WorldWideScience

Sample records for monolingual shift-reduce parsing

  1. Dependency Parsing

    CERN Document Server

    Kubler, Sandra; Nivre, Joakim

    2009-01-01

    Dependency-based methods for syntactic parsing have become increasingly popular in natural language processing in recent years. This book gives a thorough introduction to the methods that are most widely used today. After an introduction to dependency grammar and dependency parsing, followed by a formal characterization of the dependency parsing problem, the book surveys the three major classes of parsing models that are in current use: transition-based, graph-based, and grammar-based models. It continues with a chapter on evaluation and one on the comparison of different methods, and it close

  2. Faster, Practical GLL Parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Afroozeh (Ali); A. Izmaylova (Anastasia)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractGeneralized LL (GLL) parsing is an extension of recursive-descent (RD) parsing that supports all context-free grammars in cubic time and space. GLL parsers have the direct relationship with the grammar that RD parsers have, and therefore, compared to GLR, are easier to understand, debug,

  3. Unifying LL and LR parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn parsing theory, LL parsing and LR parsing are regarded to be two distinct methods. In this paper the relation between these methods is clarified.As shown in literature on parsing theory, for every context-free grammar, a so-called non-deterministic LR(0) automaton can be constructed.

  4. On Parsing CHILDES

    OpenAIRE

    Laakso, Aarre

    2005-01-01

    Research on child language acquisition would benefit from the availability of a large body of syntactically parsed utterances between parents and children. We consider the problem of generating such a ``treebank'' from the CHILDES corpus, which currently contains primarily orthographically transcribed speech tagged for lexical category.

  5. Faster scannerless GLR parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Economopoulos, G.R.; Klint, P.; Vinju, J.J.; Moor, de O.; Schwartzbach, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis and renovation of large software portfolios requires syntax analysis of multiple, usually embedded, languages and this is beyond the capabilities of many standard parsing techniques. The traditional separation between lexer and parser falls short due to the limitations of tokenization based

  6. Faster Scannerless GLR parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Vinju (Jurgen); G.R. Economopoulos (Giorgos Robert); P. Klint (Paul)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAnalysis and renovation of large software portfolios requires syntax analysis of multiple, usually embedded, languages and this is beyond the capabilities of many standard parsing techniques. The traditional separation between lexer and parser falls short due to the limitations of

  7. Faster scannerless GLR parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.R. Economopoulos (Giorgos Robert); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen); O. de Moor; M.I. Schwartzbach

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAnalysis and renovation of large software portfolios requires syntax analysis of multiple, usually embedded, languages and this is beyond the capabilities of many standard parsing techniques. The traditional separation between lexer and parser falls short due to the limitations of

  8. Memory-Based Shallow Parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.F.

    2002-01-01

    We present memory-based learning approaches to shallow parsing and apply these to five tasks: base noun phrase identification, arbitrary base phrase recognition, clause detection, noun phrase parsing and full parsing. We use feature selection techniques and system combination methods for improving

  9. Parse Journal #2: Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, Jason; Malik, Suhail; Phillips, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    As a periodical concerned with the critical potential of artistic research, this edition of the PARSE journal mobilises the multiple perspectives of artists, thinkers, critics and curators on the problematics, discontents and possibilities of private capital as an unregulated yet assumptive producer of art’s value, including its integration with state-funding. We have put emphasis on how this conditioning of art’s production, circulation, reception and sale can be put to task. In particular, ...

  10. Memory-Based Shallow Parsing

    OpenAIRE

    Sang, Erik F. Tjong Kim

    2002-01-01

    We present memory-based learning approaches to shallow parsing and apply these to five tasks: base noun phrase identification, arbitrary base phrase recognition, clause detection, noun phrase parsing and full parsing. We use feature selection techniques and system combination methods for improving the performance of the memory-based learner. Our approach is evaluated on standard data sets and the results are compared with that of other systems. This reveals that our approach works well for ba...

  11. [Monolingualism, an overlooked multilingual?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, E

    There has been some emphasis on the practice of multi­lingualism. It is seen as encouraging children creativity, lin­guis­­tic sensitivity and openness. In this article, we seek to find out if the different qualities demonstrated in multilingualism can also be developed in a monolingualism context. Despite the fact that it is a single language system - where grammar, accents, the rhythm of the sentence remain unchanged - it will be interesting to draw some parallels with multilingualism. This will lead us to study the processes of oral and written language acquisition in children. The associations with stuttering will also be mentioned.

  12. Parsing Heterogeneous Striatal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Nakamura

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is an input channel of the basal ganglia and is well known to be involved in reward-based decision making and learning. At the macroscopic level, the striatum has been postulated to contain parallel functional modules, each of which includes neurons that perform similar computations to support selection of appropriate actions for different task contexts. At the single-neuron level, however, recent studies in monkeys and rodents have revealed heterogeneity in neuronal activity even within restricted modules of the striatum. Looking for generality in the complex striatal activity patterns, here we briefly survey several types of striatal activity, focusing on their usefulness for mediating behaviors. In particular, we focus on two types of behavioral tasks: reward-based tasks that use salient sensory cues and manipulate outcomes associated with the cues; and perceptual decision tasks that manipulate the quality of noisy sensory cues and associate all correct decisions with the same outcome. Guided by previous insights on the modular organization and general selection-related functions of the basal ganglia, we relate striatal activity patterns on these tasks to two types of computations: implementation of selection and evaluation. We suggest that a parsing with the selection/evaluation categories encourages a focus on the functional commonalities revealed by studies with different animal models and behavioral tasks, instead of a focus on aspects of striatal activity that may be specific to a particular task setting. We then highlight several questions in the selection-evaluation framework for future explorations.

  13. Video Scene Parsing with Predictive Feature Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Xiaojie; Li, Xin; Xiao, Huaxin; Shen, Xiaohui; Lin, Zhe; Yang, Jimei; Chen, Yunpeng; Dong, Jian; Liu, Luoqi; Jie, Zequn; Feng, Jiashi; Yan, Shuicheng

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we address the challenging video scene parsing problem by developing effective representation learning methods given limited parsing annotations. In particular, we contribute two novel methods that constitute a unified parsing framework. (1) \\textbf{Predictive feature learning}} from nearly unlimited unlabeled video data. Different from existing methods learning features from single frame parsing, we learn spatiotemporal discriminative features by enforcing a parsing network to ...

  14. Dependency Parsing with Transformed Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxiang Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependency parsing is an important subtask of natural language processing. In this paper, we propose an embedding feature transforming method for graph-based parsing, transform-based parsing, which directly utilizes the inner similarity of the features to extract information from all feature strings including the un-indexed strings and alleviate the feature sparse problem. The model transforms the extracted features to transformed features via applying a feature weight matrix, which consists of similarities between the feature strings. Since the matrix is usually rank-deficient because of similar feature strings, it would influence the strength of constraints. However, it is proven that the duplicate transformed features do not degrade the optimization algorithm: the margin infused relaxed algorithm. Moreover, this problem can be alleviated by reducing the number of the nearest transformed features of a feature. In addition, to further improve the parsing accuracy, a fusion parser is introduced to integrate transformed and original features. Our experiments verify that both transform-based and fusion parser improve the parsing accuracy compared to the corresponding feature-based parser.

