. For example, it is not easy to manipulate business documents of existing standards such as RosettaNet and UN/EDIFACT EDI, traditionally regarded as an important resource for managing B2B relationships. As a starting point for the complete implementation of B2B web services, this paper deals with how to support B2B business documents in XML web services. In the first phase, basic requirements for driving XML web services by business documents are introduced. As a solution, this paper presents how to express B2B business documents in WSDL, a core standard for XML web services. This kind of approach facilitates the reuse of existing business documents and enhances interoperability between implemented web services. Furthermore, it suggests how to link with other conceptual modeling frameworks such as ebXML/UMM, built on a rich heritage of electronic business experience.

  18. Web Document Analysis for Companies Listed in Bursa Malaysia

    CERN Document Server

    Othman, Mohd Shahizan; Salim, Juhana

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses a research on web document analysis for companies listed on Bursa Malaysia which is the forerunner of financial and investment center in Malaysia. Data set used in this research are from the company web documents listed in the Main Board and Second Board on Bursa Malaysia. This research has used the Web Resources Extraction System which was developed by the research group mainly to extract information for the web documents involved. Our research findings have shown that the level of website usage among the companies on Bursa Malaysia is still minimal. Furthermore, research has also found that 60.02 percent of the image files are utilized making it the most used type of file in creating websites.

  19. Semantic-Sensitive Web Information Retrieval Model for HTML Documents

    CERN Document Server

    Bassil, Youssef

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the Internet, a new era of digital information exchange has begun. Currently, the Internet encompasses more than five billion online sites and this number is exponentially increasing every day. Fundamentally, Information Retrieval (IR) is the science and practice of storing documents and retrieving information from within these documents. Mathematically, IR systems are at the core based on a feature vector model coupled with a term weighting scheme that weights terms in a document according to their significance with respect to the context in which they appear. Practically, Vector Space Model (VSM), Term Frequency (TF), and Inverse Term Frequency (IDF) are among other long-established techniques employed in mainstream IR systems. However, present IR models only target generic-type text documents, in that, they do not consider specific formats of files such as HTML web documents. This paper proposes a new semantic-sensitive web information retrieval model for HTML documents. It consists of a...

  20. The number of scholarly documents on the public web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabsa, Madian; Giles, C Lee

    2014-01-01

    The number of scholarly documents available on the web is estimated using capture/recapture methods by studying the coverage of two major academic search engines: Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic Search. Our estimates show that at least 114 million English-language scholarly documents are accessible on the web, of which Google Scholar has nearly 100 million. Of these, we estimate that at least 27 million (24%) are freely available since they do not require a subscription or payment of any kind. In addition, at a finer scale, we also estimate the number of scholarly documents on the web for fifteen fields: Agricultural Science, Arts and Humanities, Biology, Chemistry, Computer Science, Economics and Business, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Geosciences, Material Science, Mathematics, Medicine, Physics, Social Sciences, and Multidisciplinary, as defined by Microsoft Academic Search. In addition, we show that among these fields the percentage of documents defined as freely available varies significantly, i.e., from 12 to 50%.

  1. The Number of Scholarly Documents on the Public Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabsa, Madian; Giles, C. Lee

    2014-01-01

    The number of scholarly documents available on the web is estimated using capture/recapture methods by studying the coverage of two major academic search engines: Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic Search. Our estimates show that at least 114 million English-language scholarly documents are accessible on the web, of which Google Scholar has nearly 100 million. Of these, we estimate that at least 27 million (24%) are freely available since they do not require a subscription or payment of any kind. In addition, at a finer scale, we also estimate the number of scholarly documents on the web for fifteen fields: Agricultural Science, Arts and Humanities, Biology, Chemistry, Computer Science, Economics and Business, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Geosciences, Material Science, Mathematics, Medicine, Physics, Social Sciences, and Multidisciplinary, as defined by Microsoft Academic Search. In addition, we show that among these fields the percentage of documents defined as freely available varies significantly, i.e., from 12 to 50%. PMID:24817403

  2. The number of scholarly documents on the public web.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madian Khabsa

    Full Text Available The number of scholarly documents available on the web is estimated using capture/recapture methods by studying the coverage of two major academic search engines: Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic Search. Our estimates show that at least 114 million English-language scholarly documents are accessible on the web, of which Google Scholar has nearly 100 million. Of these, we estimate that at least 27 million (24% are freely available since they do not require a subscription or payment of any kind. In addition, at a finer scale, we also estimate the number of scholarly documents on the web for fifteen fields: Agricultural Science, Arts and Humanities, Biology, Chemistry, Computer Science, Economics and Business, Engineering, Environmental Sciences, Geosciences, Material Science, Mathematics, Medicine, Physics, Social Sciences, and Multidisciplinary, as defined by Microsoft Academic Search. In addition, we show that among these fields the percentage of documents defined as freely available varies significantly, i.e., from 12 to 50%.

  3. Performance Analysis of Vision-Based Deep Web Data Extraction for Web Document Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lavanya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Web Data Extraction is a critical task by applying various scientific tools and in a broad range of application domains. To extract data from multiple web sites are becoming more obscure, as well to design of web information extraction systems becomes more complex and time-consuming. We also present in this paper so far various risks in web data extraction. Identifying data region from web is a noteworthy crisis for information extraction from the web page. In this paper, performance of vision-based deep web data extraction for web document clustering is presented with experimental result. The proposed approach comprises of two phases: 1 Vision-based web data extraction, where output of phase I is given to second phase and 2 web document clustering. In phase 1, the web page information is segmented into various chunks. From which, surplus noise and duplicate chunks are removed using three parameters, such as hyperlink percentage, noise score and cosine similarity. To identify the relevant chunk, three parameters such as Title word Relevancy, Keyword frequency-based chunk selection, Position features are used and then, a set of keywords are extracted from those main chunks. Finally, the extracted keywords are subjected to web document clustering using Fuzzy c-means clustering (FCM. The experimentation has been performed on two different datasets and the results showed that the proposed VDEC method can achieve stable and good results of about 99.2% and 99.1% precision value in both datasets.

  4. Effectively Searching Maps in Web Documents

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Qingzhao; Giles, C Lee

    2009-01-01

    Maps are an important source of information in archaeology and other sciences. Users want to search for historical maps to determine recorded history of the political geography of regions at different eras, to find out where exactly archaeological artifacts were discovered, etc. Currently, they have to use a generic search engine and add the term map along with other keywords to search for maps. This crude method will generate a significant number of false positives that the user will need to cull through to get the desired results. To reduce their manual effort, we propose an automatic map identification, indexing, and retrieval system that enables users to search and retrieve maps appearing in a large corpus of digital documents using simple keyword queries. We identify features that can help in distinguishing maps from other figures in digital documents and show how a Support-Vector-Machine-based classifier can be used to identify maps. We propose map-level-metadata e.g., captions, references to the maps i...

  5. An Agent-Based Focused Crawling Framework for Topic- and Genre-Related Web Document Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Pappas, Nikolaos; Katsimpras, Georgios; Stamatatos, Efstathios

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of web documents about certain topics is an important task for web-based applications including web document retrieval, opinion mining and knowledge extraction. In this paper, we propose an agent-based focused crawling framework able to retrieve topic- and genre-related web documents. Starting from a simple topic query, a set of focused crawler agents explore in parallel topic-specific web paths using dynamic seed URLs that belong to certain web genres and are collected from web...

  6. Web-based X-ray quality control documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, George; Burnett, Lou Ann; Schenkel, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The department of radiology at the Medical College of Georgia Hospital and Clinics has developed an equipment quality control web site. Our goal is to provide immediate access to virtually all medical physics survey data. The web site is designed to assist equipment engineers, department management and technologists. By improving communications and access to equipment documentation, we believe productivity is enhanced. The creation of the quality control web site was accomplished in three distinct steps. First, survey data had to be placed in a computer format. The second step was to convert these various computer files to a format supported by commercial web browsers. Third, a comprehensive home page had to be designed to provide convenient access to the multitude of surveys done in the various x-ray rooms. Because we had spent years previously fine-tuning the computerization of the medical physics quality control program, most survey documentation was already in spreadsheet or database format. A major technical decision was the method of conversion of survey spreadsheet and database files into documentation appropriate for the web. After an unsatisfactory experience with a HyperText Markup Language (HTML) converter (packaged with spreadsheet and database software), we tried creating Portable Document Format (PDF) files using Adobe Acrobat software. This process preserves the original formatting of the document and takes no longer than conventional printing; therefore, it has been very successful. Although the PDF file generated by Adobe Acrobat is a proprietary format, it can be displayed through a conventional web browser using the freely distributed Adobe Acrobat Reader program that is available for virtually all platforms. Once a user installs the software, it is automatically invoked by the web browser whenever the user follows a link to a file with a PDF extension. Although no confidential patient information is available on the web site, our legal

  7. Recommendation Process in SR1 Web Document Recommender System

    OpenAIRE

    Munteanu, Dan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a recommender system for web documents (given as bookmarks). The system uses for classification a combination of content, event and collaborative filters and for recommendation a modified Pearson-r algorithm. The algorithm for recommendation is using not only the correlation between users but also the similarity between classes. Some experimental results that support this approach are also presented.

  8. WEB DOCUMENT SEGMENTATION USING FREQUENT TERM SETS FOR SUMMARIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarukesi Karunakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Query sensitive summarization aims at extracting the query relevant contents from web documents. Web page segmentation focuses on reducing the run time overhead of the summarization systems by grouping the related contents of a web page into segments. At query time, query relevant segments of the web page are identified and important sentences from these segments are extracted to compose the summary. DOM tree structures of the web documents are utilized to perform the segmentation of the contents. Leaf nodes of DOM tress are merged to form segments according to the statistical and linguistic similarity measure. The proposed system has been evaluated by intrinsic approach making use of user satisfaction index. The performance of the system is compared with summarization without using preprocessed segments. Performance of this system is more promising than the other measures like cosine similarity, jaccard measure which make use of sparse term-frequent vectors, since the most frequent term sets are considered to measure the relevance. Relevant segments alone need to be processed at run time for summarization which reduces the time complexity of the summarization process.

  9. SUPERVISED LEARNING METHODS FOR BANGLA WEB DOCUMENT CATEGORIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Kumar Mandal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the use of machine learning approaches, or more specifically, four supervised learning Methods, namely Decision Tree(C 4.5, K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN, Naïve Bays (NB, and Support Vector Machine (SVM for categorization of Bangla web documents. This is a task of automatically sorting a set of documents into categories from a predefined set. Whereas a wide range of methods have been applied to English text categorization, relatively few studies have been conducted on Bangla language text categorization. Hence, we attempt to analyze the efficiency of those four methods for categorization of Bangla documents. In order to validate, Bangla corpus from various websites has been developed and used as examples for the experiment. For Bangla, empirical results support that all four methods produce satisfactory performance with SVM attaining good result in terms of high dimensional and relatively noisy document feature vectors.

  10. Document representations for classification of short web-page descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Miloš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by applying Text Categorization to classification of Web search results, this paper describes an extensive experimental study of the impact of bag-of- words document representations on the performance of five major classifiers - Naïve Bayes, SVM, Voted Perceptron, kNN and C4.5. The texts, representing short Web-page descriptions sorted into a large hierarchy of topics, are taken from the dmoz Open Directory Web-page ontology, and classifiers are trained to automatically determine the topics which may be relevant to a previously unseen Web-page. Different transformations of input data: stemming, normalization, logtf and idf, together with dimensionality reduction, are found to have a statistically significant improving or degrading effect on classification performance measured by classical metrics - accuracy, precision, recall, F1 and F2. The emphasis of the study is not on determining the best document representation which corresponds to each classifier, but rather on describing the effects of every individual transformation on classification, together with their mutual relationships. .

  11. Recommendation Process in SR1 Web Document Recommender System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan MUNTEANU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a recommender system for web documents (given as bookmarks. The system uses for classification a combination of content, event and collaborative filters and for recommendation a modified Pearson-r algorithm. The algorithm for recommendation is using not only the correlation between users but also the similarity between classes. Some experimental results that support this approach are also presented.

  12. Web Video Event Recognition by Semantic Analysis From Ubiquitous Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Litao; Yang, Yang; Huang, Zi; Wang, Peng; Song, Jingkuan; Shen, Heng Tao

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the task of event recognition from videos has attracted increasing interest in multimedia area. While most of the existing research was mainly focused on exploring visual cues to handle relatively small-granular events, it is difficult to directly analyze video content without any prior knowledge. Therefore, synthesizing both the visual and semantic analysis is a natural way for video event understanding. In this paper, we study the problem of Web video event recognition, where Web videos often describe large-granular events and carry limited textual information. Key challenges include how to accurately represent event semantics from incomplete textual information and how to effectively explore the correlation between visual and textual cues for video event understanding. We propose a novel framework to perform complex event recognition from Web videos. In order to compensate the insufficient expressive power of visual cues, we construct an event knowledge base by deeply mining semantic information from ubiquitous Web documents. This event knowledge base is capable of describing each event with comprehensive semantics. By utilizing this base, the textual cues for a video can be significantly enriched. Furthermore, we introduce a two-view adaptive regression model, which explores the intrinsic correlation between the visual and textual cues of the videos to learn reliable classifiers. Extensive experiments on two real-world video data sets show the effectiveness of our proposed framework and prove that the event knowledge base indeed helps improve the performance of Web video event recognition.

  13. Document distribution algorithm for load balancing on an extensible Web server architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, CP; Wang, CL

    2001-01-01

    Access latency and load balancing are the two main issues in the design of clustered Web server architecture for achieving high performance. We propose a novel document distribution algorithm for load balancing on a cluster of distributed Web servers. We group Web pages that are likely to be accessed during a request session into a migrating unit, which is used as the basic unit of document placement. A modified binning algorithm is developed to distribute the migrating units among the Web se...

  14. Relation based Measuring of Semantic Similarity for Web Documents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poonam Chahal; Manjeet Singh; Suresh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    .... The reason for this is that the information exists on web is in natural language. The layered architecture semantic web is given by Tim Berner Lee to overcome the issues of information retrieval...

  15. Dynamic "inline" images: context-sensitive retrieval and integration of images into Web documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Charles E

    2008-09-01

    Integrating relevant images into web-based information resources adds value for research and education. This work sought to evaluate the feasibility of using "Web 2.0" technologies to dynamically retrieve and integrate pertinent images into a radiology web site. An online radiology reference of 1,178 textual web documents was selected as the set of target documents. The ARRS GoldMiner image search engine, which incorporated 176,386 images from 228 peer-reviewed journals, retrieved images on demand and integrated them into the documents. At least one image was retrieved in real-time for display as an "inline" image gallery for 87% of the web documents. Each thumbnail image was linked to the full-size image at its original web site. Review of 20 randomly selected Collaborative Hypertext of Radiology documents found that 69 of 72 displayed images (96%) were relevant to the target document. Users could click on the "More" link to search the image collection more comprehensively and, from there, link to the full text of the article. A gallery of relevant radiology images can be inserted easily into web pages on any web server. Indexing by concepts and keywords allows context-aware image retrieval, and searching by document title and subject metadata yields excellent results. These techniques allow web developers to incorporate easily a context-sensitive image gallery into their documents.

  16. Performance Analysis of Vision-Based Deep Web Data Extraction for Web Document Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    M. Lavanya; Usha Rani

    2013-01-01

    Web Data Extraction is a critical task by applying various scientific tools and in a broad range of application domains. To extract data from multiple web sites are becoming more obscure, as well to design of web information extraction systems becomes more complex and time-consuming. We also present in this paper so far various risks in web data extraction. Identifying data region from web is a noteworthy crisis for information extraction from the web page. In this paper, performance of visio...

  17. Time Optimized Algorithm for Web Document Presentation Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Rong; Dolog, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Currently information on the web is accessed through different devices. Each device has its own properties such as resolution, size, and capabilities to display information in different format and so on. This calls for adaptation of information presentation for such platforms. This paper proposes...

  18. Content accessibility of Web documents: Overview of concepts and needed standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, A.

    2006-01-01

    to broaden the scope to any type of user and any type of use case. The document provides an introduction to some required concepts and technical standards for designing accessible Web sites. A brief review of thelegal requirements in a few countries for Web accessibility complements the recommendations...

  19. Technical data evaluation of a palliative care web-based documentation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartz, Tobias; Brüntrup, René; Uckert, Frank

    2011-01-01

    A technical analysis of the web-based patient documentation system, eKernPäP, was conducted. The system is used by interdisciplinary pediatric palliative care teams in Germany to document outpatient care. The data of the system and the data of an external web analytic system have been evaluated. The results gave an overview how the system is used and what information is generated. A detailed analysis of singular forms showed that not all forms were filled in completely. With the help of the external web analytic system the navigation behavior of the users could be retraced. The users followed the given navigation from top to bottom. An existing exception in this pattern turned out to be misplacement and will be corrected in the next version. The technical analysis proved to be a good tool for improving a web-based documentation system.

  20. The Indexed Web: Engineering Tools for Cataloging, Storing, and Delivering Web-Based Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanfito, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development of Java-based software to use controlled vocabularies and subject headings in the cataloging of Web-based HTML articles on a subject-specific legal resources Web site. Topics include requirements for cataloging and for searching; data structure; software required; and metadata with Dublin Core requirements. (LRW)

  1. Constructing Virtual Documents for Keyword Based Concept Search in Web Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Paliwal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Web ontologies are structural frameworks for organizing information in semantics web and provide shared concepts. Ontology formally represents knowledge or information about particular entity as a set of concepts within a particular domain on semantic web. Web ontology helps to describe concepts within domain and also help us to enables semantic interoperability between two different applications byusing Falcons concept search. We can facilitate concept searching and ontologies reusing. Constructing virtual documents is a keyword based search in ontology. The proposed method helps us to find how search engine help user to find out ontologies in less time so we can satisfy their needs. It include some supportive technologies with new technique is to constructing virtual documents of concepts for keywordbased search and based on population scheme we rank the concept and ontologies, a way to generate structured snippets according to query. In this concept we can report the user feedback and usabilityevolution.

  2. Improving Web Document Clustering through Employing User-Related Tag Expansion Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Li; Bin Wang; Wei Jin

    2012-01-01

    As high quality descriptors of web page semantics,social annotations or tags have been used for web document clustering and achieved promising results.However,most web pages have few tags (less than 10).This sparsity seriously limits the usage of tags for clustering.In this work,we propose a user-related tag expansion method to overcome this problem,which incorporates additional useful tags into the original tag document by utilizing user tagging data as background knowledge.Unfortunately,simply adding tags may cause topic drift,i.e.,the dominant topic(s) of the original document may be changed.To tackle this problem,we have designed a novel generative model called Folk-LDA,which jointly models original and expanded tags as independent observations.ExPerimental results show that 1) our user-related tag expansion method can be effectively applied to over 90% tagged web documents; 2) Folk-LDA can alleviate topic drift in expansion,especially for those topic-specific documents; 3) the proposed tag-based clustering methods significantly outperform the word-based methods,which indicates that tags could be a better resource for the clustering task.

  3. Analysis of Documentation Speed Using Web-Based Medical Speech Recognition Technology: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Markus; Kaisers, Wolfgang; Wassmuth, Ralf; Mayatepek, Ertan

    2015-11-03

    Clinical documentation has undergone a change due to the usage of electronic health records. The core element is to capture clinical findings and document therapy electronically. Health care personnel spend a significant portion of their time on the computer. Alternatives to self-typing, such as speech recognition, are currently believed to increase documentation efficiency and quality, as well as satisfaction of health professionals while accomplishing clinical documentation, but few studies in this area have been published to date. This study describes the effects of using a Web-based medical speech recognition system for clinical documentation in a university hospital on (1) documentation speed, (2) document length, and (3) physician satisfaction. Reports of 28 physicians were randomized to be created with (intervention) or without (control) the assistance of a Web-based system of medical automatic speech recognition (ASR) in the German language. The documentation was entered into a browser's text area and the time to complete the documentation including all necessary corrections, correction effort, number of characters, and mood of participant were stored in a database. The underlying time comprised text entering, text correction, and finalization of the documentation event. Participants self-assessed their moods on a scale of 1-3 (1=good, 2=moderate, 3=bad). Statistical analysis was done using permutation tests. The number of clinical reports eligible for further analysis stood at 1455. Out of 1455 reports, 718 (49.35%) were assisted by ASR and 737 (50.65%) were not assisted by ASR. Average documentation speed without ASR was 173 (SD 101) characters per minute, while it was 217 (SD 120) characters per minute using ASR. The overall increase in documentation speed through Web-based ASR assistance was 26% (P=.04). Participants documented an average of 356 (SD 388) characters per report when not assisted by ASR and 649 (SD 561) characters per report when assisted

  4. Review of Web-Based Technical Documentation Processes. FY07 NAEP-QA Special Study Report. TR-08-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribben, Monica; Wise, Lauress; Becker, D. E.

    2008-01-01

    Beginning with the 2000 and 2001 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) assessments, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) has made technical documentation available on the worldwide web at http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/tdw/. The web-based documentation is designed to be less dense and more accessible than prior…

  5. Extraction of a group-pair relation: problem-solving relation from web-board documents

    OpenAIRE

    Pechsiri, Chaveevan; Piriyakul, Rapepun

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to extract a group-pair relation as a Problem-Solving relation, for example a DiseaseSymptom-Treatment relation and a CarProblem-Repair relation, between two event-explanation groups, a problem-concept group as a symptom/CarProblem-concept group and a solving-concept group as a treatment-concept/repair concept group from hospital-web-board and car-repair-guru-web-board documents. The Problem-Solving relation (particularly Symptom-Treatment relation) including the graphical rep...

  6. Integrating local and CRI online documentation using SGML and DynaWeb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuler, V.; Girill, T.R.

    1997-04-01

    This paper tells how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory enriched CRI`s online documentation set by publishing local manuals using the same SGML DTD used by CRI and delivered using (a more sophisticated version of) the same World Wide Web server (DynaWeb3.0). This approach supports flexible local content and styles, yet integrates local and CRI manuals through one access mechanism and user interface. We explain the basic strategy involved, compare the benefits of this approach with three alternatives, and discuss the problems to which it gives rise.

  7. What Can Pictures Tell Us About Web Pages? Improving Document Search Using Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Vaamonde, Sergio; Torresani, Lorenzo; Fitzgibbon, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    Traditional Web search engines do not use the images in the HTML pages to find relevant documents for a given query. Instead, they typically operate by computing a measure of agreement between the keywords provided by the user and only the text portion of each page. In this paper we study whether the content of the pictures appearing in a Web page can be used to enrich the semantic description of an HTML document and consequently boost the performance of a keyword-based search engine. We present a Web-scalable system that exploits a pure text-based search engine to find an initial set of candidate documents for a given query. Then, the candidate set is reranked using visual information extracted from the images contained in the pages. The resulting system retains the computational efficiency of traditional text-based search engines with only a small additional storage cost needed to encode the visual information. We test our approach on one of the TREC Million Query Track benchmarks where we show that the exploitation of visual content yields improvement in accuracies for two distinct text-based search engines, including the system with the best reported performance on this benchmark. We further validate our approach by collecting document relevance judgements on our search results using Amazon Mechanical Turk. The results of this experiment confirm the improvement in accuracy produced by our image-based reranker over a pure text-based system.

  8. Monolingual document retrieval for European languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollink, V.; Kamps, J.; Monz, C.; de Rijke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed considerable advances in information retrieval for European languages other than English.We give an overview of commonly used techniques and we analyze them with respect to their impact on retrieval eectiveness. The techniques considered range from linguistically motivate

  9. Document Construction Technology of PDF for Web%面向 Web 的 PDF 文档构建技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兰友; 陈立; 谢雪莲

    2013-01-01

    The document construction technology strategy of PDF for Web is introduced .And the technologies including watermark generating technology , table header title processing technology , large data stream data structure design technology , table text block segmentation technology and paging control technology are discussed .The practical application for device management Web system shows that the technology is smart and it provides reference solution to build and develop similar applied system .%介绍利用Web技术进行PDF文档构建的策略方法,探讨PDF文档构建中水印生成技术、表格标题头处理技术、大数据流数据结构设计、表格文本块动态分割技术、分页控制技术等。设备管理Web系统的应用实践表明,PDF文档构建技术精巧,为类似的应用系统提供可供借鉴的解决方案。

  10. Clustering Web Documents based on Efficient Multi-Tire Hashing Algorithm for Mining Frequent Termsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Negm

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Document Clustering is one of the main themes in text mining. It refers to the process of grouping documents with similar contents or topics into clusters to improve both availability and reliability of text mining applications. Some of the recent algorithms address the problem of high dimensionality of the text by using frequent termsets for clustering. Although the drawbacks of the Apriori algorithm, it still the basic algorithm for mining frequent termsets. This paper presents an approach for Clustering Web Documents based on Hashing algorithm for mining Frequent Termsets (CWDHFT. It introduces an efficient Multi-Tire Hashing algorithm for mining Frequent Termsets (MTHFT instead of Apriori algorithm. The algorithm uses new methodology for generating frequent termsets by building the multi-tire hash table during the scanning process of documents only one time. To avoid hash collision, Multi Tire technique is utilized in this proposed hashing algorithm. Based on the generated frequent termset the documents are partitioned and the clustering occurs by grouping the partitions through the descriptive keywords. By using MTHFT algorithm, the scanning cost and computational cost is improved moreover the performance is considerably increased and increase up the clustering process. The CWDHFT approach improved accuracy, scalability and efficiency when compared with existing clustering algorithms like Bisecting K-means and FIHC.

  11. Stakeholder Perspectives on CLIL in a Monolingual Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Nina K.

    2016-01-01

    This article documents the findings of a study concerning the perspectives on Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in the monolingual context of Jaén. The research has involved the design, validation and administration of two sets of questionnaires to 745 informants (692 students and 53 teachers) within eight secondary schools with a…

  12. Do bilinguals outperform monolinguals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejdi Sejdiu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between second dialect acquisition and the psychological capacity of the learner is still a divisive topic that generates a lot of debate. A few researchers contend that the acquisition of the second dialect tends to improve the cognitive abilities in various individuals, but at the same time it could hinder the same abilities in other people. Currently, immersion is a common occurrence in some countries. In the recent past, it has significantly increased in its popularity, which has caused parents, professionals, and researchers to question whether second language acquisition has a positive impact on cognitive development, encompassing psychological ability. In rundown, the above might decide to comprehend the effects of using a second language based on the literal aptitudes connected with the native language. The issue of bilingualism was seen as a disadvantage until recently because of two languages being present which would hinder or delay the development of languages. However, recent studies have proven that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in tasks which require more attention.

  13. WWW网页布局规则初探%TENTATIVE LAYOUT RULES FOR WEB DOCUMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海晖; 廖光裕; 智成凤

    2000-01-01

    连入WWW(World Wide Web)的用户和网点数量每年成倍增长.要想使一个网点在数以百万计的网点中给访问者留下深刻的印象,设计出一个含有丰富信息、易于浏览、视觉上怡人的网页(Web Pages)是不可或缺的.本文从Gestalt心理学、传统印刷术、超文本制作和人机交互学出发,尝试提出一个网络文档(Web Documents)界面布局的设计规则,包括文本、图形、静态和动态的网络文档.本文把网络文档分成五种基本类型,然后给出了一些布局规则.

  14. Dublin City University at CLEF 2004: experiments in monolingual, bilingual and multilingual retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Gareth J.F.; Burke, Michael; Judge, John; Khasin, Anna; Lam-Adesina, Adenike M.; Wagner, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    The Dublin City University group participated in the monolingual, bilingual and multilingual retrieval tasks this year. The main focus of our investigation this year was extending our retrieval system to document languages other than English, and completing the multilingual task comprising four languages: English, French, Russian and Finnish. Results from our French monolingual experiments indicate that working in French is more effective for retrieval than adopting document and topic translat...

  15. Exeter at CLEF 2003: Experiments with machine translation for monolingual, bilingual and multilingual retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Lam-Adesina, Adenike M.; Jones, Gareth J.F.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Exeter group participated in the monolingual, bilingual and multilingual-4 retrieval tasks this year. The main focus of our investigation this year was the small multilingual task comprising four languages, French, German, Spanish and English. We adopted a document translation strategy and tested four merging techniques to combine results from the separate document collections, as well as a merged collection strategy. For both the monolingual and bilingual tasks we explored ...

  16. Classifying web genres in context: a case study documenting the web genres used by a software engineer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesi, M.; Navarrete, T.

    2008-01-01

    This case study analyzes the Internet-based resources that a software engineer uses in his daily work. Methodologically, we studied the web browser history of the participant, classifying all the web pages he had seen over a period of 12 days into web genres. We interviewed him before and after the

  17. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF WEB INFORMATION EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES DEEP LEARNING vs. NAÏVE BAYES vs. BACK PROPAGATION NEURAL NETWORKS IN WEB DOCUMENT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Web mining related exploration is getting the chance to be more essential these days in view of the reason that a lot of information is overseen through the web. Web utilization is expanding in an uncontrolled way. A particular framework is required for controlling such extensive measure of information in the web space. Web mining is ordered into three noteworthy divisions: Web content mining, web usage mining and web structure mining. Tak-Lam Wong has proposed a web content mining methodology in the exploration with the aid of Bayesian Networks (BN. In their methodology, they were learning on separating the web data and characteristic revelation in view of the Bayesian approach. Roused from their investigation, we mean to propose a web content mining methodology, in view of a Deep Learning Algorithm. The Deep Learning Algorithm gives the interest over BN on the basis that BN is not considered in any learning architecture planning like to propose system. The main objective of this investigation is web document extraction utilizing different grouping algorithm and investigation. This work extricates the data from the web URL. This work shows three classification algorithms, Deep Learning Algorithm, Bayesian Algorithm and BPNN Algorithm. Deep Learning is a capable arrangement of strategies for learning in neural system which is connected like computer vision, speech recognition, and natural language processing and biometrics framework. Deep Learning is one of the simple classification technique and which is utilized for subset of extensive field furthermore Deep Learning has less time for classification. Naive Bayes classifiers are a group of basic probabilistic classifiers in view of applying Bayes hypothesis with concrete independence assumptions between the features. At that point the BPNN algorithm is utilized for classification. Initially training and testing dataset contains more URL. We extract the content presently from the dataset. The

  18. 一种改进的web文档关键词权重计算方法%An improved algorithm for weighting keywords in web documents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙双; 贺樑; 杨静; 顾君忠

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, an improved algorithm, web-based keyword weight algorithm (WKWA), is presented to weight keywords in web documents. WKWA takes into account representation features of web documents and advantages of the TF*IDF, TFC and ITC algorithms in order to make it more appropriate for web documents. Meanwhile, the presented algorithm is applied to improved vector space model (IVSM). A real system has been implemented for calculating semantic similarities of web documents. Four experiments have been carried out. They are keyword weight calculation, feature item selection, semantic similarity calculation, and WKWA time performance. The results demonstrate accuracy of keyword weight, and semantic similarity is improved.

  19. Novel word retention in bilingual and monolingual speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui Fong eKan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to examine word retention in bilinguals and monolinguals. Long-term word retention is an essential part of vocabulary learning. Previous studies have documented that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in terms of retrieving newly-exposed words. Yet, little is known about whether or to what extent bilinguals are different from monolinguals in word retention. Participants were 30 English-speaking monolingual adults and 30 bilingual adults who speak Spanish as a home language and learned English as a second language during childhood. In a previous study (Kan, Sadagopan, Janich, & Andrade, 2014, the participants were exposed to the target novel words in English, Spanish, and Cantonese. In this current study, word retention was measured a week after the fast mapping task. No exposures were given during the one-week interval. Results showed that bilinguals and monolinguals retain a similar number of words. However, participants produced more words in English than in either Spanish or Cantonese. Correlation analyses revealed that language knowledge plays a role in the relationships between fast mapping and word retention. Specifically, within- and across-language relationships between bilinguals’ fast mapping and word retention were found in Spanish and English, by contrast, within-language relationships between monolinguals’ fast mapping and word retention were found in English and across-language relationships between their fast mapping and word retention performance in English and Cantonese. Similarly, bilinguals differed from monolinguals in the relationships among the word retention scores in three languages. Significant correlations were found among bilinguals’ retention scores. However, no such correlations were found among monolinguals’ retention scores. The overall findings suggest that bilinguals’ language experience and language knowledge most likely contribute to how they learn and retain new words.

  20. Poster — Thur Eve — 52: A Web-based Platform for Collaborative Document Management in Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kildea, J.; Joseph, A. [Dept. of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    We describe DepDocs, a web-based platform that we have developed to manage the committee meetings, policies, procedures and other documents within our otherwise paperless radiotherapy clinic. DepDocs is essentially a document management system based on the popular Drupal content management software. For security and confidentiality, it is hosted on a linux server internal to our hospital network such that documents are never sent to the cloud or outside of the hospital firewall. We used Drupal's in-built role-based user rights management system to assign a role, and associated document editing rights, to each user. Documents are accessed for viewing using either a simple Google-like search or by generating a list of related documents from a taxonomy of categorization terms. Our system provides document revision tracking and an document review and approval mechanism for all official policies and procedures. Committee meeting schedules, agendas and minutes are maintained by committee chairs and are restricted to committee members. DepDocs has been operational within our department for over six months and has already 45 unique users and an archive of over 1000 documents, mostly policies and procedures. Documents are easily retrievable from the system using any web browser within our hospital's network.

  1. Massively Multi-core Acceleration of a Document-Similarity Classifier to Detect Web Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmer, C; Gokhale, M; Top, P; Gallagher, B; Eliassi-Rad, T

    2010-01-14

    This paper describes our approach to adapting a text document similarity classifier based on the Term Frequency Inverse Document Frequency (TFIDF) metric to two massively multi-core hardware platforms. The TFIDF classifier is used to detect web attacks in HTTP data. In our parallel hardware approaches, we design streaming, real time classifiers by simplifying the sequential algorithm and manipulating the classifier's model to allow decision information to be represented compactly. Parallel implementations on the Tilera 64-core System on Chip and the Xilinx Virtex 5-LX FPGA are presented. For the Tilera, we employ a reduced state machine to recognize dictionary terms without requiring explicit tokenization, and achieve throughput of 37MB/s at slightly reduced accuracy. For the FPGA, we have developed a set of software tools to help automate the process of converting training data to synthesizable hardware and to provide a means of trading off between accuracy and resource utilization. The Xilinx Virtex 5-LX implementation requires 0.2% of the memory used by the original algorithm. At 166MB/s (80X the software) the hardware implementation is able to achieve Gigabit network throughput at the same accuracy as the original algorithm.

  2. Comparison Of Keyword Based Clustering Of Web Documents By Using Openstack 4j And By Traditional Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiza Anand

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As the number of hypertext documents are increasing continuously day by day on world wide web. Therefore clustering methods will be required to bind documents into the clusters repositories according to the similarity lying between the documents. Various clustering methods exist such as Hierarchical Based K-means Fuzzy Logic Based Centroid Based etc. These keyword based clustering methods takes much more amount of time for creating containers and putting documents in their respective containers. These traditional methods use File Handling techniques of different programming languages for creating repositories and transferring web documents into these containers. In contrast openstack4j SDK is a new technique for creating containers and shifting web documents into these containers according to the similarity in much more less amount of time as compared to the traditional methods. Another benefit of this technique is that this SDK understands and reads all types of files such as jpg html pdf doc etc. This paper compares the time required for clustering of documents by using openstack4j and by traditional methods and suggests various search engines to adopt this technique for clustering so that they give result to the user querries in less amount of time.

  3. Extraction of a group-pair relation: problem-solving relation from web-board documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechsiri, Chaveevan; Piriyakul, Rapepun

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to extract a group-pair relation as a Problem-Solving relation, for example a DiseaseSymptom-Treatment relation and a CarProblem-Repair relation, between two event-explanation groups, a problem-concept group as a symptom/CarProblem-concept group and a solving-concept group as a treatment-concept/repair concept group from hospital-web-board and car-repair-guru-web-board documents. The Problem-Solving relation (particularly Symptom-Treatment relation) including the graphical representation benefits non-professional persons by supporting knowledge of primarily solving problems. The research contains three problems: how to identify an EDU (an Elementary Discourse Unit, which is a simple sentence) with the event concept of either a problem or a solution; how to determine a problem-concept EDU boundary and a solving-concept EDU boundary as two event-explanation groups, and how to determine the Problem-Solving relation between these two event-explanation groups. Therefore, we apply word co-occurrence to identify a problem-concept EDU and a solving-concept EDU, and machine-learning techniques to solve a problem-concept EDU boundary and a solving-concept EDU boundary. We propose using k-mean and Naïve Bayes to determine the Problem-Solving relation between the two event-explanation groups involved with clustering features. In contrast to previous works, the proposed approach enables group-pair relation extraction with high accuracy.

  4. The CLIMB Geoportal - A web-based dissemination and documentation platform for hydrological modelling data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschek, Michael; Gerken, Daniel; Ludwig, Ralf; Duttmann, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    Geoportals are important elements of spatial data infrastructures (SDIs) that are strongly based on GIS-related web services. These services are basically meant for distributing, documenting and visualizing (spatial) data in a standardized manner; an important but challenging task especially in large scientific projects with a high number of data suppliers and producers from various countries. This presentation focuses on introducing the free and open-source based geoportal solution developed within the research project CLIMB (Climate Induced Changes on the Hydrology of Mediterranean Basins, www.climb-fp7.eu) that serves as the central platform for interchanging project-related spatial data and information. In this collaboration, financed by the EU-FP7-framework and coordinated at the LMU Munich, 21 partner institutions from nine European and non-European countries were involved. The CLIMB Geoportal (lgi-climbsrv.geographie.uni-kiel.de) stores and provides spatially distributed data about the current state and future changes of the hydrological conditions within the seven CLIMB test sites around the Mediterranean. Hydrological modelling outcome - validated by the CLIMB partners - is offered to the public in forms of Web Map Services (WMS), whereas downloading the underlying data itself through Web Coverage Services (WCS) is possible for registered users only. A selection of common indicators such as discharge, drought index as well as uncertainty measures including their changes over time were used in different spatial resolution. Besides map information, the portal enables the graphical display of time series of selected variables calculated by the individual models applied within the CLIMB-project. The implementation of the CLIMB Geoportal is finally based on version 2.0c5 of the open source geospatial content management system GeoNode. It includes a GeoServer instance for providing the OGC-compliant web services and comes with a metadata catalog (pycsw) as well

  5. Web server for the administrative and technical documentation of the radiodiagnostic facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, M; Campayo, J. M; Guardia, V. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, Local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Mayo, P., E-mail: m.soto@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, Local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Nowadays Radiological Protection Technical Unit of LAINSA as part of Grupo Dominguis, has assigned radiological security tasks in a high number of medical X-ray facilities. It is recognised by the Nuclear Security Council as a specialist in the assessment of protection against the radiological risks associated with medical, industrial and nuclear activities. It is also authorised as an external personal dosimetry centre. Concretely medical X-ray facilities generate big amount of information because of national regulatory authority to assure the good functioning of it. This information is formed by administrative procedures for the regulatory authority in industrial and public health area, periodic quality controls of the radiographic equipment s, radiological verification in different locations to measure the radioactivity levels, certificates of employees training to work with radioactivity, dosimetric registrations of professional exposure employees and medical aptitude documents for their job, etc. In this paper it is presented a net server application to manage this information in an effective way by web. In this server each facility has an online net space with private key access and where there are all the administrative documents and nuclear security reports of the facility. Moreover, the client who is responsible of the radiological security of the centre, can have at any moment all this information, minimizing delay times and optimizing the information store support in electronic format. The objective is that this information can be updated for consulting, modifying or checking at anytime quickly and safety. All this information has to be accessible for the interested medical facility, for the Radiological Protection Technical Unit which has been contracted by the facility to do the assessment in radiological protection and for the regulatory authority in nuclear security to guarantee well-practice in medical and nuclear activities. (Author)

  6. Designing for Diversity: The Role of Reading Strategies and Interactive Vocabulary in a Digital Reading Environment for Fifth-Grade Monolingual English and Bilingual Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bridget; Proctor, C. Patrick; Uccelli, Paola; Mo, Elaine; Snow, Catherine E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relative contribution of reading comprehension strategies and interactive vocabulary in Improving Comprehension Online (ICON), a universally designed web-based scaffolded text environment designed to improve fifth-grade monolingual English and bilingual students' reading achievement. Seventy-five monolingual English and 31…

  7. The use of fingerprints available on the web in false identity documents: Analysis from a forensic intelligence perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girelli, Carlos Magno Alves

    2016-05-01

    Fingerprints present in false identity documents were found on the web. In some cases, laterally reversed (mirrored) images of a same fingerprint were observed in different documents. In the present work, 100 fingerprints images downloaded from the web, as well as their reversals obtained by image editing, were compared between themselves and against the database of the Brazilian Federal Police AFIS, in order to better understand trends about this kind of forgery in Brazil. Some image editing effects were observed in the analyzed fingerprints: addition of artifacts (such as watermarks), image rotation, image stylization, lateral reversal and tonal reversal. Discussion about lateral reversals' detection is presented in this article, as well as suggestion to reduce errors due to missed HIT decisions between reversed fingerprints. The present work aims to highlight the importance of the fingerprints' analysis when performing document examination, especially when only copies of documents are available, something very common in Brazil. Besides the intrinsic features of the fingermarks considered in three levels of details by ACE-V methodology, some visual features of the fingerprints images can be helpful to identify sources of forgeries and modus operandi, such as: limits and image contours, fails in the friction ridges caused by excess or lack of inking and presence of watermarks and artifacts arising from the background. Based on the agreement of such features in fingerprints present in different identity documents and also on the analysis of the time and location where the documents were seized, it is possible to highlight potential links between apparently unconnected crimes. Therefore, fingerprints have potential to reduce linkage blindness and the present work suggests the analysis of fingerprints when profiling false identity documents, as well as the inclusion of fingerprints features in the profile of the documents.

