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Sample records for monolingual spanish-english bilingual

  1. Language Skills and Reading Comprehension in English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children in Grades 2-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Rebecca D.; Proctor, C. Patrick; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hartranft, Anna M.; Doyle, Brie; Zelinke, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated language skills and reading comprehension with English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children in grades 2-5. Of the 377 children in the sample, 207 were English monolingual and 170 were Spanish-English bilingual. Data were collected within a cohort-sequential design for two academic years in the fall and…

  2. Language Skills and Reading Comprehension in English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children in Grades 2-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Rebecca D.; Proctor, C. Patrick; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hartranft, Anna M.; Doyle, Brie; Zelinke, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated language skills and reading comprehension with English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children in grades 2-5. Of the 377 children in the sample, 207 were English monolingual and 170 were Spanish-English bilingual. Data were collected within a cohort-sequential design for two academic years in the fall and…

  3. Comparison of Spanish Morphology in Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth P.; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Auza, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    This study compares Spanish morphosyntax error types and magnitude in monolingual Spanish and Spanish-English bilingual children with typical language development (TD) and language impairment (LI). Performance across groups was compared using cloze tasks that targeted articles, clitics, subjunctives, and derivational morphemes in 57 children.…

  4. T-complex measures in bilingual Spanish-English and Turkish-German children and monolingual peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Tanja; Shafer, Valerie L.; Kiefer, Markus; Vidal, Nancy; Yu, Yan H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Lateral temporal neural measures (Na and T-complex Ta and Tb) of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) index maturation of auditory/speech processing. These measures are also sensitive to language experience in adults. This paper examined neural responses to a vowel sound at temporal electrodes in four- to five-year-old Spanish-English bilinguals and English monolinguals and in five- to six-year-old Turkish-German bilinguals and German monolinguals. The goal was to determine whether obligatory AEPs at temporal electrode sites were modulated by language experience. Language experience was defined in terms of monolingual versus bilingual status as well as the amount and quality of the bilingual language experience. Method AEPs were recorded at left and right temporal electrode sites to a 250-ms vowel [Ɛ] from 20 monolingual (American)-English and 18 Spanish-English children from New York City, and from 11 Turkish-German and 13 monolingual German children from Ulm, Germany. Language background information and standardized verbal and non-verbal test scores were obtained for the children. Results The results revealed differences in temporal AEPs (Na and Ta of the T-complex) between monolingual and bilingual children. Specifically, bilingual children showed smaller and/or later peak amplitudes than the monolingual groups. Ta-amplitude distinguished monolingual and bilingual children best at right electrode sites for both the German and American groups. Amount of experience and type of experience with the target language (English and German) influenced processing. Conclusions The finding of reduced amplitudes at the Ta latency for bilingual compared to monolingual children indicates that language specific experience, and not simply maturational factors, influences development of the neural processes underlying the Ta AEP, and suggests that lateral temporal cortex has an important role in language-specific speech perception development. PMID:28267801

  5. Differences between Spanish monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children in their calculation of entailment-based scalar implicatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Syrett

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we extend investigations of the possible effects of cross-linguistic influence at the pragmatics-syntax interface (Hulk & Müller 2000; Müller & Hulk 2001; Serratrice, Sorace & Paoli 2004, by presenting two experiments designed to probe how Spanish monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual preschool-age children approach the ‘some, but not all’ 'scalar implicature '(SI associated with 'algunos '(‘some’. We compare 'algunos 'and 'unos '(also a ‘some’ indefinite, but one that is not context-linked and does not induce an SI, and 'algunos 'and 'todos '(the universal quantifier ‘every/all’. The performance of the children is compared to fluent adult Spanish heritage speakers. Experiment 1 is a variation of Noveck’s (2001 statement evaluation task, also replicated by Guasti et al'. '(2005. Experiment 2 is a forced-choice picture selection task. Results demonstrate that adults were the only group to consistently calculate the SI associated with 'algunos '– a finding that was expected to some extent, given that our tasks were stripped of the contextual support that could benefit children’s pragmatic reasoning. While bilingual and monolingual children displayed comparable performance across tasks, bilinguals in Experiment 2 appeared to experience difficulty with judgments related to 'todos '– a pattern we attribute (in light of independent findings to the cognitive overload in the task, not the lexical entry of this quantifier. We conclude that young monolingual and bilingual children confront the same challenges when called upon to deploy pragmatic skills in a discourse context. This article is part of the special collection:Acquisition of Quantification

  6. Language Growth in English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children from 2.5 to 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Ribot, Krystal M

    2017-08-10

    To describe the trajectories of English and Spanish language growth in typically developing children from bilingual homes and compare those with the trajectories of English growth in children from monolingual homes, to assess effects of dual language exposure on language growth in typically developing children. Expressive vocabularies were assessed at 6-month intervals from age 30 to 60 months, in English for monolinguals and English and Spanish for bilinguals. Use of English and Spanish in the home was assessed via parental report. Multilevel modeling, including parent education as a covariate, revealed that children from bilingual homes lagged 6 months to 1 year behind monolingual children in English vocabulary growth. The size of the lag was related to the relative amount of English use in the home, but the relation was not linear. Increments in English use conferred the greatest benefit most among homes with already high levels of English use. These homes also were likely to have 1 parent who was a native English speaker. Bilingual children showed stronger growth in English than in Spanish. Bilingual children can lag 6 months to 1 year behind monolingual children in normal English language development. Such lags may not necessarily signify clinically relevant delay if parents report that children also have skills in the home language. Shorter lags are associated with 2 correlated factors: more English exposure and more exposure from native English speakers. Early exposure to Spanish in the home does not guarantee acquisition of Spanish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Age of acquisition and allophony in Spanish-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    This study examines age of acquisition (AoA) in Spanish-English bilinguals' phonetic and phonological knowledge of /l/ in English and Spanish. In English, the lateral approximant /l/ varies in darkness by context [based on the second formant (F2) and the difference between F2 and the first formant (F1)], but the Spanish /l/ does not. Further, English /l/ is overall darker than Spanish /l/. Thirty-eight college-aged adults participated: 11 Early Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English before the age of 5 years, 14 Late Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English after the age of 6 years, and 13 English monolinguals. Participants' /l/ productions were acoustically analyzed by language and context. The results revealed a Spanish-to-English phonetic influence on /l/ productions for both Early and Late bilinguals, as well as an English-to-Spanish phonological influence on the patterning of /l/ for the Late Bilinguals. These findings are discussed in terms of the Speech Learning Model and the effect of AoA on the interaction between a bilingual speaker's two languages.

  8. Age of Acquisition and Allophony in Spanish-English Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Barlow

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines age of acquisition (AoA in Spanish-English bilinguals’ phonetic and phonological knowledge of /l/ in English and Spanish. In English, the lateral approximant /l/ varies in darkness by context (based on the second formant [F2] and the difference between F2 and the first formant [F1], but the Spanish /l/ does not. Further, English /l/ is overall darker than Spanish /l/. Thirty-eight college-aged adults participated: 11 Early Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English before the age of 5 years, 14 Late Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English after the age of 6 years, and 13 English Monolinguals. Participants’ /l/ productions were acoustically analyzed by language and context. The results revealed a Spanish-to-English phonetic influence on /l/ productions for both Early and Late Bilinguals, as well as an English-to-Spanish phonological influence on the patterning of /l/ for the Late Bilinguals. These findings are discussed in terms of the Speech Learning Model and the effect of AoA on the interaction between a bilingual speaker’s two languages.

  9. Age of acquisition and allophony in Spanish-English bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines age of acquisition (AoA) in Spanish-English bilinguals’ phonetic and phonological knowledge of /l/ in English and Spanish. In English, the lateral approximant /l/ varies in darkness by context [based on the second formant (F2) and the difference between F2 and the first formant (F1)], but the Spanish /l/ does not. Further, English /l/ is overall darker than Spanish /l/. Thirty-eight college-aged adults participated: 11 Early Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English before the age of 5 years, 14 Late Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English after the age of 6 years, and 13 English monolinguals. Participants’ /l/ productions were acoustically analyzed by language and context. The results revealed a Spanish-to-English phonetic influence on /l/ productions for both Early and Late bilinguals, as well as an English-to-Spanish phonological influence on the patterning of /l/ for the Late Bilinguals. These findings are discussed in terms of the Speech Learning Model and the effect of AoA on the interaction between a bilingual speaker’s two languages. PMID:24795664

  10. Vowel reduction patterns of early Spanish- English bilinguals receiving continuous L1 and L2 input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byers Emily

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the production of three morphophonetic variations of schwa in American English: the plural allomorph {-s} as in watches, the possessive allomorph {-s} as in Sasha’s, and word-finally as in Russia. The production of these three allomorphs were examined in Miami’s English monolingual and early Spanish-English bilingual populations. Our purpose was to determine how native-like early Spanish-English bilinguals′ spectral qualities and reduced vowel durations were compared to Miami English monolinguals during a reading task. Results indicate that early bilinguals′ reduced vowels followed the same overall pattern as monolinguals, but had different acoustic properties.

  11. Testing Speech Recognition in Spanish-English Bilingual Children with the Computer-Assisted Speech Perception Assessment (CASPA): Initial Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Paula B; Rosado Rogers, Lydia; Nishi, Kanae

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the English version of Computer-Assisted Speech Perception Assessment (E-CASPA) with Spanish-English bilingual children. E-CASPA has been evaluated with monolingual English speakers ages 5 years and older, but it is unknown whether a separate norm is necessary for bilingual children. Eleven Spanish-English bilingual and 12 English monolingual children (6 to 12 years old) with normal hearing participated. Responses were scored by word, phoneme, consonant, and vowel. Regardless of scores, performance across three signal-to-noise ratio conditions was similar between groups, suggesting that the same norm can be used for both bilingual and monolingual children.

  12. The Role of Vocabulary Depth in Predicting Reading Comprehension among English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, C. Patrick; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Montecillo, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of vocabulary depth in reading comprehension among a diverse sample of monolingual and bilingual children in grades 2-4. Vocabulary depth was defined as including morphological awareness, awareness of semantic relations, and syntactic awareness. Two hundred ninety-four children from 3 schools in a…

  13. Phonological Acquisition in Bilingual Spanish-English Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine how between-language interaction contributes to phonological acquisition in bilingual Spanish-English speaking children. Method: A total of 24 typically developing children, ages 3;0 (years;months) to 4;0, were included in this study: 8 bilingual Spanish-English speaking children, 8…

  14. Total and Conceptual Vocabulary in Spanish-English Bilinguals from 22 to 30 Months: Implications for Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, Cynthia; Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Senor, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Vocabulary assessment holds promise as a way to identify young bilingual children at risk for language delay. This study compares 2 measures of vocabulary in a group of young Spanish-English bilingual children to a single-language measure used with monolingual children. Method: Total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were used to…

  15. The Role of Language of Instruction and Vocabulary in the English Phonological Awareness of Spanish-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco, Andrea Rolla; Carlo, Maria; August, Diane; Snow, Catherine E.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores influences on bilingual children's phonological awareness (PA) performance in English, examining the role of language of instruction and vocabulary. English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual kindergartners and first graders receiving either English or Spanish literacy instruction were assessed in English PA and in…

  16. Total and Conceptual Vocabulary in Spanish-English Bilinguals from 22 to 30 Months: Implications for Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, Cynthia; Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Senor, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Vocabulary assessment holds promise as a way to identify young bilingual children at risk for language delay. This study compares 2 measures of vocabulary in a group of young Spanish-English bilingual children to a single-language measure used with monolingual children. Method: Total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were used to…

  17. Vowel reduction in word-final position by early and late Spanish-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Emily; Yavas, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Vowel reduction is a prominent feature of American English, as well as other stress-timed languages. As a phonological process, vowel reduction neutralizes multiple vowel quality contrasts in unstressed syllables. For bilinguals whose native language is not characterized by large spectral and durational differences between tonic and atonic vowels, systematically reducing unstressed vowels to the central vowel space can be problematic. Failure to maintain this pattern of stressed-unstressed syllables in American English is one key element that contributes to a "foreign accent" in second language speakers. Reduced vowels, or "schwas," have also been identified as particularly vulnerable to the co-articulatory effects of adjacent consonants. The current study examined the effects of adjacent sounds on the spectral and temporal qualities of schwa in word-final position. Three groups of English-speaking adults were tested: Miami-based monolingual English speakers, early Spanish-English bilinguals, and late Spanish-English bilinguals. Subjects performed a reading task to examine their schwa productions in fluent speech when schwas were preceded by consonants from various points of articulation. Results indicated that monolingual English and late Spanish-English bilingual groups produced targeted vowel qualities for schwa, whereas early Spanish-English bilinguals lacked homogeneity in their vowel productions. This extends prior claims that schwa is targetless for F2 position for native speakers to highly-proficient bilingual speakers. Though spectral qualities lacked homogeneity for early Spanish-English bilinguals, early bilinguals produced schwas with near native-like vowel duration. In contrast, late bilinguals produced schwas with significantly longer durations than English monolinguals or early Spanish-English bilinguals. Our results suggest that the temporal properties of a language are better integrated into second language phonologies than spectral qualities

  18. Vowel reduction in word-final position by early and late Spanish-English bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Vowel reduction is a prominent feature of American English, as well as other stress-timed languages. As a phonological process, vowel reduction neutralizes multiple vowel quality contrasts in unstressed syllables. For bilinguals whose native language is not characterized by large spectral and durational differences between tonic and atonic vowels, systematically reducing unstressed vowels to the central vowel space can be problematic. Failure to maintain this pattern of stressed-unstressed syllables in American English is one key element that contributes to a “foreign accent” in second language speakers. Reduced vowels, or “schwas,” have also been identified as particularly vulnerable to the co-articulatory effects of adjacent consonants. The current study examined the effects of adjacent sounds on the spectral and temporal qualities of schwa in word-final position. Three groups of English-speaking adults were tested: Miami-based monolingual English speakers, early Spanish-English bilinguals, and late Spanish-English bilinguals. Subjects performed a reading task to examine their schwa productions in fluent speech when schwas were preceded by consonants from various points of articulation. Results indicated that monolingual English and late Spanish-English bilingual groups produced targeted vowel qualities for schwa, whereas early Spanish-English bilinguals lacked homogeneity in their vowel productions. This extends prior claims that schwa is targetless for F2 position for native speakers to highly-proficient bilingual speakers. Though spectral qualities lacked homogeneity for early Spanish-English bilinguals, early bilinguals produced schwas with near native-like vowel duration. In contrast, late bilinguals produced schwas with significantly longer durations than English monolinguals or early Spanish-English bilinguals. Our results suggest that the temporal properties of a language are better integrated into second language phonologies than spectral

  19. Clitic Placement in Spanish-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Leroux, Ana Teresa; Cuza, Alejandro; Thomas, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Can transfer occur in child bilingual syntax when surface overlap does not involve the syntax-pragmatics interface? Twenty-three Spanish/English bilingual children participated in an elicited imitation study of clitic placement in Spanish restructuring contexts, where variable word order is not associated with pragmatic or semantic factors.…

  20. Dialect Density in Bilingual Puerto Rican Spanish-English Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Shuriff, Rebecca; Barlow, Jessica A.; Goldstein, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    It is still largely unknown how the two phonological systems of bilingual children interact. In this exploratory study, we examine children's use of dialect features to determine how their speech sound systems interact. Six monolingual Puerto Rican Spanish-speaking children and 6 bilingual Puerto Rican Spanish-English speaking children, ages 5-7 years, were included in the current study. Children's single word productions were analyzed for (1) dialect density and (2) frequency of occurrence of dialect features (after Oetting & McDonald, 2002). Nonparametric statistical analyses were used to examine differences within and across language groups. Results indicated that monolinguals and bilinguals exhibited similar dialect density, but differed on the types of dialect features used. Findings are discussed within the theoretical framework of the Dual Systems Model (Paradis, 2001) of language acquisition in bilingual children. PMID:25009677

  1. The acquisition of allophones among bilingual Spanish-English and French-English 3-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrea A N; Fabiano-Smith, Leah

    2015-03-01

    Children are exposed to highly variable input from multiple sources within their speech community. This study examines the acquisition of allophones in Spanish and French by monolingual and bilingual children. We hypothesised that two factors would influence allophone acquisition: (1) the amount of exposure to phonological input, and (2) the degree of variability of the allophonic pattern. Thirty-four typically developing 3-year-old participated in the study. The analyses revealed that regardless of the language, the monolingual children produced similar error rates in the production of the target allophones. In contrast, the bilingual children produced different patterns of acquisition of the allophones: the Spanish-English bilinguals produced higher error rates than the monolinguals, whereas the French-English bilinguals produced lower error rates than the monolinguals. Possibilities for these differences are discussed within the context of structural complexity as well as in light of the effects of between-language interaction on bilingual phonological development.

  2. Age of Acquisition and Allophony in Spanish-English Bilinguals

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This study examines age of acquisition (AoA) in Spanish-English bilinguals’ phonetic and phonological knowledge of /l/ in English and Spanish. In English, the lateral approximant /l/ varies in darkness by context (based on the second formant [F2] and the difference between F2 and the first formant [F1]), but the Spanish /l/ does not. Further, English /l/ is overall darker than Spanish /l/. Thirty-eight college-aged adults participated: 11 Early Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English b...

  3. Age of acquisition and allophony in Spanish-English bilinguals

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines age of acquisition (AoA) in Spanish-English bilinguals’ phonetic and phonological knowledge of /l/ in English and Spanish. In English, the lateral approximant /l/ varies in darkness by context [based on the second formant (F2) and the difference between F2 and the first formant (F1)], but the Spanish /l/ does not. Further, English /l/ is overall darker than Spanish /l/. Thirty-eight college-aged adults participated: 11 Early Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English b...

  4. Effects of Speech Practice on Fast Mapping in Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Pui Fong; Sadagopan, Neeraja; Janich, Lauren; Andrade, Marixa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the effects of the levels of speech practice on fast mapping in monolingual and bilingual speakers. Method: Participants were 30 English-speaking monolingual and 30 Spanish-English bilingual young adults. Each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 3 practice conditions prior to the fast-mapping task: (a) intensive…

  5. Home and Community Language Proficiency in Spanish-English Early Bilingual University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Jens

    2017-09-14

    This study assessed home and community language proficiency in Spanish-English bilingual university students to investigate whether the vocabulary gap reported in studies of bilingual children persists into adulthood. Sixty-five early bilinguals (mean age = 21 years) were assessed in English and Spanish vocabulary and verbal reasoning ability using subtests of the Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey-Revised (Schrank & Woodcock, 2009). Their English scores were compared to 74 monolinguals matched in age and level of education. Participants also completed a background questionnaire. Bilinguals scored below the monolingual control group on both subtests, and the difference was larger for vocabulary compared to verbal reasoning. However, bilinguals were close to the population mean for verbal reasoning. Spanish scores were on average lower than English scores, but participants differed widely in their degree of balance. Participants with an earlier age of acquisition of English and more current exposure to English tended to be more dominant in English. Vocabulary tests in the home or community language may underestimate bilingual university students' true verbal ability and should be interpreted with caution in high-stakes situations. Verbal reasoning ability may be more indicative of a bilingual's verbal ability.

  6. Vowel reduction patterns of early Spanish- English bilinguals receiving continuous L1 and L2 input

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emily Byers

    2017-01-01

    .... Our purpose was to determine how native-like early Spanish-English bilinguals′ spectral qualities and reduced vowel durations were compared to Miami English monolinguals during a reading task...

  7. Syntactic comprehension, verbal memory, and calculation abilities in Spanish-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, A; Rosselli, M; Ostrosky-Solís, F; Marcos, J; Granda, G; Soto, M

    2000-01-01

    This article analyzes the interfering effect of the second language (L2) on the first language (L1) in native Spanish speakers living in the United States. We examined 3 linguistic aspects: (a) syntactic comprehension, (b) verbal memory, and (c) calculation abilities. We carried out 2 different studies. In the 1st study, we studied syntactic understanding in 50 Spanish-English bilinguals. For all participants, L1 was Spanish and L2 was English, and all learned English early in life and had attended English schools. Results for the Spanish Syntactic Comprehension Test (Marcos & Ostrosky, 1995) were compared with the normative results obtained with 40 Spanish monolingual participants. We observed that the closer to the English syntax the sentences were, the easier it was for the participants to understand them. Participants who had been exposed to English between the ages of 5 and 12 outperformed participants exposed to English before 5 years of age. Language preference correlated with syntactic comprehension. Women outperformed men. In the 2nd study, verbal memory and calculation abilities were examined in L1 and L2 in a group of 85 Spanish-English bilinguals. Parallel versions of the different tests were administered in Spanish and English. The results indicated some significant differences between the 2 languages in several verbal learning and calculation ability subtests. Most of the verbal memory subtests were better performed in L1. Scores on tasks measuring speed and calculation accuracy were higher in the participant's native language. Best spoken language proved to be a significant variable in some verbal memory subtests performed in English but not in Spanish. We analyze implications of bilingualism in neuropsychological testing. We also present some suggestions to minimize the bilingualism effect.

  8. Bilingualism and Language Contact: Spanish, English, and Native American Languages. Bilingual Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Florence, Ed.; And Others

    Spanish, English, and American Indian languages in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico and bilingualism and language contact in the region are addressed in a collection of articles. Approaches to research in the languages of this region are discussed in articles by Valdes, Lope Blanch, and Brandt. Cultural and sociolinguistic…

  9. The discrimination and the production of English vowels by bilingual Spanish/English speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, Sandra

    2001-05-01

    The discrimination of English vowels in real and novel words by 40 bilingual Spanish/English participants was examined. Their discrimination was compared with that of 40 native monolingual English participants. Participants were 23-36 years of age (mean 25.3; median 25.0). Stimuli were presented within triads in an ABX paradigm. This categorial discrimination paradigm was selected to avoid labeling, allowing participants to indicate categories to which stimuli belonged. Bilingual participants' productions of vowels in real words used in the discrimination task were judged by two independent listeners. The goal was to determine the degree of correlation between discrimination and production. Vowels were studied as these segments present second language learners with more difficulty than consonants. Discrimination difficulty was significantly greater for bilingual participants than for native English participants for vowel contrasts and novel words. Significant errors also appeared in the bilingual participants' production of certain vowels. English vowels absent from Spanish presented the greatest difficulty, while vowels similar to those in Spanish presented the least difficulty. Earlier age of acquisition, absence of communication problems, and greater percentage of time devoted to communication in English contributed to greater accuracy in discrimination and production. [Work supported by PSC-CUNY.

  10. The discrimination and the production of English vowels by bilingual Spanish/English speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, Sandra

    2004-05-01

    The discrimination of English vowels in real and novel words by 40 bilingual Spanish/English participants was examined. Their discrimination was compared with that of 40 native monolingual English participants. Participants were 23-36 years of age (mean 25.3; median 25.0). Stimuli were presented within triads in an ABX paradigm. This categorial discrimination paradigm was selected to avoid labeling, allowing participants to indicate categories to which stimuli belonged. Bilingual participants' productions of vowels in real words used in the discrimination task were judged by two independent listeners. The goal was to determine the degree of correlation between discrimination and production. Vowels were studied as these segments present second language learners with more difficulty than consonants. Discrimination difficulty was significantly greater for bilingual participants than for native English participants for vowel contrasts and novel words. Significant errors also appeared in the bilingual participants' production of certain vowels. English vowels absent from Spanish presented the greatest difficulty, while vowels similar to those in Spanish presented the least difficulty. Earlier age of acquisition, absence of communication problems, and greater percentage of time devoted to communication in English contributed to greater accuracy in discrimination and production. [Work supported by PSC-CUNY.

  11. Masked Translation Priming: Varying Language Experience and Word Type with Spanish-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chris; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa; Garcia-Albea, Jose E.; Guasch, Marc; Molero, Margarita; Ferre, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Spanish-English bilingual lexical organization was investigated using masked cognate and non-cognate priming with the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, three groups of bilinguals (Spanish dominant, English dominant and Balanced) and a single group of beginning bilinguals (Spanish) were tested with Spanish and English targets primed by…

  12. "School within a School": Examining Implementation Barriers in a Spanish/English Transitional Bilingual Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNicolo, Christina Passos

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the ways that general education and bilingual teachers make sense of a Spanish/English transitional bilingual program housed at one elementary school in a Midwestern school district. An in-depth examination of perceptions and attitudes unmasks key factors regarding the implementation and interpretation of bilingual programs…

  13. Writing and Reading Knowledge of Spanish/English Second-Generation Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Garcia, Krystal; Garcia, Melissa; Mejia, Joselyn; Vado, Grace

    2017-01-01

    Written bilingualism represents a particular type of bilingualism that is not frequently approached. The aim of this study was to investigate the writing and reading abilities of second-generation immigrants, Spanish-English bilinguals in South Florida. 58 participants (36 females, 22 males; 18-39 years of age) were selected. Both parents were…

  14. Writing and Reading Knowledge of Spanish/English Second-Generation Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Garcia, Krystal; Garcia, Melissa; Mejia, Joselyn; Vado, Grace

    2017-01-01

    Written bilingualism represents a particular type of bilingualism that is not frequently approached. The aim of this study was to investigate the writing and reading abilities of second-generation immigrants, Spanish-English bilinguals in South Florida. 58 participants (36 females, 22 males; 18-39 years of age) were selected. Both parents were…

  15. Masked Translation Priming: Varying Language Experience and Word Type with Spanish-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chris; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa; Garcia-Albea, Jose E.; Guasch, Marc; Molero, Margarita; Ferre, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Spanish-English bilingual lexical organization was investigated using masked cognate and non-cognate priming with the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, three groups of bilinguals (Spanish dominant, English dominant and Balanced) and a single group of beginning bilinguals (Spanish) were tested with Spanish and English targets primed by…

  16. Do bilinguals outperform monolinguals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejdi Sejdiu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between second dialect acquisition and the psychological capacity of the learner is still a divisive topic that generates a lot of debate. A few researchers contend that the acquisition of the second dialect tends to improve the cognitive abilities in various individuals, but at the same time it could hinder the same abilities in other people. Currently, immersion is a common occurrence in some countries. In the recent past, it has significantly increased in its popularity, which has caused parents, professionals, and researchers to question whether second language acquisition has a positive impact on cognitive development, encompassing psychological ability. In rundown, the above might decide to comprehend the effects of using a second language based on the literal aptitudes connected with the native language. The issue of bilingualism was seen as a disadvantage until recently because of two languages being present which would hinder or delay the development of languages. However, recent studies have proven that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in tasks which require more attention.

  17. Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Performance of Monolingual and Bilingual Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…

  18. Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Performance of Monolingual and Bilingual Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…

  19. The Influence of Emotional Arousal on Affective Priming in Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarriba, Jeanette; Canary, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    The activation of arousal components for emotion-laden words in English (e.g. kiss, death) was examined in two groups of participants: English monolinguals and Spanish-English bilinguals. In Experiment 1, emotion-laden words were rated on valence and perceived arousal. These norms were used to construct prime-target word pairs that were used in…

  20. Semantic Deficits in Spanish-English Bilingual Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Li; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Fiestas, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the nature and extent of semantic deficits in bilingual children with language impairment (LI). Method: Thirty-seven Spanish-English bilingual children with LI (ranging from age 7;0 [years;months] to 9;10) and 37 typically developing (TD) age-matched peers generated 3 associations to 12 pairs of translation equivalents in…

  1. Syntactic Development in the L1 of Spanish-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jennifer; Blume, Maria; Sanchez, Liliana

    2013-01-01

    In this exploratory study of subtractive bilingualism in Spanish-English bilingual children, we present evidence that crosslinguistic influence has a selective effect on heritage first language loss. Differences in feature strength between English and Spanish in interrogative and negative polarity item (NPI) sentences seem to affect the…

  2. Patterns of Stuttering in a Spanish/English Bilingual: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Ramos, Eliane; Barrocas, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Stuttering patterns may differ when comparing two languages. In bilinguals, specific patterns of stuttering in each one of the languages may potentially be found. This study reports on the case of a 27-year-old Spanish/English simultaneous bilingual whose dominant language is English. Speech and language testing was performed in both languages…

  3. Patterns of Stuttering in a Spanish/English Bilingual: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Ramos, Eliane; Barrocas, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Stuttering patterns may differ when comparing two languages. In bilinguals, specific patterns of stuttering in each one of the languages may potentially be found. This study reports on the case of a 27-year-old Spanish/English simultaneous bilingual whose dominant language is English. Speech and language testing was performed in both languages…

  4. The Relationship of Phonological Skills to Language Skills in Spanish-English-Speaking Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperson, Solaman J.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.

    2013-01-01

    These two studies investigate the relationship between phonological production skills and performance in other domains of language in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children. We examine the relationship between scores on a single-word phonology test and language measures selected from formal testing and narrative samples in Spanish and…

  5. Exploring Instructional Practices in a Spanish/English Bilingual Classroom through "Sitios y Lenguas" and "Testimonio"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gabriela; DeNicolo, Christina Passos; Fradkin, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from Chicana feminist perspectives and Pérez ("Living Chicana theory." Third Woman Press, Berkeley, pp 87-101, 1998) theories of "sitios y lenguas" (space and discourses) the authors reposition understandings of teaching and learning through a qualitative case study of a first grade Spanish/English bilingual classroom.…

  6. Exploring Instructional Practices in a Spanish/English Bilingual Classroom through "Sitios y Lenguas" and "Testimonio"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gabriela; DeNicolo, Christina Passos; Fradkin, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from Chicana feminist perspectives and Pérez ("Living Chicana theory." Third Woman Press, Berkeley, pp 87-101, 1998) theories of "sitios y lenguas" (space and discourses) the authors reposition understandings of teaching and learning through a qualitative case study of a first grade Spanish/English bilingual classroom.…

  7. The Disfluent Speech of Bilingual Spanish-English Children: Considerations for Differential Diagnosis of Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Courtney T.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Ramos, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to describe the frequency and types of speech disfluencies that are produced by bilingual Spanish-English (SE) speaking children who do not stutter. The secondary purpose was to determine whether their disfluent speech is mediated by language dominance and/or language produced. Method: Spanish and…

  8. The Relationship of Phonological Skills to Language Skills in Spanish-English-Speaking Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperson, Solaman J.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.

    2013-01-01

    These two studies investigate the relationship between phonological production skills and performance in other domains of language in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children. We examine the relationship between scores on a single-word phonology test and language measures selected from formal testing and narrative samples in Spanish and…

  9. The Disfluent Speech of Bilingual Spanish-English Children: Considerations for Differential Diagnosis of Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Courtney T.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Ramos, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to describe the frequency and types of speech disfluencies that are produced by bilingual Spanish-English (SE) speaking children who do not stutter. The secondary purpose was to determine whether their disfluent speech is mediated by language dominance and/or language produced. Method: Spanish and…

  10. The Relationship between Vocabulary and Word Reading among Head Start Spanish-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Dixon, L. Quentin; Quiroz, Blanca; Chen, Si

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between vocabulary and word reading across Spanish and English. One hundred and seventeen 4- to 5-year-old Spanish-English bilingual children attending Head Start programs in the United States were tested for their Spanish and English word reading twice, 5 months apart.…

  11. Assessing the Productive Vocabulary of Spanish-English Bilingual Toddlers from Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Pan, Barbara Alexander; Vagh, Shaher Banu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the utility and validity of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) for use with low-income parents and their 24- to 36-month-old Spanish-English bilingual children (n = 79). Issues in the interpretation of the integrated CDI/Inventarios del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas (IDHC) score to index…

  12. The Relationship between Vocabulary and Word Reading among Head Start Spanish-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Dixon, L. Quentin; Quiroz, Blanca; Chen, Si

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between vocabulary and word reading across Spanish and English. One hundred and seventeen 4- to 5-year-old Spanish-English bilingual children attending Head Start programs in the United States were tested for their Spanish and English word reading twice, 5 months apart.…

  13. Assessing the Productive Vocabulary of Spanish-English Bilingual Toddlers from Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Pan, Barbara Alexander; Vagh, Shaher Banu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the utility and validity of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) for use with low-income parents and their 24- to 36-month-old Spanish-English bilingual children (n = 79). Issues in the interpretation of the integrated CDI/Inventarios del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas (IDHC) score to index…

  14. Beyond Language Orders: Orthographic Processing and Word Reading in Spanish-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, S. Helene; Chen, Xi; Luo, Yang; Ramirez, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of an empirical test of the hypothesis that transfer of orthographic processing to reading occurs when the scripts under acquisition are written with the same unit (specifically, the same alphabet). We tested 97 Spanish-English bilingual children in Grades 4 and 7. We measured mother's education level, verbal and nonverbal…

  15. Acquisition of the stop-spirant alternation in bilingual Mexican Spanish-English speaking children: theoretical and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Oglivie, Trianna; Maiefski, Olivia; Schertz, Jessamyn

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics of typical acquisition of the Mexican Spanish stop-spirant alternation in bilingual Spanish-English speaking children and to shed light on the theoretical debate over which sound is the underlying form in the stop-spirant allophonic relationship. We predicted that bilingual children would acquire knowledge of this allophonic relationship by the time they reach age 5;0 (years;months) and would demonstrate higher accuracy on the spirants, indicating their role as the underlying phoneme. This quasi-longitudinal study examined children's single word samples in Spanish from ages 2;4-8;2. Samples were phonetically transcribed and analyzed for accuracy, substitution errors and acoustically for intensity ratios. Bilingual children demonstrated overall higher accuracy on the voiced stops as compared to the spirants. Differences in substitution errors across ages were found and acoustic analyses corroborated perceptual findings. The clinical implication of this research is that bilingual children may be in danger of overdiagnosis of speech sound disorders because acquisition of this allophonic rule in bilinguals appears to differ from what has been found in previous studies examining monolingual Spanish speakers.

  16. Performance of Spanish/English bilingual children on a spanish-language neuropsychological battery: preliminary normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, Mónica; Ardila, Alfredo; Navarrete, M Gina; Matute, Esmeralda

    2010-05-01

    Despite a population of close to 40 million Hispanics/Latinos in the USA who have at least some level of Spanish/English bilingualism, there are few neuropsychological tests and norms available for this group, especially when assessing Spanish/English bilingual children. The purpose of the present research was to provide preliminary normative data for a bilingual population on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery developed for Spanish-speaking children (Evaluación Neuropsicológica Infantil). Norms by age are presented on the performance of 108 Spanish/English bilingual children (ages 5-14 years) and are expected to be useful when testing other Spanish/English bilingual children in the USA.

  17. Prosody and Spoken Word Recognition in Early and Late Spanish-English Bilingual Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutsen, Frank R.; Dvorak, Justin D.; Deweber, Derick D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to compare the influence of word properties on gated single-word recognition in monolingual and bilingual individuals under conditions of native and nonnative accent and to determine whether word-form prosody facilitates recognition in bilingual individuals. Method: Word recognition was assessed in monolingual and…

  18. The role of age of acquisition in bilingual word translation: evidence from Spanish-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J Michael; Kennison, Shelia M

    2011-08-01

    The present research tested the hypothesis that the age at which one's first language (L1) words are learned influences language processing in bilinguals. Prior research on bilingual language processing by Kroll and colleagues has suggested that memory links between L1 words and conceptual representations are stronger than memory links between one's second language (L2) word and conceptual representations. We hypothesized that the strengths of memory links between L1 words and conceptual representations are stronger for words learned early in life than for words learned later in life. Support for the hypothesis was obtained in bilingual translation experiment with 36 Spanish-English bilinguals. Participants translated L1 words into L2 and L2 words into L1. Half of the L1 words were learned early in childhood (early AoA words), and half were learned later in life (late AoA words). The L2 words were translation equivalents of the L1 words tested; the average age at which L2 words were learned was age 7. Target words were presented either in random order or blocked by semantic category. Translation times were longer when trials were blocked by semantic category (i.e., categorical interference) occurred only when early AoA L1 words were translated into L2. Implications for current models of bilingual memory are discussed.

  19. Spatial role-taking ability among bilingual and monolingual kindergarten children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrell, J

    1987-03-01

    Fifty-seven children enrolled in a bilingual Spanish kindergarten program, assigned to appropriate language and age-related groups, were shown a graduated sequence of increasingly complex arrangements of multicolored blocks and were asked to judge how the original arrangement would look from the opposite and the side perspectives. A series of 2(younger vs. older) X 3(Spanish Monolingual vs. English Monolingual vs. Spanish-English Bilingual) ANOVAs for each of the types of responses (correct, incorrect, egocentric) showed a significant main effect for age on the incorrect answers. No differences associated with egocentrism were obtained. There was no relationship between age and success with simple and complex spatial tasks. As opposed to other studies that suggest certain cognitive advantages for young bilingual children, this study indicates no perceptible differences associated with being monolingual or bilingual at the ages of 5 and 6 for spatial tasks.

  20. Do Spanish-English bilinguals have their fingers in two pies--or is it their toes? An electrophysiological investigation of semantic access in bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko eHoshino

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined the time course of cross-language activation during word recognition in the context of semantic priming with interlingual homographs. Spanish-English bilinguals were presented pairs of English words visually one word at a time and judged whether the two words were related in meaning while recording event-related potentials (ERPs. Interlingual homographs (e.g., pie appeared in the target position and were preceded by primes that were either related to the English meaning (e.g., apple, related to the Spanish meaning of interlingual homographs (e.g., toe or totally unrelated (e.g., floor/bed. Spanish-English bilinguals showed semantic priming not only when interlingual homographs were related to the English meaning but also to the Spanish meaning of the prime. These priming effects were detectable in the mean amplitude of the N400 (350-500 ms even when the target word was related to the prime in Spanish and the context of the experiment was English. However, the relatedness effect survived into the window of a late positive component, LPC (550-700 ms only for stimulus pairs related in English. To verify that the observed pattern of the results was due to participants’ bilingualism, we also tested a group of English monolinguals. The monolinguals showed a semantic priming effect for the N400 and LPC time windows only when interlingual homographs were related to the English meaning. These results suggest that both languages are activated in the classical time frame of semantic activation indexed by N400 modulations, but that semantic activation in the non-target language is subsequently inhibited.

  1. Reading skills and the discrimination of English vowel contrasts by bilingual Spanish/English-speaking children: Is there a correlation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, Sandra

    2005-04-01

    This study examined the discrimination of English vowel contrasts in real and novel word-pairs by 21 children: 11 bilingual Spanish/English- and 10 monolingual English-speaking children, 8-12 years of age (M=10; 6; Mdn=10; 4). The goal was to determine if children with poor reading skills had difficulty with discrimination, an essential factor in reading abilities. A categorial discrimination task was used in an ABX discrimination paradigm: A (the first word in the sequence) and B (the second word in the sequence) were different stimuli, and X (the third word in the sequence) was identical to either A or to B. Stimuli were produced by one of three different speakers. Seventy-two monosyllabic words were presented: 36 real English and 36 novel words. Vowels were those absent from the inventory of Spanish vowels. Discrimination accuracy for the English-speaking children with good reading skills was significantly greater than for the bilingual-speaking children with good or poor reading skills. Early age of acquisition and greater percentage of time devoted to communication in English played the greatest role in bilingual children's discrimination and reading skills. The adjacency of vowels in the F1-F2 acoustic space presented the greatest difficulty.

  2. Monolingual and Bilingual Children's Social Preferences for Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Behrend, Douglas A.; Said, Lyakout Mohamed; Girgis, Helana; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Past research has shown that young monolingual children exhibit language-based social biases: they prefer native language to foreign language speakers. The current research investigated how children's language preferences are influenced by their own bilingualism and by a speaker's bilingualism. Monolingual and bilingual 4- to 6-year-olds heard…

  3. Cognates Facilitate Word Recognition in Young Spanish-English Bilinguals' Test Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Anita Méndez; Peña, Elizabeth D; Bedore, Lisa M

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether bilingual children of kindergarten and first grade age were able to recognize cognates of Spanish words, and whether the ability to recognize cognates changed the score on a measure of English vocabulary. 89 bilingual children were administered all of the items on the Test of Language Development-Primary:3 (TOLD-P:3) Picture Vocabulary Subtest (Newcomer & Hammill, 1997). Parents and teachers provided information about the child's English and Spanish exposure. Data analysis using repeated measures ANOVA compared performance in bilingual children divided by level of relative exposure to Spanish and English on cognate verses noncognate items. Sensitivity to cognate status was related to the amount of language exposure. Children exposed to more Spanish knew more of the English cognates of Spanish words than children who were exposed to balanced amounts of Spanish and English and those exposed to more English. Standard scores differences on the TOLD-P:3 across all levels of Spanish-English exposure were found using ceiling rules and total raw scores. Findings suggest a transfer of vocabulary knowledge from the students' first language (Spanish) to receptive vocabulary in English. Children as early as kindergarten are sensitive to the Spanish/English cognates. Results have implications for understanding bilingual children's' performance on assessment, and for developing intervention strategies to enhance vocabulary in English language learners.