  15. Do bilinguals outperform monolinguals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejdi Sejdiu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between second dialect acquisition and the psychological capacity of the learner is still a divisive topic that generates a lot of debate. A few researchers contend that the acquisition of the second dialect tends to improve the cognitive abilities in various individuals, but at the same time it could hinder the same abilities in other people. Currently, immersion is a common occurrence in some countries. In the recent past, it has significantly increased in its popularity, which has caused parents, professionals, and researchers to question whether second language acquisition has a positive impact on cognitive development, encompassing psychological ability. In rundown, the above might decide to comprehend the effects of using a second language based on the literal aptitudes connected with the native language. The issue of bilingualism was seen as a disadvantage until recently because of two languages being present which would hinder or delay the development of languages. However, recent studies have proven that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in tasks which require more attention.

  16. Contextual Semantic Parsing using Crowdsourced Spatial Descriptions

    OpenAIRE

    Dukes, Kais

    2014-01-01

    We describe a contextual parser for the Robot Commands Treebank, a new crowdsourced resource. In contrast to previous semantic parsers that select the most-probable parse, we consider the different problem of parsing using additional situational context to disambiguate between different readings of a sentence. We show that multiple semantic analyses can be searched using dynamic programming via interaction with a spatial planner, to guide the parsing process. We are able to parse sentences in...

  17. Bit-coded regular expression parsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Henglein, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    the DFA-based parsing algorithm due to Dub ´e and Feeley to emit the bits of the bit representation without explicitly materializing the parse tree itself. We furthermore show that Frisch and Cardelli’s greedy regular expression parsing algorithm can be straightforwardly modified to produce bit codings...

  18. Monolingual Lexicography and Linguistic Variation in Shona

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    when working on monolingual Shona dictionaries. ... ciplines often refer to the term variation. ... phers of monolingual dictionaries encounter in their work. 2. ..... used or the literal sense first and the rarely used or the metaphorical sense(s).

  19. Parsing Universal Dependencies without training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Alonso, Héctor; Agic, Zeljko; Plank, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    We present UDP, the first training-free parser for Universal Dependencies (UD). Our algorithm is based on PageRank and a small set of specific dependency head rules. UDP features two-step decoding to guarantee that function words are attached as leaf nodes. The parser requires no training......, and it is competitive with a delexicalized transfer system. UDP offers a linguistically sound unsupervised alternative to cross-lingual parsing for UD. The parser has very few parameters and distinctly robust to domain change across languages....

  20. Monolingual Lexicography and Linguistic Variation in Shona

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    Abstract: This article focuses on the problems lexicographers of monolingual dictionaries face when dealing with a language characterised by differences associated with geographical variation. The article specifically seeks to explore problems with which Shona lexicographers are confronted when working on monolingual ...

  1. Two-pass greedy regular expression parsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grathwohl, Niels Bjørn Bugge; Henglein, Fritz; Nielsen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    We present new algorithms for producing greedy parses for regular expressions (REs) in a semi-streaming fashion. Our lean-log algorithm executes in time O(mn) for REs of size m and input strings of size n and outputs a compact bit-coded parse tree representation. It improves on previous algorithms...... by: operating in only 2 passes; using only O(m) words of random-access memory (independent of n); requiring only kn bits of sequentially written and read log storage, where k ... and not requiring it to be stored at all. Previous RE parsing algorithms do not scale linearly with input size, or require substantially more log storage and employ 3 passes where the first consists of reversing the input, or do not or are not known to produce a greedy parse. The performance of our unoptimized C...

  2. Probabilistic lexical generalization for French dependency parsing

    OpenAIRE

    Henestroza Anguiano , Enrique; Candito , Marie

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper investigates the impact on French dependency parsing of lexical generalization methods beyond lemmatization and morphological analysis. A distributional thesaurus is created from a large text corpus and used for distributional clustering and WordNet automatic sense ranking. The standard approach for lexical generalization in parsing is to map a word to a single generalized class, either replacing the word with the class or adding a new feature for the class....

  3. Context-free parsing with connectionist networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanty, M. A.

    1986-08-01

    This paper presents a simple algorithm which converts any context-free grammar into a connectionist network which parses strings (of arbitrary but fixed maximum length) in the language defined by that grammar. The network is fast, O(n), and deterministicd. It consists of binary units which compute a simple function of their input. When the grammar is put in Chomsky normal form, O(n3) units needed to parse inputs of length up to n.

  4. Monolingual and Bilingual Learners' Dictionaries*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufus H. Gouws

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: When deciding on the best learners' dictionary for a specific user and a specificsituation of usage one often has to make a choice between a monolingual and a bilingual learners'dictionary. This article discusses some aspects of the user-driven approach so prevalent in moderndaylexicographic thought, focuses broadly on dictionary typology and takes a closer look at monolingualand bilingual learners' dictionaries. Some problems users experience when learning a newlanguage, e.g. language distortion and problems related to the phenomenon of false friends, especiallyin closely related languages, are mentioned. It is indicated that a typological hybrid dictionarycould assist certain users. The importance of an unambiguous identification of the relevantlexicographic functions is emphasised and the notions of function condensation and function mergingare introduced. It is shown that the typological choice should be determined by a function-basedapproach to dictionary usage.

    Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, FALSE FRIENDS, FUNCTION CONDENSATION,FUNCTION MERGING, GENUINE PURPOSE, LEARNERS' DICTIONARY, LEXICOGRAPHICFUNCTIONS, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, TEXT PRODUCTION, TEXT RECEPTION,TYPOLOGICAL HYBRID, TYPOLOGY.

    Opsomming: Eentalige en tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboeke. Wanneerbesluit moet word oor die beste aanleerderwoordeboek vir 'n spesifieke gebruiker en 'n spesifiekegebruiksituasie moet daar dikwels gekies word tussen 'n eentalige en 'n tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboek.Hierdie artikel bespreek bepaalde aspekte van die gebruikersgedrewe benaderingwat kenmerkend is van die moderne leksikografiese denke, fokus breedweg op woordeboektipologieen gee in meer besonderhede aandag aan sekere aspekte van eentalige en tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboeke.Bepaalde probleme wat gebruikers ervaar by die aanleer van 'n vreemde taal,bv. taalversteuring en probleme verwant aan die verskynsel van valse vriende, veral in nou verwantetale, kry aandag

  5. Application development with Parse using iOS SDK

    CERN Document Server

    Birani, Bhanu

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide, featuring step-by-step instructions showing you how to use Parse iOS, and handle your data on cloud.If you are a developer who wants to build your applications instantly using Parse iOS as a back end application development, this book is ideal for you. This book will help you to understand Parse, featuring examples to help you get familiar with the concepts of Parse iOS.

  6. A Semantic Constraint on Syntactic Parsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Coker, Pamela L.

    This research examines how semantic information influences syntactic parsing decisions during sentence processing. In the first experiment, subjects were presented lexical strings having syntactically identical surface structures but with two possible underlying structures: "The children taught by the Berlitz method," and "The…

  7. Sequence distance via parsing complexity: Heartbeat signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degli Esposti, M.; Farinelli, C.; Menconi, G.

    2009-01-01

    We compare and discuss the use of different symbolic codings of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals in order to distinguish healthy patients from hospitalized ones. To this aim, we recall a parsing-based similarity distance and compare the performances of several methods of classification of data.

  8. Perceiving Event Dynamics and Parsing Hollywood Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, James E.; Brunick, Kaitlin L.; Candan, Ayse

    2012-01-01

    We selected 24 Hollywood movies released from 1940 through 2010 to serve as a film corpus. Eight viewers, three per film, parsed them into events, which are best termed subscenes. While watching a film a second time, viewers scrolled through frames and recorded the frame number where each event began. Viewers agreed about 90% of the time. We then…

  9. Parsing polarization squeezing into Fock layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Christian R.; Madsen, Lars Skovgaard; Klimov, Andrei B.