  8. An investigation of document aesthetics for web-to-print repurposing of small-medium business marketing collateral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allebach, J. P.; Ortiz Segovia, Maria; Atkins, C. Brian; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; Bhatti, Nina; Liu, Jerry; Lin, Qian

    2010-02-01

    Businesses have traditionally relied on different types of media to communicate with existing and potential customers. With the emergence of the Web, the relation between the use of print and electronic media has continually evolved. In this paper, we investigate one possible scenario that combines the use of the Web and print. Specifically, we consider the scenario where a small- or medium-sized business (SMB) has an existing web site from which they wish to pull content to create a print piece. Our assumption is that the web site was developed by a professional designer, working in conjunction with the business owner or marketing team, and that it contains a rich assembly of content that is presented in an aesthetically pleasing manner. Our goal is to understand the process that a designer would follow to create an effective and aesthetically pleasing print piece. We are particularly interested to understand the choices made by the designer with respect to placement and size of the text and graphic elements on the page. Toward this end, we conducted an experiment in which professional designers worked with SMBs to create print pieces from their respective web pages. In this paper, we report our findings from this experiment, and examine the underlying conclusions regarding the resulting document aesthetics in the context of the existing design, and engineering and computer science literatures that address this topic

  9. Development and evaluation of a web-based application for digital findings and documentation in physiotherapy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieler, Bernadette; Burgsteiner, Harald; Messer-Misak, Karin; Gödl-Purrer, Barbara; Salchinger, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Findings in physiotherapy have standardized approaches in treatment, but there is also a significant margin of differences in how to implement these standards. Clinical decisions require experience and continuous learning processes to consolidate personal values and opinions and studies suggest that lecturers can influence students positively. Recently, the study course of Physiotherapy at the University of Applied Science in Graz has offered a paper based finding document. This document supported decisions through the adaption of the clinical reasoning process. The document was the starting point for our learning application called "EasyAssess", a Java based web-application for a digital findings documentation. A central point of our work was to ensure efficiency, effectiveness and usability of the web-application through usability tests utilized by both students and lecturers. Results show that our application fulfills the previously defined requirements and can be efficiently used in daily routine largely because of its simple user interface and its modest design. Due to the close cooperation with the study course Physiotherapy, the application has incorporated the various needs of the target audiences and confirmed the usefulness of our application.

  10. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF WEB INFORMATION EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES DEEP LEARNING vs. NAÏVE BAYES vs. BACK PROPAGATION NEURAL NETWORKS IN WEB DOCUMENT EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    J. Sharmila; Subramani, A.

    2016-01-01

    Web mining related exploration is getting the chance to be more essential these days in view of the reason that a lot of information is overseen through the web. Web utilization is expanding in an uncontrolled way. A particular framework is required for controlling such extensive measure of information in the web space. Web mining is ordered into three noteworthy divisions: Web content mining, web usage mining and web structure mining. Tak-Lam Wong has proposed a web content mining methodolog...

  11. Optimal Threshold Control by the Robots of Web Search Engines with Obsolescence of Documents

    CERN Document Server

    Avrachenkov, Konstantin; Klimenok, Valentina; Nain, Philippe; Semenova, Olga; 10.1016/j.comnet.2011.01.013

    2012-01-01

    A typical web search engine consists of three principal parts: crawling engine, indexing engine, and searching engine. The present work aims to optimize the performance of the crawling engine. The crawling engine finds new web pages and updates web pages existing in the database of the web search engine. The crawling engine has several robots collecting information from the Internet. We first calculate various performance measures of the system (e.g., probability of arbitrary page loss due to the buffer overflow, probability of starvation of the system, the average time waiting in the buffer). Intuitively, we would like to avoid system starvation and at the same time to minimize the information loss. We formulate the problem as a multi-criteria optimization problem and attributing a weight to each criterion. We solve it in the class of threshold policies. We consider a very general web page arrival process modeled by Batch Marked Markov Arrival Process and a very general service time modeled by Phase-type dis...

  12. Digital content sewed together within a library catalogue WebLib - The CERN Document Server

    CERN Document Server

    Vigen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Aggregation, harvesting, personalization techniques, portals, service provision, etc. have all become buzzwords. Most of them simply describing what librarians have been doing for hundreds of years. Prior to the Web few people outside the libraries were concerned about these issues, a situation which today it is completely turned upside down. Hopefully the new actors on the arena of knowledge management will take full advantage of all the available "savoir faire". At CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, librarians and informaticians have set up a complete system, WebLib, actually based on the traditional library catalogue. Digital content is, within this framework, being integrated to the highest possible level in order to meet the strong requirements of the particle physics community. The paper gives an overview of the steps CERN has made towards the digital library from the day the laboratory conceived the World Wide Web to present.

  13. NoSQL: collection document and cloud by using a dynamic web query form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Hemn B.; Lin, Jinzhao; Li, Guoquan

    2015-07-01

    Mongo-DB (from "humongous") is an open-source document database and the leading NoSQL database. A NoSQL (Not Only SQL, next generation databases, being non-relational, deal, open-source and horizontally scalable) presenting a mechanism for storage and retrieval of documents. Previously, we stored and retrieved the data using the SQL queries. Here, we use the MonogoDB that means we are not utilizing the MySQL and SQL queries. Directly importing the documents into our Drives, retrieving the documents on that drive by not applying the SQL queries, using the IO BufferReader and Writer, BufferReader for importing our type of document files to my folder (Drive). For retrieving the document files, the usage is BufferWriter from the particular folder (or) Drive. In this sense, providing the security for those storing files for what purpose means if we store the documents in our local folder means all or views that file and modified that file. So preventing that file, we are furnishing the security. The original document files will be changed to another format like in this paper; Binary format is used. Our documents will be converting to the binary format after that direct storing in one of our folder, that time the storage space will provide the private key for accessing that file. Wherever any user tries to discover the Document files means that file data are in the binary format, the document's file owner simply views that original format using that personal key from receive the secret key from the cloud.

  14. Web-Writing 2.0: Enabling, Documenting, and Assessing Writing Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Trends in the use of the Internet in recent years, collectively coined Web 2.0, have precipitated changes in modes and uses of writing online. Blogs and social networking sites provide new opportunities and incentives for personal writing. This reading-to-write culture requires use and development of language skills. The challenge for language…

  15. Automating testbed documentation and database access using World Wide Web (WWW) tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Charles; Auernheimer, Brent; Lee, Young H.

    1994-01-01

    A method for providing uniform transparent access to disparate distributed information systems was demonstrated. A prototype testing interface was developed to access documentation and information using publicly available hypermedia tools. The prototype gives testers a uniform, platform-independent user interface to on-line documentation, user manuals, and mission-specific test and operations data. Mosaic was the common user interface, and HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) provided hypertext capability.

  16. Reliability and type of consumer health documents on the World Wide Web: an annotation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Melanie J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper we present a detailed scheme for annotating medical web pages designed for health care consumers. The annotation is along two axes: first, by reliability (the extent to which the medical information on the page can be trusted, second, by the type of page (patient leaflet, commercial, link, medical article, testimonial, or support. Results We analyze inter-rater agreement among three judges for each axis. Inter-rater agreement was moderate (0.77 accuracy, 0.62 F-measure, 0.49 Kappa on the page reliability axis and good (0.81 accuracy, 0.72 F-measure, 0.73 Kappa along the page type axis. Conclusions We have shown promising results in this study that appropriate classes of pages can be developed and used by human annotators to annotate web pages with reasonable to good agreement. Availability No.

  17. The Management of Law Firms Using Business Process Management, Document Management and Web Services Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana Maria Petculet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the technical solution implemented in the present context for the management of law firms. The informational system consists of the automation of business processes using a BPM engine and electronic archiving using a DMS. The communication between the two modules is made by invoking web services. The whole system integrates modules like: project management, contract management, invoice management, collection, CRM, reporting.

  18. The Management of Law Firms Using Business Process Management, Document Management and Web Services Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Maria Petculet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the technical solution implemented in the present context for the management of law firms. The informational system consists of the automation of business processes using a BPM engine and electronic archiving using a DMS. The communication between the two modules is made by invoking web services. The whole system integrates modules like: project management, contract management, invoice management, collection, CRM, reporting.

  19. Web-based documentation system with exchange of DICOM RT for multicenter clinical studies in particle therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kerstin A.; Bougatf, Nina; Bohn, Christian; Engelmann, Uwe; Oetzel, Dieter; Bendl, Rolf; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E.

    2012-02-01

    Conducting clinical studies is rather difficult because of the large variety of voluminous datasets, different documentation styles, and various information systems, especially in radiation oncology. In this paper, we describe our development of a web-based documentation system with first approaches of automatic statistical analyses for transnational and multicenter clinical studies in particle therapy. It is possible to have immediate access to all patient information and exchange, store, process, and visualize text data, all types of DICOM images, especially DICOM RT, and any other multimedia data. Accessing the documentation system and submitting clinical data is possible for internal and external users (e.g. referring physicians from abroad, who are seeking the new technique of particle therapy for their patients). Thereby, security and privacy protection is ensured with the encrypted https protocol, client certificates, and an application gateway. Furthermore, all data can be pseudonymized. Integrated into the existing hospital environment, patient data is imported via various interfaces over HL7-messages and DICOM. Several further features replace manual input wherever possible and ensure data quality and entirety. With a form generator, studies can be individually designed to fit specific needs. By including all treated patients (also non-study patients), we gain the possibility for overall large-scale, retrospective analyses. Having recently begun documentation of our first six clinical studies, it has become apparent that the benefits lie in the simplification of research work, better study analyses quality and ultimately, the improvement of treatment concepts by evaluating the effectiveness of particle therapy.

  20. Guidelines for the Establishment and Development of Monolingual Thesauri for Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    These guidelines are applicable in the sector of information and documentation for the preparation and development of monolingual thesauri for information storage and retrieval, irrespective of the technical field being dealt with. No provision has been made for mathematical and structural chemical formulae. The guidelines are drafted for general…

  1. Monolingual and Bilingual Children's Social Preferences for Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Behrend, Douglas A.; Said, Lyakout Mohamed; Girgis, Helana; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Past research has shown that young monolingual children exhibit language-based social biases: they prefer native language to foreign language speakers. The current research investigated how children's language preferences are influenced by their own bilingualism and by a speaker's bilingualism. Monolingual and bilingual 4- to 6-year-olds heard…

  2. Untrained Forced Alignment of Transcriptions and Audio for Language Documentation Corpora Using WebMAUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Strunk; F. Schiel; F. Seifart

    2014-01-01

    Language documentation projects supported by recent funding intiatives have created a large number of multimedia corpora of typologically diverse languages. Most of these corpora provide a manual alignment of transcription and audio data at the level of larger units, such as sentences or intonation

  3. Untrained Forced Alignment of Transcriptions and Audio for Language Documentation Corpora Using WebMAUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strunk, J.; Schiel, F.; Seifart, F.; Calzolari, N.; Choukri, K.; Declerck, T.; Loftsson, H.; Maegaard, B.; Mariani, J.; Moreno, A.; Odijk, J.; Piperidis, S.

    2014-01-01

    Language documentation projects supported by recent funding intiatives have created a large number of multimedia corpora of typologically diverse languages. Most of these corpora provide a manual alignment of transcription and audio data at the level of larger units, such as sentences or intonation

  4. The Effects of a Web-Based Nursing Process Documentation Program on Stress and Anxiety of Nursing Students in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjoo; Noh, Hyun Kyung

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of a web-based nursing process documentation system on the stress and anxiety of nursing students during their clinical practice. A quasi-experimental design was employed. The experimental group (n = 110) used a web-based nursing process documentation program for their case reports as part of assignments for a clinical practicum, whereas the control group (n = 106) used traditional paper-based case reports. Stress and anxiety levels were measured with a numeric rating scale before, 2 weeks after, and 4 weeks after using the web-based nursing process documentation program during a clinical practicum. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t tests, chi-square tests, and repeated-measures analyses of variance. Nursing students who used the web-based nursing process documentation program showed significant lower levels of stress and anxiety than the control group. A web-based nursing process documentation program could be used to reduce the stress and anxiety of nursing students during clinical practicum, which ultimately would benefit nursing students by increasing satisfaction with and effectiveness of clinical practicum. © 2015 NANDA International, Inc.

  5. Documentation of Calculation Methodology, Input data, and Infrastructure for the Home Energy Saver Web Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinckard, Margaret J.; Brown, Richard E.; Mills, Evan; Lutz, James D.; Moezzi, Mithra M.; Atkinson, Celina; Bolduc, Chris; Homan, Gregory K.; Coughlin, Katie

    2005-07-13

    The Home Energy Saver (HES, http://HomeEnergySaver.lbl.gov) is an interactive web site designed to help residential consumers make decisions about energy use in their homes. This report describes the underlying methods and data for estimating energy consumption. Using engineering models, the site estimates energy consumption for six major categories (end uses); heating, cooling, water heating, major appliances, lighting, and miscellaneous equipment. The approach taken by the Home Energy Saver is to provide users with initial results based on a minimum of user input, allowing progressively greater control in specifying the characteristics of the house and energy consuming appliances. Outputs include energy consumption (by fuel and end use), energy-related emissions (carbon dioxide), energy bills (total and by fuel and end use), and energy saving recommendations. Real-world electricity tariffs are used for many locations, making the bill estimates even more accurate. Where information about the house is not available from the user, default values are used based on end-use surveys and engineering studies. An extensive body of qualitative decision-support information augments the analytical results.

  6. Suported by Replacement Policy for Caching World-Wide Web Documents Based on Site-Graph Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄伟强; 胡敏; 王鼎兴; 郑纬民; 沈美明

    2001-01-01

    The hit rate, a major metric for evaluating proxy caches, is mostly limited by the replacementstrategy of proxy caches. However, in traditional proxy caches, the hit rate does not usually successfullypredict how well a proxy cache will perform because the proxy cache counts any hit in its caching space whichhas many pages without useful information, so its replacement strategy fails to determine which pages to keepand which to release. The proxy cache efficiency can be measured more accurately using the valid hit rateintroduced in this paper. An efficient replacement strategy based on the Site-Graph model for WWW(World-Wide Web) documents is also discussed in this paper. The model analyzes user access behavior as abasis for the replacement strategy. Simulation results demonstrate that the replacement strategy improvesproxy cache efficiency.``

  7. 毕业论文写作中的非常规网络文献检索%UnconventionalWeb Document Retrieval in Thesis Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜健; 方小兵

    2014-01-01

    从开放获取期刊、数字化学位论文、网络工具书、学术搜索引擎、RSS 跟踪研究这五个方面探讨了毕业论文写作中的非常规网络文献检索,有助于学生熟悉网络资源架构、更好更快地检索到本专业的文献资料。%The paper discusses the unconventional web document retrieval in thesis writing from the aspects of Open Ac-cess Journals,Electronic Theses and Dissertations,web reference book,academic search engine,and RSS follow - up study. It is helpful for students to get familiar with the structure of web recourses and obtain the unconventional web documents better and sooner.

  8. A Web e o documentário: uma dupla inseparável?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Penafria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O webdocumentário é discutido enquanto obra que, no âmbito do atual panorama de produção artística, contribui não apenas para uma evolução do documentário, que se torna interativo mas, também, para uma evolução das tecnologias digitais interativas. Entendo o webdocumentário como um recorte do mundo da vida com dois tipos de abordagem: centrada e global, a que correspondem uma navegação disseminada e cumulativa, respetivamente e nas quais o utilizador assume o papel de explorador.

  9. Effects of Diacritics on Web Search Engines’ Performance for Retrieval of Yoruba Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toluwase Victor Asubiaro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to find out the possible effect of the use or nonuse of diacritics in Yoruba search queries on the performance of major search engines, AOL, Bing, Google and Yahoo!, in retrieving documents. 30 Yoruba queries created from the most searched keywords from Nigeria on Google search logs were submitted to the search engines. The search queries were posed to the search engines without diacritics and then with diacritics. All of the search engines retrieved more sites in response to the queries without diacritics. Also, they all retrieved more precise results for queries without diacritics. The search engines also answered more queries without diacritics. There was no significant difference in the precision values of any two of the four search engines for diacritized and undiacritized queries. There was a significant difference in the effectiveness of AOL and Yahoo when diacritics were applied and when they were not applied. The findings of the study indicate that the search engines do not find a relationship between the diacritized Yoruba words and the undiacritized versions. Therefore, there is a need for search engines to add normalization steps to pre-process Yoruba queries and indexes. This study concentrates on a problem with search engines that has not been previously investigated.

  10. Multilingual Researchers Internationalizing Monolingual English-Only Education through Post-Monolingual Research Methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Singh

    2017-01-01

    The argument advanced in this Special Issue of Education Sciences favors democratizing knowledge production and dissemination across the humanities and social sciences through the mainstreaming of multilingual researchers capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire. An important contribution of the papers in this Special Issue is the promise that post-monolingual research methodology holds for collaborative projects among multilingual and monolingual researchers that ta...

  11. Lexical knowledge of monolingual and bilingual children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhallen, M.; Schoonen, R.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to gain insight into the lexico-semantic knowledge of bilingual children growing up in a second-language immersion environment. The research focus is on aspects of lexical knowledge that are relevant for school success. Data were obtained by asking 40 monolingual

  12. Monolingual Dictionary Use in an EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Holi Ibrahim Holi

    2012-01-01

    Caledonian College of Engineering, Oman, has been encouraging its students to use monolingual dictionaries rather than bilingual or bilingualized ones in classroom and during the exams. This policy with has been received with mixed feelings and attitudes. Therefore, this study strives to explore teachers' and students' attitudes about the use of…

  13. Data Mining of Web-Based Documents on Social Networking Sites That Included Suicide-Related Words Among Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juyoung; Song, Tae Min; Seo, Dong-Chul; Jin, Jae Hyun

    2016-12-01

    To investigate online search activity of suicide-related words in South Korean adolescents through data mining of social media Web sites as the suicide rate in South Korea is one of the highest in the world. Out of more than 2.35 billion posts for 2 years from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2012 on 163 social media Web sites in South Korea, 99,693 suicide-related documents were retrieved by Crawler and analyzed using text mining and opinion mining. These data were further combined with monthly employment rate, monthly rental prices index, monthly youth suicide rate, and monthly number of reported bully victims to fit multilevel models as well as structural equation models. The link from grade pressure to suicide risk showed the largest standardized path coefficient (beta = .357, p pressure, low body image, victims of bullying, and concerns about disease. The largest total effect was observed in the grade pressure to depression to suicide risk. The multilevel models indicate about 27% of the variance in the daily suicide-related word search activity is explained by month-to-month variations. A lower employment rate, a higher rental prices index, and more bullying were associated with an increased suicide-related word search activity. Academic pressure appears to be the biggest contributor to Korean adolescents' suicide risk. Real-time suicide-related word search activity monitoring and response system needs to be developed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Annotating Atomic Components of Papers in Digital Libraries: The Semantic and Social Web Heading towards a Living Document Supporting eSciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Castro, Alexander; García-Castro, Leyla Jael; Labarga, Alberto; Giraldo, Olga; Montaña, César; O'Neil, Kieran; Bateman, John A.

    Rather than a document that is being constantly re-written as in the wiki approach, the Living Document (LD) is one that acts as a document router, operating by means of structured and organized social tagging and existing ontologies. It offers an environment where users can manage papers and related information, share their knowledge with their peers and discover hidden associations among the shared knowledge. The LD builds upon both the Semantic Web, which values the integration of well-structured data, and the Social Web, which aims to facilitate interaction amongst people by means of user-generated content. In this vein, the LD is similar to a social networking system, with users as central nodes in the network, with the difference that interaction is focused on papers rather than people. Papers, with their ability to represent research interests, expertise, affiliations, and links to web based tools and databanks, represent a central axis for interaction amongst users. To begin to show the potential of this vision, we have implemented a novel web prototype that enables researchers to accomplish three activities central to the Semantic Web vision: organizing, sharing and discovering. Availability: http://www.scientifik.info/

  15. Application of Web 2.0 on the Document Retrieval Class%Web2.0用于文献检索课教学初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海蓉

    2011-01-01

    分析大学生对Web 2.0理解及使用情况基础上,提出把部分Web 2.0技术应用到具体的教学实践与研究中,提高大学生的信息素养.%Based on students' understanding of Web 2.0 and using, this article proposes to introduce commonly used techniques of Web 2.0 to specific teaching practice and research to improve university students' information literacy.

  16. Visibilidad y accesibilidad web de las tesinas de licenciatura en Bibliotecología y Documentación en la Argentina = Web Visibility and Accessibility of Theses in Library Science and Documentation in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Gisela Martín

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se busca describir la visibilidad y accesibilidad web de la investigación en Bibliotecología y Documentación en la Argentina mediante el estudio de las tesinas presentadas para optar al título de licenciatura. Constituye un estudio exploratorio descriptivo con enfoque cuantitativo donde se investiga la visibilidad de tesinas en catálogos y repositorios institucionales, la cantidad de tesinas visibles en la web /cantidad de tesinas accesibles en texto completo, los metadatos de los registros en los catálogos, los metadatos de los registros en los repositorios, la producción de tesinas por año según visibilidad web, la cantidad de autores por tesina según visibilidad web y la distribución temática del contenido de las tesinas. Se concluye que la producción científica de tesinas en Bibliotecología en la Argentina está muy dispersa en la web y que la visibilidad y accesibilidad a las mismas es muy escasa = It describes the web visibility and accessibility of research in library and documentation in Argentina by studying dissertations submitted to qualify for the bachelor's degree. It is an exploratory study with quantitative approach where the visibility of theses in catalogs and institutional repositories, the number of theses visible on the web/amount accessible in full text, metadata records in catalogs, metadata records in the repositories, the production of dissertations per year according to web visibility, the number of authors per dissertation as web visibility and thematic distribution of the content of dissertations. It is concluded that the production of dissertations in library science in Argentina is spread on the web and that the visibility and accessibility of these is very low.

  17. Evaluation of some Information Retrieval models for Gujarati Ad hoc Monolingual Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    J., Joshi Hardik; Jyoti, Pareek

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the work towards Gujarati Ad hoc Monolingual Retrieval task for widely used Information Retrieval (IR) models. We present an indexing baseline for the Gujarati Language represented by Mean Average Precision (MAP) values. Our objective is to obtain a relative picture of a better IR model for Gujarati Language. Results show that Classical IR models like Term Frequency Inverse Document Frequency (TF_IDF) performs better when compared to few recent probabilistic IR models. Th...

  18. Multilingual Researchers Internationalizing Monolingual English-Only Education through Post-Monolingual Research Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Singh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The argument advanced in this Special Issue of Education Sciences favors democratizing knowledge production and dissemination across the humanities and social sciences through the mainstreaming of multilingual researchers capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire. An important contribution of the papers in this Special Issue is the promise that post-monolingual research methodology holds for collaborative projects among multilingual and monolingual researchers that tap into intercultural divergences across languages. Together these papers give warrant to multilingual researchers, including Higher Degree Researchers develop their capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire, an educational innovation that could be of immense benefit to scholars working predominantly monolingual universities. Through their thought provoking papers presented in this Special Issue, these researchers invites those working in the education sciences to seriously consider the potential benefits of multiplying the intellectual resources used for theorizing that is possible through activating, mobilizing and deploying researchers’ multilingual resources in knowledge production and dissemination.

  19. The Efficiency of Requesting Process for Formal Business-Documents in Indonesia: An Implementation of Web Application Base on Secure and Encrypted Sharing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Budi Setyawan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent business practices, the need of the formal document for business, such as the business license documents, business domicile letters, halal certificates, and other formal documents, is desperately needed and becomes its own problems for businesses, especially for small and medium enterprises. One stop service unit that was conceived and implemented by the government today, has not been fully integrated yet. Not all permits (related with formal document for business can be completed and finished in one place, businesses are still have to move from one government department to another government department to get a formal document for their business. With these practices, not only a lot of the time and cost will be sacrificed, but also businesses must always fill out a form with the same field. This study aims to assess and identify the problem, especially on applying the formal document for business, and use it as inputs for the development of a web application based on secure and encrypted sharing process. The study starts with a survey of 200 businesses that have applied the formal document for their business, to map the initial conditions of applying the formal document for business in Indonesia . With these applications that are built based on these needs, it is expected that not only the time, cost, and physical effort from both parties are becoming more efficient, but also the negative practices of bureaucratic and economic obstacles in business activities can be minimized, so the competitiveness of business and their contribution for national economy will increase.Keywords : Formal documents, Efficiencies, Web application, Secure and encrypted sharing process, SMEs

  20. Web Document Classification Algorithm Based on Manifold Learning and SVM%基于流形学习和SVM的Web文档分类算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王自强; 钱旭

    2009-01-01

    为解决Web文档分类问题,提出一种基于流形学习和SVM的Web文档分类算法.该算法利用流形学习算法LPP对训练集中的高维Web文档空间进行非线性降维,从中找出隐藏在高维观测数据中有意义的低维结构,在降维后的低维特征空间中利用乘性更新规则的优化SVM进行分类预测.实验结果表明该算法以较少的运行时间获得更高的分类准确率.%To efficiently resolve Web document classification problem, a novel Web document classification algorithm based on manifold learning and Support Vector Machine(SVM) is proposed. The high dimensional Web document space in the training sets are non-linearly reduced to lower dimensional space with manifold learning algorithm LPP, and the hidden interesting lower dimensional structure can be discovered from the high dimensional observisional data. The classification and predication in the lower dimensional feature space are implemented with the multiplicative update-based optimal SVM. Experimental results show that the algorithm achieves higher classification accuracy with less running time.

  1. Aproximación a la web semántica desde la perspectiva de la Documentación Approaching the Semantic Web from a Documentation perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Peis

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El proyecto web semántica se perfila cada vez más como una nueva alternativa que viene a resolver algunos de los problemas que presenta el actual modelo de Web. Este trabajo pretende, mediante el planteamiento de ejemplos sencillos y desde el punto de vista del "profesional de la información", hacer una aproximación a las tecnologías básicas que permiten definir una infraestructura semántica sobre la cual desarrollar los sistemas de información del futuro. Además, se analiza el impacto que puede suponer la implantación de estas tecnologías en las metodologías y técnicas de trabajo de una disciplina como la documentación. Por último se discute brevemente la viabilidad de este nuevo modelo.The Semantic Web is arising as a new alternative that could solve some of the problems of the actual Web model. By means of simple examples from an information professional perspective, this paper attempts to approach the basic technologies that will define the semantic infrastructure for developing the information systems of the future. Furthermore, the impact that the implementation of these technologies may have on work methodologies and techniques of a research area such as Information Science, is analyzed. Finally, the viability of this new model is briefly discussed.

  2. Receptive Vocabulary Differences in Monolingual and Bilingual Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi

    2012-01-01

    English receptive vocabulary scores from 797 monolingual and 808 bilingual participants between the ages of 17 and 89 years old were aggregated from 20 studies to compare standard scores across language groups. The distribution of scores was unimodal for both groups but the mean score was significantly different, with monolinguals obtaining higher…

  3. Language Learning from Inconsistent Input: Bilingual and Monolingual Toddlers Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bree, Elise; Verhagen, Josje; Kerkhoff, Annemarie; Doedens, Willemijn; Unsworth, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    This study examines novel language learning from inconsistent input in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. We predicted an advantage for the bilingual toddlers on the basis of the structural sensitivity hypothesis. Monolingual and bilingual 24-month-olds performed two novel language learning experiments. The first contained consistent input, and…

  4. Beginning To Read among Monolingual and Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, Concepcion M.; And Others

    This study examined language and reading ability in English monolinguals, Spanish monolinguals, and two bilingual groups at the beginning of kindergarten and at the beginning of first grade. The study also compared the family background of the children on home literacy, parent education, and the parents' aspirations for their children. In…

  5. Monolingual accounting dictionaries for EFL text production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Nielsen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Monolingual accounting dictionaries are important for producing financial reporting texts in English in an international setting, because of the lack of specialised bilingual dictionaries. As the intended user groups have different factual and linguistic competences, they require specific types of information. By identifying and analysing the users' factual and linguistic competences, user needs, use-situations and the stages involved in producing accounting texts in English as a foreign language, lexicographers will have a sound basis for designing the optimal English accounting dictionary for EFL text production. The monolingual accounting dictionary needs to include information about UK, US and international accounting terms, their grammatical properties, their potential for being combined with other words in collocations, phrases and sentences in order to meet user requirements. Data items that deal with these aspects are necessary for the international user group as they produce subject-field specific and register-specific texts in a foreign language, and the data items are relevant for the various stages in text production: draft writing, copyediting, stylistic editing and proofreading.

  6. Rethinking monolingual instructional strategies in multilingual classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Cummins

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three inter-related assumptions regarding best practice in second/foreign language teaching and bilingual/immersion education continue to dominate classroom instruction. These assumptions are that: (a the target language (TL should be used exclusively for instructional purposes without recourse to students’ first language (L1; (b translation between L1 and TL has no place in the language classroom; and (c within immersion and bilingual programs, the two languages should be kept rigidly separate. Research evidence provides minimal support for these assumptions and they are also inconsistent with the instructional implications of current theory in the areas of cognitive psychology and applied linguistics. Based on current research and theory, a set of bilingual instructional strategies are proposed and concrete examples are provided to illustrate how these strategies can be used together with monolingual strategies in a balanced and complementary way.

  7. How many scientific papers are mentioned in policy-related documents? An empirical investigation using Web of Science and Altmetric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunschild, Robin; Bornmann, Lutz

    2017-01-01

    In this short communication, we provide an overview of a relatively newly provided source of altmetrics data which could possibly be used for societal impact measurements in scientometrics. Recently, Altmetric-a start-up providing publication level metrics-started to make data for publications available which have been mentioned in policy-related documents. Using data from Altmetric, we study how many papers indexed in the Web of Science (WoS) are mentioned in policy-related documents. We find that less than 0.5% of the papers published in different subject categories are mentioned at least once in policy-related documents. Based on our results, we recommend that the analysis of (WoS) publications with at least one policy-related mention is repeated regularly (annually) in order to check the usefulness of the data. Mentions in policy-related documents should not be used for impact measurement until new policy-related sites are tracked.

  8. Profile of phonological awareness in bilingual and monolingual children

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Lourdes Bernadete Rocha de; Leite,Aline Gisele Conceição

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the performance of phonological awareness skills in bilingual and monolingual students of both genders. Methods: This research presents an observational, cross-sectional descriptive study conducted with 17 students from the 3rd grade, aged between seven years and 8 years and 11 months, with similar socioeconomic level, from two private schools, being one a monolingual school, and the other a bilingual one. Children at risk for auditory deprivation of any degree, those...

  9. Bilingual and Monolingual Children Prefer Native-Accented Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre L. eSouza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adults and young children prefer to affiliate with some individuals rather than others. Studies have shown that monolingual children show in-group biases for individuals who speak their native language without a foreign accent (Kinzler, Dupoux, & Spelke, 2007. Some studies have suggested that bilingual children are less influenced than monolinguals by language variety when attributing personality traits to different speakers (Anisfeld & Lambert, 1964, which could indicate that bilinguals have fewer in-group biases and perhaps greater social flexibility. However, no previous studies have compared monolingual and bilingual children’s reactions to speakers with unfamiliar foreign accents. In the present study, we investigated the social preferences of 5-year-old English and French monolinguals and English-French bilinguals. Contrary to our predictions, both monolingual and bilingual preschoolers preferred to be friends with native-accented speakers over speakers who spoke their dominant language with an unfamiliar foreign accent. This result suggests that both monolingual and bilingual children have strong preferences for in-group members who use a familiar language variety, and that bilingualism does not lead to generalized social flexibility.

  10. SYNONYMS IN GERMAN ONLINE MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Sánchez Hernández

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study includes both theoretical and qualitative research and falls within the framework of semantics and lexicography. It is based on work conducted as a part of the COMBIDIGILEX research project: MINECO-FEDER FFI2015-64476-P. The lexicographical description proposed in the COMBIDIGILEX project is based on the foundations of bilingual lexicography from an onomasiological perspective, including paradigmatic information and syntagmatic analysis, which is useful to users creating texts for students at an advanced level. The project analyses verbal lexemes in German and Spanish based on a paradigmatic, syntagmatic, orthographic and morphological perspective (among others. Subsequently, a contrastive analysis was conducted between both languages. In this contribution, we first analyse what paradigmatic information is, including its relevance to a dictionary. Paradigmatic information includes not only synonyms and antonyms but also hyperonyms and hyponyms, which often complete the lexicographical article in a general dictionary. Paradigmatic relations can be observed in light of semantic definitions or may independently become part of the lexical entry. Forming the paradigmatic information of an entry in an independent manner is known as “intentionelle Paradigmatik”, and it constitutes a series of advantages in the dictionary (Hausmann 1991b: 2794. This type of information aids the processes of production and expands vocabulary. Next, we examine the appearance of synonyms in three German online monolingual dictionaries – DWDS, WORTSCHATZLEXIKON and DUDEN ONLINE – from the semantic perspective of cognition verbs. The primary objective of the study is to demonstrate the relevance of this type of information as well as the needs it covers from a user’s perspective. Offering the user a series of lexical elements along with information on semantic relations of a paradigmatic nature thus addresses the issue of users having an array of

  11. A NOVEL APPROACH TO TRANSFORM CLASSICAL DATABASE TO USER FRIENDLY WEB DOCUMENT FOR MEDICAL APPLICATION IN PEER-TO-PEER ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Anupriya,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing popularity of the XML (eXtensible Markup Language as a common data standard for information interchange across Web, XML is commonly being used as an underlying data model for many applications to deal with the heterogeneity of data and nodes. This paper presents a novel approach to extract data from classical database systems like relational database systems, convert it into XML documents, and exchange XML documents among peer nodes in the network. Many hospitals have branches in different geographicallocations. The chief doctors need to travel to different locations and give consultation. If the peer hospital nodes are connected in peer-to-peer network, then the consultation can be provided from any peer hospital node even under emergencies. Peer-to-Peer network is implemented via Byzantine-Resilient Secure Multicast Routing in ultihop Wireless Networks (BSMR protocol enhanced with security. Also, we have considered and emulated a system for one such medical application in which the consultant can enter details like insulin dosage to be given or any pre or post sugar measurements need to be taken for any in patients available in the peer hospitals. The concerned duty doctor and nurses can carryout the task based on instruction in any peer hospital node. To make it easily readable,the information is presented in browser as a XML document.

  12. Bilingualism and linguistic politics in Brazil: From monolingual unreality to plurilingual reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ortiz Preuss

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Current article discusses the linguistic policies inBrazil and problematizes explicit or underlying notions of bilingualism in official documents. Different concepts of bilingualism over time are analyzed from a bibliographic and documental study. Further, the types of bilingualism contemplated by linguistic policies are investigated. The status of Portuguese, indigenous, foreign, sign and immigrant languages in these documents is discussed, as well as the legal attitudes related to bilingualism in communities of immigrants, indigenous, deaf and descendants of Negro slaves. An initial legal ambiguity may be noted when essentially monolingual linguistic policies are prioritized. A mild progress has occurred during the last few years, mainly, those related to the acknowledgement of indigenous communities as bi/multilingual. In fact, Brazil’s plurilingual condition and its pluricultural characteristics have not been yet acknowledged.

  13. Multilingual Medical Documents Classification Based on MesH Domain Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elberrichi Zakaria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the semantic Web and ontologies. It addresses the issue of the classification of multilingual Web documents, based on domain ontology. The objective is being able, using a model, to classify documents in different languages. We will try to solve this problematic using two different approaches. The two approaches will have two elementary stages: the creation of the model using machine learning algorithms on a labeled corpus, then the classification of documents after detecting their languages and mapping their terms into the concepts of the language of reference (English. But each one will deal with the multilingualism with a different approach. One supposes the ontology is monolingual, whereas the other considers it multilingual. To show the feasibility and the importance of our work, we implemented it on a domain that attracts nowadays a lot of attention from the data mining community: the biomedical domain. The selected documents are from the biomedical benchmark corpus Ohsumed, and the associated ontology is the thesaurus MeSH (Medical Subject Headings. The main idea in our work is a new document representation, the masterpiece of all good classification, based on concept. The experimental results show that the recommended ideas are promising.

  14. A monolingual mind can have two time lines: Exploring space-time mappings in Mandarin monolinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenxing; Sun, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Can a mind accommodate two time lines? Miles, Tan, Noble, Lumsden and Macrae (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 18, 598-604, 2011) shows that Mandarin-English bilinguals have both a horizontal space-time mapping consistent with linguistic conventions within English and a vertical representation of time commensurate with Mandarin. However, the present study, via two experiments, demonstrates that Mandarin monolinguals possess two mental time lines, i.e., one horizontal and one vertical line. This study concludes that a Mandarin speaker has two mental time lines not because he/she has acquired L2 English, but because there are both horizontal and vertical expressions in Mandarin spatiotemporal metaphors. Specifically, this study highlights the fact that a horizontal time line does exist in a Mandarin speaker's cognition, even if he/she is a Mandarin monolingual instead of a ME bilingual. Taken together, the evidence in hand is far from sufficient to support Miles et al.'s (2011) conclusion that ME bilinguals' horizontal concept of time is manipulated by English. Implications for theoretical issues concerning the language-thought relationship in general and the effect of bilingualism on cognition in particular are discussed.

  15. Disseny i implementació d'un web com a repositori documental per a una investigació històrica

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez Rodrigo, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    El projecte presentat en aquest TFM es troba dins de l¿àmbit de les anomenades Humanitats digital i consisteix en el disseny i implementació d¿un web que serveix com a repositori documental per a una investigació de caràcter històric, en concret, per a una tesi doctoral. Es tracta d¿una recerca de l¿àrea d¿Història contemporània que està en procés i que aborda la construcció de les estrelles cinematogràfiques femenines durant el primer franquisme. El proyecto presentado en este TFM se encu...