  4. Predicting Spanish-English bilingual children's language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Komaroff, Eugene; Rodriguez, Barbara L; Lopez, Lisa M; Scarpino, Shelley E; Goldstein, Brian

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the authors investigated factors that affect bilingual children's vocabulary and story recall abilities in their 2 languages. Participants included 191 Latino families and their children, who averaged 59 months of age. Data on parental characteristics and children's exposure to and usage of Spanish and English were collected. The authors assessed children's Spanish and English vocabulary and story recall abilities using subtests of the Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey-Revised ( Woodcock, Muñoz-Sandoval, Ruef, & Alvarado, 2005). Sizeable percentages of variation in children's English (R2 = .61) and Spanish (R2 = .55) vocabulary scores were explained by children's exposure to, and usage of, each language and maternal characteristics. Similarly, variations in children's story recall scores in English (R2 = .38) and Spanish (R2 = .19) were also explained by the factors considered in this investigation. However, the authors found that different sets of factors in each category affected children's vocabulary and story recall abilities in each language. Children's exposure to and usage of their two languages as well as maternal characteristics play significant roles in bilingual individuals' language development. The results highlight the importance of gathering detailed sociolinguistic information about bilingual children when these children are involved in research and when they enter the educational system.

  5. Involuntary switching of attention mediates differences in event-related responses to complex tones between early and late Spanish-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Mantilla, Silvia; Choudhury, Naseem; Alvarez, Barbara; Benasich, April A

    2010-11-29

    Most research with bilinguals has used speech stimuli to demonstrate differences in auditory processing abilities. Two main factors have been identified as modulators of such differences: proficiency and age of acquisition of the second language (L2). However, whether the bilingual brain differs from the monolingual in the efficient processing of non-verbal auditory events (known to be critical to the acoustic analysis of the speech stream) remains unclear. In this EEG/ERP study, using the mismatch negativity (MMN), P3a, and late negativity (LN), we examined differences in discrimination, involuntary switching of attention and reorienting of attention between monolinguals and bilinguals as they processed complex tones. Further, we examined the role that age of acquisition plays in modulating such responses. A group of English monolinguals and a group of proficient Spanish-English bilinguals were presented with a multiple-deviant oddball paradigm with four deviant conditions (duration, frequency, silent gap, and frequency modulation). Late bilinguals, who learned English after age 10, exhibited larger MMN and P3a responses than early bilinguals, across all deviant conditions. Significant associations were found between amplitude of the responses and both age of L2 acquisition and years of L2 experience. Individuals who acquired English at later ages and had fewer years of L2 experience had larger MMN, P3a, and LN responses than those who learned it earlier. These findings demonstrate that age of L2 acquisition is an important modulator of auditory responses in bilinguals even when processing non-speech signals. Involuntary attention switching is suggested as the main factor driving these differences.

  6. The relationship of phonological skills to language skills in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperson, Solaman J; Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D

    2013-05-01

    These two studies investigate the relationship between phonological production skills and performance in other domains of language in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children. We examine the relationship between scores on a single-word phonology test and language measures selected from formal testing and narrative samples in Spanish and English. The first study explores the language and phonology scores of 186 children (mean age = 5 years, 9 months) who represent a range of language ability levels. Phonology scores in both languages were most strongly correlated with performance on the Spanish morphosyntax subtest of the bilingual English-Spanish assessment and grammaticality of utterances in English narratives. The second study focuses on 12 children with low or high phonology skills selected from those who participated in the first study. Children with higher phonological production accuracy in both languages produced grammatical structures of low-phonetic salience with greater accuracy than children with lower phonological skills.

  7. Relative Language Exposure, Processing Efficiency and Vocabulary in Spanish-English Bilingual Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Nereyda; Gruter, Theres; Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Research with monolingual children has shown that early efficiency in real-time word recognition predicts later language and cognitive outcomes. In parallel research with young bilingual children, processing ability and vocabulary size are closely related within each language, although not across the two languages. For children in dual-language…

  8. Relative Language Exposure, Processing Efficiency and Vocabulary in Spanish-English Bilingual Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Nereyda; Gruter, Theres; Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Research with monolingual children has shown that early efficiency in real-time word recognition predicts later language and cognitive outcomes. In parallel research with young bilingual children, processing ability and vocabulary size are closely related within each language, although not across the two languages. For children in dual-language…

  9. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Third Language Acquisition: The Case of Spanish-English Bilinguals' Acquisition of Portuguese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caralho, Ana Maria; da Silva, Antonio Jose Bacelar

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates typological distance and order of acquisition (i.e., the order in which languages were acquired) in the context in which Spanish-English bilingual students, whose first language is English or Spanish, are learning Portuguese as a third language (L3). Participants were asked to think aloud as they worked on pedagogical tasks…

  10. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Third Language Acquisition: The Case of Spanish-English Bilinguals' Acquisition of Portuguese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caralho, Ana Maria; da Silva, Antonio Jose Bacelar

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates typological distance and order of acquisition (i.e., the order in which languages were acquired) in the context in which Spanish-English bilingual students, whose first language is English or Spanish, are learning Portuguese as a third language (L3). Participants were asked to think aloud as they worked on pedagogical tasks…

  11. Spanish/English Bilingual Listeners on Clinical Word Recognition Tests: What to Expect and How to Predict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu-Feng; Sanchez, Diana

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The current study was an attempt to provide initial evidence on how to predict the optimal language in which to conduct speech perception testing for Spanish/English (S/E) bilingual listeners. Method: Thirty normal-hearing S/E listeners differing in age of language acquisition, length of immersion, daily language use, self-rated listening…

  12. Initial consonant deletion in bilingual Spanish-English-speaking children with speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Cuzner, Suzanne Lea

    2017-09-13

    The purpose of this study was to utilize a theoretical model of bilingual speech sound production as a framework for analyzing the speech of bilingual children with speech sound disorders. In order to distinguish speech difference from speech disorder, we examined between-language interaction on initial consonant deletion, an error pattern found cross-linguistically in the speech of children with speech sound disorders. Thirteen monolingual English-speaking and bilingual Spanish-and English-speaking preschoolers with speech sound disorders were audio-recorded during a single word picture-naming task and their recordings were phonetically transcribed. Initial consonant deletion errors were examined both quantitatively and qualitatively. An analysis of cross-linguistic effects and an analysis of phonemic complexity were performed. Monolingual English-speaking children exhibited initial consonant deletion at a significantly lower rate than bilingual children in their Spanish productions; however, no other quantitative differences were found across groups or languages. Qualitative differences yielded between-language interaction in the error patterns of bilingual children. Phonemic complexity appeared to play a role in initial consonant deletion. Evidence from the speech of bilingual children with speech sound disorders supports analysing bilingual speech using a cross-linguistic framework. Both theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  13. Preposition accuracy on a sentence repetition task in school age Spanish-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliancich-Klinger, Casey L; Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D

    2017-05-16

    Preposition knowledge is important for academic success. The goal of this project was to examine how different variables such as English input and output, Spanish preposition score, mother education level, and age of English exposure (AoEE) may have played a role in children's preposition knowledge in English. 148 Spanish-English children between 7;0 and 9;11 produced prepositions in English and Spanish on a sentence repetition task from an experimental version of the Bilingual English Spanish Assessment Middle Extension (Peña, Bedore, Gutierrez-Clellen, Iglesias & Goldstein, in development). English input and output accounted for most of the variance in English preposition score. The importance of language-specific experiences in the development of prepositions is discussed. Competition for selection of appropriate prepositions in English and Spanish is discussed as potentially influencing low overall preposition scores in English and Spanish.

  14. Age effects on acquisition of word stress in Spanish-English bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guion, Susan G.; Clark, J. J.; Harada, Tetsuo

    2003-10-01

    Based on studies of syntactic and semantic learning, it has been proposed that certain aspects of second language learning may be more adversely affected by delays in language learning than others. Here, this proposal is extended to the phonological domain in which the acquisition of English word stress patterns by early (AOA 14 years) Spanish-English bilinguals is investigated. The knowledge of English word stress was investigated by three behavioral tasks. In a production task, participants produced two syllable nonwords in both noun and verb sentence frames. In a perception task, participants indicated a preference for first or last syllable stress on the nonwords. Real words that were phonologically similar to the test items were also collected from each participant. Regression analyses and ANOVAs were conducted to determine the effect of syllable structure, lexical class, and stress pattern of phonologically similar words on the data from the production and perception tasks. Early bilinguals patterned similarly to the native English participants. Late bilinguals showed little evidence of learning prosodically based stress patterns but did show evidence of application of distributional patterns based on lexical class and analogy in stress assignment. [Research supported by NIH.

  15. Lexical knowledge of monolingual and bilingual children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhallen, M.; Schoonen, R.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to gain insight into the lexico-semantic knowledge of bilingual children growing up in a second-language immersion environment. The research focus is on aspects of lexical knowledge that are relevant for school success. Data were obtained by asking 40 monolingual

  16. Second-language fluency predicts native language stroop effects: Evidence from spanish-english bilinguals

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez, PA; Gollan, TH; Heaton, R; Grant, I; Cherner, M

    2014-01-01

    Copyright © 2014 INS. Published by Cambridge University Press. Studies have shown reduced Stroop interference in bilinguals compared to monolinguals defined dichotomously, but no study has explored how varying degrees of second language fluency, might affect linguistic inhibitory control in the first language. We examined effects of relative English fluency on the ability to inhibit the automatic reading response on the Golden version of the Stroop Test administered in Spanish. Participants w...

  17. Paired variability indices in assessing speech rhythm in Spanish/English bilingual language acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Richard; Andruski, Jean; Casielles, Eugenia; Kim, Sahyang; Nathan, Geoff

    2005-04-01

    Traditionally, English is classified as a stress-timed language while Spanish is classified as syllable-timed. Examining the contrasting development of rhythmic patterns in bilingual first language acquisition should provide information on how this differentiation takes place. As part of a longitudinal study, speech samples were taken of a Spanish/English bilingual child of Argentinean parents living in the Midwestern United States between the ages of 1;8 and 3;2. Spanish is spoken at home and English input comes primarily from an English day care the child attends 5 days a week. The parents act as interlocutors for Spanish recordings with a native speaker interacting with the child for the English recordings. Following the work of Grabe, Post and Watson (1999) and Grabe and Low (2002) a normalized Pairwise Variability Index (PVI) is used which compares, in utterances of minimally four syllables, the durations of vocalic intervals in successive syllables. Comparisons are then made between the rhythmic patterns of the child's productions within each language over time and between languages at comparable MLUs. Comparisons are also made with the rhythmic patterns of the adult productions of each language. Results will be analyzed for signs of native speaker-like rhythmic production in the child.

  18. Semantic and Conceptual Factors in Spanish-English Bilinguals' Processing of Lexical Categories in Their Two Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathercole, Virginia C. Mueller; Stadthagen-González, Hans; Pérez-Tattam, Rocío; Yava?, Feryal

    2016-01-01

    This study examines possible semantic interaction in fully fluent adult simultaneous and early second language (L2) bilinguals. Monolingual and bilingual speakers of Spanish and English (n = 144) were tested for their understanding of lexical categories that differed in their two languages. Simultaneous bilinguals came from homes in which Spanish…

  19. Research applications for an Object and Action Naming Battery to assess naming skills in adult Spanish-English bilingual speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Lisa A; Donovan, Neila J

    2014-06-01

    Virtually no valid materials are available to evaluate confrontation naming in Spanish-English bilingual adults in the U.S. In a recent study, a large group of young Spanish-English bilingual adults were evaluated on An Object and Action Naming Battery (Edmonds & Donovan in Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 55:359-381, 2012). Rasch analyses of the responses resulted in evidence for the content and construct validity of the retained items. However, the scope of that study did not allow for extensive examination of individual item characteristics, group analyses of participants, or the provision of testing and scoring materials or raw data, thereby limiting the ability of researchers to administer the test to Spanish-English bilinguals and to score the items with confidence. In this study, we present the in-depth information described above on the basis of further analyses, including (1) online searchable spreadsheets with extensive empirical (e.g., accuracy and name agreeability) and psycholinguistic item statistics; (2) answer sheets and instructions for scoring and interpreting the responses to the Rasch items; (3) tables of alternative correct responses for English and Spanish; (4) ability strata determined for all naming conditions (English and Spanish nouns and verbs); and (5) comparisons of accuracy across proficiency groups (i.e., Spanish dominant, English dominant, and balanced). These data indicate that the Rasch items from An Object and Action Naming Battery are valid and sensitive for the evaluation of naming in young Spanish-English bilingual adults. Additional information based on participant responses for all of the items on the battery can provide researchers with valuable information to aid in stimulus development and response interpretation for experimental studies in this population.

  20. Language Learning from Inconsistent Input: Bilingual and Monolingual Toddlers Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bree, Elise; Verhagen, Josje; Kerkhoff, Annemarie; Doedens, Willemijn; Unsworth, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    This study examines novel language learning from inconsistent input in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. We predicted an advantage for the bilingual toddlers on the basis of the structural sensitivity hypothesis. Monolingual and bilingual 24-month-olds performed two novel language learning experiments. The first contained consistent input, and…

  1. The Role of Age of Acquisition in Bilingual Word Translation: Evidence from Spanish-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J. Michael; Kennison, Shelia M.

    2011-01-01

    The present research tested the hypothesis that the age at which one's first language (L1) words are learned influences language processing in bilinguals. Prior research on bilingual language processing by Kroll and colleagues has suggested that memory links between L1 words and conceptual representations are stronger than memory links between…

  2. The Influences of Language of Literacy Instruction and Vocabulary on the Spelling of Spanish-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco, Andrea Rolla; Mo, Elaine; Carlo, Maria; August, Diane; Snow, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The relation of language of instruction and vocabulary to the English spelling of bilingual first graders receiving either English or Spanish literacy instruction and of monolinguals in English literacy instruction was explored. Only bilingual students in Spanish literacy instruction (SLI) exhibited Spanish-influenced spelling, indicating a…

  3. Self-Ratings of Spoken Language Dominance: A Multilingual Naming Test (MINT) and Preliminary Norms for Young and Aging Spanish-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Weissberger, Gali H.; Runnqvist, Elin; Montoya, Rosa I.; Cera, Cynthia M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated correspondence between different measures of bilingual language proficiency contrasting self-report, proficiency interview, and picture naming skills. Fifty-two young (Experiment 1) and 20 aging (Experiment 2) Spanish-English bilinguals provided self-ratings of proficiency level, were interviewed for spoken proficiency, and…

  4. Item-Level Psychometrics and Predictors of Performance for Spanish/English Bilingual Speakers on "An Object and Action Naming Battery"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Lisa A.; Donovan, Neila J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a pressing need for psychometrically sound naming materials for Spanish/English bilingual adults. To address this need, in this study the authors examined the psychometric properties of An Object and Action Naming Battery (An O&A Battery; Druks & Masterson, 2000) in bilingual speakers. Method: Ninety-one Spanish/English…

  5. Cross-Language Transfer of Word Reading Accuracy and Word Reading Fluency in Spanish-English and Chinese-English Bilinguals: Script-Universal and Script-Specific Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Chen, Xi; Gottardo, Alexandra; Geva, Esther

    2015-01-01

    This study examined cross-language transfer of word reading accuracy and word reading fluency in Spanish-English and Chinese-English bilinguals. Participants included 51 Spanish-English and 64 Chinese-English bilinguals. Both groups of children completed parallel measures of phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, word reading accuracy,…

  6. Cross-Language Transfer of Word Reading Accuracy and Word Reading Fluency in Spanish-English and Chinese-English Bilinguals: Script-Universal and Script-Specific Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Chen, Xi; Gottardo, Alexandra; Geva, Esther

    2015-01-01

    This study examined cross-language transfer of word reading accuracy and word reading fluency in Spanish-English and Chinese-English bilinguals. Participants included 51 Spanish-English and 64 Chinese-English bilinguals. Both groups of children completed parallel measures of phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, word reading accuracy,…

  7. Glosario Bilingue De Terminos Matematicos: Espanol/Ingles = Bilingual Glossary of Mathematical Terms: Spanish/English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Bilingual Education.

    This glossary has been prepared for the convenience of bilingual (English and Spanish) teachers who may not always be familiar with mathematical terminology in both languages. Often teachers must research and translate the terms necessary for each lesson. In some cases, the translations are literal, which results in the adoption of different terms…

  8. Glosario Bilingue De Terminos Matematicos: Espanol/Ingles = Bilingual Glossary of Mathematical Terms: Spanish/English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Bilingual Education.

    This glossary has been prepared for the convenience of bilingual (English and Spanish) teachers who may not always be familiar with mathematical terminology in both languages. Often teachers must research and translate the terms necessary for each lesson. In some cases, the translations are literal, which results in the adoption of different terms…

  9. Repetition priming in picture naming and translation depends on shared processes and their difficulty: evidence from spanish-english bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S; Augustini, Beatriz K; Saenz, Silvia P

    2003-11-01

    Two experiments with highly fluent Spanish-English bilinguals examined repetition priming of picture identification and word retrieval in picture naming. In Experiment 1, between-language priming of picture naming was symmetric, but within-language priming was stronger in the nondominant language. In Experiment 2, priming between picture naming and translation was symmetric within both the dominant language and the nondominant language, but priming was stronger in the nondominant language. A mathematical model required only 3 process parameters to explain the pattern of priming across 8 conditions. These results indicate that shared processes are the basis of priming, that difficulty influences priming only at the process level, and that translation in both directions is concept mediated in fluent bilinguals.

  10. Bilingual and Monolingual Children Prefer Native-Accented Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre L. eSouza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adults and young children prefer to affiliate with some individuals rather than others. Studies have shown that monolingual children show in-group biases for individuals who speak their native language without a foreign accent (Kinzler, Dupoux, & Spelke, 2007. Some studies have suggested that bilingual children are less influenced than monolinguals by language variety when attributing personality traits to different speakers (Anisfeld & Lambert, 1964, which could indicate that bilinguals have fewer in-group biases and perhaps greater social flexibility. However, no previous studies have compared monolingual and bilingual children’s reactions to speakers with unfamiliar foreign accents. In the present study, we investigated the social preferences of 5-year-old English and French monolinguals and English-French bilinguals. Contrary to our predictions, both monolingual and bilingual preschoolers preferred to be friends with native-accented speakers over speakers who spoke their dominant language with an unfamiliar foreign accent. This result suggests that both monolingual and bilingual children have strong preferences for in-group members who use a familiar language variety, and that bilingualism does not lead to generalized social flexibility.

  11. Correlates and Cross-Linguistic Comparisons of Informativeness and Efficiency on Nicholas and Brookshire Discourse Stimuli in Spanish/English Bilingual Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine (a) correlates of informativeness and efficiency in discourse and (b) potential cross-linguistic and stimulus type (picture vs. nonpicture) differences in measures of informativeness and efficiency in Spanish/English bilingual adults in the United States. Method: Eighty-eight Spanish/English…

  12. Can yu rid guat ay rot? A Developmental Investigation of Cross-Linguistic Spelling Errors among Spanish-English Bilingual Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Elizabeth R.; Green, Jennifer D.; Arteagoitia, Igone

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to the literature on cross-linguistic literacy relationships for English language learners, and in particular, the Spanish-influenced spelling patterns of Spanish-English bilinguals. English spelling, reading, and vocabulary assessments were administered to 220 students in four TWI programs over a three-year period, from…

  13. Second-language fluency predicts native language stroop effects: evidence from Spanish-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Paola A; Gollan, Tamar H; Heaton, Robert; Grant, Igor; Cherner, Mariana

    2014-03-01

    Studies have shown reduced Stroop interference in bilinguals compared to monolinguals defined dichotomously, but no study has explored how varying degrees of second language fluency, might affect linguistic inhibitory control in the first language. We examined effects of relative English fluency on the ability to inhibit the automatic reading response on the Golden version of the Stroop Test administered in Spanish. Participants were 141 (49% male) adult native Spanish speakers from the U.S.-Mexico border region (education range = 8-20 and age range = 20-63). A language dominance index was calculated as the ratio of English words to total words produced in both languages using the Controlled Oral Word Association Test with letters PMR in Spanish and FAS in English. Greater degree of English fluency as measured by the dominance index predicted better speed on the Stroop incongruent trial independent of education effects. On the other hand, neither the dominance index nor education predicted performance on the word reading and color-naming trials. These results suggest an advantage in inhibitory control among those with greater second-language ability.

  14. Receptive Vocabulary Differences in Monolingual and Bilingual Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi

    2012-01-01

    English receptive vocabulary scores from 797 monolingual and 808 bilingual participants between the ages of 17 and 89 years old were aggregated from 20 studies to compare standard scores across language groups. The distribution of scores was unimodal for both groups but the mean score was significantly different, with monolinguals obtaining higher…

  15. Beginning To Read among Monolingual and Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, Concepcion M.; And Others

    This study examined language and reading ability in English monolinguals, Spanish monolinguals, and two bilingual groups at the beginning of kindergarten and at the beginning of first grade. The study also compared the family background of the children on home literacy, parent education, and the parents' aspirations for their children. In…

  16. Profile of phonological awareness in bilingual and monolingual children

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Lourdes Bernadete Rocha de; Leite,Aline Gisele Conceição

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the performance of phonological awareness skills in bilingual and monolingual students of both genders. Methods: This research presents an observational, cross-sectional descriptive study conducted with 17 students from the 3rd grade, aged between seven years and 8 years and 11 months, with similar socioeconomic level, from two private schools, being one a monolingual school, and the other a bilingual one. Children at risk for auditory deprivation of any degree, those...

  17. Compositions in English: Comparing the Works of Monolinguals, Passive Bilinguals, and Active Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Eka Rini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to see whether the subjects’ “monolingualism” and “bilingualism” (monolinguals learning an L2 and bilinguals learning an L3 influence their study on English, especially writing. The term “bilinguals” also means “multilinguals” in this study. Bilinguals in this paper are classified into two; first, passive bilinguals who are only exposed to another local language, besides speaking Bahasa Indonesia at home, and second, active bilinguals who are exposed to and also speak other language(s and Bahasa Indonesia at home. The findings show that the monolingual and the active bilingual are better than the passive one; the active bilingual is better than the monolingual. However, if the passive and the active bilingual are combined, the monolingual is better than the bilinguals.

  18. Cross-linguistic generalization in the treatment of two sequential Spanish-English bilingual children with speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildersleeve-Neumann, Christina; Goldstein, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    The effect of bilingual service delivery on treatment of speech sound disorders (SSDs) in bilingual children is largely unknown. Bilingual children with SSDs are typically provided intervention in only one language, although research suggests dual-language instruction for language disorders is best practice for bilinguals. This study examined cross-linguistic generalization of bilingual intervention in treatment of two 5-year-old sequential bilingual boys with SSDs (one with Childhood Apraxia of Speech), hypothesizing that selecting and treating targets in both languages would result in significant overall change in their English and Spanish speech systems. A multiple baseline across behaviours design was used to measure treatment effectiveness for two targets per child. Children received treatment 2-3 times per week for 8 weeks and in Spanish for at least 2 of every 3 days. Ongoing treatment performance was measured in probes in both languages; overall speech skills were compared pre- and post-treatment. Both children's speech improved in both languages with similar magnitude; there was improvement in some non-treated errors. Treating both languages had an overall positive effect on these bilingual children's speech. Future bilingual intervention research should explore alternating treatments designs, efficiency of monolingual vs bilingual treatment, different language and bilingual backgrounds, and between-group comparisons.

  19. Bilingual Effects on Cognitive and Linguistic Development: Role of Language, Cultural Background, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Raluca; Bialystok, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    A total of 104 six-year-old children belonging to 4 groups (English monolinguals, Chinese-English bilinguals, French-English bilinguals, Spanish-English bilinguals) were compared on 3 verbal tasks and 1 nonverbal executive control task to examine the generality of the bilingual effects on development. Bilingual groups differed in degree of…

  20. What Is a TOT? Cognate and Translation Effects on Tip-of-the-Tongue States in Spanish-English and Tagalog-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Acenas, Lori-Ann R.

    2004-01-01

    The authors induced tip-of-the-tongue states (TOTs) for English words in monolinguals and bilinguals using picture stimuli with cognate (e.g., vampire, which is vampiro in Spanish) and noncognate (e.g., funnel, which is embudo in Spanish) names. Bilinguals had more TOTs than did monolinguals unless the target pictures had translatable cognate…

  1. Relations among language exposure, phonological memory, and language development in Spanish-English bilingually developing 2-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Marisol; Hoff, Erika; Core, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    The relation of phonological memory to language experience and development was investigated in 41 Spanish-English bilingual first language learners. The children's relative exposure to English and Spanish and their phonological memory for English- and Spanish-like nonwords were assessed at 22 months of age, and their productive vocabulary and grammar in both languages were assessed at 25 months of age. Phonological memory for English-like nonwords was highly correlated with that for Spanish-like nonwords, and each was related to vocabulary and grammar in both languages, suggesting a language-general component to phonological memory skill. In addition, there was evidence of language-specific benefits of language exposure to phonological memory skill and of language-specific benefits of phonological memory skill to language development.

  2. Perception of a native vowel contrast by Dutch monolingual and bilingual infants : A bilingual perceptual lead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369509870; Kager, R.W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072294124

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Facing previous mixed findings between monolingual and bilingual infants’ phonetic development during perceptual reorganization, the current study aims at examining the perceptual development of a native vowel contrast (/I/-/i/) by Dutch monolingual and bilingual infants. Design: We tested

  3. Language Learning and Control in Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Parallel language activation in bilinguals leads to competition between languages. Experience managing this interference may aid novel language learning by improving the ability to suppress competition from known languages. To investigate the effect of bilingualism on the ability to control native-language interference, monolinguals and bilinguals…

  4. The auditory attention status in Iranian bilingual and monolingual people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayiere Mansoori

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Bilingualism, as one of the discussing issues of psychology and linguistics, can influence the speech processing. Of several tests for assessing auditory processing, dichotic digit test has been designed to study divided auditory attention. Our study was performed to compare the auditory attention between Iranian bilingual and monolingual young adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 students including 30 Turkish-Persian bilinguals and 30 Persian monolinguals aged between 18 to 30 years in both genders. Dichotic digit test was performed on young individuals with normal peripheral hearing and right hand preference. Results: No significant correlation was found between the results of dichotic digit test of monolinguals and bilinguals (p=0.195, and also between the results of right and left ears in monolingual (p=0.460 and bilingual (p=0.054 groups. The mean score of women was significantly more than men (p=0.031. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between bilinguals and monolinguals in divided auditory attention; and it seems that acquisition of second language in lower ages has no noticeable effect on this type of auditory attention.

  5. Flexibility in task switching by monolinguals and bilinguals*

    Science.gov (United States)

    WISEHEART, MELODY; VISWANATHAN, MYTHILI; BIALYSTOK, ELLEN

    2015-01-01

    Many bilinguals routinely switch between their languages, yet mixed evidence exists about the transfer of language switching skills to broader domains that require attentional control such as task switching. Monolingual and bilingual young adults performed a nonverbal task-switching paradigm in which they viewed colored pictures of animals and indicated either the animal or its color in response to a cue. Monolinguals and bilinguals performed similarly when switching between tasks (local switch cost) in a mixed-task block, but bilinguals demonstrated a smaller mixing effect (global switch cost) than monolinguals, indicating better ability to reconfigure stimulus–response associations. These results suggest that regular practice using multiple languages confers a broader executive function advantage shown as improved flexibility in task switching. PMID:26877705

  6. The auditory attention status in Iranian bilingual and monolingual people

    OpenAIRE

    Nayiere Mansoori; Seyed Ali Akbar Tahaei; Zahra Jafari; Mohammad Kamali

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Bilingualism, as one of the discussing issues of psychology and linguistics, can influence the speech processing. Of several tests for assessing auditory processing, dichotic digit test has been designed to study divided auditory attention. Our study was performed to compare the auditory attention between Iranian bilingual and monolingual young adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 students including 30 Turkish-Persian bilinguals and 30 Persian mo...

  7. Effects of primary and secondary morphological family size in monolingual and bilingual word processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, K.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.; Schreuder, R.; Baayen, Harald

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated primary and secondary morphological family size effects in monolingual and bilingual processing, combining experimentation with computational modeling. Family size effects were investigated in an English lexical decision task for Dutch-English bilinguals and English monolingu

  8. Word Magic Revisited: Monolingual and Bilingual Children's Understanding of the Word-Object Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Tamar; Pinker, Steven A.

    1983-01-01

    Results showed that monolingual and bilingual preschoolers understand equally that objects may be renamed. However, monolinguals were more likely to mention the object's properties when justifying an answer, whereas bilinguals were more likely to mention social context. (Author/MP)

  9. Language learning and control in monolinguals and bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2012-08-01

    Parallel language activation in bilinguals leads to competition between languages. Experience managing this interference may aid novel language learning by improving the ability to suppress competition from known languages. To investigate the effect of bilingualism on the ability to control native-language interference, monolinguals and bilinguals were taught an artificial language designed to elicit between-language competition. Partial activation of interlingual competitors was assessed with eye-tracking and mouse-tracking during a word recognition task in the novel language. Eye-tracking results showed that monolinguals looked at competitors more than bilinguals, and for a longer duration of time. Mouse-tracking results showed that monolinguals' mouse movements were attracted to native-language competitors, whereas bilinguals overcame competitor interference by increasing the activation of target items. Results suggest that bilinguals manage cross-linguistic interference more effectively than monolinguals. We conclude that language interference can affect lexical retrieval, but bilingualism may reduce this interference by facilitating access to a newly learned language. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Novel word retention in bilingual and monolingual speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui Fong eKan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to examine word retention in bilinguals and monolinguals. Long-term word retention is an essential part of vocabulary learning. Previous studies have documented that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in terms of retrieving newly-exposed words. Yet, little is known about whether or to what extent bilinguals are different from monolinguals in word retention. Participants were 30 English-speaking monolingual adults and 30 bilingual adults who speak Spanish as a home language and learned English as a second language during childhood. In a previous study (Kan, Sadagopan, Janich, & Andrade, 2014, the participants were exposed to the target novel words in English, Spanish, and Cantonese. In this current study, word retention was measured a week after the fast mapping task. No exposures were given during the one-week interval. Results showed that bilinguals and monolinguals retain a similar number of words. However, participants produced more words in English than in either Spanish or Cantonese. Correlation analyses revealed that language knowledge plays a role in the relationships between fast mapping and word retention. Specifically, within- and across-language relationships between bilinguals’ fast mapping and word retention were found in Spanish and English, by contrast, within-language relationships between monolinguals’ fast mapping and word retention were found in English and across-language relationships between their fast mapping and word retention performance in English and Cantonese. Similarly, bilinguals differed from monolinguals in the relationships among the word retention scores in three languages. Significant correlations were found among bilinguals’ retention scores. However, no such correlations were found among monolinguals’ retention scores. The overall findings suggest that bilinguals’ language experience and language knowledge most likely contribute to how they learn and retain new words.

  11. Brain Network Activity in Monolingual and Bilingual Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Cheryl L.; Luk, Gigi; Craik, Fergus I.M.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Bilingual older adults typically have better performance on tasks of executive control (EC) than do their monolingual peers, but differences in brain activity due to language experience are not well understood. Based on studies showing a relation between the dynamic range of brain network activity and performance on EC tasks, we hypothesized that life-long bilingual older adults would show increased functional connectivity relative to monolinguals in networks related to EC. We assessed intrinsic functional connectivity and modulation of activity in task vs. fixation periods in two brain networks that are active when EC is engaged, the frontoparietal control network (FPC) and the salience network (SLN). We also examined the default mode network (DMN), which influences behavior through reduced activity during tasks. We found stronger intrinsic functional connectivity in the FPC and DMN in bilinguals than in monolinguals. Although there were no group differences in the modulation of activity across tasks and fixation, bilinguals showed stronger correlations than monolinguals between intrinsic connectivity in the FPC and task-related increases of activity in prefrontal and parietal regions. This bilingual difference in network connectivity suggests that language experience begun in childhood and continued throughout adulthood influences brain networks in ways that may provide benefits in later life. PMID:25445783

  12. Perceptions of Spanish/English Bilingual School Psychologists Regarding Competency in Assessment and Future Training Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    With the changing demographics of the school population, the need for bilingually competent school psychologists has become increasingly important. The current study examined the influence of training and regional factors on Spanish-speaking, bilingual school psychologists' self-perceptions of competence regarding assessment of non-native…

  13. Vowel Representations in the Invented Spellings of Spanish-English Bilingual Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynolds, Laura B.; Uhry, Joanna K.; Brunner, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The study compared the invented spelling of vowels in kindergarten native Spanish speaking children with that of English monolinguals. It examined whether, after receiving phonics instruction for short vowels, the spelling of native Spanish-speaking kindergartners would contain phonological errors that were influenced by their first language.…

  14. Working Memory Development in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Julia; Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Two studies are reported comparing the performance of monolingual and bilingual children on tasks requiring different levels of working memory. In the first study, 56 5-year-olds performed a Simon-type task that manipulated working memory demands by comparing conditions based on two rules and four rules and manipulated conflict resolution demands…

  15. Coordination of Executive Functions in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Two groups of 8-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual completed a complex classification task in which they made semantic judgments on stimuli that were presented either visually or auditorily. The task requires coordinating a variety of executive control components, specifically working memory, inhibition, and shifting. When each of…

  16. Receptive Vocabulary Differences in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi; Peets, Kathleen F.; Yang, Sujin

    2010-01-01

    Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738…

  17. Interaction in Bilingual Phonological Acquisition: Evidence from Phonetic Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Barlow, Jessica A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how interaction contributes to phonological acquisition in bilingual children in order to determine what constitutes typical development of bilingual speech sound inventories. Method: Twenty-four children, ages 3-4, were included: eight bilingual Spanish-English-speaking children, eight monolingual Spanish speakers, and eight…

  18. Metaphoric Reference: An Eye Movement Analysis of Spanish-English and English-Spanish Bilingual Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ramírez Heredia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the processing of metaphoric reference by bilingual speakers. English dominant, Spanish dominant, and balanced bilinguals read passages in English biasing either a figurative (e.g., describing a weak and soft fighter that always lost and everyone hated or a literal (e.g., describing a donut and bakery shop that made delicious pastries meaning of a critical metaphoric referential description (e.g., creampuff. We recorded the eye movements (first fixation, gaze duration, go-past duration, and total reading time for the critical region, which was a metaphoric referential description in each passage. The results revealed that literal vs. figurative meaning activation was modulated by language dominance, where Spanish dominant bilinguals were more likely to access the literal meaning, and English dominant and balanced bilinguals had access to both the literal and figurative meanings of the metaphoric referential description. Overall, there was a general tendency for the literal interpretation to be more active, as revealed by shorter reading times for the metaphoric reference used literally, in comparison to when it was used figuratively. Results are interpreted in terms of the Graded Salience Hypothesis (Giora, 2002, 2003 and the Literal Salience Model (Cieślicka, 2006, 2015.

  19. Metaphoric Reference: An Eye Movement Analysis of Spanish-English and English-Spanish Bilingual Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Roberto R; Cieślicka, Anna B

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the processing of metaphoric reference by bilingual speakers. English dominant, Spanish dominant, and balanced bilinguals read passages in English biasing either a figurative (e.g., describing a weak and soft fighter that always lost and everyone hated) or a literal (e.g., describing a donut and bakery shop that made delicious pastries) meaning of a critical metaphoric referential description (e.g., "creampuff"). We recorded the eye movements (first fixation, gaze duration, go-past duration, and total reading time) for the critical region, which was a metaphoric referential description in each passage. The results revealed that literal vs. figurative meaning activation was modulated by language dominance, where Spanish dominant bilinguals were more likely to access the literal meaning, and English dominant and balanced bilinguals had access to both the literal and figurative meanings of the metaphoric referential description. Overall, there was a general tendency for the literal interpretation to be more active, as revealed by shorter reading times for the metaphoric reference used literally, in comparison to when it was used figuratively. Results are interpreted in terms of the Graded Salience Hypothesis (Giora, 2002, 2003) and the Literal Salience Model (Cieślicka, 2006, 2015).

  20. Neurophysiological Indices of the Effect of Cognates on Vowel Perception in Late Spanish-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessel, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    The field of research in bilingualism and second language (L2) acquisition has yielded overwhelming evidence that acquiring a second language later in life will result in less accurate production and perception of consonants and vowels in the second language. These effects, in part, are a result of interference from the already formed phonetic…

  1. Bilingual Language Development and Disorders in Spanish-English Speakers. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Brian A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Because dual language learners are the fastest--growing segment of the U.S. student population--and the majority speak Spanish as a first language--the new generation of SLPs must have comprehensive knowledge of how to work effectively with bilingual speakers. That's what they'll get in the second edition of this book, an ideal graduate-level text…

  2. Neurophysiological Indices of the Effect of Cognates on Vowel Perception in Late Spanish-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessel, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    The field of research in bilingualism and second language (L2) acquisition has yielded overwhelming evidence that acquiring a second language later in life will result in less accurate production and perception of consonants and vowels in the second language. These effects, in part, are a result of interference from the already formed phonetic…

  3. The Interdependence Continuum: A Perspective on the Nature of Spanish-English Bilingual Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, C. Patrick; August, Diane; Snow, Catherine; Barr, Christopher D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to elaborate on the statistical nature of the linguistic interdependence hypothesis (Cummins, 1979). It is argued that reading skills across the languages of bilingual learners are differentially robust to interdependence, falling along a continuum mediated by the commonalities between Spanish and English.…

  4. Lexical Selection Differences between Monolingual and Bilingual Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Deanna C.; Chung-Fat-Yim, Ashley; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Three studies are reported investigating how monolinguals and bilinguals resolve within-language competition when listening to isolated words. Participants saw two pictures that were semantically-related, phonologically-related, or unrelated and heard a word naming one of them while event-related potentials were recorded. In Studies 1 and 2, the pictures and auditory cue were presented simultaneously and the related conditions produced interference for both groups. Monolinguals showed reduced N400s to the semantically-related pairs but there was no modulation in this component by bilinguals. Study 3 inserted an interval between picture and word onset. For picture onset, both groups exhibited reduced N400s to semantically-related pictures; for word onset, both groups showed larger N400s to phonologically-related pictures. Overall, bilinguals showed less integration of related items in simultaneous (but not sequential) presentation, presumably because of interference from the activated non-English language. Thus, simple lexical selection for bilinguals includes more conflict than it does for monolinguals. PMID:26684415

  5. Global-Local and Trail-Making Tasks by Monolingual and Bilingual Children: Beyond Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    In 3 experiments, a total of 151 monolingual and bilingual 6-year-old children performed similarly on measures of language and cognitive ability; however, bilinguals solved the global-local and trail-making tasks more rapidly than monolinguals. This bilingual advantage was found not only for the traditionally demanding conditions (incongruent…

  6. Language Proficiency and Executive Control in Proactive Interference: Evidence from Monolingual and Bilingual Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer…

  7. SALT 2010 Bilingual S/E Version: A Tool for Assessing the Language Production of Bilingual (Spanish/English) Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jon F.; Iglesias, Aquiles; Rojas, Raul

    2010-01-01

    Assessing the language development of bilingual children can be a challenge--too often, children in the complex process of learning both Spanish and English are under- or over-diagnosed with language disorders. SLPs can change that with "SALT 2010 Bilingual S/E Version" for grades K-3, the first tool to comprehensively assess children's language…

  8. SALT 2010 Bilingual S/E Version: A Tool for Assessing the Language Production of Bilingual (Spanish/English) Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jon F.; Iglesias, Aquiles; Rojas, Raul

    2010-01-01

    Assessing the language development of bilingual children can be a challenge--too often, children in the complex process of learning both Spanish and English are under- or over-diagnosed with language disorders. SLPs can change that with "SALT 2010 Bilingual S/E Version" for grades K-3, the first tool to comprehensively assess children's language…

  9. Use of Monolingual and Bilingual Dictionaries among Students of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kavalir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of dictionary use in 32 firstyear students of English at the University of Ljubljana in the academic year 2009/2010 shows that students use a variety of dictionaries with a slight preponderance of monolingual dictionaries over bilingual ones. The bilingual dictionaries listed do not include some of the most recent and most comprehensive dictionaries while some of the most frequently used resources are quite modest sized. The students are already predominantly users of electronic and online dictionaries with a lower frequency of printed resources – a trend which is only likely to accelerate with the advent of new bilingual online dictionaries. These results have practical relevance for teachers in all sectors, from primary and secondary schools to universities, as they point towards a need for additional training in the use of bilingual dictionaries. The transition from printed to electronic and online resources can also be expected to induce changes in EFL methodology at all levels.