    2016-01-01

    photon number do the methods coincide; when the photon number is indefinite, we parse the state in Fock layers, finding that substantially higher squeezing can be observed in some of the single layers. By capitalizing on the properties of the Husimi Q function, we map this notion onto the Poincare space......, providing a full account of the measured squeezing....

  10. Image portion identification methods, image parsing methods, image parsing systems, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassahn, Gordon D.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.

    2013-01-08

    Image portion identification methods, image parsing methods, image parsing systems, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an image portion identification method includes accessing data regarding an image depicting a plurality of biological substrates corresponding to at least one biological sample and indicating presence of at least one biological indicator within the biological sample and, using processing circuitry, automatically identifying a portion of the image depicting one of the biological substrates but not others of the biological substrates.

  11. A structural SVM approach for reference parsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel X; Thoma, George R

    2011-06-09

    Automated extraction of bibliographic data, such as article titles, author names, abstracts, and references is essential to the affordable creation of large citation databases. References, typically appearing at the end of journal articles, can also provide valuable information for extracting other bibliographic data. Therefore, parsing individual reference to extract author, title, journal, year, etc. is sometimes a necessary preprocessing step in building citation-indexing systems. The regular structure in references enables us to consider reference parsing a sequence learning problem and to study structural Support Vector Machine (structural SVM), a newly developed structured learning algorithm on parsing references. In this study, we implemented structural SVM and used two types of contextual features to compare structural SVM with conventional SVM. Both methods achieve above 98% token classification accuracy and above 95% overall chunk-level accuracy for reference parsing. We also compared SVM and structural SVM to Conditional Random Field (CRF). The experimental results show that structural SVM and CRF achieve similar accuracies at token- and chunk-levels. When only basic observation features are used for each token, structural SVM achieves higher performance compared to SVM since it utilizes the contextual label features. However, when the contextual observation features from neighboring tokens are combined, SVM performance improves greatly, and is close to that of structural SVM after adding the second order contextual observation features. The comparison of these two methods with CRF using the same set of binary features show that both structural SVM and CRF perform better than SVM, indicating their stronger sequence learning ability in reference parsing.

  12. Telugu dependency parsing using different statistical parsers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Venkata Seshu Kumari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore different statistical dependency parsers for parsing Telugu. We consider five popular dependency parsers namely, MaltParser, MSTParser, TurboParser, ZPar and Easy-First Parser. We experiment with different parser and feature settings and show the impact of different settings. We also provide a detailed analysis of the performance of all the parsers on major dependency labels. We report our results on test data of Telugu dependency treebank provided in the ICON 2010 tools contest on Indian languages dependency parsing. We obtain state-of-the art performance of 91.8% in unlabeled attachment score and 70.0% in labeled attachment score. To the best of our knowledge ours is the only work which explored all the five popular dependency parsers and compared the performance under different feature settings for Telugu.

  13. Monolingual Dictionary Use in an EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Holi Ibrahim Holi

    2012-01-01

    Caledonian College of Engineering, Oman, has been encouraging its students to use monolingual dictionaries rather than bilingual or bilingualized ones in classroom and during the exams. This policy with has been received with mixed feelings and attitudes. Therefore, this study strives to explore teachers' and students' attitudes about the use of…

  14. Translanguaging in Higher Education: Beyond Monolingual Ideologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazak, Catherine M., Ed.; Carroll, Kevin S., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This book examines translanguaging in higher education and provides clear examples of what translanguaging looks like in practice in particular contexts around the world. While higher education has historically been seen as a monolingual space, the case studies from the international contexts included in this collection show us that institutions…

  15. Fast Parsing using Pruning and Grammar Specialization

    OpenAIRE

    Rayner, Manny; Carter, David

    1996-01-01

    We show how a general grammar may be automatically adapted for fast parsing of utterances from a specific domain by means of constituent pruning and grammar specialization based on explanation-based learning. These methods together give an order of magnitude increase in speed, and the coverage loss entailed by grammar specialization is reduced to approximately half that reported in previous work. Experiments described here suggest that the loss of coverage has been reduced to the point where ...

  16. Error Parsing: An alternative method of implementing social judgment theory

    OpenAIRE

    Crystal C. Hall; Daniel M. Oppenheimer

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel method of judgment analysis called Error Parsing, based upon an alternative method of implementing Social Judgment Theory (SJT). SJT and Error Parsing both posit the same three components of error in human judgment: error due to noise, error due to cue weighting, and error due to inconsistency. In that sense, the broad theory and framework are the same. However, SJT and Error Parsing were developed to answer different questions, and thus use different m...

  17. Dual decomposition for parsing with non-projective head automata

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Terry; Rush, Alexander Matthew; Collins, Michael; Jaakkola, Tommi S.; Sontag, David Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces algorithms for non-projective parsing based on dual decomposition. We focus on parsing algorithms for non-projective head automata, a generalization of head-automata models to non-projective structures. The dual decomposition algorithms are simple and efficient, relying on standard dynamic programming and minimum spanning tree algorithms. They provably solve an LP relaxation of the non-projective parsing problem. Empirically the LP relaxation is very often tight: for man...

  18. Monolingual accounting dictionaries for EFL text production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2006-01-01

    Monolingual accounting dictionaries are important for producing financial reporting texts in English in an international setting, because of the lack of specialised bilingual dictionaries. As the intended user groups have different factual and linguistic competences, they require specific types...... text production. The monolingual accounting dictionary needs to include information about UK, US and international accounting terms, their grammatical properties, their potential for being combined with other words in collocations, phrases and sentences in order to meet user requirements. Data items...... of information. By identifying and analysing the users' factual and linguistic competences, user needs, use-situations and the stages involved in producing accounting texts in English as a foreign language, lexicographers will have a sound basis for designing the optimal English accounting dictionary for EFL...

  19. Monolingual Accounting Dictionaries for EFL Text Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Monolingual accounting dictionaries are important for producing financial reporting texts in English in an international setting, because of the lack of specialised bilingual dictionaries. As the intended user groups have different factual and linguistic competences, they require specific types...... text production. The monolingual accounting dictionary needs to include information about UK, US and international accounting terms, their grammatical properties, their potential for being combined with other words in collocations, phrases and sentences in order to meet user requirements. Data items...... of information. By identifying and analysing the users' factual and linguistic competences, user needs, use-situations and the stages involved in producing accounting texts in English as a foreign language, lexicographers will have a sound basis for designing the optimal English accounting dictionary for EFL...

  20. Multilingual Researchers Internationalizing Monolingual English-Only Education through Post-Monolingual Research Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Singh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The argument advanced in this Special Issue of Education Sciences favors democratizing knowledge production and dissemination across the humanities and social sciences through the mainstreaming of multilingual researchers capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire. An important contribution of the papers in this Special Issue is the promise that post-monolingual research methodology holds for collaborative projects among multilingual and monolingual researchers that tap into intercultural divergences across languages. Together these papers give warrant to multilingual researchers, including Higher Degree Researchers develop their capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire, an educational innovation that could be of immense benefit to scholars working predominantly monolingual universities. Through their thought provoking papers presented in this Special Issue, these researchers invites those working in the education sciences to seriously consider the potential benefits of multiplying the intellectual resources used for theorizing that is possible through activating, mobilizing and deploying researchers’ multilingual resources in knowledge production and dissemination.