  16. The auditory attention status in Iranian bilingual and monolingual people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayiere Mansoori

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Bilingualism, as one of the discussing issues of psychology and linguistics, can influence the speech processing. Of several tests for assessing auditory processing, dichotic digit test has been designed to study divided auditory attention. Our study was performed to compare the auditory attention between Iranian bilingual and monolingual young adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 students including 30 Turkish-Persian bilinguals and 30 Persian monolinguals aged between 18 to 30 years in both genders. Dichotic digit test was performed on young individuals with normal peripheral hearing and right hand preference. Results: No significant correlation was found between the results of dichotic digit test of monolinguals and bilinguals (p=0.195, and also between the results of right and left ears in monolingual (p=0.460 and bilingual (p=0.054 groups. The mean score of women was significantly more than men (p=0.031. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between bilinguals and monolinguals in divided auditory attention; and it seems that acquisition of second language in lower ages has no noticeable effect on this type of auditory attention.

  17. Compiling the First Monolingual Lusoga Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minah Nabirye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In this research article a study is made of the approach followed to compile the first-ever monolingual dictionary for Lusoga. Lusoga is a Bantu language spoken in Uganda by slightly over two mil-lion people. Being an under-resourced language, the Lusoga orthography had to be designed, a grammar written, and a corpus built, before embarking on the compilation of the dictionary. This compilation was aimed at attaining an academic degree, hence requiring a rigorous research methodology. Firstly, the prevail-ing methods for compiling dictionaries were mainly practical and insufficient in explaining the theoretical linguistic basis for dictionary compilation. Since dictionaries are based on meaning, the theory of meaning was used to account for all linguistic data considered in dictionaries. However, meaning is considered at a very abstract level, far removed from the process of compiling dictionaries. Another theory, the theory of modularity, was used to bridge the gap between the theory of meaning and the compilation process. The modular theory explains how the different modules of a language contribute information to the different parts of the dictionary article or dictionary information in general. Secondly, the research also had to contend with the different approaches for analysing Bantu languages for Bantu and European audiences. A descrip-tion of the Bantu- and European-centred approaches to Bantu studies was undertaken in respect of (a the classification of Lusoga words, and (b the specification of their citations. As a result, Lusoga lexicography deviates from the prevailing Bantu classification and citation of nouns, adjectives and verbs in particular. The dictionary was tested on two separate occasions and all the feedback was considered in the compilation pro-cess. This article, then, gives an overall summary of all the steps involved in the compilation of the Eiwanika ly'Olusoga, i.e. the Monolingual Lusoga Dictionary

  18. Effects of primary and secondary morphological family size in monolingual and bilingual word processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, K.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.; Schreuder, R.; Baayen, Harald

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated primary and secondary morphological family size effects in monolingual and bilingual processing, combining experimentation with computational modeling. Family size effects were investigated in an English lexical decision task for Dutch-English bilinguals and English monolingu

  19. Word Magic Revisited: Monolingual and Bilingual Children's Understanding of the Word-Object Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Tamar; Pinker, Steven A.

    1983-01-01

    Results showed that monolingual and bilingual preschoolers understand equally that objects may be renamed. However, monolinguals were more likely to mention the object's properties when justifying an answer, whereas bilinguals were more likely to mention social context. (Author/MP)

  20. Flexibility in task switching by monolinguals and bilinguals*

    Science.gov (United States)

    WISEHEART, MELODY; VISWANATHAN, MYTHILI; BIALYSTOK, ELLEN

    2015-01-01

    Many bilinguals routinely switch between their languages, yet mixed evidence exists about the transfer of language switching skills to broader domains that require attentional control such as task switching. Monolingual and bilingual young adults performed a nonverbal task-switching paradigm in which they viewed colored pictures of animals and indicated either the animal or its color in response to a cue. Monolinguals and bilinguals performed similarly when switching between tasks (local switch cost) in a mixed-task block, but bilinguals demonstrated a smaller mixing effect (global switch cost) than monolinguals, indicating better ability to reconfigure stimulus–response associations. These results suggest that regular practice using multiple languages confers a broader executive function advantage shown as improved flexibility in task switching. PMID:26877705

  1. Effective Look-up Techniques to Approach a Monolingual Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauman Al Amin Ali El Sayed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A dictionary is (a learning tool that can help the language learner in acquiring great knowledge of and about a foreign language. Almost all language learners buy or at least possess, at one time, a monolingual or bilingual dictionary, to which the learner may refer to look up the meaning of words. Unfortunately, using dictionary to look up the meaning of words seems to be the most important service, which a dictionary is expected to provide to language learners. In fact, a dictionary provides much data about language to its readers such as telling them about: the word spelling, phonology, phonetics, etymology, stylistics and definitions among other aspects. This paper sheds light on how the dictionary can teach its readers with special focus on monolingual dictionary. Hence, the discussion of this paper will centre on how dictionaries can teach students rather than on how students can learn from them. Keywords: monolingual dictionary, learning strategies, language acquisition, lexicography

  2. Documentation Service; Service de Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charnay, J.; Chosson, L.; Croize, M.; Ducloux, A.; Flores, S.; Jarroux, D.; Melka, J.; Morgue, D.; Mottin, C. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1998-12-31

    This service assures the treatment and diffusion of the scientific information and the management of the scientific production of the institute as well as the secretariat operation for the groups and services of the institute. The report on documentation-library section mentions: the management of the documentation funds, search in international databases (INIS, Current Contents, Inspects), Pret-Inter service which allows accessing documents through DEMOCRITE network of IN2P3. As realizations also mentioned are: the setup of a video, photo database, the Web home page of the institute`s library, follow-up of digitizing the document funds by integrating the CD-ROMs and diskettes, electronic archiving of the scientific production, etc 1 fig.

  3. Brain Network Activity in Monolingual and Bilingual Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Cheryl L.; Luk, Gigi; Craik, Fergus I.M.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Bilingual older adults typically have better performance on tasks of executive control (EC) than do their monolingual peers, but differences in brain activity due to language experience are not well understood. Based on studies showing a relation between the dynamic range of brain network activity and performance on EC tasks, we hypothesized that life-long bilingual older adults would show increased functional connectivity relative to monolinguals in networks related to EC. We assessed intrinsic functional connectivity and modulation of activity in task vs. fixation periods in two brain networks that are active when EC is engaged, the frontoparietal control network (FPC) and the salience network (SLN). We also examined the default mode network (DMN), which influences behavior through reduced activity during tasks. We found stronger intrinsic functional connectivity in the FPC and DMN in bilinguals than in monolinguals. Although there were no group differences in the modulation of activity across tasks and fixation, bilinguals showed stronger correlations than monolinguals between intrinsic connectivity in the FPC and task-related increases of activity in prefrontal and parietal regions. This bilingual difference in network connectivity suggests that language experience begun in childhood and continued throughout adulthood influences brain networks in ways that may provide benefits in later life. PMID:25445783

  4. Working Memory Development in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Julia; Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Two studies are reported comparing the performance of monolingual and bilingual children on tasks requiring different levels of working memory. In the first study, 56 5-year-olds performed a Simon-type task that manipulated working memory demands by comparing conditions based on two rules and four rules and manipulated conflict resolution demands…

  5. Coordination of Executive Functions in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Two groups of 8-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual completed a complex classification task in which they made semantic judgments on stimuli that were presented either visually or auditorily. The task requires coordinating a variety of executive control components, specifically working memory, inhibition, and shifting. When each of…

  6. Receptive Vocabulary Differences in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi; Peets, Kathleen F.; Yang, Sujin

    2010-01-01

    Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738…

  7. Language learning and control in monolinguals and bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2012-08-01

    Parallel language activation in bilinguals leads to competition between languages. Experience managing this interference may aid novel language learning by improving the ability to suppress competition from known languages. To investigate the effect of bilingualism on the ability to control native-language interference, monolinguals and bilinguals were taught an artificial language designed to elicit between-language competition. Partial activation of interlingual competitors was assessed with eye-tracking and mouse-tracking during a word recognition task in the novel language. Eye-tracking results showed that monolinguals looked at competitors more than bilinguals, and for a longer duration of time. Mouse-tracking results showed that monolinguals' mouse movements were attracted to native-language competitors, whereas bilinguals overcame competitor interference by increasing the activation of target items. Results suggest that bilinguals manage cross-linguistic interference more effectively than monolinguals. We conclude that language interference can affect lexical retrieval, but bilingualism may reduce this interference by facilitating access to a newly learned language. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. Troubling Literacy: Monolingual Assumptions, Multilingual Contexts, and Language Teacher Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Russell

    2011-01-01

    The current educational context in many English speaking countries is one where literacy is understood to be essentially monolingual in orientation; that is, an understanding of literacy around a single common language, with the emphasis on identifying universal, normative "standards" and "benchmarks", such as the…

  9. School Leadership along the Trajectory from Monolingual to Multilingual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenzi-Moreno, Laura; Hesson, Sarah; Menken, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the critical role of school leaders in language policy change, and specifically in shifting their language education policies and practices from monolingual to multilingual. We examine the process of language policy change in three schools that were involved in a project aimed at increasing the knowledge base of school…

  10. Language Learning and Control in Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Parallel language activation in bilinguals leads to competition between languages. Experience managing this interference may aid novel language learning by improving the ability to suppress competition from known languages. To investigate the effect of bilingualism on the ability to control native-language interference, monolinguals and bilinguals…

  11. Document object network model for extracting keywords from Web pages%面向Web文本关键词自动抽取的DON模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭浩; 蔡美玲; 王瑞龙; 余炳锐

    2012-01-01

    It is very hard to exactly extract keywords from hub Web pages because of its topic noise. A Document Object Network (DON) model and Keywords Extraction Algorithm Based on it (KEYDON) are proposed. The model DON clusters the topic society with the betweenness centrality and impact fraction of nodes in DON. Experiments show that the accuracy of proposed keywords extraction algorithm's performance based on DON has increased by 20% compared with the algorithm based on Doc View model.%Web网页中往往包含许多主题噪声,准确地自动抽取关键词成为技术难点.提出了一个文本对象网络模型DON,给出了对象节点的中心度概念和基于中心度的影响因子传播规则,并据此自动聚集DON中的主题社区(topic society),从而提高了模型的抗噪能力.提出一个基于DON的网页关键词自动抽取算法KEYDON(Keywords Extraction Algorithm Based on DON).实验结果表明,与基于DocView模型的相应算法相比,KEYDON的准确率提高了近20%,这说明DON模型具有较强的抑制主题噪声能力.

  12. Monolingual and bilingual children with and without primary language impairment: core vocabulary comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Manon; Mayer-Crittenden, Chantal; Minor-Corriveau, Michèle; Bélanger, Roxanne

    2014-09-01

    Core vocabulary is an important component of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems for school-aged children who have complex communication needs. One method of identifying core vocabulary for these individuals is to study the vocabulary of speaking children. To date, the use of core vocabulary by speaking bilingual children has not been well documented. The present study compared the core vocabulary used by children who are monolingual (French), and bilingual (French-English; English-French). We also gathered and compared language samples from French-speaking children identified as having primary language impairment (PLI), with the goal of better understanding the language differences demonstrated by children with this disability. Language samples were collected from a total of 57 children within a school setting, in a region where French is a minority language. Contrary to the hypothesis, the analysis of language transcripts revealed that there were no important differences between the core words from the groups studied.

  13. Análisis de los criterios de relevancia documental mediante consultas de información en el entorno web

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Pelayo, Valentín

    2011-01-01

    La búsqueda de información no se entiende sin los motores de búsqueda web. Ante una demanda de información los buscadores web ordenan los resultados de forma que las páginas web más relevantes para la consulta aparezcan en las primeras posiciones. Esto genera un alto grado de competitividad entre las páginas web por obtener mejores asignaciones de relevancia por parte de los buscadores. Por norma general, los usuarios suelen consultar sólo los primeros resultados que devuelve un motor de búsq...

  14. Análisis de los criterios de relevancia documental mediante consultas de información en el entorno web

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Pelayo, Valentín

    2010-01-01

    La búsqueda de información no se entiende sin los motores de búsqueda web. Ante una demanda de información los buscadores web ordenan los resultados de forma que las páginas web más relevantes para la consulta aparezcan en las primeras posiciones. Esto genera un alto grado de competitividad entre las páginas web por obtener mejores asignaciones de relevancia por parte de los buscadores. Por norma general, los usuarios suelen consultar sólo los primeros resultados que devuelve un motor de búsq...

  15. Análisis de los criterios de relevancia documental mediante consultas de información en el entorno web

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    La búsqueda de información no se entiende sin los motores de búsqueda web. Ante una demanda de información los buscadores web ordenan los resultados de forma que las páginas web más relevantes para la consulta aparezcan en las primeras posiciones. Esto genera un alto grado de competitividad entre las páginas web por obtener mejores asignaciones de relevancia por parte de los buscadores. Por norma general, los usuarios suelen consultar sólo los primeros resultados que devuelve un motor de búsq...

  16. Análisis de los criterios de relevancia documental mediante consultas de información en el entorno web

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    La búsqueda de información no se entiende sin los motores de búsqueda web. Ante una demanda de información los buscadores web ordenan los resultados de forma que las páginas web más relevantes para la consulta aparezcan en las primeras posiciones. Esto genera un alto grado de competitividad entre las páginas web por obtener mejores asignaciones de relevancia por parte de los buscadores. Por norma general, los usuarios suelen consultar sólo los primeros resultados que devuelve un motor de búsq...

  17. Acquisition of German pluralization rules in monolingual and multilingual children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaretsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-yearold monolingual German and bi/multilingual immigrant children tested with a modified, validated version of the Marburger Sprachscreening (MSS language test and 476 children tested with the SETK 3-5 language test. Classified correct and wrong answers to MSS and SETK 3-5 plural items were compared. The acquisition patterns of immigrants corresponded to those of younger German children. Both monolingual German and immigrant children demonstrated generally the same universal frequency and phonetically/phonologically based error patterns, irrespective of their linguistic background, but with different tendencies such as overgeneralization of -s by German children only.

  18. The auditory attention status in Iranian bilingual and monolingual people

    OpenAIRE

    Nayiere Mansoori; Seyed Ali Akbar Tahaei; Zahra Jafari; Mohammad Kamali

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Bilingualism, as one of the discussing issues of psychology and linguistics, can influence the speech processing. Of several tests for assessing auditory processing, dichotic digit test has been designed to study divided auditory attention. Our study was performed to compare the auditory attention between Iranian bilingual and monolingual young adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 students including 30 Turkish-Persian bilinguals and 30 Persian mo...

  19. Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children

    OpenAIRE

    Bialystok, Ellen; PEETS, KATHLEEN F.; Yang, Sujin; Luk, Gigi

    2010-01-01

    Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738 children between 3 and 10 years old and demonstrate a consistent difference in receptive vocabulary between the two groups. Two preliminary analyses s...

  20. Acquisition of German pluralization rules in monolingual and multilingual children

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen Zaretsky; Lange, Benjamin P.; Euler, Harald A.; Katrin Neumann

    2013-01-01

    Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-year- old monolingual German and bi/multilingual immigrant children tested with a modified, validated version of the Marburger Sprachscreening (MSS) language test and 476 chi...

  1. Lexical Selection Differences between Monolingual and Bilingual Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Deanna C.; Chung-Fat-Yim, Ashley; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Three studies are reported investigating how monolinguals and bilinguals resolve within-language competition when listening to isolated words. Participants saw two pictures that were semantically-related, phonologically-related, or unrelated and heard a word naming one of them while event-related potentials were recorded. In Studies 1 and 2, the pictures and auditory cue were presented simultaneously and the related conditions produced interference for both groups. Monolinguals showed reduced N400s to the semantically-related pairs but there was no modulation in this component by bilinguals. Study 3 inserted an interval between picture and word onset. For picture onset, both groups exhibited reduced N400s to semantically-related pictures; for word onset, both groups showed larger N400s to phonologically-related pictures. Overall, bilinguals showed less integration of related items in simultaneous (but not sequential) presentation, presumably because of interference from the activated non-English language. Thus, simple lexical selection for bilinguals includes more conflict than it does for monolinguals. PMID:26684415

  2. Limits on Monolingualism? A comparison of monolingual and bilingual infants’ abilities to integrate lexical tone in novel word learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leher eSingh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To construct their first lexicon, infants must determine the relationship between native phonological variation and the meanings of words. This process is arguably more complex for bilingual learners who are often confronted with phonological conflict: phonological variation that is lexically relevant in one language may be lexically irrelevant in the other. In a series of four experiments, the present study investigated English-Mandarin bilingual infants’ abilities to negotiate phonological conflict introduced by learning both a tone and a non-tone language. In a novel word learning task, bilingual children were tested on their sensitivity to tone variation in English and Mandarin contexts. Their abilities to interpret tone variation in a language-dependent manner were compared to those of monolingual Mandarin learning infants. Results demonstrated that at 12 to 13 months, bilingual infants demonstrated the ability to bind tone to word meanings in Mandarin, but to disregard tone variation when learning new words in English. In contrast, monolingual learners of Mandarin did not show evidence of integrating tones into word meanings in Mandarin at the same age even though they were learning a tone language. However, a tone discrimination paradigm confirmed that monolingual Mandarin learning infants were able to tell these tones apart at 12 to 13 months under a different set of conditions. Later, at 17 to 18 months, monolingual Mandarin learners were able to bind tone variation to word meanings when learning new words. Our findings are discussed in terms of cognitive adaptations associated with bilingualism that may ease the negotiation of phonological conflict and facilitate precocious uptake of certain properties of each language.

  3. Document categorization using multilingual associative networks based on Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloom, Niels; Theune, Mariet; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    Associative networks are a connectionist language model with the ability to categorize large sets of documents. In this research we combine monolingual associative networks based on Wikipedia to create a larger, multilingual associative network, using the cross-lingual connections between Wikipedia

  4. Document categorization using multilingual associative networks based on Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloom, Niels; Theune, Mariet; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Associative networks are a connectionist language model with the ability to categorize large sets of documents. In this research we combine monolingual associative networks based on Wikipedia to create a larger, multilingual associative network, using the cross-lingual connections between Wikipedia

  5. Document categorization using multilingual associative networks based on Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloom, Niels; Theune, Mariët; Jong, de Franciska

    2015-01-01

    Associative networks are a connectionist language model with the ability to categorize large sets of documents. In this research we combine monolingual associative networks based on Wikipedia to create a larger, multilingual associative network, using the cross-lingual connections between Wikipedia

  6. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ Management- CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. Management - CB - MB - FB Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2007 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the nature of employment and ...

  7. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ Management- CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. Management - CB - MB - FB Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2007 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the nature of em¬pl...

  8. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ General - CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. LHC Symposiums Management - CB - MB - FB - FMC Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2006 Annual reviews are posted.   CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat a...

  9. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ General - CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. LHC Symposiums Management - CB - MB - FB - FMC Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2006 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the natur...

  10. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ General - CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. LHC Symposiums Management - CB - MB - FB - FMC Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2006 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the natu...

  11. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the iCMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS/ General - CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. LHC Symposiums Management - CB - MB - FB - FMC Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through their AFS account (ZH). However some linked documents are restricted to the Board Members. FB documents are only accessible to FB members. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2006 Annual reviews are posted. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral students upon completion of their theses. Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the na...

  12. Analysis of the Documents on Digital Library Research Embodied by Web of Science%Web of Science收录的数字图书馆研究相关文献分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程华; 贺伟

    2009-01-01

    检索了1998~2007年被web of science收录的数字图书馆相关文献,利用Web of Science的分析功能进行了分析,并从出版年、国家或地区、发表机构等8个方面进行文献计量学分析.

  13. Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi; Peets, Kathleen F.; Yang, Sujin

    2015-01-01

    Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738 children between 3 and 10 years old and demonstrate a consistent difference in receptive vocabulary between the two groups. Two preliminary analyses suggest that this difference does not change with different language pairs and is largely confined to words relevant to a home context rather than a school context. PMID:25750580

  14. 维、哈、柯多文种搜索引擎中web文本分类的研究%Study on Web Document Classification of Uyghur, Kazak, Kirgiz Multi-lingual Search Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海丽且木·艾沙; 维尼拉·木沙江

    2011-01-01

    研究维、哈、柯多文种搜索引擎中web文本分类问题.根据维、哈、柯Web文本具有结构信息的特点,提出分类系统框架,采用基于改进的KNN的Web文本分类方法,并结合具体实验在对数据进行预处理的基础上实现了改进的KNN分类算法.实验表明,改进的KNN方法在维吾尔文Web文本分类中能够获得较好的分类效果.%This paper studies the problems of Uyghur, Kazak, Kirgiz Multi-lingual search engine web document classification. According to the structure of Uyghur, Kazak, Kirgiz web text, a system frame is provided, a Web document classification algorithm based on improved KNN method presented , based on data preprocess, improved KNN method is implemented. The result of research indicates that the impact of the new method is better.

  15. Perception of a native vowel contrast by Dutch monolingual and bilingual infants : A bilingual perceptual lead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369509870; Kager, R.W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072294124

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Facing previous mixed findings between monolingual and bilingual infants’ phonetic development during perceptual reorganization, the current study aims at examining the perceptual development of a native vowel contrast (/I/-/i/) by Dutch monolingual and bilingual infants. Design: We tested

  16. Are there differences in selective attention and conflict resolution between monolingual and bilingual children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mondt, K.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Balériaux, D.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Hadzibeganovic, T.; Denolin, V.; Craen, P. van de

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Possible differences in selective attention and conflict resolution between monolingual and bilingual children were tested in an fMRI study. Methods An adopted version of the Stroop task was conducted on 19 monolingual- and bilingual (French/Dutch) children with a mean age of 8.9 years in

  17. Global-Local and Trail-Making Tasks by Monolingual and Bilingual Children: Beyond Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    In 3 experiments, a total of 151 monolingual and bilingual 6-year-old children performed similarly on measures of language and cognitive ability; however, bilinguals solved the global-local and trail-making tasks more rapidly than monolinguals. This bilingual advantage was found not only for the traditionally demanding conditions (incongruent…

  18. Language Proficiency and Executive Control in Proactive Interference: Evidence from Monolingual and Bilingual Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer…

  19. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Differences in Executive Control between Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Raluca; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined executive control in sixty-two 5-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual using behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) measures. All children performed equivalently on simple response inhibition (gift delay), but bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on interference suppression and complex response…

  20. Orthographic Context Sensitivity in Vowel Decoding by Portuguese Monolingual and Portuguese-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the pronunciation of the first vowel in decoding disyllabic pseudowords derived from Portuguese words. Participants were 96 Portuguese monolinguals and 52 Portuguese-English bilinguals of equivalent Portuguese reading levels. The results indicate that sensitivity to vowel context emerges early, both in monolinguals and in…

  1. Are there differences in selective attention and conflict resolution between monolingual and bilingual children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mondt, K.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Balériaux, D.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Hadzibeganovic, T.; Denolin, V.; Craen, P. van de

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Possible differences in selective attention and conflict resolution between monolingual and bilingual children were tested in an fMRI study. Methods An adopted version of the Stroop task was conducted on 19 monolingual- and bilingual (French/Dutch) children with a mean age of 8.9 years in

  2. Do French-English Bilingual Children Gesture More than Monolingual Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoladis, Elena; Pika, Simone; Marentette, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that bilingual adults use more gestures than English monolinguals. Because no study has compared the gestures of bilinguals and monolinguals in both languages, the high gesture rate could be due to transfer from a high gesture language or could result from the use of gesture to aid in linguistic access. In this study we…

  3. Effects of Speech Practice on Fast Mapping in Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Pui Fong; Sadagopan, Neeraja; Janich, Lauren; Andrade, Marixa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the effects of the levels of speech practice on fast mapping in monolingual and bilingual speakers. Method: Participants were 30 English-speaking monolingual and 30 Spanish-English bilingual young adults. Each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 3 practice conditions prior to the fast-mapping task: (a) intensive…

  4. Perception of English vowels by bilingual Chinese-English and corresponding monolingual listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Fox, Robert A

    2014-06-01

    This study compares the underlying perceptual structure of vowel perception in monolingual Chinese, monolingual English and bilingual Chinese-English listeners. Of particular interest is how listeners' spatial organization of vowels is affected either by their L1 or their experience with L2. Thirteen English vowels, /i, I, e, epsilon, ae, u, omega, o, (see symbol), alpha, (see symbol)I, alphaI, alphaomega/, embedded in /hVd/ syllable produced by an Ohio male speaker were presented in pairs to three groups of listeners. Each listener rated 312 vowel pairs on a nine-point dissimilarity scale. The responses from each group were analyzed using a multidimensional scaling program (ALSCAL). Results demonstrated that all three groups of listeners used high/low and front/back distinctions as the two most important dimensions to perceive English vowels. However, the vowels were distributed in clusters in the perceptual space of Chinese monolinguals, while they were appropriately separated and located in that of bilinguals and English monolinguals. Besides the two common perceptual dimensions, each group of listeners utilized a different third dimension to perceive these English vowels. English monolinguals used high-front offset. Bilinguals used a dimension mainly correlated to the distinction of monophthong/diphthong. Chinese monolinguals separated two high vowels, /i/ and /u/, from the rest of vowels in the third dimension. The difference between English monolinguals and Chinese monolinguals evidenced the effect of listeners' native language on the vowel perception. The difference between Chinese monolinguals and bilingual listeners as well as the approximation of bilingual listeners' perceptual space to that of English monolinguals demonstrated the effect of L2 experience on listeners' perception of L2 vowels.

  5. Sistemas de recuperación e internet: Metadescripción, procesamiento, webcrawling, técnicas de consulta avanzada, hacking documental y posicionamiento web

    OpenAIRE

    Blázquez Ochando, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    La búsqueda y recuperación en Internet consta de métodos y técnicas complementarios a los empleados en el desarrollo de algoritmos en los motores de búsqueda, véase blog de la asignatura Técnicas Avanzadas de Recuperación de Información. En este sentido, se estudiarán con detenimiento todos los metadatos Dublin Core básicos y extendidos, para su aplicación en páginas web en forma de etiquetas embebidas dentro del código fuente de una página web y en formato RDF. Tales sistemas de meta-descrip...

  6. The relationship between vocabulary and short-term memory measures in monolingual and bilingual speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that bilingualism may influence the efficiency of lexical access in adults. The goals of this research were (1) to compare bilingual and monolingual adults on their native-language vocabulary performance, and (2) to examine the relationship between short-term memory skills and vocabulary performance in monolinguals and bilinguals. In Experiment 1, English-speaking monolingual adults and simultaneous English–Spanish bilingual adults were administered measures of receptive English vocabulary and of phonological short-term memory. In Experiment 2, monolingual adults were compared to sequential English–Spanish bilinguals, and were administered the same measures as in Experiment 1, as well as a measure of expressive English vocabulary. Analyses revealed comparable levels of performance on the vocabulary and the short-term memory measures in the monolingual and the bilingual groups across both experiments. There was a stronger effect of digit-span in the bilingual group than in the monolingual group, with high-span bilinguals outperforming low-span bilinguals on vocabulary measures. Findings indicate that bilingual speakers may rely on short-term memory resources to support word retrieval in their native language more than monolingual speakers. PMID:22518091

  7. 数据挖掘中Web文档转换算法的设计与实现%DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF WEB DOCUMENTS CONVERSION ALGORITHM IN DATA MINING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小龙; 佘东

    2011-01-01

    Web文本挖掘是数据挖掘技术在网络信息处理中的一个重要应用。如何将web文档转换成数据挖掘所要求的格式,即web文档预处理是一项很重要的研究课题.本文的方法是:从Internet网上下载了大量的网页文件,将网页文件转换成文本文件,然后通过算法对这些文本文件中的数据进行词频统计,删除非用词,去掉高频词,对单词进行词根处理,建立用词词表,从而抽取用词,按字母排序生成词频索引,和字典文件进行对照,获取单词的ID,最后生成Reuters一21578的Database数据格式.这样就将web文档数据转换成标准的数据集.以便为数据挖掘中分类、聚类作好准备.%Web text information mining is one of the important applications of applying data mining technologies into informa- tion analysis and processing, how to transform web documents into data mining to the required format, i.e. web document pre- processing becomes a significant research task. In this paper the method is : from Internet to download a large number of web- page files, webpage files are converted into a text files, and then through the algorithm to word frequency statistics the data of the text files, delete non-using words, remove high frequency words, process etyma of substantive words, extract stems, elimi- nate redundant words and establish word lis4 thus extraction word list, alphabetical index to generate word frequency index, and the dictionary file comparison, get the word ID, the last generation of Reuters-21578 Database data format. This web docu ment data converted into standard data sets for classification and clustering to prepare in data mining.

  8. Research on Web document Clustering Combined Differential Evolution with K-means Algorithm%结合差分进化与K均值的Web文档聚类算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜凯; 左风朝

    2012-01-01

    为解决文档聚类问题,提出一种基于差分进化的聚类算法,通过把文档聚类问题建模为优化问题,对聚类准则函数进行优化,来寻找初始最优聚类中心.在此基础上,进一步提出两种差分进化算法与K均值结合的混合方法,来获得更好的聚类结果.实验表明,与经典K均值算法相比,新提出的两种混合方法能够获得较好的聚类质量.%This paper proposes a novel differential evolution clustering algorithm for solving Web document clustering.First,by modeling Web document clustering problem as an optimization problem,the clustering criterion function is optimized aiming at finding the promising initial centroids.Then,K-means and differential evolution clustering algorithm are hybridized in two ways to achieve better clustering performance.Compared with K-means algorithm,experimental results reveal that the two proposed hybrid approaches can acquire better and higher clustering quality.

  9. Use of Monolingual and Bilingual Dictionaries among Students of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kavalir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of dictionary use in 32 firstyear students of English at the University of Ljubljana in the academic year 2009/2010 shows that students use a variety of dictionaries with a slight preponderance of monolingual dictionaries over bilingual ones. The bilingual dictionaries listed do not include some of the most recent and most comprehensive dictionaries while some of the most frequently used resources are quite modest sized. The students are already predominantly users of electronic and online dictionaries with a lower frequency of printed resources – a trend which is only likely to accelerate with the advent of new bilingual online dictionaries. These results have practical relevance for teachers in all sectors, from primary and secondary schools to universities, as they point towards a need for additional training in the use of bilingual dictionaries. The transition from printed to electronic and online resources can also be expected to induce changes in EFL methodology at all levels.

  10. CMS DOCUMENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    CMS TALKS AT MAJOR MEETINGS The agenda and talks from major CMS meetings can now be electronically accessed from the ICMS Web site. The following items can be found on: http://cms.cern.ch/iCMS Management – CMS Weeks (Collaboration Meetings), CMS Weeks Agendas The talks presented at the Plenary Sessions. Management – CB – MB – FB Agendas and minutes are accessible to CMS members through Indico. LHCC The talks presented at the ‘CMS Meetings with LHCC Referees’ are available on request from the PM or MB Country Representative. Annual Reviews The talks presented at the 2008 Annual Reviews are posted in Indico. CMS DOCUMENTS It is considered useful to establish information on the first employment of CMS doctoral student upon completion of their theses.  Therefore it is requested that Ph.D students inform the CMS Secretariat about the nature of employment and name of their first employer. The Notes, Conference Reports and Theses published si...

  11. Code AI Personal Web Pages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Joseph A.; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The document consists of a publicly available web site (george.arc.nasa.gov) for Joseph A. Garcia's personal web pages in the AI division. Only general information will be posted and no technical material. All the information is unclassified.

  12. Differential Language Functioning of Monolinguals and Bilinguals on Positive-Negative Emotional Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirzadeh, Shiela; Hajiabed, Mohammadreza

    2016-02-01

    The present interdisciplinary research investigates the differential emotional expression between Persian monolinguals and Persian-English bilinguals. In other words, the article was an attempt to answer the questions whether bilinguals and monolinguals differ in the expression of positive and negative emotions elicited through sad and happy autobiographies and measured through UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist. The result of this pioneering work indicated no significant difference between Persian monolinguals and Persian-English bilinguals in expressing happy memories while differences were observed on sad memories. Bilinguals expressed more negative emotions in their L2 than L1. This outcome support the dominant claim that second language is the preferred language for the expression of sad emotions since it is the language of emotional detachment and distance. Further analysis on the number of words bilinguals and monolinguals used to express both sad and happy autobiographies indicated that bilinguals used more words in expressing both sad and happy autobiographies.

  13. Executive Function Differences Between Bilingual Arabic-English and Monolingual Arabic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than monolinguals, while others showed that monolinguals perform significantly better. Other studies showed no significant differences between both groups, findings which were argued to be due to methodological issues. A total of 50 Arabic monolingual and Arabic-English bilingual children ranging 7-10 years of age participated in the current study. Six executive function tasks, divided into two categories (inhibition of improper response tasks, and behavioral operational control tasks), were administered. Results did not show significant differences for most executive functions.

  14. Compositions in English: Comparing the Works of Monolinguals, Passive Bilinguals, and Active Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Eka Rini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to see whether the subjects’ “monolingualism” and “bilingualism” (monolinguals learning an L2 and bilinguals learning an L3 influence their study on English, especially writing. The term “bilinguals” also means “multilinguals” in this study. Bilinguals in this paper are classified into two; first, passive bilinguals who are only exposed to another local language, besides speaking Bahasa Indonesia at home, and second, active bilinguals who are exposed to and also speak other language(s and Bahasa Indonesia at home. The findings show that the monolingual and the active bilingual are better than the passive one; the active bilingual is better than the monolingual. However, if the passive and the active bilingual are combined, the monolingual is better than the bilinguals.

  15. Language proficiency and executive control in proactive interference: evidence from monolingual and bilingual children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer intrusions from previous lists even though they recalled the same number of words. For the adults, bilinguals recalled more words than monolinguals when the scores were corrected for differences in vocabulary. In addition, there was a strong effect of vocabulary in which higher vocabulary participants recalled more words irrespective of language group. These results point to the important role of vocabulary in verbal performance and memory. They also suggest that bilinguals may compensate for weaker language proficiency with their greater executive control to achieve the same or better levels of performance as monolinguals.

  16. Ajax and Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    Pruett, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Ajax and web services are a perfect match for developing web applications. Ajax has built-in abilities to access and manipulate XML data, the native format for almost all REST and SOAP web services. Using numerous examples, this document explores how to fit the pieces together. Examples demonstrate how to use Ajax to access publicly available web services fromYahoo! and Google. You'll also learn how to use web proxies to access data on remote servers and how to transform XML data using XSLT.

  17. Age of dementia diagnosis in community dwelling bilingual and monolingual Hispanic Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Deborah M; Gasquoine, Philip G; Weimer, Amy A

    2015-05-01

    Bilingualism has been reported to delay the age of retrospective report of first symptom in dementia. This study determined if the age of clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia occurred later for bilingual than monolingual, immigrant and U.S. born, Hispanic Americans. It involved a secondary analysis of the subset of 81 bi/monolingual dementia cases identified at yearly follow-up (1998 through 2008) using neuropsychological test results and objective diagnostic criteria from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging that involved a random sampling of community dwelling Hispanic Americans (N = 1789). Age of dementia diagnosis was analyzed in a 2 × 2 (bi/monolingualism × immigrant/U.S. born) ANOVA that space revealed both main effects and the interaction were non-significant. Mean age of dementia diagnosis was descriptively (but not significantly) higher in the monolingual (M = 81.10 years) than the bilingual (M = 79.31) group. Overall, bilingual dementia cases were significantly better educated than monolinguals, but U.S. born bilinguals and monolinguals did not differ significantly in education. Delays in dementia symptomatology pertaining to bilingualism are less likely to be found in studies: (a) that use age of clinical diagnosis vs. retrospective report of first dementia symptom as the dependent variable; and (b) involve clinical cases derived from community samples rather than referrals to specialist memory clinics.

  18. Myanmar Web Pages Crawler

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Su Mon Khine; Yadana Thein

    2015-01-01

    .... There is very little research area in crawling for Myanmar Language web sites. Most of the language specific crawlers are based on n-gram character sequences wh ich require training documents, the proposed crawler differ from those crawlers...

  19. Implementing reliable Web services

    OpenAIRE

    Koskipää, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Web services are a common and standard way to implement communication between information systems and provide documented interfaces. The Web services are usually using SOAP because it is a widely-spread, well-documented and used standard. SOAP standard defines a message structure, an envelope, that is sent over internet using HTTP and contains XML data. An important part of the SOAP structure is the exception mechanism that returns a Fault element in the response. The SOAP Fault is a stan...

  20. Near Duplicate Document Detection Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassma S. Alsulami

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Search engines are the major breakthrough on the web for retrieving the information. But List of retrieved documents contains a high percentage of duplicated and near document result. So there is the need to improve the performance of search results. Some of current search engine use data filtering algorithm which can eliminate duplicate and near duplicate documents to save the users’ time and effort. The identification of similar or near-duplicate pairs in a large collection is a significant problem with wide-spread applications. In this paper survey present an up-to-date review of the existing literature in duplicate and near duplicate detection in Web

  1. Documenting localities

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Richard J

    1996-01-01

    Now in paperback! Documenting Localities is the first effort to summarize the past decade of renewed discussion about archival appraisal theory and methodology and to provide a practical guide for the documentation of localities.This book discusses the continuing importance of the locality in American historical research and archival practice, traditional methods archivists have used to document localities, and case studies in documenting localities. These chapters draw on a wide range of writings from archivists, historians, material culture specialists, historic preservationists

  2. Sequential congruency effects reveal differences in disengagement of attention for monolingual and bilingual young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, John G; Chung-Fat-Yim, Ashley; Friesen, Deanna C; Mak, Lorinda; Bialystok, Ellen

    2017-06-01

    Three studies examined the hypothesis that bilinguals can more rapidly disengage attention from irrelevant information than monolinguals by investigating the impact of previous trial congruency on performance in a simple flanker task. In Study 1, monolingual and bilingual young adults completed two versions of a flanker task. There were no differences between language groups on mean reaction time using standard analyses for congruent or incongruent trials or the size of the flanker effect. Sequential congruency effects (SCEs) however, which account for previous trial congruency, were smaller for bilinguals than for monolinguals. This finding was strongest at the shortest response-to-stimulus interval (RSI). Study 2 replicated this effect using a slightly different flanker task and a shorter RSI than study 1. Study 3 showed that at long RSIs, where behavioral SCE differences between groups disappear because of sufficient time to recover from the previous trial, event-related potentials demonstrated a continued influence of previous trial congruency for monolinguals but not bilinguals at both the N2 and the P3, replicating the reaction time effects in Studies 1 and 2. Together, these studies demonstrate that bilinguals experience less influence from previous trial congruency and have greater ability to disengage attention from the previous trial in order to focus attention on the current trial than is found for monolinguals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparing Bilingual to Monolingual Learners on English Spelling: A Meta-analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Quiroz, Blanca; Dixon, L Quentin; Joshi, R Malatesha

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on a meta-analysis to examine how bilingual learners compare with English monolingual learners on two English spelling outcomes: real-word spelling and pseudo-word spelling. Eighteen studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were retrieved. The study-level variables and characteristics (e.g. sample size, study design and research instruments) were coded, and 29 independent effect sizes across the 18 retrieved studies were analysed. We found that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on real-word spelling overall and more so in early grades, but monolinguals outperformed bilinguals on pseudo-word spelling. Further, bilinguals at risk for reading difficulties did better on real-word spelling than monolinguals at risk for reading difficulties. Having investigated systematic sources of variability in effect sizes, we conclude that in comparison with their monolingual peers, bilingual learners, especially those from alphabetic L1 backgrounds, are able to master constrained skills, such as English spelling, in the current instructional context. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. WEB STRUCTURE MINING USING PAGERANK, IMPROVED PAGERANK – AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    V.Lakshmi Praba; T. Vasantha

    2011-01-01

    Web Mining is the extraction of interesting and potentially useful patterns and information from Web. It includes Web documents, hyperlinks between documents, and usage logs of web sites. The significant task for web mining can be listed out as Information Retrieval, Information Selection / Extraction, Generalization and Analysis. Web information retrieval tools consider only the text on pages and ignore information in the links. The goal of Web structure mining is to explore structural summa...

  5. Securing XML Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Shoniregun

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available XML (extensible markup language is becoming the current standard for establishing interoperability on the Web. XML data are self-descriptive and syntax-extensible; this makes it very suitable for representation and exchange of semi-structured data, and allows users to define new elements for their specific applications. As a result, the number of documents incorporating this standard is continuously increasing over the Web. The processing of XML documents may require a traversal of all document structure and therefore, the cost could be very high. A strong demand for a means of efficient and effective XML processing has posed a new challenge for the database world. This paper discusses a fast and efficient indexing technique for XML documents, and introduces the XML graph numbering scheme. It can be used for indexing and securing graph structure of XML documents. This technique provides an efficient method to speed up XML data processing. Furthermore, the paper explores the classification of existing methods impact of query processing, and indexing.