  10. Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children

    OpenAIRE

    Bialystok, Ellen; PEETS, KATHLEEN F.; Yang, Sujin; Luk, Gigi

    2010-01-01

    Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738 children between 3 and 10 years old and demonstrate a consistent difference in receptive vocabulary between the two groups. Two preliminary analyses s...

  11. Effects of Repeated Readings on Bilingual and Monolingual Memory for Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgunoglu, Aydin Y.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Across 4 experiments, 121 college students and 80 Spanish-English bilingual members of the university community read narrative or expository texts and answered comprehension questions. Manipulating intervals between readings, language, and the activity between the readings indicates that all these variables influence whether a repeated reading…

  12. Can yu rid guat ay rot? A developmental investigation of cross-linguistic spelling errors among Spanish-English bilingual students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Elizabeth R.; Green, Jennifer D.; Arteagoitia, Igone

    2014-01-01

    This study contributes to the literature on cross-linguistic literacy relationships for English language learners, and in particular, the Spanish-influenced spelling patterns of Spanish-English bilinguals. English spelling, reading and vocabulary assessments were administered to 220 students in four TWI programs over a three-year period, from 2nd grade to 4th grade. Data analysis consisted of t-tests and multiple regression. The incidence of cross-linguistic spelling errors was found to be low at all grade levels and to virtually disappear by 4th grade, indicating that this is a developmental issue that is common among bilingual students and that resolves itself without remediation. PMID:25302051

  13. The relationship between vocabulary and short-term memory measures in monolingual and bilingual speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that bilingualism may influence the efficiency of lexical access in adults. The goals of this research were (1) to compare bilingual and monolingual adults on their native-language vocabulary performance, and (2) to examine the relationship between short-term memory skills and vocabulary performance in monolinguals and bilinguals. In Experiment 1, English-speaking monolingual adults and simultaneous English–Spanish bilingual adults were administered measures of receptive English vocabulary and of phonological short-term memory. In Experiment 2, monolingual adults were compared to sequential English–Spanish bilinguals, and were administered the same measures as in Experiment 1, as well as a measure of expressive English vocabulary. Analyses revealed comparable levels of performance on the vocabulary and the short-term memory measures in the monolingual and the bilingual groups across both experiments. There was a stronger effect of digit-span in the bilingual group than in the monolingual group, with high-span bilinguals outperforming low-span bilinguals on vocabulary measures. Findings indicate that bilingual speakers may rely on short-term memory resources to support word retrieval in their native language more than monolingual speakers. PMID:22518091

  14. Predicting Bilingual Spanish-English Children's Phonological Awareness Abilities from Their Preschool English and Spanish Oral Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpino, Shelley E.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Davison, Megan D.; Hammer, Carol S.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the relationship between oral language abilities and phonological awareness in 85 typically developing, Spanish-English preschool children (average age in preschool was 3 years, 9 months). Receptive language skills in Spanish and English were assessed in the autumn and spring during the children's 2 years in…

  15. Predicting Bilingual Spanish-English Children's Phonological Awareness Abilities from Their Preschool English and Spanish Oral Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpino, Shelley E.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Davison, Megan D.; Hammer, Carol S.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the relationship between oral language abilities and phonological awareness in 85 typically developing, Spanish-English preschool children (average age in preschool was 3 years, 9 months). Receptive language skills in Spanish and English were assessed in the autumn and spring during the children's 2 years in…

  16. Finding "le mot juste": Differences between Bilingual and Monolingual Children's Lexical Access in Comprehension and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Stephanie; Nicoladis, Elena

    2009-01-01

    By school age, some bilingual children can score equivalently to monolinguals in receptive vocabulary but still lag in expressive vocabulary. In this study, we test whether bilingual children have greater difficulty with lexical access, as has been reported for adult bilinguals. School-aged French-English bilingual children were given tests of…

  17. EFL and Native Spanish in Elite Bilingual Schools in Colombia: A First Look at Bilingual Adolescent Frog Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Claudia Lucia

    2004-01-01

    In Spanish-monolingual Colombia, social pressures push for access to early 50 = 50% Spanish-English medium instruction from the age of five. Parents and school administrators consider this the best way to achieve bilingualism. This article takes a first general look at the effects of this type of bilingual education on the Spanish and English…

  18. Are there differences in selective attention and conflict resolution between monolingual and bilingual children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mondt, K.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Balériaux, D.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Hadzibeganovic, T.; Denolin, V.; Craen, P. van de

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Possible differences in selective attention and conflict resolution between monolingual and bilingual children were tested in an fMRI study. Methods An adopted version of the Stroop task was conducted on 19 monolingual- and bilingual (French/Dutch) children with a mean age of 8.9 years in

  19. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Differences in Executive Control between Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Raluca; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined executive control in sixty-two 5-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual using behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) measures. All children performed equivalently on simple response inhibition (gift delay), but bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on interference suppression and complex response…

  20. Are there differences in selective attention and conflict resolution between monolingual and bilingual children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mondt, K.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Balériaux, D.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Hadzibeganovic, T.; Denolin, V.; Craen, P. van de

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Possible differences in selective attention and conflict resolution between monolingual and bilingual children were tested in an fMRI study. Methods An adopted version of the Stroop task was conducted on 19 monolingual- and bilingual (French/Dutch) children with a mean age of 8.9 years in

  1. Do French-English Bilingual Children Gesture More than Monolingual Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoladis, Elena; Pika, Simone; Marentette, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that bilingual adults use more gestures than English monolinguals. Because no study has compared the gestures of bilinguals and monolinguals in both languages, the high gesture rate could be due to transfer from a high gesture language or could result from the use of gesture to aid in linguistic access. In this study we…

  2. Influence of Current Input-Output and Age of First Exposure on Phonological Acquisition in Early Bilingual Spanish-English-Speaking Kindergarteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Felter, Roxanna; Cooperson, Solaman J.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Peña, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although some investigations of phonological development have found that segmental accuracy is comparable in monolingual children and their bilingual peers, there is evidence that language use affects segmental accuracy in both languages. Aims: To investigate the influence of age of first exposure to English and the amount of current…

  3. Influence of Current Input-Output and Age of First Exposure on Phonological Acquisition in Early Bilingual Spanish-English-Speaking Kindergarteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Felter, Roxanna; Cooperson, Solaman J.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Peña, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although some investigations of phonological development have found that segmental accuracy is comparable in monolingual children and their bilingual peers, there is evidence that language use affects segmental accuracy in both languages. Aims: To investigate the influence of age of first exposure to English and the amount of current…

  4. Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi; Peets, Kathleen F.; Yang, Sujin

    2015-01-01

    Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738 children between 3 and 10 years old and demonstrate a consistent difference in receptive vocabulary between the two groups. Two preliminary analyses suggest that this difference does not change with different language pairs and is largely confined to words relevant to a home context rather than a school context. PMID:25750580

  5. Differential Language Functioning of Monolinguals and Bilinguals on Positive-Negative Emotional Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirzadeh, Shiela; Hajiabed, Mohammadreza

    2016-02-01

    The present interdisciplinary research investigates the differential emotional expression between Persian monolinguals and Persian-English bilinguals. In other words, the article was an attempt to answer the questions whether bilinguals and monolinguals differ in the expression of positive and negative emotions elicited through sad and happy autobiographies and measured through UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist. The result of this pioneering work indicated no significant difference between Persian monolinguals and Persian-English bilinguals in expressing happy memories while differences were observed on sad memories. Bilinguals expressed more negative emotions in their L2 than L1. This outcome support the dominant claim that second language is the preferred language for the expression of sad emotions since it is the language of emotional detachment and distance. Further analysis on the number of words bilinguals and monolinguals used to express both sad and happy autobiographies indicated that bilinguals used more words in expressing both sad and happy autobiographies.

  6. Language proficiency and executive control in proactive interference: evidence from monolingual and bilingual children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer intrusions from previous lists even though they recalled the same number of words. For the adults, bilinguals recalled more words than monolinguals when the scores were corrected for differences in vocabulary. In addition, there was a strong effect of vocabulary in which higher vocabulary participants recalled more words irrespective of language group. These results point to the important role of vocabulary in verbal performance and memory. They also suggest that bilinguals may compensate for weaker language proficiency with their greater executive control to achieve the same or better levels of performance as monolinguals.

  7. Executive Function Differences between Bilingual ArabicEnglish and Monolingual Arabic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than…

  8. Differences in Word Recognition between Early Bilinguals and Monolinguals: Behavioral and ERP Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Minna; Hulten, Annika; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral and brain responses (ERPs) of bilingual word recognition to three fundamental psycholinguistic factors, frequency, morphology, and lexicality, in early bilinguals vs. monolinguals. Earlier behavioral studies have reported larger frequency effects in bilinguals' nondominant vs. dominant language and in some studies…

  9. Executive Function Differences between Bilingual ArabicEnglish and Monolingual Arabic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than…

  10. Differences in Word Recognition between Early Bilinguals and Monolinguals: Behavioral and ERP Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Minna; Hulten, Annika; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral and brain responses (ERPs) of bilingual word recognition to three fundamental psycholinguistic factors, frequency, morphology, and lexicality, in early bilinguals vs. monolinguals. Earlier behavioral studies have reported larger frequency effects in bilinguals' nondominant vs. dominant language and in some studies…

  11. The Relation between Language Experience and Receptive-Expressive Semantic Gaps in Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Todd A.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore the influence of language experience on the presence of the receptive-expressive gap. Each of 778 Spanish-English bilingual children screened pre-kindergarten in Utah and Texas were assigned to one of five language experience groups, ranging from functionally monolingual to balanced bilingual.…

  12. Executive Function Differences Between Bilingual Arabic-English and Monolingual Arabic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than monolinguals, while others showed that monolinguals perform significantly better. Other studies showed no significant differences between both groups, findings which were argued to be due to methodological issues. A total of 50 Arabic monolingual and Arabic-English bilingual children ranging 7-10 years of age participated in the current study. Six executive function tasks, divided into two categories (inhibition of improper response tasks, and behavioral operational control tasks), were administered. Results did not show significant differences for most executive functions.

  13. Orthographic Context Sensitivity in Vowel Decoding by Portuguese Monolingual and Portuguese-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the pronunciation of the first vowel in decoding disyllabic pseudowords derived from Portuguese words. Participants were 96 Portuguese monolinguals and 52 Portuguese-English bilinguals of equivalent Portuguese reading levels. The results indicate that sensitivity to vowel context emerges early, both in monolinguals and in…

  14. Exeter at CLEF 2003: Experiments with machine translation for monolingual, bilingual and multilingual retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Lam-Adesina, Adenike M.; Jones, Gareth J.F.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Exeter group participated in the monolingual, bilingual and multilingual-4 retrieval tasks this year. The main focus of our investigation this year was the small multilingual task comprising four languages, French, German, Spanish and English. We adopted a document translation strategy and tested four merging techniques to combine results from the separate document collections, as well as a merged collection strategy. For both the monolingual and bilingual tasks we explored ...

  15. Age of dementia diagnosis in community dwelling bilingual and monolingual Hispanic Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Deborah M; Gasquoine, Philip G; Weimer, Amy A

    2015-05-01

    Bilingualism has been reported to delay the age of retrospective report of first symptom in dementia. This study determined if the age of clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia occurred later for bilingual than monolingual, immigrant and U.S. born, Hispanic Americans. It involved a secondary analysis of the subset of 81 bi/monolingual dementia cases identified at yearly follow-up (1998 through 2008) using neuropsychological test results and objective diagnostic criteria from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging that involved a random sampling of community dwelling Hispanic Americans (N = 1789). Age of dementia diagnosis was analyzed in a 2 × 2 (bi/monolingualism × immigrant/U.S. born) ANOVA that space revealed both main effects and the interaction were non-significant. Mean age of dementia diagnosis was descriptively (but not significantly) higher in the monolingual (M = 81.10 years) than the bilingual (M = 79.31) group. Overall, bilingual dementia cases were significantly better educated than monolinguals, but U.S. born bilinguals and monolinguals did not differ significantly in education. Delays in dementia symptomatology pertaining to bilingualism are less likely to be found in studies: (a) that use age of clinical diagnosis vs. retrospective report of first dementia symptom as the dependent variable; and (b) involve clinical cases derived from community samples rather than referrals to specialist memory clinics.

  16. Perception of English vowels by bilingual Chinese-English and corresponding monolingual listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Fox, Robert A

    2014-06-01

    This study compares the underlying perceptual structure of vowel perception in monolingual Chinese, monolingual English and bilingual Chinese-English listeners. Of particular interest is how listeners' spatial organization of vowels is affected either by their L1 or their experience with L2. Thirteen English vowels, /i, I, e, epsilon, ae, u, omega, o, (see symbol), alpha, (see symbol)I, alphaI, alphaomega/, embedded in /hVd/ syllable produced by an Ohio male speaker were presented in pairs to three groups of listeners. Each listener rated 312 vowel pairs on a nine-point dissimilarity scale. The responses from each group were analyzed using a multidimensional scaling program (ALSCAL). Results demonstrated that all three groups of listeners used high/low and front/back distinctions as the two most important dimensions to perceive English vowels. However, the vowels were distributed in clusters in the perceptual space of Chinese monolinguals, while they were appropriately separated and located in that of bilinguals and English monolinguals. Besides the two common perceptual dimensions, each group of listeners utilized a different third dimension to perceive these English vowels. English monolinguals used high-front offset. Bilinguals used a dimension mainly correlated to the distinction of monophthong/diphthong. Chinese monolinguals separated two high vowels, /i/ and /u/, from the rest of vowels in the third dimension. The difference between English monolinguals and Chinese monolinguals evidenced the effect of listeners' native language on the vowel perception. The difference between Chinese monolinguals and bilingual listeners as well as the approximation of bilingual listeners' perceptual space to that of English monolinguals demonstrated the effect of L2 experience on listeners' perception of L2 vowels.

  17. Do Young Bilinguals Acquire Past Tense Morphology like Monolinguals, Only Later? Evidence from French-English and Chinese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoladis, Elena; Song, Jianhui; Marentette, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that preschool bilingual children lag behind same-aged monolinguals in their production of correct past tense forms. This lag has been attributed to bilinguals' less frequent exposure to either language. If so, bilingual children acquire the past tense like monolinguals, only later. In this study, we compared the…

  18. How bilingualism shapes the functional architecture of the brain: A study on executive control in early bilinguals and monolinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costumero, Víctor; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Ávila, César

    2015-12-01

    The existence of a behavioral advantage of bilinguals over monolinguals during executive tasks is controversial. A new approach to this issue is to investigate the effect of bilingualism on neural control when performing these tasks as a window to understand when behavioral differences are produced. Here, we tested if early bilinguals use more language-related networks than monolinguals while performing a go/no-go task that includes infrequent no-go and go trials. The RTs and accuracy in both groups did not differ. An independent component analyses (ICA) revealed, however, that bilinguals used the left fronto-parietal network and the salience network more than monolinguals while processing go infrequent cues and no-go cues, respectively. It was noteworthy that the modulation of these networks had opposite correlates with performance in bilinguals and monolinguals, which suggests that between-group differences were more qualitative than quantitative. Our results suggest that bilinguals may differently develop the involvement of the executive control networks that comprise the left inferior frontal gyrus during cognitive control tasks than monolinguals.

  19. Spanish-English Speech Perception in Children and Adults: Developmental Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Alejandro E.; Gorman, Brenda K.; Leung, Cynthia B.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the developmental trends and phonetic category formation in bilingual children and adults. Participants included 30 fluent Spanish-English bilingual children, aged 8-11, and bilingual adults, aged 18-40. All completed gating tasks that incorporated code-mixed Spanish-English stimuli. There were significant differences in…

  20. Spanish-English Speech Perception in Children and Adults: Developmental Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Alejandro E.; Gorman, Brenda K.; Leung, Cynthia B.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the developmental trends and phonetic category formation in bilingual children and adults. Participants included 30 fluent Spanish-English bilingual children, aged 8-11, and bilingual adults, aged 18-40. All completed gating tasks that incorporated code-mixed Spanish-English stimuli. There were significant differences in…

  1. Limits on Monolingualism? A comparison of monolingual and bilingual infants’ abilities to integrate lexical tone in novel word learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leher eSingh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To construct their first lexicon, infants must determine the relationship between native phonological variation and the meanings of words. This process is arguably more complex for bilingual learners who are often confronted with phonological conflict: phonological variation that is lexically relevant in one language may be lexically irrelevant in the other. In a series of four experiments, the present study investigated English-Mandarin bilingual infants’ abilities to negotiate phonological conflict introduced by learning both a tone and a non-tone language. In a novel word learning task, bilingual children were tested on their sensitivity to tone variation in English and Mandarin contexts. Their abilities to interpret tone variation in a language-dependent manner were compared to those of monolingual Mandarin learning infants. Results demonstrated that at 12 to 13 months, bilingual infants demonstrated the ability to bind tone to word meanings in Mandarin, but to disregard tone variation when learning new words in English. In contrast, monolingual learners of Mandarin did not show evidence of integrating tones into word meanings in Mandarin at the same age even though they were learning a tone language. However, a tone discrimination paradigm confirmed that monolingual Mandarin learning infants were able to tell these tones apart at 12 to 13 months under a different set of conditions. Later, at 17 to 18 months, monolingual Mandarin learners were able to bind tone variation to word meanings when learning new words. Our findings are discussed in terms of cognitive adaptations associated with bilingualism that may ease the negotiation of phonological conflict and facilitate precocious uptake of certain properties of each language.

  2. Language differences between monolingual English and bilingual English-Spanish young children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valicenti-McDermott, Maria; Tarshis, Nancy; Schouls, Melissa; Galdston, Molly; Hottinger, Kathryn; Seijo, Rosa; Shulman, Lisa; Shinnar, Shlomo

    2013-07-01

    Bilingualism is common worldwide and increasingly prevalent, but there is little information about bilingual children with autism spectrum disorder. The goal of the study was to compare expressive and receptive language skills in monolingual English and bilingual English-Spanish children with autism spectrum disorder. A review of the multidisciplinary evaluations done in toddlers who were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder at a university-affiliated center between 2003 and 2010 was performed. Data included demographics, developmental testing, autistic characteristics, and expressive and receptive language skills, obtained from formal speech and language evaluation. A total of 80 toddlers were identified, 40 classified as bilingual English-Spanish. Compared with monolinguals, bilingual children were more likely to vocalize and utilize gestures, with no other differences in language skills. There were no differences in cognitive functioning and autistic features between the groups. In this study, bilingualism did not negatively affect language development in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

  3. Effects of semantic richness on lexical processing in monolinguals and bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Taler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of number of senses (NoS, a measure of semantic richness, was examined in monolingual English speakers (n=17 and bilingual speakers of English and French (n=18. Participants completed lexical decision tasks while EEG was recorded: monolinguals completed the task in English only, and bilinguals completed two lexical decision tasks, one in English and one in French. Effects of NoS were observed in both participant groups, with shorter response times and reduced N400 amplitudes to high relative to low NoS items. These effects were stronger in monolinguals than in bilinguals. Moreover, we found dissociations across languages in bilinguals, with stronger behavioral NoS effects in English and stronger event-related potential (ERP NoS effects in French. This finding suggests that different aspects of linguistic performance may be stronger in each of a bilingual’s two languages.

  4. Effects of Semantic Richness on Lexical Processing in Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taler, Vanessa; López Zunini, Rocío; Kousaie, Shanna

    2016-01-01

    The effect of number of senses (NoS), a measure of semantic richness, was examined in monolingual English speakers (n = 17) and bilingual speakers of English and French (n = 18). Participants completed lexical decision tasks while EEG was recorded: monolinguals completed the task in English only, and bilinguals completed two lexical decision tasks, one in English and one in French. Effects of NoS were observed in both participant groups, with shorter response times and reduced N400 amplitudes to high relative to low NoS items. These effects were stronger in monolinguals than in bilinguals. Moreover, we found dissociations across languages in bilinguals, with stronger behavioral NoS effects in English and stronger event-related potential (ERP) NoS effects in French. This finding suggests that different aspects of linguistic performance may be stronger in each of a bilingual’s two languages. PMID:27524963

  5. Differential Allocation of Attention During Speech Perception in Monolingual and Bilingual Listeners

    OpenAIRE

    Astheimer, Lori B.; Berkes, Matthias; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Attention is required during speech perception to focus processing resources on critical information. Previous research has shown that bilingualism modifies attentional processing in nonverbal domains. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to determine whether bilingualism also modifies auditory attention during speech perception. We measured attention to word onsets in spoken English for monolinguals and Chinese-English bilinguals. Auditory probes were inserted at four times...

  6. Developmental and communicative factors affecting VOT production in English and Arabic bilingual and monolingual speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ghada

    2001-05-01

    VOT patterns were investigated in the production of three Lebanese-English bilinguals' aged 5, 7, and 10, six aged-matched monolingual controls from the bilinguals' immediate communities, and the parents of bilinguals and monolinguals. The aim was to examine the extent to which children exposed to two languages acquire separate VOT patterns for each language and to determine the factors that affect such acquisition. Results showed that VOT patterns for each bilingual child differed significantly across the two languages. But while the contrast in English resembled a monolingual-like model, that for Arabic exhibited persisting developmental features; explanations were offered in terms of the relationship between input and complexity of voicing lead production. Evidence was used from developmental changes that were noted for two of the bilingual subjects over a period of 18 months. English code-switches produced by the bilinguals during Arabic sessions exhibited different VOT patterns from those produced during English sessions, which underlined the importance of taking the language context into consideration. Finally, results from monolinguals and bilinguals showed that the short lag categories for the two languages were different despite a degree of overlap. Such findings require finer divisions of the three universal VOT categories to account for language-specific patterns.

  7. Sequential congruency effects reveal differences in disengagement of attention for monolingual and bilingual young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, John G; Chung-Fat-Yim, Ashley; Friesen, Deanna C; Mak, Lorinda; Bialystok, Ellen

    2017-06-01

    Three studies examined the hypothesis that bilinguals can more rapidly disengage attention from irrelevant information than monolinguals by investigating the impact of previous trial congruency on performance in a simple flanker task. In Study 1, monolingual and bilingual young adults completed two versions of a flanker task. There were no differences between language groups on mean reaction time using standard analyses for congruent or incongruent trials or the size of the flanker effect. Sequential congruency effects (SCEs) however, which account for previous trial congruency, were smaller for bilinguals than for monolinguals. This finding was strongest at the shortest response-to-stimulus interval (RSI). Study 2 replicated this effect using a slightly different flanker task and a shorter RSI than study 1. Study 3 showed that at long RSIs, where behavioral SCE differences between groups disappear because of sufficient time to recover from the previous trial, event-related potentials demonstrated a continued influence of previous trial congruency for monolinguals but not bilinguals at both the N2 and the P3, replicating the reaction time effects in Studies 1 and 2. Together, these studies demonstrate that bilinguals experience less influence from previous trial congruency and have greater ability to disengage attention from the previous trial in order to focus attention on the current trial than is found for monolinguals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparing Bilingual to Monolingual Learners on English Spelling: A Meta-analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Quiroz, Blanca; Dixon, L Quentin; Joshi, R Malatesha

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on a meta-analysis to examine how bilingual learners compare with English monolingual learners on two English spelling outcomes: real-word spelling and pseudo-word spelling. Eighteen studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were retrieved. The study-level variables and characteristics (e.g. sample size, study design and research instruments) were coded, and 29 independent effect sizes across the 18 retrieved studies were analysed. We found that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on real-word spelling overall and more so in early grades, but monolinguals outperformed bilinguals on pseudo-word spelling. Further, bilinguals at risk for reading difficulties did better on real-word spelling than monolinguals at risk for reading difficulties. Having investigated systematic sources of variability in effect sizes, we conclude that in comparison with their monolingual peers, bilingual learners, especially those from alphabetic L1 backgrounds, are able to master constrained skills, such as English spelling, in the current instructional context. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Individual Differences and Language Interdependence: A Study of Sequential Bilingual Development in Spanish-English Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Anny Patricia; Restrepo, Maria Adelaida; Perez-Leroux, Ana Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine language influence in sequential bilinguals. Specifically, this study evaluates whether performance in a first language predicts success in the acquisition of a second language nine months after exposure to the second language begins. Forty-nine Spanish-speaking children attending English-only…

  10. Phonological Whole-Word Measures in 3-Year-Old Bilingual Children and Their Age-Matched Monolingual Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunta, Ferenc; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian; Ingram, David

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated phonological whole-word measures and consonant accuracy in bilingual and monolingual children to investigate how target approximations drive phonological acquisition. The study included eight bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking 3-year-olds and their monolingual peers (eight Spanish and eight American English).…

  11. Differences between Monolinguals and Bilinguals/Males and Females in English Reading Comprehension and Reading Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharrad, Mohammad; Sadeghi Benis, Aram Reza

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims at finding the differences between bilingual and monolingual learners across gender in the use of cognitive, metacognitive, and total reading strategies, as well as reading comprehension ability. To this end, 50 Persian-Turkish bilinguals and 36 Persian monolinguals participated in the study. A standard test of reading…

  12. Differential Allocation of Attention During Speech Perception in Monolingual and Bilingual Listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Lori B; Berkes, Matthias; Bialystok, Ellen

    Attention is required during speech perception to focus processing resources on critical information. Previous research has shown that bilingualism modifies attentional processing in nonverbal domains. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to determine whether bilingualism also modifies auditory attention during speech perception. We measured attention to word onsets in spoken English for monolinguals and Chinese-English bilinguals. Auditory probes were inserted at four times in a continuous narrative: concurrent with word onset, 100 ms before or after onset, and at random control times. Greater attention was indexed by an increase in the amplitude of the early negativity (N1). Among monolinguals, probes presented after word onsets elicited a larger N1 than control probes, replicating previous studies. For bilinguals, there was no N1 difference for probes at different times around word onsets, indicating less specificity in allocation of attention. These results suggest that bilingualism shapes attentional strategies during English speech comprehension.

  13. Differential Allocation of Attention During Speech Perception in Monolingual and Bilingual Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Lori B.; Berkes, Matthias; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Attention is required during speech perception to focus processing resources on critical information. Previous research has shown that bilingualism modifies attentional processing in nonverbal domains. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to determine whether bilingualism also modifies auditory attention during speech perception. We measured attention to word onsets in spoken English for monolinguals and Chinese-English bilinguals. Auditory probes were inserted at four times in a continuous narrative: concurrent with word onset, 100 ms before or after onset, and at random control times. Greater attention was indexed by an increase in the amplitude of the early negativity (N1). Among monolinguals, probes presented after word onsets elicited a larger N1 than control probes, replicating previous studies. For bilinguals, there was no N1 difference for probes at different times around word onsets, indicating less specificity in allocation of attention. These results suggest that bilingualism shapes attentional strategies during English speech comprehension. PMID:27110579

  14. Neural differences between monolinguals and early bilinguals in their native language during comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, P; González, J; Ventura-Campos, N; Rodríguez-Pujadas, A; Sanjuán, A; Ávila, C

    2015-11-01

    Research has shown that semantic processing of sentences engages more activity in the bilingual compared to the monolingual brain and, more specifically, in the inferior frontal gyrus. The present study aims to extend those results and examines whether semantic and also grammatical sentence processing involve different cerebral structures when testing in the native language. In this regard, highly proficient Spanish/Catalan bilinguals and Spanish monolinguals made grammatical and semantic judgments in Spanish while being scanned. Results showed that both types of judgments recruited more cerebral activity for bilinguals in language-related areas including the superior and middle temporal gyri. Such neural differences co-occurred with similar performance at the behavioral level. Taken together, these data suggest that early bilingualism shapes the brain and cognitive processes in sentence comprehension even in their native language; on the other hand, they indicate that brain over activation in bilinguals is not constrained to a specific area.

  15. Feature binding and the processing of global-local shapes in bilingual and monolingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottini, Milvia; Pieroni, Laura; Spataro, Pietro; Devescovi, Antonella; Longobardi, Emiddia; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of bilingualism and age on a color-shape binding task (assessing visual working memory) and a global-local task (assessing inhibitory processes) in a sample of 55 bilingual and 49 monolingual children 8 and 10 years old. In the color-shape binding task, corrected recognition scores increased in older children; bilingual children performed better than monolinguals in the shape-only condition, but the two groups were equally accurate in the color-only and combination conditions. In the global-local task, accuracy was higher in bilingual than in monolingual children, particularly on incongruent trials; monolingual children showed a strong global precedence effect (higher accuracy in the global than in the local conditions and greater global-to-local interference), whereas bilingual children exhibited a small, but significant, local precedence effect (higher accuracy in the local than in the global conditions and greater local-to-global interference). These findings confirm and extend previous evidence indicating that the bilingualism advantage is more pronounced in working memory tasks involving inhibitory processes.

  16. Language Proficiency and Sustained Attention in Monolingual and Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Tessel; Leseman, Paul; Wijnen, Frank; Blom, Elma

    2017-01-01

    Background: The language profiles of children with language impairment (LI) and bilingual children can show partial, and possibly temporary, overlap. The current study examined the persistence of this overlap over time. Furthermore, we aimed to better understand why the language profiles of these two groups show resemblance, testing the hypothesis that the language difficulties of children with LI reflect a weakened ability to maintain attention to the stream of linguistic information. Consequent incomplete processing of language input may lead to delays that are similar to those originating from reductions in input frequency. Methods: Monolingual and bilingual children with and without LI (N = 128), aged 5-8 years old, participated in this study. Dutch receptive vocabulary and grammatical morphology were assessed at three waves. In addition, auditory and visual sustained attention were tested at wave 1. Mediation analyses were performed to examine relationships between LI, sustained attention, and language skills. Results: Children with LI and bilingual children were outperformed by their typically developing (TD) and monolingual peers, respectively, on vocabulary and morphology at all three waves. The vocabulary difference between monolinguals and bilinguals decreased over time. In addition, children with LI had weaker auditory and visual sustained attention skills relative to TD children, while no differences between monolinguals and bilinguals emerged. Auditory sustained attention mediated the effect of LI on vocabulary and morphology in both the monolingual and bilingual groups of children. Visual sustained attention only acted as a mediator in the bilingual group. Conclusion: The findings from the present study indicate that the overlap between the language profiles of children with LI and bilingual children is particularly large for vocabulary in early (pre)school years and reduces over time. Results furthermore suggest that the overlap may be explained by

  17. Language Proficiency and Sustained Attention in Monolingual and Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessel Boerma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The language profiles of children with language impairment (LI and bilingual children can show partial, and possibly temporary, overlap. The current study examined the persistence of this overlap over time. Furthermore, we aimed to better understand why the language profiles of these two groups show resemblance, testing the hypothesis that the language difficulties of children with LI reflect a weakened ability to maintain attention to the stream of linguistic information. Consequent incomplete processing of language input may lead to delays that are similar to those originating from reductions in input frequency.Methods: Monolingual and bilingual children with and without LI (N = 128, aged 5–8 years old, participated in this study. Dutch receptive vocabulary and grammatical morphology were assessed at three waves. In addition, auditory and visual sustained attention were tested at wave 1. Mediation analyses were performed to examine relationships between LI, sustained attention, and language skills.Results: Children with LI and bilingual children were outperformed by their typically developing (TD and monolingual peers, respectively, on vocabulary and morphology at all three waves. The vocabulary difference between monolinguals and bilinguals decreased over time. In addition, children with LI had weaker auditory and visual sustained attention skills relative to TD children, while no differences between monolinguals and bilinguals emerged. Auditory sustained attention mediated the effect of LI on vocabulary and morphology in both the monolingual and bilingual groups of children. Visual sustained attention only acted as a mediator in the bilingual group.Conclusion: The findings from the present study indicate that the overlap between the language profiles of children with LI and bilingual children is particularly large for vocabulary in early (preschool years and reduces over time. Results furthermore suggest that the overlap may be

  18. Dublin City University at CLEF 2004: experiments in monolingual, bilingual and multilingual retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Gareth J.F.; Burke, Michael; Judge, John; Khasin, Anna; Lam-Adesina, Adenike M.; Wagner, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    The Dublin City University group participated in the monolingual, bilingual and multilingual retrieval tasks this year. The main focus of our investigation this year was extending our retrieval system to document languages other than English, and completing the multilingual task comprising four languages: English, French, Russian and Finnish. Results from our French monolingual experiments indicate that working in French is more effective for retrieval than adopting document and topic translat...

  19. Language-experience facilitates discrimination of /d-th/ in monolingual and bilingual acquisition of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundara, Megha; Polka, Linda; Genesee, Fred

    2006-06-01

    To trace how age and language experience shape the discrimination of native and non-native phonetic contrasts, we compared 4-year-olds learning either English or French or both and simultaneous bilingual adults on their ability to discriminate the English /d-th/ contrast. Findings show that the ability to discriminate the native English contrast improved with age. However, in the absence of experience with this contrast, discrimination of French children and adults remained unchanged during development. Furthermore, although simultaneous bilingual and monolingual English adults were comparable, children exposed to both English and French were poorer at discriminating this contrast when compared to monolingual English-learning 4-year-olds. Thus, language experience facilitates perception of the English /d-th/ contrast and this facilitation occurs later in development when English and French are acquired simultaneously. The difference between bilingual and monolingual acquisition has implications for language organization in children with simultaneous exposure.

  20. The role of age of acquisition on past tense generation in Spanish-English bilinguals: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Eric J; Hernandez, Arturo E

    2013-04-01

    At its most basic sense, the sensorimotor/emergentist (S/E) model suggests that early second language (L2) learning is preferentially reliant upon sensory and motor processes, while later L2 learning is accomplished by greater reliance on executive abilities. To investigate the S/E model using fMRI, neural correlates of L2 age of acquisition were examined by employing a past-tense generation task on 22 L2 proficient bilinguals. Early bilinguals preferentially recruited left hemisphere sensorimotor regions involved in motoric control and articulation. In contrast, later learners, to a greater degree, engaged regions involved in executive cognitive control and lexical access. The data support the notion that early L2 learners devote neural resources to motor control during lexical retrieval. In contrast, later L2 learners recruit executive control mechanisms to generate the past tense. These data are consistent with the S/E model of bilingual language learning, and serve as an extension of cognitive control theories.

  1. Bilinguals Have Different Hemispheric Lateralization in Visual Word Processing from Monolinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze-Man Lam

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous bilingual studies showed reduced hemispheric asymmetry in visual tasks such as face perception in bilinguals compared with monolinguals, suggesting experience in reading one or two languages could be a modulating factor. Here we examined whether difference in hemispheric asymmetry in visual tasks can also be observed in bilinguals who have different language backgrounds. We compared the behavior of three language groups in a tachistoscopic English word sequential matching task: English monolinguals (or alphabetic monolinguals, A-Ms, bilinguals with an alphabetic-L1 and English-L2 (alphabetic-alphabetic bilinguals, AA-Bs, and bilinguals with Chinese-L1 and English-L2 (logographic-alphabetic bilinguals, LA-Bs. The results showed that AA-Bs had a stronger right visual field/ left hemispheric (LH advantage than A-Ms and LA-Bs, suggesting that different language learning experiences can influence how visual words are processed in the brain. In addition, we showed that this effect could be accounted for by a computational model that implements a theory of hemispheric asymmetry in perception (i.e., the Double Filtering by Frequency theory; Ivry & Robertson, 1998; the modeling data suggested that this difference may be due to both the difference in participants' vocabulary size and the difference in word-to-sound mapping between alphabetic and logographic languages.

  2. A Comparative Study of Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies among Monolingual and Bilingual Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Keshavarz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some researchers argue that linguistic knowledge of one’s native language facilitates the acquisition of additional languages (see, for example, Cenoz & Valencia, 1994; Grenfell & Harris, 2006; Hakuta, 1990; Keshavarz & Astaneh, 2004. To contribute to this line of research, the present study investigated the probability of significant differences among monolingual and bilingual EFL learners in their awareness and perceived use of metacognitive reading strategies and in the subscales of these strategies (i.e., global, supportive, and problem-solving strategies. To achieve this goal, 100 Persian monolingual and 100 Azeri Turkish-Persian bilingual male and female second-year university students, majoring in English Literature, ELT, and Translation with the age range of 20-28 participated in the study.  Both groups took the Nelson Test of English language proficiency and completed the Metacognitive Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI questionnaire. Participants’ reading strategy use was determined by asking them to rate their self-perceived reading ability in English on a 5-point Likert scale. The results of data analyses revealed significant differences between monolingual and bilingual learners in the use of overall and global metacognitive reading strategies with bilingual learners having greater awareness of these two strategies. However, no significant difference was found between monolingual and bilingual participants in the use of problem-solving and supportive metacognitive strategies.

  3. Age of language learning shapes brain structure: a cortical thickness study of bilingual and monolingual individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Denise; Mok, Kelvin; Chen, Jen-Kai; Watkins, Kate E

    2014-04-01

    We examined the effects of learning a second language (L2) on brain structure. Cortical thickness was measured in the MRI datasets of 22 monolinguals and 66 bilinguals. Some bilingual subjects had learned both languages simultaneously (0-3 years) while some had learned their L2 after achieving proficiency in their first language during either early (4-7 years) or late childhood (8-13 years). Later acquisition of L2 was associated with significantly thicker cortex in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and thinner cortex in the right IFG. These effects were seen in the group comparisons of monolinguals, simultaneous bilinguals and early and late bilinguals. Within the bilingual group, significant correlations between age of acquisition of L2 and cortical thickness were seen in the same regions: cortical thickness correlated with age of acquisition positively in the left IFG and negatively in the right IFG. Interestingly, the monolinguals and simultaneous bilinguals did not differ in cortical thickness in any region. Our results show that learning a second language after gaining proficiency in the first language modifies brain structure in an age-dependent manner whereas simultaneous acquisition of two languages has no additional effect on brain development.

  4. Vowels, consonants, and lexical tones: Sensitivity to phonological variation in monolingual Mandarin and bilingual English-Mandarin toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wewalaarachchi, Thilanga D; Wong, Liang Hui; Singh, Leher

    2017-03-02

    Although bilingual learners represent the linguistic majority, much less is known about their lexical processing in comparison with monolingual learners. In the current study, bilingual and monolingual toddlers were compared on their ability to recognize familiar words. Children were presented with correct pronunciations and mispronunciations, with the latter involving a vowel, consonant, or tone substitution. A robust ability to recognize words when their labels were correctly pronounced was observed in both groups. Both groups also exhibited a robust ability to reject vowel, tone, and consonant mispronunciations as possible labels for familiar words. However, time course analyses revealed processing differences based on language background; relative to Mandarin monolinguals, Mandarin-English bilingual toddlers demonstrated reduced efficiency in recognizing correctly pronounced words. With respect to mispronunciations, Mandarin-English bilingual learners demonstrated reduced sensitivity to tone mispronunciations relative to Mandarin monolingual toddlers. Moreover, the relative cost of mispronunciations differed for monolingual and bilingual toddlers. Monolingual toddlers demonstrated least sensitivity to consonants followed by vowels and tones, whereas bilingual toddlers demonstrated least sensitivity to tone, followed by consonants and then by vowels. Time course analyses revealed that both groups were sensitive to vowel and consonant variation. Results reveal both similarities and differences in monolingual and bilingual learners' processing of familiar words in Mandarin Chinese.