  1. More Limitations to Monolingualism: Bilinguals Outperform Monolinguals in Implicit Word Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Paola; Mulak, Karen E; Fu, Charlene S L; Singh, Leher

    2016-01-01

    To succeed at cross-situational word learning, learners must infer word-object mappings by attending to the statistical co-occurrences of novel objects and labels across multiple encounters. While past studies have investigated this as a learning mechanism for infants and monolingual adults, bilinguals' cross-situational word learning abilities have yet to be tested. Here, we compared monolinguals' and bilinguals' performance on a cross-situational word learning paradigm that featured phonologically distinct word pairs (e.g., BON-DEET) and phonologically similar word pairs that varied by a single consonant or vowel segment (e.g., BON-TON, DEET-DIT, respectively). Both groups learned the novel word-referent mappings, providing evidence that cross-situational word learning is a learning strategy also available to bilingual adults. Furthermore, bilinguals were overall more accurate than monolinguals. This supports that bilingualism fosters a wide range of cognitive advantages that may benefit implicit word learning. Additionally, response patterns to the different trial types revealed a relative difficulty for vowel minimal pairs than consonant minimal pairs, replicating the pattern found in monolinguals by Escudero et al. (2016) in a different English accent. Specifically, all participants failed to learn vowel contrasts differentiated by vowel height. We discuss evidence for this bilingual advantage as a language-specific or general advantage.

  2. Verb Errors of Bilingual and Monolingual Basic Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Olga

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the grammatical control of verbs exercised by 145 monolingual English and Generation 1.5 bilingual developmental writers in narrative essays using quantitative and qualitative methods. Generation 1.5 students made more errors than their monolingual peers in each category investigated, albeit in only 2 categories was the…

  3. Swahili learners' views on the need for a monolingual Swahili ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Swahili is a second language to many East and Central Africans, and a foreign language to its learners from Europe, America, Asia and other parts of Africa as well. Yet it lacks a monolingual Swahili learners' dictionary specifically designed for them. The paper discusses the need for a monolingual Swahili pedagogical ...

  4. Swahili Learners' Views on the Need for a Monolingual Swahili ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    monolingual Swahili learners' dictionary specifically designed for them. The paper discusses the need for a monolingual Swahili pedagogical dictionary which helps the foreigner learn the language. A pedagogical dictionary is oriented towards encoding Swahili, hence it is logical that some Swahili grammatical aspects are ...

  5. Compiling a Monolingual Dictionary for Native Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hanks

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This article gives a survey of the main issues confronting the compilers of monolingual dictionaries in the age of the Internet. Among others, it discusses the relationship between a lexical database and a monolingual dictionary, the role of corpus evidence, historical principles in lexicography vs. synchronic principles, the instability of word meaning, the need for full vocabulary coverage, principles of definition writing, the role of dictionaries in society, and the need for dictionaries to give guidance on matters of disputed word usage. It concludes with some questions about the future of dictionary publishing.

    OPSOMMING: Die samestelling van 'n eentalige woordeboek vir moedertaalsprekers. Hierdie artikel gee 'n oorsig van die hoofkwessies waarmee die samestellers van eentalige woordeboeke in die eeu van die Internet te kampe het. Dit bespreek onder andere die verhouding tussen 'n leksikale databasis en 'n eentalige woordeboek, die rol van korpusgetuienis, historiese beginsels vs sinchroniese beginsels in die leksikografie, die onstabiliteit van woordbetekenis, die noodsaak van 'n volledige woordeskatdekking, beginsels van die skryf van definisies, die rol van woordeboeke in die maatskappy, en die noodsaak vir woordeboeke om leiding te gee oor sake van betwiste woordgebruik. Dit sluit af met 'n aantal vrae oor die toekoms van die publikasie van woordeboeke.

    Sleutelwoorde: EENTALIGE WOORDEBOEKE, LEKSIKALE DATABASIS, WOORDEBOEKSTRUKTUUR, WOORDBETEKENIS, BETEKENISVERANDERING, GEBRUIK, GEBRUIKSAANTEKENINGE, HISTORIESE BEGINSELS VAN DIE LEKSIKOGRAFIE, SINCHRONIESE BEGINSELS VAN DIE LEKSIKOGRAFIE, REGISTER, SLANG, STANDAARDENGELS, WOORDESKATDEKKING, KONSEKWENSIE VAN VERSAMELINGS, FRASEOLOGIE, SINTAGMATIESE PATRONE, PROBLEME VAN KOMPOSISIONALITEIT, LINGUISTIESE PRESKRIPTIVISME, LEKSIKALE GETUIENIS

  6. Monolingual accounting dictionaries for EFL text production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Nielsen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Monolingual accounting dictionaries are important for producing financial reporting texts in English in an international setting, because of the lack of specialised bilingual dictionaries. As the intended user groups have different factual and linguistic competences, they require specific types of information. By identifying and analysing the users' factual and linguistic competences, user needs, use-situations and the stages involved in producing accounting texts in English as a foreign language, lexicographers will have a sound basis for designing the optimal English accounting dictionary for EFL text production. The monolingual accounting dictionary needs to include information about UK, US and international accounting terms, their grammatical properties, their potential for being combined with other words in collocations, phrases and sentences in order to meet user requirements. Data items that deal with these aspects are necessary for the international user group as they produce subject-field specific and register-specific texts in a foreign language, and the data items are relevant for the various stages in text production: draft writing, copyediting, stylistic editing and proofreading.

  7. Developmental change in tone perception in Mandarin monolingual, English monolingual, and Mandarin-English bilingual infants: Divergences between monolingual and bilingual learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leher; Fu, Charlene S L; Seet, Xian Hui; Tong, Ashley P Y; Wang, Joelle L; Best, Catherine T

    2018-09-01

    Most languages use lexical tone to discriminate the meanings of words. There has been recent interest in tracking the development of tone categories during infancy. These studies have focused largely on monolingual infants learning either a tone language or a non-tone language. It remains to be seen how bilingual infants learning one tone language (e.g., Mandarin) and one non-tone language (e.g., English) discriminate tones. Here, we examined infants' discrimination of two Mandarin tones pairs: one salient and one subtle. Discrimination was investigated in three groups: Mandarin-English bilinguals, English monolinguals, and Mandarin monolinguals at 6 months and 9 months of age in a cross-sectional design. Results demonstrated relatively strong Mandarin tone discrimination in Mandarin monolinguals, with salient tone discrimination at 6 months and both salient and subtle tone discrimination at 9 months. English monolinguals discriminated neither contrast at 6 months but discriminated the salient contrast at 9 months. Surprisingly, there was no evidence for tone discrimination in Mandarin-English bilingual infants. In a second experiment, 12- and 13-month-old Mandarin-English bilingual and English monolingual infants were tested to determine whether bilinguals would demonstrate tone sensitivity at a later age. Results revealed a lack of tone sensitivity at 12 or 13 months in bilingual infants, yet English monolingual infants were sensitive to both salient and subtle Mandarin tone contrasts at 12 or 13 months. Our findings provide evidence for age-related convergence in Mandarin tone discrimination in English and Mandarin monolingual infants and for a distinct pattern of tone discrimination in bilingual infants. Theoretical implications for phonetic category acquisition are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. From LL-regular to LL(1) grammars: Transformations, covers and parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    1982-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that it is possible to transform any LL-regular grammar G into an LL(1) grammar G' in such a way that parsing G' is as good as parsing G. That is, a parse of a sentence of grammar G can be obtained with a simple string homomorphism from the parse of a corresponding sentence

  9. Chinese Unknown Word Recognition for PCFG-LA Parsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuping Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the recognition of unknown words in Chinese parsing. Two methods are proposed to handle this problem. One is the modification of a character-based model. We model the emission probability of an unknown word using the first and last characters in the word. It aims to reduce the POS tag ambiguities of unknown words to improve the parsing performance. In addition, a novel method, using graph-based semisupervised learning (SSL, is proposed to improve the syntax parsing of unknown words. Its goal is to discover additional lexical knowledge from a large amount of unlabeled data to help the syntax parsing. The method is mainly to propagate lexical emission probabilities to unknown words by building the similarity graphs over the words of labeled and unlabeled data. The derived distributions are incorporated into the parsing process. The proposed methods are effective in dealing with the unknown words to improve the parsing. Empirical results for Penn Chinese Treebank and TCT Treebank revealed its effectiveness.