  6. Content Documents Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, R.; Hochstadt, J.; Boelke J.; Dalton, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Content Documents are created and managed under the System Software group with. Launch Control System (LCS) project. The System Software product group is lead by NASA Engineering Control and Data Systems branch (NEC3) at Kennedy Space Center. The team is working on creating Operating System Images (OSI) for different platforms (i.e. AIX, Linux, Solaris and Windows). Before the OSI can be created, the team must create a Content Document which provides the information of a workstation or server, with the list of all the software that is to be installed on it and also the set where the hardware belongs. This can be for example in the LDS, the ADS or the FR-l. The objective of this project is to create a User Interface Web application that can manage the information of the Content Documents, with all the correct validations and filters for administrator purposes. For this project we used one of the most excellent tools in agile development applications called Ruby on Rails. This tool helps pragmatic programmers develop Web applications with Rails framework and Ruby programming language. It is very amazing to see how a student can learn about OOP features with the Ruby language, manage the user interface with HTML and CSS, create associations and queries with gems, manage databases and run a server with MYSQL, run shell commands with command prompt and create Web frameworks with Rails. All of this in a real world project and in just fifteen weeks!

  7. Distributed Deep Web Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjin-Kam-Jet, Kien

    2013-01-01

    The World Wide Web contains billions of documents (and counting); hence, it is likely that some document will contain the answer or content you are searching for. While major search engines like Bing and Google often manage to return relevant results to your query, there are plenty of situations in

  8. Distributed deep web search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjin-Kam-Jet, Kien-Tsoi Theodorus Egbert

    2013-01-01

    The World Wide Web contains billions of documents (and counting); hence, it is likely that some document will contain the answer or content you are searching for. While major search engines like Bing and Google often manage to return relevant results to your query, there are plenty of situations in

  9. EuroGOV: Engineering a Multilingual Web Corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigurbjörnsson, B.; Kamps, J.; de Rijke, M.

    2005-01-01

    EuroGOV is a multilingual web corpus that was created to serve as the document collection for WebCLEF, the CLEF 2005 web retrieval task. EuroGOV is a collection of web pages crawled from the European Union portal, European Union member state governmental web sites, and Russian government web sites.

  10. EuroGOV: Engineering a Multilingual Web Corpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigurbjörnsson, B.; Kamps, J.; de Rijke, M.

    2005-01-01

    EuroGOV is a multilingual web corpus that was created to serve as the document collection for WebCLEF, the CLEF 2005 web retrieval task. EuroGOV is a collection of web pages crawled from the European Union portal, European Union member state governmental web sites, and Russian government web sites.

  11. Language-experience facilitates discrimination of /d-th/ in monolingual and bilingual acquisition of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundara, Megha; Polka, Linda; Genesee, Fred

    2006-06-01

    To trace how age and language experience shape the discrimination of native and non-native phonetic contrasts, we compared 4-year-olds learning either English or French or both and simultaneous bilingual adults on their ability to discriminate the English /d-th/ contrast. Findings show that the ability to discriminate the native English contrast improved with age. However, in the absence of experience with this contrast, discrimination of French children and adults remained unchanged during development. Furthermore, although simultaneous bilingual and monolingual English adults were comparable, children exposed to both English and French were poorer at discriminating this contrast when compared to monolingual English-learning 4-year-olds. Thus, language experience facilitates perception of the English /d-th/ contrast and this facilitation occurs later in development when English and French are acquired simultaneously. The difference between bilingual and monolingual acquisition has implications for language organization in children with simultaneous exposure.

  12. Effects of semantic richness on lexical processing in monolinguals and bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Taler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of number of senses (NoS, a measure of semantic richness, was examined in monolingual English speakers (n=17 and bilingual speakers of English and French (n=18. Participants completed lexical decision tasks while EEG was recorded: monolinguals completed the task in English only, and bilinguals completed two lexical decision tasks, one in English and one in French. Effects of NoS were observed in both participant groups, with shorter response times and reduced N400 amplitudes to high relative to low NoS items. These effects were stronger in monolinguals than in bilinguals. Moreover, we found dissociations across languages in bilinguals, with stronger behavioral NoS effects in English and stronger event-related potential (ERP NoS effects in French. This finding suggests that different aspects of linguistic performance may be stronger in each of a bilingual’s two languages.

  13. Effects of Semantic Richness on Lexical Processing in Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taler, Vanessa; López Zunini, Rocío; Kousaie, Shanna

    2016-01-01

    The effect of number of senses (NoS), a measure of semantic richness, was examined in monolingual English speakers (n = 17) and bilingual speakers of English and French (n = 18). Participants completed lexical decision tasks while EEG was recorded: monolinguals completed the task in English only, and bilinguals completed two lexical decision tasks, one in English and one in French. Effects of NoS were observed in both participant groups, with shorter response times and reduced N400 amplitudes to high relative to low NoS items. These effects were stronger in monolinguals than in bilinguals. Moreover, we found dissociations across languages in bilinguals, with stronger behavioral NoS effects in English and stronger event-related potential (ERP) NoS effects in French. This finding suggests that different aspects of linguistic performance may be stronger in each of a bilingual’s two languages. PMID:27524963

  14. Who can communicate with whom? Language experience affects infants' evaluation of others as monolingual or multilingual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Casey E; Onishi, Kristine H; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2015-01-01

    Adults recognize that people can understand more than one language. However, it is unclear whether infants assume other people understand one or multiple languages. We examined whether monolingual and bilingual 20-month-olds expect an unfamiliar person to understand one or more than one language. Two speakers told a listener the location of a hidden object using either the same or two different languages. When different languages were spoken, monolinguals looked longer when the listener searched correctly, bilinguals did not; when the same language was spoken, both groups looked longer for incorrect searches. Infants rely on their prior language experience when evaluating the language abilities of a novel individual. Monolingual infants assume others can understand only one language, although not necessarily the infants' own; bilinguals do not. Infants' assumptions about which community of conventions people belong to may allow them to recognize effective communicative partners and thus opportunities to acquire language, knowledge, and culture.

  15. Spatial role-taking ability among bilingual and monolingual kindergarten children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrell, J

    1987-03-01

    Fifty-seven children enrolled in a bilingual Spanish kindergarten program, assigned to appropriate language and age-related groups, were shown a graduated sequence of increasingly complex arrangements of multicolored blocks and were asked to judge how the original arrangement would look from the opposite and the side perspectives. A series of 2(younger vs. older) X 3(Spanish Monolingual vs. English Monolingual vs. Spanish-English Bilingual) ANOVAs for each of the types of responses (correct, incorrect, egocentric) showed a significant main effect for age on the incorrect answers. No differences associated with egocentrism were obtained. There was no relationship between age and success with simple and complex spatial tasks. As opposed to other studies that suggest certain cognitive advantages for young bilingual children, this study indicates no perceptible differences associated with being monolingual or bilingual at the ages of 5 and 6 for spatial tasks.

  16. Language Skills and Reading Comprehension in English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children in Grades 2-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Rebecca D.; Proctor, C. Patrick; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hartranft, Anna M.; Doyle, Brie; Zelinke, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated language skills and reading comprehension with English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children in grades 2-5. Of the 377 children in the sample, 207 were English monolingual and 170 were Spanish-English bilingual. Data were collected within a cohort-sequential design for two academic years in the fall and…

  17. Language Skills and Reading Comprehension in English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children in Grades 2-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Rebecca D.; Proctor, C. Patrick; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hartranft, Anna M.; Doyle, Brie; Zelinke, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated language skills and reading comprehension with English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children in grades 2-5. Of the 377 children in the sample, 207 were English monolingual and 170 were Spanish-English bilingual. Data were collected within a cohort-sequential design for two academic years in the fall and…

  18. Phonological Whole-Word Measures in 3-Year-Old Bilingual Children and Their Age-Matched Monolingual Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunta, Ferenc; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian; Ingram, David

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated phonological whole-word measures and consonant accuracy in bilingual and monolingual children to investigate how target approximations drive phonological acquisition. The study included eight bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking 3-year-olds and their monolingual peers (eight Spanish and eight American English).…

  19. Mnemonic Value of Orthography for Vocabulary Learning in Monolinguals and Language Minority English-Speaking College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Katharine Pace; Ehri, Linnea C.; Lauterbach, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined whether exposure to spellings of new vocabulary words improved monolinguals' and language minority (LM) students' (n = 25) memory for pronunciations, meanings, and spellings of the words. College students who are native English-speaking monolinguals (n = 12) and LM students who learned English as their second language (n = 13)…

  20. Differences between Monolinguals and Bilinguals/Males and Females in English Reading Comprehension and Reading Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharrad, Mohammad; Sadeghi Benis, Aram Reza

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims at finding the differences between bilingual and monolingual learners across gender in the use of cognitive, metacognitive, and total reading strategies, as well as reading comprehension ability. To this end, 50 Persian-Turkish bilinguals and 36 Persian monolinguals participated in the study. A standard test of reading…

  1. THE COMPARISON OF THE MONOLINGUAL AND BILINGUAL JAPANESE STUDENTS IN THE ENGLISH ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ienneke Indra Dewi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Article is intended to know whether the monolingual or bilingual Japanese students are betterin the English achievement and whether the exposure of English influences the ability. The data weretaken from 60 Japanese students who are supposed to fill in the questionnaires regarding theirlanguage background. The English achievement data were taken from the students’ scores in SeniorHigh School National Examination and the data further were compared to the TOEFL English score.The analysis is carried out using ANOVA analysis. This research indicates that monolinguals arebetter learners in English and exposure is proved to influence the students’ ability in English.

  2. Bilingual Children's Long-Term Outcomes in English as a Second Language: Language Environment Factors Shape Individual Differences in Catching up with Monolinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Jia, Ruiting

    2017-01-01

    Bilingual children experience more variation in their language environment than monolingual children and this impacts their rate of language development with respect to monolinguals. How long it takes for bilingual children learning English as a second language (L2) to display similar abilities to monolingual age-peers has been estimated to be 4-6…

  3. 网络环境下研究生文献检索课程教学改革的探讨%Consideration on the Teaching Reform of Postgraduates' Document Retrieval Course in Web Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄崇杏

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the teaching reform of postgraduates~ document retrieval course in web environment was discussed. For the teaching contents,we should let students master the skills of collecting and acquisitioning literatures,and the skills and ability to obtain new information from the network. Meanwhile,it was necessary to develop students' ability of effectively managing, organizing and analyzing the literatures through the introduction of literature management software. For the teaching method, multimedia classroom should be used for teaching,online information resources should be made full use,and the CAI courseware could be developed to achieve better teaching results.%介绍了网络环境下研究生文献检索课程教学改革的设想。在教学内容上,应让学生熟练收集文献的技能及从网络获取新研究信息的技巧和能力;通过引入文献管理软件,培养学生有效管理、组织和分析文献的能力。在教学手段上,采用多媒体教室授课;充分利用网上信息资源;开发文检课CAI课件,以达到更好的教学效果。

  4. Termination Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

  5. Evaluation Method of Web Site Based on Web Structure Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiJun-e; ZhouDong-ru

    2003-01-01

    The structure of Web site became more complex than before. During the design period of a Web site, the lack of model and method results in improper Web structure,which depend on the designer's experience. From the point of view of software engineering, every period in the software life must be evaluated before starting the next period's work. It is very important and essential to search relevant methods for evaluating Web structure before the site is completed. In this work, after studying the related work about the Web structure mining and analyzing the major structure mining methods (Page-rank and Hub/Authority), a method based on the Page-rank for Web structure evaluation in design stage is proposed. A Web structure modeling language WSML is designed, and the implement strategies for evaluating system of the Web site structure are given out. Web structure mining has being used mainly in search engines before. It is the first time to employ the Web structure mining technology to evaluate a Web structure in the design period of a Web site. It contributes to the formalization of the design documents for Web site and the improving of software engineering for large scale Web site, and the evaluating system is a practical tool for Web site construction.

  6. Heuristic Ranking and Diversification of Web Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    with a minimum number of occurrences of 5. An example is given in Table 1. Topic AOL query Frequency dinosaurs remote control dinosaurs 30 dinosaurs jim...henson dinosaurs 25 dinosaurs allosaurus dinosaurs 24 dinosaurs flying dinosaurs 21 dinosaurs walking with dinosaurs 16 Table 1: Example of using the

  7. Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Performance of Monolingual and Bilingual Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…

  8. Feature binding and the processing of global-local shapes in bilingual and monolingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottini, Milvia; Pieroni, Laura; Spataro, Pietro; Devescovi, Antonella; Longobardi, Emiddia; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of bilingualism and age on a color-shape binding task (assessing visual working memory) and a global-local task (assessing inhibitory processes) in a sample of 55 bilingual and 49 monolingual children 8 and 10 years old. In the color-shape binding task, corrected recognition scores increased in older children; bilingual children performed better than monolinguals in the shape-only condition, but the two groups were equally accurate in the color-only and combination conditions. In the global-local task, accuracy was higher in bilingual than in monolingual children, particularly on incongruent trials; monolingual children showed a strong global precedence effect (higher accuracy in the global than in the local conditions and greater global-to-local interference), whereas bilingual children exhibited a small, but significant, local precedence effect (higher accuracy in the local than in the global conditions and greater local-to-global interference). These findings confirm and extend previous evidence indicating that the bilingualism advantage is more pronounced in working memory tasks involving inhibitory processes.

  9. Bilingual and monolingual children attend to different cues when learning new words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana eColunga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The way in which children learn language can vary depending on their language environment. Previous work suggests that bilingual children may be more sensitive to pragmatic cues from a speaker when learning new words than monolingual children are. On the other hand, monolingual children may rely more heavily on object properties than bilingual children do. In this study we manipulate these two sources of information within the same paradigm, using eye gaze as a pragmatic cue and similarity along different dimensions as an object cue. In the crucial condition, object and pragmatic cues were inconsistent with each other. Our results showed that in this ambiguous condition monolingual children attend more to object property cues whereas bilingual children attend more to pragmatic cues. Control conditions showed that monolingual children were sensitive to eye gaze and bilingual children were sensitive to similarity by shape; it was only when the cues were inconsistent that children’s preference for one or the other cue was apparent. Our results suggest that children learn to weigh different cues depending on their relative informativeness in their environment

  10. Executive Function Differences between Bilingual ArabicEnglish and Monolingual Arabic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than…

  11. Word Mapping and Executive Functioning in Young Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Barac, Raluca; Blaye, Agnes; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2010-01-01

    The effect of bilingualism on the cognitive skills of young children was investigated by comparing performance of 162 children who belonged to one of two age groups (approximately 3- and 4.5-year-olds) and one of three language groups on a series of tasks examining executive control and word mapping. The children were monolingual English speakers,…

  12. Priming a Perspective in Spanish Monolingual Children: The Use of Syntactic Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez, Perla B.; Shimpi, Priya M.; Waterfall, Heidi R.; Huttenlocher, Janellen

    2009-01-01

    We used a syntactic priming paradigm to show priming effects for active and passive forms in monolingual Spanish-speaking four- and five-year-olds. In a baseline experiment, we examined children's use of the "fue"-passive form and found it was virtually non-existent in their speech, although they produced important elements of the form. Children…

  13. Narrative Development among Language-Minority Children: The Role of Bilingual versus Monolingual Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Shaul, Yehudit

    2013-01-01

    The development of script schema, as a source of narrative knowledge, is an essential stage in this knowledge construction. This study focused on the role of bilingual versus monolingual preschool education in the development of script schema knowledge in Russian (L1) and Hebrew (L2) among Russian/Hebrew-speaking children in Israel. The preschool…

  14. Developmental and communicative factors affecting VOT production in English and Arabic bilingual and monolingual speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ghada

    2001-05-01

    VOT patterns were investigated in the production of three Lebanese-English bilinguals' aged 5, 7, and 10, six aged-matched monolingual controls from the bilinguals' immediate communities, and the parents of bilinguals and monolinguals. The aim was to examine the extent to which children exposed to two languages acquire separate VOT patterns for each language and to determine the factors that affect such acquisition. Results showed that VOT patterns for each bilingual child differed significantly across the two languages. But while the contrast in English resembled a monolingual-like model, that for Arabic exhibited persisting developmental features; explanations were offered in terms of the relationship between input and complexity of voicing lead production. Evidence was used from developmental changes that were noted for two of the bilingual subjects over a period of 18 months. English code-switches produced by the bilinguals during Arabic sessions exhibited different VOT patterns from those produced during English sessions, which underlined the importance of taking the language context into consideration. Finally, results from monolinguals and bilinguals showed that the short lag categories for the two languages were different despite a degree of overlap. Such findings require finer divisions of the three universal VOT categories to account for language-specific patterns.

  15. The Use of Spanish by a Monolingual Kindergarten Teacher to Support English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana C.; Gilmetdinova, Alsu; Pelaez-Morales, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a case study of a kindergarten, monolingual teacher and how she used Spanish, the home language of her Latino/a students who are English language learners (ELLs), in the classroom. The article focuses on how the teacher develops and uses her emerging knowledge of Spanish to scaffold students' learning, specifically when…

  16. Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Performance of Monolingual and Bilingual Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…

  17. Phoneme awareness, vocabulary and word decoding in monolingual and bilingual Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Leseman, P.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilingually raised children in the Netherlands, who receive literacy instruction in their second language only, show an advantage on Dutch phoneme-awareness tasks compared with monolingual Dutch-speaking children. Language performance of a group of 47

  18. Finding "le mot juste": Differences between Bilingual and Monolingual Children's Lexical Access in Comprehension and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Stephanie; Nicoladis, Elena

    2009-01-01

    By school age, some bilingual children can score equivalently to monolinguals in receptive vocabulary but still lag in expressive vocabulary. In this study, we test whether bilingual children have greater difficulty with lexical access, as has been reported for adult bilinguals. School-aged French-English bilingual children were given tests of…

  19. Differences in Word Recognition between Early Bilinguals and Monolinguals: Behavioral and ERP Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Minna; Hulten, Annika; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral and brain responses (ERPs) of bilingual word recognition to three fundamental psycholinguistic factors, frequency, morphology, and lexicality, in early bilinguals vs. monolinguals. Earlier behavioral studies have reported larger frequency effects in bilinguals' nondominant vs. dominant language and in some studies…

  20. Defying Monolingual Education: Alternative Bilingual Discourse Practices in Selected Coloured Schools in Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Felix

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores how bilingual learners and teachers challenge the monolingual discourses prescribed in language education policy and models in pursuit of voice and agency in classroom interaction. Through an examination of observation, interview and classroom interaction data in selected coloured primary and secondary schools in Cape Town, the…

  1. A Comparative Study of Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies among Monolingual and Bilingual Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Keshavarz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some researchers argue that linguistic knowledge of one’s native language facilitates the acquisition of additional languages (see, for example, Cenoz & Valencia, 1994; Grenfell & Harris, 2006; Hakuta, 1990; Keshavarz & Astaneh, 2004. To contribute to this line of research, the present study investigated the probability of significant differences among monolingual and bilingual EFL learners in their awareness and perceived use of metacognitive reading strategies and in the subscales of these strategies (i.e., global, supportive, and problem-solving strategies. To achieve this goal, 100 Persian monolingual and 100 Azeri Turkish-Persian bilingual male and female second-year university students, majoring in English Literature, ELT, and Translation with the age range of 20-28 participated in the study.  Both groups took the Nelson Test of English language proficiency and completed the Metacognitive Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI questionnaire. Participants’ reading strategy use was determined by asking them to rate their self-perceived reading ability in English on a 5-point Likert scale. The results of data analyses revealed significant differences between monolingual and bilingual learners in the use of overall and global metacognitive reading strategies with bilingual learners having greater awareness of these two strategies. However, no significant difference was found between monolingual and bilingual participants in the use of problem-solving and supportive metacognitive strategies.

  2. Monolingual and Bilingual Preschoolers' Use of Gestures to Interpret Ambiguous Pronouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow, W. Quin

    2015-01-01

    Young children typically do not use order-of-mention to resolve ambiguous pronouns, but may do so if given additional cues, such as gestures. Additionally, this ability to utilize gestures may be enhanced in bilingual children, who may be more sensitive to such cues due to their unique language experience. We asked monolingual and bilingual…

  3. Executive Function Differences between Bilingual ArabicEnglish and Monolingual Arabic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than…

  4. The Use of Spanish by a Monolingual Kindergarten Teacher to Support English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana C.; Gilmetdinova, Alsu; Pelaez-Morales, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a case study of a kindergarten, monolingual teacher and how she used Spanish, the home language of her Latino/a students who are English language learners (ELLs), in the classroom. The article focuses on how the teacher develops and uses her emerging knowledge of Spanish to scaffold students' learning, specifically when…

  5. Phoneme awareness, vocabulary and word decoding in monolingual and bilingual Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Leseman, P.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilingually raised children in the Netherlands, who receive literacy instruction in their second language only, show an advantage on Dutch phoneme-awareness tasks compared with monolingual Dutch-speaking children. Language performance of a group of 47

  6. The Influence of Emotional Arousal on Affective Priming in Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarriba, Jeanette; Canary, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    The activation of arousal components for emotion-laden words in English (e.g. kiss, death) was examined in two groups of participants: English monolinguals and Spanish-English bilinguals. In Experiment 1, emotion-laden words were rated on valence and perceived arousal. These norms were used to construct prime-target word pairs that were used in…

  7. Differences in Word Recognition between Early Bilinguals and Monolinguals: Behavioral and ERP Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Minna; Hulten, Annika; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral and brain responses (ERPs) of bilingual word recognition to three fundamental psycholinguistic factors, frequency, morphology, and lexicality, in early bilinguals vs. monolinguals. Earlier behavioral studies have reported larger frequency effects in bilinguals' nondominant vs. dominant language and in some studies…

  8. Post-Monolingual Research Methodology: Multilingual Researchers Democratizing Theorizing and Doctoral Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Singh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the ground-breaking research in the study of languages in doctoral education. It argues for democratizing the production and dissemination of original contributions to knowledge through activating and mobilizing multilingual Higher Degree Researchers’ (HDRs capabilities for theorizing through them using their full linguistic repertoire. This paper contributes to this study’s development of post-monolingual research methodology which provides a theoretic-pedagogical framework for multilingual HDRs (a to use their full linguistic repertoire in their research; (b to develop their capabilities for theorizing and (c to construct potentially valuable theoretical tools using metaphors, images, concepts and modes of critique. This paper is based on a longitudinal program of collaborative research whereby monolingual Anglophone and multilingual HDRs jointly developed their capabilities for theorizing through producing Anglo-Chinese analytical tools, and the associated pedagogies for using their languages in doctoral research. This longitudinal research program has been undertaken in the field of doctoral education to further a defining feature of democracy, namely linguistic diversity. This research has been conducted with the aims of promoting the multilingualism of Australian universities and activating linguistic communities of scholars to use their full linguistic repertoire in their research. The main finding arising from this program of research has been the development of post-monolingual research methodology which (a uses the divergences within and between languages to undertake theorizing and (b in co-existence with the tensions posed by monolingualism, especially the insistence on using extant theories available in only one language. Doctoral pedagogies of intellectual/racial equality provide multilingual HDRs with insights into the debates about the geopolitics governing the use of languages in the production and

  9. Vowels, consonants, and lexical tones: Sensitivity to phonological variation in monolingual Mandarin and bilingual English-Mandarin toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wewalaarachchi, Thilanga D; Wong, Liang Hui; Singh, Leher

    2017-03-02

    Although bilingual learners represent the linguistic majority, much less is known about their lexical processing in comparison with monolingual learners. In the current study, bilingual and monolingual toddlers were compared on their ability to recognize familiar words. Children were presented with correct pronunciations and mispronunciations, with the latter involving a vowel, consonant, or tone substitution. A robust ability to recognize words when their labels were correctly pronounced was observed in both groups. Both groups also exhibited a robust ability to reject vowel, tone, and consonant mispronunciations as possible labels for familiar words. However, time course analyses revealed processing differences based on language background; relative to Mandarin monolinguals, Mandarin-English bilingual toddlers demonstrated reduced efficiency in recognizing correctly pronounced words. With respect to mispronunciations, Mandarin-English bilingual learners demonstrated reduced sensitivity to tone mispronunciations relative to Mandarin monolingual toddlers. Moreover, the relative cost of mispronunciations differed for monolingual and bilingual toddlers. Monolingual toddlers demonstrated least sensitivity to consonants followed by vowels and tones, whereas bilingual toddlers demonstrated least sensitivity to tone, followed by consonants and then by vowels. Time course analyses revealed that both groups were sensitive to vowel and consonant variation. Results reveal both similarities and differences in monolingual and bilingual learners' processing of familiar words in Mandarin Chinese.

  10. Maury Documentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supporting documentation for the Maury Collection of marine observations. Includes explanations from Maury himself, as well as guides and descriptions by the U.S....

  11. Language Proficiency and Sustained Attention in Monolingual and Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Tessel; Leseman, Paul; Wijnen, Frank; Blom, Elma

    2017-01-01

    Background: The language profiles of children with language impairment (LI) and bilingual children can show partial, and possibly temporary, overlap. The current study examined the persistence of this overlap over time. Furthermore, we aimed to better understand why the language profiles of these two groups show resemblance, testing the hypothesis that the language difficulties of children with LI reflect a weakened ability to maintain attention to the stream of linguistic information. Consequent incomplete processing of language input may lead to delays that are similar to those originating from reductions in input frequency. Methods: Monolingual and bilingual children with and without LI (N = 128), aged 5-8 years old, participated in this study. Dutch receptive vocabulary and grammatical morphology were assessed at three waves. In addition, auditory and visual sustained attention were tested at wave 1. Mediation analyses were performed to examine relationships between LI, sustained attention, and language skills. Results: Children with LI and bilingual children were outperformed by their typically developing (TD) and monolingual peers, respectively, on vocabulary and morphology at all three waves. The vocabulary difference between monolinguals and bilinguals decreased over time. In addition, children with LI had weaker auditory and visual sustained attention skills relative to TD children, while no differences between monolinguals and bilinguals emerged. Auditory sustained attention mediated the effect of LI on vocabulary and morphology in both the monolingual and bilingual groups of children. Visual sustained attention only acted as a mediator in the bilingual group. Conclusion: The findings from the present study indicate that the overlap between the language profiles of children with LI and bilingual children is particularly large for vocabulary in early (pre)school years and reduces over time. Results furthermore suggest that the overlap may be explained by

  12. Language Proficiency and Sustained Attention in Monolingual and Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessel Boerma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The language profiles of children with language impairment (LI and bilingual children can show partial, and possibly temporary, overlap. The current study examined the persistence of this overlap over time. Furthermore, we aimed to better understand why the language profiles of these two groups show resemblance, testing the hypothesis that the language difficulties of children with LI reflect a weakened ability to maintain attention to the stream of linguistic information. Consequent incomplete processing of language input may lead to delays that are similar to those originating from reductions in input frequency.Methods: Monolingual and bilingual children with and without LI (N = 128, aged 5–8 years old, participated in this study. Dutch receptive vocabulary and grammatical morphology were assessed at three waves. In addition, auditory and visual sustained attention were tested at wave 1. Mediation analyses were performed to examine relationships between LI, sustained attention, and language skills.Results: Children with LI and bilingual children were outperformed by their typically developing (TD and monolingual peers, respectively, on vocabulary and morphology at all three waves. The vocabulary difference between monolinguals and bilinguals decreased over time. In addition, children with LI had weaker auditory and visual sustained attention skills relative to TD children, while no differences between monolinguals and bilinguals emerged. Auditory sustained attention mediated the effect of LI on vocabulary and morphology in both the monolingual and bilingual groups of children. Visual sustained attention only acted as a mediator in the bilingual group.Conclusion: The findings from the present study indicate that the overlap between the language profiles of children with LI and bilingual children is particularly large for vocabulary in early (preschool years and reduces over time. Results furthermore suggest that the overlap may be

  13. T-complex measures in bilingual Spanish-English and Turkish-German children and monolingual peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Tanja; Shafer, Valerie L.; Kiefer, Markus; Vidal, Nancy; Yu, Yan H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Lateral temporal neural measures (Na and T-complex Ta and Tb) of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) index maturation of auditory/speech processing. These measures are also sensitive to language experience in adults. This paper examined neural responses to a vowel sound at temporal electrodes in four- to five-year-old Spanish-English bilinguals and English monolinguals and in five- to six-year-old Turkish-German bilinguals and German monolinguals. The goal was to determine whether obligatory AEPs at temporal electrode sites were modulated by language experience. Language experience was defined in terms of monolingual versus bilingual status as well as the amount and quality of the bilingual language experience. Method AEPs were recorded at left and right temporal electrode sites to a 250-ms vowel [Ɛ] from 20 monolingual (American)-English and 18 Spanish-English children from New York City, and from 11 Turkish-German and 13 monolingual German children from Ulm, Germany. Language background information and standardized verbal and non-verbal test scores were obtained for the children. Results The results revealed differences in temporal AEPs (Na and Ta of the T-complex) between monolingual and bilingual children. Specifically, bilingual children showed smaller and/or later peak amplitudes than the monolingual groups. Ta-amplitude distinguished monolingual and bilingual children best at right electrode sites for both the German and American groups. Amount of experience and type of experience with the target language (English and German) influenced processing. Conclusions The finding of reduced amplitudes at the Ta latency for bilingual compared to monolingual children indicates that language specific experience, and not simply maturational factors, influences development of the neural processes underlying the Ta AEP, and suggests that lateral temporal cortex has an important role in language-specific speech perception development. PMID:28267801

  14. A time sharing cross-sectional study of monolinguals and bilinguals at different levels of second language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A

    1986-10-01

    Several methodological factors associated with the concurrent activities (finger-tapping) paradigm were considered in a cross-sectional study investigating cerebral patterns of asymmetry in three groups of English-speaking non-Hispanic dextral males at three levels of second language (Spanish) acquisition and one control group of monolinguals. Results revealed the fluent bilinguals to be bilateral and significantly different from other groups for native language tasks in English. Moreover, a priori contrasts indicate that greater right- than left-hand disruption in concurrent tapping may be typical of monolinguals, but can be influenced by other factors. Monolingual reliability test-retest correlations were .77 and .47.

  15. Maintaining Web Cache Coherency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Document coherency is a challenging problem for Web caching. Once the documents are cached throughout the Internet, it is often difficult to keep them coherent with the origin document without generating a new traffic that could increase the traffic on the international backbone and overload the popular servers. Several solutions have been proposed to solve this problem, among them two categories have been widely discussed: the strong document coherency and the weak document coherency. The cost and the efficiency of the two categories are still a controversial issue, while in some studies the strong coherency is far too expensive to be used in the Web context, in other studies it could be maintained at a low cost. The accuracy of these analysis is depending very much on how the document updating process is approximated. In this study, we compare some of the coherence methods proposed for Web caching. Among other points, we study the side effects of these methods on the Internet traffic. The ultimate goal is to study the cache behavior under several conditions, which will cover some of the factors that play an important role in the Web cache performance evaluation and quantify their impact on the simulation accuracy. The results presented in this study show indeed some differences in the outcome of the simulation of a Web cache depending on the workload being used, and the probability distribution used to approximate updates on the cached documents. Each experiment shows two case studies that outline the impact of the considered parameter on the performance of the cache.

  16. An Educational Tool for Browsing the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sujin; Kim, Younghwan; Park, Seongbin

    2013-01-01

    The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web where information is represented in a machine processable way. It is not separate from the current Web and one of the confusions that novice users might have is where the Semantic Web is. In fact, users can easily encounter RDF documents that are components of the Semantic Web while they navigate…

  17. Measuring Interestingness of Political Documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azarbonyad, H.

    2016-01-01

    Political texts are pervasive on the Web covering laws and policies in national and supranational jurisdictions. Access to this data is crucial for government transparency and accountability to the population. The main aim of our research is developing a ranking method for political documents which

  18. Indexation de Documents Manuscrits

    OpenAIRE

    Vinciarelli, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    Les systèmes de reconnaissance automatique de l'écriture permettent de transfomer des collections de documents manuscrits en archives de documents numériques. L'avantage n'est pas tellement la réduction de l'espace nécéssaire pour stoquer les données, mais plutôt la possibilité d'appliquer les technologies de gestion du contenu normalement utilisées pour des textes numériques tels que pages web et e-mails. Le problème principal dans une telle démarche est que les transcriptions sont généralem...

  19. Performance Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview with experts on performance documentation. Suggests that educators should strive to represent performance appraisal writing to students in a way that reflects the way it is perceived and evaluated in the workplace. Concludes that educators can enrich their pedagogy with practice by helping students understand the importance…

  20. SWI-Prolog and the Web

    CERN Document Server

    Wielemaker, Jan; van der Meij, Lourens

    2007-01-01

    Where Prolog is commonly seen as a component in a Web application that is either embedded or communicates using a proprietary protocol, we propose an architecture where Prolog communicates to other components in a Web application using the standard HTTP protocol. By avoiding embedding in external Web servers development and deployment become much easier. To support this architecture, in addition to the transfer protocol, we must also support parsing, representing and generating the key Web document types such as HTML, XML and RDF. This paper motivates the design decisions in the libraries and extensions to Prolog for handling Web documents and protocols. The design has been guided by the requirement to handle large documents efficiently. The described libraries support a wide range of Web applications ranging from HTML and XML documents to Semantic Web RDF processing. To appear in Theory and Practice of Logic Programming (TPLP)

  1. The role of nonverbal working memory in morphosyntactic processing by school-aged monolingual and bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Davidson, Meghan M; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined the relationship between nonverbal working memory and morphosyntactic processing in monolingual native speakers of English and bilingual speakers of English and Spanish. We tested 42 monolingual children and 42 bilingual children between the ages of 8 and 10years matched on age and nonverbal IQ. Children were administered an auditory Grammaticality Judgment task in English to measure morphosyntactic processing and a visual N-Back task and Corsi Blocks task to measure nonverbal working memory capacity. Analyses revealed that monolinguals were more sensitive to English morphosyntactic information than bilinguals, but the groups did not differ in reaction times or response bias. Furthermore, higher nonverbal working memory capacity was associated with greater sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations in bilinguals but not in monolinguals. The findings suggest that nonverbal working memory skills link more tightly to syntactic processing in populations with lower levels of language knowledge.

  2. The role of non-verbal working memory in morphosyntactic processing by school-aged monolingual and bilingual children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Davidson, Meghan M.; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between non-verbal working memory and morphosyntactic processing in monolingual native speakers of English and bilingual speakers of English and Spanish. We tested 42 monolingual children and 42 bilingual children between the ages of 8 and 10, matched on age and non-verbal IQ. Children were administered an auditory Grammaticality Judgment task in English to measure morphosyntatic processing, and a visual N-Back task and a Corsi Blocks task to measure non-verbal working memory capacity. Analyses revealed that monolinguals were more sensitive to English morphosyntactic information than bilinguals, but the groups did not differ in reaction times or response bias. Furthermore, higher non-verbal working memory capacity was associated with greater sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations in bilinguals, but not in monolinguals. The findings suggest that non-verbal working memory skills link more tightly to syntactic processing in populations with lower levels of language knowledge. PMID:26550957

  3. Psychotherapy across languages: beliefs, attitudes and\\ud practices of monolingual and multilingual therapists\\ud with their multilingual patients

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, B; Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates beliefs, attitudes and practices of 101 monolingual and multilingual therapists in their interactions with multilingual patients. We adopted a\\ud mixed-method approach, using an on-line questionnaire with 27 closed questions which were analysed quantitatively and informed questions in interviews with one monolingual\\ud and two multilingual therapists. A principal component analysis yielded a four-factor solution accounting for 41% of the variance. The first dime...

  4. Differential Allocation of Attention During Speech Perception in Monolingual and Bilingual Listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Lori B; Berkes, Matthias; Bialystok, Ellen

    Attention is required during speech perception to focus processing resources on critical information. Previous research has shown that bilingualism modifies attentional processing in nonverbal domains. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to determine whether bilingualism also modifies auditory attention during speech perception. We measured attention to word onsets in spoken English for monolinguals and Chinese-English bilinguals. Auditory probes were inserted at four times in a continuous narrative: concurrent with word onset, 100 ms before or after onset, and at random control times. Greater attention was indexed by an increase in the amplitude of the early negativity (N1). Among monolinguals, probes presented after word onsets elicited a larger N1 than control probes, replicating previous studies. For bilinguals, there was no N1 difference for probes at different times around word onsets, indicating less specificity in allocation of attention. These results suggest that bilingualism shapes attentional strategies during English speech comprehension.

  5. Differential Allocation of Attention During Speech Perception in Monolingual and Bilingual Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Lori B.; Berkes, Matthias; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Attention is required during speech perception to focus processing resources on critical information. Previous research has shown that bilingualism modifies attentional processing in nonverbal domains. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to determine whether bilingualism also modifies auditory attention during speech perception. We measured attention to word onsets in spoken English for monolinguals and Chinese-English bilinguals. Auditory probes were inserted at four times in a continuous narrative: concurrent with word onset, 100 ms before or after onset, and at random control times. Greater attention was indexed by an increase in the amplitude of the early negativity (N1). Among monolinguals, probes presented after word onsets elicited a larger N1 than control probes, replicating previous studies. For bilinguals, there was no N1 difference for probes at different times around word onsets, indicating less specificity in allocation of attention. These results suggest that bilingualism shapes attentional strategies during English speech comprehension. PMID:27110579

  6. Neural differences between monolinguals and early bilinguals in their native language during comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, P; González, J; Ventura-Campos, N; Rodríguez-Pujadas, A; Sanjuán, A; Ávila, C

    2015-11-01

    Research has shown that semantic processing of sentences engages more activity in the bilingual compared to the monolingual brain and, more specifically, in the inferior frontal gyrus. The present study aims to extend those results and examines whether semantic and also grammatical sentence processing involve different cerebral structures when testing in the native language. In this regard, highly proficient Spanish/Catalan bilinguals and Spanish monolinguals made grammatical and semantic judgments in Spanish while being scanned. Results showed that both types of judgments recruited more cerebral activity for bilinguals in language-related areas including the superior and middle temporal gyri. Such neural differences co-occurred with similar performance at the behavioral level. Taken together, these data suggest that early bilingualism shapes the brain and cognitive processes in sentence comprehension even in their native language; on the other hand, they indicate that brain over activation in bilinguals is not constrained to a specific area.

  7. Language differences between monolingual English and bilingual English-Spanish young children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valicenti-McDermott, Maria; Tarshis, Nancy; Schouls, Melissa; Galdston, Molly; Hottinger, Kathryn; Seijo, Rosa; Shulman, Lisa; Shinnar, Shlomo

    2013-07-01

    Bilingualism is common worldwide and increasingly prevalent, but there is little information about bilingual children with autism spectrum disorder. The goal of the study was to compare expressive and receptive language skills in monolingual English and bilingual English-Spanish children with autism spectrum disorder. A review of the multidisciplinary evaluations done in toddlers who were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder at a university-affiliated center between 2003 and 2010 was performed. Data included demographics, developmental testing, autistic characteristics, and expressive and receptive language skills, obtained from formal speech and language evaluation. A total of 80 toddlers were identified, 40 classified as bilingual English-Spanish. Compared with monolinguals, bilingual children were more likely to vocalize and utilize gestures, with no other differences in language skills. There were no differences in cognitive functioning and autistic features between the groups. In this study, bilingualism did not negatively affect language development in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

  8. MULTILABEL CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS WITH MAPREDUCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Malarvizhi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Multilabel classification is the problem of assigning a set of positive labels to an instance and recently it is highly required in applications like protein function classification, music categorization, gene classification and document classification for easy identification and retrieving of information. Labeling the documents of the web manually is a time consuming and a difficult task due to the size of the web which is a huge information resource and to overcome this difficulty, we propose an algorithm of MapReduce for classifying labels to the documents of the web. MapReduce is a framework of parallel programming model with the functions map and reduce and meets a number of varieties of applications. In our approach, the documents of the web are given to the MapReduce framework and the MapReduce framework assigns the set of positive labels to the documents of the web using binary classification ofbinary classifier. On experimentation, our proposed approach satisfactorily classifies the labels to the documents of the web.