  5. Bilingualism at the core of the brain. Structural differences between bilinguals and monolinguals revealed by subcortical shape analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgaleta, Miguel; Sanjuán, Ana; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sebastian-Galles, Núria; Ávila, César

    2016-01-15

    Naturally acquiring a language shapes the human brain through a long-lasting learning and practice process. This is supported by previous studies showing that managing more than one language from early childhood has an impact on brain structure and function. However, to what extent bilingual individuals present neuroanatomical peculiarities at the subcortical level with respect to monolinguals is yet not well understood, despite the key role of subcortical gray matter for a number of language functions, including monitoring of speech production and language control - two processes especially solicited by bilinguals. Here we addressed this issue by performing a subcortical surface-based analysis in a sample of monolinguals and simultaneous bilinguals (N=88) that only differed in their language experience from birth. This analysis allowed us to study with great anatomical precision the potential differences in morphology of key subcortical structures, namely, the caudate, accumbens, putamen, globus pallidus and thalamus. Vertexwise analyses revealed significantly expanded subcortical structures for bilinguals compared to monolinguals, localized in bilateral putamen and thalamus, as well as in the left globus pallidus and right caudate nucleus. A topographical interpretation of our results suggests that a more complex phonological system in bilinguals may lead to a greater development of a subcortical brain network involved in monitoring articulatory processes.

  6. Bilingual and monolingual children attend to different cues when learning new words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana eColunga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The way in which children learn language can vary depending on their language environment. Previous work suggests that bilingual children may be more sensitive to pragmatic cues from a speaker when learning new words than monolingual children are. On the other hand, monolingual children may rely more heavily on object properties than bilingual children do. In this study we manipulate these two sources of information within the same paradigm, using eye gaze as a pragmatic cue and similarity along different dimensions as an object cue. In the crucial condition, object and pragmatic cues were inconsistent with each other. Our results showed that in this ambiguous condition monolingual children attend more to object property cues whereas bilingual children attend more to pragmatic cues. Control conditions showed that monolingual children were sensitive to eye gaze and bilingual children were sensitive to similarity by shape; it was only when the cues were inconsistent that children’s preference for one or the other cue was apparent. Our results suggest that children learn to weigh different cues depending on their relative informativeness in their environment

  7. Word Mapping and Executive Functioning in Young Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Barac, Raluca; Blaye, Agnes; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2010-01-01

    The effect of bilingualism on the cognitive skills of young children was investigated by comparing performance of 162 children who belonged to one of two age groups (approximately 3- and 4.5-year-olds) and one of three language groups on a series of tasks examining executive control and word mapping. The children were monolingual English speakers,…

  8. Narrative Development among Language-Minority Children: The Role of Bilingual versus Monolingual Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Shaul, Yehudit

    2013-01-01

    The development of script schema, as a source of narrative knowledge, is an essential stage in this knowledge construction. This study focused on the role of bilingual versus monolingual preschool education in the development of script schema knowledge in Russian (L1) and Hebrew (L2) among Russian/Hebrew-speaking children in Israel. The preschool…

  9. Phoneme awareness, vocabulary and word decoding in monolingual and bilingual Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Leseman, P.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilingually raised children in the Netherlands, who receive literacy instruction in their second language only, show an advantage on Dutch phoneme-awareness tasks compared with monolingual Dutch-speaking children. Language performance of a group of 47

  10. Defying Monolingual Education: Alternative Bilingual Discourse Practices in Selected Coloured Schools in Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Felix

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores how bilingual learners and teachers challenge the monolingual discourses prescribed in language education policy and models in pursuit of voice and agency in classroom interaction. Through an examination of observation, interview and classroom interaction data in selected coloured primary and secondary schools in Cape Town, the…

  11. Monolingual and Bilingual Preschoolers' Use of Gestures to Interpret Ambiguous Pronouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow, W. Quin

    2015-01-01

    Young children typically do not use order-of-mention to resolve ambiguous pronouns, but may do so if given additional cues, such as gestures. Additionally, this ability to utilize gestures may be enhanced in bilingual children, who may be more sensitive to such cues due to their unique language experience. We asked monolingual and bilingual…

  12. Phoneme awareness, vocabulary and word decoding in monolingual and bilingual Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Leseman, P.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilingually raised children in the Netherlands, who receive literacy instruction in their second language only, show an advantage on Dutch phoneme-awareness tasks compared with monolingual Dutch-speaking children. Language performance of a group of 47

  13. Spanish/English Speech Practices: Bringing Chaos to Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toribio, Almeida Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a linguistic analysis of Spanish-English bilingual speech for scholars and practitioners of bilingualism. More specifically, the study surveys several outcomes of language contact, among these, inter-lingual transference, codeswitching, and convergence, as evidenced in the speech practices of heritage Spanish speakers in the…

  14. Bilingual Children's Long-Term Outcomes in English as a Second Language: Language Environment Factors Shape Individual Differences in Catching up with Monolinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Jia, Ruiting

    2017-01-01

    Bilingual children experience more variation in their language environment than monolingual children and this impacts their rate of language development with respect to monolinguals. How long it takes for bilingual children learning English as a second language (L2) to display similar abilities to monolingual age-peers has been estimated to be 4-6…

  15. DTI reveals structural differences in white matter tracts between bilingual and monolingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Struys, Esli; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Mondt, Katrien; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert

    2012-01-30

    The impact of bilingualism on the microstructure of the white matter pathways related to language processing is assessed in elementary school children by magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI). Forty children, 8-11 years old, subdivided into 3 different groups (15 simultaneous bilinguals, 15 sequential bilinguals and 10 monolinguals), were scanned. The hypothesis was that the starting age and the manner of second language acquisition would affect the characteristics of language circuitry. In each subject the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) was obtained for four major white matter pathways: 1 - the left arcuate fasciculus/superior longitudinal fasciculus (lAF/lSLF) that connects Broca's area in the opercular and triangular regions of the left inferior frontal gyrus to the posterior language zone, 2 - the left inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus (lIFOF), connecting anterior regions in the frontal lobe with posterior regions in the temporal occipital lobes, 3 - the bundle arising from the anterior part of the corpus callosum projecting to the orbital lobe (AC-OL) and 4 - the fibers emerging from the anterior midbody (AMB) of the corpus callosum that associate with the premotor and supplementary motor cortices (AMB-PMC). The three groups did not show significant differences in mean FA over the lAF/lSLF or AMB-PMC tracts. In simultaneous bilingual subjects the lIFOF tracts had higher mean FA value compared to monolinguals and also sequential bilinguals, whereas the comparison for the AC-OL fibers yielded a significantly lower mean FA value in simultaneous bilingual subjects compared to monolinguals. In both cases the FA value for sequential bilinguals was intermediate to that of the other two groups. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of bilingualism related adaptation of white matter microstructure in the human brain.

  16. The role of nonverbal working memory in morphosyntactic processing by school-aged monolingual and bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Davidson, Meghan M; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined the relationship between nonverbal working memory and morphosyntactic processing in monolingual native speakers of English and bilingual speakers of English and Spanish. We tested 42 monolingual children and 42 bilingual children between the ages of 8 and 10years matched on age and nonverbal IQ. Children were administered an auditory Grammaticality Judgment task in English to measure morphosyntactic processing and a visual N-Back task and Corsi Blocks task to measure nonverbal working memory capacity. Analyses revealed that monolinguals were more sensitive to English morphosyntactic information than bilinguals, but the groups did not differ in reaction times or response bias. Furthermore, higher nonverbal working memory capacity was associated with greater sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations in bilinguals but not in monolinguals. The findings suggest that nonverbal working memory skills link more tightly to syntactic processing in populations with lower levels of language knowledge.

  17. The role of non-verbal working memory in morphosyntactic processing by school-aged monolingual and bilingual children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Davidson, Meghan M.; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between non-verbal working memory and morphosyntactic processing in monolingual native speakers of English and bilingual speakers of English and Spanish. We tested 42 monolingual children and 42 bilingual children between the ages of 8 and 10, matched on age and non-verbal IQ. Children were administered an auditory Grammaticality Judgment task in English to measure morphosyntatic processing, and a visual N-Back task and a Corsi Blocks task to measure non-verbal working memory capacity. Analyses revealed that monolinguals were more sensitive to English morphosyntactic information than bilinguals, but the groups did not differ in reaction times or response bias. Furthermore, higher non-verbal working memory capacity was associated with greater sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations in bilinguals, but not in monolinguals. The findings suggest that non-verbal working memory skills link more tightly to syntactic processing in populations with lower levels of language knowledge. PMID:26550957

  18. THE COMPARISON OF THE MONOLINGUAL AND BILINGUAL JAPANESE STUDENTS IN THE ENGLISH ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ienneke Indra Dewi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Article is intended to know whether the monolingual or bilingual Japanese students are betterin the English achievement and whether the exposure of English influences the ability. The data weretaken from 60 Japanese students who are supposed to fill in the questionnaires regarding theirlanguage background. The English achievement data were taken from the students’ scores in SeniorHigh School National Examination and the data further were compared to the TOEFL English score.The analysis is carried out using ANOVA analysis. This research indicates that monolinguals arebetter learners in English and exposure is proved to influence the students’ ability in English.

  19. Oral Narratives in Monolingual and Bilingual Preschoolers with SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzonico, Stefano; Chen, Xi; Cleave, Patricia L.; Greenberg, Janice; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Johnson, Carla J.; Milburn, Trelani; Pelletier, Janette; Weitzman, Elaine; Girolametto, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The body of literature on narratives of bilingual children with and without specific language impairment (SLI) is growing. However, little is known about the narrative abilities of bilingual preschool children with SLI and their patterns of growth. Aims: To determine the similarities and differences in narrative abilities between…

  20. Discrimination of foreign language speech contrasts by English monolinguals and French/English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie-Sebileau, Pippa; Davis, Chris

    2014-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether late French/English bilinguals are able to utilize knowledge of bilabial stop contrasts that exist in each of their separate languages to discriminate bilabial stop contrasts from a new language (Thai). Secondary aims were to determine associations between bilabial stop consonant production in the L1 and the L2, between language learning factors and production and discrimination, and to compare English bilinguals' and monolinguals' discrimination. Three Thai bilabial stop consonant pairs differentiated by Voice Onset Time (VOT) (combinations of [b], [p], and [p(h)]) were presented to 28 French-English bilinguals, 25 English-French bilinguals, and 43 English monolinguals in an AX discrimination task. It was hypothesized that L2 experience would facilitate discrimination of contrasts that were phonemic in the L2 but not in the L1 for bilinguals. Only limited support for this hypothesis was found. However, results indicate that high production proficiency bilinguals had higher discrimination of the phonemic L2 contrasts (non-phonemic in L1). Discrimination patterns indicate lasting L1 influence, with similarity between unknown foreign language contrasts and L1 contrasts influencing discrimination rates. Production results show evidence for L2 influence in the L1. Results are discussed in the context of current speech perception models.

  1. Bilingual effects on cognitive and linguistic development: role of language, cultural background, and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Raluca; Bialystok, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    A total of 104 six-year-old children belonging to 4 groups (English monolinguals, Chinese-English bilinguals, French-English bilinguals, Spanish-English bilinguals) were compared on 3 verbal tasks and 1 nonverbal executive control task to examine the generality of the bilingual effects on development. Bilingual groups differed in degree of similarity between languages, cultural background, and language of schooling. On the executive control task, all bilingual groups performed similarly and exceeded monolinguals; on the language tasks the best performance was achieved by bilingual children whose language of instruction was the same as the language of testing and whose languages had more overlap. Thus, executive control outcomes for bilingual children are general but performance on verbal tasks is specific to factors in the bilingual experience.

  2. White-matter development is different in bilingual and monolingual children: a longitudinal DTI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Rosseel, Yves; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert; Baeken, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous people grow up speaking more than one language, the impact of bilingualism on brain developing neuroanatomy is still poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether the changes in the mean fractional-anisotropy (MFA) of language pathways are different between bilingual and monolingual children. Simultaneous-bilinguals, sequential-bilinguals and monolingual, male and female 10-13 years old children participated in this longitudinal study over a period of two years. We used diffusion tensor tractography to obtain mean fractional-anisotropy values of four language related pathways and one control bundle: 1-left-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus/lIFOF, 2-left-arcuate fasciculus/lAF/lSLF, 3-bundle arising from the anterior part of corpus-callosum and projecting to orbital lobe/AC-OL, 4-fibres emerging from anterior-midbody of corpus-callosum (CC) to motor cortices/AMB-PMC, 5- right-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus rIFOF as the control pathway unrelated to language. These values and their rate of change were compared between 3 groups. FA-values did not change significantly over two years for lAF/lSLF and AC-OL. Sequential-bilinguals had the highest degree of change in the MFA value of lIFOF, and AMB-PMC did not present significant group differences. The comparison of MFA of lIFOF yielded a significantly higher FA-value in simultaneous bilinguals compared to monolinguals. These findings acknowledge the existing difference of the development of the semantic processing specific pathway between children with different semantic processing procedure. These also support the hypothesis that age of second language acquisition affects the maturation and myelination of some language specific white-matter pathways.

  3. White-matter development is different in bilingual and monolingual children: a longitudinal DTI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Ghazal Mohades

    Full Text Available Although numerous people grow up speaking more than one language, the impact of bilingualism on brain developing neuroanatomy is still poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether the changes in the mean fractional-anisotropy (MFA of language pathways are different between bilingual and monolingual children. Simultaneous-bilinguals, sequential-bilinguals and monolingual, male and female 10-13 years old children participated in this longitudinal study over a period of two years. We used diffusion tensor tractography to obtain mean fractional-anisotropy values of four language related pathways and one control bundle: 1-left-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus/lIFOF, 2-left-arcuate fasciculus/lAF/lSLF, 3-bundle arising from the anterior part of corpus-callosum and projecting to orbital lobe/AC-OL, 4-fibres emerging from anterior-midbody of corpus-callosum (CC to motor cortices/AMB-PMC, 5- right-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus rIFOF as the control pathway unrelated to language. These values and their rate of change were compared between 3 groups. FA-values did not change significantly over two years for lAF/lSLF and AC-OL. Sequential-bilinguals had the highest degree of change in the MFA value of lIFOF, and AMB-PMC did not present significant group differences. The comparison of MFA of lIFOF yielded a significantly higher FA-value in simultaneous bilinguals compared to monolinguals. These findings acknowledge the existing difference of the development of the semantic processing specific pathway between children with different semantic processing procedure. These also support the hypothesis that age of second language acquisition affects the maturation and myelination of some language specific white-matter pathways.

  4. Bilingualism and linguistic politics in Brazil: From monolingual unreality to plurilingual reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ortiz Preuss

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Current article discusses the linguistic policies inBrazil and problematizes explicit or underlying notions of bilingualism in official documents. Different concepts of bilingualism over time are analyzed from a bibliographic and documental study. Further, the types of bilingualism contemplated by linguistic policies are investigated. The status of Portuguese, indigenous, foreign, sign and immigrant languages in these documents is discussed, as well as the legal attitudes related to bilingualism in communities of immigrants, indigenous, deaf and descendants of Negro slaves. An initial legal ambiguity may be noted when essentially monolingual linguistic policies are prioritized. A mild progress has occurred during the last few years, mainly, those related to the acknowledgement of indigenous communities as bi/multilingual. In fact, Brazil’s plurilingual condition and its pluricultural characteristics have not been yet acknowledged.

  5. Does bilingualism twist your tongue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Tamar H; Goldrick, Matthew

    2012-12-01

    The current study investigated whether bilingualism affects the processing of sub-lexical representations specifying the sound structure of words. Spanish-English bilinguals, Mandarin-English bilinguals, and English-only monolinguals repeated English tongue twisters. Twister materials had word or nonword targets (thus varying in whether lexical information did or did not support sound processing), and similar or dissimilar sounds (thus varying in difficulty with respect to competition at a sub-lexical level). Even though bilinguals had learned English at an early age, and spoke English without an accent, Spanish-English bilinguals produced significantly more twister errors than monolinguals, particularly in the absence of lexical support. Mandarin-English bilinguals were also disadvantaged, but more consistently across all twister types. These results reveal that bilingual disadvantages extend beyond the lexical level to affect the processing of sub-lexical representations. More generally, these findings suggest that experience with sound structures (and not simply their intrinsic complexity) shapes sub-lexical processing for all speakers.

  6. Proficiency and Control in Verbal Fluency Performance across the Lifespan for Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Deanna C.; Luo, Lin; Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The verbal fluency task is a widely used neuropsychological test of word retrieval efficiency. Both category fluency (e.g., list animals) and letter fluency (e.g., list words that begin with F) place demands on semantic memory and executive control functions. However letter fluency places greater demands on executive control than category fluency, making this task well-suited to investigating potential bilingual advantages in word retrieval. Here we report analyses on category and letter fluency for bilinguals and monolinguals at four ages, namely, 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, young adults, and older adults. Three main findings emerged: 1) verbal fluency performance improved from childhood to young adulthood and remained relatively stable in late adulthood; 2) beginning at 10-years-old, the executive control requirements for letter fluency were less effortful for bilinguals than monolinguals, with a robust bilingual advantage on this task emerging in adulthood; 3) an interaction among factors showed that category fluency performance was influenced by both age and vocabulary knowledge but letter fluency performance was influenced by bilingual status. PMID:25642427

  7. The moderating effect of orthographic consistency on oral vocabulary learning in monolingual and bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubenville, Kathleen; Sénéchal, Monique; Malette, Melissa

    2014-10-01

    Two studies were conducted to assess whether (a) the incidental presence of print facilitates the acquisition of oral vocabulary, (b) the facilitative effect of print is moderated by phoneme-to-grapheme consistency, and (c) the findings obtained with monolingual children generalize to bilingual children. In total, 71 monolingual French-speaking children (M age = 9 years 2 months) in Study 1 and 64 bilingual children (M age = 9 years 3 months) in Study 2 participated in one of three conditions: consistent print, inconsistent print, or no print. Children were to learn novel labels for unfamiliar objects in a paired-associate paradigm. In both studies, print facilitated the acquisition and recall of expressive vocabulary. The effect of print consistency, however, varied across studies. As expected, monolingual children exposed to consistent print learned more novel labels than children exposed to inconsistent print. In contrast, bilingual children exposed to inconsistent print learned and recalled more labels than children exposed to consistent print. These intriguing findings might be due to differences in attention allocation during training.

  8. Immigrant Parents' Choice of a Bilingual versus Monolingual Kindergarten for Second-Generation Children: Motives, Attitudes, and Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Moin, Victor; Leikin, Mark; Breitkopf, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how immigrant parents describe and explain their family language policy concerning their child's preschool bilingual development, and also explored the factors linked to the parents' choice of bilingual or monolingual kindergarten for their child. The study design was based on a comparison of 2 groups of parents: those who…

  9. Immigrant Parents' Choice of a Bilingual versus Monolingual Kindergarten for Second-Generation Children: Motives, Attitudes, and Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Moin, Victor; Leikin, Mark; Breitkopf, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how immigrant parents describe and explain their family language policy concerning their child's preschool bilingual development, and also explored the factors linked to the parents' choice of bilingual or monolingual kindergarten for their child. The study design was based on a comparison of 2 groups of parents: those who…

  10. Critical Literacy for Monolinguals and Bilinguals-in-the-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Mayra C.

    2008-01-01

    Teachers' knowledge base and cultural stances affect classroom practice and the school climate. In respect to immigrant populations, teachers' perceptions delimit what students come to believe they can accomplish. Teachers who espouse the goals of cultural pluralism validate the backgrounds of learners as well as legitimize bilingual bicultural…

  11. Advantages of Bilinguals over Monolinguals in Learning a Third Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Sanitsky, Ekaterina

    2010-01-01

    The present study is an examination of the contribution of bilingualism to trilingualism, namely the influence of learning two different orthographies on learning a third. The participants were two groups of sixth graders from Israeli schools who were studying English as a foreign (second or third) language: Russian Israeli children for whom…

  12. A Comparison between Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary in Bilingual and Monolingual South African School Beginners: Implications for Bilingual Language Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bilingual and monolingual school beginners on measures of simple and complex verbal working memory and receptive and expressive vocabulary. The aim was to determine whether the tests of working memory are fairer measures of language ability than the vocabulary tests for bilingual children when tested in their second language.…

  13. Native-language recognition abilities in 4-month-old infants from monolingual and bilingual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, L; Sebastián-Gallés, N

    1997-12-01

    This study examined the capacity of 4-month-old infants to identify their maternal language when phonologically similar languages are contrasted, using a visual orientation procedure with a reaction time measure. Infants from monolingual and bilingual environments were compared in order to analyze whether differences in linguistic background affect this behavioral response. In experiment 1 the validity of the procedure was assessed with a pair of phonologically dissimilar languages (Catalan or Spanish vs. English). In experiment 2, 20 infants from monolingual environments tested in a similar language contrast (Catalan vs. Spanish) indicated that discrimination is already possible at that age. Results from experiment 3, using low-pass filtered utterances, suggested that infants can rely on information about supra-segmental features to make this distinction. For the infants growing up in bilingual environments no preference for either of the familiar languages was found. Moreover, when their maternal language was contrasted either with English or with Italian, in both cases the bilingual group showed a similar pattern, consisting of significantly longer latencies for the familiar language. Possible interpretations of this unexpected pattern of results are discussed and its implications for bilingual language acquisition are considered.

  14. Differences in the Association between Segment and Language: Early Bilinguals Pattern with Monolinguals and Are Less Accurate than Late Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Cynthia P.; Bannard, Colin; Smiljanic, Rajka

    2016-01-01

    Early bilinguals often show as much sensitivity to L2-specific contrasts as monolingual speakers of the L2, but most work on cross-language speech perception has focused on isolated segments, and typically only on neighboring vowels or stop contrasts. In tasks that include sounds in context, listeners’ success is more variable, so segment discrimination in isolation may not adequately represent the phonetic detail in stored representations. The current study explores the relationship between language experience and sensitivity to segmental cues in context by comparing the categorization patterns of monolingual English listeners and early and late Spanish–English bilinguals. Participants categorized nonce words containing different classes of English- and Spanish-specific sounds as being more English-like or more Spanish-like; target segments included phonemic cues, cues for which there is no analogous sound in the other language, or phonetic cues, cues for which English and Spanish share the category but for which each language varies in its phonetic implementation. Listeners’ language categorization accuracy and reaction times were analyzed. Our results reveal a largely uniform categorization pattern across listener groups: Spanish cues were categorized more accurately than English cues, and phonemic cues were easier for listeners to categorize than phonetic cues. There were no differences in the sensitivity of monolinguals and early bilinguals to language-specific cues, suggesting that the early bilinguals’ exposure to Spanish did not fundamentally change their representations of English phonology. However, neither did the early bilinguals show more sensitivity than the monolinguals to Spanish sounds. The late bilinguals however, were significantly more accurate than either of the other groups. These findings indicate that listeners with varying exposure to English and Spanish are able to use language-specific cues in a nonce-word language categorization

  15. Using monolingual neuropsychological test norms with bilingual Hispanic americans: application of an individual comparison standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard; Gonzalez, Cassandra Dayanira

    2012-05-01

    Conventional neuropsychological norms developed for monolinguals likely overestimate normal performance in bilinguals on language but not visual-perceptual format tests. This was studied by comparing neuropsychological false-positive rates using the 50th percentile of conventional norms and individual comparison standards (Picture Vocabulary or Matrix Reasoning scores) as estimates of preexisting neuropsychological skill level against the number expected from the normal distribution for a consecutive sample of 56 neurologically intact, bilingual, Hispanic Americans. Participants were tested in separate sessions in Spanish and English in the counterbalanced order on La Bateria Neuropsicologica and the original English language tests on which this battery was based. For language format measures, repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance showed that individual estimates of preexisting skill level in English generated the mean number of false positives most approximate to that expected from the normal distribution, whereas the 50th percentile of conventional English language norms did the same for visual-perceptual format measures. When using conventional Spanish or English monolingual norms for language format neuropsychological measures with bilingual Hispanic Americans, individual estimates of preexisting skill level are recommended over the 50th percentile.

  16. A Bafri, un Pafri: bilinguals' Pseudoword identifications support language-specific phonetic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Kalim; Lotto, Andrew J

    2013-11-01

    Bilinguals perceptually accommodate speech variation across languages, but to what extent this flexibility depends on bilingual experience is uncertain. One account suggests that bilingual experience promotes language-specific processing modes, implying that bilinguals can switch as appropriate between the different phonetic systems of the languages they speak. Another account suggests that bilinguals rapidly recalibrate to the unique acoustic properties of each language following language-general processes common to monolinguals. Challenging this latter account, the present results show that Spanish-English bilinguals with exposure to both languages from early childhood, but not English monolinguals, shift perception as appropriate across acoustically controlled English and Spanish contexts. Early bilingual experience appears to promote language-specific phonetic systems.

  17. A time sharing cross-sectional study of monolinguals and bilinguals at different levels of second language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A

    1986-10-01

    Several methodological factors associated with the concurrent activities (finger-tapping) paradigm were considered in a cross-sectional study investigating cerebral patterns of asymmetry in three groups of English-speaking non-Hispanic dextral males at three levels of second language (Spanish) acquisition and one control group of monolinguals. Results revealed the fluent bilinguals to be bilateral and significantly different from other groups for native language tasks in English. Moreover, a priori contrasts indicate that greater right- than left-hand disruption in concurrent tapping may be typical of monolinguals, but can be influenced by other factors. Monolingual reliability test-retest correlations were .77 and .47.

  18. How much exposure to English is necessary for a bilingual toddler to perform like a monolingual peer in language tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Allegra; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Farag, Rafalla; Krott, Andrea; Arreckx, Frédérique; Dennis, Ian; Floccia, Caroline

    2014-11-01

    Bilingual children are under-referred due to an ostensible expectation that they lag behind their monolingual peers in their English acquisition. The recommendations of the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists (RCSLT) state that bilingual children should be assessed in both the languages known by the children. However, despite these recommendations, a majority of speech and language professionals report that they assess bilingual children only in English as bilingual children come from a wide array of language backgrounds and standardized language measures are not available for the majority of these. Moreover, even when such measures do exist, they are not tailored for bilingual children. It was asked whether a cut-off exists in the proportion of exposure to English at which one should expect a bilingual toddler to perform as well as a monolingual on a test standardized for monolingual English-speaking children. Thirty-five bilingual 2;6-year-olds exposed to British English plus an additional language and 36 British monolingual toddlers were assessed on the auditory component of the Preschool Language Scale, British Picture Vocabulary Scale and an object-naming measure. All parents completed the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory (Oxford CDI) and an exposure questionnaire that assessed the proportion of English in the language input. Where the CDI existed in the bilingual's additional language, these data were also collected. Hierarchical regression analyses found the proportion of exposure to English to be the main predictor of the performance of bilingual toddlers. Bilingual toddlers who received 60% exposure to English or more performed like their monolingual peers on all measures. K-means cluster analyses and Levene variance tests confirmed the estimated English exposure cut-off at 60% for all language measures. Finally, for one additional language for which we had multiple participants, additional language CDI production scores were

  19. Monolingual and bilingual children with and without primary language impairment: core vocabulary comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Manon; Mayer-Crittenden, Chantal; Minor-Corriveau, Michèle; Bélanger, Roxanne

    2014-09-01

    Core vocabulary is an important component of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems for school-aged children who have complex communication needs. One method of identifying core vocabulary for these individuals is to study the vocabulary of speaking children. To date, the use of core vocabulary by speaking bilingual children has not been well documented. The present study compared the core vocabulary used by children who are monolingual (French), and bilingual (French-English; English-French). We also gathered and compared language samples from French-speaking children identified as having primary language impairment (PLI), with the goal of better understanding the language differences demonstrated by children with this disability. Language samples were collected from a total of 57 children within a school setting, in a region where French is a minority language. Contrary to the hypothesis, the analysis of language transcripts revealed that there were no important differences between the core words from the groups studied.

  20. Bilingualism Alters Children's Frontal Lobe Functioning for Attentional Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Maria M.; Hu, Xiao-Su; Satterfield, Teresa; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2017-01-01

    Bilingualism is a typical linguistic experience, yet relatively little is known about its impact on children's cognitive and brain development. Theories of bilingualism suggest early dual-language acquisition can improve children's cognitive abilities, specifically those relying on frontal lobe functioning. While behavioral findings present much conflicting evidence, little is known about its effects on children's frontal lobe development. Using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), the findings suggest that Spanish-English bilingual children (n=13, ages 7-13) had greater activation in left prefrontal cortex during a non-verbal attentional control task relative to age-matched English monolinguals. In contrast, monolinguals (n=14) showed greater right prefrontal activation than bilinguals. The present findings suggest early bilingualism yields significant changes to the functional organization of children's prefrontal cortex for attentional control and carry implications for understanding how early life experiences impact cognition and brain development. PMID:26743118

  1. Identity, Subjectivity, and Agency in L1-L2 Literacy Processes among Young Spanish-English Learners in a K-12 Bilingual School in Bogota, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna Dimas, Hector Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Literacy is one of the most fundamental processes in the life of people. It is complex enough when people develop these processes in their first language, and the nature of the task becomes even more challenging when it is developed with students in a second language within the context of a bilingual setting. Bilingual education has been based on…

  2. Discriminant accuracy of a semantics measure with Latino English-speaking, Spanish-speaking, and English-Spanish bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Elizabeth D; Bedore, Lisa M; Kester, Ellen S

    2015-01-01

    We explored classification accuracy of English and Spanish versions of an experimental semantic language measure with functional monolingual-bilingual children with and without language impairment. A total of 441 children participated, including 78 balanced bilinguals (15 with language impairment, 63 with typical development); 179 monolingual Spanish (36 with language impairment, 143 with typical development); and 183 monolingual English (49 with language impairment, 134 with typical development) children between 4;0 and 6;11 years. Cut points derived for functionally monolingual children were applied to bilinguals to assess the predictive accuracy of English and Spanish semantics. Correct classification of English monolinguals and Spanish monolinguals was 81%. Discriminant analysis yielded 76% and 90% correct classification for balanced bilingual children in English and Spanish respectively. This semantics-based measure has fair to good classification accuracy for functional monolinguals and for Spanish-English bilingual children when one language is tested. As a result of this study, the reader will describe advantages of lexical-semantic tasks for identification of language impairment. They will be able to describe procedures for conceptual scoring and identify its benefits. Readers will also gain an understanding of similarities and differences in bilingual and monolingual performance on a semantics task in Spanish and English. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Production and On-Line Comprehension of Definiteness in English and Dutch by Monolingual and Sequential Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chondrogianni, Vasiliki; Vasic, Nada; Marinis, Theodoros; Blom, Elma

    2015-01-01

    The present article examines production and on-line processing of definite articles in Turkish-speaking sequential bilingual children acquiring English and Dutch as second languages (L2) in the UK and in the Netherlands, respectively. Thirty-nine 6-8-year-old L2 children and 48 monolingual (L1) age-matched children participated in two separate…

  4. Linguistic knowledge, fluency and metacognitive knowledge as components of reading comprehension in adolescent low achievers: differences between monolinguals and bilinguals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trapman, M.J.W.; Van Gelderen, Amos; Van Steensel, Roel; Van Schooten, Erik; Hulstijn, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate the role of linguistic knowledge, fluency and meta-cognitive knowledge in Dutch reading comprehension of monolingual and bilingual adolescent academic low achievers in the Netherlands. Results show that these components are substantially associated with reading comprehen

  5. Subject-Verb Agreement in Specific Language Impairment: A Study of Monolingual and Bilingual German-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothweiler, Monika; Chilla, Solveig; Clahsen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates phenomena that have been claimed to be indicative of Specific Language Impairment (SLI) in German, focusing on subject-verb agreement marking. Longitudinal data from fourteen German-speaking children with SLI, seven monolingual and seven Turkish-German successive bilingual children, were examined. We found similar patterns…

  6. Surmounting the Tower of Babel: Monolingual and bilingual 2-year-olds' understanding of the nature of foreign language words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Chen, Ke Heng; Xu, Fei

    2014-03-01

    Languages function as independent and distinct conventional systems, and so each language uses different words to label the same objects. This study investigated whether 2-year-old children recognize that speakers of their native language and speakers of a foreign language do not share the same knowledge. Two groups of children unfamiliar with Mandarin were tested: monolingual English-learning children (n=24) and bilingual children learning English and another language (n=24). An English speaker taught children the novel label fep. On English mutual exclusivity trials, the speaker asked for the referent of a novel label (wug) in the presence of the fep and a novel object. Both monolingual and bilingual children disambiguated the reference of the novel word using a mutual exclusivity strategy, choosing the novel object rather than the fep. On similar trials with a Mandarin speaker, children were asked to find the referent of a novel Mandarin label kuò. Monolinguals again chose the novel object rather than the object with the English label fep, even though the Mandarin speaker had no access to conventional English words. Bilinguals did not respond systematically to the Mandarin speaker, suggesting that they had enhanced understanding of the Mandarin speaker's ignorance of English words. The results indicate that monolingual children initially expect words to be conventionally shared across all speakers-native and foreign. Early bilingual experience facilitates children's discovery of the nature of foreign language words.

  7. The Acquisition of Speech Rhythm by Three-Year-Old Bilingual and Monolingual Children: Cantonese and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Peggy P. K.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the acquisition of speech rhythm by Cantonese-English bilingual children and their age-matched monolingual peers. Languages can be classified in terms of rhythmic characteristics that define English as stress-timed and Cantonese as syllable-timed. Few studies have examined the concurrent acquisition of rhythmically…

  8. The Production of Referring Expressions in Oral Narratives of Chinese-English Bilingual Speakers and Monolingual Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Lei, Jianghua

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the extent to which the production of referring expressions such as noun phrases and pronouns to fulfill various discourse functions in narratives of Chinese-English bilingual children matches that of their monolingual peers in each of the two languages. Spoken narratives in English and Chinese were elicited from 30 9-year-old…

  9. The use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in monolingual and bilingual children with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelman, Marianne; Bol, Gerard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in the spoken Dutch of monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) and bilingual Frisian-Dutch children with SLI. Both SLI groups appeared to be less efficient in their use of subject-verb ag

  10. Monolingual and Bilingual Recognition of Regular and Irregular English Verbs: Sensitivity to Form Similarity Varies with First Language Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnight-Brown, Dana M.; Chen, Lang; Hua, Shu; Kostic, Aleksandar; Feldman, Laurie Beth

    2007-01-01

    We used a cross-modal priming procedure to explore the processing of irregular and regular English verb forms in both monolinguals and bilinguals (Serbian-English, Chinese-English). Materials included irregular nested stem (drawn-DRAW), irregular change stem (ran-RUN), and regular past tense-present tense verb pairs that were either low…

  11. Increase in Speech Recognition Due to Linguistic Mismatch between Target and Masker Speech: Monolingual and Simultaneous Bilingual Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandruccio, Lauren; Zhou, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether improved speech recognition during linguistically mismatched target-masker experiments is due to linguistic unfamiliarity of the masker speech or linguistic dissimilarity between the target and masker speech. Method: Monolingual English speakers (n = 20) and English-Greek simultaneous bilinguals (n = 20) listened to…

  12. Bilingualism increases neural response consistency and attentional control: evidence for sensory and cognitive coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizman, Jennifer; Skoe, Erika; Marian, Viorica; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Auditory processing is presumed to be influenced by cognitive processes - including attentional control - in a top-down manner. In bilinguals, activation of both languages during daily communication hones inhibitory skills, which subsequently bolster attentional control. We hypothesize that the heightened attentional demands of bilingual communication strengthens connections between cognitive (i.e., attentional control) and auditory processing, leading to greater across-trial consistency in the auditory evoked response (i.e., neural consistency) in bilinguals. To assess this, we collected passively-elicited auditory evoked responses to the syllable [da] in adolescent Spanish-English bilinguals and English monolinguals and separately obtained measures of attentional control and language ability. Bilinguals demonstrated enhanced attentional control and more consistent brainstem and cortical responses. In bilinguals, but not monolinguals, brainstem consistency tracked with language proficiency and attentional control. We interpret these enhancements in neural consistency as the outcome of strengthened attentional control that emerged from experience communicating in two languages.

  13. Looking at the evidence in visual world: eye-movements reveal how bilingual and monolingual Turkish speakers process grammatical evidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Seçkin; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Felser, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers) and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference to information source, through inflectional affixes signaling either direct (-DI) or indirect (-mIş) evidentiality. We conducted an eye-tracking-during-listening experiment where participants were given access to visual 'evidence' supporting the use of either a direct or indirect evidential form. The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well. In contrast, both late and early bilinguals were less accurate and slower to respond to direct than to indirect evidentials. The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data. That is, both late and early bilinguals fixated less frequently on the target picture in the direct than in the indirect evidential condition while the monolinguals showed no difference between these conditions. Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars. We discuss our findings with regard to theories of incomplete acquisition and first language attrition.

  14. Looking at the evidence in visual world: eye-movements reveal how bilingual and monolingual Turkish speakers process grammatical evidentiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçkin eArslan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference to information source, through inflectional affixes signaling either direct (-DI or indirect (-mIş evidentiality. We conducted an eye-tracking-during-listening experiment where participants were given access to visual ‘evidence’ supporting the use of either a direct or indirect evidential form. The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well. In contrast, both late and early bilinguals were less accurate and slower to respond to direct than to indirect evidentials. The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data. That is, both late and early bilinguals fixated less frequently on the target picture in the direct than in the indirect evidential condition while the monolinguals showed no difference between these conditions. Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars. We discuss our findings with regard to theories of incomplete acquisition and first language attrition.

  15. Looking at the evidence in visual world: eye-movements reveal how bilingual and monolingual Turkish speakers process grammatical evidentiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Seçkin; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Felser, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers) and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference to information source, through inflectional affixes signaling either direct (-DI) or indirect (-mIş) evidentiality. We conducted an eye-tracking-during-listening experiment where participants were given access to visual ‘evidence’ supporting the use of either a direct or indirect evidential form. The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well. In contrast, both late and early bilinguals were less accurate and slower to respond to direct than to indirect evidentials. The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data. That is, both late and early bilinguals fixated less frequently on the target picture in the direct than in the indirect evidential condition while the monolinguals showed no difference between these conditions. Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars. We discuss our findings with regard to theories of incomplete acquisition and first language attrition. PMID:26441762

  16. Age of first bilingual language exposure as a new window into bilingual reading development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovelman, Ioulia; Baker, Stephanie A; Petitto, Laura-Ann

    2008-07-01

    How does age of first bilingual language exposure affect reading development in children learning to read in both of their languages? Is there a reading advantage for monolingual English children who are educated in bilingual schools? We studied children (grades 2-3, ages 7-9) in bilingual Spanish-English schools who were either from Spanish-speaking homes (new to English) or English-speaking homes (new to Spanish), as compared with English-speaking children in monolingual English schools. An early age of first bilingual language exposure had a positive effect on reading, phonological awareness, and language competence in both languages: early bilinguals (age of first exposure 0-3 years) outperformed other bilingual groups (age of first exposure 3-6 years). Remarkably, schooling in two languages afforded children from monolingual English homes an advantage in phoneme awareness skills. Early bilingual exposure is best for dual language reading development, and it may afford such a powerful positive impact on reading and language development that it may possibly ameliorate the negative effect of low SES on literacy. Further, age of first bilingual exposure provides a new tool for evaluating whether a young bilingual has a reading problem versus whether he or she is a typically-developing dual-language learner.

  17. Influences of Phonological Context on Tense Marking in Spanish-English Dual Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combiths, Philip N; Barlow, Jessica A; Potapova, Irina; Pruitt-Lord, Sonja

    2017-08-16

    The emergence of tense-morpheme marking during language acquisition is highly variable, which confounds the use of tense marking as a diagnostic indicator of language impairment in linguistically diverse populations. In this study, we seek to better understand tense-marking patterns in young bilingual children by comparing phonological influences on marking of 2 word-final tense morphemes. In spontaneous connected speech samples from 10 Spanish-English dual language learners aged 56-66 months (M = 61.7, SD = 3.4), we examined marking rates of past tense -ed and third person singular -s morphemes in different environments, using multiple measures of phonological context. Both morphemes were found to exhibit notably contrastive marking patterns in some contexts. Each was most sensitive to a different combination of phonological influences in the verb stem and the following word. These findings extend existing evidence from monolingual speakers for the influence of word-final phonological context on morpheme production to a bilingual population. Further, novel findings not yet attested in previous research support an expanded consideration of phonological context in clinical decision making and future research related to word-final morphology.