  10. Advanced Cantonese ESL Learners' Use of a Monolingual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    monolingual dictionaries by Hong Kong advanced Cantonese ESL learners in the production of .... (COBUILD6), and one using Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English 5th ...... A Contrastive Study of Pocket Electronic Diction- aries and ...

  11. Unsupervised Word Mapping Using Structural Similarities in Monolingual Embeddings

    OpenAIRE

    Aldarmaki, Hanan; Mohan, Mahesh; Diab, Mona

    2017-01-01

    Most existing methods for automatic bilingual dictionary induction rely on prior alignments between the source and target languages, such as parallel corpora or seed dictionaries. For many language pairs, such supervised alignments are not readily available. We propose an unsupervised approach for learning a bilingual dictionary for a pair of languages given their independently-learned monolingual word embeddings. The proposed method exploits local and global structures in monolingual vector ...

  12. Novel word retention in bilingual and monolingual speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Pui Fong; Sadagopan, Neeraja

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine word retention in bilinguals and monolinguals. Long-term word retention is an essential part of vocabulary learning. Previous studies have documented that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in terms of retrieving newly-exposed words. Yet, little is known about whether or to what extent bilinguals are different from monolinguals in word retention. Participants were 30 English-speaking monolingual adults and 30 bilingual adults who speak Spanish as a home language and learned English as a second language during childhood. In a previous study (Kan et al., 2014), the participants were exposed to the target novel words in English, Spanish, and Cantonese. In this current study, word retention was measured a week after the fast mapping task. No exposures were given during the one-week interval. Results showed that bilinguals and monolinguals retain a similar number of words. However, participants produced more words in English than in either Spanish or Cantonese. Correlation analyses revealed that language knowledge plays a role in the relationships between fast mapping and word retention. Specifically, within- and across-language relationships between bilinguals' fast mapping and word retention were found in Spanish and English, by contrast, within-language relationships between monolinguals' fast mapping and word retention were found in English and across-language relationships between their fast mapping and word retention performance in English and Cantonese. Similarly, bilinguals differed from monolinguals in the relationships among the word retention scores in three languages. Significant correlations were found among bilinguals' retention scores. However, no such correlations were found among monolinguals' retention scores. The overall findings suggest that bilinguals' language experience and language knowledge most likely contribute to how they learn and retain new words.

  13. Bilingual and Monolingual Children Prefer Native-Accented Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre L. eSouza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adults and young children prefer to affiliate with some individuals rather than others. Studies have shown that monolingual children show in-group biases for individuals who speak their native language without a foreign accent (Kinzler, Dupoux, & Spelke, 2007. Some studies have suggested that bilingual children are less influenced than monolinguals by language variety when attributing personality traits to different speakers (Anisfeld & Lambert, 1964, which could indicate that bilinguals have fewer in-group biases and perhaps greater social flexibility. However, no previous studies have compared monolingual and bilingual children’s reactions to speakers with unfamiliar foreign accents. In the present study, we investigated the social preferences of 5-year-old English and French monolinguals and English-French bilinguals. Contrary to our predictions, both monolingual and bilingual preschoolers preferred to be friends with native-accented speakers over speakers who spoke their dominant language with an unfamiliar foreign accent. This result suggests that both monolingual and bilingual children have strong preferences for in-group members who use a familiar language variety, and that bilingualism does not lead to generalized social flexibility.

  14. Bilingual and monolingual children prefer native-accented speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, André L; Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Adults and young children prefer to affiliate with some individuals rather than others. Studies have shown that monolingual children show in-group biases for individuals who speak their native language without a foreign accent (Kinzler et al., 2007). Some studies have suggested that bilingual children are less influenced than monolinguals by language variety when attributing personality traits to different speakers (Anisfeld and Lambert, 1964), which could indicate that bilinguals have fewer in-group biases and perhaps greater social flexibility. However, no previous studies have compared monolingual and bilingual children's reactions to speakers with unfamiliar foreign accents. In the present study, we investigated the social preferences of 5-year-old English and French monolinguals and English-French bilinguals. Contrary to our predictions, both monolingual and bilingual preschoolers preferred to be friends with native-accented speakers over speakers who spoke their dominant language with an unfamiliar foreign accent. This result suggests that both monolingual and bilingual children have strong preferences for in-group members who use a familiar language variety, and that bilingualism does not lead to generalized social flexibility.

  15. SYNONYMS IN GERMAN ONLINE MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Sánchez Hernández

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study includes both theoretical and qualitative research and falls within the framework of semantics and lexicography. It is based on work conducted as a part of the COMBIDIGILEX research project: MINECO-FEDER FFI2015-64476-P. The lexicographical description proposed in the COMBIDIGILEX project is based on the foundations of bilingual lexicography from an onomasiological perspective, including paradigmatic information and syntagmatic analysis, which is useful to users creating texts for students at an advanced level. The project analyses verbal lexemes in German and Spanish based on a paradigmatic, syntagmatic, orthographic and morphological perspective (among others. Subsequently, a contrastive analysis was conducted between both languages. In this contribution, we first analyse what paradigmatic information is, including its relevance to a dictionary. Paradigmatic information includes not only synonyms and antonyms but also hyperonyms and hyponyms, which often complete the lexicographical article in a general dictionary. Paradigmatic relations can be observed in light of semantic definitions or may independently become part of the lexical entry. Forming the paradigmatic information of an entry in an independent manner is known as “intentionelle Paradigmatik”, and it constitutes a series of advantages in the dictionary (Hausmann 1991b: 2794. This type of information aids the processes of production and expands vocabulary. Next, we examine the appearance of synonyms in three German online monolingual dictionaries – DWDS, WORTSCHATZLEXIKON and DUDEN ONLINE – from the semantic perspective of cognition verbs. The primary objective of the study is to demonstrate the relevance of this type of information as well as the needs it covers from a user’s perspective. Offering the user a series of lexical elements along with information on semantic relations of a paradigmatic nature thus addresses the issue of users having an array of

  16. On Collocations and Their Interaction with Parsing and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Seretan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of automatically processing collocations—a subclass of multi-word expressions characterized by a high degree of morphosyntactic flexibility—in the context of two major applications, namely, syntactic parsing and machine translation. We show that parsing and collocation identification are processes that are interrelated and that benefit from each other, inasmuch as syntactic information is crucial for acquiring collocations from corpora and, vice versa, collocational information can be used to improve parsing performance. Similarly, we focus on the interrelation between collocations and machine translation, highlighting the use of translation information for multilingual collocation identification, as well as the use of collocational knowledge for improving translation. We give a panorama of the existing relevant work, and we parallel the literature surveys with our own experiments involving a symbolic parser and a rule-based translation system. The results show a significant improvement over approaches in which the corresponding tasks are decoupled.

  17. Recursive Neural Networks Based on PSO for Image Parsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Rong Cai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image parsing algorithm which is based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Recursive Neural Networks (RNNs. State-of-the-art method such as traditional RNN-based parsing strategy uses L-BFGS over the complete data for learning the parameters. However, this could cause problems due to the nondifferentiable objective function. In order to solve this problem, the PSO algorithm has been employed to tune the weights of RNN for minimizing the objective. Experimental results obtained on the Stanford background dataset show that our PSO-based training algorithm outperforms traditional RNN, Pixel CRF, region-based energy, simultaneous MRF, and superpixel MRF.