  9. Documenting Spreadsheets

    CERN Document Server

    Payette, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses spreadsheets documentation and new means to achieve this end by using Excel's built-in "Comment" function. By structuring comments, they can be used as an essential tool to fully explain spreadsheet. This will greatly facilitate spreadsheet change control, risk management and auditing. It will fill a crucial gap in corporate governance by adding essential information that can be managed in order to satisfy internal controls and accountability standards.

  10. Differential Allocation of Attention During Speech Perception in Monolingual and Bilingual Listeners

    OpenAIRE

    Astheimer, Lori B.; Berkes, Matthias; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Attention is required during speech perception to focus processing resources on critical information. Previous research has shown that bilingualism modifies attentional processing in nonverbal domains. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to determine whether bilingualism also modifies auditory attention during speech perception. We measured attention to word onsets in spoken English for monolinguals and Chinese-English bilinguals. Auditory probes were inserted at four times...

  11. The moderating effect of orthographic consistency on oral vocabulary learning in monolingual and bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubenville, Kathleen; Sénéchal, Monique; Malette, Melissa

    2014-10-01

    Two studies were conducted to assess whether (a) the incidental presence of print facilitates the acquisition of oral vocabulary, (b) the facilitative effect of print is moderated by phoneme-to-grapheme consistency, and (c) the findings obtained with monolingual children generalize to bilingual children. In total, 71 monolingual French-speaking children (M age = 9 years 2 months) in Study 1 and 64 bilingual children (M age = 9 years 3 months) in Study 2 participated in one of three conditions: consistent print, inconsistent print, or no print. Children were to learn novel labels for unfamiliar objects in a paired-associate paradigm. In both studies, print facilitated the acquisition and recall of expressive vocabulary. The effect of print consistency, however, varied across studies. As expected, monolingual children exposed to consistent print learned more novel labels than children exposed to inconsistent print. In contrast, bilingual children exposed to inconsistent print learned and recalled more labels than children exposed to consistent print. These intriguing findings might be due to differences in attention allocation during training.

  12. Bilinguals Have Different Hemispheric Lateralization in Visual Word Processing from Monolinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze-Man Lam

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous bilingual studies showed reduced hemispheric asymmetry in visual tasks such as face perception in bilinguals compared with monolinguals, suggesting experience in reading one or two languages could be a modulating factor. Here we examined whether difference in hemispheric asymmetry in visual tasks can also be observed in bilinguals who have different language backgrounds. We compared the behavior of three language groups in a tachistoscopic English word sequential matching task: English monolinguals (or alphabetic monolinguals, A-Ms, bilinguals with an alphabetic-L1 and English-L2 (alphabetic-alphabetic bilinguals, AA-Bs, and bilinguals with Chinese-L1 and English-L2 (logographic-alphabetic bilinguals, LA-Bs. The results showed that AA-Bs had a stronger right visual field/ left hemispheric (LH advantage than A-Ms and LA-Bs, suggesting that different language learning experiences can influence how visual words are processed in the brain. In addition, we showed that this effect could be accounted for by a computational model that implements a theory of hemispheric asymmetry in perception (i.e., the Double Filtering by Frequency theory; Ivry & Robertson, 1998; the modeling data suggested that this difference may be due to both the difference in participants' vocabulary size and the difference in word-to-sound mapping between alphabetic and logographic languages.

  13. Age of language learning shapes brain structure: a cortical thickness study of bilingual and monolingual individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Denise; Mok, Kelvin; Chen, Jen-Kai; Watkins, Kate E

    2014-04-01

    We examined the effects of learning a second language (L2) on brain structure. Cortical thickness was measured in the MRI datasets of 22 monolinguals and 66 bilinguals. Some bilingual subjects had learned both languages simultaneously (0-3 years) while some had learned their L2 after achieving proficiency in their first language during either early (4-7 years) or late childhood (8-13 years). Later acquisition of L2 was associated with significantly thicker cortex in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and thinner cortex in the right IFG. These effects were seen in the group comparisons of monolinguals, simultaneous bilinguals and early and late bilinguals. Within the bilingual group, significant correlations between age of acquisition of L2 and cortical thickness were seen in the same regions: cortical thickness correlated with age of acquisition positively in the left IFG and negatively in the right IFG. Interestingly, the monolinguals and simultaneous bilinguals did not differ in cortical thickness in any region. Our results show that learning a second language after gaining proficiency in the first language modifies brain structure in an age-dependent manner whereas simultaneous acquisition of two languages has no additional effect on brain development.

  14. An Efficient Web Page Ranking for Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, P.; Singh, M.; Kumar, S.

    2014-01-01

    With the enormous amount of information presented on the web, the retrieval of relevant information has become a serious problem and is also the topic of research for last few years. The most common tools to retrieve information from web are search engines like Google. The Search engines are usually based on keyword searching and indexing of web pages. This approach is not very efficient as the result-set of web pages obtained include large irrelevant pages. Sometimes even the entire result-set may contain lot of irrelevant pages for the user. The next generation of search engines must address this problem. Recently, many semantic web search engines have been developed like Ontolook, Swoogle, which help in searching meaningful documents presented on semantic web. In this process the ranking of the retrieved web pages is very crucial. Some attempts have been made in ranking of semantic web pages but still the ranking of these semantic web documents is neither satisfactory and nor up to the user's expectations. In this paper we have proposed a semantic web based document ranking scheme that relies not only on the keywords but also on the conceptual instances present between the keywords. As a result only the relevant page will be on the top of the result-set of searched web pages. We explore all relevant relations between the keywords exploring the user's intention and then calculate the fraction of these relations on each web page to determine their relevance. We have found that this ranking technique gives better results than those by the prevailing methods.

  15. Document image representation using XML technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kwae, Essam A.; Atmakuri, Kusuma H.

    2001-12-01

    Electronic documents have gained wide acceptance due to the ease of editing and sharing of information. However, paper documents are still widely used in many environments. Moving into a paperless and distributed office has become a major goal for document image research. A new approach for form document representation is presented. This approach allows for electronic document sharing over the World Wide Web (WWW) using Extensible Markup Language (XML) technologies. Each document is mapped into three different views, an XML view to represent the preprinted and filled-in data, an XSL (Extensible style Sheets) view to represent the structure of the document, and a DTD (Document Type Definition) view to represent the document grammar and field constraints. The XML and XSL views are generated from a document template, either automatically using image processing techniques, or semi-automatically with minimal user interaction. The DTD representation may be fixed for general documents or may be generated semi-automatically by mining a number of filled-in document examples. Document templates need to be entered once to create the proposed representation. Afterwards, documents may be displayed, updated, or shared over the web. The merits of this approach are demonstrated using a number of examples of widely used forms.

  16. Refining Statistical Data on the Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Web has grown into a heterogeneous open data space of interlinked documents, tables, and databases. Open datasets on the Web are often used as input for many knowledge discovery processes, which aim at finding patterns within those data. However, open datasets on the Web are hardly ever ready fo

  17. OWL 2 Web Ontology Language: XML serialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motik, B.; Patel-Schneider, P.; Bechhofer, S.; Cuenca Grau, B.; Fokoue, A.; Hoekstra, R.; Parsia, B.

    2008-01-01

    The OWL 2 Web Ontology Language, informally OWL 2, is an ontology language for the Semantic Web with formally defined meaning. OWL 2 ontologies provide classes, properties, individuals, and data values and are stored as Semantic Web documents. OWL 2 ontologies can be used along with information writ

  18. Indexing and Retrieval for the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    2003-01-01

    Explores current research on indexing and ranking as retrieval functions of search engines on the Web. Highlights include measuring search engine stability; evaluation of Web indexing and retrieval; Web crawlers; hyperlinks for indexing and ranking; ranking for metasearch; document structure; citation indexing; relevance; query evaluation;…

  19. Introduction to Webometrics Quantitative Web Research for the Social Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Thelwall, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Webometrics is concerned with measuring aspects of the web: web sites, web pages, parts of web pages, words in web pages, hyperlinks, web search engine results. The importance of the web itself as a communication medium and for hosting an increasingly wide array of documents, from journal articles to holiday brochures, needs no introduction. Given this huge and easily accessible source of information, there are limitless possibilities for measuring or counting on a huge scale (e.g., the number of web sites, the number of web pages, the number of blogs) or on a smaller scale (e.g., the number o

  20. Web Page Change and Persistence-A Four-Year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Wallace

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of changes in the topography of the Web focuses on changes to an existing set of Web documents over a four-year period. Highlights include the life cycle of Web objects; changes to Web objects; measures of change; Web page demise; and Web page changes, including hypertext links, content change, and structural change. (LRW)

  1. Linked Data Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The World Wide Web has enabled the creation of a global information space comprising linked documents. As the Web becomes ever more enmeshed with our daily lives, there is a growing desire for direct access to raw data not currently available on the Web or bound up in hypertext documents. Linked Data provides a publishing paradigm in which not only documents, but also data, can be a first class citizen of the Web, thereby enabling the extension of the Web with a global data space based on open standards - the Web of Data. In this Synthesis lecture we provide readers with a detailed technical i

  2. Summit documents; Documents du sommet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document gathers three declarations about the non-proliferation of massive destruction weapons, made by the G8 organization participants during their last summit held in Evian (France): declaration about the enforcement and respect of the non-proliferation measures implemented by the IAEA and by the conventions for chemical and biological weapons; declaration about the protection of radioactive sources against diversion (regulatory control, inventory, control of sources export etc..); warranty about the security of radioactive sources (G8 approach, sustain of the IAEA action, sustain to the most vulnerable states, control mechanisms, political commitment of states, implementation of the recommendations of the international conference about the security and safety of radiation sources, held in Vienna (Austria) on March 2003. (J.S.)

  3. How bilingualism shapes the functional architecture of the brain: A study on executive control in early bilinguals and monolinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costumero, Víctor; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Ávila, César

    2015-12-01

    The existence of a behavioral advantage of bilinguals over monolinguals during executive tasks is controversial. A new approach to this issue is to investigate the effect of bilingualism on neural control when performing these tasks as a window to understand when behavioral differences are produced. Here, we tested if early bilinguals use more language-related networks than monolinguals while performing a go/no-go task that includes infrequent no-go and go trials. The RTs and accuracy in both groups did not differ. An independent component analyses (ICA) revealed, however, that bilinguals used the left fronto-parietal network and the salience network more than monolinguals while processing go infrequent cues and no-go cues, respectively. It was noteworthy that the modulation of these networks had opposite correlates with performance in bilinguals and monolinguals, which suggests that between-group differences were more qualitative than quantitative. Our results suggest that bilinguals may differently develop the involvement of the executive control networks that comprise the left inferior frontal gyrus during cognitive control tasks than monolinguals.

  4. Sustainable web ecosystem design

    CERN Document Server

    O'Toole, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This book is about the process of creating web-based systems (i.e., websites, content, etc.) that consider each of the parts, the modules, the organisms - binary or otherwise - that make up a balanced, sustainable web ecosystem. In the current media-rich environment, a website is more than a collection of relative html documents of text and images on a static desktop computer monitor. There is now an unlimited combination of screens, devices, platforms, browsers, locations, versions, users, and exabytes of data with which to interact. Written in a highly approachable, practical style, this boo

  5. Web traffic and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Aguenaou, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Does the traffic generated by websites of firms signal anything to stock market participants? Does higher web-traffic translate into availability of more information and therefore lower agency problems? And if answers to above questions are in affirmative, does higher web-traffic traffic translate...... into better firm performance? This paper aims to answer these questions by documenting a positive relationship between the extent of web-traffic and firm performance in the MENA region during the 2010. We argue that higher web-traffic lowers the agency problems in firms by disseminating more information...... to stock market participants. Consequently, lower agency problems translate into better performance. Furthermore, we also show that agency reducing role of web-traffic is more pronounced in regimes where information environment is already bad. For example, our results show stronger impact of web-traffic...

  6. Dark Web

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hsinchun

    2012-01-01

    The University of Arizona Artificial Intelligence Lab (AI Lab) Dark Web project is a long-term scientific research program that aims to study and understand the international terrorism (Jihadist) phenomena via a computational, data-centric approach. We aim to collect "ALL" web content generated by international terrorist groups, including web sites, forums, chat rooms, blogs, social networking sites, videos, virtual world, etc. We have developed various multilingual data mining, text mining, and web mining techniques to perform link analysis, content analysis, web metrics (technical

  7. Omega documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T.; Plechaty, E.F.

    1983-08-01

    OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos.

  8. Omega documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T.; Plechaty, E.F.

    1983-08-01

    OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos.

  9. DTI reveals structural differences in white matter tracts between bilingual and monolingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Struys, Esli; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Mondt, Katrien; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert

    2012-01-30

    The impact of bilingualism on the microstructure of the white matter pathways related to language processing is assessed in elementary school children by magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI). Forty children, 8-11 years old, subdivided into 3 different groups (15 simultaneous bilinguals, 15 sequential bilinguals and 10 monolinguals), were scanned. The hypothesis was that the starting age and the manner of second language acquisition would affect the characteristics of language circuitry. In each subject the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) was obtained for four major white matter pathways: 1 - the left arcuate fasciculus/superior longitudinal fasciculus (lAF/lSLF) that connects Broca's area in the opercular and triangular regions of the left inferior frontal gyrus to the posterior language zone, 2 - the left inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus (lIFOF), connecting anterior regions in the frontal lobe with posterior regions in the temporal occipital lobes, 3 - the bundle arising from the anterior part of the corpus callosum projecting to the orbital lobe (AC-OL) and 4 - the fibers emerging from the anterior midbody (AMB) of the corpus callosum that associate with the premotor and supplementary motor cortices (AMB-PMC). The three groups did not show significant differences in mean FA over the lAF/lSLF or AMB-PMC tracts. In simultaneous bilingual subjects the lIFOF tracts had higher mean FA value compared to monolinguals and also sequential bilinguals, whereas the comparison for the AC-OL fibers yielded a significantly lower mean FA value in simultaneous bilingual subjects compared to monolinguals. In both cases the FA value for sequential bilinguals was intermediate to that of the other two groups. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of bilingualism related adaptation of white matter microstructure in the human brain.

  10. White-matter development is different in bilingual and monolingual children: a longitudinal DTI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Rosseel, Yves; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert; Baeken, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous people grow up speaking more than one language, the impact of bilingualism on brain developing neuroanatomy is still poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether the changes in the mean fractional-anisotropy (MFA) of language pathways are different between bilingual and monolingual children. Simultaneous-bilinguals, sequential-bilinguals and monolingual, male and female 10-13 years old children participated in this longitudinal study over a period of two years. We used diffusion tensor tractography to obtain mean fractional-anisotropy values of four language related pathways and one control bundle: 1-left-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus/lIFOF, 2-left-arcuate fasciculus/lAF/lSLF, 3-bundle arising from the anterior part of corpus-callosum and projecting to orbital lobe/AC-OL, 4-fibres emerging from anterior-midbody of corpus-callosum (CC) to motor cortices/AMB-PMC, 5- right-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus rIFOF as the control pathway unrelated to language. These values and their rate of change were compared between 3 groups. FA-values did not change significantly over two years for lAF/lSLF and AC-OL. Sequential-bilinguals had the highest degree of change in the MFA value of lIFOF, and AMB-PMC did not present significant group differences. The comparison of MFA of lIFOF yielded a significantly higher FA-value in simultaneous bilinguals compared to monolinguals. These findings acknowledge the existing difference of the development of the semantic processing specific pathway between children with different semantic processing procedure. These also support the hypothesis that age of second language acquisition affects the maturation and myelination of some language specific white-matter pathways.

  11. White-matter development is different in bilingual and monolingual children: a longitudinal DTI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Ghazal Mohades

    Full Text Available Although numerous people grow up speaking more than one language, the impact of bilingualism on brain developing neuroanatomy is still poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether the changes in the mean fractional-anisotropy (MFA of language pathways are different between bilingual and monolingual children. Simultaneous-bilinguals, sequential-bilinguals and monolingual, male and female 10-13 years old children participated in this longitudinal study over a period of two years. We used diffusion tensor tractography to obtain mean fractional-anisotropy values of four language related pathways and one control bundle: 1-left-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus/lIFOF, 2-left-arcuate fasciculus/lAF/lSLF, 3-bundle arising from the anterior part of corpus-callosum and projecting to orbital lobe/AC-OL, 4-fibres emerging from anterior-midbody of corpus-callosum (CC to motor cortices/AMB-PMC, 5- right-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus rIFOF as the control pathway unrelated to language. These values and their rate of change were compared between 3 groups. FA-values did not change significantly over two years for lAF/lSLF and AC-OL. Sequential-bilinguals had the highest degree of change in the MFA value of lIFOF, and AMB-PMC did not present significant group differences. The comparison of MFA of lIFOF yielded a significantly higher FA-value in simultaneous bilinguals compared to monolinguals. These findings acknowledge the existing difference of the development of the semantic processing specific pathway between children with different semantic processing procedure. These also support the hypothesis that age of second language acquisition affects the maturation and myelination of some language specific white-matter pathways.

  12. A Cultural Perspective on Sexual Health: HIV Positive and Negative Monolingual Hispanic Women in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Loubet, Olga M; Vamos, Szonja; Jones, Deborah L; Lopez, Eliot; Weiss, Stephen M

    2011-06-01

    This study explored feelings and attitudes with regard to HIV and sexual health among 82 monolingual Spanish-speaking, HIV-positive (n = 30) and at-risk women (n = 52), participating in the NOW en Español Project-a cognitive behavioral sexual risk-reduction intervention in Miami, Florida. Hispanic cultural values and beliefs, such as machismo, marianismo, and sexual silence, emerged throughout the intervention as important determinants of sexual behavior. Recommendations for integrating these culture-specific issues in sexual health interventions for Hispanic women are provided.

  13. WEB STRUCTURE MINING USING PAGERANK, IMPROVED PAGERANK – AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lakshmi Praba

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Web Mining is the extraction of interesting and potentially useful patterns and information from Web. It includes Web documents, hyperlinks between documents, and usage logs of web sites. The significant task for web mining can be listed out as Information Retrieval, Information Selection / Extraction, Generalization and Analysis. Web information retrieval tools consider only the text on pages and ignore information in the links. The goal of Web structure mining is to explore structural summary about web. Web structure mining focusing on link information is an important aspect of web data. This paper presents an overview of the PageRank, Improved Page Rank and its working functionality in web structure mining.

  14. Better Contextual Suggestions in ClueWeb12 Using Domain Knowledge Inferred from The Open Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Samar (Thaer); A. Bellogín Kouki (Alejandro); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractThis paper provides an overview of our participation in the Contextual Suggestion Track. The TREC 2014 Contextual Suggestion Track allowed participants to submit personalized rankings using documents either from the Open Web or from an archived, static Web collection (ClueWeb12)

  15. Exploring Non-Native English-Speaking Teachers' Beliefs about the Monolingual Approach: Differences between Pre-Service and In-Service Korean Teachers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2016-01-01

    The non-native English-speaking teachers' (NNESTs) beliefs about the monolingual approach have not been sufficiently studied in the teaching of English as a foreign language (EFL). In examining the NNESTs' beliefs about that issue, the present study adapts Guy Cook's recent framework, according to which the monolingual approach is based upon four…

  16. The Persistence and Functional Impact of English Language Difficulties Experienced by Children Learning English as an Additional Language and Monolingual Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Katie E; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2017-07-12

    This study explored whether a monolingual-normed English language battery could identify children with English as an additional language (EAL) who have persistent English language learning difficulties that affect functional academic attainment. Children with EAL (n = 43) and monolingual English-speaking children (n = 46) completed a comprehensive monolingual-normed English language battery in Year 1 (ages 5-6 years) and Year 3 (ages 7-8 years). Children with EAL and monolingual peers, who either met monolingual criteria for language impairment or typical development on the language battery in Year 1, were compared on language growth between Year 1 and Year 3 and on attainment in national curriculum assessments in Year 2 (ages 6-7 years). Children with EAL and monolingual peers who met monolingual criteria for language impairment in Year 1 continued to display comparably impaired overall language ability 2 years later in Year 3. Moreover, these groups displayed comparably low levels of academic attainment in Year 2, demonstrating comparable functional impact of their language difficulties. Monolingual-normed language batteries in the majority language may have some practical value for identifying bilingual children who need support with language learning, regardless of the origin of their language difficulties.

  17. Do Young Bilinguals Acquire Past Tense Morphology like Monolinguals, Only Later? Evidence from French-English and Chinese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoladis, Elena; Song, Jianhui; Marentette, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that preschool bilingual children lag behind same-aged monolinguals in their production of correct past tense forms. This lag has been attributed to bilinguals' less frequent exposure to either language. If so, bilingual children acquire the past tense like monolinguals, only later. In this study, we compared the…

  18. Barriers and successful strategies to antiretroviral adherence among HIV-infected monolingual Spanish-speaking patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D A; Roberts, K Johnston; Hoffman, D; Molina, A; Lu, M C

    2003-04-01

    Focus groups were conducted with HIV-infected, monolingual Spanish-speaking patients (N = 81) taking antiretrovirals in order to: (1) determine what barriers impede medication adherence; (2) determine what strategies facilitate adherence; and (3) investigate the health care provider-patient relationship and whether it impacts adherence. Both quantitative and qualitative information was gathered. Participants were prescribed an average of 11 pills per day (M = 11.4, SD = 7.0, range = 1-30). Only 32% of participants were consistently adherent when self-report of medication taking (yesterday, the day before yesterday, and last Saturday) was compared to prescribed regimen. The most frequently reported strategies were: learning more about the medications (77%), accepting the need to take them (75%) and refilling prescriptions early or on time (70%). Barriers most often reported were: feeling depressed or overwhelmed (21%), simply forgetting (19%) and sleeping through a dose (17%). From the qualitative data, four main issues emerged: patient characteristics, the health care professional-patient relationship, language and cultural barriers within the health care system, and the medication regimen. Among this Latino sample, having someone to live for was extremely important in terms of patient adherence. Language barriers were reported, and the use of translators was not always seen as a sufficient remedy. Differences between monolingual Spanish-speaking patients' and English-speaking patients' strategies and barriers are discussed.

  19. Proficiency and Control in Verbal Fluency Performance across the Lifespan for Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Deanna C.; Luo, Lin; Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The verbal fluency task is a widely used neuropsychological test of word retrieval efficiency. Both category fluency (e.g., list animals) and letter fluency (e.g., list words that begin with F) place demands on semantic memory and executive control functions. However letter fluency places greater demands on executive control than category fluency, making this task well-suited to investigating potential bilingual advantages in word retrieval. Here we report analyses on category and letter fluency for bilinguals and monolinguals at four ages, namely, 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, young adults, and older adults. Three main findings emerged: 1) verbal fluency performance improved from childhood to young adulthood and remained relatively stable in late adulthood; 2) beginning at 10-years-old, the executive control requirements for letter fluency were less effortful for bilinguals than monolinguals, with a robust bilingual advantage on this task emerging in adulthood; 3) an interaction among factors showed that category fluency performance was influenced by both age and vocabulary knowledge but letter fluency performance was influenced by bilingual status. PMID:25642427

  20. Native-language recognition abilities in 4-month-old infants from monolingual and bilingual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, L; Sebastián-Gallés, N

    1997-12-01

    This study examined the capacity of 4-month-old infants to identify their maternal language when phonologically similar languages are contrasted, using a visual orientation procedure with a reaction time measure. Infants from monolingual and bilingual environments were compared in order to analyze whether differences in linguistic background affect this behavioral response. In experiment 1 the validity of the procedure was assessed with a pair of phonologically dissimilar languages (Catalan or Spanish vs. English). In experiment 2, 20 infants from monolingual environments tested in a similar language contrast (Catalan vs. Spanish) indicated that discrimination is already possible at that age. Results from experiment 3, using low-pass filtered utterances, suggested that infants can rely on information about supra-segmental features to make this distinction. For the infants growing up in bilingual environments no preference for either of the familiar languages was found. Moreover, when their maternal language was contrasted either with English or with Italian, in both cases the bilingual group showed a similar pattern, consisting of significantly longer latencies for the familiar language. Possible interpretations of this unexpected pattern of results are discussed and its implications for bilingual language acquisition are considered.

  1. Using monolingual neuropsychological test norms with bilingual Hispanic americans: application of an individual comparison standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard; Gonzalez, Cassandra Dayanira

    2012-05-01

    Conventional neuropsychological norms developed for monolinguals likely overestimate normal performance in bilinguals on language but not visual-perceptual format tests. This was studied by comparing neuropsychological false-positive rates using the 50th percentile of conventional norms and individual comparison standards (Picture Vocabulary or Matrix Reasoning scores) as estimates of preexisting neuropsychological skill level against the number expected from the normal distribution for a consecutive sample of 56 neurologically intact, bilingual, Hispanic Americans. Participants were tested in separate sessions in Spanish and English in the counterbalanced order on La Bateria Neuropsicologica and the original English language tests on which this battery was based. For language format measures, repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance showed that individual estimates of preexisting skill level in English generated the mean number of false positives most approximate to that expected from the normal distribution, whereas the 50th percentile of conventional English language norms did the same for visual-perceptual format measures. When using conventional Spanish or English monolingual norms for language format neuropsychological measures with bilingual Hispanic Americans, individual estimates of preexisting skill level are recommended over the 50th percentile.

  2. Discrimination of foreign language speech contrasts by English monolinguals and French/English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie-Sebileau, Pippa; Davis, Chris

    2014-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether late French/English bilinguals are able to utilize knowledge of bilabial stop contrasts that exist in each of their separate languages to discriminate bilabial stop contrasts from a new language (Thai). Secondary aims were to determine associations between bilabial stop consonant production in the L1 and the L2, between language learning factors and production and discrimination, and to compare English bilinguals' and monolinguals' discrimination. Three Thai bilabial stop consonant pairs differentiated by Voice Onset Time (VOT) (combinations of [b], [p], and [p(h)]) were presented to 28 French-English bilinguals, 25 English-French bilinguals, and 43 English monolinguals in an AX discrimination task. It was hypothesized that L2 experience would facilitate discrimination of contrasts that were phonemic in the L2 but not in the L1 for bilinguals. Only limited support for this hypothesis was found. However, results indicate that high production proficiency bilinguals had higher discrimination of the phonemic L2 contrasts (non-phonemic in L1). Discrimination patterns indicate lasting L1 influence, with similarity between unknown foreign language contrasts and L1 contrasts influencing discrimination rates. Production results show evidence for L2 influence in the L1. Results are discussed in the context of current speech perception models.

  3. Web Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Bebo

    2003-06-23

    Web Engineering is the application of systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches to development, operation, and maintenance of Web-based applications. It is both a pro-active approach and a growing collection of theoretical and empirical research in Web application development. This paper gives an overview of Web Engineering by addressing the questions: (a) why is it needed? (b) what is its domain of operation? (c) how does it help and what should it do to improve Web application development? and (d) how should it be incorporated in education and training? The paper discusses the significant differences that exist between Web applications and conventional software, the taxonomy of Web applications, the progress made so far and the research issues and experience of creating a specialization at the master's level. The paper reaches a conclusion that Web Engineering at this stage is a moving target since Web technologies are constantly evolving, making new types of applications possible, which in turn may require innovations in how they are built, deployed and maintained.

  4. Credibility in Web Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowski, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Web search engines apply a variety of ranking signals to achieve user satisfaction, i.e., results pages that provide the best-possible results to the user. While these ranking signals implicitly consider credibility (e.g., by measuring popularity), explicit measures of credibility are not applied. In this chapter, credibility in Web search engines is discussed in a broad context: credibility as a measure for including documents in a search engine's index, credibility as a ranking signal, cred...

  5. Going, going, still there: using the WebCite service to permanently archive cited web pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenbach, Gunther; Trudel, Mathieu

    2005-12-30

    Scholars are increasingly citing electronic "web references" which are not preserved in libraries or full text archives. WebCite is a new standard for citing web references. To "webcite" a document involves archiving the cited Web page through www.webcitation.org and citing the WebCite permalink instead of (or in addition to) the unstable live Web page. This journal has amended its "instructions for authors" accordingly, asking authors to archive cited Web pages before submitting a manuscript. Almost 200 other journals are already using the system. We discuss the rationale for WebCite, its technology, and how scholars, editors, and publishers can benefit from the service. Citing scholars initiate an archiving process of all cited Web references, ideally before they submit a manuscript. Authors of online documents and websites which are expected to be cited by others can ensure that their work is permanently available by creating an archived copy using WebCite and providing the citation information including the WebCite link on their Web document(s). Editors should ask their authors to cache all cited Web addresses (Uniform Resource Locators, or URLs) "prospectively" before submitting their manuscripts to their journal. Editors and publishers should also instruct their copyeditors to cache cited Web material if the author has not done so already. Finally, WebCite can process publisher submitted "citing articles" (submitted for example as eXtensible Markup Language [XML] documents) to automatically archive all cited Web pages shortly before or on publication. Finally, WebCite can act as a focussed crawler, caching retrospectively references of already published articles. Copyright issues are addressed by honouring respective Internet standards (robot exclusion files, no-cache and no-archive tags). Long-term preservation is ensured by agreements with libraries and digital preservation organizations. The resulting WebCite Index may also have applications for research

  6. Borderless Geospatial Web (bolegweb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetl, V.; Kliment, T.; Kliment, M.

    2016-06-01

    The effective access and use of geospatial information (GI) resources acquires a critical value of importance in modern knowledge based society. Standard web services defined by Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) are frequently used within the implementations of spatial data infrastructures (SDIs) to facilitate discovery and use of geospatial data. This data is stored in databases located in a layer, called the invisible web, thus are ignored by search engines. SDI uses a catalogue (discovery) service for the web as a gateway to the GI world through the metadata defined by ISO standards, which are structurally diverse to OGC metadata. Therefore, a crosswalk needs to be implemented to bridge the OGC resources discovered on mainstream web with those documented by metadata in an SDI to enrich its information extent. A public global wide and user friendly portal of OGC resources available on the web ensures and enhances the use of GI within a multidisciplinary context and bridges the geospatial web from the end-user perspective, thus opens its borders to everybody. Project "Crosswalking the layers of geospatial information resources to enable a borderless geospatial web" with the acronym BOLEGWEB is ongoing as a postdoctoral research project at the Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb in Croatia (http://bolegweb.geof.unizg.hr/). The research leading to the results of the project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7 2007-2013) under Marie Curie FP7-PEOPLE-2011-COFUND. The project started in the November 2014 and is planned to be finished by the end of 2016. This paper provides an overview of the project, research questions and methodology, so far achieved results and future steps.

  7. Web Similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.R.; Vitányi, P.M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Normalized web distance (NWD) is a similarity or normalized semantic distance based on the World Wide Web or any other large electronic database, for instance Wikipedia, and a search engine that returns reliable aggregate page counts. For sets of search terms the NWD gives a similarity on a scale fr

  8. XML databases and the semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Thuraisingham, Bhavani

    2002-01-01

    Efficient access to data, sharing data, extracting information from data, and making use of the information have become urgent needs for today''s corporations. With so much data on the Web, managing it with conventional tools is becoming almost impossible. New tools and techniques are necessary to provide interoperability as well as warehousing between multiple data sources and systems, and to extract information from the databases. XML Databases and the Semantic Web focuses on critical and new Web technologies needed for organizations to carry out transactions on the Web, to understand how to use the Web effectively, and to exchange complex documents on the Web.This reference for database administrators, database designers, and Web designers working in tandem with database technologists covers three emerging technologies of significant impact for electronic business: Extensible Markup Language (XML), semi-structured databases, and the semantic Web. The first two parts of the book explore these emerging techn...

  9. Production and On-Line Comprehension of Definiteness in English and Dutch by Monolingual and Sequential Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chondrogianni, Vasiliki; Vasic, Nada; Marinis, Theodoros; Blom, Elma

    2015-01-01

    The present article examines production and on-line processing of definite articles in Turkish-speaking sequential bilingual children acquiring English and Dutch as second languages (L2) in the UK and in the Netherlands, respectively. Thirty-nine 6-8-year-old L2 children and 48 monolingual (L1) age-matched children participated in two separate…

  10. Linguistic knowledge, fluency and metacognitive knowledge as components of reading comprehension in adolescent low achievers: differences between monolinguals and bilinguals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trapman, M.J.W.; Van Gelderen, Amos; Van Steensel, Roel; Van Schooten, Erik; Hulstijn, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate the role of linguistic knowledge, fluency and meta-cognitive knowledge in Dutch reading comprehension of monolingual and bilingual adolescent academic low achievers in the Netherlands. Results show that these components are substantially associated with reading comprehen

  11. Subject-Verb Agreement in Specific Language Impairment: A Study of Monolingual and Bilingual German-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothweiler, Monika; Chilla, Solveig; Clahsen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates phenomena that have been claimed to be indicative of Specific Language Impairment (SLI) in German, focusing on subject-verb agreement marking. Longitudinal data from fourteen German-speaking children with SLI, seven monolingual and seven Turkish-German successive bilingual children, were examined. We found similar patterns…

  12. Surmounting the Tower of Babel: Monolingual and bilingual 2-year-olds' understanding of the nature of foreign language words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Chen, Ke Heng; Xu, Fei

    2014-03-01

    Languages function as independent and distinct conventional systems, and so each language uses different words to label the same objects. This study investigated whether 2-year-old children recognize that speakers of their native language and speakers of a foreign language do not share the same knowledge. Two groups of children unfamiliar with Mandarin were tested: monolingual English-learning children (n=24) and bilingual children learning English and another language (n=24). An English speaker taught children the novel label fep. On English mutual exclusivity trials, the speaker asked for the referent of a novel label (wug) in the presence of the fep and a novel object. Both monolingual and bilingual children disambiguated the reference of the novel word using a mutual exclusivity strategy, choosing the novel object rather than the fep. On similar trials with a Mandarin speaker, children were asked to find the referent of a novel Mandarin label kuò. Monolinguals again chose the novel object rather than the object with the English label fep, even though the Mandarin speaker had no access to conventional English words. Bilinguals did not respond systematically to the Mandarin speaker, suggesting that they had enhanced understanding of the Mandarin speaker's ignorance of English words. The results indicate that monolingual children initially expect words to be conventionally shared across all speakers-native and foreign. Early bilingual experience facilitates children's discovery of the nature of foreign language words.

  13. The Acquisition of Speech Rhythm by Three-Year-Old Bilingual and Monolingual Children: Cantonese and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Peggy P. K.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the acquisition of speech rhythm by Cantonese-English bilingual children and their age-matched monolingual peers. Languages can be classified in terms of rhythmic characteristics that define English as stress-timed and Cantonese as syllable-timed. Few studies have examined the concurrent acquisition of rhythmically…

  14. Syntactic, Semantic and Pragmatic Correlates of the Acquisition of Exhaustivity in "Wh"-Questions: A Study of Polish Monolingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forys-Nogala, Malgorzata; Haman, Ewa; Katsos, Napoleon; Krajewski, Grzegorz; Schulz, Petra

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates relationships between acquisition of exhaustivity in single and multiple "wh"-questions, mastery of semantic and pragmatic aspects of quantifier comprehension, and general skills in receptive grammar. The participants of the study were 25 Polish monolingual typically developing children aged 4;02-6;02, who were…

  15. The Production of Referring Expressions in Oral Narratives of Chinese-English Bilingual Speakers and Monolingual Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Lei, Jianghua

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the extent to which the production of referring expressions such as noun phrases and pronouns to fulfill various discourse functions in narratives of Chinese-English bilingual children matches that of their monolingual peers in each of the two languages. Spoken narratives in English and Chinese were elicited from 30 9-year-old…

  16. The use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in monolingual and bilingual children with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelman, Marianne; Bol, Gerard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in the spoken Dutch of monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) and bilingual Frisian-Dutch children with SLI. Both SLI groups appeared to be less efficient in their use of subject-verb ag

  17. Monolingual and Bilingual Recognition of Regular and Irregular English Verbs: Sensitivity to Form Similarity Varies with First Language Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnight-Brown, Dana M.; Chen, Lang; Hua, Shu; Kostic, Aleksandar; Feldman, Laurie Beth

    2007-01-01

    We used a cross-modal priming procedure to explore the processing of irregular and regular English verb forms in both monolinguals and bilinguals (Serbian-English, Chinese-English). Materials included irregular nested stem (drawn-DRAW), irregular change stem (ran-RUN), and regular past tense-present tense verb pairs that were either low…

  18. Immigrant Parents' Choice of a Bilingual versus Monolingual Kindergarten for Second-Generation Children: Motives, Attitudes, and Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Moin, Victor; Leikin, Mark; Breitkopf, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how immigrant parents describe and explain their family language policy concerning their child's preschool bilingual development, and also explored the factors linked to the parents' choice of bilingual or monolingual kindergarten for their child. The study design was based on a comparison of 2 groups of parents: those who…

  19. Creating the DISEQuA corpus: a multilingual test set for the monolingual question Answering tasks at CLEF 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnini, B.; Romagnoli, S.; Vallin, A.; Herrera, J.; Peñas, A.; Peinado, V.; Verdejo, F.; de Rijke, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the procedure adopted by the three co-ordinators of the CLEF 2003 question answering track (ITC-irst, UNED and ILLC) to create the question set for the monolingual tasks. Despite thelittle resources available, the three groups collaborated and managed to formulate and verify a l

  20. Metacognitions about Language Skill and Working Memory among Monolingual and Bilingual College Students: When Does Multilingualism Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransdell, Sarah; Barbier, Marie-Laure; Niit, Toomas

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has shown that individual differences in working memory (WM) are highly predictive of a wide range of cognitive behaviours. Until recently, research has focused on monolingual, or undifferentiated, populations. The present research compares metacognitive awareness, as measured by self-ratings of reading, writing, speaking and…

  1. Comparison of Spanish Morphology in Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth P.; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Auza, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    This study compares Spanish morphosyntax error types and magnitude in monolingual Spanish and Spanish-English bilingual children with typical language development (TD) and language impairment (LI). Performance across groups was compared using cloze tasks that targeted articles, clitics, subjunctives, and derivational morphemes in 57 children.…

  2. Increase in Speech Recognition Due to Linguistic Mismatch between Target and Masker Speech: Monolingual and Simultaneous Bilingual Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandruccio, Lauren; Zhou, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether improved speech recognition during linguistically mismatched target-masker experiments is due to linguistic unfamiliarity of the masker speech or linguistic dissimilarity between the target and masker speech. Method: Monolingual English speakers (n = 20) and English-Greek simultaneous bilinguals (n = 20) listened to…

  3. Intercultural Interactions of Mono-Cultural, Mono-Lingual Local Students in Small Group Learning Activities: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Cassandra; Fozdar, Farida; Volet, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the understandings and experiences of mono-cultural, mono-lingual local students in relation to intercultural interactions within small group learning activities at university. Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital are employed to illuminate a number of barriers to intercultural interaction. Using qualitative…

  4. Language Growth in English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children from 2.5 to 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Ribot, Krystal M

    2017-08-10

    To describe the trajectories of English and Spanish language growth in typically developing children from bilingual homes and compare those with the trajectories of English growth in children from monolingual homes, to assess effects of dual language exposure on language growth in typically developing children. Expressive vocabularies were assessed at 6-month intervals from age 30 to 60 months, in English for monolinguals and English and Spanish for bilinguals. Use of English and Spanish in the home was assessed via parental report. Multilevel modeling, including parent education as a covariate, revealed that children from bilingual homes lagged 6 months to 1 year behind monolingual children in English vocabulary growth. The size of the lag was related to the relative amount of English use in the home, but the relation was not linear. Increments in English use conferred the greatest benefit most among homes with already high levels of English use. These homes also were likely to have 1 parent who was a native English speaker. Bilingual children showed stronger growth in English than in Spanish. Bilingual children can lag 6 months to 1 year behind monolingual children in normal English language development. Such lags may not necessarily signify clinically relevant delay if parents report that children also have skills in the home language. Shorter lags are associated with 2 correlated factors: more English exposure and more exposure from native English speakers. Early exposure to Spanish in the home does not guarantee acquisition of Spanish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intercultural Interactions of Mono-Cultural, Mono-Lingual Local Students in Small Group Learning Activities: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Cassandra; Fozdar, Farida; Volet, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the understandings and experiences of mono-cultural, mono-lingual local students in relation to intercultural interactions within small group learning activities at university. Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital are employed to illuminate a number of barriers to intercultural interaction. Using qualitative…

  6. Immigrant Parents' Choice of a Bilingual versus Monolingual Kindergarten for Second-Generation Children: Motives, Attitudes, and Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Moin, Victor; Leikin, Mark; Breitkopf, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how immigrant parents describe and explain their family language policy concerning their child's preschool bilingual development, and also explored the factors linked to the parents' choice of bilingual or monolingual kindergarten for their child. The study design was based on a comparison of 2 groups of parents: those who…

  7. The Use of a Monolingual Dictionary for Meaning Determination by Advanced Cantonese ESL Learners in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a study which investigated advanced Cantonese English as a Second Language (ESL) learners' use of a monolingual dictionary for determining the meanings of familiar English words used in less familiar contexts. Thirty-two university English majors in Hong Kong participated in a dictionary consultation task,…

  8. An Enhanced Indexing And Ranking Technique On The Semantic Web

    CERN Document Server

    Tolba, Ahmed; Elmogy, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    With the fast growth of the Internet, more and more information is available on the Web. The Semantic Web has many features which cannot be handled by using the traditional search engines. It extracts metadata for each discovered Web documents in RDF or OWL formats, and computes relations between documents. We proposed a hybrid indexing and ranking technique for the Semantic Web which finds relevant documents and computes the similarity among a set of documents. First, it returns with the most related document from the repository of Semantic Web Documents (SWDs) by using a modified version of the ObjectRank technique. Then, it creates a sub-graph for the most related SWDs. Finally, It returns the hubs and authorities of these document by using the HITS algorithm. Our technique increases the quality of the results and decreases the execution time of processing the user's query.