  18. Caregiver Talk to Young Spanish-English Bilinguals: Comparing Direct Observation and Parent-Report Measures of Dual-Language Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Virginia A.; Martínez, Lucía Z.; Hurtado, Nereyda; Grüter, Theres; Fernald, Anne

    2017-01-01

    In research on language development by bilingual children, the early language environment is commonly characterized in terms of the relative amount of exposure a child gets to each language based on parent report. Little is known about how absolute measures of child-directed speech in two languages relate to language growth. In this study of…

  19. Caregiver Talk to Young Spanish-English Bilinguals: Comparing Direct Observation and Parent-Report Measures of Dual-Language Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Virginia A.; Martínez, Lucía Z.; Hurtado, Nereyda; Grüter, Theres; Fernald, Anne

    2017-01-01

    In research on language development by bilingual children, the early language environment is commonly characterized in terms of the relative amount of exposure a child gets to each language based on parent report. Little is known about how absolute measures of child-directed speech in two languages relate to language growth. In this study of…

  20. Designing for Diversity: The Role of Reading Strategies and Interactive Vocabulary in a Digital Reading Environment for Fifth-Grade Monolingual English and Bilingual Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bridget; Proctor, C. Patrick; Uccelli, Paola; Mo, Elaine; Snow, Catherine E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relative contribution of reading comprehension strategies and interactive vocabulary in Improving Comprehension Online (ICON), a universally designed web-based scaffolded text environment designed to improve fifth-grade monolingual English and bilingual students' reading achievement. Seventy-five monolingual English and 31…

  1. Cognitive profiles in bilingual children born to immigrant parents and Italian monolingual native children with specific learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Anna; Nacinovich, Renata; Bertuletti, Nadia; Montrasi, Valentina; Marchetti, Sara; Neri, Francesca; Bomba, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children(®) - fourth edition IV (WISC IV) intellectual profile of two groups of children with specific learning disorder, a group of bilingual children and a group of monolingual Italian children, in order to identify possible significant differences between them. A group of 48 bilingual children and a group of 48 Italian monolingual children were included in this study. A preliminary comparison showed the homogeneity of the two groups regarding learning disorder typology and sociodemographic characteristics (age at WISC IV assessment, sex and years of education in Italy) with the exception of socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was then used as a covariate in the analysis. Even if the two groups were comparable in specific learning disorder severity and, in particular, in the text comprehension performance, our findings showed that the WISC IV performances of the bilingual group were significantly worse than the Italian group in Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=0.03), in General Ability Index (P=0.03), in Working Memory Index (P=0.009) and in some subtests and clusters requiring advanced linguistic abilities. These results support the hypothesis of a weakness in metalinguistic abilities in bilingual children with specific learning disorders than monolinguals. If confirmed, this result must be considered in the rehabilitation treatment.

  2. Cognitive profiles in bilingual children born to immigrant parents and Italian monolingual native children with specific learning disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Anna; Nacinovich, Renata; Bertuletti, Nadia; Montrasi, Valentina; Marchetti, Sara; Neri, Francesca; Bomba, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to compare the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children® – fourth edition IV (WISC IV) intellectual profile of two groups of children with specific learning disorder, a group of bilingual children and a group of monolingual Italian children, in order to identify possible significant differences between them. Patients and methods A group of 48 bilingual children and a group of 48 Italian monolingual children were included in this study. A preliminary comparison showed the homogeneity of the two groups regarding learning disorder typology and sociodemographic characteristics (age at WISC IV assessment, sex and years of education in Italy) with the exception of socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was then used as a covariate in the analysis. Results Even if the two groups were comparable in specific learning disorder severity and, in particular, in the text comprehension performance, our findings showed that the WISC IV performances of the bilingual group were significantly worse than the Italian group in Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=0.03), in General Ability Index (P=0.03), in Working Memory Index (P=0.009) and in some subtests and clusters requiring advanced linguistic abilities. Conclusion These results support the hypothesis of a weakness in metalinguistic abilities in bilingual children with specific learning disorders than monolinguals. If confirmed, this result must be considered in the rehabilitation treatment. PMID:28115851

  3. English as a Foreign Language in Bilingual Language-minority Children, Children with Dyslexia and Monolingual Typical Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacci, Paola; Canducci, Elisa; Gravagna, Giulia; Palladino, Paola

    2017-05-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating literacy skills in English as a foreign language in three different groups of children: monolinguals with dyslexia (n = 19), typically developing bilinguals (language-minority) (n = 19) and a control group of monolinguals (Italian) (n = 76). Bilinguals were not expected to fail in English measures, and their gap with monolinguals would be expected to be limited to the instructional language, owing to underexposure. All participants were enrolled in Italian primary schools (fourth and fifth grades). A non-verbal reasoning task and Italian and English literacy tasks were administered. The Italian battery included word and non-word reading (speed and accuracy), word and non-word writing, and reading comprehension; the English battery included similar tasks, except for the non-word writing. Bilingual children performed similarly to typical readers in English tasks, whereas in Italian tasks, their performance was similar to that of typical readers in reading speed but not in reading accuracy and writing. Children with dyslexia underperformed compared with typically developing children in all English and Italian tasks, except for reading comprehension in Italian. Profile analysis and correlational analyses were further discussed. These results suggest that English as a foreign language might represent a challenge for students with dyslexia but a strength for bilingual language-minority children. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. How age of bilingual exposure can change the neural systems for language in the developing brain: a functional near infrared spectroscopy investigation of syntactic processing in monolingual and bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinska, K K; Petitto, L A

    2013-10-01

    Is the developing bilingual brain fundamentally similar to the monolingual brain (e.g., neural resources supporting language and cognition)? Or, does early-life bilingual language experience change the brain? If so, how does age of first bilingual exposure impact neural activation for language? We compared how typically-developing bilingual and monolingual children (ages 7-10) and adults recruit brain areas during sentence processing using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) brain imaging. Bilingual participants included early-exposed (bilingual exposure from birth) and later-exposed individuals (bilingual exposure between ages 4-6). Both bilingual children and adults showed greater neural activation in left-hemisphere classic language areas, and additionally, right-hemisphere homologues (Right Superior Temporal Gyrus, Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus). However, important differences were observed between early-exposed and later-exposed bilinguals in their earliest-exposed language. Early bilingual exposure imparts fundamental changes to classic language areas instead of alterations to brain regions governing higher cognitive executive functions. However, age of first bilingual exposure does matter. Later-exposed bilinguals showed greater recruitment of the prefrontal cortex relative to early-exposed bilinguals and monolinguals. The findings provide fascinating insight into the neural resources that facilitate bilingual language use and are discussed in terms of how early-life language experiences can modify the neural systems underlying human language processing.

  5. Bilingualism and the increased attentional blink effect: evidence that the difference between bilinguals and monolinguals generalizes to different levels of second language proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Vatsala; Verma, Ark; Kar, Bhoomika; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Brysbaert, Marc

    2013-11-01

    The attentional blink task involves rapid serial presentation of visual stimuli, two of which the participants have to report. The usual finding is that participants are impaired at reporting the second target if it appears in close temporal proximity to the first target. Previous research has shown that the effect is stronger in bilinguals than monolinguals. We investigated whether the difference between monolinguals and proficient bilinguals can be extended to bilinguals of different proficiency levels. Therefore, we replicated the paradigm in a large sample of Hindi-English bilinguals with different proficiency levels of English, as measured with a validated vocabulary test. We additionally measured the participants' intelligence with the raven progressive matrices. We found that the size of the attentional blink effect correlates with the degree of second language proficiency and not with the degree of intelligence. This indicates that research on executive control functions can be done with bilinguals of different proficiency levels. Our results are also in line with recent findings showing that the attentional blink effect is not primarily due to limited processing resources.

  6. Adult Monolingual Policy Becomes Children's Bilingual Practice: Code-Alternation among Children and Staff in an English-Medium Preschool in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Sally; Ottesjö, Cajsa

    2016-01-01

    Parents, teachers and institutions often attempt to implement monolingual policies in bilingual settings, believing that they thereby facilitate children's bilingual development. Children, however, often have their own communicative agendas. In this study, we investigate how the twofold language policy of an English-medium preschool in Sweden is…

  7. The Effects of Dual-Language Support on the Language Skills of Bilingual Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Listening Devices Relative to Their Monolingual Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunta, Ferenc; Douglas, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of supporting both English and Spanish on language outcomes in bilingual children with hearing loss (HL) who used listening devices (cochlear implants and hearing aids). The English language skills of bilingual children with HL were compared to those of their monolingual English-speaking peers'…

  8. The Effects of Dual-Language Support on the Language Skills of Bilingual Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Listening Devices Relative to Their Monolingual Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunta, Ferenc; Douglas, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of supporting both English and Spanish on language outcomes in bilingual children with hearing loss (HL) who used listening devices (cochlear implants and hearing aids). The English language skills of bilingual children with HL were compared to those of their monolingual English-speaking peers'…

  9. Expressive Vocabulary Development in Children from Bilingual and Monolingual Homes: A Longitudinal Study from Two to Four Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Burridge, Andrea; Ribot, Krystal M; Welsh, Stephanie N

    2014-10-01

    The early course of language development among children from bilingual homes varies in ways that are not well described and as a result of influences that are not well understood. Here, we describe trajectories of relative change in expressive vocabulary from 22 to 48 months and vocabulary achievement at 48 months in two groups of children from bilingual homes (children with one and children with two native Spanish-speaking parents [ns = 15 and 11]) and in an SES-equivalent group of children from monolingual English homes (n = 31). The two groups from bilingual homes differed in their mean levels of English and Spanish skills, in their developmental trajectories during this period, and in the relation between language use at home and their vocabulary development. Children with two native Spanish-speaking parents showed steepest gains in total vocabulary and were more nearly balanced bilinguals at 48 months. Children with one native Spanish- and one native English-speaking parent showed trajectories of relative decline in Spanish vocabulary. At 48 months, mean levels of English skill among the bilingual children were comparable to monolingual norms, but children with two native Spanish-speaking parents had lower English scores than the SES-equivalent monolingual group. Use of English at home was a significant positive predictor of English vocabulary scores only among children with a native English-speaking parent. These findings argue that efforts to optimize school readiness among children from immigrant families should facilitate their access to native speakers of the community language, and efforts to support heritage language maintenance should include encouraging heritage language use by native speakers in the home.

  10. Expressive Vocabulary Development in Children from Bilingual and Monolingual Homes: A Longitudinal Study from Two to Four Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Burridge, Andrea; Ribot, Krystal M.; Welsh, Stephanie N.

    2014-01-01

    The early course of language development among children from bilingual homes varies in ways that are not well described and as a result of influences that are not well understood. Here, we describe trajectories of relative change in expressive vocabulary from 22 to 48 months and vocabulary achievement at 48 months in two groups of children from bilingual homes (children with one and children with two native Spanish-speaking parents [ns = 15 and 11]) and in an SES-equivalent group of children from monolingual English homes (n = 31). The two groups from bilingual homes differed in their mean levels of English and Spanish skills, in their developmental trajectories during this period, and in the relation between language use at home and their vocabulary development. Children with two native Spanish-speaking parents showed steepest gains in total vocabulary and were more nearly balanced bilinguals at 48 months. Children with one native Spanish- and one native English-speaking parent showed trajectories of relative decline in Spanish vocabulary. At 48 months, mean levels of English skill among the bilingual children were comparable to monolingual norms, but children with two native Spanish-speaking parents had lower English scores than the SES-equivalent monolingual group. Use of English at home was a significant positive predictor of English vocabulary scores only among children with a native English-speaking parent. These findings argue that efforts to optimize school readiness among children from immigrant families should facilitate their access to native speakers of the community language, and efforts to support heritage language maintenance should include encouraging heritage language use by native speakers in the home. PMID:25089074

  11. Cognitive profiles in bilingual children born to immigrant parents and Italian monolingual native children with specific learning disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anna Riva, Renata Nacinovich, Nadia Bertuletti, Valentina Montrasi, Sara Marchetti, Francesca Neri, Monica Bomba Child and Adolescent Mental Health Department, University of Milan Bicocca, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children® – fourth edition IV (WISC IV intellectual profile of two groups of children with specific learning disorder, a group of bilingual children and a group of monolingual Italian children, in order to identify possible significant differences between them. Patients and methods: A group of 48 bilingual children and a group of 48 Italian monolingual children were included in this study. A preliminary comparison showed the homogeneity of the two groups regarding learning disorder typology and sociodemographic characteristics (age at WISC IV assessment, sex and years of education in Italy with the exception of socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was then used as a covariate in the analysis. Results: Even if the two groups were comparable in specific learning disorder severity and, in particular, in the text comprehension performance, our findings showed that the WISC IV performances of the bilingual group were significantly worse than the Italian group in Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=0.03, in General Ability Index (P=0.03, in Working Memory Index (P=0.009 and in some subtests and clusters requiring advanced linguistic abilities. Conclusion: These results support the hypothesis of a weakness in metalinguistic abilities in bilingual children with specific learning disorders than monolinguals. If confirmed, this result must be considered in the rehabilitation treatment. Keywords: children, bilingualism, WISC IV, SLD

  12. Examining Similarities and Differences among Parent-Teacher Reports of Spanish-English Productive Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubasik, Virginia L.; Svetina, Dubravka

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of the present study were to (a) explore the relationship between parent and teacher reports of children's bilingual (Spanish-English) productive vocabulary and (b) examine similarities and differences among parent-teacher reports. Word categories were examined to determine the nature of similarities and differences.…

  13. Development and Validation of the Spanish-English Language Proficiency Scale (SELPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyk, Ekaterina; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Gorin, Joanna S.; Gray, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the development and validation of a criterion-referenced Spanish-English Language Proficiency Scale (SELPS) that was designed to assess the oral language skills of sequential bilingual children ages 4-8. This article reports results for the English proficiency portion of the scale. Method: The SELPS assesses syntactic…

  14. Linguistic Knowledge, Fluency and Meta-Cognitive Knowledge as Components of Reading Comprehension in Adolescent Low Achievers: Differences between Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapman, Mirjam; van Gelderen, Amos; van Steensel, Roel; van Schooten, Erik; Hulstijn, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate the role of linguistic knowledge, fluency and meta-cognitive knowledge in Dutch reading comprehension of monolingual and bilingual adolescent academic low achievers in the Netherlands. Results show that these components are substantially associated with reading comprehension. However, their role appears to be different…

  15. The Role of Word Decoding, Vocabulary Knowledge and Meta-Cognitive Knowledge in Monolingual and Bilingual Low-Achieving Adolescents' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Roel; Oostdam, Ron; van Gelderen, Amos; van Schooten, Erik

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analysed the relationships between word decoding, vocabulary knowledge, meta-cognitive knowledge and reading comprehension in low-achieving adolescents and examined whether the strength of these relationships differed between Grade 7 and 9 students and between monolingual and bilingual students. Tests were administered to 328…

  16. The Role of Oral Language Skills in Reading and Listening Comprehension of Text: A Comparison of Monolingual (L1) and Bilingual (L2) Speakers of English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, Selma

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the role of oral language skills in reading comprehension and listening comprehension levels of 125 monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) English-speaking learners (M = 121.5 months, SD = 4.65) in England. All testing was conducted in English. The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the measures of oral language and text…

  17. The Role of Oral Language Skills in Reading and Listening Comprehension of Text: A Comparison of Monolingual (L1) and Bilingual (L2) Speakers of English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, Selma

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the role of oral language skills in reading comprehension and listening comprehension levels of 125 monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) English-speaking learners (M = 121.5 months, SD = 4.65) in England. All testing was conducted in English. The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the measures of oral language and text…

  18. Linguistic Knowledge, Fluency and Meta-Cognitive Knowledge as Components of Reading Comprehension in Adolescent Low Achievers: Differences between Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapman, Mirjam; van Gelderen, Amos; van Steensel, Roel; van Schooten, Erik; Hulstijn, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate the role of linguistic knowledge, fluency and meta-cognitive knowledge in Dutch reading comprehension of monolingual and bilingual adolescent academic low achievers in the Netherlands. Results show that these components are substantially associated with reading comprehension. However, their role appears to be different…

  19. Bilingual children's long-term outcomes in English as a second language: language environment factors shape individual differences in catching up with monolinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Jia, Ruiting

    2017-01-01

    Bilingual children experience more variation in their language environment than monolingual children and this impacts their rate of language development with respect to monolinguals. How long it takes for bilingual children learning English as a second language (L2) to display similar abilities to monolingual age-peers has been estimated to be 4-6 years, but conflicting findings suggest that even 6 years in school is not enough. Most studies on long-term L2 development have focused on just one linguistic sub-domain, vocabulary, and have not included multiple individual difference factors. For the present study, Chinese first language-English L2 children were given standardized measures of vocabulary, grammar and global comprehension every year from 4 ½ to 6 ½ years of English in school (ages 8½ to 10½); language environment factors were obtained through an extensive parent questionnaire. Children converged on monolingual norms differentially according to the test, with the majority of children reaching monolingual levels of performance on the majority of tests by 5 ½ years of English exposure. Individual differences in outcomes were predicted by length of English exposure, mother's education, mother's English fluency, child's use of English in the home, richness/quality of the English input outside school and age of arrival in Canada. In sum, the timeframe for bilinguals to catch up to monolinguals depends on linguistic sub-domain, task difficulty and on individual children's language environment, making 4-6 years an approximate estimate only. This study also shows that language environment factors shape not only early-stage but also late-stage bilingual development.

  20. Bilingualism yields language-specific plasticity in left hemisphere's circuitry for learning to read in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasińska, K K; Berens, M S; Kovelman, I; Petitto, L A

    2017-04-01

    How does bilingual exposure impact children's neural circuitry for learning to read? Theories of bilingualism suggests that exposure to two languages may yield a functional and neuroanatomical adaptation to support the learning of two languages (Klein et al., 2014). To test the hypothesis that this neural adaptation may vary as a function of structural and orthographic characteristics of bilinguals' two languages, we compared Spanish-English and French-English bilingual children, and English monolingual children, using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy neuroimaging (fNIRS, ages 6-10, N =26). Spanish offers consistent sound-to-print correspondences ("phonologically transparent" or "shallow"); such correspondences are more opaque in French and even more opaque in English (which has both transparent and "phonologically opaque" or "deep" correspondences). Consistent with our hypothesis, both French- and Spanish-English bilinguals showed hyperactivation in left posterior temporal regions associated with direct sound-to-print phonological analyses and hypoactivation in left frontal regions associated with assembled phonology analyses. Spanish, but not French, bilinguals showed a similar effect when reading Irregular words. The findings inform theories of bilingual and cross-linguistic literacy acquisition by suggesting that structural characteristics of bilinguals' two languages and their orthographies have a significant impact on children's neuro-cognitive architecture for learning to read. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Is grammatical gender considered arbitrary or semantically motivated? Evidence from young adult monolinguals, second language learners, and early bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, Benedetta A L

    2014-05-01

    It is generally assumed that speakers of grammatical gender languages consider grammatical gender arbitrary, but this assumption has never been tested. Research shows that the grammatical gender of nouns can affect perceptions of the masculinity or femininity of the noun's referent in speakers of languages with masculine and feminine noun classes. However, bilingualism facilitates the development of lexical arbitrariness awareness, and could therefore affect awareness of grammatical gender arbitrariness. This study then compared three groups of young adult speakers of a grammatical gender language: monolinguals, early bilinguals, and instructed second language learners. Participants evaluated the gender assignments of 25 nouns of entities (animals, abstract concepts, natural kinds, and artefacts), and answered open and closed questions about grammatical gender. Participants considered grammatical gender as semantically motivated and mostly related gender assignments to perceived masculine or feminine connotations of referents. Knowledge of an additional grammatical gender language was linked to increased awareness of the arbitrariness of first language gender assignments in both early bilinguals and later instructed learners. It is argued that grammatical gender awareness deserves further investigation. Knowing more than one grammatical gender language can increase awareness of grammatical gender arbitrariness. Implications are discussed for language teaching and language reform.

  2. Effectiveness of Bilingual Education in Cambodia: A Longitudinal Comparative Case Study of Ethnic Minority Children in Bilingual and Monolingual Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott; Watt, Ron; Frawley, Jack

    2015-01-01

    There is little research in the developing countries of South East Asia on the effectiveness of bilingual education programmes that use first language instruction for ethnic minority children. This study investigated the effectiveness of a bilingual education programme involving ethnic minority children in Cambodia by comparing their performance…

  3. Bilingual and Monolingual EFL learners’ Use of Writing Metacognitive Strategies and Writing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Poorebrahim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that writing skill of Iranian learners is not at a satisfactory level. One  of  the  ways  to  develop  writing  ability  is  to  improve  strategic  behavior  of  learners.  The current  study  set  out  to  compare  writing  performances  and  patterns  of  using  metacognitive strategies  in  bilinguals  and  monolinguals  as  well  as  seniors  and  freshmen  students.  A  total  of 176  English  major  university  students  took  part  in  the  study  (88  bilinguals  and  88 monolinguals.  Data  were  collected  through  three  instruments:  a  background  questionnaire,  a writing  metacognitive  strategy  questionnaire,  and  participants’  compositions.  A  two-way factorial  ANOVA  was  used  to  analyze  the  data  obtained  through  the  strategy  questionnaire. Since the composition data were not parametric, two Kruskall-Wallis tests were employed for data  analysis. The  results  revealed  that  bilinguals  used  more  metacognitive  strategies  and  had higher  writing  scores  than  monolinguals.  In  addition,  seniors  had  better  writing  performance than freshmen while the difference between them in using strategies was not significant. Based on the results, it can be concluded that teaching writing metacognitive strategies may result in a better writing performance.   استفاده از راهبردهای فراشناختی نوشتار و مهارت نوشتاری زبان آموزان یک زبانه و دو زبانه   تحقیقات اخیر حاکی از عملکرد ضعیف زبان آموزان ایرانی در مهارت نوشتار زبان انگلیسی است. یکی از روشهای بهبود مهارت نوشتار تقویت رفتار استراتژیک زبان آموزان است. در تحقیق پیش رو به مقایسه مهارت نوشتار و الگوهای

  4. Language Profiles of Monolingual and Bilingual Finnish Preschool Children at Risk for Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Martin; Korkman, Marit; Mickos, Annika; Byring, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Background: A large proportion of children are exposed to more than one language, yet research on simultaneous bilingualism has been relatively sparse. Traditionally, there has been concern that bilingualism may aggravate language difficulties of children with language impairment. However, recent studies have not found specific language impairment…

  5. Differences in pragmatic skills between bilingual Turkish immigrant children in the Netherlands and monolingual peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backus, Albert; Yagmur, Kutlay

    2017-01-01

    In bilingualism studies, comparing the competence of mono- and bilingual speakers is common, but it comes with certain limitations. In immigration contexts, many studies concentrate on the skills of immigrant pupils in the mainstream language. In order to account for educational underachievement of

  6. The Development of Two Types of Inhibitory Control in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Rhee, Michelle M.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has shown that bilingual children excel in tasks requiring inhibitory control to ignore a misleading perceptual cue. The present series of studies extends this finding by identifying the degree and type of inhibitory control for which bilingual children demonstrate this advantage. Study 1 replicated the earlier research by…

  7. Comparative Language Development in Bilingual and Monolingual Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily M.; Kohlmeier, Theresa L.; Durán, Lillian K.

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of both bilingual children and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is growing rapidly, and early childhood educators may be increasingly likely to encounter bilingual children with ASD in their classrooms. Because ASD significantly affects communication, many parents and professionals may have questions or concerns about…

  8. Monolingual and Bilingual Recognition of Regular and Irregular English Verbs: Sensitivity to Form Similarity Varies with First Language Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnight-Brown, Dana M; Chen, Lang; Hua, Shu; Kostić, Aleksandar; Feldman, Laurie Beth

    2007-07-01

    We used a cross-modal priming procedure to explore the processing of irregular and regular English verb forms in both monolinguals and bilinguals (Serbian-English, Chinese-English). Materials included irregular nested stem (drawn-DRAW), irregular change stem (ran-RUN), and regular past tense-present tense verb pairs that were either low (guided-GUIDE) or high (pushed-PUSH) in resonance, a measure of semantic richness. Overall, semantic richness of irregular verbs (nested and irregular change) and of regular verbs (high and low resonance) was matched. Native speakers of English revealed comparable facilitation across regularity and greater facilitation for nested than change stem irregulars. Like native speakers, Serbian, but not Chinese bilinguals matched for proficiency, showed facilitation due to form overlap between irregular past and present tense forms with a nested stem. Unlike native speakers, neither group showed reliable facilitation to stem change irregulars. Results demonstrate the influence of first language on inflectional processing in a second language.

  9. Late Bilinguals Are Sensitive to Unique Aspects of Second Language Processing: Evidence from Clitic Pronouns Word-Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Eleonora; Diaz, Michele; Kroll, Judith F; Dussias, Paola E

    2017-01-01

    In two self-paced reading experiments we asked whether late, highly proficient, English-Spanish bilinguals are able to process language-specific morpho-syntactic information in their second language (L2). The processing of Spanish clitic pronouns' word order was tested in two sentential constructions. Experiment 1 showed that English-Spanish bilinguals performed similarly to Spanish-English bilinguals and revealed sensitivity to word order violations for a grammatical structure unique to the L2. Experiment 2 replicated the pattern observed for native speakers in Experiment 1 with a group of monolingual Spanish speakers, demonstrating the stability of processing clitic pronouns in the native language. Taken together, the results show that late bilinguals can process aspects of grammar that are encoded in L2-specific linguistic constructions even when the structure is relatively subtle and not affected for native speakers by the presence of a second language.

  10. Language proficiency and sustained attention in monolingual and bilingual children with and without language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, T.D.; Leseman, P.P.M.; Wijnen, F.N.K.; Blom, W.B.T.

    Background: The language profiles of children with language impairment (LI) and bilingual children can show partial, and possibly temporary, overlap. The current study examined the persistence of this overlap over time. Furthermore, we aimed to better understand why the language profiles of these

  11. A Case Study of an English-Japanese Bilingual with Monolingual Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wydell, Taeko Nakayama; Butterworth, Brian

    1999-01-01

    Reports the case of a 16-year-old English/Japanese bilingual boy, with reading and writing difficulties confined to English. Presents the hypothesis of granularity and transparency, postulating that any language where orthography-to-phonology mapping is transparent/opaque, or any language whose orthographic unit representing sound is coarse should…

  12. Language proficiency and sustained attention in monolingual and bilingual children with and without language impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Tessel Boerma; Paul Leseman; Frank Wijnen; Elma Blom

    2017-01-01

    Background: The language profiles of children with language impairment (LI) and bilingual children can show partial, and possibly temporary, overlap. The current study examined the persistence of this overlap over time. Furthermore, we aimed to better understand why the language profiles of these two groups show resemblance, testing the hypothesis that the language difficulties of children with LI reflect a weakened ability to maintain attention to the stream of linguistic information. Conseq...

  13. Temporal features of word-initial /s/+stop clusters in bilingual Mandarin-English children and monolingual English children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing

    2017-05-18

    This study investigated the durational features of English word-initial /s/+stop clusters produced by bilingual Mandarin (L1)-English (L2) children and monolingual English children and adults. The participants included two groups of five- to six-year-old bilingual children: low proficiency in the L2 (Bi-low) and high proficiency in the L2 (Bi-high), one group of age-matched English children, and one group of English adults. Each participant produced a list of English words containing /sp, st, sk/ at the word-initial position followed by /a, i, u/, respectively. The absolute durations of the clusters and cluster elements and the durational proportions of elements to the overall cluster were measured. The results revealed that Bi-high children behaved similarly to the English monolinguals whereas Bi-low children used a different strategy of temporal organization to coordinate the cluster components in comparison to the English monolinguals and Bi-high children. The influence of language experience and continuing development of temporal features in children were discussed.

  14. Fast Mapping by Bilingual Children: Storybooks and Cartoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Danielle; Kan, Pui Fong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the fast mapping skills in Spanish-English bilingual preschool children in two learning contexts: storybook reading and cartoon viewing. Eighteen typically developing Spanish-English bilingual preschool children completed a fast mapping task in Spanish (L1) and in English (L2). In 4 different sessions, each…

  15. Fast Mapping by Bilingual Children: Storybooks and Cartoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Danielle; Kan, Pui Fong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the fast mapping skills in Spanish-English bilingual preschool children in two learning contexts: storybook reading and cartoon viewing. Eighteen typically developing Spanish-English bilingual preschool children completed a fast mapping task in Spanish (L1) and in English (L2). In 4 different sessions, each…

  16. The learner as lexicographer: using monolingual and bilingual corpora to deepen vocabulary knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina HMELJAK SANGAWA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning vocabulary is one of the most challenging tasks faced by learners with a non-kanji background when learning Japanese as a foreign language. However, learners are often not aware of the range of different aspects of word knowledge they need in order to successfully use Japanese. This includes not only the spoken and written form of a word and its meaning, but also morphological, grammatical, collocational, connotative and pragmatic knowledge as well as knowledge of social constraints to be observed. In this article, we present some background data on the use of dictionaries among students of Japanese at the University of Ljubljana, a selection of resources and a series of exercises developed with the following aims: a to foster greater awareness of the different aspects of Japanese vocabulary, both from a monolingual and a contrastive perspective, b to learn about tools and methods that can be applied in different contexts of language learning and language use, and c to develop strategies for learning new vocabulary, reinforcing knowledge about known vocabulary, and effectively using this knowledge in receptive and productive language tasks.

  17. Verbal short-term memory and vocabulary development in monolingual Dutch and bilingual Turkish-Dutch preschoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messer, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing immigration, bilingualism has become part and parcel of the everyday lives of many children. Although research indicates that under favourable circumstances bilingual children can become balanced bilinguals, especially immigrant children seem to have difficulty coping with the langua

  18. Verbal short-term memory and vocabulary development in monolingual Dutch and bilingual Turkish-Dutch preschoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messer, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing immigration, bilingualism has become part and parcel of the everyday lives of many children. Although research indicates that under favourable circumstances bilingual children can become balanced bilinguals, especially immigrant children seem to have difficulty coping with the

  19. Verbal short-term memory and vocabulary development in monolingual Dutch and bilingual Turkish-Dutch preschoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messer, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing immigration, bilingualism has become part and parcel of the everyday lives of many children. Although research indicates that under favourable circumstances bilingual children can become balanced bilinguals, especially immigrant children seem to have difficulty coping with the langua

  20. The development of prosodic features and their contribution to rhythm production in simultaneous bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Elaine; Post, Brechtje

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to analyse facilitatory and inhibitory effects of bilingualism on the acquisition of prosodic features, and their contribution to speech rhythm. Here, we concentrate on phrase-final lengthening and accentuation, prosodic features suggested to give rise to different rhythmic percepts even when syllable structure is kept constant across languages. In particular, we investigate whether the development of these two features in Spanish-English simultaneous bilinguals correlates with rhythm development. Our results demonstrate that, as is the case for bilingual rhythm development overall the development of prosodic head- and edge-marking suggests that the two languages are rhythmically separable from around the age of 4, with clearly separate rhythms at the age of 6. Additionally, we can confirm that bilinguals also start out with an even-timed bias in the development of final lengthening and accentuation as reflected by fewer durational differentiations between prosodic syllable types. Furthermore, we can observe the same advantages in bilingual prosodic acquisition in the structurally more complex language that were found in rhythm development. These advantages are manifested by the earlier mastery of robust durational differentiations between syllable types to an adult-like extent. Finally, the comparison with monolingual data demonstrates that bilinguals do, in fact, have an advantage in their development in comparison with monolinguals. We hypothesise that this advantage is borne out of more advanced motor control and possibly more stable mental representations as a result of the dual language input, and dual language production experience.

  1. Spanish-English L2 speakers' use of subcategorization bias information in the resolution of temporary ambiguity during second language reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussias, Paola E; Cramer Scaltz, Tracy R

    2008-07-01

    Using a self-paced moving window reading paradigm, we examine the degree to which structural commitments made while 60 Spanish-English L2 speakers read syntactically ambiguous sentences in their second language (L2) are constrained by the verb's lexical entry about its preferred structural environment (i.e., subcategorization bias). The ambiguity under investigation arises because a noun phrase immediately following a verb can be parsed as either the direct object of the verb 'The CIA director confirmed the rumor when he testified before Congress', or as the subject of an embedded complement 'The CIA director confirmed the rumor could mean a security leak'. In an experiment with 59 monolingual English participants, we replicate the findings reported in the previous literature demonstrating that native speakers are guided by subcategorization bias information during sentence interpretation. In a bilingual experiment, we then show that L2 subcategorization biases influence L2 sentence interpretation. The results indicate that L2 speakers keep track of the relative frequencies of verb-subcategorization alternatives and use this information when building structure in the L2.

  2. Bilingualism as Conceptualized and Bilingualism as Lived: A Critical Examination of the Monolingual Socialization of a Child with Autism in a Bilingual Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Betty

    2016-01-01

    This is an ethnographic and discourse analytic case study of a bilingual, minority-language family of a six-year-old child with autism whose family members were committed to speaking English with him. Drawing on "family language policy," the study examines the tensions between the family members' stated beliefs, management efforts, and…

  3. The Dimensionality of Spanish in Young Spanish-English Dual-Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the latent dimensionality of Spanish in young Spanish-English dual-language learners (DLLs). Two hundred eighty-six children participated. In their prekindergarten year, children completed norm-referenced and experimental language measures in Spanish requiring different levels of cognitive processing in both receptive and expressive language modalities. The best-fitting model suggested a bifactor solution with a single general language factor L plus two additional factors word knowledge and integrative language knowledge. The general trait L reflects the proportion of common item variance for all of the items, and the group traits of word knowledge and integrative language knowledge explain additional domain-specific variance for those item subsets. Results suggest that the Spanish language in preschool-age Spanish-English DLLs is not separable into content, form, and use, nor is it separable by higher- and lower-level language domains or processing demands. Instead it appears that a general language factor underlies oral language in Spanish in DLL preschoolers and that other factors account for additional variance over and above L. Findings are discussed in relation to a companion study of monolingual English-speaking prekindergarteners.

  4. The First Steps in Word Learning Are Easier When the Shoes Fit: Comparing Monolingual and Bilingual Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattock, Karen; Polka, Linda; Rvachew, Susan; Krehm, Madelaine

    2010-01-01

    English, French, and bilingual English-French 17-month-old infants were compared for their performance on a word learning task using the Switch task. Object names presented a /b/ vs. /g/ contrast that is phonemic in both English and French, and auditory strings comprised English and French pronunciations by an adult bilingual. Infants were…

  5. Metacognitions about Language Skill and Working Memory among Monolingual and Bilingual College Students: When Does Multilingualism Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransdell, Sarah; Barbier, Marie-Laure; Niit, Toomas

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has shown that individual differences in working memory (WM) are highly predictive of a wide range of cognitive behaviours. Until recently, research has focused on monolingual, or undifferentiated, populations. The present research compares metacognitive awareness, as measured by self-ratings of reading, writing, speaking and…

  6. Multilinguale Stotterdiagnostik : Vergleich der diagnostischen Möglichkeiten monolingual deutschsprachiger und bilingual deutsch-türkischsprachiger Diagnostiker

    OpenAIRE

    Zang, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Research in the field of stuttering gives the impression of a correlation between stuttering and bilingualism (Travis, Johnson & Shover, 1937; Stern, 1948). However, the assessment instruments used in recent studies cannot fulfill state of the art criterions. As literature reviews show, there exist no assessment methods for bilingual persons with fluency disorders and only a few studies on this topic have been published (Lattermann, 2010; Bloodstein, 2008; Brundage, Bothe, Lengling & Evans, 2...

  7. Whole word measures in bilingual children with speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Lauren; Goldstein, Brian A

    2010-01-01

    Phonological acquisition traditionally has been measured using constructs that focus on segments rather than the whole words. Findings from recent research have suggested whole-word productions be evaluated using measures such as phonological mean length of utterance (pMLU) and the proportion of whole-word proximity (PWP). These measures have been investigated mainly in typically-developing children, but their use with children with speech sound disorders has been limited. This study compares PMLU, PWP, and consonant accuracy in Spanish-English bilinguals with speech sound disorders (SSD) to age-matched monolingual peers. This study relates directly to the type of research that Adele Miccio favoured. First, it is focusing on bilingual children. For the past 5 years, she has been the principal investigator of a grant developing a comprehensive phonological assessment tool for bilingual speakers. Second, during her career, Miccio advocated using multiple analyses to gauge the phonological skills of children, especially those with speech sound disorders. Her work in stimulability is evidence of that perspective. This study examines one 'raditional' measure (consonant accuracy) and two newer ones (pMLU and PWP), thereby broadening the analyses of phonological skills in bilingual children with SSD and thus carrying out multiple analyses, just as Miccio recommended throughout her illustrious career.

  8. El individuo bilingue (The Bilingual Person)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenraad, R.

    1975-01-01

    The problems and advantages of being bilingual are discussed, along with the personality of bilinguals and the different forms of bilingualism. It is concluded that the optimum situation is passive bilingualism, i.e. reading and understanding various languages, accompanied by active monolingualism, i.e. speaking and writing only one language.…

  9. Hispanic Preservice Teachers' Peer Evaluations of Interdisciplinary Curriculum Development: A Self-Referenced Comparison between Monolingual Generalists and Bilingual Generalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Song A.; Tillman, Daniel A.; Zhang, Meilan; Robertson, William; Tinajero, Josefina

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated preservice teachers from two teacher education programs, elementary generalists and bilingual generalists (who will teach all subjects in both English and Spanish), about their instructional design abilities via examination of their ability to integrate interdisciplinary-themed activities into mathematics lessons. The…

  10. Differential Growth Patterns in Emerging Reading Skills of Turkish-German Bilingual and German Monolingual Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbird, Christina K.; Maluch, Jessica T.; Rjosk, Camilla; Stanat, Petra; Merkens, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Students from Turkish-speaking families are the largest minority language group in Germany. Yet, little is known about this group's literacy development. Using data from a 3-year longitudinal study, we examined whether the same base reading skills are involved in early reading comprehension of 100 Turkish-German bilingual and 69 German monolingual…

  11. Hispanic Preservice Teachers' Peer Evaluations of Interdisciplinary Curriculum Development: A Self-Referenced Comparison between Monolingual Generalists and Bilingual Generalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Song A.; Tillman, Daniel A.; Zhang, Meilan; Robertson, William; Tinajero, Josefina

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated preservice teachers from two teacher education programs, elementary generalists and bilingual generalists (who will teach all subjects in both English and Spanish), about their instructional design abilities via examination of their ability to integrate interdisciplinary-themed activities into mathematics lessons. The…

  12. "There's Too Much to Explain": On Being a Bilingual Pre-Service Teacher in a Monolingual Teacher Education Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    This article is derived from a study which followed a group of bilingual and multilingual pre-service mainstream primary teachers over three years of their enrolment at an Australian university to investigate their perspectives and experiences related to their linguistic skills and the relationship of these to their English-medium course. By…

  13. Differential Growth Patterns in Emerging Reading Skills of Turkish-German Bilingual and German Monolingual Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbird, Christina K.; Maluch, Jessica T.; Rjosk, Camilla; Stanat, Petra; Merkens, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Students from Turkish-speaking families are the largest minority language group in Germany. Yet, little is known about this group's literacy development. Using data from a 3-year longitudinal study, we examined whether the same base reading skills are involved in early reading comprehension of 100 Turkish-German bilingual and 69 German monolingual…

  14. Crosslinguistic Influence at the Syntax-Pragmatics Interface: Subjects and Objects in English-Italian Bilingual and Monolingual Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serratrice, Ludovica; Sorace, Antonella; Paoli, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    The findings from a number of recent studies indicate that, even in cases of successful bilingual first language acquisition, the possibility remains of a certain degree of crosslinguistic influence when the choice between syntactic options is affected by discourse pragmatics. In this study we focussed on the use of referring expressions, prime…

  15. An Evaluation of Student Interpersonal Support in a Spanish-English Nursing Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Bosch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Spanish speaking nurses are in great demand. For bilingual Hispanic undergraduate nursing students who might someday fill this need, interpersonal support can be a deciding factor in whether students successfully complete their program of study. This paper presents the results of an evaluative study of supportive relationships within a Spanish-English Nursing Education (SENE program. A written survey was followed by individual and group interviews to reveal important sources of interpersonal support. The study showed that family members, especially spouses, played a critical role in personally supporting SENE students. Academic and motivational support, however, came from study groups and the cohort of Hispanic classmates. SENE administrators established cohorts of same year students, and encouraged the formation of study groups. Science-related college programs directed at Hispanic students could benefit from fostering and supporting program components that act to enhance interpersonal relationships.