  18. The auditory attention status in Iranian bilingual and monolingual people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayiere Mansoori

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Bilingualism, as one of the discussing issues of psychology and linguistics, can influence the speech processing. Of several tests for assessing auditory processing, dichotic digit test has been designed to study divided auditory attention. Our study was performed to compare the auditory attention between Iranian bilingual and monolingual young adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 students including 30 Turkish-Persian bilinguals and 30 Persian monolinguals aged between 18 to 30 years in both genders. Dichotic digit test was performed on young individuals with normal peripheral hearing and right hand preference. Results: No significant correlation was found between the results of dichotic digit test of monolinguals and bilinguals (p=0.195, and also between the results of right and left ears in monolingual (p=0.460 and bilingual (p=0.054 groups. The mean score of women was significantly more than men (p=0.031. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between bilinguals and monolinguals in divided auditory attention; and it seems that acquisition of second language in lower ages has no noticeable effect on this type of auditory attention.

  19. Compiling the First Monolingual Lusoga Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minah Nabirye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In this research article a study is made of the approach followed to compile the first-ever monolingual dictionary for Lusoga. Lusoga is a Bantu language spoken in Uganda by slightly over two mil-lion people. Being an under-resourced language, the Lusoga orthography had to be designed, a grammar written, and a corpus built, before embarking on the compilation of the dictionary. This compilation was aimed at attaining an academic degree, hence requiring a rigorous research methodology. Firstly, the prevail-ing methods for compiling dictionaries were mainly practical and insufficient in explaining the theoretical linguistic basis for dictionary compilation. Since dictionaries are based on meaning, the theory of meaning was used to account for all linguistic data considered in dictionaries. However, meaning is considered at a very abstract level, far removed from the process of compiling dictionaries. Another theory, the theory of modularity, was used to bridge the gap between the theory of meaning and the compilation process. The modular theory explains how the different modules of a language contribute information to the different parts of the dictionary article or dictionary information in general. Secondly, the research also had to contend with the different approaches for analysing Bantu languages for Bantu and European audiences. A descrip-tion of the Bantu- and European-centred approaches to Bantu studies was undertaken in respect of (a the classification of Lusoga words, and (b the specification of their citations. As a result, Lusoga lexicography deviates from the prevailing Bantu classification and citation of nouns, adjectives and verbs in particular. The dictionary was tested on two separate occasions and all the feedback was considered in the compilation pro-cess. This article, then, gives an overall summary of all the steps involved in the compilation of the Eiwanika ly'Olusoga, i.e. the Monolingual Lusoga Dictionary

  20. Parsing with subdomain instance weighting from raw corpora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plank, B.; Sima'an, K.

    2008-01-01

    The treebanks that are used for training statistical parsers consist of hand-parsed sentences from a single source/domain like newspaper text. However, newspaper text concerns different subdomains of language use (e.g. finance, sports, politics, music), which implies that the statistics gathered by

  1. Parsing with Subdomain Instance Weighting from Raw Corpora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plank, Barbara; Sima'an, Khalil

    2008-01-01

    The treebanks that are used for training statistical parsers consist of hand-parsed sentences from a single source/domain like newspaper text. However, newspaper text concerns different subdomains of language use (e.g. finance, sports, politics, music), which implies that the statistics gathered by

  2. A simple DOP model for constituency parsing of Italian sentences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangati, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a simplified Data-Oriented Parsing (DOP) formalism for learning the constituency structure of Italian sentences. In our approach we try to simplify the original DOP methodology by constraining the number and type of fragments we extract from the training corpus. We provide some examples

  3. On the Approximation Ratio of Lempel-Ziv Parsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagie, Travis; Navarro, Gonzalo; Prezza, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    in the text. Since computing b is NP-complete, a popular gold standard is z, the number of phrases in the Lempel-Ziv parse of the text, where phrases can be copied only from the left. While z can be computed in linear time, almost nothing has been known for decades about its approximation ratio with respect...

  4. Finding EL+ justifications using the Earley parsing algorithm

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available into a reachability preserving context free grammar (CFG). The well known earley algorithm for parsing strings, given some CFG, is then applied to the problem of extracting minimal reachability-based axiom sets for subsumption entailments. The author has...

  5. Advanced programming concepts in a course on grammars and parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, J.T.; Swierstra, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    One of the important goals of the Computer Science curriculum at Utrecht University is to familiarize students with abstract programming concepts such as, for example, partial evaluation and deforestation. A course on grammars and parsing offers excellent possibilities for exemplifying and

  6. Time-Driven Effects on Parsing during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Mikael; Lindgren, Magnus; Alter, Kai; Horne, Merle

    2012-01-01

    The phonological trace of perceived words starts fading away in short-term memory after a few seconds. Spoken utterances are usually 2-3 s long, possibly to allow the listener to parse the words into coherent prosodic phrases while they still have a clear representation. Results from this brain potential study suggest that even during silent…

  7. YakYak: Parsing with Logical Side Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Damgaard; Klarlund, Nils; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2000-01-01

    Yak, which extends Yacc with first-order logic for specifying consteaints that are regular tree languages. Concise formulas about the parse tree replace explicit programming, and they are turned into canonical attribute grammars through tree automata calculations. YakYak is implemented as a proprocessor...

  8. Fuzzy Context- Free Languages. Part 2: Recognition and Parsing Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    2000-01-01

    In a companion paper \\cite{Asv:FCF1} we used fuzzy context-free grammars in order to model grammatical errors resulting in erroneous inputs for robust recognizing and parsing algorithms for fuzzy context-free languages. In particular, this approach enables us to distinguish between small errors

  9. Novel word retention in bilingual and monolingual speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui Fong eKan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to examine word retention in bilinguals and monolinguals. Long-term word retention is an essential part of vocabulary learning. Previous studies have documented that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in terms of retrieving newly-exposed words. Yet, little is known about whether or to what extent bilinguals are different from monolinguals in word retention. Participants were 30 English-speaking monolingual adults and 30 bilingual adults who speak Spanish as a home language and learned English as a second language during childhood. In a previous study (Kan, Sadagopan, Janich, & Andrade, 2014, the participants were exposed to the target novel words in English, Spanish, and Cantonese. In this current study, word retention was measured a week after the fast mapping task. No exposures were given during the one-week interval. Results showed that bilinguals and monolinguals retain a similar number of words. However, participants produced more words in English than in either Spanish or Cantonese. Correlation analyses revealed that language knowledge plays a role in the relationships between fast mapping and word retention. Specifically, within- and across-language relationships between bilinguals’ fast mapping and word retention were found in Spanish and English, by contrast, within-language relationships between monolinguals’ fast mapping and word retention were found in English and across-language relationships between their fast mapping and word retention performance in English and Cantonese. Similarly, bilinguals differed from monolinguals in the relationships among the word retention scores in three languages. Significant correlations were found among bilinguals’ retention scores. However, no such correlations were found among monolinguals’ retention scores. The overall findings suggest that bilinguals’ language experience and language knowledge most likely contribute to how they learn and retain new words.

  10. Compiling the First Monolingual Lusoga Dictionary | Nabirye | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Another theory, the theory of modularity, was used to bridge the gap between the theory of meaning and the compilation process. The modular ... This article, then, gives an overall summary of all the steps involved in the compilation of the Eiwanika ly'Olusoga, i.e. the Monolingual Lusoga Dictionary. Keywords: lexicography ...