  9. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment - Requirements Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2016-10-04

    This document was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and LLNL Division Leader for Fire Protection and reviewed by LLNL Emergency Management Department Head James Colson. The document follows and expands upon the format and contents of the DOE Model Fire Protection Baseline Capabilities Assessment document contained on the DOE Fire Protection Web Site, but only addresses emergency response.

  10. Content Recognition and Context Modeling for Document Analysis and Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangyu

    2009-01-01

    The nature and scope of available documents are changing significantly in many areas of document analysis and retrieval as complex, heterogeneous collections become accessible to virtually everyone via the web. The increasing level of diversity presents a great challenge for document image content categorization, indexing, and retrieval.…

  11. An Integrated Multimedia Approach to Cultural Heritage e-Documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeulders, A.W.M.; Hardman, H.L.; Schreiber, G.; Geusebroek, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss access to e-documents from three different perspectives beyond the plain keyword web-search of the entire document. The first one is the situation-depending delivery of multimedia documents adapting the preferred form (picture, text, speech) to the available information capacity or need e

  12. Natural Science and Technology Terminology in the Sesotho sa Leboa Monolingual Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Mojapelo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The main purpose of this article is to make a comparative analysis of the structural and the lexical differences between coinage and transliteration, as methods for the acquisition of foreign natural sci-ence and technology lexical items, which are meant for inclusion in the Sesotho sa Leboa comprehensive monolingual dictionary, Pukuntšutlhaloši ya Sesotho sa Leboa. With the exception of the multilingual glossaries ('dictionaries' as they are called, which are compiled by the National Language Service of the Department of Arts and Culture, the Sesotho sa Leboa National Lexicography Unit does not at present have any monolin-gual dictionary specializing in specific subjects like natural science and technology. As a start, the Lexicogra-phy Unit decided to include this specialized terminology in the second edition of its comprehensive monolin-gual dictionary. The main purpose for lemmatizing the natural science and technology terminology is to give these lexical items comprehensive definitions in Sesotho sa Leboa, instead of 'a one word translation defini-tion' as is the case in the bilingual and multilingual dictionaries.

    Keywords: TRANSLITERATION, COINAGE, COINED LEXICAL ITEM, LOAN WORD, ADOPTIVE, FOREIGN WORD, LEXICOGRAPHY, SOTHOIZED WORD, INDIGENOUS WORD, NATURAL SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, COMPOUND WORD, AMBIGUITY

    Opsomming: Natuurwetenskaplike en tegnologiese terminologie in die Sesotho sa Leboa eentalige woordeboek. Die hoofdoel van hierdie artikel is om 'n ver-gelykende ontleding te maak van die strukturele en die leksikale verskille tussen nuutskepping en transliterasie as metodes vir die verwerwing van vreemde natuurwetenskaplike en tegnologiese leksikale items wat bedoel is vir insluiting in die Sesotho sa Leboa omvattende eentalige woorde-boek Pukuntšutlhaloši ya Sesotho sa Leboa. Met die uitsondering van die meertalige woordelyste ("woordeboeke" soos hulle genoem word wat deur die Nasionale Taaldiens van die

  13. Web Page Recommendation Using Web Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modraj Bhavsar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available On World Wide Web various kind of content are generated in huge amount, so to give relevant result to user web recommendation become important part of web application. On web different kind of web recommendation are made available to user every day that includes Image, Video, Audio, query suggestion and web page. In this paper we are aiming at providing framework for web page recommendation. 1 First we describe the basics of web mining, types of web mining. 2 Details of each web mining technique.3We propose the architecture for the personalized web page recommendation.

  14. Web Personalization Using Web Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms.Kavita D.Satokar,

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The information on the web is growing dramatically. The users has to spend lots of time on the web finding the information they are interested in. Today, he traditional search engines do not give users enough personalized help but provide the user with lots of irrelevant information. In this paper, we present a personalize Web searchsystem, which can helps users to get the relevant web pages based on their selection from the domain list. Thus, users can obtain a set of interested domains and the web pages from the system. The system is based on features extracted from hyperlinks, such as anchor terms or URL tokens. Our methodology uses an innovative weighted URL Rank algorithm based on user interested domains and user query.

  15. Semantic web services for web databases

    CERN Document Server

    Ouzzani, Mourad

    2011-01-01

    Semantic Web Services for Web Databases introduces an end-to-end framework for querying Web databases using novel Web service querying techniques. This includes a detailed framework for the query infrastructure for Web databases and services. Case studies are covered in the last section of this book. Semantic Web Services For Web Databases is designed for practitioners and researchers focused on service-oriented computing and Web databases.

  16. A Survey on Web Crawling%Web信息采集研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李盛韬; 余智华; 程学旗; 白硕

    2003-01-01

    As a basic component of search engine and a series of other services on Web,Web crawler is playing an important role. Roughly,a Web crawler is a program which automatically traverses the Web by downloading documents and following links from page to page. This article detailedly explains the principles and difficulties on the Web crawler,comprehensively argues several hot directions of Web crawler,and at last views the new direction of Web crawler.

  17. Sensor web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Kevin A. (Inventor); Jackson, Shannon P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A Sensor Web formed of a number of different sensor pods. Each of the sensor pods include a clock which is synchronized with a master clock so that all of the sensor pods in the Web have a synchronized clock. The synchronization is carried out by first using a coarse synchronization which takes less power, and subsequently carrying out a fine synchronization to make a fine sync of all the pods on the Web. After the synchronization, the pods ping their neighbors to determine which pods are listening and responded, and then only listen during time slots corresponding to those pods which respond.

  18. Automatic generation of Web mining environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibelli, Maurizio; Costagliola, Gennaro

    1999-02-01

    The main problem related to the retrieval of information from the world wide web is the enormous number of unstructured documents and resources, i.e., the difficulty of locating and tracking appropriate sources. This paper presents a web mining environment (WME), which is capable of finding, extracting and structuring information related to a particular domain from web documents, using general purpose indices. The WME architecture includes a web engine filter (WEF), to sort and reduce the answer set returned by a web engine, a data source pre-processor (DSP), which processes html layout cues in order to collect and qualify page segments, and a heuristic-based information extraction system (HIES), to finally retrieve the required data. Furthermore, we present a web mining environment generator, WMEG, that allows naive users to generate a WME specific to a given domain by providing a set of specifications.

  19. Evaluation Method of Web Site Structure Based on Web Structure Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jun-e; Zhou Dong-ru

    2003-01-01

    The structure of Web site hecarne more complex titan before. During the design period of a Web site, the lack of model and method results in improper Web structure,which depend on the designer's experience. From the point of view of software engineering, every period in the software life must be evaluated before starting the next period's work. It is very important and essential to search relevant methods for evaluating Web structure before the site is completed. In this work, after studying the related work about the Web struc lure mining and analyzing the major structure mining methods (Page-rank and Hub/Authority), a method based on the Page-rank for Web structure evaluation in design stage is proposecL A Web structure modeling language WSML is designed, and the implement strategies for evaluating system of the Web site structure are given out. Web structure mining has being used mainly in search engines before. It is the first time to employ the Web structure mining technology to evaluate a Web structure in the design period of a Web site. It contributes to the formalization of the design documents for Web site and the improving of software engineering for large scale Web site, and the evaluating system is a practical tool for Web site construction.

  20. Semantic Metadata for Heterogeneous Spatial Planning Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniak, A.; Kaczmarek, I.; Łukowicz, J.; Strzelecki, M.; Coetzee, S.; Paluszyński, W.

    2016-09-01

    Spatial planning documents contain information about the principles and rights of land use in different zones of a local authority. They are the basis for administrative decision making in support of sustainable development. In Poland these documents are published on the Web according to a prescribed non-extendable XML schema, designed for optimum presentation to humans in HTML web pages. There is no document standard, and limited functionality exists for adding references to external resources. The text in these documents is discoverable and searchable by general-purpose web search engines, but the semantics of the content cannot be discovered or queried. The spatial information in these documents is geographically referenced but not machine-readable. Major manual efforts are required to integrate such heterogeneous spatial planning documents from various local authorities for analysis, scenario planning and decision support. This article presents results of an implementation using machine-readable semantic metadata to identify relationships among regulations in the text, spatial objects in the drawings and links to external resources. A spatial planning ontology was used to annotate different sections of spatial planning documents with semantic metadata in the Resource Description Framework in Attributes (RDFa). The semantic interpretation of the content, links between document elements and links to external resources were embedded in XHTML pages. An example and use case from the spatial planning domain in Poland is presented to evaluate its efficiency and applicability. The solution enables the automated integration of spatial planning documents from multiple local authorities to assist decision makers with understanding and interpreting spatial planning information. The approach is equally applicable to legal documents from other countries and domains, such as cultural heritage and environmental management.

  1. SEMANTIC METADATA FOR HETEROGENEOUS SPATIAL PLANNING DOCUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Iwaniak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning documents contain information about the principles and rights of land use in different zones of a local authority. They are the basis for administrative decision making in support of sustainable development. In Poland these documents are published on the Web according to a prescribed non-extendable XML schema, designed for optimum presentation to humans in HTML web pages. There is no document standard, and limited functionality exists for adding references to external resources. The text in these documents is discoverable and searchable by general-purpose web search engines, but the semantics of the content cannot be discovered or queried. The spatial information in these documents is geographically referenced but not machine-readable. Major manual efforts are required to integrate such heterogeneous spatial planning documents from various local authorities for analysis, scenario planning and decision support. This article presents results of an implementation using machine-readable semantic metadata to identify relationships among regulations in the text, spatial objects in the drawings and links to external resources. A spatial planning ontology was used to annotate different sections of spatial planning documents with semantic metadata in the Resource Description Framework in Attributes (RDFa. The semantic interpretation of the content, links between document elements and links to external resources were embedded in XHTML pages. An example and use case from the spatial planning domain in Poland is presented to evaluate its efficiency and applicability. The solution enables the automated integration of spatial planning documents from multiple local authorities to assist decision makers with understanding and interpreting spatial planning information. The approach is equally applicable to legal documents from other countries and domains, such as cultural heritage and environmental management.

  2. Web Air Permits (WAP R7)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for Web Air Permits in Region 7 (WAP R7), a Lotus Notes application that once tracked comment...

  3. BORDERLESS GEOSPATIAL WEB (BOLEGWEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Cetl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effective access and use of geospatial information (GI resources acquires a critical value of importance in modern knowledge based society. Standard web services defined by Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC are frequently used within the implementations of spatial data infrastructures (SDIs to facilitate discovery and use of geospatial data. This data is stored in databases located in a layer, called the invisible web, thus are ignored by search engines. SDI uses a catalogue (discovery service for the web as a gateway to the GI world through the metadata defined by ISO standards, which are structurally diverse to OGC metadata. Therefore, a crosswalk needs to be implemented to bridge the OGC resources discovered on mainstream web with those documented by metadata in an SDI to enrich its information extent. A public global wide and user friendly portal of OGC resources available on the web ensures and enhances the use of GI within a multidisciplinary context and bridges the geospatial web from the end-user perspective, thus opens its borders to everybody. Project “Crosswalking the layers of geospatial information resources to enable a borderless geospatial web” with the acronym BOLEGWEB is ongoing as a postdoctoral research project at the Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb in Croatia (http://bolegweb.geof.unizg.hr/. The research leading to the results of the project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7 2007-2013 under Marie Curie FP7-PEOPLE-2011-COFUND. The project started in the November 2014 and is planned to be finished by the end of 2016. This paper provides an overview of the project, research questions and methodology, so far achieved results and future steps.

  4. Domain Specific Languages for Interactive Web Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus

    This dissertation shows how domain specific languages may be applied to the domain of interactive Web services to obtain flexible, safe, and efficient solutions. We show how each of four key aspects of interactive Web services involving sessions, dynamic creation of HTML/XML documents, form field......, , that supports virtually all aspects of the development of interactive Web services and provides flexible, safe, and efficient solutions....

  5. New Challenges of the Documentation in Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García Jiménez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This special issue, presented by index.comunicación, is focused on media related information & documentation. This field undergoes constant and profound changes, especially visible in documentation processes. A situation characterized by the existence of tablets, smartphones, applications, and by the almost achieved digitization of traditional documents, in addition to the crisis of the press business model, that involves mutations in the journalists’ tasks and in the relationship between them and Documentation. Papers included in this special issue focus on some of the concerns in this domain: the progressive autonomy of the journalist in access to information sources, the role of press offices as documentation sources, the search of information on the web, the situation of media blogs, the viability of elements of information architecture in smart TV and the development of social TV and its connection to Documentation.

  6. An Introduction to XML and Web Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    In the early 1990s, the World Wide Web was defined by a triumvirate consisting of the HTML language for writing hypertext documents, the HTTP communication protocol, and the URL notation for addressing resources. Today, new Web technologies are being developed and deployed at amazing rates...

  7. Bridging the Web and Digital Publishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Herman (Ivan); M. Gylling

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractAlthough using advanced Web technologies at their core, e-books represent a parallel universe to everyday Web documents. Their production workflows, user interfaces, their security, access, or privacy models, etc, are all distinct. There is a lack of a vision on how to unify Digital

  8. The quality of the XML web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijzenhout, S.; Marx, M.; Berendt, B.; de Vries, A.; Fan, W.; Macdonald, C.; Ounis, I.; Ruthven, I.

    2011-01-01

    We collect evidence to answer the following question: Is the quality of the XML documents found on the web sufficient to apply XML technology like XQuery, XPath and XSLT? XML collections from the web have been previously studied statistically, but no detailed information about the quality of the XML

  9. Social Networking on the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finin, Tim; Ding, Li; Zhou, Lina; Joshi, Anupam

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to investigate the way that the semantic web is being used to represent and process social network information. Design/methodology/approach: The Swoogle semantic web search engine was used to construct several large data sets of Resource Description Framework (RDF) documents with social network information that were encoded using the…

  10. Bridging the Web and Digital Publishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herman, I.; Gylling, M.

    2015-01-01

    Although using advanced Web technologies at their core, e-books represent a parallel universe to everyday Web documents. Their production workflows, user interfaces, their security, access, or privacy models, etc, are all distinct. There is a lack of a vision on how to unify Digital Publishing and t

  11. Bridging the Web and Digital Publishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Herman (Ivan); M. Gylling

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractAlthough using advanced Web technologies at their core, e-books represent a parallel universe to everyday Web documents. Their production workflows, user interfaces, their security, access, or privacy models, etc, are all distinct. There is a lack of a vision on how to unify Digital Publ

  12. Collaborative authoring with document fragments and contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sire

    2001-01-01

    textabstractResearch on collaborative authoring focuses on providing an adequate soft-ware environment for the authoring process. This poster describes our framework based on a web architecture as well as a modular document model and some interfaces from which it is possible to derive various

  13. Large scale parallel document image processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zant, Tijn; Schomaker, Lambert; Valentijn, Edwin; Yanikoglu, BA; Berkner, K

    2008-01-01

    Building a system which allows to search a very large database of document images. requires professionalization of hardware and software, e-science and web access. In astrophysics there is ample experience dealing with large data sets due to an increasing number of measurement instruments. The probl

  14. Collaborative authoring with document fragments and contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sire, S.

    2001-01-01

    Research on collaborative authoring focuses on providing an adequate soft-ware environment for the authoring process. This poster describes our framework based on a web architecture as well as a modular document model and some interfaces from which it is possible to derive various authoring processe

  15. Large scale parallel document image processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zant, Tijn; Schomaker, Lambert; Valentijn, Edwin; Yanikoglu, BA; Berkner, K

    2008-01-01

    Building a system which allows to search a very large database of document images. requires professionalization of hardware and software, e-science and web access. In astrophysics there is ample experience dealing with large data sets due to an increasing number of measurement instruments. The

  16. Implementation of a School-wide Clinical Intervention Documentation System

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, T. Lynn; Fox, Brent I.; Andrus, Miranda; Carroll, Dana

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness and impact of a customized Web-based software program implemented in 2006 for school-wide documentation of clinical interventions by pharmacy practice faculty members, pharmacy residents, and student pharmacists.

  17. How much exposure to English is necessary for a bilingual toddler to perform like a monolingual peer in language tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Allegra; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Farag, Rafalla; Krott, Andrea; Arreckx, Frédérique; Dennis, Ian; Floccia, Caroline

    2014-11-01

    Bilingual children are under-referred due to an ostensible expectation that they lag behind their monolingual peers in their English acquisition. The recommendations of the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists (RCSLT) state that bilingual children should be assessed in both the languages known by the children. However, despite these recommendations, a majority of speech and language professionals report that they assess bilingual children only in English as bilingual children come from a wide array of language backgrounds and standardized language measures are not available for the majority of these. Moreover, even when such measures do exist, they are not tailored for bilingual children. It was asked whether a cut-off exists in the proportion of exposure to English at which one should expect a bilingual toddler to perform as well as a monolingual on a test standardized for monolingual English-speaking children. Thirty-five bilingual 2;6-year-olds exposed to British English plus an additional language and 36 British monolingual toddlers were assessed on the auditory component of the Preschool Language Scale, British Picture Vocabulary Scale and an object-naming measure. All parents completed the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory (Oxford CDI) and an exposure questionnaire that assessed the proportion of English in the language input. Where the CDI existed in the bilingual's additional language, these data were also collected. Hierarchical regression analyses found the proportion of exposure to English to be the main predictor of the performance of bilingual toddlers. Bilingual toddlers who received 60% exposure to English or more performed like their monolingual peers on all measures. K-means cluster analyses and Levene variance tests confirmed the estimated English exposure cut-off at 60% for all language measures. Finally, for one additional language for which we had multiple participants, additional language CDI production scores were

  18. Towards structural web services discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jiang-feng

    2008-01-01

    A syntactic and structural matching mechanism for service discovery was put forward, which tries to exploit the underlying semantics of web services to enhance the traditional syntactic service discovery. We commit WSDL (Web Service Description Language) as service description language. The syntactic matching mechanism is based on the textual similarity among WSDL documents using VSM (Vector Space Model). The structural information is extracted from WSDL document tree or the invocation sequence of a series of services which can be viewed as the problem of graph isomorphism. Then we combine the syntactic and structural similarity linearly to calculate the service similarity. Finally we provide a novel web services discovery framework named SG* to find the exact services meeting the users' goals based on service similarity.

  19. A NOVEL APPROACH FOR WEB PERSONALIZATION THROUGH WEB MINING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B J Doddegowda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Data on World Wide Web has been growing in an exponential manner. This raises a severe concern over information over load challenges for the users. Retrieving the most relevant information from the web as per the user requirement has become hard because of the large collection of heterogeneous documents. It is time consuming for the users to go through the long list of odds and ends to choose their relevant one. One approach to overcome this is to personalize the information available on the Web according to user requirements. The information or services provided by a Web to the requirements of individual or cluster of users, by considering their navigational patterns is termed as Web Personalization. The objective of Web Personalization is to provide users with what they really want or need, without having to ask or search for it explicitly. This approach effectively improves the performance of Information Retrieval (IR systems. This paper presents an extensive survey on the various approaches proposed by the researchers in Web Personalization and challenges with a focus on future work.

  20. Automating Information Discovery Within the Invisible Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Edwina; Curran, Kevin; Xie, Ermai

    A Web crawler or spider crawls through the Web looking for pages to index, and when it locates a new page it passes the page on to an indexer. The indexer identifies links, keywords, and other content and stores these within its database. This database is searched by entering keywords through an interface and suitable Web pages are returned in a results page in the form of hyperlinks accompanied by short descriptions. The Web, however, is increasingly moving away from being a collection of documents to a multidimensional repository for sounds, images, audio, and other formats. This is leading to a situation where certain parts of the Web are invisible or hidden. The term known as the "Deep Web" has emerged to refer to the mass of information that can be accessed via the Web but cannot be indexed by conventional search engines. The concept of the Deep Web makes searches quite complex for search engines. Google states that the claim that conventional search engines cannot find such documents as PDFs, Word, PowerPoint, Excel, or any non-HTML page is not fully accurate and steps have been taken to address this problem by implementing procedures to search items such as academic publications, news, blogs, videos, books, and real-time information. However, Google still only provides access to a fraction of the Deep Web. This chapter explores the Deep Web and the current tools available in accessing it.

  1. Exploiting Document Level Semantics in Document Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rafi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Document clustering is an unsupervised machine learning method that separates a large subject heterogeneous collection (Corpus into smaller, more manageable, subject homogeneous collections (clusters. Traditional method of document clustering works around extracting textual features like: terms, sequences, and phrases from documents. These features are independent of each other and do not cater meaning behind these word in the clustering process. In order to perform semantic viable clustering, we believe that the problem of document clustering has two main components: (1 to represent the document in such a form that it inherently captures semantics of the text. This may also help to reduce dimensionality of the document and (2 to define a similarity measure based on the lexical, syntactic and semantic features such that it assigns higher numerical values to document pairs which have higher syntactic and semantic relationship. In this paper, we propose a representation of document by extracting three different types of features from a given document. These are lexical , syntactic and semantic features. A meta-descriptor for each document is proposed using these three features: first lexical, then syntactic and in the last semantic. A document to document similarity matrix is produced where each entry of this matrix contains a three value vector for each lexical , syntactic and semantic . The main contributions from this research are (i A document level descriptor using three different features for text like: lexical, syntactic and semantics. (ii we propose a similarity function using these three, and (iii we define a new candidate clustering algorithm using three component of similarity measure to guide the clustering process in a direction that produce more semantic rich clusters. We performed an extensive series of experiments on standard text mining data sets with external clustering evaluations like: FMeasure and Purity, and have obtained

  2. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  3. Generic safety documentation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

  4. Web Services Basic Profile Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Matthew; Schaaff, Andre; Graham, Matthew

    2010-12-01

    This document describes rules to take into account when implementing SOAP-based web services. It explains also how to check conformance to these rules. It can be read as a "Guideline to VO Web Service Interoperability" or a "How to provide interoperable VO web services".

  5. IVOA Recommendation: Web Services Basic Profile Version 1.0

    OpenAIRE

    Schaaff, Andre; Graham, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    This document describes rules to take into account when implementing SOAP-based web services. It explains also how to check conformance to these rules. It can be read as a "Guideline to VO Web Service Interoperability" or a "How to provide interoperable VO web services".

  6. Characteristics of Food Industry Web Sites and "Advergames" Targeting Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Jennifer; Bell, Robert A.; Cassady, Diana

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the content of food industry Web sites targeting children by describing strategies used to prolong their visits and foster brand loyalty; and to document health-promoting messages on these Web sites. Design: A content analysis was conducted of Web sites advertised on 2 children's networks, Cartoon Network and Nickelodeon. A…

  7. Characteristics of Food Industry Web Sites and "Advergames" Targeting Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Jennifer; Bell, Robert A.; Cassady, Diana

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the content of food industry Web sites targeting children by describing strategies used to prolong their visits and foster brand loyalty; and to document health-promoting messages on these Web sites. Design: A content analysis was conducted of Web sites advertised on 2 children's networks, Cartoon Network and Nickelodeon. A…

  8. 32 CFR 701.119 - Privacy and the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Privacy and the web. 701.119 Section 701.119... THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.119 Privacy and the web. DON activities shall consult SECNAVINST 5720.47B for guidance on what may be posted on a Navy Web site....

  9. Binarization of Document Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.silpalatha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Documents Image Binarization is performed in the preprocessing stage for document analysis and it aims to segment the foreground text from the document background. A fast and accurate document image binarization technique is important for the ensuing document image processing tasks such as optical character recognition (OCR. Though document image binarization has been studied for many years, the thresholding of degraded document images is still an unsolved problem due to the high inter/intra variation between the text stroke and the document background across different document images. The handwritten text within the degraded documents often shows a certain amount of variation in terms of the stroke width, stroke brightness, stroke connection, and document background. In addition, historical documents are often degraded by the bleed. Documents are often degraded by different types of imaging artifact. These different types of document degradations tend to induce the document thresholding error and make degraded document image binarization a big challenge to most state-of-the-art techniques. The proposed method is simple, robust and capable of handling different types of degraded document images with minimum parameter tuning. It makes use of the adaptive image contrast that combines the local image contrast and the local image gradient adaptively and therefore is tolerant to the text and background variation caused by different types of document degradations. In particular, the proposed technique addresses the over-normalization problem of the local maximum minimum algorithm. At the same time, the parameters used in the algorithm can be adaptively estimated

  10. A Middleware road towards Web (Grid) Services

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    Middleware technologies is a very big field, containing a strong already done research as well as the currently running research to confirm already done research's results and the to have some new solution by theoretical as well as the experimental (practical) way. This document has been produced by Zeeshan Ahmed (Student: Connectivity Software Technologies Blekinge Institute of Technologies). This describes the research already done in the field of middleware technologies including Web Services, Grid Computing, Grid Services and Open Grid Service Infrastructure & Architecture. This document concludes with the overview of Web (Grid) Service, Chain of Web (Grid) Services and the necessary security issue.

  11. Early literacy and comprehension skills in children learning English as an additional language and monolingual children with language weaknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Fricke, Silke; Schaefer, Blanca; Lervåg, Arne; Hulme, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Many children learning English as an additional language (EAL) show reading comprehension difficulties despite adequate decoding. However, the relationship between early language and reading comprehension in this group is not fully understood. The language and literacy skills of 80 children learning English from diverse language backgrounds and 80 monolingual English-speaking peers with language weaknesses were assessed at school entry (mean age = 4 years, 7 months) and after 2 years of schooling in the UK (mean age = 6 years, 3 months). The EAL group showed weaker language skills and stronger word reading than the monolingual group but no difference in reading comprehension. Individual differences in reading comprehension were predicted by variations in decoding and language comprehension in both groups to a similar degree.

  12. First in the Web, but Where are the Pieces?

    CERN Document Server

    Deken, J M

    2002-01-01

    As part of their efforts to consistently and reliably identify and preserve the archival records of their organizations, archivists are trying to address the issue of appraising and collecting World Wide Web documents. This paper discusses the approach taken at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center to collect and preserve documentation of the first World Wide Web site in the United States.

  13. Semantic Web Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    the information out of various types of EXIF digital camera files and show it in a reasonably consistent way (schema), 2003. http://www.w3.org/2000...many documents are not expressible in logica at all, and many in logic but not in N3. However, we are building a system for which a prime goal is the...demonstrate that conventional logica programming tools are efficent and straightforwradly adapted to semantic web work. • Jena RDF toolkit now accepts N3 as

  14. Automated document analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jeffrey D.; Dietzel, Robert; Hartnett, David

    2002-08-01

    A software application has been developed to aid law enforcement and government intelligence gathering organizations in the translation and analysis of foreign language documents with potential intelligence content. The Automated Document Analysis System (ADAS) provides the capability to search (data or text mine) documents in English and the most commonly encountered foreign languages, including Arabic. Hardcopy documents are scanned by a high-speed scanner and are optical character recognized (OCR). Documents obtained in an electronic format bypass the OCR and are copied directly to a working directory. For translation and analysis, the script and the language of the documents are first determined. If the document is not in English, the document is machine translated to English. The documents are searched for keywords and key features in either the native language or translated English. The user can quickly review the document to determine if it has any intelligence content and whether detailed, verbatim human translation is required. The documents and document content are cataloged for potential future analysis. The system allows non-linguists to evaluate foreign language documents and allows for the quick analysis of a large quantity of documents. All document processing can be performed manually or automatically on a single document or a batch of documents.

  15. Digital libraries and World Wide Web sites and page persistence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Koehler

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Web pages and Web sites, some argue, can either be collected as elements of digital or hybrid libraries, or, as others would have it, the WWW is itself a library. We begin with the assumption that Web pages and Web sites can be collected and categorized. The paper explores the proposition that the WWW constitutes a library. We conclude that the Web is not a digital library. However, its component parts can be aggregated and included as parts of digital library collections. These, in turn, can be incorporated into "hybrid libraries." These are libraries with both traditional and digital collections. Material on the Web can be organized and managed. Native documents can be collected in situ, disseminated, distributed, catalogueed, indexed, controlled, in traditional library fashion. The Web therefore is not a library, but material for library collections is selected from the Web. That said, the Web and its component parts are dynamic. Web documents undergo two kinds of change. The first type, the type addressed in this paper, is "persistence" or the existence or disappearance of Web pages and sites, or in a word the lifecycle of Web documents. "Intermittence" is a variant of persistence, and is defined as the disappearance but reappearance of Web documents. At any given time, about five percent of Web pages are intermittent, which is to say they are gone but will return. Over time a Web collection erodes. Based on a 120-week longitudinal study of a sample of Web documents, it appears that the half-life of a Web page is somewhat less than two years and the half-life of a Web site is somewhat more than two years. That is to say, an unweeded Web document collection created two years ago would contain the same number of URLs, but only half of those URLs point to content. The second type of change Web documents experience is change in Web page or Web site content. Again based on the Web document samples, very nearly all Web pages and sites undergo some

  16. Teaching PBL with Web 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Nina Bonderup; Buus, Lillian

    2013-01-01

    of competences necessary for participating in contemporary society. In this article we report on a study of three cases where web 2.0 activities have been introduced into PBL settings. Our focus is the unexpected challenges teachers may face due to inherent tensions between the practice logic of the educational...... system and that of web 2.0-practices. The study documents the development of viable ways of making use of web 2.0-mediated activities in support of a PBL approach and thus provides existence proof that web 2.0 activities may contribute constructively and productively to learning within a PBL perspective...

  17. Cultural Aspects in the Shona Monolingual Dictionary Duramazwi Guru reChiShona*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomalanga Mpofu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In the compilation of dictionaries, lexicographers also take cognisance of the culture which is inherent in a language. This article will look at the way the cultural aspect is interwoven in the practice of dictionary making. Language is at the core of culture and it is the major vehicle for the transmission of a people's beliefs and values. Language is also an expression of social struc-tures and attitudes. No culture can exist which does not have a natural language at its centre. A language thus reflects a particular culture. Culture in this article will be taken to mean whatever a person must know in order to function in a particular society (Wardhaugh 1998: 215. The article will look at two aspects: (1 the interrelationship between language and culture and its bearing on lexicography; and (2 the treatment of cultural aspects in Duramazwi Guru reChiShona (2001. Examples used in this article are drawn from the advanced Shona monolingual dictionary Duramazwi Guru reChiShona, and other Shona dictionaries, both monolingual and bilingual.

    Keywords: CULTURAL COMPETENCE, CULTURAL ASPECTS, CULTURAL MEANING, CULTURE, DICTIONARY, EUPHEMISM, EXTENDED MEANING, IDIOM, LEXICOGRAPHY, PROVERBS, SHONA, SHONA SOCIETY, TABOO

    Opsomming: Kulturele aspekte in die Sjona- eentalige woordeboek. By die samestelling van woordeboeke neem leksikograwe ook kennis van die kultuur wat inherent aan 'n taal is. Hierdie artikel sal kyk na die manier waarop die kulturele aspek verweef is met die praktyk van woordeboekmaak. Taal lê aan die kern van kultuur en dit is die hoofmedium vir die oordrag van 'n volk se opvattings en waardes. Taal is ook 'n uitdrukking van sosiale strukture en houdings. Geen kultuur kan bestaan wat nie 'n natuurlike taal as middelpunt het nie. 'n Taal weerspieël gevolglik 'n bepaalde kultuur. Kultuur in hierdie artikel sal verstaan word om alles te beteken wat 'n persoon moet weet om in 'n betrokke maatskappy te funksioneer

  18. Disregarding the Corpus: Head-word and Sense Treatment in Shona Monolingual Lexicography*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster M. Mavhu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: With specific reference to Shona monolingual lexicography, this article discusses how corpus-based lexicographers might, in some instances, decide not strictly to adhere to the corpus when it comes to headword and sense treatment. The writer is a member of the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI, formerly known as the African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project. ALRI is a nonfaculty interdisciplinary unit dedicated to research on and the development of African languages in Zimbabwe. The writer is part of the six-member team that compiled the now published Shona monolingual, synchronic, medium-sized and general-purpose dictionary Du-ramazwi Guru ReChiShona (2001. The article originates from the writer's experience of working on this dictionary. The article highlights the fact that being corpus-based does not necessarily imply being corpus-bound.

    Keywords: CORPUS, CORPUS-BASED, FREQUENCY, HEADWORD, LEXICOGRAPHY, SENSE, SHONA, SLANG, SYNONYMS

    Opsomming: Verontagsaming van die korpus: Trefwoord- en betekenisbe-handeling in die Sjona- eentalige leksikografie. Met spesifieke verwysing na die Sjona- eentalige leksikografie bespreek hierdie artikel hoe korpusgebaseerde leksikograwe in som-mige gevalle kan besluit om nie streng by die korpus te bly wanneer dit kom by trefwoord- en betekenisbehandeling nie. Die skrywer is 'n lid van die African Language Research Institute (AL-RI, vroeër bekend as die African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project. ALRI is 'n niefakulteits- interdissiplinêre eenheid wat hom beywer vir navorsing oor en die ontwikkeling van die Afrikatale in Zimbabwe. Die skrywer is deel van 'n span van ses lede wat die reeds gepubliseerde Sjona- een-talige, sinchroniese, middelgroot en meerdoelige woordeboek Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona (2001 saamgestel het. Die artikel het uit die skrywer se ervaring van werk aan hierdie woordeboek ont-staan. Die artikel belig die feit dat korpusgebaseerdheid nie noodwendig

  19. Looking at the evidence in visual world: eye-movements reveal how bilingual and monolingual Turkish speakers process grammatical evidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Seçkin; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Felser, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers) and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference to information source, through inflectional affixes signaling either direct (-DI) or indirect (-mIş) evidentiality. We conducted an eye-tracking-during-listening experiment where participants were given access to visual 'evidence' supporting the use of either a direct or indirect evidential form. The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well. In contrast, both late and early bilinguals were less accurate and slower to respond to direct than to indirect evidentials. The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data. That is, both late and early bilinguals fixated less frequently on the target picture in the direct than in the indirect evidential condition while the monolinguals showed no difference between these conditions. Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars. We discuss our findings with regard to theories of incomplete acquisition and first language attrition.

  20. Looking at the evidence in visual world: eye-movements reveal how bilingual and monolingual Turkish speakers process grammatical evidentiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçkin eArslan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference to information source, through inflectional affixes signaling either direct (-DI or indirect (-mIş evidentiality. We conducted an eye-tracking-during-listening experiment where participants were given access to visual ‘evidence’ supporting the use of either a direct or indirect evidential form. The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well. In contrast, both late and early bilinguals were less accurate and slower to respond to direct than to indirect evidentials. The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data. That is, both late and early bilinguals fixated less frequently on the target picture in the direct than in the indirect evidential condition while the monolinguals showed no difference between these conditions. Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars. We discuss our findings with regard to theories of incomplete acquisition and first language attrition.

  1. Cognitive profiles in bilingual children born to immigrant parents and Italian monolingual native children with specific learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Anna; Nacinovich, Renata; Bertuletti, Nadia; Montrasi, Valentina; Marchetti, Sara; Neri, Francesca; Bomba, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children(®) - fourth edition IV (WISC IV) intellectual profile of two groups of children with specific learning disorder, a group of bilingual children and a group of monolingual Italian children, in order to identify possible significant differences between them. A group of 48 bilingual children and a group of 48 Italian monolingual children were included in this study. A preliminary comparison showed the homogeneity of the two groups regarding learning disorder typology and sociodemographic characteristics (age at WISC IV assessment, sex and years of education in Italy) with the exception of socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was then used as a covariate in the analysis. Even if the two groups were comparable in specific learning disorder severity and, in particular, in the text comprehension performance, our findings showed that the WISC IV performances of the bilingual group were significantly worse than the Italian group in Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=0.03), in General Ability Index (P=0.03), in Working Memory Index (P=0.009) and in some subtests and clusters requiring advanced linguistic abilities. These results support the hypothesis of a weakness in metalinguistic abilities in bilingual children with specific learning disorders than monolinguals. If confirmed, this result must be considered in the rehabilitation treatment.

  2. Cognitive profiles in bilingual children born to immigrant parents and Italian monolingual native children with specific learning disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Anna; Nacinovich, Renata; Bertuletti, Nadia; Montrasi, Valentina; Marchetti, Sara; Neri, Francesca; Bomba, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to compare the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children® – fourth edition IV (WISC IV) intellectual profile of two groups of children with specific learning disorder, a group of bilingual children and a group of monolingual Italian children, in order to identify possible significant differences between them. Patients and methods A group of 48 bilingual children and a group of 48 Italian monolingual children were included in this study. A preliminary comparison showed the homogeneity of the two groups regarding learning disorder typology and sociodemographic characteristics (age at WISC IV assessment, sex and years of education in Italy) with the exception of socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was then used as a covariate in the analysis. Results Even if the two groups were comparable in specific learning disorder severity and, in particular, in the text comprehension performance, our findings showed that the WISC IV performances of the bilingual group were significantly worse than the Italian group in Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=0.03), in General Ability Index (P=0.03), in Working Memory Index (P=0.009) and in some subtests and clusters requiring advanced linguistic abilities. Conclusion These results support the hypothesis of a weakness in metalinguistic abilities in bilingual children with specific learning disorders than monolinguals. If confirmed, this result must be considered in the rehabilitation treatment. PMID:28115851

  3. Bilingualism at the core of the brain. Structural differences between bilinguals and monolinguals revealed by subcortical shape analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgaleta, Miguel; Sanjuán, Ana; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sebastian-Galles, Núria; Ávila, César

    2016-01-15

    Naturally acquiring a language shapes the human brain through a long-lasting learning and practice process. This is supported by previous studies showing that managing more than one language from early childhood has an impact on brain structure and function. However, to what extent bilingual individuals present neuroanatomical peculiarities at the subcortical level with respect to monolinguals is yet not well understood, despite the key role of subcortical gray matter for a number of language functions, including monitoring of speech production and language control - two processes especially solicited by bilinguals. Here we addressed this issue by performing a subcortical surface-based analysis in a sample of monolinguals and simultaneous bilinguals (N=88) that only differed in their language experience from birth. This analysis allowed us to study with great anatomical precision the potential differences in morphology of key subcortical structures, namely, the caudate, accumbens, putamen, globus pallidus and thalamus. Vertexwise analyses revealed significantly expanded subcortical structures for bilinguals compared to monolinguals, localized in bilateral putamen and thalamus, as well as in the left globus pallidus and right caudate nucleus. A topographical interpretation of our results suggests that a more complex phonological system in bilinguals may lead to a greater development of a subcortical brain network involved in monitoring articulatory processes.