  16. Conciencia Con Compromiso: Aspirantes as Bridges for Latin@ Bilingual Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the influence of culture on the desire of a group of six aspirantes (Spanish/English bilingual education teacher candidates) from Texas to become bilingual education teachers of Latin@ bilingual learners. Chicana/Latina feminist thought is utilized as a lens to understand the role teacher education programs can play in helping…

  17. Guia Bibliografica del Bilinguismo (Bibliographic Guide for Bilingualism).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Norman G.

    This paper presents a comprehensive, annotated guide to bibliographic materials related to bilingualism, with a particular focus on Spanish-English bilingualism. It is written in Spanish, to meet the needs of the student of language and literature who approaches the study of bilingualism with little prior contact with the research and literature…

  18. Subject realization and crosslinguistic interference in the bilingual acquisition of Spanish and English: what is the role of the input?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Navarro, Samuel

    2003-05-01

    This study investigated whether crosslinguistic interference occurs in the domain of subject realization in Spanish in a bilingual acquisition context. We were also interested in exploring whether the source of the interference is due to child-internal crosslanguage contact between English and Spanish, as is commonly assumed, or due to the nature of the language input in a bilingual family, a factor which has not typically been considered in studies of crosslinguistic influence. The use of subjects in a null subject language like Spanish is a phenomenon linked to the pragmatics/syntax interface of the grammar, and thus, is a domain where crosslinguistic interference is predicted to be likely to occur in bilingual acquisition (Müller & Hulk, 2001). Using spontaneous language data available from CHILDES (www.childes.psy.cmu.edu), we examined the use of overt subjects in Spanish by two Spanish monolingual children (ages: 1;8-2;7 and 1;8-1;11) one Spanish-English bilingual child (age 1;9-2;6) and their parental interlocutors. We looked at the proportions of overt versus null subjects as well as the discourse-pragmatic contexts of overt subject use by the children in order to uncover bilingual/monolingual differences in the distributional properties and the functional determinants of subject realization. We also looked at identical variables in the speech of the children's parental interlocutors to investigate the potential influence of the input on the children's output. Our results suggest that the bilingual child showed patterns in her subject realizations in Spanish that could be interpreted as due to crosslinguistic effects from English; however, there is also evidence that these effects may have a source in the input, rather than resulting from internal crosslanguage contact. While our data do not permit us to distinguish conclusively between these two possible sources, they indicate that future research on crosslinguistic influence in bilingual acquisition

  19. Changing Teachers' Perceptions about the Writing Abilities of Emerging Bilingual Students: Towards a Holistic Bilingual Perspective on Writing Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltero-Gonzalez, Lucinda; Escamilla, Kathy; Hopewell, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the application of a holistic bilingual view to assess the writing of emerging bilingual children. The study is part of a 5-year longitudinal research and intervention project that explores the biliteracy development of Spanish-English emerging bilingual students who are receiving instruction in both languages. Participants…

  20. Acquiring and Participating in the Use of Academic Spanish: Four Novice Latina Bilingual Education Teachers' Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with four U.S.-born, Latina, novice bilingual teachers revealed their lack of real opportunities to acquire the academic Spanish so crucial to their development as bilingual teachers. Educational policy governing Spanish-English bilingualism and biliteracy for the bilingual teacher education "pipeline" is at best incidental…

  1. Oral Language and Reading in Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jon F.; Heilmann, John; Nockerts, Ann; Iglesias, Aquiles; Fabiano, Leah; Francis, David J.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the question: Do lexical, syntactic, fluency, and discourse measures of oral language collected under narrative conditions predict reading achievement both within and across languages for bilingual children? More than 1,500 Spanish-English bilingual children attending kindergarten-third grade participated. Oral narratives…

  2. Monolingual Dictionary Use in an EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Holi Ibrahim Holi

    2012-01-01

    Caledonian College of Engineering, Oman, has been encouraging its students to use monolingual dictionaries rather than bilingual or bilingualized ones in classroom and during the exams. This policy with has been received with mixed feelings and attitudes. Therefore, this study strives to explore teachers' and students' attitudes about the use of…

  3. The processing of two-digit numbers in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macizo, Pedro; Herrera, Amparo; Román, Patricia; Martín, María Cruz

    2011-08-01

    We explored possible between-language influences when bilinguals processed two-digit numbers. Spanish/English bilinguals and German/English bilinguals performed a number comparison task with Arabic digits and verbal numbers in their first language (L1) and second language (L2) while the unit-decade compatibility was manipulated. The two bilingual groups showed regular compatibility effect with Arabic digits. In L1, Spanish/English bilinguals showed reverse compatibility effect, while German/English bilinguals showed regular compatibility effect. However, both groups of bilinguals presented reverse compatibility effect in English (L2), which suggested that the bilinguals' L1 did not determine the processing of number words in their L2. The results indicated that bilinguals processed two-digit number words selectively in their L1 and L2 and that they did not transcode L2 numbers into Arabic format.

  4. Consciência fonológica: o desempenho de meninos e meninas bilíngues e monolíngues Phonological awareness: bilingual and monolingual boys and girls performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Schützenhofer Lasch

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar o desempenho de meninas e meninos, monolíngues e bilíngues, em habilidades de consciência fonológica. MÉTODOS: questionário e triagem auditiva para selecionar a amostra, composta por 89 estudantes, faixa etária entre 4:1 a 8:11 anos de idade, 47 meninas e 42 meninos, dos quais 47 sujeitos eram bilíngues (português e alemão e 42 monolíngues (português. A amostra selecionada foi submetida à avaliação das habilidades em consciência fonológica, com aplicação do Protocolo de Consciência Fonológica (Cielo, 2001 que propõe tarefas de segmentação de frases em palavras; realismo nominal; detecção de rimas; síntese silábica; segmentação silábica; detecção de sílabas; reversão silábica; exclusão fonêmica; detecção de fonemas; síntese fonêmica; segmentação fonêmica e reversão fonêmica. Para uma análise quantitativa dos dados, realizou-se o teste estatístico de Kruskal-Wallis com p=0,05 quando se comparou o desempenho de meninos e meninas monolíngues, bem como o desempenho de meninos e meninas bilíngues por tarefa de CF. RESULTADOS: quando analisados os sujeitos bilíngues, houve significância estatística na detecção de rima com trissílabos (p=0,0087 e na síntese de quatro fonemas (p=0,0219, com vantagem das meninas; já na análise que comparou meninos e meninas monolíngues, os resultados foram mais equilibrados. CONCLUSÕES: apesar de praticamente não existirem resultados estatisticamente significantes na comparação entre meninos e meninas bilíngues e monolíngues, observou-se superioridade feminina na maioria das tarefas de consciência fonológica.PURPOSE: to investigate monolingual and bilingual girls and boys performance, in the skills of phonological awareness. METHODS: questionnaire and hearing screening to select the sample, consisting of 89 students, aged 4:1 to 8:11-years old, 47 girls and 42 boys, of which 47 subjects were bilingual (Portuguese and German and 42

  5. Flexible learning of multiple speech structures in bilingual infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Agnes Melinda; Mehler, Jacques

    2009-07-31

    Children acquire their native language according to a well-defined time frame. Surprisingly, although children raised in bilingual environments have to learn roughly twice as much about language as their monolingual peers, the speed of acquisition is comparable in monolinguals and bilinguals. Here, we show that preverbal 12-month-old bilingual infants have become more flexible at learning speech structures than monolinguals. When given the opportunity to simultaneously learn two different regularities, bilingual infants learned both, whereas monolinguals learned only one of them. Hence, bilinguals may acquire two languages in the time in which monolinguals acquire one because they quickly become more flexible learners.

  6. Bilingualism and Creativity in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikin, Mark; Tovli, Esther

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the possible effect of bilingualism on creativity in nonmathematical and mathematical problem solving among bilingual and monolingual preschoolers. Two groups of children (M age = 71.9 months, SD = 3.6) from the same monolingual kindergartens participated in this study: 15 Russian/Hebrew balanced bilinguals and 16 native…

  7. Discourses on Bilingualism in Canadian French Immersion Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sylvie; Galiev, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The present article examines discourses on bilingualism in French immersion schools and connects local ideologies of bilingualism to a more global view of what it means to be bilingual in Canada. Bilingualism is usually regarded as two isolated monolingualisms (or monolingual systems) in which there is no place for code-switching, uneven language…

  8. Neuroimaging of the bilingual brain: Structural brain correlates of listening and speaking in a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Patricia K; Stevenson, Jeff; Corrigan, Neva M; van den Bosch, Jasper J F; Can, Dilara Deniz; Richards, Todd

    2016-11-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging was used to compare white matter structure between American monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual adults living in the United States. In the bilingual group, relationships between white matter structure and naturalistic immersive experience in listening to and speaking English were additionally explored. White matter structural differences between groups were found to be bilateral and widespread. In the bilingual group, experience in listening to English was more robustly correlated with decreases in radial and mean diffusivity in anterior white matter regions of the left hemisphere, whereas experience in speaking English was more robustly correlated with increases in fractional anisotropy in more posterior left hemisphere white matter regions. The findings suggest that (a) foreign language immersion induces neuroplasticity in the adult brain, (b) the degree of alteration is proportional to language experience, and (c) the modes of immersive language experience have more robust effects on different brain regions and on different structural features. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying Spanish-English Cognates to Scaffold Instruction for Latino ELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelongo, Jose A.; Hernandez, Anita; Herter, Roberta Joan

    2011-01-01

    Spanish-English cognates have been used for decades to facilitate the acquisition of English by Latino English learners (ELs). Using the online program, WordSift, in tandem with the online Find-a-Cognate database, teachers can identify important Spanish-English cognates and noncognate words in text. With this information, teachers can plan and…

  10. Degree of Bilingualism Predicts Age of Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease in Low-Education but Not in Highly Educated Hispanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Salmon, David P.; Montoya, Rosa I.; Galasko, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between bilingual language proficiency and onset of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) in 44 Spanish-English bilinguals at the UCSD Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. Degree of bilingualism along a continuum was measured using Boston Naming Test (BNT) scores in each language. Higher degrees of…

  11. Leveraging Bilingualism to Accelerate English Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how fourth-grade Spanish-English speaking bilingual students in the USA participated differently in English-as-a-second-language (ESL) literature groups when they were invited to use all of their linguistic resources vs. when they were restricted to communicate in English only. The theoretical underpinning…

  12. Code Mixing in a Young Bilingual Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Raquel; Brice, Alejandro

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous speech samples of a bilingual Spanish-English speaking child were collected during a period of 17 months (ages 6-8). Data revealed percentages and rank ordering of syntactic elements switched in the longitudinal language samples obtained. Specific recommendations for using code mixing in therapy for speech-language pathologists are…

  13. Educating for Bilinguals in Mexican Transnational Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick H.; Martinez-Leon, Natalia

    2003-01-01

    Describes the educational situation facing "retornado" families and children, Mexican transnational immigrants moving between New York City and Puebla, Mexico. Examines factors underlying the current lack of first language and second language instruction for the Spanish-English bilinguals returning to live in Mexico. Offers suggestions…

  14. Importance of Phonological and Orthographic Skills for English Reading and Spelling: A Comparison of English Monolingual and Mandarin-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Fletcher, Janet; Bayliss, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examines the importance of English phonological and orthographic processing skills to English word reading and spelling in 3 groups of younger (8-9 years) and older (11-12 years) children from different language backgrounds: English monolingual, English first language (L1)-Mandarin second language (L2), and Mandarin…

  15. Développement phonético-phonologique en fulfulde et bambara d’enfants monolingues et bilingues : étude du babillage et des premiers mots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cissé, Ibrahima Abdoul Hayou

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive and analytical study is based on two corpora of audiovisual data of monolingual and multilingual children’s babbling and first words gathered in Mali during a period of nearly a year. It is concerned with fundamental discussions about the development and acquisition of language such

  16. Importance of Phonological and Orthographic Skills for English Reading and Spelling: A Comparison of English Monolingual and Mandarin-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Fletcher, Janet; Bayliss, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examines the importance of English phonological and orthographic processing skills to English word reading and spelling in 3 groups of younger (8-9 years) and older (11-12 years) children from different language backgrounds: English monolingual, English first language (L1)-Mandarin second language (L2), and Mandarin…

  17. Orthographic transparency and morphology of Spanish-English Cognate adjectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelongo, José A; Hernández, Anita C; Herter, Roberta J; Hernández, Carissa

    2009-12-01

    The English and Spanish languages share over 20,000 cognates. Cognates are words that are orthographically, semantically, and syntactically similar in two languages. In 2009, Montelongo, Hernández, and Herter collected orthographic transparency ratings for over 2,000 Spanish-English cognate nouns and cognate adjectives drawn from the Juilland and Chang-Rodríguez' Frequency Dictionary of Spanish Words. The present analysis of the cognate adjectives in the Montelongo, et al. norms identified orthographic and morphological characteristics which affected ratings of cognate transparency. The analysis identified an initial-letter effect: the earlier an English word deviates from its Spanish equivalent, the lower it is rated. Similarly, the more orthographically similar an English suffix is to its Spanish suffix equivalent, the higher its rating.

  18. Interlingual Influence in Bilingual Speech: Cognate Status Effect in a Continuum of Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amengual, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates voice onset times (VOTs) to determine if cognates enhance the cross-language phonetic influences in the speech production of a range of Spanish-English bilinguals: Spanish heritage speakers, English heritage speakers, advanced L2 Spanish learners, and advanced L2 English learners. To answer this question, lexical…

  19. Développement phonético-phonologique en fulfulde et bambara d’enfants monolingues et bilingues: étude du babillage et des premiers mots

    OpenAIRE

    Cissé, Ibrahima Abdoul Hayou

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive and analytical study is based on two corpora of audiovisual data of monolingual and multilingual children’s babbling and first words gathered in Mali during a period of nearly a year. It is concerned with fundamental discussions about the development and acquisition of language such as the issue of the presence or absence of evidence of early specialization in children at the babbling stage, the continuity between babbling and first words, and the emergence and development of...

  20. A Working Memory, Not Bilingual Advantage, in Controlled Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Mahchid; Thordardottir, Elin

    2010-01-01

    We explored the relationship between working memory (WM) and visually controlled attention (CA) in young bilingual and monolingual children. Previous research has shown that balanced bilingual children outperform monolinguals in CA. However, it is unclear whether this advantage is truly associated with bilingualism or whether potential WM and/or…

  1. Cognitive advantages of bilingual children in different sociolinguistic contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, E.; Boerma, T.; Bosma, E.; Cornips, L.M.E.A.; Everaert, E.

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have shown that bilingual children outperform monolinguals on tasks testing executive functioning, but other studies have not revealed any effect of bilingualism. In this study we compared three groups of bilingual children in the Netherlands, aged 6–7 years, with a monolingual control

  2. Bimodal Bilinguals Reveal the Source of Tip-of-the-Tongue States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyers, Jennie E.; Gollan, Tamar H.; Emmorey, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Bilinguals report more tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) failures than monolinguals. Three accounts of this disadvantage are that bilinguals experience between-language interference at (a) semantic and/or (b) phonological levels, or (c) that bilinguals use each language less frequently than monolinguals. Bilinguals who speak one language and sign another…

  3. Effects of a Paired Literacy Program on Emerging Bilingual Children's Biliteracy Outcomes in Third Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltero-González, Lucinda; Sparrow, Wendy; Butvilofsky, Sandra; Escamilla, Kathy; Hopewell, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether the implementation of a Spanish-English paired literacy approach provides an academic advantage to emerging bilingual students over a sequential literacy approach. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. It compared the biliteracy outcomes of third-grade emerging bilingual learners participating in…

  4. Effects of Age of English Exposure, Current Input/Output, and Grade on Bilingual Language Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Griffin, Zenzi M.; Hixon, J. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of Age of Exposure to English (AoEE) and Current Input/Output on language performance in a cross-sectional sample of Spanish-English bilingual children. First- (N = 586) and third-graders (N = 298) who spanned a wide range of bilingual language experience participated. Parents and teachers provided information…

  5. "Pink Is a Girl's Color": A Case Study of Bilingual Kindergarteners' Discussions about Gender Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Jung

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the results of an empirical study that examined young bilingual students' discussions of picture books dealing with gender themes in a Spanish/English bilingual classroom. The study focused on the reading of five picture books by sixteen 5-year-old Mexican-origin children at a small charter school. The data were collected by…

  6. Raising Bilingual Children: A Qualitative Study of Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Intended Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Barina, Alexis; Tillitski, John; Flores, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    We examined parental preferences in raising Spanish/English bilingual children. We identified factors influencing their decisions, and the strategies used to promote bilingualism. Focus groups were conducted with Spanish-primary-language parents of children 3 to 7 years old. These groups were audiotaped and transcribed. Three reviewers…

  7. Translanguaging in a Latin@ Bilingual Community: Negotiations and Mediations in a Dual-Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Armando; Langman, Juliet

    2014-01-01

    Considering a Latin@ fifth-grade dual-language classroom (Spanish/English) as a community of practice, this paper explores how a bilingual teacher and her bilingual students, as members of such community, utilize translanguaging (García, 2009) as a learning and teaching tool in social studies and science classes. In this particular classroom, the…

  8. Effects of Age of English Exposure, Current Input/Output, and Grade on Bilingual Language Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Griffin, Zenzi M.; Hixon, J. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of Age of Exposure to English (AoEE) and Current Input/Output on language performance in a cross-sectional sample of Spanish-English bilingual children. First- (N = 586) and third-graders (N = 298) who spanned a wide range of bilingual language experience participated. Parents and teachers provided information…

  9. "Pink Is a Girl's Color": A Case Study of Bilingual Kindergarteners' Discussions about Gender Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Jung

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the results of an empirical study that examined young bilingual students' discussions of picture books dealing with gender themes in a Spanish/English bilingual classroom. The study focused on the reading of five picture books by sixteen 5-year-old Mexican-origin children at a small charter school. The data were collected by…

  10. Dual Language Exposure and Early Bilingual Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erifka; Core, Cynthia; Place, Silvia; Rumiche, Rosario; Senor, Melissa; Parra, Marisol

    2012-01-01

    The extant literature includes conflicting assertions regarding the influence of bilingualism on the rate of language development. The present study compared the language development of equivalently high-SES samples of bilingually and monolingually developing children from 1 ; 10 to 2 ; 6. The monolingually developing children were significantly…

  11. Linguistically Directed Attention to the Temporal Aspect of Action Events in Monolingual English Speakers and Chinese-English Bilingual Speakers with Varying English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Su, Jui-Ju; Lee, Chao-Yang; O'Seaghdha, Padraig G.

    2012-01-01

    Chinese and English speakers seem to hold different conceptions of time which may be related to the different codings of time in the two languages. Employing a sentence-picture matching task, we have investigated this linguistic relativity in Chinese-English bilinguals varying in English proficiency and found that those with high proficiency…

  12. Linguistically Directed Attention to the Temporal Aspect of Action Events in Monolingual English Speakers and Chinese-English Bilingual Speakers with Varying English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Su, Jui-Ju; Lee, Chao-Yang; O'Seaghdha, Padraig G.

    2012-01-01

    Chinese and English speakers seem to hold different conceptions of time which may be related to the different codings of time in the two languages. Employing a sentence-picture matching task, we have investigated this linguistic relativity in Chinese-English bilinguals varying in English proficiency and found that those with high proficiency…

  13. The Effect of Bilingualism on Letter and Category Fluency Tasks in Primary School Children: Advantage or Disadvantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormi-Nouri, Reza; Moradi, Ali-Reza; Moradi, Shahram; Akbari-Zardkhaneh, Saeed; Zahedian, Haedeh

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of bilingualism on letter and category fluency tasks. Participants were 1,600 monolingual and bilingual children from three cities in Iran: Tehran (Persian monolinguals), Tabriz (Turkish-Persian bilinguals), and Sanandaj (Kurdish-Persian bilinguals). We separately presented nine Persian…

  14. Unpacking the Evaluation Process: A Study of Transitional Bilingual Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, C.H.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the process of an ongoing, independent evaluation of atransitional Spanish/English bilingual program housed at a large, urban school district in Northern California. The program is designed to enhance Kindergarten through Grade 5 (K-5) students' English language proficiency, as well as their English performance in academic…

  15. "Why in This Bilingual Classroom … Hablamos Más Español?" Language Choice by Bilingual Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Alma D.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative sociolinguistic research study examines Latino/a students' use of language in a science classroom and laboratory. This study was conducted in a school in the southwestern United States that serves an economically depressed, predominantly Latino population. The object of study was a 5th-grade bilingual (Spanish/English) class. The…

  16. Baseball/Beisbol. Spanish-English, English-Spanish. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Philip

    The bilingual glossary, in both English-to-Spanish and Spanish-to-English, defines words and phrases related to the game of baseball as it is reported by Spanish-language newspapers and magazines in Mexico and the United States. A list of U.S. and Mexican baseball league teams is appended. (MSE)

  17. Bilingualism as a Model for Multitasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poarch, Gregory J.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Because both languages of bilinguals are constantly active, bilinguals need to manage attention to the target language and avoid interference from the non-target language. This process is likely carried out by recruiting the executive function (EF) system, a system that is also the basis for multitasking. In previous research, bilinguals have been shown to outperform monolinguals on tasks requiring EF, suggesting that the practice using EF for language management benefits performance in other tasks as well. The present study examined 203 children, 8-11 years old, who were monolingual, partially bilingual, bilingual, or trilingual performing a flanker task. Two results support the interpretation that bilingualism is related to multitasking. First, bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on the conflict trials in the flanker task, confirming previous results for a bilingual advantage in EF. Second, the inclusion of partial bilinguals and trilinguals set limits on the role of experience: partial bilingual performed similarly to monolinguals and trilinguals performed similarly to bilinguals, suggesting that degrees of experience are not well-calibrated to improvements in EF. Our conclusion is that the involvement of EF in bilingual language processing makes bilingualism a form of linguistic multitasking. PMID:25821336

  18. Bilingualism and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui

    2012-01-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort, this study examines the role that bilingualism plays in children's academic developmental trajectories during their early school years, with particular attention on the school environment (N = 16,380). Growth-curve results showed that despite starting with lower math scores in kindergarten, Mixed Bilingual children fully closed the math gap with their White English Monolingual peers by fifth grade. However, because non-English-Dominant Bilinguals and non-English Monolinguals started kindergarten with significantly lower reading and math scores compared to their English Monolingual peers, by fifth grade the former groups still had significantly lower scores. School-level factors explained about one third of the reductions in the differences in children's academic performance.

  19. Dual language exposure and early bilingual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Core, Cynthia; Place, Silvia; Rumiche, Rosario; Señor, Melissa; Parra, Marisol

    2012-01-01

    The extant literature includes conflicting assertions regarding the influence of bilingualism on the rate of language development. The present study compared the language development of equivalently high-SES samples of bilingually and monolingually developing children from 1 ; 10 to 2 ; 6. The monolingually developing children were significantly more advanced than the bilingually developing children on measures of both vocabulary and grammar in single language comparisons, but they were comparable on a measure of total vocabulary. Within the bilingually developing sample, all measures of vocabulary and grammar were related to the relative amount of input in that language. Implications for theories of language acquisition and for understanding bilingual development are discussed.

  20. Improvement Comparison of Different Lattice-based Discriminative Training Methods in Chinese-monolingual and Chinese-English-bilingual Speech Recognition%各种不同的基于词格的鉴别性训练方法在中文单语以及中英双语语音识别系统中的性能改善调研及比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Yan-Min; SHAN Yu-Xiang; WANG Lin-Fang; LIU Jia

    2012-01-01

    Discriminative training approaches such as minimum phone error (MPE),feature minimum phone error (fMPE) and boosted maximum mutual information (BMMI) have brought remarkable improvement to the speech community in recent years,however,much work still remains to be done.This paper investigates the performances of three lattice-based discriminative training methods in detail,and does a comparison of different I-smoothing methods to obtain more robust models in the Chinese-monolingual situation.The complementary properties of the different discriminative training methods are explored to perform a system combination by recognizer output voting error reduction (ROVER).Although discriminative training is normally used in monolingual systems,this paper systematically investigates its use for bilingual speech recognition,including MPE,fMPE,and BMMI.A new method is proposed to generate significantly better lattices for training the bilingual model,and complementary discriminative training models are also explored to get the best ROVER performance in the bilingual situation.Experimental results show that all forms of discriminative training can reduce the word error rate in both monolingual and bilingual systems,and that combining complementary discriminative training methods can improve the performance significantly.

  1. Effects of Speed of Word Processing on Semantic Access: The Case of Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Clara D.; Costa, Albert; Dering, Benjamin; Hoshino, Noriko; Wu, Yan Jing; Thierry, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    Bilingual speakers generally manifest slower word recognition than monolinguals. We investigated the consequences of the word processing speed on semantic access in bilinguals. The paradigm involved a stream of English words and pseudowords presented in succession at a constant rate. English-Welsh bilinguals and English monolinguals were asked to…

  2. Effects of Early Bilingualism on Learning Phonological Regularities in a New Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Anderson, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on structural sensitivity theory, the current study investigated monolingual and bilingual children's ability to learn how phonemes combine to form acceptable syllables in a new language. A total of 186 monolingual and bilingual kindergarteners, first graders, and second graders in Taiwan participated in the study. Bilingual children,…

  3. What Causes the Bilingual Disadvantage in Verbal Fluency? The Dual-Task Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Tiffany C.; Gollan, Tamar H.; Ferreira, Victor S.; Salmon, David P.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the consequences of bilingualism for verbal fluency by comparing bilinguals to monolinguals, and dominant versus non-dominant-language fluency. In Experiment 1, bilinguals produced fewer correct responses, slower first response times and proportionally delayed retrieval, relative to monolinguals. In Experiment 2, similar results…

  4. A Bilingual Advantage in Task Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; MacWhinney, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility that lifelong bilingualism may lead to enhanced efficiency in the ability to shift between mental sets. We compared the performance of monolingual and fluent bilingual college students in a task-switching paradigm. Bilinguals incurred reduced switching costs in the task-switching paradigm when compared with…

  5. Do Bilingual advantages in attentional control influence memory encoding during a divided attention task?

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Natalie H.; Murphy, Eric R.; Vaidya, Chandan; Barr, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined if bilingual advantages in cognitive control influence memory encoding during a divided attention task. Monolinguals, simultaneous bilinguals, and sequential bilinguals switched between classifying objects and words, then were tested for their recognition memory of stimuli previously seen during the classification task. Compared to bilingual groups, monolinguals made the most errors on the classification task and simultaneous bilinguals committed the fewest errors. ...

  6. Young Bilingual Children's Perceptions of Bilingualism and Biliteracy: Altruistic Possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Lourdes Diaz

    2002-01-01

    A study examined 13 bilingual Spanish-speaking children's perceptions of their bilingualism and biliteracy through conversations, collages, and drawings. The children felt the usefulness of becoming biliterate to be embedded in altruistic helping relations with family members and other monolingual speakers. Identity issues surfaced for all the…

  7. "You Give Me Idea!": Collaborative Strides toward Bilingualism, Biliteracy, and Cross-Cultural Understanding in a Two-Way Partial Immersion Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gort, Mileidis

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes the nature of spontaneous bilingual peer interactions across Spanish/English integrated learning contexts, as well as the roles played by Spanish-dominant and English-dominant peers in mediating each others' bilingual, biliteracy, and cross-cultural learning in a two-way partial immersion (TWpI) program. Implications for…

  8. Coordinated Translanguaging Pedagogy as Distributed Cognition: A Case Study of Two Dual Language Bilingual Education Preschool Coteachers' Languaging Practices during Shared Book Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontier, Ryan; Gort, Mileidis

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how a pair of Spanish/English dual language bilingual education (DLBE) preschool teachers enacted their bilingualism while working cohesively and simultaneously toward common instructional goals. We drew on classroom video data, field notes, and other relevant artifacts collected weekly during shared readings of English- and…

  9. Examining the Role of Vocabulary Depth, Cross-Linguistic Transfer, and Types of Reading Measures on the Reading Comprehension of Latino Bilinguals in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leider, Christine Montecillo; Proctor, C. Patrick; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Harring, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Given the increase of bilingual students in the K-12 public school system, understanding reading comprehension performance, especially among this population, has been a major focal point in the research literature. This study explores the nature of reading comprehension among a sample of 123 Spanish-English bilingual elementary students. We add to…

  10. Ambiguous Benefits: The Effect of Bilingualism on Reversing Ambiguous Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Shapero, Dana

    2005-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children, approximately 6 years old, attempted to identify the alternative image in a reversible figure. In both studies, bilingual children were more successful than monolinguals in seeing the other meaning in the images. In the first study, there was no relation between the ability to…

  11. Developing Phonological Awareness: Is There a Bilingual Advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Majumder, Shilpi; Martin, Michelle M.

    2003-01-01

    Three studies that examine the development of phonological awareness in monolingual and bilingual children K-2. In the first study, monolingual and bilingual children performed equally well on a complex task requiring phoneme substitution. The second replicated these results and demonstrated a significant role for the language of literacy…

  12. Words as Things: Development of Word Concept by Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    1987-01-01

    The development of the concept of word is discussed in terms of specific advantages that might be available to bilingual children when compared with their monolingual peers. Three studies are reviewed in which bilingual children show more advanced understanding of some aspects of the concept of word than do monolingual children (Author/LMO)

  13. Investigating Linguistic Relativity through Bilingualism: The Case of Grammatical Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Vinson, David P.; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated linguistic relativity effects by examining the semantic effects of grammatical gender (present in Italian but absent in English) in fluent bilingual speakers as compared with monolingual speakers. In an error-induction experiment, they used responses by monolingual speakers to establish a baseline for bilingual speakers…

  14. Investigating Linguistic Relativity through Bilingualism: The Case of Grammatical Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Vinson, David P.; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated linguistic relativity effects by examining the semantic effects of grammatical gender (present in Italian but absent in English) in fluent bilingual speakers as compared with monolingual speakers. In an error-induction experiment, they used responses by monolingual speakers to establish a baseline for bilingual speakers…

  15. The Dimensionality of Spanish in Young Spanish-English Dual-Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the latent dimensionality of Spanish in young Spanish-English dual-language learners (DLLs). Method: Two hundred eighty-six children participated. In their prekindergarten year, children completed norm-referenced and experimental language measures in Spanish requiring different levels of cognitive processing in both…

  16. The Dimensionality of Spanish in Young Spanish-English Dual-Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the latent dimensionality of Spanish in young Spanish-English dual-language learners (DLLs). Method: Two hundred eighty-six children participated. In their prekindergarten year, children completed norm-referenced and experimental language measures in Spanish requiring different levels of cognitive processing in both…

  17. Metalinguistic Aspects of Bilingual Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2001-01-01

    Examines differences in metalinguistic development between monolingual and bilingual children in terms of three subcategories: word awareness, syntactic awareness, and phonological awareness. In each case, some studies have reported advantages for bilingual children, while others have found either no difference between the groups or monolingual…

  18. Rethinking monolingual instructional strategies in multilingual classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Cummins

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three inter-related assumptions regarding best practice in second/foreign language teaching and bilingual/immersion education continue to dominate classroom instruction. These assumptions are that: (a the target language (TL should be used exclusively for instructional purposes without recourse to students’ first language (L1; (b translation between L1 and TL has no place in the language classroom; and (c within immersion and bilingual programs, the two languages should be kept rigidly separate. Research evidence provides minimal support for these assumptions and they are also inconsistent with the instructional implications of current theory in the areas of cognitive psychology and applied linguistics. Based on current research and theory, a set of bilingual instructional strategies are proposed and concrete examples are provided to illustrate how these strategies can be used together with monolingual strategies in a balanced and complementary way.

  19. Is There a Relation between Onset Age of Bilingualism and Enhancement of Cognitive Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Gigi; de Sa, Eric; Bialystok, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Young English-speaking monolingual and bilingual adults were examined for English proficiency, language use history, and performance on a flanker task. The bilinguals, who were about twenty years old, were divided into two groups (early bilinguals and late bilinguals) according to whether they became actively bilingual before or after the age of…

  20. Let's Read! 101 Ideas To Help Your Child Learn To Read and Write. Bilingual Edition = Leamos! Prepare a sus hijos a leer y escribir: 101 ideas. Texto bilingue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, Mary; Behm, Richard

    Based on the idea that parents are the first and most important teachers of their children's literacy, this bilingual (Spanish/English) booklet offers 101 practical and fun-to-do activities that children and parents can do together. The activities in the booklet are organized to fit the way parents tend to think about their time with their…

  1. Bilingual Word Processing Curriculum Development Project. Final Report, November 1, 1979, to July 30, 1980. Proyecto de Desarollo Curricular en el Procesamiento de Comunicacion Escrita Bilingue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex County Coll., Newark, NJ.

    A project proposed to demonstrate that quality bilingual (Spanish/English) curriculum materials for word processing could be developed. There were six different, yet interrelated elements or stages in this curriculum effort: (1) identification of competencies and materials; (2) translation, adaptation, and development of materials; (3)…

  2. Bilingual Word Processing Curriculum Development Project. Final Report, November 1, 1979, to July 30, 1980. Proyecto de Desarollo Curricular en el Procesamiento de Comunicacion Escrita Bilingue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex County Coll., Newark, NJ.

    A project proposed to demonstrate that quality bilingual (Spanish/English) curriculum materials for word processing could be developed. There were six different, yet interrelated elements or stages in this curriculum effort: (1) identification of competencies and materials; (2) translation, adaptation, and development of materials; (3)…

  3. The Benefits of Being Bilingual: Working Memory in Bilingual Turkish-Dutch Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.B.T.; Küntay, A.C.; Messer, M.H.; Verhagen, J.; Leseman, P.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Whether bilingual children outperform monolingual children on visuospatial and verbal working memory tests was investigated. In addition, relations among bilingual proficiency, language use at home, and working memory were explored. The bilingual Turkish–Dutch children (n = 68) in this study were ra

  4. Does bilingualism influence cognitive aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Thomas H; Nissan, Jack J; Allerhand, Michael M; Deary, Ian J

    2014-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests a positive impact of bilingualism on cognition, including later onset of dementia. However, monolinguals and bilinguals might have different baseline cognitive ability. We present the first study examining the effect of bilingualism on later-life cognition controlling for childhood intelligence. We studied 853 participants, first tested in 1947 (age = 11 years), and retested in 2008-2010. Bilinguals performed significantly better than predicted from their baseline cognitive abilities, with strongest effects on general intelligence and reading. Our results suggest a positive effect of bilingualism on later-life cognition, including in those who acquired their second language in adulthood.

  5. The Source of Enhanced Cognitive Control in Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmorey, Karen; Luk, Gigi; Pyers, Jennie E.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Bilinguals often outperform monolinguals on nonverbal tasks that require resolving conflict from competing alternatives. The regular need to select a target language is argued to enhance executive control. We investigated whether this enhancement stems from a general effect of bilingualism (the representation of two languages) or from a modality constraint that forces language selection. Bimodal bilinguals can, but do not always, sign and speak at the same time. Their two languages involve distinct motor and perceptual systems, leading to weaker demands on language control. We compared the performance of 15 monolinguals, 15 bimodal bilinguals, and 15 unimodal bilinguals on a set of flanker tasks. There were no group differences in accuracy, but unimodal bilinguals were faster than the other groups; bimodal bilinguals did not differ from monolinguals. These results trace the bilingual advantage in cognitive control to the unimodal bilingual’s experience controlling two languages in the same modality. PMID:19121123

  6. Musical Training, Bilingualism, and Executive Function: A Closer Look at Task Switching and Dual-Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether musical training and bilingualism are associated with enhancements in specific components of executive function, namely, task switching and dual-task performance. Participants (n = 153) belonging to one of four groups (monolingual musician, bilingual musician, bilingual non-musician, or monolingual non-musician)…

  7. Examining the Longitudinal Biliterate Trajectory of Emerging Bilingual Learners in a Paired Literacy Instructional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Wendy; Butvilofsky, Sandra; Escamilla, Kathy; Hopewell, Susan; Tolento, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the biliteracy results of Spanish-English emerging bilingual students who participated in a K-5 paired literacy model in a large school district in Oregon. Spanish and English reading and writing data show longitudinal gains in students' biliterate development, demonstrating the potential of the model in developing…

  8. Properties of Dual Language Exposure that Influence 2-Year-Olds' Bilingual Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Silvia; Hoff, Erika

    2011-01-01

    The mothers of 29 Spanish English bilingual 25-month-olds kept diary records of their children's dual language exposure and provided information on their children's English and Spanish language development using the MacArthur-Bates inventories. Relative amount of exposure predicted language outcomes in English and Spanish. In addition, the number…

  9. Wordless Book-Sharing Styles in Bilingual Preschool Classrooms and Latino Children's Emergent Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Adina

    2015-01-01

    The current study explored the preschool classroom environment as an important context for supporting dual-language learning Latino children's development of emergent literacy skills. The results of the study showed that teachers in Spanish-English bilingual preschool classrooms varied in the way they shared wordless picture books with the…

  10. Unconventional Word Segmentation in Emerging Bilingual Students' Writing: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    This study explores cross-language and longitudinal patterns in unconventional word segmentation in 25 emerging bilingual students' (Spanish/English) writing from first through third grade. Spanish and English writing samples were collected annually and analyzed for two basic types of unconventional word segmentation: hyposegmentation, in…

  11. Dynamic Assessment of Narratives: Efficient, Accurate Identification of Language Impairment in Bilingual Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Douglas B.; Chanthongthip, Helen; Ukrainetz, Teresa A.; Spencer, Trina D.; Steeve, Roger W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the classification accuracy of a concentrated English narrative dynamic assessment (DA) for identifying language impairment (LI). Method: Forty-two Spanish-English bilingual kindergarten to third-grade children (10 LI and 32 with no LI) were administered two 25-min DA test-teach-test sessions. Pre- and posttest…

  12. Action Naming in Spanish and English by Sequential Bilingual Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Gisela; Kohnert, Kathryn; Collado, Julissa; Aquino-Garcia, Francia

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Verb processing in early sequential Spanish-English bilinguals was investigated. Primary study goals were to identify potential patterns of development in relative levels of verb processing efficiency in a 1st (L1) and 2nd (L2) language and to investigate factors influencing cognitive control of the dual-language system in developing…

  13. Assessing the Double Phonemic Representation in Bilingual Speakers of Spanish and English: An Electrophysiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Sierra, Adrian; Ramirez-Esparza, Nairan; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Siard, Jennifer; Champlin, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    Event Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded from Spanish-English bilinguals (N = 10) to test pre-attentive speech discrimination in two language contexts. ERPs were recorded while participants silently read magazines in English or Spanish. Two speech contrast conditions were recorded in each language context. In the "phonemic in English"…

  14. Bilingual Kindergarten Strategy--Oral English/Spanish Self-Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisy, Estelle Mendoza

    Very young Spanish-English bilingual children may not perceive sound-clue illustrations presented in the classroom as they are intended to be perceived. For example, when a child is told, "A is for apple," he may also interpret the message as "A is for manzana," confusing the intended message. While the teacher may hear English only, the child's…

  15. Competing Language Ideologies in a Bilingual/Bicultural After-School Program in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Ana Maria Relano

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at the competing language ideologies that preschool children negotiate in "Mi Clase Magica" (MCM), a Spanish-English bilingual/bicultural after-school program in San Diego. It examines children's language choice in interactions with peers and adults taking place at computer and "tareas" (homework) activities.…

  16. Effects of a Transitional Bilingual Education Program: Findings, Issues, and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Carolyn Huie

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a transitional Spanish-English bilingual program, Academic Language Acquisition (ALA), in enhancing K-5 students' English-language proficiency, as well as their English performance in academic subject areas, in comparison with the Structured English Immersion (SEI) process. An existing reading program,…

  17. Accomplishing Marginalization in Bilingual Interaction: Relational Work as a Resource for the Intersubjective Construction of Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Holly R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the use of impoliteness by Spanish-English bilingual pre-adolescents as a resource for accomplishing identities in spontaneous conversational interactions in an elementary school setting. The theoretical approach employed integrates the concept of relational work (Locher 2004; Locher and Watts 2005), which is based on Goffman's…

  18. "I Like English Better": Latino Dual Language Students' Investment in Spanish, English, and Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babino, Alexandra; Stewart, Mary Amanda

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methodology study surveys 63 fifth graders in a one-way dual language school. Findings alarmingly indicate that although these students are native Spanish speakers in a school that delivers 50% of their instruction in Spanish, they prefer English both academically and socially. Subsequent interviews with 10 sample students of the larger…

  19. A Longitudinal Study of English Narrative Discourse Development in Young Spanish-English Bilinguals

    OpenAIRE

    Olszewski, Abbie

    2013-01-01

    Producing oral narratives is the best predictor of later literacy functioning. The ability to use performance on oral narratives as a way to identify children who may be at- risk for academic and language problems is helpful for educators. For example, it is likely that children who are identified with language impairments or who are learning English as a second language may have difficulty creating narratives due to the inherent language complexity of creating narratives. Research has demons...