  11. Evaluating Bilingual and Monolingual Dictionaries for L2 Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Alan

    1997-01-01

    A discussion of dictionaries and their use for second language (L2) learning suggests that lack of computerized modern language corpora can adversely affect bilingual dictionaries, commonly used by L2 learners, and shows how use of such corpora has benefitted two contemporary monolingual L2 learner dictionaries (1995 editions of the Longman…

  12. Cognitive Development in Bilingual and Monolingual Lower-Class Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Barbara; Goldstein, David

    1979-01-01

    The cognitive development of lower-class English-speaking monolingual and English-Spanish speaking bilingual children in kindergarten, third, and sixth grades was compared by means of standard verbal and nonverbal measures. The verbal ability of bilingual children was assessed in both English and Spanish. Their scores in both languages were low.…

  13. The Monolingual Lusoga Dictionary Faced with Demands from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Monolingual Lusoga Dictionary Faced with Demands from a New User Category. ... Although the information in the WSG may fit the purpose at hand, that information is mainly presented as a summary, with statements of conclusions only. Explanations to ease its access to the new user are thus missing. Findings from a ...

  14. Advanced Cantonese ESL Learners' Use of a Monolingual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on the results of a research study which investigated the use of monolingual dictionaries by Hong Kong advanced Cantonese ESL learners in the production of target language sentences. Thirty-one English majors participated in a sentence completion task and a sentence construction task with and ...

  15. School Leadership along the Trajectory from Monolingual to Multilingual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenzi-Moreno, Laura; Hesson, Sarah; Menken, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the critical role of school leaders in language policy change, and specifically in shifting their language education policies and practices from monolingual to multilingual. We examine the process of language policy change in three schools that were involved in a project aimed at increasing the knowledge base of school…

  16. Creating Parsing Lexicons from Semantic Lexicons Automatically and Its Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ayan, Necip F; Dorr, Bonnie

    2002-01-01

    ...). We also present the effects of using such a lexicon on the parser performance. The advantage of automating the process is that the same technique can be applied directly to lexicons we have for other languages, for example, Arabic, Chinese, and Spanish. The results indicate that our method will help us generate parsing lexicons which can be used by a broad-coverage parser that runs on different languages.

  17. Extending TF1: Argument parsing, function composition, and vectorization

    CERN Document Server

    Tsang Mang Kin, Arthur Leonard

    2017-01-01

    In this project, we extend the functionality of the TF1 function class in root. We add argument parsing, making it possible to freely pass variables and parameters into pre-defined and user-defined functions. We also introduce a syntax to use certain compositions of functions, namely normalized sums and convolutions, directly in TF1. Finally, we introduce some simple vectorization functionality to TF1 and demonstrate the potential to speed up parallelizable computations.

  18. Acquisition of German pluralization rules in monolingual and multilingual children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaretsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-yearold monolingual German and bi/multilingual immigrant children tested with a modified, validated version of the Marburger Sprachscreening (MSS language test and 476 children tested with the SETK 3-5 language test. Classified correct and wrong answers to MSS and SETK 3-5 plural items were compared. The acquisition patterns of immigrants corresponded to those of younger German children. Both monolingual German and immigrant children demonstrated generally the same universal frequency and phonetically/phonologically based error patterns, irrespective of their linguistic background, but with different tendencies such as overgeneralization of -s by German children only.

  19. Effective Look-up Techniques to Approach a Monolingual Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauman Al Amin Ali El Sayed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A dictionary is (a learning tool that can help the language learner in acquiring great knowledge of and about a foreign language. Almost all language learners buy or at least possess, at one time, a monolingual or bilingual dictionary, to which the learner may refer to look up the meaning of words. Unfortunately, using dictionary to look up the meaning of words seems to be the most important service, which a dictionary is expected to provide to language learners. In fact, a dictionary provides much data about language to its readers such as telling them about: the word spelling, phonology, phonetics, etymology, stylistics and definitions among other aspects. This paper sheds light on how the dictionary can teach its readers with special focus on monolingual dictionary. Hence, the discussion of this paper will centre on how dictionaries can teach students rather than on how students can learn from them.

  20. THE MOTHER TONGUE IN MONOLINGUAL AND MULTILINGUAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyuchukov, H.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a small research project on Russian monolingual children in Moscow, and Turkish bilingual children living in Berlin, Germany. The children were examined with using the Test of Early Language Development (3rd ed., and despite the limitations of the study, the findings point up interesting tendencies. In the comprehension section of the test, the Russian monolinguals did much better than the Turkish bilinguals; however, in the section testing production, both groups of children had the same results. All children had difficulties in acquisition of abstract terms, certain prepositions, complex sentences and retelling or creating a story narrative from pictures. Bilingualism is not an obstacle for mother tongue development, but it seems there are universal factors which influence the process of language acquisition.

  1. Criteria for Selecting a Monolingual Dictionary for Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Colin, Rogers

    2003-01-01

    There are a bewildering number of monolingual dictionaries on the market in Japan, including new learner dictionaries which give students a great deal of potentially useful information about how to use words. However it is essential to carefully evaluate dictionaries to ensure that they meet the needs of the learners who will use them. This article sets out some criteria to help make such decisions.

  2. Locating and parsing bibliographic references in HTML medical articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel; Thoma, George R

    2010-06-01

    The set of references that typically appear toward the end of journal articles is sometimes, though not always, a field in bibliographic (citation) databases. But even if references do not constitute such a field, they can be useful as a preprocessing step in the automated extraction of other bibliographic data from articles, as well as in computer-assisted indexing of articles. Automation in data extraction and indexing to minimize human labor is key to the affordable creation and maintenance of large bibliographic databases. Extracting the components of references, such as author names, article title, journal name, publication date and other entities, is therefore a valuable and sometimes necessary task. This paper describes a two-step process using statistical machine learning algorithms, to first locate the references in HTML medical articles and then to parse them. Reference locating identifies the reference section in an article and then decomposes it into individual references. We formulate this step as a two-class classification problem based on text and geometric features. An evaluation conducted on 500 articles drawn from 100 medical journals achieves near-perfect precision and recall rates for locating references. Reference parsing identifies the components of each reference. For this second step, we implement and compare two algorithms. One relies on sequence statistics and trains a Conditional Random Field. The other focuses on local feature statistics and trains a Support Vector Machine to classify each individual word, followed by a search algorithm that systematically corrects low confidence labels if the label sequence violates a set of predefined rules. The overall performance of these two reference-parsing algorithms is about the same: above 99% accuracy at the word level, and over 97% accuracy at the chunk level.

  3. KEGGParser: parsing and editing KEGG pathway maps in Matlab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakelyan, Arsen; Nersisyan, Lilit

    2013-02-15

    KEGG pathway database is a collection of manually drawn pathway maps accompanied with KGML format files intended for use in automatic analysis. KGML files, however, do not contain the required information for complete reproduction of all the events indicated in the static image of a pathway map. Several parsers and editors of KEGG pathways exist for processing KGML files. We introduce KEGGParser-a MATLAB based tool for KEGG pathway parsing, semiautomatic fixing, editing, visualization and analysis in MATLAB environment. It also works with Scilab. The source code is available at http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/37561.

  4. Trends of development of monolingualism and bilingualism in the educational policy of the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhov, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    The article analyzes the monolingualism policy opposed to the policy of bilingualism inthe language policy of the United States. The author considers the historical background,issues and implementation mechanisms of the monolingualism policy in the multiethnic state,the result of which is directed against cultural diversity and immigrant minority languages.The article defines sources of English monolingualism ideology, racial hostility of majoritytoward minority, ethnic conflict between the m...