  4. Looking at the evidence in visual world: eye-movements reveal how bilingual and monolingual Turkish speakers process grammatical evidentiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Seçkin; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Felser, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers) and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference to information source, through inflectional affixes signaling either direct (-DI) or indirect (-mIş) evidentiality. We conducted an eye-tracking-during-listening experiment where participants were given access to visual ‘evidence’ supporting the use of either a direct or indirect evidential form. The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well. In contrast, both late and early bilinguals were less accurate and slower to respond to direct than to indirect evidentials. The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data. That is, both late and early bilinguals fixated less frequently on the target picture in the direct than in the indirect evidential condition while the monolinguals showed no difference between these conditions. Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars. We discuss our findings with regard to theories of incomplete acquisition and first language attrition. PMID:26441762

  5. English as a Foreign Language in Bilingual Language-minority Children, Children with Dyslexia and Monolingual Typical Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacci, Paola; Canducci, Elisa; Gravagna, Giulia; Palladino, Paola

    2017-05-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating literacy skills in English as a foreign language in three different groups of children: monolinguals with dyslexia (n = 19), typically developing bilinguals (language-minority) (n = 19) and a control group of monolinguals (Italian) (n = 76). Bilinguals were not expected to fail in English measures, and their gap with monolinguals would be expected to be limited to the instructional language, owing to underexposure. All participants were enrolled in Italian primary schools (fourth and fifth grades). A non-verbal reasoning task and Italian and English literacy tasks were administered. The Italian battery included word and non-word reading (speed and accuracy), word and non-word writing, and reading comprehension; the English battery included similar tasks, except for the non-word writing. Bilingual children performed similarly to typical readers in English tasks, whereas in Italian tasks, their performance was similar to that of typical readers in reading speed but not in reading accuracy and writing. Children with dyslexia underperformed compared with typically developing children in all English and Italian tasks, except for reading comprehension in Italian. Profile analysis and correlational analyses were further discussed. These results suggest that English as a foreign language might represent a challenge for students with dyslexia but a strength for bilingual language-minority children. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Cognitive Temporal Document Priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetz, M.H.; de Rijke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Temporal information retrieval exploits temporal features of document collections and queries. Temporal document priors are used to adjust the score of a document based on its publication time. We consider a class of temporal document priors that is inspired by retention functions considered in cogn

  7. Gestor de contenidos web

    OpenAIRE

    García Populin, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Trabajo final de carrera desarrollado en .NET. Presenta un gestor de contenidos web para generar una web publicitaria. Treball final de carrera desenvolupat en .NET. Presenta un gestor de continguts web per generar una web publicitària.

  8. Web Indexing with Meta Fields: A Survey of Web Objects in Polymer Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian; Wesley, Kathryn

    1998-01-01

    This survey of 1037 World Wide Web objects on polymer chemistry collected by four search engines (AltaVista, Lycos, Excite, Webcrawler) examined document information and use of meta fields, images, and chemical names. Found that the use of meta fields was not widespread and that knowledge of meta fields in HTML varied among Web object creators.…

  9. The learner as lexicographer: using monolingual and bilingual corpora to deepen vocabulary knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina HMELJAK SANGAWA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning vocabulary is one of the most challenging tasks faced by learners with a non-kanji background when learning Japanese as a foreign language. However, learners are often not aware of the range of different aspects of word knowledge they need in order to successfully use Japanese. This includes not only the spoken and written form of a word and its meaning, but also morphological, grammatical, collocational, connotative and pragmatic knowledge as well as knowledge of social constraints to be observed. In this article, we present some background data on the use of dictionaries among students of Japanese at the University of Ljubljana, a selection of resources and a series of exercises developed with the following aims: a to foster greater awareness of the different aspects of Japanese vocabulary, both from a monolingual and a contrastive perspective, b to learn about tools and methods that can be applied in different contexts of language learning and language use, and c to develop strategies for learning new vocabulary, reinforcing knowledge about known vocabulary, and effectively using this knowledge in receptive and productive language tasks.

  10. Investigating the appropriateness and relevance of mobile web accessibility guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Clegg-Vinell, R; Bailey, C.; Gkatzidou, V

    2014-01-01

    The Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) develop and maintain guidelines for making the web more accessible to people with disabilities. WCAG 2.0 and the MWBP 1.0 are internationally regarded as the industry standard guidelines for web accessibility. Mobile testing sessions conducted by AbilityNet document issues raised by users in a report format, relating issues to guidelines wherever possible. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigati...

  11. Unified Approach to Vulnerability Analysis of Web Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, H. T.; Loh, P. K. K.

    2008-11-01

    Web vulnerabilities in web-based applications may be detected, classified and documented. Several Web scanners exist for vulnerabilities in Web applications implemented via different technologies. However, none of them provides the technology-independent, generic coverage of possible vulnerabilities. In this project that is funded by Mindef Singapore, we propose a new approach for Web application security and vulnerability analysis. The design addresses the categorization of scanner results with a generic data model and the design of a language-independent rule-based engine that detects, analyses and reports suspected vulnerabilities in web-based applications.

  12. Materializing the web of linked data

    CERN Document Server

    Konstantinou, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the Linked Data domain by adopting a bottom-up approach: it introduces the fundamental Semantic Web technologies and building blocks, which are then combined into methodologies and end-to-end examples for publishing datasets as Linked Data, and use cases that harness scholarly information and sensor data. It presents how Linked Data is used for web-scale data integration, information management and search. Special emphasis is given to the publication of Linked Data from relational databases as well as from real-time sensor data streams. The authors also trace the transformation from the document-based World Wide Web into a Web of Data. Materializing the Web of Linked Data is addressed to researchers and professionals studying software technologies, tools and approaches that drive the Linked Data ecosystem, and the Web in general.

  13. Web Accessibility - A timely recognized challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Qadri, Jameel A

    2011-01-01

    Web Accessibility for disabled people has posed a challenge to the civilized societies that claim to uphold the principles of equal opportunity and nondiscrimination. Certain concrete measures have been taken to narrow down the digital divide between normal and disabled users of Internet technology. The efforts have resulted in enactment of legislations and laws and mass awareness about the discriminatory nature of the accessibility issue, besides the efforts have resulted in the development of commensurate technological tools to develop and test the Web accessibility. World Wide Web consortium's (W3C) Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) has framed a comprehensive document comprising of set of guidelines to make the Web sites accessible to the users with disabilities. This paper is about the issues and aspects surrounding Web Accessibility. The details and scope are kept limited to comply with the aim of the paper which is to create awareness and to provide basis for in-depth investigation.

  14. Proxima: a presentation-oriented editor for structured documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrage, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    A typical computer user deals with a large variety of documents, such as text files, spreadsheets, and web pages. The applications for constructing and modifying these documents are called editors (e.g. text editors, spreadsheet applications, and HTML editors). Despite the apparent differences betwe

  15. Commercial Document Delivery Services "Challenged" as EBSCO Drops Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machovec, George S.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the EBSCO decision to stop its traditional commercial document delivery business. High prices for copyright clearance, government subsidized services, electronic formats available on the Internet, Web-based services, and consortium-based licensing activities are discussed as influencing the market for document delivery. (LRW)

  16. Topic Models for Link Prediction in Document Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Saurabh

    2012-01-01

    Recent explosive growth of interconnected document collections such as citation networks, network of web pages, content generated by crowd-sourcing in collaborative environments, etc., has posed several challenging problems for data mining and machine learning community. One central problem in the domain of document networks is that of "link…

  17. Commercial Document Delivery Services "Challenged" as EBSCO Drops Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machovec, George S.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the EBSCO decision to stop its traditional commercial document delivery business. High prices for copyright clearance, government subsidized services, electronic formats available on the Internet, Web-based services, and consortium-based licensing activities are discussed as influencing the market for document delivery. (LRW)

  18. 76 FR 66311 - Draft Documents To Support Submission of an Electronic Common Technical Document; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... Files Specification for Module 1, version 2.0'' (which includes the U.S. regional document type definition, version 3.0) and ``Comprehensive Table of Contents Headings and Hierarchy, version 2.0.'' Supporting technical files are also being made available on the Agency Web site. These draft...

  19. Registration document 2005; Document de reference 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This reference document of Gaz de France provides information and data on the Group activities in 2005: financial informations, business, activities, equipments factories and real estate, trade, capital, organization charts, employment, contracts and research programs. (A.L.B.)

  20. 2002 reference document; Document de reference 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  1. WEB 238 Courses Tutorial / indigohelp

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    WEB 238 Week 2 JavaScript Events WEB 238 Week 3 Cookies WEB 238 Week 4 Dynamic HTML WEB 238 Week 5 Web Programming Languages WEB 238 Week 1 DQs WEB 238 Week 2DQs WEB 238 Week 3DQs WEB 238 Week 4DQs WEB 238 Week 5DQs  

  2. Web Annotation and Threaded Forum: How Did Learners Use the Two Environments in an Online Discussion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanyan; Gao, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Web annotation is a Web 2.0 technology that allows learners to work collaboratively on web pages or electronic documents. This study explored the use of Web annotation as an online discussion tool by comparing it to a traditional threaded discussion forum. Ten graduate students participated in the study. Participants had access to both a Web…

  3. An improved Approach for Document Retrieval Using Suffix Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sandhya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Huge collection of documents is available at few mouse clicks. The current World Wide Web is a web of pages. Users have to guess possible keywords that might lead through search engines to the pages that contain information of interest and browse hundreds or even thousands of the returned pages in order to obtain what they want. In our work we build a generalized suffix tree for our documents and propose a search technique for retrieving documents based on a sort of phrase called word sequences. Our proposed method efficiently searches for a given phrase (with missing or additional words in between with better performance.

  4. Develop a generic test-bed for web scraping

    OpenAIRE

    Lorente Adamuz, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    This document contains the description and explanation process developed to construct a Web Scraping Tested. This development has been guided by IGLOR Soluciones Audovisuales Avanzadas S.L. and takes as a reference the project Trenditlive Basic issues of web scraping and the development tools are detailed across the document. [ANGLÈS] Also the design and development of the tool and its consequences are explained form both technical and legal point of view. [CATALÀ] This document contains t...

  5. Proactive Response to Potential Material Shortages Arising from Environmental Restrictions Using Automatic Discovery and Extraction of Information from Technical Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    12 Focused Crawler Data...documents is via web links on manufacturer and distributor product catalogs on the web. These links were discovered using XSB’s focused crawler technology...associated MSDS documents. As with MSDS, links to product datasheets were discovered via the focused crawler . In addition to PDF documents

  6. Usare WebDewey

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    This presentation shows how to use the WebDewey tool. Features of WebDewey. Italian WebDewey compared with American WebDewey. Querying Italian WebDewey. Italian WebDewey and MARC21. Italian WebDewey and UNIMARC. Numbers, captions, "equivalente verbale": Dewey decimal classification in Italian catalogues. Italian WebDewey and Nuovo soggettario. Italian WebDewey and LCSH. Italian WebDewey compared with printed version of Italian Dewey Classification (22. edition): advantages and disadvantages o...

  7. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...... such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development...

  8. Intranet Document Management Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, H. Joseph; Yen, David C.; Lin, Binshan

    1998-01-01

    Explains how intranets facilitate documentation availability within a company at substantial cost savings. Topics include intranet document management systems (IDMS); publication costs for printed materials; hardware and software specifications; performance; and security. (Author/LRW)

  9. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document...... such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  10. Enterprise Document Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The function of the operation is to provide e-Signature and document management support for Acquisition and Assisitance (A&A) documents including vouchers in...

  11. GQL: Extending XQuery to Query GML Documents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Jihong; ZHU Fubao; ZHOU Jiaogen; NIU Liping

    2006-01-01

    GML is becoming the de facto standard for electronic data exchange among the applications of Web and distributed geographic information systems. However, the conventional query languages (e.g. SQL and its extended versions) are not suitable for direct querying and updating of GML documents. Even the effective approaches working well with XML could not guarantee good results when applied to GML documents. Although XQuery is a powerful standard query language for XML, it is not proposed for querying spatial features, which constitute the most important components in GML documents. We propose GQL, a query language specification to support spatial queries over GML documents by extending XQuery. The data model, algebra, and formal semantics as well as various spatial functions and operations of GQL are presented in detail.

  12. Quantification of competitive value of documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Šimek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of Internet users use the global network to search for different information using fulltext search engines such as Google, Yahoo!, or Seznam. The web presentation operators are trying, with the help of different optimization techniques, to get to the top places in the results of fulltext search engines. Right there is a great importance of Search Engine Optimization and Search Engine Marketing, because normal users usually try links only on the first few pages of the fulltext search engines results on certain keywords and in catalogs they use primarily hierarchically higher placed links in each category. Key to success is the application of optimization methods which deal with the issue of keywords, structure and quality of content, domain names, individual sites and quantity and reliability of backward links. The process is demanding, long-lasting and without a guaranteed outcome. A website operator without advanced analytical tools do not identify the contribution of individual documents from which the entire web site consists. If the web presentation operators want to have an overview of their documents and web site in global, it is appropriate to quantify these positions in a specific way, depending on specific key words. For this purpose serves the quantification of competitive value of documents, which consequently sets global competitive value of a web site. Quantification of competitive values is performed on a specific full-text search engine. For each full-text search engine can be and often are, different results. According to published reports of ClickZ agency or Market Share is according to the number of searches by English-speaking users most widely used Google search engine, which has a market share of more than 80%. The whole procedure of quantification of competitive values is common, however, the initial step which is the analysis of keywords depends on a choice of the fulltext search engine.

  13. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of acti

  14. Documenting Employee Conduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Jason

    2009-01-01

    One of the best ways for a child care program to lose an employment-related lawsuit is failure to document the performance of its employees. Documentation of an employee's performance can provide evidence of an employment-related decision such as discipline, promotion, or discharge. When properly implemented, documentation of employee performance…

  15. DERIVING USER ACCESS PATTERNS AND MINING WEB COMMUNITY WITH WEB-LOG DATA FOR PREDICTING USER SESSIONS WITH PAJEK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Balaji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Web logs are a young and dynamic media type. Due to the intrinsic relationship among Web objects and the deficiency of a uniform schema of web documents, Web community mining has become significant area for Web data management and analysis. The research of Web communities extents a number of research domains. In this paper an ontological model has been present with some recent studies on this topic, which cover finding relevant Web pages based on linkage information, discovering user access patterns through analyzing Web log files from Web data. A simulation has been created with the academic website crawled data. The simulation is done in JAVA and ORACLE environment. Results show that prediction of user session could give us plenty of vital information for the Business Intelligence. Search Engine Optimization could also use these potential results which are discussed in the paper in detail.

  16. CLAIRLIB Documentation v1.03

    CERN Document Server

    Radev, Dragomir; Fader, Anthony; Joseph, Mark; Gerrish, Joshua; Schaller, Mark; dePeri, Jonathan; Gibson, Bryan

    2007-01-01

    The Clair library is intended to simplify a number of generic tasks in Natural Language Processing (NLP), Information Retrieval (IR), and Network Analysis. Its architecture also allows for external software to be plugged in with very little effort. Functionality native to Clairlib includes Tokenization, Summarization, LexRank, Biased LexRank, Document Clustering, Document Indexing, PageRank, Biased PageRank, Web Graph Analysis, Network Generation, Power Law Distribution Analysis, Network Analysis (clustering coefficient, degree distribution plotting, average shortest path, diameter, triangles, shortest path matrices, connected components), Cosine Similarity, Random Walks on Graphs, Statistics (distributions, tests), Tf, Idf, Community Finding.

  17. Documentation and information services in the HELIOS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borälv, E; Göransson, B; Olsson, E; Sandblad, B

    1994-12-01

    In a modern software project large amounts of documentation is produced. All parts of the complex software system require extensive documentation--both for reference purposes and promotional reasons. However, there are some aspects that often are forgotten or badly implemented; (i) the availability of on-line documentation, (ii) integration of the different formats of documentation, and (iii) the world wide promotional aspect. To solve these problems, the Helios project has chosen to integrate its public documentation and software material into a hypertext system using the World Wide Web.

  18. APFEL Web a web-based application for the graphical visualization of parton distribution functions

    CERN Document Server

    Carrazza, Stefano; Palazzo, Daniele; Rojo, Juan

    2015-01-01

    We present APFEL Web, a web-based application designed to provide a flexible user-friendly tool for the graphical visualization of parton distribution functions (PDFs). In this note we describe the technical design of the APFEL Web application, motivating the choices and the framework used for the development of this project. We document the basic usage of APFEL Web and show how it can be used to provide useful input for a variety of collider phenomenological studies. Finally we provide some examples showing the output generated by the application.

  19. Starlink Document Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawden, M. D.

    This document describes the various styles which are recommended for Starlink documents. It also explains how to use the templates which are provided by Starlink to help authors create documents in a standard style. This paper is concerned mainly with conveying the ``look and feel" of the various styles of Starlink document rather than describing the technical details of how to produce them. Other Starlink papers give recommendations for the detailed aspects of document production, design, layout, and typography. The only style that is likely to be used by most Starlink authors is the Standard style.

  20. Scheme Program Documentation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses two different Scheme documentation tools. The first is SchemeDoc, which is intended for documentation of the interfaces of Scheme libraries (APIs). The second is the Scheme Elucidator, which is for internal documentation of Scheme programs. Although the tools...... are separate and intended for different documentation purposes they are related to each other in several ways. Both tools are based on XML languages for tool setup and for documentation authoring. In addition, both tools rely on the LAML framework which---in a systematic way---makes an XML language available...

  1. Unsupervised Learning of mDTD Extraction Patterns for Web Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongseok; Jung, Hanmin; Lee, Gary Geunbae

    2003-01-01

    Presents a new extraction pattern, modified Document Type Definition (mDTD), which relies on analytical interpretation to identify extraction target from the contents of Web documents. Experiments with 330 Korean and 220 English Web documents on audio and video shopping sites yielded an average extraction precision of 91.3% for Korean and 81.9%…

  2. Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lamandini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The semantic Web is a technology at the service of knowledge which is aimed at accessibility and the sharing of content; facilitating interoperability between different systems and as such is one of the nine key technological pillars of TIC (technologies for information and communication within the third theme, programme specific cooperation of the seventh programme framework for research and development (7°PQRS, 2007-2013. As a system it seeks to overcome overload or excess of irrelevant information in Internet, in order to facilitate specific or pertinent research. It is an extension of the existing Web in which the aim is for cooperation between and the computer and people (the dream of Sir Tim Berners –Lee where machines can give more support to people when integrating and elaborating data in order to obtain inferences and a global sharing of data. It is a technology that is able to favour the development of a “data web” in other words the creation of a space in both sets of interconnected and shared data (Linked Data which allows users to link different types of data coming from different sources. It is a technology that will have great effect on everyday life since it will permit the planning of “intelligent applications” in various sectors such as education and training, research, the business world, public information, tourism, health, and e-government. It is an innovative technology that activates a social transformation (socio-semantic Web on a world level since it redefines the cognitive universe of users and enables the sharing not only of information but of significance (collective and connected intelligence.

  3. Ontology Based Information Retrieval in Semantic Web: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Jain

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In present age of computers, there are various resources for gathering information related to given query like Radio Stations, Television, Internet and many more. Among them, Internet is considered as major factor for obtaining any information about a given domain. When a user wants to find some information, he/she enters a query and results are produced via hyperlinks linked to various documents available on web. But the information that is retrieved to us may or may not be relevant. This irrelevance is caused due to huge collection of documents available on web. Traditional search engines are based on keyword based searching that is unable to transform raw data into knowledgeable representation data. It is a cumbersome task to extract relevant information from large collection of web documents. These shortcomings have led to the concept of Semantic Web (SW and Ontology into existence. Semantic Web (SW is a well defined portal that helps in extracting relevant information using many Information Retrieval (IR techniques. Current Information Retrieval (IR techniques are not so advanced that they can be able to exploit semantic knowledge within documents and give precise result. The terms, Information Retrieval (IR, Semantic Web (SW and Ontology are used differently but they are interconnected with each other. Information Retrieval (IR technology and Web based Indexing contributes to existence of Semantic Web. Use of Ontology also contributes in building new generation of web- Semantic Web. With the help of ontologies, we can make content of web as it will be markup with the help of Semantic Web documents (SWD’s. Ontology is considered as backbone of Software system. It improves understanding between concepts used in Semantic Web (SW. So, there is need to build an ontology that uses well defined methodology and process of developing ontology is called Ontology Development.

  4. Expressive Vocabulary Development in Children from Bilingual and Monolingual Homes: A Longitudinal Study from Two to Four Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Burridge, Andrea; Ribot, Krystal M; Welsh, Stephanie N

    2014-10-01

    The early course of language development among children from bilingual homes varies in ways that are not well described and as a result of influences that are not well understood. Here, we describe trajectories of relative change in expressive vocabulary from 22 to 48 months and vocabulary achievement at 48 months in two groups of children from bilingual homes (children with one and children with two native Spanish-speaking parents [ns = 15 and 11]) and in an SES-equivalent group of children from monolingual English homes (n = 31). The two groups from bilingual homes differed in their mean levels of English and Spanish skills, in their developmental trajectories during this period, and in the relation between language use at home and their vocabulary development. Children with two native Spanish-speaking parents showed steepest gains in total vocabulary and were more nearly balanced bilinguals at 48 months. Children with one native Spanish- and one native English-speaking parent showed trajectories of relative decline in Spanish vocabulary. At 48 months, mean levels of English skill among the bilingual children were comparable to monolingual norms, but children with two native Spanish-speaking parents had lower English scores than the SES-equivalent monolingual group. Use of English at home was a significant positive predictor of English vocabulary scores only among children with a native English-speaking parent. These findings argue that efforts to optimize school readiness among children from immigrant families should facilitate their access to native speakers of the community language, and efforts to support heritage language maintenance should include encouraging heritage language use by native speakers in the home.

  5. Expressive Vocabulary Development in Children from Bilingual and Monolingual Homes: A Longitudinal Study from Two to Four Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Burridge, Andrea; Ribot, Krystal M.; Welsh, Stephanie N.

    2014-01-01

    The early course of language development among children from bilingual homes varies in ways that are not well described and as a result of influences that are not well understood. Here, we describe trajectories of relative change in expressive vocabulary from 22 to 48 months and vocabulary achievement at 48 months in two groups of children from bilingual homes (children with one and children with two native Spanish-speaking parents [ns = 15 and 11]) and in an SES-equivalent group of children from monolingual English homes (n = 31). The two groups from bilingual homes differed in their mean levels of English and Spanish skills, in their developmental trajectories during this period, and in the relation between language use at home and their vocabulary development. Children with two native Spanish-speaking parents showed steepest gains in total vocabulary and were more nearly balanced bilinguals at 48 months. Children with one native Spanish- and one native English-speaking parent showed trajectories of relative decline in Spanish vocabulary. At 48 months, mean levels of English skill among the bilingual children were comparable to monolingual norms, but children with two native Spanish-speaking parents had lower English scores than the SES-equivalent monolingual group. Use of English at home was a significant positive predictor of English vocabulary scores only among children with a native English-speaking parent. These findings argue that efforts to optimize school readiness among children from immigrant families should facilitate their access to native speakers of the community language, and efforts to support heritage language maintenance should include encouraging heritage language use by native speakers in the home. PMID:25089074

  6. Differences between Spanish monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children in their calculation of entailment-based scalar implicatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Syrett

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we extend investigations of the possible effects of cross-linguistic influence at the pragmatics-syntax interface (Hulk & Müller 2000; Müller & Hulk 2001; Serratrice, Sorace & Paoli 2004, by presenting two experiments designed to probe how Spanish monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual preschool-age children approach the ‘some, but not all’ 'scalar implicature '(SI associated with 'algunos '(‘some’. We compare 'algunos 'and 'unos '(also a ‘some’ indefinite, but one that is not context-linked and does not induce an SI, and 'algunos 'and 'todos '(the universal quantifier ‘every/all’. The performance of the children is compared to fluent adult Spanish heritage speakers. Experiment 1 is a variation of Noveck’s (2001 statement evaluation task, also replicated by Guasti et al'. '(2005. Experiment 2 is a forced-choice picture selection task. Results demonstrate that adults were the only group to consistently calculate the SI associated with 'algunos '– a finding that was expected to some extent, given that our tasks were stripped of the contextual support that could benefit children’s pragmatic reasoning. While bilingual and monolingual children displayed comparable performance across tasks, bilinguals in Experiment 2 appeared to experience difficulty with judgments related to 'todos '– a pattern we attribute (in light of independent findings to the cognitive overload in the task, not the lexical entry of this quantifier. We conclude that young monolingual and bilingual children confront the same challenges when called upon to deploy pragmatic skills in a discourse context. This article is part of the special collection:Acquisition of Quantification

  7. Cognitive profiles in bilingual children born to immigrant parents and Italian monolingual native children with specific learning disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anna Riva, Renata Nacinovich, Nadia Bertuletti, Valentina Montrasi, Sara Marchetti, Francesca Neri, Monica Bomba Child and Adolescent Mental Health Department, University of Milan Bicocca, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children® – fourth edition IV (WISC IV intellectual profile of two groups of children with specific learning disorder, a group of bilingual children and a group of monolingual Italian children, in order to identify possible significant differences between them. Patients and methods: A group of 48 bilingual children and a group of 48 Italian monolingual children were included in this study. A preliminary comparison showed the homogeneity of the two groups regarding learning disorder typology and sociodemographic characteristics (age at WISC IV assessment, sex and years of education in Italy with the exception of socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was then used as a covariate in the analysis. Results: Even if the two groups were comparable in specific learning disorder severity and, in particular, in the text comprehension performance, our findings showed that the WISC IV performances of the bilingual group were significantly worse than the Italian group in Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=0.03, in General Ability Index (P=0.03, in Working Memory Index (P=0.009 and in some subtests and clusters requiring advanced linguistic abilities. Conclusion: These results support the hypothesis of a weakness in metalinguistic abilities in bilingual children with specific learning disorders than monolinguals. If confirmed, this result must be considered in the rehabilitation treatment. Keywords: children, bilingualism, WISC IV, SLD

  8. The Lexicographic Treatment of Sublexical and Multilexical Items in a Northern Sotho Monolingual Dictionary: A Challenge for Lexicographers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlokwe Clifford Mphahlele

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Dictionaries have in the past used a word-based approach in which sublexical and multilexical items were not regarded as lemmata. Metalexicography as the theoretical component of lexicography requires that sublexical and multilexical items be lemmatized and treated as independent lemmata in the macrostructure of dictionaries. One of the greater challenges for compiling a better and user-oriented Northern Sotho monolingual dictionary is to treat sublexical and multi-lexical items as macrostructural elements. Treating these items, the lexicographer faces quite a number of challenges. This article proposes possible ways in which sublexical and multilexical elements could be successfully treated in a Northern Sotho monolingual dictionary. Taking stock of these challenges, the writer comes with suggestions that would assist lexicographers in the compi-lation of a user-friendly, lexicon-based monolingual dictionary that would lead users to successful information retrieval.

    Keywords: SUBLEXICAL ITEMS, MULTILEXICAL ITEMS, AFFIXES, PREFIXAL MOR-PHEMES, SUFFIXAL MORPHEMES, INTEGRATED MICROSTRUCTURE, WORD-BASED APPROACH, LEMMATIZATION, COLLOCATIONS, COMPOUNDS, COMPLEXES, GROUP PREPOSITIONS, FIXED EXPRESSIONS, MORPHEMES, METALEXICOGRAPHICAL ASPECTS, WORD-FORMATION PROCESSES, WORD-INTERNAL FUNCTION, USER-ORIENTED MONO-LINGUAL DICTIONARY, GRAMMAR, HOMONYMOUS LEMMA, POLYSEMOUS LEMMA, DECODING, ENCODING, SEMANTIC COMMENT, SEMANTIC TRANSPARENCY

    Opsomming: Die leksikografiese behandeling van subleksikale en multi-leksikale items in 'n Noord-Sotho- eentalige woordeboek: 'n Uitdaging vir leksikograwe. Woordeboeke het in die verlede 'n woordgebaseerde benadering gevolg waar-by subleksikale en multileksikale items nie as lemmas beskou is nie. Die metaleksikografie as die teoretiese komponent van die leksikografie vereis dat subleksikale en multileksikale items gelem-matiseer word en as onafhanklike lemmas in die makrostuktuur van woordeboeke

  9. Differences in the Association between Segment and Language: Early Bilinguals Pattern with Monolinguals and Are Less Accurate than Late Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Cynthia P.; Bannard, Colin; Smiljanic, Rajka

    2016-01-01

    Early bilinguals often show as much sensitivity to L2-specific contrasts as monolingual speakers of the L2, but most work on cross-language speech perception has focused on isolated segments, and typically only on neighboring vowels or stop contrasts. In tasks that include sounds in context, listeners’ success is more variable, so segment discrimination in isolation may not adequately represent the phonetic detail in stored representations. The current study explores the relationship between language experience and sensitivity to segmental cues in context by comparing the categorization patterns of monolingual English listeners and early and late Spanish–English bilinguals. Participants categorized nonce words containing different classes of English- and Spanish-specific sounds as being more English-like or more Spanish-like; target segments included phonemic cues, cues for which there is no analogous sound in the other language, or phonetic cues, cues for which English and Spanish share the category but for which each language varies in its phonetic implementation. Listeners’ language categorization accuracy and reaction times were analyzed. Our results reveal a largely uniform categorization pattern across listener groups: Spanish cues were categorized more accurately than English cues, and phonemic cues were easier for listeners to categorize than phonetic cues. There were no differences in the sensitivity of monolinguals and early bilinguals to language-specific cues, suggesting that the early bilinguals’ exposure to Spanish did not fundamentally change their representations of English phonology. However, neither did the early bilinguals show more sensitivity than the monolinguals to Spanish sounds. The late bilinguals however, were significantly more accurate than either of the other groups. These findings indicate that listeners with varying exposure to English and Spanish are able to use language-specific cues in a nonce-word language categorization

  10. Contribution Degree of Different Types of Documents to Journal Impact Factor: Case Study of Authoritative Pediatrics Journals Included in Web of Science%不同文献类型对期刊影响因子的贡献度——以Web of Science收录的儿科学权威期刊为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单卫华

    2016-01-01

    [目的/意义]为期刊编辑了解国际儿科权威期刊和审稿、组稿、栏目策划提供参考.[方法/过程]利用Web of Science数据库和Journal Citation Reports,以20种儿科学权威期刊为研究对象,分析不同文献类型对期刊影响因子的贡献.[结果/结论]可被引文献中,研究论文对期刊影响因子的贡献率最大,为80.22%;综述论文的贡献率也较高,为16.09%.非可被引文献中,述评的贡献率最高,为2.34%;信稿的贡献率为1.27%,会议论文和更正等的贡献率最小,为0.17%.可见,多发表研究论文和综述论文对提高期刊影响因子有一定价值,合理安排述评和信稿对提高影响因子的也有一定帮助,不能忽视非可被引文献在提高影响因子中的作用.

  11. A framework for efficient spatial web object retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dinging; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.

    2012-01-01

    The conventional Internet is acquiring a geospatial dimension. Web documents are being geo-tagged and geo-referenced objects such as points of interest are being associated with descriptive text documents. The resulting fusion of geo-location and documents enables new kinds of queries that take...... of the framework demonstrate that the paper’s proposal is capable of excellent performance...

  12. Two Selfless Contributions to Web Search Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    participate in the Web Track and the Federated Web Track. Our experiments are run by MIREX [2]1 ( MapReduce Information Retrieval Experiments), a library of... MapReduce programs to ex- tract data and sequentially scan document representations. Built on Hadoop, sequential scanning becomes a viable approach...Hauff. Mapreduce for information retrieval evaluation: ”let’s quickly test this on 12 TB of data”. In Multilingual and Multimodal Information Access

  13. Exploiting Surrounding Text for Retrieving Web Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Noah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Web documents contain useful textual information that can be exploited for describing images. Research had been focused on representing images by means of its content (low level description such as color, shape and texture, little research had been directed to exploiting such textual information. The aim of this research was to systematically exploit the textual content of HTML documents for automatically indexing and ranking of images embedded in web documents. A heuristic approach for locating and assigning weight surrounding web images and a modified tf.idf weighting scheme was proposed. Precision-recall measures of evaluation had been conducted for ten queries and promising results had been achieved. The proposed approach showed slightly better precision measure as compared to a popular search engine with an average of 0.63 and 0.55 relative precision measures respectively.

  14. A Prototype: Reading of Documents Web for Visually Impaired Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-25

    people are available [1], like improved computer screen readers, Braille displays, voice input d browser developments, but in the case of screen y are...of their applications,” volume II, voice prosecution, Technician report CINVESTAV_IPN, México, 1987. [6] A. Ramírez-Treviño, “ Sistema digital de

  15. Web-Based Documentation System for Dynamic Roadmaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sajid; Chishti, Ahsan; Elamvazuthi, Chandran

    2006-01-01

    Technology Roadmapping is a consensus-driven process to identify, evaluate, and select technology alternatives to satisfy the needs of a particular group of people. It serves as a high-level planning tool to support the development, implementation, and communication of technology development strategies and plans. The outcome of a technology…

  16. Bilingual children's long-term outcomes in English as a second language: language environment factors shape individual differences in catching up with monolinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Jia, Ruiting

    2017-01-01

    Bilingual children experience more variation in their language environment than monolingual children and this impacts their rate of language development with respect to monolinguals. How long it takes for bilingual children learning English as a second language (L2) to display similar abilities to monolingual age-peers has been estimated to be 4-6 years, but conflicting findings suggest that even 6 years in school is not enough. Most studies on long-term L2 development have focused on just one linguistic sub-domain, vocabulary, and have not included multiple individual difference factors. For the present study, Chinese first language-English L2 children were given standardized measures of vocabulary, grammar and global comprehension every year from 4 ½ to 6 ½ years of English in school (ages 8½ to 10½); language environment factors were obtained through an extensive parent questionnaire. Children converged on monolingual norms differentially according to the test, with the majority of children reaching monolingual levels of performance on the majority of tests by 5 ½ years of English exposure. Individual differences in outcomes were predicted by length of English exposure, mother's education, mother's English fluency, child's use of English in the home, richness/quality of the English input outside school and age of arrival in Canada. In sum, the timeframe for bilinguals to catch up to monolinguals depends on linguistic sub-domain, task difficulty and on individual children's language environment, making 4-6 years an approximate estimate only. This study also shows that language environment factors shape not only early-stage but also late-stage bilingual development.

  17. Tobacco documents research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey J; McCandless, Phyra M; Klausner, Kim; Taketa, Rachel; Yerger, Valerie B

    2011-05-01

    Tobacco documents research has developed into a thriving academic enterprise since its inception in 1995. The technology supporting tobacco documents archiving, searching and retrieval has improved greatly since that time, and consequently tobacco documents researchers have considerably more access to resources than was the case when researchers had to travel to physical archives and/or electronically search poorly and incompletely indexed documents. The authors of the papers presented in this supplement all followed the same basic research methodology. Rather than leave the reader of the supplement to read the same discussion of methods in each individual paper, presented here is an overview of the methods all authors followed. In the individual articles that follow in this supplement, the authors present the additional methodological information specific to their topics. This brief discussion also highlights technological capabilities in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and updates methods for organising internal tobacco documents data and findings.

  18. The Technology of Extracting Content Information from Web Page Based on DOM Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dingrong; Mo, Zhuoying; Xie, Bing; Xie, Yangcai

    There are huge amounts of information on Web pages, which includes content information and other useless information, such as navigation, advertisement and flash of animation etc. Reducing the toils of Web users, we estabished a thechnique to extract the content information from web page. Fristly, we analyzed the semantic of web documents by V8 engine of Google and parsed the web document into DOM tree. And then, traversed the DOM tree, pruned the DOM tree in the light of the characteristic of Web page's edit language. Finally, we extracted the content information from Web page. Theoretics and experiments showed that the technique could simplify the web page, present the content information to web users and supply clean data for applicable area, such as retrieval, KDD and DM from web.

  19. Endnote web

    OpenAIRE

    Uezu, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Представлено краткое руководство по работе с сетевой сервисной программой EndNote Web на платформе Web of Knowledge издательства Thomson Reuters на русском языке. EndNote Web разработана для предоставления помощи исследователям и студентам в процессе написания научных публикаций. Позволяет создавать свои базы данных с собственными библиографическими списками для цитирования в научных работах....

  20. Building Grid applications using Web Services

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    There has been a lot of discussion within the Grid community about the use of Web Services technologies in building large-scale, loosely-coupled, cross-organisation applications. In this talk we are going to explore the principles that govern Service-Oriented Architectures and the promise of Web Services technologies for integrating applications that span administrative domains. We are going to see how existing Web Services specifications and practices could provide the necessary infrastructure for implementing Grid applications. Biography Dr. Savas Parastatidis is a Principal Research Associate at the School of Computing Science, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. Savas is one of the authors of the "Grid Application Framework based on Web Services Specifications and Practices" document that was influential in the convergence between Grid and Web Services and the move away from OGSI (more information can be found at http://www.neresc.ac.uk/ws-gaf). He has done research on runtime support for distributed-m...

  1. CAED Document Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compliance Assurance and Enforcement Division Document Repository (CAEDDOCRESP) provides internal and external access of Inspection Records, Enforcement Actions, and...

  2. CFO Payment Document Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Paperless management will enable the CFO to create, store, and access various financial documents electronically. This capability will reduce time looking for...

  3. Engineering Web Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casteleyn, Sven; Daniel, Florian; Dolog, Peter

    Nowadays, Web applications are almost omnipresent. The Web has become a platform not only for information delivery, but also for eCommerce systems, social networks, mobile services, and distributed learning environments. Engineering Web applications involves many intrinsic challenges due...

  4. Efficient Web Change Monitoring with Page Digest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttler, D J; Rocco, D; Liu, L

    2004-02-20

    The Internet and the World Wide Web have enabled a publishing explosion of useful online information, which has produced the unfortunate side effect of information overload: it is increasingly difficult for individuals to keep abreast of fresh information. In this paper we describe an approach for building a system for efficiently monitoring changes to Web documents. This paper has three main contributions. First, we present a coherent framework that captures different characteristics of Web documents. The system uses the Page Digest encoding to provide a comprehensive monitoring system for content, structure, and other interesting properties of Web documents. Second, the Page Digest encoding enables improved performance for individual page monitors through mechanisms such as short-circuit evaluation, linear time algorithms for document and structure similarity, and data size reduction. Finally, we develop a collection of sentinel grouping techniques based on the Page Digest encoding to reduce redundant processing in large-scale monitoring systems by grouping similar monitoring requests together. We examine how effective these techniques are over a wide range of parameters and have seen an order of magnitude speed up over existing Web-based information monitoring systems.

  5. Context representation for web search results

    OpenAIRE

    Vegas, Jesus; Crestani, Fabio; De La Fuente, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Context has long been considered very useful to help the user assess the actual relevance of a document. In Web searching, context can help assess the relevance of a Web page by showing how the page is related to other pages in the same Web site, for example. Such information is very difficult to convey and visualise in a user friendly way. In this paper we present the design, implementation and evaluation of a graphical visualisation tool aimed at helping users to determine the relevance of ...

  6. Towards semantic web mining

    OpenAIRE

    Berendt, Bettina; Hotho, Andreas; Stumme, Gerd

    2002-01-01

    Semantic Web Mining aims at combining the two fast-developing research areas Semantic Web and Web Mining. The idea is to improve, on the one hand, the results of Web Mining by exploiting the new semantic structures in the Web; and to make use of Web Mining, on overview of where the two areas meet today, and sketches ways of how a closer integration could be profitable.