  20. "I Like English Better": Latino Dual Language Students' Investment in Spanish, English, and Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babino, Alexandra; Stewart, Mary Amanda

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methodology study surveys 63 fifth graders in a one-way dual language school. Findings alarmingly indicate that although these students are native Spanish speakers in a school that delivers 50% of their instruction in Spanish, they prefer English both academically and socially. Subsequent interviews with 10 sample students of the larger…

  1. Parent Reports of Young Spanish-English Bilingual Children's Productive Vocabulary: A Development and Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Gámez, Perla B.; Vagh, Shaher Banu; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This 2-phase study aims to extend research on parent report measures of children's productive vocabulary by investigating the development (n = 38) of the Spanish Vocabulary Extension and validity (n = 194) of the 100-item Spanish and English MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Toddler Short Forms and Upward Extension…

  2. Phonetic Equivalence in the Acquisition of /l/ by Spanish-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jessica A.; Branson, Paige E.; Nip, Ignatius S. B.

    2013-01-01

    Spanish [l] is characterized as clear, and is associated with a high second formant (F2) frequency and a large difference between F2 and the first formant (F1) frequencies. In contrast, English [l] is darker (with a lower F2 and a relatively smaller F2-F1 difference) and also exhibits contextual variation due to an allophonic velarization rule…

  3. A monolingual mind can have two time lines: Exploring space-time mappings in Mandarin monolinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenxing; Sun, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Can a mind accommodate two time lines? Miles, Tan, Noble, Lumsden and Macrae (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 18, 598-604, 2011) shows that Mandarin-English bilinguals have both a horizontal space-time mapping consistent with linguistic conventions within English and a vertical representation of time commensurate with Mandarin. However, the present study, via two experiments, demonstrates that Mandarin monolinguals possess two mental time lines, i.e., one horizontal and one vertical line. This study concludes that a Mandarin speaker has two mental time lines not because he/she has acquired L2 English, but because there are both horizontal and vertical expressions in Mandarin spatiotemporal metaphors. Specifically, this study highlights the fact that a horizontal time line does exist in a Mandarin speaker's cognition, even if he/she is a Mandarin monolingual instead of a ME bilingual. Taken together, the evidence in hand is far from sufficient to support Miles et al.'s (2011) conclusion that ME bilinguals' horizontal concept of time is manipulated by English. Implications for theoretical issues concerning the language-thought relationship in general and the effect of bilingualism on cognition in particular are discussed.

  4. Semantic facilitation in bilingual first language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilson, Samuel; Yoshida, Hanako; Tran, Crystal D; Woods, Elizabeth A; Hills, Thomas T

    2015-07-01

    Bilingual first language learners face unique challenges that may influence the rate and order of early word learning relative to monolinguals. A comparison of the productive vocabularies of 435 children between the ages of 6 months and 7 years-181 of which were bilingual English learners-found that monolinguals learned both English words and all-language concepts faster than bilinguals. However, bilinguals showed an enhancement of an effect previously found in monolinguals-the preference for learning words with more associative cues. Though both monolinguals and bilinguals were best fit by a similar model of word learning, semantic network structure and growth indicated that the two groups were learning English words in a different order. Further, in comparison with a model of two-monolinguals-in-one-mind, bilinguals overproduced translational equivalents. Our results support an emergent account of bilingual first language acquisition, where learning a word in one language facilitates its acquisition in a second language. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Differentiating the Use of Gaze in Bilingual-Bimodal Language Acquisition: A Comparison of Two Sets of Twins with Deaf Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond-Welty, E. Daylene; Siple, Patricia

    1999-01-01

    Gaze during utterance was examined in a set of bilingual-bimodal twins acquiring spoken English and American Sign Language (ASL) and a set of monolingual twins acquiring ASL. The bilingual-bimodal twins differentiated their languages by age 3. Like the monolingual twins, the bilingual-bimodal twins established mutual gaze at the beginning of their…

  6. Differentiating the Use of Gaze in Bilingual-Bimodal Language Acquisition: A Comparison of Two Sets of Twins with Deaf Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond-Welty, E. Daylene; Siple, Patricia

    1999-01-01

    Gaze during utterance was examined in a set of bilingual-bimodal twins acquiring spoken English and American Sign Language (ASL) and a set of monolingual twins acquiring ASL. The bilingual-bimodal twins differentiated their languages by age 3. Like the monolingual twins, the bilingual-bimodal twins established mutual gaze at the beginning of their…

  7. Reasoning about Other People's Beliefs: Bilinguals Have an Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Fernandez, Paula; Glucksberg, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Bilingualism can have widespread cognitive effects. In this article we investigate whether bilingualism might have an effect on adults' abilities to reason about other people's beliefs. In particular, we tested whether bilingual adults might have an advantage over monolingual adults in false-belief reasoning analogous to the advantage that has…

  8. Cognitive Advantages and Disadvantages in Early and Late Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, Sabra D.; Abrams, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented advantages and disadvantages of early bilinguals, defined as learning a 2nd language by school age and using both languages since that time. Relative to monolinguals, early bilinguals manifest deficits in lexical access but benefits in executive function. We investigated whether becoming bilingual "after"…

  9. Understanding Bilingualism and Its Impact on Speech Audiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hapsburg, Deborah; Pena, Elizabeth D.

    2002-01-01

    This tutorial reviews auditory research conducted with monolingual and bilingual speakers of Spanish and English. Based on a functional view of bilingualism and on auditory research findings showing that the bilingual experience may affect the outcome of auditory research, it discusses methods for improving descriptions of linguistically diverse…

  10. Enhanced music sensitivity in 9-month-old bilingual infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.; Kager, R.W.J.

    This study explores the influence of bilingualism on the cognitive processing of language and music. Specifically, we investigate how infants learning a non-tone language perceive linguistic and musical pitch and how bilingualism affects cross-domain pitch perception. Dutch monolingual and bilingual

  11. Enhanced music sensitivity in 9-month-old bilingual infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.; Kager, R.W.J.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the influence of bilingualism on the cognitive processing of language and music. Specifically, we investigate how infants learning a non-tone language perceive linguistic and musical pitch and how bilingualism affects cross-domain pitch perception. Dutch monolingual and bilingual

  12. Let's Read! 101 Ideas To Help Your Child Learn To Read and Write. Bilingual Edition. Revised Edition = Leamos! Prepare a sus hijos a leer y escribir: 101 Ideas. Texto Bilingue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, Mary; Behm, Richard

    Based on the idea that parents are the first and most important teachers, this bilingual (Spanish/English) book offers 101 practical and fun-to-do activities that children and parents can do together. The revised edition provides a preface by Professor Josefina Villamil Tinajero and additional information of particular interest to Latino parents.…

  13. Let's Read! 101 Ideas To Help Your Child Learn To Read and Write. Bilingual Edition. Revised Edition = Leamos! 101 ideas para ayudar a sus hijos a apprender a leer y escribir. Texto Bilingue. Texto refundido.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, Mary; Behm, Richard

    Based on the idea that parents are the first and most important teachers, this bilingual (Spanish/English) book offers 101 practical and fun-to-do activities that children and parents can do together. This edition provides a preface by Professor Josefina Villamil Tinajero and additional information of particular interest to Latino parents. The…

  14. Bilingualism, Mind, and Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussias, Paola E.; Bice, Kinsey; Perrotti, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    The use of two or more languages is common in most of the world. Yet, until recently, bilingualism was considered to be a complicating factor for language processing, cognition, and the brain. The past 20 years have witnessed an upsurge of research on bilingualism to examine language acquisition and processing, their cognitive and neural bases, and the consequences that bilingualism holds for cognition and the brain over the life span. Contrary to the view that bilingualism complicates the language system, this new research demonstrates that all of the languages that are known and used become part of the same language system. The interactions that arise when two languages are in play have consequences for the mind and the brain and, indeed, for language processing itself, but those consequences are not additive. Thus, bilingualism helps reveal the fundamental architecture and mechanisms of language processing that are otherwise hidden in monolingual speakers. PMID:28642932

  15. Using Monolingual and Bilingual Corpora in Lexicography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miangah, Tayebeh Mosavi

    2009-01-01

    Constructing and exploiting different types of corpora are among computer applications exposed to the researchers in different branches of science including lexicography. In lexicography, different types of corpora may be of great help in finding the most appropriate uses of words and expressions by referring to numerous examples and citations.…

  16. The Influence of Bilingualism on Third Language Acquisition: Focus on Multilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenoz, Jasone

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the advantages that bilinguals have over monolinguals when acquiring an additional language. Bilinguals are more experienced language learners and have potentially developed learning strategies to a larger extent than monolinguals. They also have a larger linguistic and intercultural repertoire at their disposal. In this…

  17. Cross-Cultural Transfer in Gesture Frequency in Chinese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Wing Chee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine cross-cultural differences in gesture frequency and the extent to which exposure to two cultures would affect the gesture frequency of bilinguals when speaking in both languages. The Chinese-speaking monolinguals from China, English-speaking monolinguals from America, and Chinese-English bilinguals from…

  18. The Influence of Bilingualism on Third Language Acquisition: Focus on Multilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenoz, Jasone

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the advantages that bilinguals have over monolinguals when acquiring an additional language. Bilinguals are more experienced language learners and have potentially developed learning strategies to a larger extent than monolinguals. They also have a larger linguistic and intercultural repertoire at their disposal. In this…

  19. Language and executive functioning in the context of specific language impairment and bilingualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laloi, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present thesis has investigated how French-speaking monolingual and bilingual children with SLI (specific language impairment) performed on various tasks examining language and executive functioning (EF) abilities, in comparison to monolingual and bilingual peers without SLI. Language was invest

  20. Is There Cross-Language Modulation when Bilinguals Process Number Words?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macizo, Pedro; Herrera, Amparo; Paolieri, Daniela; Roman, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the possibility of cross-language activation when bilinguals process number words in their first language (Italian) and their second language (German). Italian monolinguals (Experiment 1), German monolinguals (Experiment 2), and Italian/German bilinguals (Experiment 3) were required to decide the larger of two number words…

  1. Lexical-Phonological Interactions in Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined lexical-phonological interactions in the first 50 words of a group of monolingual German- and Spanish-speaking children and bilingual German--Spanish children. The phonological characteristics of the earliest target word forms and output patterns of these children were analyzed to determine whether bilingual children select…

  2. Bilingualism and Enhanced Attention in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated executive attention during nonverbal and verbal processing among adults with a range of bilingual experience. Previous research has found that bilingual children control their attention better than their monolingual peers and that superior attentional control in some processing contexts persists into adulthood…

  3. Ageing and bilingualism: absence of a "bilingual advantage" in stroop interference in a nonimmigrant sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousaie, Shanna; Phillips, Natalie A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found an advantage for bilinguals relative to monolinguals on tasks of attentional control. This advantage has been found to be larger in older adults than in young adults, suggesting that bilingualism provides a buffer against age-related declines in executive functioning. Using a computerized Stroop task in a nonimmigrant sample of young and older monolinguals and bilinguals, the current investigation tried to replicate previous findings of a bilingual advantage. A bilingual advantage would have been demonstrated by smaller Stroop interference (i.e., smaller increases in response time for incongruent than for neutral trials) for bilinguals than for monolinguals. The results showed that bilingual young adults showed a general speed advantage relative to their monolingual counterparts, but this was not associated with smaller Stroop interference. Older adults showed no effect of bilingualism. Thus, the present investigation does not find evidence of a bilingual advantage in young or older adults and suggests limits to the robustness and/or specificity of previous findings.

  4. Analysing common mistakes in translations of tourist texts (Spanish, English and German

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Durán Muñoz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Translation in the tourist sector has received little attention in the academic context of specialized translation, despite the importance of translation mediating between local and foreign cultures and the meaningful role for the economy in some countries like Spain. In this context, this paper intends to emphasize the relevance of translation in the tourist sector and, in turn, to analyse the common features and mistakes that are frequently encountered in tourist texts involving Spanish, English and German language. Likewise, it proposes a series of possible solutions to improve the quality of this kind of specialized translations and, thus, to ensure a good relationship between source and target cultures.

  5. The relationship between bilingualism and selective attention in young adults: Evidence from an ambiguous figures task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Fat-Yim, Ashley; Sorge, Geoff B; Bialystok, Ellen

    2017-03-01

    Previous research has shown that bilinguals outperform monolinguals on a variety of tasks that have been described as involving executive functioning, but the precise mechanism for those effects or a clear definition for "executive function" is unknown. This uncertainty has led to a number of studies for which no performance difference between monolingual and bilingual adults has been detected. One approach to clarifying these issues comes from research with children showing that bilinguals were more able than their monolingual peers to perceive both interpretations of an ambiguous figure, an ability that is more tied to a conception of selective attention than to specific components of executive function. The present study extends this notion to adults by assessing their ability to see the alternative image in an ambiguous figure. Bilinguals performed this task more efficiently than monolinguals by requiring fewer cues to identify the second image. This finding has implications for the role of selective attention in performance differences between monolinguals and bilinguals.

  6. Effective Look-up Techniques to Approach a Monolingual Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauman Al Amin Ali El Sayed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A dictionary is (a learning tool that can help the language learner in acquiring great knowledge of and about a foreign language. Almost all language learners buy or at least possess, at one time, a monolingual or bilingual dictionary, to which the learner may refer to look up the meaning of words. Unfortunately, using dictionary to look up the meaning of words seems to be the most important service, which a dictionary is expected to provide to language learners. In fact, a dictionary provides much data about language to its readers such as telling them about: the word spelling, phonology, phonetics, etymology, stylistics and definitions among other aspects. This paper sheds light on how the dictionary can teach its readers with special focus on monolingual dictionary. Hence, the discussion of this paper will centre on how dictionaries can teach students rather than on how students can learn from them. Keywords: monolingual dictionary, learning strategies, language acquisition, lexicography

  7. Who can communicate with whom? Language experience affects infants' evaluation of others as monolingual or multilingual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Casey E; Onishi, Kristine H; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2015-01-01

    Adults recognize that people can understand more than one language. However, it is unclear whether infants assume other people understand one or multiple languages. We examined whether monolingual and bilingual 20-month-olds expect an unfamiliar person to understand one or more than one language. Two speakers told a listener the location of a hidden object using either the same or two different languages. When different languages were spoken, monolinguals looked longer when the listener searched correctly, bilinguals did not; when the same language was spoken, both groups looked longer for incorrect searches. Infants rely on their prior language experience when evaluating the language abilities of a novel individual. Monolingual infants assume others can understand only one language, although not necessarily the infants' own; bilinguals do not. Infants' assumptions about which community of conventions people belong to may allow them to recognize effective communicative partners and thus opportunities to acquire language, knowledge, and culture.

  8. The effects of bilingualism on toddlers' executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Blaye, Agnes; Coutya, Julie; Bialystok, Ellen

    2011-03-01

    Bilingual children have been shown to outperform monolingual children on tasks measuring executive functioning skills. This advantage is usually attributed to bilinguals' extensive practice in exercising selective attention and cognitive flexibility during language use because both languages are active when one of them is being used. We examined whether this advantage is observed in 24-month-olds who have had much less experience in language production. A battery of executive functioning tasks and the cognitive scale of the Bayley test were administered to 63 monolingual and bilingual children. Native bilingual children performed significantly better than monolingual children on the Stroop task, with no difference between groups on the other tasks, confirming the specificity of bilingual effects to conflict tasks reported in older children. These results demonstrate that bilingual advantages in executive control emerge at an age not previously shown.

  9. Effects of early bilingualism on learning phonological regularities in a new language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Jen; Anderson, Richard C

    2012-03-01

    Drawing on structural sensitivity theory, the current study investigated monolingual and bilingual children's ability to learn how phonemes combine to form acceptable syllables in a new language. A total of 186 monolingual and bilingual kindergarteners, first graders, and second graders in Taiwan participated in the study. Bilingual children, regardless of whether they actively used a second language at home or simply had exposure to it, showed an advantage over their monolingual peers in learning the phonological patterns in the new language. The study provides empirical support for structural sensitivity theory and calls for the need to reconceptualize the effects of early bilingualism.

  10. Bilingualism interacts with domain in a working memory task: evidence from aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin; Craik, Fergus I M; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-03-01

    Younger and older adults who were either monolingual or bilingual were tested with verbal and spatial working memory (WM) span tasks. Aging was associated with a greater decline in spatial WM than in verbal WM, but the age-related declines were equivalent in both language groups. The bilingual participants outperformed the monolinguals in spatial WM, but achieved lower levels of performance than monolinguals in verbal WM. This interaction between bilingualism and WM domain was also consistent across the adult life span. These results are discussed in terms of the interactions between a domain-general executive processing advantage for bilinguals and the domain-specific content of particular WM tasks.

  11. To what extent does bilingualism affect children's performance on the NEPSY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, L C; Kelly, T P

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-seven monolingual and 27 bilingual children aged between 6 and 7 years were assessed using the core subtests of the NEPSY, a children's neuropsychological assessment. Bilingual children scored lower than monolingual children in the Language domain and their performance was comparable with the monolingual children in the domains of Attention/Executive Functioning, Sensorimotor, Visuospatial, and Memory. The NEPSY correlates well with measures of academic achievement. It is concluded that the NEPSY is relatively insensitive to cultural factors and appears to be insensitive to bilingualism in the neuropsychological assessment of bilingual children in the United Kingdom.

  12. Reshaping the Mind: The Benefits of Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that bilingual individuals consistently outperform their monolingual counterparts on tasks involving executive control. The present paper reviews some of the evidence for this conclusion and relates the findings to the effect of bilingualism on cognitive organisation and to conceptual issues in the structure of executive control. Evidence for the protective effect of bilingualism against Alzheimer’s disease is presented with some speculation about the reason for that protection. PMID:21910523

  13. Reshaping the Mind: The Benefits of Bilingualism

    OpenAIRE

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that bilingual individuals consistently outperform their monolingual counterparts on tasks involving executive control. The present paper reviews some of the evidence for this conclusion and relates the findings to the effect of bilingualism on cognitive organisation and to conceptual issues in the structure of executive control. Evidence for the protective effect of bilingualism against Alzheimer’s disease is presented with some speculation about the reason for that protec...

  14. Reshaping the mind: the benefits of bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2011-12-01

    Studies have shown that bilingual individuals consistently outperform their monolingual counterparts on tasks involving executive control. The present paper reviews some of the evidence for this conclusion and relates the findings to the effect of bilingualism on cognitive organisation and to conceptual issues in the structure of executive control. Evidence for the protective effect of bilingualism against Alzheimer's disease is presented with some speculation about the reason for that protection.

  15. Conflict Resolution in Sentence Processing by Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen; Wodniecka, Zofia; Alain, Claude

    2010-01-01

    The present study pursues findings from earlier behavioral research with children showing the superior ability of bilinguals to make grammaticality judgments in the context of misleading semantic information. The advantage in this task was attributed to the greater executive control of bilinguals, but this impact on linguistic processing has not been demonstrated in adults. Here, we recorded event-related potentials in young adults who were either English monolinguals or bilinguals as they performed two different language judgment tasks. In the acceptability task, participants indicated whether or not the sentence contained an error in either grammar or meaning; in the grammaticality task, participants indicated only whether the sentence contained an error in grammar, in spite of possible conflicting information from meaning. In both groups, sentence violations generated N400 and P600 waves. In the acceptability task, bilinguals were less accurate than monolinguals, but in the grammaticality task which requires more executive control, bilingual and monolingual groups showed a comparable level of accuracy. Importantly, bilinguals generated smaller P600 amplitude and a more bilateral distribution of activation than monolinguals in the grammaticality task requiring more executive control. Our results show that bilinguals use their enhanced executive control for linguistic processing involving conflict in spite of no apparent advantage in linguistic processing under simpler conditions. PMID:21057658

  16. Creating a Bilingual Pre-School Classroom: The Multilayered Discourses of a Bilingual Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palviainen, Åsa; Mård-Miettinen, Karita

    2015-01-01

    Teachers have an agentive role as they interpret, evaluate and develop language policies and practices. In the current study we interviewed a bilingual pre-school teacher in Finland during the first year of implementing a new way of working bilingually with a class of monolingual children. Applying nexus analysis, we explored the teacher…

  17. Children's use of linguistic information when learning in a bilingual context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atagi, Natsuki; Goldenberg, Elizabeth R; Sandhofer, Catherine M

    2016-04-01

    Children prefer to learn from people who are like themselves. However, who is considered "like themselves" is complex for bilingual children. Thus, the current study examined whether children's language experiences affect who they prefer to imitate. A sample of 3- to 5-year-old monolingual English-speaking children (n=16), Japanese-English bilingual children (n=16), and children bilingual in English and a non-Japanese language (n=16) watched videos of a monolingual English speaker and a Japanese-English bilingual speaker playing with novel toys and were asked to play with the same novel toys. Although all children--regardless of language background--imitated the monolingual speaker at similar rates, the two bilingual groups imitated the bilingual speaker more often than did the monolingual children. Such results suggest that experience in speaking two languages affects children's imitation behaviors.

  18. Never too late? An advantage on tests of auditory attention extends to late bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hieronymus Bak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies, using predominantly visual tasks, indicate that early bilinguals outperform monolinguals on attention tests. It remains less clear whether such advantages extend to those bilinguals who have acquired their second language later in life.We examined this question in 38 monolingual and 60 bilingual university students. The bilingual group was further subdivided into early childhood, late childhood and early adulthood bilinguals. The assessment consisted of five subtests from the clinically validated Test of Everyday Attention (TEA. Overall, bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on auditory attention tests, but not on visual search tasks. The latter observation suggests that the differences between bilinguals and monolinguals are specific and not due to a generally higher cognitive performance in bilinguals.Within the bilingual group, early childhood bilinguals showed a larger advantage on attention switching, late childhood/early adulthood bilinguals on selective attention. We conclude that the bilingual advantage extends into the auditory domain and is not confined to childhood bilinguals, although its scope might be slightly different in early and late bilinguals.

  19. Reading Comprehension Skills of Bilingual Children in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Seher

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to compare the reading comprehension skills of the bilingual students studying at the 4th Grade of the Primary School with the monolingual students studying at the 4th Grade. With this purpose, 303 students were included from the Black Sea Region, where mainly monolingual students studied and 247 students were included from the…

  20. Age of first bilingual language exposure as a new window into bilingual reading development*

    OpenAIRE

    Kovelman, Ioulia; Baker, Stephanie A.; Petitto, Laura-Ann

    2008-01-01

    How does age of first bilingual language exposure affect reading development in children learning to read in both of their languages? Is there a reading advantage for monolingual English children who are educated in bilingual schools? We studied children (grades 2–3, ages 7–9) in bilingual Spanish–English schools who were either from Spanish-speaking homes (new to English) or English-speaking homes (new to Spanish), as compared with English-speaking children in monolingual English schools. An...

  1. Bilingualism affects audiovisual phoneme identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eBurfin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We all go through a process of perceptual narrowing for phoneme identification. As we become experts in the languages we hear in our environment we lose the ability to identify phonemes that do not exist in our native phonological inventory. This research examined how linguistic experience –i.e., the exposure to a double phonological code during childhood– affects the visual processes involved in non-native phoneme identification in audiovisual speech perception. We conducted a phoneme identification experiment with bilingual and monolingual adult participants. It was an ABX task involving a Bengali dental-retroflex contrast that does not exist in any of the participants’ languages. The phonemes were presented in audiovisual (AV and audio-only (A conditions. The results revealed that in the audio-only condition monolinguals and bilinguals had difficulties in discriminating the retroflex non-native phoneme. They were phonologically deaf and assimilated it to the dental phoneme that exists in their native languages. In the audiovisual presentation instead, both groups could overcome the phonological deafness for the retroflex non-native phoneme and identify both Bengali phonemes. However, monolinguals were more accurate and responded quicker than bilinguals. This suggests that bilinguals do not use the same processes as monolinguals to decode visual speech.

  2. Bilingualism affects audiovisual phoneme identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burfin, Sabine; Pascalis, Olivier; Ruiz Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Savariaux, Christophe; Kandel, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    We all go through a process of perceptual narrowing for phoneme identification. As we become experts in the languages we hear in our environment we lose the ability to identify phonemes that do not exist in our native phonological inventory. This research examined how linguistic experience-i.e., the exposure to a double phonological code during childhood-affects the visual processes involved in non-native phoneme identification in audiovisual speech perception. We conducted a phoneme identification experiment with bilingual and monolingual adult participants. It was an ABX task involving a Bengali dental-retroflex contrast that does not exist in any of the participants' languages. The phonemes were presented in audiovisual (AV) and audio-only (A) conditions. The results revealed that in the audio-only condition monolinguals and bilinguals had difficulties in discriminating the retroflex non-native phoneme. They were phonologically "deaf" and assimilated it to the dental phoneme that exists in their native languages. In the audiovisual presentation instead, both groups could overcome the phonological deafness for the retroflex non-native phoneme and identify both Bengali phonemes. However, monolinguals were more accurate and responded quicker than bilinguals. This suggests that bilinguals do not use the same processes as monolinguals to decode visual speech.

  3. Becoming "Spanish Learners": Identity and Interaction among Multilingual Children in a Spanish-English Dual Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ramón Antonio; Durán, Leah; Hikida, Michiko

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the interactional co-construction of identities among two first-grade students learning Spanish as a third language in a Spanish-English dual language classroom. Drawing on ethnographic and interactional data, the article focuses on a single interaction between these two "Spanish learners" and two of their…

  4. Un Marco Abierto: Un Manual de Matematicas y Ciencas Utilizando Inteligencias Multiples Disenado para Estudiantes Bilingues de Educacion General y Especial (An Open Framework: A Math and Science Manual Utilizing Multiple Intelligences Designed for Bilingual Students in General and Special Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Bilingual Education.

    This manual incorporates a Multiple Intelligences perspective into its presentation of themes and lesson ideas for Spanish-English bilingual elementary school students in grades 4-8 and is designed for both gifted and special education uses. Each unit includes practice activities, semantic maps to illustrate and help organize ideas as well as…

  5. A bilingual disadvantage in metacognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folke, Tomas; Ouzia, Julia; Bright, Peter; De Martino, Benedetto; Filippi, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Recent research indicating that bilingualism is associated with enhanced executive function suggests that this enhancement may operate within a broader spectrum of cognitive abilities than previously thought (e.g., Stocco & Prat, 2014). In this study, we focus on metacognition or the ability to evaluate one's own cognitive performance (Flavell, 1979). Over the course of two experiments, we presented young healthy adult monolinguals and bilinguals with a perceptual two-alternative-forced-choice task followed by confidence judgements. Results from both experiments indicated that bilingual participants showed a disadvantage in metacognitive efficiency, determined through the calculation of Mratio (Maniscalco & Lau, 2014). Our findings provide novel insight into the potential differences in bilingual and monolingual cognition, which may indicate a bilingual disadvantage. Results are discussed with reference to the balance of advantages versus disadvantages associated with multilanguage learning. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Guia para padres y maestros de ninos bilingues (A Parents' and Teachers' Guide to Bilingualism). Parents' and Teachers' Guides Number 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ada, Alma Flor; Baker, Colin

    This book provides a practical introduction to questions about bilingualism. It is for parents and teachers who are themselves bilingual, for monolinguals who want to know more, for those with some intuitive understanding of bilingual situations and for those who are starting from the very beginning. The book poses questions that people often ask…

  7. The effects of bilingualism on toddlers’ executive functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Blaye, Agnes; Coutya, Julie; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Bilingual children have been shown to outperform monolingual children on tasks measuring executive functioning skills. This advantage is usually attributed to bilinguals’ extensive practice in exercising selective attention and cognitive flexibility during language use because both languages are active when one of them is being used. We examined whether this advantage is observed in 24-month-olds who have had much less experience in language production. A battery of executive functioning tasks and the cognitive scale of the Bayley test were administered to 63 monolingual and bilingual children. Native bilingual children performed significantly better than monolingual children on the Stroop task, with no difference between groups on the other tasks, confirming the specificity of bilingual effects to conflict tasks reported in older children. These results demonstrate that bilingual advantages in executive control emerge at an age not previously shown. PMID:21122877

  8. Lexical access and vocabulary development in very young bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Bialystok, Ellen; Blaye, Agnes; Polonia, Alexandra; Yott, Jessica

    2013-02-01

    This study compares lexical access and expressive and receptive vocabulary development in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. More specifically, the link between vocabulary size, production of translation equivalents, and lexical access in bilingual infants was examined as well as the relationship between the Communicative Development Inventories and the Computerized Comprehension Task. Twenty-five bilingual and 18 monolingual infants aged 24 months participated in this study. The results revealed significant differences between monolingual and bilinguals' expressive vocabulary size in L1 but similar total vocabularies. Performance on the Computerized Comprehension Task revealed no differences between the two groups on measures of both reaction time and accuracy, and a strong convergent validity of the Computerized Comprehension Task with the Communicative Development Inventories was observed for both groups. Bilinguals with a higher proportion of translation equivalents in their expressive vocabulary showed faster access to words in the Computerized Comprehension Task.

  9. Bimodal bilingualism and the frequency-lag hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmorey, Karen; Petrich, Jennifer A F; Gollan, Tamar H

    2013-01-01

    The frequency-lag hypothesis proposes that bilinguals have slowed lexical retrieval relative to monolinguals and in their nondominant language relative to their dominant language, particularly for low-frequency words. These effects arise because bilinguals divide their language use between 2 languages and use their nondominant language less frequently. We conducted a picture-naming study with hearing American Sign Language (ASL)-English bilinguals (bimodal bilinguals), deaf signers, and English-speaking monolinguals. As predicted by the frequency-lag hypothesis, bimodal bilinguals were slower, less accurate, and exhibited a larger frequency effect when naming pictures in ASL as compared with English (their dominant language) and as compared with deaf signers. For English there was no difference in naming latencies, error rates, or frequency effects for bimodal bilinguals as compared with monolinguals. Neither age of ASL acquisition nor interpreting experience affected the results; picture-naming accuracy and frequency effects were equivalent for deaf signers and English monolinguals. Larger frequency effects in ASL relative to English for bimodal bilinguals suggests that they are affected by a frequency lag in ASL. The absence of a lag for English could reflect the use of mouthing and/or code-blending, which may shield bimodal bilinguals from the lexical slowing observed for spoken language bilinguals in the dominant language.

  10. Bilingualism accentuates children's conversational understanding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Siegal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3-6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be relevant, and be polite. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, with increasing age, children showed greater sensitivity to maxim violations. Children in Italy who were bilingual in German and Italian (with German as the dominant language L1 significantly outperformed Italian monolinguals. In Experiment 2, children in England who were bilingual in English and Japanese (with English as L1 significantly outperformed Japanese monolinguals in Japan with vocabulary age partialled out. CONCLUSIONS: As the monolingual and bilingual groups had a similar family SES background (Experiment 1 and similar family cultural identity (Experiment 2, these results point to a specific role for early bilingualism in accentuating children's developing ability to appreciate effective communicative responses.

  11. Bilingualism Accentuates Children's Conversational Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Surian, Luca; Matsuo, Ayumi; Geraci, Alessandra; Iozzi, Laura; Okumura, Yuko; Itakura, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    Background Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3–6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be relevant, and be polite). Principal Findings In Experiment 1, with increasing age, children showed greater sensitivity to maxim violations. Children in Italy who were bilingual in German and Italian (with German as the dominant language L1) significantly outperformed Italian monolinguals. In Experiment 2, children in England who were bilingual in English and Japanese (with English as L1) significantly outperformed Japanese monolinguals in Japan with vocabulary age partialled out. Conclusions As the monolingual and bilingual groups had a similar family SES background (Experiment 1) and similar family cultural identity (Experiment 2), these results point to a specific role for early bilingualism in accentuating children's developing ability to appreciate effective communicative responses. PMID:20140246

  12. Monolingual accounting dictionaries for EFL text production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Nielsen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Monolingual accounting dictionaries are important for producing financial reporting texts in English in an international setting, because of the lack of specialised bilingual dictionaries. As the intended user groups have different factual and linguistic competences, they require specific types of information. By identifying and analysing the users' factual and linguistic competences, user needs, use-situations and the stages involved in producing accounting texts in English as a foreign language, lexicographers will have a sound basis for designing the optimal English accounting dictionary for EFL text production. The monolingual accounting dictionary needs to include information about UK, US and international accounting terms, their grammatical properties, their potential for being combined with other words in collocations, phrases and sentences in order to meet user requirements. Data items that deal with these aspects are necessary for the international user group as they produce subject-field specific and register-specific texts in a foreign language, and the data items are relevant for the various stages in text production: draft writing, copyediting, stylistic editing and proofreading.

  13. The effect of script similarity on executive control in bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Emily L.; van Heuven, Walter J. B.

    2014-01-01

    The need for executive control (EC) during bilingual language processing is thought to enhance these abilities, conferring a “bilingual advantage” on EC tasks. Recently, the reliability and robustness of the bilingual advantage has been questioned, with many variables reportedly affecting the size and presence of the bilingual advantage. This study investigates one further variable that may affect bilingual EC abilities: the similarity of a bilingual's two languages. We hypothesize that bilinguals whose two languages have a larger degree of orthographic overlap will require greater EC to manage their languages compared to bilinguals who use two languages with less overlap. We tested three groups of bilinguals with language pairs ranging from high- to low-similarity (German-English (GE), Polish-English (PE), and Arabic-English (AE), respectively) and a group of English monolinguals on a Stroop and Simon task. Two components of the bilingual advantage were investigated: an interference advantage, such that bilinguals have smaller interference effects than monolinguals; and a global RT advantage, such that bilinguals are faster overall than monolinguals. Between bilingual groups, these effects were expected to be modulated by script similarity. AE bilinguals showed the smallest Stroop interference effects, but the longest overall RTs in both tasks. These seemingly contradictory results are explained by the presence of cross-linguistic influences in the Stroop task. We conclude that similar-script bilinguals demonstrated more effective domain-general EC than different-script bilinguals, since high orthographic overlap creates more cross-linguistic activation and increases the daily demands on cognitive control. The role of individual variation is also discussed. These results suggest that script similarity is an important variable to consider in investigations of bilingual executive control abilities. PMID:25400594

  14. The effect of script similarity on executive control in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Emily L; van Heuven, Walter J B

    2014-01-01

    The need for executive control (EC) during bilingual language processing is thought to enhance these abilities, conferring a "bilingual advantage" on EC tasks. Recently, the reliability and robustness of the bilingual advantage has been questioned, with many variables reportedly affecting the size and presence of the bilingual advantage. This study investigates one further variable that may affect bilingual EC abilities: the similarity of a bilingual's two languages. We hypothesize that bilinguals whose two languages have a larger degree of orthographic overlap will require greater EC to manage their languages compared to bilinguals who use two languages with less overlap. We tested three groups of bilinguals with language pairs ranging from high- to low-similarity (German-English (GE), Polish-English (PE), and Arabic-English (AE), respectively) and a group of English monolinguals on a Stroop and Simon task. Two components of the bilingual advantage were investigated: an interference advantage, such that bilinguals have smaller interference effects than monolinguals; and a global RT advantage, such that bilinguals are faster overall than monolinguals. Between bilingual groups, these effects were expected to be modulated by script similarity. AE bilinguals showed the smallest Stroop interference effects, but the longest overall RTs in both tasks. These seemingly contradictory results are explained by the presence of cross-linguistic influences in the Stroop task. We conclude that similar-script bilinguals demonstrated more effective domain-general EC than different-script bilinguals, since high orthographic overlap creates more cross-linguistic activation and increases the daily demands on cognitive control. The role of individual variation is also discussed. These results suggest that script similarity is an important variable to consider in investigations of bilingual executive control abilities.

  15. On the Bilingual Advantage in Conflict Processing: Now You See It, Now You Don't

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Albert; Hernandez, Mireia; Costa-Faidella, Jordi; Sebastian-Galles, Nuria

    2009-01-01

    We report two experiments exploring more in detail the bilingual advantage in conflict resolution tasks. In particular, we focus on the origin of the bilingual advantage on overall reaction times in the flanker task. Bilingual and monolingual participants were asked to perform a flanker task under different task versions. In Experiment 1, we used…

  16. Early Childhood Bilingualism Leads to Advances in Executive Attention: Dissociating Culture and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sujin; Yang, Hwajin; Lust, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether early especially efficient utilization of executive functioning in young bilinguals would transcend potential cultural benefits. To dissociate potential cultural effects from bilingualism, four-year-old U.S. Korean-English bilingual children were compared to three monolingual groups--English and Korean monolinguals…

  17. Does Bilingualism Help Memory? Competing Effects of Verbal Ability and Executive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodniecka, Zofia; Craik, Fergus I. M.; Luo, Lin; Bialystok, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Two studies are reported that explore the effect of bilingualism on memory performance. Following previous reports of a bilingual advantage in executive control that sometimes shows a greater advantage in older adults, we compared younger and older monolinguals and bilinguals on a memory paradigm that yielded separate measures of familiarity and…

  18. Effect of Language Proficiency and Executive Control on Verbal Fluency Performance in Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin; Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    We use a time-course analysis to examine the roles of vocabulary size and executive control in bilinguals' verbal fluency performance. Two groups of bilinguals and a group of monolingual adults were tested in English with verbal fluency subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. The two bilingual groups were equivalent in their…

  19. Disambiguating bilingual nominal entries against WordNet

    CERN Document Server

    Rigau, G; Rigau, German; Agirre, Eneko

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores the acquisition of conceptual knowledge from bilingual dictionaries (French/English, Spanish/English and English/Spanish) using a pre-existing broad coverage Lexical Knowledge Base (LKB) WordNet. Bilingual nominal entries are disambiguated agains WordNet, therefore linking the bilingual dictionaries to WordNet yielding a multilingual LKB (MLKB). The resulting MLKB has the same structure as WordNet, but some nodes are attached additionally to disambiguated vocabulary of other languages. Two different, complementary approaches are explored. In one of the approaches each entry of the dictionary is taken in turn, exploiting the information in the entry itself. The inferential capability for disambiguating the translation is given by Semantic Density over WordNet. In the other approach, the bilingual dictionary was merged with WordNet, exploiting mainly synonymy relations. Each of the approaches was used in a different dictionary. Both approaches attain high levels of precision on their own, sh...

  20. A Study of the Relationship between Code Switching and the Bilingual Advantage: Evidence That Language Use Modulates Neural Indices of Language Processing and Cognitive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Angelique Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals sometimes outperform age-matched monolinguals on non-language tasks involving cognitive control. But the bilingual advantage is not consistently found in every experiment and may reflect specific attributes of the bilinguals tested. The goal of this dissertation was to determine if the way in which bilinguals use language, specifically…

  1. Spanish-English Immersion in the Wake of California Proposition 227: Five Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, April

    2007-01-01

    Two-way bilingual immersion programs are noteworthy within the context of US public education because, in them, the children of immigrants are essential assets. Language-minority and English-speaking pupils are grouped together, starting in kindergarten or earlier and extending at least through grade five, with a goal of bilingual proficiency and…

  2. "Corplum" Is a Core from a Plum": The Advantage of Bilingual Children in the Analysis of Word Meaning from Verbal Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.

    2012-01-01

    The possible advantage of bilingual children over monolinguals in analyzing word meanings from verbal context was examined. The subjects were 40 third-grade children (20 bilingual and 20 monolingual) recruited from independent schools in the USA. The two groups of participants were compared on their performance on a standardized test of receptive…

  3. Emotional self-knowledge competence intervention in an infant education bilingual context

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez García-Jiménez, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this academic work is to suggest a teaching proposal about emotions in English in two 5 years old classes of a Spanish bilingual school (Spanish-English). In this intervention there will be developed some aspects of the emotional self-knowledge competence defined by Bisquerra (2016) following a specific Methodology and within a Theory Framework. In addition, there will be a description of the results obtained when it was put in practise and a comparison between the r...

  4. Cognitive Complexity and Attentional Control in the Bilingual Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    1999-01-01

    Investigated in preschoolers whether the bilingual advantage in cognitive control or selective attention could be found in a nonverbal task, the dimensional change card sort, requiring minimal demands for analysis or representation. Found that bilingual children were more advanced than monolinguals in solving problems requiring high levels of…

  5. The Effects of Bilingualism on Toddlers' Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Blaye, Agnes; Coutya, Julie; Bialystok, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Bilingual children have been shown to outperform monolingual children on tasks measuring executive functioning skills. This advantage is usually attributed to bilinguals' extensive practice in exercising selective attention and cognitive flexibility during language use because both languages are active when one of them is being used. We examined…

  6. Bilingual children's production of regular and irregular past tense morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Rispens; E. de Bree

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the production of the Dutch past tense in Dutch-Hebrew bilingual children and investigated the effect of type of past tense allomorph (de versus te) and token frequency on productions of the past tense. Seven-year-old bilingual children (n=11) were compared with monolingual child

  7. Bilingual Education Enhances Third Language Acquisition: Evidence from Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Cristina

    2000-01-01

    Compares the acquisition of English as a third language by Catalan/Spanish bilingual high school students in an immersion program with the acquisition of English by Spanish monolinguals. Data from 201 participants were submitted to a hierarchical multiple regression analysis, rendering results that show that bilingualism has a positive effect on…

  8. Teachers' Language: L1 Attrition in Russian-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isurin, Ludmila

    2007-01-01

    The present study reports on the evidence of first language (L1) attrition in a population that may appear to be the most resistant to L1 changes. Russian monolinguals (n=3) and Russian-English bilinguals (n=10) participated in the study. The bilinguals were graduate students teaching Russian as a foreign language at a U.S. university. The data…

  9. Lexical Attrition in Younger and Older Bilingual Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goral, Mira; Libben, Gary; Obler, Loraine K.; Jarema, Gonia; Ohayon, Keren

    2008-01-01

    Healthy monolingual older adults experience changes in their lexical abilities. Bilingual individuals immersed in an environment in which their second language is dominant experience lexical changes, or attrition, in their first language. Changes in lexical skills in the first language of older individuals who are bilinguals, therefore, can be…

  10. Bilingual Education Enhances Third Language Acquisition: Evidence from Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Cristina

    2000-01-01

    Compares the acquisition of English as a third language by Catalan/Spanish bilingual high school students in an immersion program with the acquisition of English by Spanish monolinguals. Data from 201 participants were submitted to a hierarchical multiple regression analysis, rendering results that show that bilingualism has a positive effect on…

  11. The Relationship between Bilingualism and the Performance of Spatial Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeay, Heather

    2003-01-01

    The well-documented evidence that bilinguals demonstrate cognitive advantages over monolinguals is used as a foundation for the hypothesis that bilinguals will be better able to solve certain spatial tasks, and a theoretical framework for this hypothesis is constructed. The paper describes an experiment to explore this hypothesis. A series of…

  12. Linguistic and cognitive skills in Sardinian-Italian bilingual children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eGarraffa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a study which tested receptive Italian grammatical competence and general cognitive abilities in bilingual Italian-Sardinian children and age-matched monolingual Italian children attending the first and second year of primary school in the Nuoro province of Sardinia, where Sardinian is still widely spoken. The results show that across age groups the performance of Sardinian-Italian bilingual children is in most cases indistinguishable from that of monolingual Italian children, in terms of both Italian language skills and general cognitive abilities. However, where there are differences, these emerge gradually over time and are mostly in favor of bilingual children.

  13. Components of executive control with advantages for bilingual children in two cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Viswanathan, Mythili

    2009-09-01

    The present study used a behavioral version of an anti-saccade task, called the 'faces task', developed by [Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I. M., & Ryan, J. (2006). Executive control in a modified anti-saccade task: Effects of aging and bilingualism. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32, 1341-1354] to isolate the components of executive functioning responsible for previously reported differences between monolingual and bilingual children and to determine the generality of these differences by comparing bilinguals in two cultures. Three components of executive control were investigated: response suppression, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility. Ninety children, 8-years old, belonged to one of three groups: monolinguals in Canada, bilinguals in Canada, and bilinguals in India. The bilingual children in both settings were faster than monolinguals in conditions based on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility but there was no significant difference between groups in response suppression or on a control condition that did not involve executive control. The children in the two bilingual groups performed equivalently to each other and differently from the monolinguals on all measures in which there were group differences, consistent with the interpretation that bilingualism is responsible for the enhanced executive control. These results contribute to understanding the mechanism responsible for the reported bilingual advantages by identifying the processes that are modified by bilingualism and establishing the generality of these findings across bilingual experiences. They also contribute to theoretical conceptions of the components of executive control and their development.

  14. Reasoning about other people's beliefs: bilinguals have an advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Fernández, Paula; Glucksberg, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Bilingualism can have widespread cognitive effects. In this article we investigate whether bilingualism might have an effect on adults' abilities to reason about other people's beliefs. In particular, we tested whether bilingual adults might have an advantage over monolingual adults in false-belief reasoning analogous to the advantage that has been observed with bilingual children. Using a traditional false-belief task coupled with an eye-tracking technique, we found that adults in general suffer interference from their own perspective when reasoning about other people's beliefs. However, bilinguals are reliably less susceptible to this egocentric bias than are monolinguals. Moreover, performance on the false-belief task significantly correlated with performance on an executive control task. We argue that bilinguals' early sociolinguistic sensitivity and enhanced executive control may account for their advantage in false-belief reasoning.

  15. The impact of bilingualism on working memory in pediatric epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Amy L; Riley, Jeffrey D; Barrett, Lauren E; Muhonen, Michael G; Zupanc, Mary; Romain, Jonathan E; Lin, Jack J; Mucci, Grace

    2016-02-01

    Impairments in executive skills broadly span across multiple childhood epilepsy syndromes and can adversely affect quality of life. Bilingualism has been previously shown to correlate with enhanced executive functioning in healthy individuals. This study sought to determine whether the bilingual advantage in executive functioning exists in the context of pediatric epilepsy. We retrospectively analyzed neuropsychological data in 52 children with epilepsy and compared executive function scores in monolingual versus bilingual children with epilepsy while controlling for socioeconomic status and ethnicity. Bilingual children performed significantly better on the Working Memory Index than did monolingual children. There were no significant differences on the remaining executive function variables. The bilingual advantage appears to persist for working memory in children with epilepsy. These findings suggest that bilingualism is potentially a protective variable in the face of epilepsy-related working memory dysfunction.

  16. Lexical access and vocabulary development in very young bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Bialystok, Ellen; Blaye, Agnes; Polonia, Alexandra; Yott, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This study compares lexical access and expressive and receptive vocabulary development in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. More specifically, the link between vocabulary size, production of translation equivalents, and lexical access in bilingual infants was examined as well as the relationship between the Communicative Development Inventories and the Computerized Comprehension Task. Twenty-five bilingual and 18 monolingual infants aged 24 months participated in this study. The results revealed significant differences between monolingual and bilinguals’ expressive vocabulary size in L1 but similar total vocabularies. Performance on the Computerized Comprehension Task revealed no differences between the two groups on measures of both reaction time and accuracy, and a strong convergent validity of the Computerized Comprehension Task with the Communicative Development Inventories was observed for both groups. Bilinguals with a higher proportion of translation equivalents in their expressive vocabulary showed faster access to words in the Computerized Comprehension Task. PMID:24761135

  17. The Montaigne’s Essays bilingual subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Ramos Lopes Neto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lord of Montaigne is positioned positively to the practice of bilingualism in his post-Renaissance’s Essays. Based on the contemporary literature of Languages in Contact, this paper proposes a dialogue between an excerpt of this masterpiece and myths and beliefs related to the individual bilingual. Thus, it is suggested that the plurilinguism predominates instead of monolingualism since the Fifteenth Century. 

  18. A case for bilingual learners' dictionaries

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, Robert; Adamska-Sałaciak, Arleta

    2015-01-01

    This article makes a case for bilingual learners’ dictionaries. These dictionaries are very different from traditional bilingual dictionaries, being attuned to the productive needs of learners who are speakers of a specific L1. Although they have been around for some time now, teachers of English remain largely unaware of their benefits (or, possibly, their existence), continuing to promote the one-size-fits-all monolingual English learners’ dictionaries (MELDs) as the best choice for their s...

  19. Influence of Bilinguism on Socio-Cognitive Personality Development

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolova, I. V.

    2012-01-01

    The paper gives an overeview of foreign studies devoted to bilinguism and its influence on socio-cognitive personality development. Experimental research conducted in the recent years has broken the myth of negative influence of childhood bilinguism. Moreover, based on the comparative analysis, the present research shows the advantages of children and adults grown up in the bilingual environment. Their advantages compared with the monolingual peers include the well-developed meta-lingual abil...

  20. Escaping capture: bilingualism modulates distraction from working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Mireia; Costa, Albert; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2012-01-01

    We ask whether bilingualism aids cognitive control over the inadvertent guidance of visual attention from working memory and from bottom-up cueing. We compare highly-proficient Catalan-Spanish bilinguals with Spanish monolinguals in three visual search conditions. In the working memory (WM) condition, attention was driven in a top-down fashion by irrelevant objects held in WM. In the Identify condition, attention was driven in a bottom-up fashion by visual priming. In the Singleton condition, attention was driven in a bottom-up fashion by including a unique distracting object in the search array. The results showed that bilinguals were overall faster than monolinguals in the three conditions, replicating previous findings that bilinguals can be more efficient than monolinguals in the deployment of attention. Interestingly, bilinguals were less captured by irrelevant information held in WM but were equally affected by visual priming and unique singletons in the search displays. These observations suggest that bilingualism aids top-down WM-mediated guidance of attention, facilitating processes that keep separate representations in WM from representations that guide visual attention. In contrast, bottom-up attentional capture by salient yet unrelated input operates similarly in bilinguals and monolinguals.

  1. English Speakers Attend More Strongly than Spanish Speakers to Manner of Motion when Classifying Novel Objects and Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Alan W.; Meissner, Christian A.; Lechuga, Julia; Schwartz, Bennett L.; Albrechtsen, Justin S.; Iglesias, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments provide evidence that the conceptualization of moving objects and events is influenced by one's native language, consistent with linguistic relativity theory. Monolingual English speakers and bilingual Spanish/English speakers tested in an English-speaking context performed better than monolingual Spanish speakers and bilingual…

  2. Comment Dire: A Neurolinguistic Approach to Beckett’s Bilingual Writings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kager, A.M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies from the field of neurolinguistics and psycholinguistics suggest that bilinguals and multilinguals are in many ways fundamentally different from monolinguals, a difference that starts with a different cerebral structure for language. This difference will constitute the point of

  3. Bilingual children's acquisition of the past tense: a usage-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Nicoladis, Elena; Crago, Martha; Genesee, Fred

    2011-06-01

    Bilingual and monolingual children's (mean age=4;10) elicited production of the past tense in both English and French was examined in order to test predictions from Usage-Based theory regarding the sensitivity of children's acquisition rates to input factors such as variation in exposure time and the type/token frequency of morphosyntactic structures. Both bilingual and monolingual children were less accurate with irregular than regular past tense forms in both languages. Bilingual children, as a group, were less accurate than monolinguals with the English regular and irregular past tense, and with the French irregular past tense, but not with the French regular past tense. However, bilingual children were as accurate as monolinguals with the past tense in their language of greater exposure, except for English irregular verbs. It is argued that these results support the view that children's acquisition rates are sensitive to input factors, but with some qualifications.

  4. The role of within-language vocabulary size in children's semantic development: evidence from bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Margaux; Nicoladis, Elena

    2013-09-01

    This study tested whether bilingual children show a lag in semantic development (the schematic-categorical shift) relative to monolingual children due to smaller vocabularies within a language. Twenty French-English bilingual and twenty English monolingual children (seven to ten years old) participated in a picture-naming task in English. Their errors were coded for schematic or categorical relations. The bilingual children made more schematic errors than monolinguals, a difference that was accounted for statistically by vocabulary score differences. This result suggests that within-language vocabulary size is one important factor in semantic development and may explain why bilingual children sometimes show a lag relative to monolingual children in one of their languages, perhaps the language in which they have received less formal instruction.

  5. Language, Culture, and Power: Intercultural Bilingual Education among the Urarina of Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bartholomew

    1999-01-01

    The Peruvian national indigenous federation established a bilingual, intercultural teachers' training program to counter stereotypes of indigenous people portrayed in the authoritarian, monolingual Spanish national curriculum, and to enhance language preservation, ethnic mobilization, and cultural survival. A complementary transitional bilingual…

  6. Cognitive reserve in Parkinson's disease: the effects of welsh-english bilingualism on executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, John V; Martin-Forbes, Pamela A; Bastable, Alexandra J M; Pye, Kirstie L; Martyr, Anthony; Whitaker, Christopher J; Craik, Fergus I M; Bialystok, Ellen; Thomas, Enlli M; Mueller Gathercole, Virginia C; Clare, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Bilingualism has been shown to benefit executive function (EF) and delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease. This study aims at examining whether a bilingual advantage applies to EF in Parkinson's disease (PD). Method. In a cross-sectional outpatient cohort of monolingual English (n = 57) and bilingual Welsh/English (n = 46) speakers with PD we evaluated the effects of bilingualism compared with monolingualism on performance on EF tasks. In bilinguals we also assessed the effects of the degree of daily usage of each language and the degree of bilingualism. Results. Monolinguals showed an advantage in performance of language tests. There were no differences in performance of EF tests in monolinguals and bilinguals. Those who used Welsh less in daily life had better performance on one test of English vocabulary. The degree of bilingualism correlated with one test of nonverbal reasoning and one of working memory but with no other tests of EF. Discussion. The reasons why the expected benefit in EF in Welsh-English bilinguals with PD was not found require further study. Future studies in PD should include other language pairs, analysis of the effects of the degree of bilingualism, and longitudinal analysis of cognitive decline or dementia together with structural or functional neuroimaging.

  7. Cognitive Reserve in Parkinson's Disease: The Effects of Welsh-English Bilingualism on Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, John V.; Martin-Forbes, Pamela A.; Bastable, Alexandra J. M.; Pye, Kirstie L.; Martyr, Anthony; Whitaker, Christopher J.; Craik, Fergus I. M.; Bialystok, Ellen; Thomas, Enlli M.; Mueller Gathercole, Virginia C.; Clare, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Bilingualism has been shown to benefit executive function (EF) and delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease. This study aims at examining whether a bilingual advantage applies to EF in Parkinson's disease (PD). Method. In a cross-sectional outpatient cohort of monolingual English (n = 57) and bilingual Welsh/English (n = 46) speakers with PD we evaluated the effects of bilingualism compared with monolingualism on performance on EF tasks. In bilinguals we also assessed the effects of the degree of daily usage of each language and the degree of bilingualism. Results. Monolinguals showed an advantage in performance of language tests. There were no differences in performance of EF tests in monolinguals and bilinguals. Those who used Welsh less in daily life had better performance on one test of English vocabulary. The degree of bilingualism correlated with one test of nonverbal reasoning and one of working memory but with no other tests of EF. Discussion. The reasons why the expected benefit in EF in Welsh-English bilinguals with PD was not found require further study. Future studies in PD should include other language pairs, analysis of the effects of the degree of bilingualism, and longitudinal analysis of cognitive decline or dementia together with structural or functional neuroimaging. PMID:25922786

  8. ERP-pupil size correlations reveal how bilingualism enhances cognitive flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Jan-Rouke; Thierry, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    A bilingual upbringing has been shown to enhance executive control, but the neural mechanisms underpinning such effect are essentially unknown. Here, we investigated whether monolingual and bilingual toddlers differ in semantic processing efficiency and their allocation of attention to expected and unexpected visual stimuli. We simultaneously recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and pupil size in monolingual and bilingual toddlers presented with (spoken) word-picture pairs. Although ERP effects elicited by semantic relatedness were indistinguishable between the two children groups, pictures unrelated to the preceding word evoked greater pupil dilation than related pictures in bilinguals, but not in monolinguals. Furthermore, increasing pupil dilation to unrelated pictures was associated with decreasing N400 amplitude in bilinguals, whereas the monolingual toddlers showed the opposite association. Hence, attention to unexpected stimuli seems to hamper semantic integration in monolinguals, but to facilitate semantic integration in bilinguals, suggesting that bilingual toddlers are more tolerant to variation in word-referent mappings. Given the link between pupil dilation and norepinephrine-driven cognitive efficiency, correlations between ERP amplitude and concurrent pupil dilation provide new insights into the neural bases of the bilingual cognitive advantage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Onset of Word Form Recognition in English, Welsh, and English-Welsh Bilingual Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihman, Marilyn May; Thierry, Guillaume; Lum, Jarrad; Keren-Portnoy, Tamar; Martin, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Children raised in the home as English or Welsh monolinguals or English-Welsh bilinguals were tested on untrained word form recognition using both behavioral and neurophysiological procedures. Behavioral measures confirmed the onset of a familiarity effect at 11 months in English but failed to identify it in monolingual Welsh infants between 9 and…

  10. Does Bilingualism Matter for Early Literacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Herman, Jane

    1999-01-01

    Discusses three areas of development that have been shown to be fundamental to the acquisition of literacy: experience with stories and book reading, concepts of print, and phonological awareness. Research is reviewed in each area, comparing the development of these skills by bilingual and monolingual children. Research has been contradictory…

  11. Fast Mapping by Bilingual Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Pui Fong; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies show that young monolingual children's ability to "fast map" new word forms is closely associated with both their age and existing vocabulary knowledge. In this study we investigate potential relationships between age, fast mapping skills and existing vocabulary knowledge in both languages of developing bilingual preschool…

  12. Processing of Contrastiveness by Heritage Russian Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekerina, Irina A.; Trueswell, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments in the Visual World paradigm compared how monolingual Russian (Experiment 1) and heritage Russian-English bilingual (Experiment 2) listeners process contrastiveness online in Russian. Materials were color adjective-noun phrases embedded into the split-constituent construction Krasnuju polozite zvezdovku..."Red put…

  13. Bilingual Curriculum Construction and Empowerment in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mejia, Anne-Marie; Tejada, Harvey

    2003-01-01

    Traced development of a bilingual curriculum in a monolingual private school in Cali, Colombia, with particular reference to the creation of a curricular proposal in accord with the philosophy and expectations of the school community and the process of particular empowerment generated throughout the research. (Author/VWL)

  14. Language and executive functioning in the context of specific language impairment and bilingualism

    OpenAIRE

    Laloi, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present thesis has investigated how French-speaking monolingual and bilingual children with SLI (specific language impairment) performed on various tasks examining language and executive functioning (EF) abilities, in comparison to monolingual and bilingual peers without SLI. Language was investigated in the domains of phonology (novel-word repetition task), vocabulary (picture-pointing and picture-naming tasks) and grammar (elicitation tasks of past tense and object clitics). EF was inve...

  15. The benefits of being bilingual: working memory in bilingual Turkish-Dutch children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Elma; Küntay, Aylin C; Messer, Marielle; Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Whether bilingual children outperform monolingual children on visuospatial and verbal working memory tests was investigated. In addition, relations among bilingual proficiency, language use at home, and working memory were explored. The bilingual Turkish-Dutch children (n=68) in this study were raised in families with lower socioeconomic status (SES) and had smaller Dutch vocabularies than Dutch monolingual controls (n=52). Having these characteristics, they are part of an under-researched bilingual population. It was found that the bilingual Turkish-Dutch children showed cognitive gains in visuospatial and verbal working memory tests when SES and vocabulary were controlled, in particular on tests that require processing and not merely storage. These findings converge with recent studies that have revealed bilingual cognitive advantages beyond inhibition, and they support the hypothesis that experience with dual language management influences the central executive control system that regulates processing across a wide range of task demands. Furthermore, the results show that bilingual cognitive advantages are found in socioeconomically disadvantaged bilingual populations and suggest that benefits to executive control are moderated by bilingual proficiency.

  16. The role of language familiarity in bilingual stuttering assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amanda Savio; Robb, Michael P; Ormond, Tika; Blomgren, Michael

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of English-speaking speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to evaluate stuttering behaviour in two Spanish-English bilingual adults who stutter (AWS1 and AWS2). The English-speaking SLPs were asked to judge the frequency, severity, type, duration, and physical concomitants of stuttering in both languages of the two AWS. The combined results from the English-speaking SLPs were then compared to the judgements of three Spanish-English bilingual SLPs. Results indicated that English-speaking SLPs (1) judged stuttering frequency to be greater in Spanish than English for AWS1, and equal in Spanish and English for AWS2, (2) were more accurate at evaluating individual moments of stuttering for the English samples compared to the Spanish samples, (3) identified fewer and less severe stuttering behaviours than the bilingual SLPs in both languages, and (4) were accurate judges of overall stuttering severity in both languages. The results correspond to past research examining the accuracy of stuttering evaluations in unfamiliar languages. Possible explanations for the findings, clinical implications, and future research directions are discussed.

  17. The Role of Age of Acquisition on Past Tense Generation in Spanish-English Bilinguals: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Eric J.; Hernandez, Arturo E.

    2013-01-01

    At its most basic sense, the sensorimotor/emergentist (S/E) model suggests that early second language (L2) learning is preferentially reliant upon sensory and motor processes, while later L2 learning is accomplished by greater reliance on executive abilities. To investigate the S/E model using fMRI, neural correlates of L2 age of acquisition were…

  18. Acquisition of English word stress patterns in early and late bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guion, Susan G.

    2004-05-01

    Given early acquisition of prosodic knowledge as demonstrated by infants' sensitivity to native language accentual patterns, the question of whether learners can acquire new prosodic patterns across the life span arises. Acquisition of English stress by early and late Spanish-English and Korean-English bilinguals was investigated. In a production task, two-syllable nonwords were produced in noun and verb sentence frames. In a perception task, preference for first or last syllable stress on the nonwords was indicated. Also, real words that were phonologically similar to the nonwords were collected. Logistic regression analyses and ANOVAs were conducted to determine the effect of three factors (syllable structure, lexical class, and stress patterns of phonologically similar words) on the production and perception responses. In all three groups, stress patterns of phonologically similar real words predicted stress on nonwords. For the two other factors, early bilinguals patterned similarly to the native-English participants. Late Spanish-English bilinguals demonstrated less learning of stress patterns based on syllabic structure, and late Korean-English bilinguals demonstrated less learning of stress patterns based on lexical class than native-English speakers. Thus, compared to native speakers, late bilinguals' ability to abstract stress patterns is reduced and affected by the first language. [Work supported by NIH.

  19. Measures of speech rhythm and the role of corpus-based word frequency: a multifactorial comparison of Spanish(-English speakers

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    Michael J. Harris

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we address various measures that have been employed to distinguish between syllable and stress- timed languages. This study differs from all previous ones by (i exploring and comparing multiple metrics within a quantitative and multifactorial perspective and by (ii also documenting the impact of corpus-based word frequency. We begin with the basic distinctions of speech rhythms, dealing with the differences between syllable-timed languages and stress-timed languages and several methods that have been used to attempt to distinguish between the two. We then describe how these metrics were used in the current study comparing the speech rhythms of Mexican Spanish speakers and bilingual English/Spanish speakers (speakers born to Mexican parents in California. More specifically, we evaluate how well various metrics of vowel duration variability as well as the so far understudied factor of corpus-based frequency allow to classify speakers as monolingual or bilingual. A binary logistic regression identifies several main effects and interactions. Most importantly, our results call the utility of a particular rhythm metric, the PVI, into question and indicate that corpus data in the form of lemma frequencies interact with two metrics of durational variability, suggesting that durational variability metrics should ideally be studied in conjunction with corpus-based frequency data.

  20. Bilingualism and performance on two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries.

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    Linda C Karlsson

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of bilingualism on the two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV and A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition (NEPSY-II in children. The sample consisted of 100 Finland-Swedish children in two age groups. About half (n = 52 of the participants were early simultaneous bilinguals, and the other half (n = 48 were monolinguals. As no Finland-Swedish versions of the tests are available at the moment, both tests were translated and adapted to suit this population. The results revealed no difference in the performance between bilingual and monolingual children. This speaks against a cognitive advantage in bilingual children and indicates that development of separate norms for monolingual and bilingual children is not needed for clinical use.

  1. Effects of Bilingualism and Aging on Executive Function and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Poarch, Gregory; Luo, Lin; Craik, Fergus I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which younger and older monolingual and bilingual adults performed executive function tasks. In Study 1, 130 participants performed a Stroop task and bilinguals in both age groups showed less interference than monolinguals with a greater benefit for older adults. In Study 2, 108 participants performed a complex working memory task based on verbal or nonverbal stimuli. Bilinguals showed less interference than monolinguals, with a larger bilingual advantage in the older adult group and in the nonverbal task. Together, these results show that bilingual advantages in executive function depend on characteristics of the participants and features of the tasks, with larger effects found for older than younger adults and for complex tasks using nonverbal material. PMID:25244487

  2. Effects of bilingualism and aging on executive function and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Poarch, Gregory; Luo, Lin; Craik, Fergus I M

    2014-09-01

    Two studies are reported in which younger and older monolingual and bilingual adults performed executive function tasks. In Study 1, 130 participants performed a Stroop task and bilinguals in both age groups showed less interference than monolinguals with a greater benefit for older adults. In Study 2, 108 participants performed a complex working memory task based on verbal or nonverbal stimuli. Bilinguals showed less interference than monolinguals, with a larger bilingual advantage in the older adult group and in the nonverbal task. Together, these results show that bilingual advantages in executive function depend on characteristics of the participants and features of the tasks, with larger effects found for older than younger adults and for complex tasks using nonverbal material.

  3. Bilingualism and performance on two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Linda C; Soveri, Anna; Räsänen, Pekka; Kärnä, Antti; Delatte, Sonia; Lagerström, Emma; Mård, Lena; Steffansson, Mikaela; Lehtonen, Minna; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of bilingualism on the two widely used developmental neuropsychological test batteries Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition (NEPSY-II) in children. The sample consisted of 100 Finland-Swedish children in two age groups. About half (n = 52) of the participants were early simultaneous bilinguals, and the other half (n = 48) were monolinguals. As no Finland-Swedish versions of the tests are available at the moment, both tests were translated and adapted to suit this population. The results revealed no difference in the performance between bilingual and monolingual children. This speaks against a cognitive advantage in bilingual children and indicates that development of separate norms for monolingual and bilingual children is not needed for clinical use.

  4. Is there a bilingual advantage in the ANT task? Evidence from children

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    Eneko eAntón

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bilinguals have been shown to outperform monolinguals in a variety of tasks that do not tap into linguistic processes. The origin of this bilingual advantage has been questioned in recent years. While some authors argue that the reason behind this apparent advantage is bilinguals’ enhanced executive functioning, inhibitory skills and/or monitoring abilities, other authors suggest that the locus of these differences between bilinguals and monolinguals may lie in uncontrolled factors or incorrectly matched samples. In the current study we tested a group of 180 bilingual children and a group of 180 carefully matched monolinguals in a child-friendly version of the ANT task. Following recent evidence from similar studies with children, our results showed no bilingual advantage at all, given that the performance of the two groups in the task and the indices associated with the individual attention networks were highly similar and statistically indistinguishable.

  5. Lifelong bilingualism maintains neural efficiency for cognitive control in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Brian T; Kim, Chobok; Johnson, Nathan F; Kryscio, Richard J; Smith, Charles D

    2013-01-09

    Recent behavioral data have shown that lifelong bilingualism can maintain youthful cognitive control abilities in aging. Here, we provide the first direct evidence of a neural basis for the bilingual cognitive control boost in aging. Two experiments were conducted, using a perceptual task-switching paradigm, including a total of 110 participants. In Experiment 1, older adult bilinguals showed better perceptual switching performance than their monolingual peers. In Experiment 2, younger and older adult monolinguals and bilinguals completed the same perceptual task-switching experiment while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed. Typical age-related performance reductions and fMRI activation increases were observed. However, like younger adults, bilingual older adults outperformed their monolingual peers while displaying decreased activation in left lateral frontal cortex and cingulate cortex. Critically, this attenuation of age-related over-recruitment associated with bilingualism was directly correlated with better task-switching performance. In addition, the lower blood oxygenation level-dependent response in frontal regions accounted for 82% of the variance in the bilingual task-switching reaction time advantage. These results suggest that lifelong bilingualism offsets age-related declines in the neural efficiency for cognitive control processes.

  6. Bilingualism provides a neural reserve for aging populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abutalebi, Jubin; Guidi, Lucia; Borsa, Virginia; Canini, Matteo; Della Rosa, Pasquale A; Parris, Ben A; Weekes, Brendan S

    2015-03-01

    It has been postulated that bilingualism may act as a cognitive reserve and recent behavioral evidence shows that bilinguals are diagnosed with dementia about 4-5 years later compared to monolinguals. In the present study, we investigated the neural basis of these putative protective effects in a group of aging bilinguals as compared to a matched monolingual control group. For this purpose, participants completed the Erikson Flanker task and their performance was correlated to gray matter (GM) volume in order to investigate if cognitive performance predicts GM volume specifically in areas affected by aging. We performed an ex-Gaussian analysis on the resulting RTs and report that aging bilinguals performed better than aging monolinguals on the Flanker task. Bilingualism was overall associated with increased GM in the ACC. Likewise, aging induced effects upon performance correlated only for monolinguals to decreased gray matter in the DLPFC. Taken together, these neural regions might underlie the benefits of bilingualism and act as a neural reserve that protects against the cognitive decline that occurs during aging.

  7. The Universality of Syntactic Constraints on Spanish-English Codeswitching in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the syntactic properties of codeswitching within sentences uttered by bilingual speakers of Spanish and English in the USA or the so-called "Spanglish," by analysing data based on examples cited in the existing literature. To that end, I will examine the definitions of this cultural and linguistic phenomenon, make a…

  8. An Evaluation of Student Interpersonal Support in a Spanish-English Nursing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Paul C.; Gess-Newsome, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Spanish speaking nurses are in great demand. For bilingual Hispanic undergraduate nursing students who might someday fill this need, interpersonal support can be a deciding factor in whether students successfully complete their program of study. This paper presents the results of an evaluative study of supportive relationships within a…

  9. Attention during visual search: The benefit of bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Deanna C; Latman, Vered; Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives/Purpose/Research Questions Following reports showing bilingual advantages in executive control (EC) performance, the current study investigated the role of selective attention as a foundational skill that might underlie these advantages. Design/Methodology/Approach Bilingual and monolingual young adults performed a visual search task by determining whether a target shape was present amid distractor shapes. Task difficulty was manipulated by search type (feature or conjunction) and by the number and discriminability of the distractors. In feature searches, the target (e.g., green triangle) differed on a single dimension (e.g., color) from the distractors (e.g., yellow triangles); in conjunction searches, two types of distractors (e.g., pink circles and turquoise squares) each differed from the target (e.g., turquoise circle) on a single but different dimension (e.g., color or shape). Data and Analysis Reaction time and accuracy data from 109 young adults (53 monolinguals and 56 bilinguals) were analyzed using a repeated-measures analysis of variance. Group membership, search type, number and discriminability of distractors were the independent variables. Findings/Conclusions Participants identified the target more quickly in the feature searches, when the target was highly discriminable from the distractors and when there were fewer distractors. Importantly, although monolinguals and bilinguals performed equivalently on the feature searches, bilinguals were significantly faster than monolinguals in identifying the target in the more difficult conjunction search, providing evidence for better control of visual attention in bilinguals Originality Unlike previous studies on bilingual visual attention, the current study found a bilingual attention advantage in a paradigm that did not include a Stroop-like manipulation to set up false expectations. Significance/Implications Thus, our findings indicate that the need to resolve explicit conflict or

  10. Comprehension of Ironic Utterances by Bilingual Children

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    Banasik Natalia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates verbal irony comprehension by 6-year old bilingual children speaking Polish and English and living in the USA. Researchers have predominantly focused on monolingual populations when examining non-literal language in young children. This is the first exploratory study of how irony is comprehended by children growing up in a bilingual setting. Results suggest that 6-year olds from this population score high in decoding the intended meaning behind an ironic utterance and that there is a relation between this ability and the development of their theory of mind (ToM. Interestingly, the data suggests that in the tested sample, no difference could be observed between comprehension of sarcastic irony (i.e., irony containing the element of blame directed towards the addressee and non-sarcastic irony (irony without criticism towards the interlocutor. The results may be a basis for assuming that irony comprehension may be different in bilingual, compared to monolingual, samples.

  11. Comprehension and Error Monitoring in Simultaneous Interpreters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    In the current study we explored lexical, syntactic, and semantic processes during text comprehension in English monolinguals and Spanish/English (first language/second language) bilinguals with different experience in interpreting (nontrained bilinguals, interpreting students and professional interpreters). The participants performed an…

  12. Bilingual Welsh-English Children's Acquisition of Vocabulary and Reading: Implications for Bilingual Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhys, Mirain; Thomas, Enlli Môn

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have highlighted early differences in bilinguals' rate of language acquisition in comparison with monolinguals. However, these differences seem to disappear with increasing age and exposure to the language, and do so quicker in dominant community languages than in minority status languages. This study aimed to replicate these…

  13. Crosslinguistic semantic and translation priming in normal bilingual individuals and bilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Swathi; Lebel, Keith R

    2007-04-01

    The present study examined lexical representation in early Spanish-English bilinguals using an unmasked semantic and translation priming paradigm. In Experiment 1, participants were divided into two groups based on performance (more-balanced bilinguals, MB and less-balanced bilinguals, LB) on the experimental task. In Experiment 2, four patients with bilingual aphasia (BA) performed the same experiment. Results from both experiments revealed that all groups were more accurate for English targets (S-E direction) than Spanish targets (S-E direction). In Experiment 1, semantic priming was observed from English to Spanish in both the LB and MB groups although the effect was greater for the LB group. Further, only the LB group showed priming from Spanish to English. For both normal groups, there was no difference between translation and semantic priming effects. In Experiment 2, patients with bilingual aphasia demonstrated different patterns of activation with no clear trends. Two participants demonstrated greater priming from Spanish to English whereas two participants demonstrated the opposite effect.

  14. Variación morfosintáctica y lenguas en contacto: las formas analíticas y sintéticas del presente progresivo en el español monolingüe y bilingüe Morphosyntactic variation and language contact: analytic and synthetic forms of the present progressive in monolingual and bilingual Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Fafulas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se realiza un análisis cuantitativo sobre la variación morfosintáctica de las formas sintéticas (presente simple y analíticas (presente progresivo en contextos cuyo significado alude al tiempo presente progresivo en el español monolingüe y bilingüe. Se emplea una encuesta contextualizada, previamente codificada según el aspecto léxico-semántico del verbo y el valor semántico de los adverbios de tiempo, con el objetivo de evidenciar los contextos en los que hay variación de dichas formas. Además de los factores lingüísticos, se incluyen los factores extralingüísticos de género y bilingüismo en el análisis. Los resultados señalan que tanto el aspecto léxico-semántico del verbo como el valor semántico del adverbio son factores significativos en la predicción de ambas formas. De igual manera, el factor extralingüístico que considera el nivel de bilingüismo de los participantes tiene un efecto significativo. El estudio contribuye metodológicamente a la investigación de la variación de las formas analíticas y sintéticas, dado que el instrumento empleado en la presente monografía controla las variables lingüísticas y obtiene el mismo número de respuestas por persona, permitiendo una evaluación de los participantes en contextos idénticos. Por último, el estudio aporta a la literatura previa sobre el tema al proveer evidencia de que las formas sintéticas y analíticas aparecen en alternancia en un número de contextos mayor que los previamente identificados en otros estudios, lo cual permite definir debidamente el ámbito de la variación.In this study we present a quantitative analysis of the morphosyntactic variation of the analytic (present progressive and synthetic (simple present forms of present progressive aspect in monolingual and bilingual Spanish. By way of a contextualized questionnaire previously coded for the linguistic factors of verbal lexical aspect and semantics of the adverb, we

  15. Relationship between the Onset Age of Bilingualism and Development of Cognitive Control among Nigerians

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    Yasir Bdaiwi Jasim Al-Shujairi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of studies suggests that bilingual persons are better than monolinguals on a variety of cognitive measures. Thus, the present study investigates the relationship between the onset age of bilingual and the development of cognitive control among Nigerians. 10 bilingual students studying at University Putra Malaysia have been selected to participate in this study.  They are divided into two groups: 5 early and 5 late bilinguals. The data are collected using online English proficiency test and E-prime software as instruments. Both groups are examined for English proficiency and performance on a flanker task. The result demonstrates that early bilinguals are more proficient in English than late bilinguals. Moreover, early bilingual performs better than late bilingual on flanker task. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that being early active bilinguals tend to have greater advantages in cognitive control and higher language proficiency. Keywords: onset age, bilingualism, and cognitive control

  16. Musical Training, Bilingualism, and Executive Function: A Closer Look at Task Switching and Dual‐Task Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody

    2015-01-01

    ...‐task performance, musicians also outperformed non‐musicians. There was neither a cognitive advantage for bilinguals relative to monolinguals, nor an interaction between music and language to suggest...

  17. Is There Really a Labor Market Advantage to Being Bilingual in the U.S.? Policy Information Report and Research Report. ETS RR-15-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gándara, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Although it is commonly thought that people who are bilingual have an advantage in the labor market, studies on this topic have not borne out this perception.The literature, in fact, has found an earnings penalty is associated with bilingualism--people who are bilingual often make less than people who are monolingual in similar jobs. This report…

  18. Fairview German Bilingual School: A Successful Model for Elementary-School, Second-Language Learning, Part II. Laying the Foundation: German in the First Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Marianne

    The first grade program of the Fairview German Bilingual School, the elementary (K-5) segment of the Cincinnati public school system's German bilingual alternative program, is described. The school provides intensive second-language instruction in German for monolingual English-speaking children with bilingualism as the objective. The school is…

  19. Cognitive Reserve in Parkinson’s Disease: The Effects of Welsh-English Bilingualism on Executive Function

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    John V. Hindle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Bilingualism has been shown to benefit executive function (EF and delay the onset of Alzheimer’s disease. This study aims at examining whether a bilingual advantage applies to EF in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Method. In a cross-sectional outpatient cohort of monolingual English (n=57 and bilingual Welsh/English (n=46 speakers with PD we evaluated the effects of bilingualism compared with monolingualism on performance on EF tasks. In bilinguals we also assessed the effects of the degree of daily usage of each language and the degree of bilingualism. Results. Monolinguals showed an advantage in performance of language tests. There were no differences in performance of EF tests in monolinguals and bilinguals. Those who used Welsh less in daily life had better performance on one test of English vocabulary. The degree of bilingualism correlated with one test of nonverbal reasoning and one of working memory but with no other tests of EF. Discussion. The reasons why the expected benefit in EF in Welsh-English bilinguals with PD was not found require further study. Future studies in PD should include other language pairs, analysis of the effects of the degree of bilingualism, and longitudinal analysis of cognitive decline or dementia together with structural or functional neuroimaging.

  20. No Habla Ingles: Exploring a Bilingual Child's Literacy Learning Opportunities in a Predominantly English-Speaking Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Cindy; McVee, Mary Birgit; Shojgreen-Downer, Angela M.; Duenas, Leila Flores

    1998-01-01

    A monolingual English-speaking teacher and bilingual researchers analyzed the discursive practices in a third-grade classroom that affected the literacy learning opportunities available to a monolingual Spanish-speaking migrant student. Literacy learning opportunities were shaped and influenced by the specific contexts in which the student acted…