  7. Web TA Production (WebTA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — WebTA is a web-based time and attendance system that supports USAID payroll administration functions, and is designed to capture hours worked, leave used and...

  8. Semantic Web Technologies for the Adaptive Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Ontologies and reasoning are the key terms brought into focus by the semantic web community. Formal representation of ontologies in a common data model on the web can be taken as a foundation for adaptive web technologies as well. This chapter describes how ontologies shared on the semantic web...... means for deciding which links to show, annotate, hide, generate, and reorder. The semantic web technologies provide means to formalize the domain ontologies and metadata created from them. The formalization enables reasoning for personalization decisions. This chapter describes which components...... are crucial to be formalized by the semantic web ontologies for adaptive web. We use examples from an eLearning domain to illustrate the principles which are broadly applicable to any information domain on the web....

  9. CALA:A Web Analysis Algorithm Combined with Content Correlation Analysis Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ling(张岭); MA FanYuan(马范援); YE YunMing(叶允明); CHEN JianGuo(陈建国)

    2003-01-01

    Web hyperlink structure analysis algorithm plays a significant role in improving the precision of Web information retrieval. Current link algorithms employ iteration function to compute the Web resource weight. The major drawback of this approach is that every Web document has a fixed rank which is independent of Web queries. This paper proposes an improved algorithm that ranks the quality and the relevance of a page according to users' query dynamically.The experiments show that the current link analysis algorithm is improved.

  10. Relevant XML Documents - Approach Based on Vectors and Weight Calculation of Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeslem DENNAI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Three classes of documents, based on their data, circulate in the web: Unstructured documents (.Doc, .html, .pdf ..., semi-structured documents (.xml, .Owl ... and structured documents (Tables database for example. A semi-structured document is organized around predefined tags or defined by its author. However, many studies use a document classification by taking into account their textual content and underestimate their structure. We attempt in this paper to propose a representation of these semi-structured web documents based on weighted vectors allowing exploiting their content for a possible treatment. The weight of terms is calculated using: The normal frequency for a document, TF-IDF (Term Frequency - Inverse Document Frequency and logic (Boolean frequency for a set of documents. To assess and demonstrate the relevance of our proposed approach, we will realize several experiments on different corpus.

  11. Semantic web for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Pollock, Jeffrey T

    2009-01-01

    Semantic Web technology is already changing how we interact with data on the Web. By connecting random information on the Internet in new ways, Web 3.0, as it is sometimes called, represents an exciting online evolution. Whether you're a consumer doing research online, a business owner who wants to offer your customers the most useful Web site, or an IT manager eager to understand Semantic Web solutions, Semantic Web For Dummies is the place to start! It will help you:Know how the typical Internet user will recognize the effects of the Semantic WebExplore all the benefits the data Web offers t

  12. Human Document Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.; Abelmann, L.; Manz, A.; Elwenspoek, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    “The Human Document Project” is a project which tries to answer all of the questions related to preserving information about the human race for tens of generations of humans to come or maybe even for a future intelligence which can emerge in the coming thousands of years. This document mainly focuss

  13. Scheme Program Documentation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    are separate and intended for different documentation purposes they are related to each other in several ways. Both tools are based on XML languages for tool setup and for documentation authoring. In addition, both tools rely on the LAML framework which---in a systematic way---makes an XML language available...

  14. Enriching software architecture documentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Anton; Avgeriou, Paris; Ven, Jan Salvador van der

    2009-01-01

    The effective documentation of Architectural Knowledge (AK) is one of the key factors in leveraging the paradigm shift toward sharing and reusing AK. However, current documentation approaches have severe shortcomings in capturing the knowledge of large and complex systems and subsequently facilitati

  15. IDC System Specification Document.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, David J.

    2014-12-01

    This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  16. Automatic document classification of biological literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sternberg Paul W

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Document classification is a wide-spread problem with many applications, from organizing search engine snippets to spam filtering. We previously described Textpresso, a text-mining system for biological literature, which marks up full text according to a shallow ontology that includes terms of biological interest. This project investigates document classification in the context of biological literature, making use of the Textpresso markup of a corpus of Caenorhabditis elegans literature. Results We present a two-step text categorization algorithm to classify a corpus of C. elegans papers. Our classification method first uses a support vector machine-trained classifier, followed by a novel, phrase-based clustering algorithm. This clustering step autonomously creates cluster labels that are descriptive and understandable by humans. This clustering engine performed better on a standard test-set (Reuters 21578 compared to previously published results (F-value of 0.55 vs. 0.49, while producing cluster descriptions that appear more useful. A web interface allows researchers to quickly navigate through the hierarchy and look for documents that belong to a specific concept. Conclusion We have demonstrated a simple method to classify biological documents that embodies an improvement over current methods. While the classification results are currently optimized for Caenorhabditis elegans papers by human-created rules, the classification engine can be adapted to different types of documents. We have demonstrated this by presenting a web interface that allows researchers to quickly navigate through the hierarchy and look for documents that belong to a specific concept.

  17. WEB GIS: IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    With the rapid expansion and development of Internet and WWW (World Wide Web or Web), Web GIS (Web Geographical Information Systen) is becoming ever more popular and as a result numerous sites have added GIS capability on their Web sites. In this paper, the reasons behind developing a Web GIS instead of a “traditional” GIS are first outlined. Then the current status of Web GIS is reviewed, and their implementation methodologies are explored as well.The underlying technologies for developing Web GIS, such as Web Server, Web browser, CGI (Common Gateway Interface), Java, ActiveX, are discussed, and some typical implementation tools from both commercial and public domain are given as well. Finally, the future development direction of Web GIS is predicted.

  18. An Efficient Approach for Web Indexing of Big Data through Hyperlinks in Web Crawling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, R Suganya; Manjula, D; Siddharth, R K

    2015-01-01

    Web Crawling has acquired tremendous significance in recent times and it is aptly associated with the substantial development of the World Wide Web. Web Search Engines face new challenges due to the availability of vast amounts of web documents, thus making the retrieved results less applicable to the analysers. However, recently, Web Crawling solely focuses on obtaining the links of the corresponding documents. Today, there exist various algorithms and software which are used to crawl links from the web which has to be further processed for future use, thereby increasing the overload of the analyser. This paper concentrates on crawling the links and retrieving all information associated with them to facilitate easy processing for other uses. In this paper, firstly the links are crawled from the specified uniform resource locator (URL) using a modified version of Depth First Search Algorithm which allows for complete hierarchical scanning of corresponding web links. The links are then accessed via the source code and its metadata such as title, keywords, and description are extracted. This content is very essential for any type of analyser work to be carried on the Big Data obtained as a result of Web Crawling.

  19. An Efficient Approach for Web Indexing of Big Data through Hyperlinks in Web Crawling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Suganya Devi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Web Crawling has acquired tremendous significance in recent times and it is aptly associated with the substantial development of the World Wide Web. Web Search Engines face new challenges due to the availability of vast amounts of web documents, thus making the retrieved results less applicable to the analysers. However, recently, Web Crawling solely focuses on obtaining the links of the corresponding documents. Today, there exist various algorithms and software which are used to crawl links from the web which has to be further processed for future use, thereby increasing the overload of the analyser. This paper concentrates on crawling the links and retrieving all information associated with them to facilitate easy processing for other uses. In this paper, firstly the links are crawled from the specified uniform resource locator (URL using a modified version of Depth First Search Algorithm which allows for complete hierarchical scanning of corresponding web links. The links are then accessed via the source code and its metadata such as title, keywords, and description are extracted. This content is very essential for any type of analyser work to be carried on the Big Data obtained as a result of Web Crawling.

  20. Overcoming terminology barrier using Web resources for cross-language medical information retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Hsiang; Lin, Ray Shih-Jui; Chan, Yi-Che; Chen, Kuan-Hsi

    2006-01-01

    A number of authoritative medical websites, such as PubMed and MedlinePlus, provide consumers with the most up-to-date health information. However, non-English speakers often encounter not only language barriers (from other languages to English) but also terminology barriers (from laypersons inverted exclamation mark| terms to professional medical terms) when retrieving information from these websites. Our previous work address language barriers by developing a multilingual medical thesaurus, Chinese-English MeSH, while this study presents an approach to overcome terminology barriers based on Web resources. Two techniques were utilized in our approach: monolingual concept mapping using approximate string matching and crosslingual concept mapping using Web resources. The evaluation shows that our approach can significantly improve the performance on MeSH concept mapping and cross-language medical information retrieval.

  1. Sharing and Adaptation of Educational Documents in E-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekry Abderrahman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Few documents can be reused among the huge number of the educational documents on the web. The exponential increase of these documents makes it almost impossible to search for relevant documents. In addition to this, e-learning is designed for public users who have different levels of knowledge and varied skills so they should be given a content that sees to their needs. This work is about adapting the content of learning with learners preferences, and give the teachers the ability to reuse a given content.

  2. Personalized Web Services for Web Information Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Jarir, Zahi; Erradi, Mahammed

    2011-01-01

    The field of information extraction from the Web emerged with the growth of the Web and the multiplication of online data sources. This paper is an analysis of information extraction methods. It presents a service oriented approach for web information extraction considering both web data management and extraction services. Then we propose an SOA based architecture to enhance flexibility and on-the-fly modification of web extraction services. An implementation of the proposed architecture is proposed on the middleware level of Java Enterprise Edition (JEE) servers.

  3. Documents hipertextuals per a entorns virtuals d'aprenentatge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristòfol Rovira

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available L'article mostra les noves oportunitats que la Web d'Internet ha generat en el camp de la creació de documents hipertextuals. A partir de la grandària dels nodes, s'analitzen les característiques essencials del hipertextos d'abans de l'aparició de la Web per comparar-les amb les pàgines d'Internet. També es comenten les avantatges educatives que poden tenir aquest tipus de documents per entorns virtuals d'aprenentatge i finalment es presenta una proposta per escriure hipertextos basada en la grandària dels nodes.

  4. DISTRIBUTED APPROACH to WEB PAGE CATEGORIZATION USING MAPREDUCE PROGRAMMING MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Malarvizhi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The web is a large repository of information and to facilitate the search and retrieval of pages from it,categorization of web documents is essential. An effective means to handle the complexity of information retrieval from the internet is through automatic classification of web pages. Although lots of automatic classification algorithms and systems have been presented, most of the existing approaches are computationally challenging. In order to overcome this challenge, we have proposed a parallel algorithm, known as MapReduce programming model to automatically categorize the web pages. This approach incorporates three concepts. They are web crawler, MapReduce programming model and the proposed web page categorization approach. Initially, we have utilized web crawler to mine the World Wide Web and the crawled web pages are then directly given as input to the MapReduce programming model. Here the MapReduce programming model adapted to our proposed web page categorization approach finds the appropriate category of the web page according to its content. The experimental results show that our proposed parallel web page categorization approach achieves satisfactory results in finding the right category for any given web page.

  5. Warehousing Web Data

    CERN Document Server

    Darmont, Jérôme; Bentayeb, Fadila

    2002-01-01

    In a data warehousing process, mastering the data preparation phase allows substantial gains in terms of time and performance when performing multidimensional analysis or using data mining algorithms. Furthermore, a data warehouse can require external data. The web is a prevalent data source in this context. In this paper, we propose a modeling process for integrating diverse and heterogeneous (so-called multiform) data into a unified format. Furthermore, the very schema definition provides first-rate metadata in our data warehousing context. At the conceptual level, a complex object is represented in UML. Our logical model is an XML schema that can be described with a DTD or the XML-Schema language. Eventually, we have designed a Java prototype that transforms our multiform input data into XML documents representing our physical model. Then, the XML documents we obtain are mapped into a relational database we view as an ODS (Operational Data Storage), whose content will have to be re-modeled in a multidimens...

  6. Web Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Mužík, Zbyněk

    2006-01-01

    Práce se zabývá problematikou měření ukazatelů souvisejících s provozem webových stránek a aplikací a technologickými prostředky k tomu sloužícími ? Web Analytics (WA). Hlavním cílem práce je otestovat a porovnat vybrané zástupce těchto nástrojů a podrobit je srovnání podle objektivních kriterií, dále také kritické zhodnocení možností WA nástrojů obecně. V první části se práce zaměřuje na popis různých způsobů měření provozu na WWW a definuje související metriky. Poskytuje také přehled dostup...

  7. Quality issues in the management of web information

    CERN Document Server

    Bordogna, Gloria; Jain, Lakhmi

    2013-01-01

    This research volume presents a sample of recent contributions related to the issue of quality-assessment for Web Based information in the context of information access, retrieval, and filtering systems. The advent of the Web and the uncontrolled process of documents' generation have raised the problem of declining quality assessment to information on the Web, by considering both the nature of documents (texts, images, video, sounds, and so on), the genre of documents ( news, geographic information, ontologies, medical records, products records, and so on), the reputation of information sources and sites, and, last but not least the actions performed on documents (content indexing, retrieval and ranking, collaborative filtering, and so on). The volume constitutes a compendium of both heterogeneous approaches and sample applications focusing specific aspects of the quality assessment for Web-based information for researchers, PhD students and practitioners carrying out their research activity in the field of W...

  8. Is the Semantic Web a Small World?

    OpenAIRE

    Bachlechner , Daniel; Strang, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a comprehensive analysis of graph-theoretical properties of online social networks based on the Friend-of-a-Friend (FOAF) ontology. Of particular interest for this work were properties related to the small-world phenomenon. More than 1.6 million of the FOAF documents collected on the Semantic Web met our requirements and were analyzed in depth. Most FOAF documents are created and published by social networking services, blog hosting services, or combinations of the ...

  9. Web Search Results Summarization Using Similarity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawant V.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Now day’s internet has become part of our life, the WWW is most important service of internet because it allows presenting information such as document, imaging etc. The WWW grows rapidly and caters to a diversified levels and categories of users. For user specified results web search results are extracted. Millions of information pouring online, users has no time to surf the contents completely .Moreover the information available is repeated or duplicated in nature. This issue has created the necessity to restructure the search results that could yield results summarized. The proposed approach comprises of different feature extraction of web pages. Web page visual similarity assessment has been employed to address the problems in different fields including phishing, web archiving, web search engine etc. In this approach, initially by enters user query the number of search results get stored. The Earth Mover's Distance is used to assessment of web page visual similarity, in this technique take the web page as a low resolution image, create signature of that web page image with color and co-ordinate features .Calculate the distance between web pages by applying EMD method. Compute the Layout Similarity value by using tag comparison algorithm and template comparison algorithm. Textual similarity is computed by using cosine similarity, and hyperlink analysis is performed to compute outward links. The final similarity value is calculated by fusion of layout, text, hyperlink and EMD value. Once the similarity matrix is found clustering is employed with the help of connected component. Finally group of similar web pages i.e. summarized results get displayed to user. Experiment conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of four methods to generate summarized result on different web pages and user queries also.

  10. Bilingual and Monolingual EFL learners’ Use of Writing Metacognitive Strategies and Writing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Poorebrahim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that writing skill of Iranian learners is not at a satisfactory level. One  of  the  ways  to  develop  writing  ability  is  to  improve  strategic  behavior  of  learners.  The current  study  set  out  to  compare  writing  performances  and  patterns  of  using  metacognitive strategies  in  bilinguals  and  monolinguals  as  well  as  seniors  and  freshmen  students.  A  total  of 176  English  major  university  students  took  part  in  the  study  (88  bilinguals  and  88 monolinguals.  Data  were  collected  through  three  instruments:  a  background  questionnaire,  a writing  metacognitive  strategy  questionnaire,  and  participants’  compositions.  A  two-way factorial  ANOVA  was  used  to  analyze  the  data  obtained  through  the  strategy  questionnaire. Since the composition data were not parametric, two Kruskall-Wallis tests were employed for data  analysis. The  results  revealed  that  bilinguals  used  more  metacognitive  strategies  and  had higher  writing  scores  than  monolinguals.  In  addition,  seniors  had  better  writing  performance than freshmen while the difference between them in using strategies was not significant. Based on the results, it can be concluded that teaching writing metacognitive strategies may result in a better writing performance.   استفاده از راهبردهای فراشناختی نوشتار و مهارت نوشتاری زبان آموزان یک زبانه و دو زبانه   تحقیقات اخیر حاکی از عملکرد ضعیف زبان آموزان ایرانی در مهارت نوشتار زبان انگلیسی است. یکی از روشهای بهبود مهارت نوشتار تقویت رفتار استراتژیک زبان آموزان است. در تحقیق پیش رو به مقایسه مهارت نوشتار و الگوهای

  11. Adult Monolingual Policy Becomes Children's Bilingual Practice: Code-Alternation among Children and Staff in an English-Medium Preschool in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Sally; Ottesjö, Cajsa

    2016-01-01

    Parents, teachers and institutions often attempt to implement monolingual policies in bilingual settings, believing that they thereby facilitate children's bilingual development. Children, however, often have their own communicative agendas. In this study, we investigate how the twofold language policy of an English-medium preschool in Sweden is…

  12. The Role of Vocabulary Depth in Predicting Reading Comprehension among English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, C. Patrick; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Montecillo, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of vocabulary depth in reading comprehension among a diverse sample of monolingual and bilingual children in grades 2-4. Vocabulary depth was defined as including morphological awareness, awareness of semantic relations, and syntactic awareness. Two hundred ninety-four children from 3 schools in a…

  13. Linguistic Knowledge, Fluency and Meta-Cognitive Knowledge as Components of Reading Comprehension in Adolescent Low Achievers: Differences between Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapman, Mirjam; van Gelderen, Amos; van Steensel, Roel; van Schooten, Erik; Hulstijn, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate the role of linguistic knowledge, fluency and meta-cognitive knowledge in Dutch reading comprehension of monolingual and bilingual adolescent academic low achievers in the Netherlands. Results show that these components are substantially associated with reading comprehension. However, their role appears to be different…

  14. Importance of Phonological and Orthographic Skills for English Reading and Spelling: A Comparison of English Monolingual and Mandarin-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Fletcher, Janet; Bayliss, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examines the importance of English phonological and orthographic processing skills to English word reading and spelling in 3 groups of younger (8-9 years) and older (11-12 years) children from different language backgrounds: English monolingual, English first language (L1)-Mandarin second language (L2), and Mandarin…

  15. The development of comprehension and reading-related skills in children learning English as an additional language and their monolingual, English-speaking peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, K; Whiteley, H E; Hutchinson, J M

    2011-06-01

    A significant number of pupils in UK schools learn English as an additional language (EAL). Relative differences between the educational attainment of this group and monolingual, English-speaking pupils call for an exploration of the literacy needs of EAL learners. This study explores the developmental progression of reading and listening comprehension skills and a range of reading-related skills in EAL learners, whose first language is of South Asian origin, and their monolingual peers. Participants were 39 children learning EAL and 39 monolingual, English-speaking children who were all in school Year 3 at the start of the study. Children completed standardized measures of comprehension, vocabulary, reading accuracy, and reading fluency in school Year 3 and again in Year 4. The results suggest that, although children learning EAL often demonstrate fast and accurate reading accuracy skills, lower levels of vocabulary knowledge place significant constraints on EAL learners' comprehension of spoken and written texts. Reciprocal relationships between vocabulary and comprehension may lead to increasing gaps in reading comprehension between monolingual and EAL pupils over time. It is proposed that support for the development of vocabulary skills in children learning EAL is needed in early years' classrooms. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  16. The Role of Word Decoding, Vocabulary Knowledge and Meta-Cognitive Knowledge in Monolingual and Bilingual Low-Achieving Adolescents' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Roel; Oostdam, Ron; van Gelderen, Amos; van Schooten, Erik

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analysed the relationships between word decoding, vocabulary knowledge, meta-cognitive knowledge and reading comprehension in low-achieving adolescents and examined whether the strength of these relationships differed between Grade 7 and 9 students and between monolingual and bilingual students. Tests were administered to 328…

  17. The Effects of Dual-Language Support on the Language Skills of Bilingual Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Listening Devices Relative to Their Monolingual Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunta, Ferenc; Douglas, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of supporting both English and Spanish on language outcomes in bilingual children with hearing loss (HL) who used listening devices (cochlear implants and hearing aids). The English language skills of bilingual children with HL were compared to those of their monolingual English-speaking peers'…

  18. The Role of Oral Language Skills in Reading and Listening Comprehension of Text: A Comparison of Monolingual (L1) and Bilingual (L2) Speakers of English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, Selma

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the role of oral language skills in reading comprehension and listening comprehension levels of 125 monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) English-speaking learners (M = 121.5 months, SD = 4.65) in England. All testing was conducted in English. The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the measures of oral language and text…

  19. The Effects of Dual-Language Support on the Language Skills of Bilingual Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Listening Devices Relative to Their Monolingual Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunta, Ferenc; Douglas, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of supporting both English and Spanish on language outcomes in bilingual children with hearing loss (HL) who used listening devices (cochlear implants and hearing aids). The English language skills of bilingual children with HL were compared to those of their monolingual English-speaking peers'…

  20. The Role of Oral Language Skills in Reading and Listening Comprehension of Text: A Comparison of Monolingual (L1) and Bilingual (L2) Speakers of English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, Selma

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the role of oral language skills in reading comprehension and listening comprehension levels of 125 monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) English-speaking learners (M = 121.5 months, SD = 4.65) in England. All testing was conducted in English. The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the measures of oral language and text…

  1. Linguistic Knowledge, Fluency and Meta-Cognitive Knowledge as Components of Reading Comprehension in Adolescent Low Achievers: Differences between Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapman, Mirjam; van Gelderen, Amos; van Steensel, Roel; van Schooten, Erik; Hulstijn, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate the role of linguistic knowledge, fluency and meta-cognitive knowledge in Dutch reading comprehension of monolingual and bilingual adolescent academic low achievers in the Netherlands. Results show that these components are substantially associated with reading comprehension. However, their role appears to be different…

  2. The Development of Comprehension and Reading-Related Skills in Children Learning English as an Additional Language and Their Monolingual, English-Speaking Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, K.; Whiteley, H. E.; Hutchinson, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: A significant number of pupils in UK schools learn English as an additional language (EAL). Relative differences between the educational attainment of this group and monolingual, English-speaking pupils call for an exploration of the literacy needs of EAL learners. Aims: This study explores the developmental progression of reading and…

  3. A Comparison between Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary in Bilingual and Monolingual South African School Beginners: Implications for Bilingual Language Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bilingual and monolingual school beginners on measures of simple and complex verbal working memory and receptive and expressive vocabulary. The aim was to determine whether the tests of working memory are fairer measures of language ability than the vocabulary tests for bilingual children when tested in their second language.…

  4. Développement phonético-phonologique en fulfulde et bambara d’enfants monolingues et bilingues : étude du babillage et des premiers mots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cissé, Ibrahima Abdoul Hayou

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive and analytical study is based on two corpora of audiovisual data of monolingual and multilingual children’s babbling and first words gathered in Mali during a period of nearly a year. It is concerned with fundamental discussions about the development and acquisition of language such

  5. Importance of Phonological and Orthographic Skills for English Reading and Spelling: A Comparison of English Monolingual and Mandarin-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Fletcher, Janet; Bayliss, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examines the importance of English phonological and orthographic processing skills to English word reading and spelling in 3 groups of younger (8-9 years) and older (11-12 years) children from different language backgrounds: English monolingual, English first language (L1)-Mandarin second language (L2), and Mandarin…

  6. The Intercultural Turn Brought about by the Implementation of CLIL Programmes in Spanish Monolingual Areas: A Case Study of Andalusian Primary and Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez García, María del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    In monolingual areas such as the southern Spanish Autonomous Community of Andalusia, the progressive introduction of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) programmes in a wide range of primary and secondary schools has probably produced the biggest turning point in Spain's modern educational history. CLIL is initially focused on…

  7. Development and Validation of Extract the Base: An English Derivational Morphology Test for Third through Fifth Grade Monolingual Students and Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Huggins, A. Corinne; Carlo, Maria; Malabonga, Valerie; Kenyon, Dorry; Louguit, Mohammed; August, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of the Extract the Base test (ETB), which assesses derivational morphological awareness. Scores on this test were validated for 580 monolingual students and 373 Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in third through fifth grade. As part of the validation of the internal structure,…

  8. Word Segmentation in Monolingual Infants Acquiring Canadian English and Canadian French: Native Language, Cross-Dialect, and Cross-Language Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polka, Linda; Sundara, Megha

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we tested segmentation of word forms from natural speech materials by 8-month-old monolingual infants who are acquiring Canadian French or Canadian English. These two languages belong to different rhythm classes; Canadian French is syllable-timed and Canada English is stress-timed. Findings of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 show that…

  9. The Intercultural Turn Brought about by the Implementation of CLIL Programmes in Spanish Monolingual Areas: A Case Study of Andalusian Primary and Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez García, María del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    In monolingual areas such as the southern Spanish Autonomous Community of Andalusia, the progressive introduction of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) programmes in a wide range of primary and secondary schools has probably produced the biggest turning point in Spain's modern educational history. CLIL is initially focused on…

  10. Importancia y situación actual de la accesibilidad web para el turismo accesible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fontanet Nadal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Accesible Tourism is a kind of Tourism that is specially dedicated to disabled people. This Tourism refers to the removal of physical elements that difficult the disabled people mobility at the destination. The Accesible Tourism should take care of both physical and web accessibility. The Web Accessibility of a web is defined as the capability this web to be accessed by people with any kind of disability. Some organizations generate rules to improve web accessibility. An analysis of Web Accessibility in Tourist Web Sites is shown at this document.

  11. Het WEB leert begrijpen

    CERN Multimedia

    Stroeykens, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The WEB could be much more useful if the computers understood something of information on the Web pages. That explains the goal of the "semantic Web", a project in which takes part, amongst others, Tim Berners Lee, the inventor of the original WEB

  12. Instant responsive web design

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, Cory

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial approach which will teach the readers what responsive web design is and how it is used in designing a responsive web page.If you are a web-designer looking to expand your skill set by learning the quickly growing industry standard of responsive web design, this book is ideal for you. Knowledge of CSS is assumed.

  13. Handbook of web surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bethlehem, J.; Biffignandi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Best practices to create and implementhighly effective web surveys Exclusively combining design and sampling issues, Handbook of Web Surveys presents a theoretical yet practical approach to creating and conducting web surveys. From the history of web surveys to various modes of data collection to ti

  14. Design and Implementation of a Simple Web Search Engine

    CERN Document Server

    Mirzal, Andri

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple web search engine for indexing and searching html documents using python programming language. Because python is well known for its simple syntax and strong support for main operating systems, we hope it will be beneficial for learning information retrieval techniques, especially web search engine technology.

  15. Geospatial semantic web

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chuanrong; Li, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    This book covers key issues related to Geospatial Semantic Web, including geospatial web services for spatial data interoperability; geospatial ontology for semantic interoperability; ontology creation, sharing, and integration; querying knowledge and information from heterogeneous data source; interfaces for Geospatial Semantic Web, VGI (Volunteered Geographic Information) and Geospatial Semantic Web; challenges of Geospatial Semantic Web; and development of Geospatial Semantic Web applications. This book also describes state-of-the-art technologies that attempt to solve these problems such as WFS, WMS, RDF, OWL, and GeoSPARQL, and demonstrates how to use the Geospatial Semantic Web technologies to solve practical real-world problems such as spatial data interoperability.

  16. NCDC Archive Documentation Manuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Climatic Data Center Tape Deck Documentation library is a collection of over 400 manuals describing NCDC's digital holdings (both historic and current)....

  17. Transportation System Requirements Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

  18. Software Document Inventory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwarth, P. D.

    1984-01-01

    Program offers ways to file and locate sources of reference. DOCLIB system consists of two parts to serve needs of two type of users: general user and librarian. DOCLIB systems provides user with interactive, menudriven document inventory capability.

  19. A CLIR Interface to a Web search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumke, Philipp; Schulz, Stefan; Markó, Kornél

    2005-01-01

    Medical document retrieval presents a unique combination of challenges for the design and implementation of retrieval engines. We introduce a method to meet these challenges by implementing a multilingual retrieval interface for biomedical content in the World Wide Web. To this end we developed an automated method for interlingual query construction by which a standard Web search engine is enabled to process non-English queries from the biomedical domain in order to retrieve English documents.

  20. Document Flash Thermography

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Cory; Baker, Doran

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of flash thermography techniques to the analysis of documents. Motivation for this research is to develop the ability to reveal covered writings in archaeological artifacts such as the Codex Selden or Egyptian Cartonnage. An emphasis is placed on evaluating several common existing signal processing techniques for their effectiveness in enhancing subsurface writings found within a set of test documents. These processing techniques include: contrast stretching, ...

  1. Document Flash Thermography

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Cory A.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents the application of ash thermography techniques to the analysis of documents. The motivation for this research is to develop the ability to non-destructively reveal covered writings in archaeological artifacts such as the Codex Selden or Egyptian car- tonnage. Current common signal processing techniques are evaluated for their effectiveness in enhancing subsurface writings found within a set of test documents. These processing techniques include: false colorization, contra...

  2. Are PDF Documents Accessible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Ribera Turró

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Adobe PDF is one of the most widely used formats in scientific communications and in administrative documents. In its latest versions it has incorporated structural tags and improvements that increase its level of accessibility. This article reviews the concept of accessibility in the reading of digital documents and evaluates the accessibility of PDF according to the most widely established standards.

  3. Audio Indexing on the Web: a Preliminary Study of Some Audio Descriptors

    OpenAIRE

    Parlangeau-Vallès, Nathalie; Farinas, Jérôme; Fohr, Dominique; Illina, Irina; Magrin-Chagnolleau, Ivan; Mella, Odile; PINQUIER, Julien; Rouas, Jean-Luc; Sénac, Christine

    2003-01-01

    Colloque avec actes et comité de lecture. internationale.; International audience; The "Invisible Web" is composed of documents which can not be currently accessed by Web search engines, because they have a dynamic URL or are not textual, like video or audio documents. For audio documents, one solution is automatic indexing. It consists in finding good descriptors of audio documents which can be used as indexes for archiving and search. This paper presents an overview and recent results of th...

  4. Web Project Management

    OpenAIRE

    Suralkar, Sunita; Joshi, Nilambari; Meshram, B B

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes about the need for Web project management, fundamentals of project management for web projects: what it is, why projects go wrong, and what's different about web projects. We also discuss Cost Estimation Techniques based on Size Metrics. Though Web project development is similar to traditional software development applications, the special characteristics of Web Application development requires adaption of many software engineering approaches or even development of comple...

  5. Web Project Management

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes about the need for Web project management, fundamentals of project management for web projects: what it is, why projects go wrong, and what's different about web projects. We also discuss Cost Estimation Techniques based on Size Metrics. Though Web project development is similar to traditional software development applications, the special characteristics of Web Application development requires adaption of many software engineering approaches or even development of comple...

  6. Web Science 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Boucher, Andy; Cameron, David; Gaver, William; Hauenstein, Mark; Jarvis, Nadine; Kerridge, Tobie; Michael, Mike; Ovalle, Liliana; Pennington, Sarah; Wilkie, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Web Science 2015 conference exhibition. Web Science is the emergent study of the people and technologies, applications, processes and practices that shape and are shaped by the World Wide Web. Web Science aims to draw together theories, methods and findings from across academic disciplines, and to collaborate with industry, business, government and civil society, to develop knowledge and understanding of the Web: the largest socio-technical infrastructure in human history.

  7. An intelligent method for geographic Web search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Kun; Yuan, Ying

    2008-10-01

    While the electronically available information in the World-Wide Web is explosively growing and thus increasing, the difficulty to find relevant information is also increasing for search engine user. In this paper we discuss how to constrain web queries geographically. A number of search queries are associated with geographical locations, either explicitly or implicitly. Accurately and effectively detecting the locations where search queries are truly about has huge potential impact on increasing search relevance, bringing better targeted search results, and improving search user satisfaction. Our approach focus on both in the way geographic information is extracted from the web and, as far as we can tell, in the way it is integrated into query processing. This paper gives an overview of a spatially aware search engine for semantic querying of web document. It also illustrates algorithms for extracting location from web documents and query requests using the location ontologies to encode and reason about formal semantics of geographic web search. Based on a real-world scenario of tourism guide search, the application of our approach shows that the geographic information retrieval can be efficiently supported.

  8. Improvement of the documentation and examples for MAD-X

    CERN Document Server

    Tatar, Kaya

    2013-01-01

    The MAD-X is being deeply refurbished in view of heavy use for the new accelerator projects at CERN. One key ingredient is the on-line documentation and suite of examples. The selected candidate will contribute to the re-organisation and re-design of the MAD-X documentation available online from the MAD web site, including a review of the examples, their update and possible improvements.

  9. WorldWide Web: Hypertext from CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Gord

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of software tools for accessing information on the Internet focuses on the WorldWideWeb (WWW) system, which was developed at the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Switzerland to build a worldwide network of hypertext links using available networking technology. Its potential for use with multimedia documents is also…

  10. German Library Networks in the Web Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Discusses German libraries' access to the Internet and World Wide Web, and reviews German library development and organization. Topics include state libraries; research library networks; national scientific service organizations that provide specialized information services; funding; standards; online catalog software; document delivery and…

  11. Distributed and Cooperative Information Retrieval on the World Wide Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继成; 金翔宇; 杨晓江; 张福炎

    2000-01-01

    A mass of heterogeneous, distributed and dynamic information on the World Wide Web (the Web) has resulted in "information overload". It's an important and urgent research issue to provide users with effective information retrieval service on the Web. Web search engines attempt to solve this problem, yet their effect is far from satisfying. In this paper, a distributed and cooperative strategy for information retrieval on the Web is proposed to substitute the centralized mode adopted by the current search engines. Then a new information retrieval system model IRSM is presented, which supports the retrieval of metadata about Web documents and uses Z39.50 standard protocol to unify the heterogeneous interfaces of different systems. Based on that, a distributed and cooperative information retrieval framework, called DCIRF, is designed to help users in fast and effective information retrieval on the Web.

  12. NOVEL IMPLEMENTATION OF SEARCH ENGINE FOR TELUGU DOCUMENTS WITH SYLLABLE N-GRAM MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR.B.PADMAJA RANI,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available As the technology is growing day by day, there is an enormous increase in the number of documents posted on web. There is a need for an application that facilitates the user with an efficient retrieval of the information that is needed. Search engines are the key to finding specific information on the vast expanse of the World Wide Web. Without sophisticated search engines, it would be virtually impossible to locate anything on the Web without knowing a specific URL. A search engine is a program that searches documents for specified keywords and returns a list of the documents where the keywords were found. The keywords to be searched for are given as query and the search engine gives the list of the documents having a match with the keywords in the query based on certain algorithms. The search engine also ranks the documents such that the more relevant documents are placed first in the results retrieved. Recently, there is an enormous increase of non-English web page documents posted on web page documents posted on web. The greater amount of documents is related to Chinese where as the increase in Indian language text documents are gaining popularity. There is a need to organize Indian language text documents so that the retrieval with a query is very fast. Telugu is the third most spoken language in India and one of the fifteen most spoken languages in the world. It is the official language of the state of Andhra Pradesh. There is an also a vast increase in Telugu language text documents. Because of the complexity of Telugu language, its very difficult to search and retrieve the documents needed. Hence, there is a need for an application that facilitates the user with an efficient retrieval of the information that is needed.

  13. Semantic Web Technologies for the Adaptive Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Ontologies and reasoning are the key terms brought into focus by the semantic web community. Formal representation of ontologies in a common data model on the web can be taken as a foundation for adaptive web technologies as well. This chapter describes how ontologies shared on the semantic web...... provide conceptualization for the links which are a main vehicle to access information on the web. The subject domain ontologies serve as constraints for generating only those links which are relevant for the domain a user is currently interested in. Furthermore, user model ontologies provide additional...... means for deciding which links to show, annotate, hide, generate, and reorder. The semantic web technologies provide means to formalize the domain ontologies and metadata created from them. The formalization enables reasoning for personalization decisions. This chapter describes which components...

  14. Pharyngolaryngeal web. Report of a new anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, C R; Tansek, K; Tucker, G F

    1983-01-01

    Within the last several months we have seen two patients with pharyngolaryngeal webs. The webs extend from the lateral borders of the epiglottis to the lateral and posterior pharyngeal walls framing the glottis with a "keyhole" type of effect. No web of this kind has ever been documented in the literature to our knowledge. These children suffer from intermittent airway obstruction, probably secondary to tethering of the epiglottis. These webs are very difficult to identify without the panoramic view of the hypopharynx which is afforded by the fiber-illuminated endoscopic telescopes. We recommend that endoscopy of neonates include observation of the hypopharynx with the endoscopic telescope as well as with the open laryngoscope.

  15. Sounds of Web Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Iben Bredahl; Graakjær, Nicolai Jørgensgaard

    2010-01-01

    Sound seems to be a neglected issue in the study of web ads. Web advertising is predominantly regarded as visual phenomena–commercial messages, as for instance banner ads that we watch, read, and eventually click on–but only rarely as something that we listen to. The present chapter presents...... an overview of the auditory dimensions in web advertising: Which kinds of sounds do we hear in web ads? What are the conditions and functions of sound in web ads? Moreover, the chapter proposes a theoretical framework in order to analyse the communicative functions of sound in web advertising. The main...... argument is that an understanding of the auditory dimensions in web advertising must include a reflection on the hypertextual settings of the web ad as well as a perspective on how users engage with web content....

  16. Perceptions of document relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eBruza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study of how humans perceive the relevance of documents.Humans are adept at making reasonably robust and quick decisions about what information is relevant to them, despite the ever increasing complexity and volume of their surrounding information environment. The literature on document relevance has identified various dimensions of relevance (e.g., topicality, novelty, etc., however little is understood about how these dimensions may interact.We performed a crowdsourced study of how human subjects judge two relevance dimensions in relation to document snippets retrieved from an internet search engine.The order of the judgement was controlled.For those judgements exhibiting an order effect, a q-test was performed to determine whether the order effects can be explained by a quantum decision model based on incompatible decision perspectives.Some evidence of incompatibility was found which suggests incompatible decision perspectives is appropriate for explaining interacting dimensions of relevance.

  17. Segmentation of complex document

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Oudjemia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for segmentation of documents image with complex structure. This technique based on GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix used to segment this type of document in three regions namely, 'graphics', 'background' and 'text'. Very briefly, this method is to divide the document image, in block size chosen after a series of tests and then applying the co-occurrence matrix to each block in order to extract five textural parameters which are energy, entropy, the sum entropy, difference entropy and standard deviation. These parameters are then used to classify the image into three regions using the k-means algorithm; the last step of segmentation is obtained by grouping connected pixels. Two performance measurements are performed for both graphics and text zones; we have obtained a classification rate of 98.3% and a Misclassification rate of 1.79%.

  18. WebReady: Essential Skills for Taking Internet-Based Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevastopoulos, Julie; Bruni, Peter

    This document is a report on WebReady, an online program that provides students with the essential skills needed to function effectively in Internet-based classes. The WebReady program consists of seven interactive lessons that instruct students on how to: (1) use the full capabilities of the Web browser; (2) perform critical searches on the…

  19. OWL 2 Web Ontology Language: structural specification and functional-style syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motik, B.; Patel-Schneider, P.F.; Parsia, B.; Bock, C.; Fokoue, A.; Haase, P.; Hoekstra, R.; Horrocks, I.; Ruttenberg, A.; Sattler, U.; Smith, M.

    2008-01-01

    The OWL 2 Web Ontology Language, informally OWL 2, is an ontology language for the Semantic Web with formally defined meaning. OWL 2 ontologies provide classes, properties, individuals, and data values and are stored as Semantic Web documents. OWL 2 ontologies can be used along with information writ

  20. Impact of the Web on Higher Education: A Case Study Approach Offered for Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Larry; Walther, Kim

    By far the greatest impact from technology on higher education has been made by the World Wide Web. The Web has become ubiquitous and skill in using it is now assumed in higher education. This document offers examples of the impact of the Web at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, a campus that is considered to be a leader in using the…