  5. Limits on Monolingualism? A comparison of monolingual and bilingual infants’ abilities to integrate lexical tone in novel word learning.

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    Leher eSingh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To construct their first lexicon, infants must determine the relationship between native phonological variation and the meanings of words. This process is arguably more complex for bilingual learners who are often confronted with phonological conflict: phonological variation that is lexically relevant in one language may be lexically irrelevant in the other. In a series of four experiments, the present study investigated English-Mandarin bilingual infants’ abilities to negotiate phonological conflict introduced by learning both a tone and a non-tone language. In a novel word learning task, bilingual children were tested on their sensitivity to tone variation in English and Mandarin contexts. Their abilities to interpret tone variation in a language-dependent manner were compared to those of monolingual Mandarin learning infants. Results demonstrated that at 12 to 13 months, bilingual infants demonstrated the ability to bind tone to word meanings in Mandarin, but to disregard tone variation when learning new words in English. In contrast, monolingual learners of Mandarin did not show evidence of integrating tones into word meanings in Mandarin at the same age even though they were learning a tone language. However, a tone discrimination paradigm confirmed that monolingual Mandarin learning infants were able to tell these tones apart at 12 to 13 months under a different set of conditions. Later, at 17 to 18 months, monolingual Mandarin learners were able to bind tone variation to word meanings when learning new words. Our findings are discussed in terms of cognitive adaptations associated with bilingualism that may ease the negotiation of phonological conflict and facilitate precocious uptake of certain properties of each language.

  6. Analysis of Azari Language based on Parsing using Link Gram

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    Maryam Arabzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There are different classes of theories for the natural lanuguage syntactic parsing problem and for creating the related grammars .This paper presents a syntactic grammar developed in the link grammar formalism for Turkish which is an agglutinative language. In the link grammar formalism, the words of a sentence are linked with each other depending on their syntactic roles. Turkish has complex derivational and inflectional morphology, and derivational and inflection morphemes play important syntactic roles in the sentences. In order to develop a link grammar for Turkish, the lexical parts in the morphological representations of Turkish words are removed, and the links are created depending on the part of speech tags and inflectional morphemes in words. Furthermore, a derived word is separated at the derivational boundaries in order to treat each derivation morpheme as a special distinct word, and allow it to be linked with the rest of the sentence. The derivational morphemes of a word are also linked with each other with special links to indicate that they are parts of the same word. Finally the adapted unique link grammar formalism for Turkish provides flexibility for the linkage construction, and similar methods can be used for other languages with complex morphology. Finally, using the Delphi programming language, the link grammar related to the Azeri language was developed and implemented and then by selecting 250 random sentences, this grammar is evaluated and then tested. For 84.31% of the sentences, the result set of the parser contains the correct parse.

  7. Automated vocabulary discovery for geo-parsing online epidemic intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Mikaela; Freifeld, Clark C; Brownstein, John S

    2009-11-24

    Automated surveillance of the Internet provides a timely and sensitive method for alerting on global emerging infectious disease threats. HealthMap is part of a new generation of online systems designed to monitor and visualize, on a real-time basis, disease outbreak alerts as reported by online news media and public health sources. HealthMap is of specific interest for national and international public health organizations and international travelers. A particular task that makes such a surveillance useful is the automated discovery of the geographic references contained in the retrieved outbreak alerts. This task is sometimes referred to as "geo-parsing". A typical approach to geo-parsing would demand an expensive training corpus of alerts manually tagged by a human. Given that human readers perform this kind of task by using both their lexical and contextual knowledge, we developed an approach which relies on a relatively small expert-built gazetteer, thus limiting the need of human input, but focuses on learning the context in which geographic references appear. We show in a set of experiments, that this approach exhibits a substantial capacity to discover geographic locations outside of its initial lexicon. The results of this analysis provide a framework for future automated global surveillance efforts that reduce manual input and improve timeliness of reporting.

  8. Automated vocabulary discovery for geo-parsing online epidemic intelligence

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    Freifeld Clark C

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automated surveillance of the Internet provides a timely and sensitive method for alerting on global emerging infectious disease threats. HealthMap is part of a new generation of online systems designed to monitor and visualize, on a real-time basis, disease outbreak alerts as reported by online news media and public health sources. HealthMap is of specific interest for national and international public health organizations and international travelers. A particular task that makes such a surveillance useful is the automated discovery of the geographic references contained in the retrieved outbreak alerts. This task is sometimes referred to as "geo-parsing". A typical approach to geo-parsing would demand an expensive training corpus of alerts manually tagged by a human. Results Given that human readers perform this kind of task by using both their lexical and contextual knowledge, we developed an approach which relies on a relatively small expert-built gazetteer, thus limiting the need of human input, but focuses on learning the context in which geographic references appear. We show in a set of experiments, that this approach exhibits a substantial capacity to discover geographic locations outside of its initial lexicon. Conclusion The results of this analysis provide a framework for future automated global surveillance efforts that reduce manual input and improve timeliness of reporting.

  9. Parsing a cognitive task: a characterization of the mind's bottleneck.

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    Mariano Sigman

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Parsing a mental operation into components, characterizing the parallel or serial nature of this flow, and understanding what each process ultimately contributes to response time are fundamental questions in cognitive neuroscience. Here we show how a simple theoretical model leads to an extended set of predictions concerning the distribution of response time and its alteration by simultaneous performance of another task. The model provides a synthesis of psychological refractory period and random-walk models of response time. It merely assumes that a task consists of three consecutive stages-perception, decision based on noisy integration of evidence, and response-and that the perceptual and motor stages can operate simultaneously with stages of another task, while the central decision process constitutes a bottleneck. We designed a number-comparison task that provided a thorough test of the model by allowing independent variations in number notation, numerical distance, response complexity, and temporal asynchrony relative to an interfering probe task of tone discrimination. The results revealed a parsing of the comparison task in which each variable affects only one stage. Numerical distance affects the integration process, which is the only step that cannot proceed in parallel and has a major contribution to response time variability. The other stages, mapping the numeral to an internal quantity and executing the motor response, can be carried out in parallel with another task. Changing the duration of these processes has no significant effect on the variance.

  10. Effective Look-up Techniques to Approach a Monolingual Dictionary

    OpenAIRE

    Nauman Al Amin Ali El Sayed; Ahmed Gumaa Siddiek

    2013-01-01

    A dictionary is (a) learning tool that can help the language learner in acquiring great knowledge of and about a foreign language. Almost all language learners buy or at least possess, at one time, a monolingual or bilingual dictionary, to which the learner may refer to look up the meaning of words. Unfortunately, using dictionary to look up the meaning of words seems to be the most important service, which a dictionary is expected to provide to language learners. In fact, a dictionary provid...

  11. The Role of Accessibility of Semantic Word Knowledge in Monolingual and Bilingual Fifth-Grade Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, M.; Schoonen, R.

    2013-01-01

    The influences of word decoding, availability, and accessibility of semantic word knowledge on reading comprehension were investigated for monolingual "("n = 65) and bilingual children ("n" = 70). Despite equal decoding abilities, monolingual children outperformed bilingual children with regard to reading comprehension and…

  12. Differential Language Functioning of Monolinguals and Bilinguals on Positive-Negative Emotional Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirzadeh, Shiela; Hajiabed, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    The present interdisciplinary research investigates the differential emotional expression between Persian monolinguals and Persian-English bilinguals. In other words, the article was an attempt to answer the questions whether bilinguals and monolinguals differ in the expression of positive and negative emotions elicited through sad and happy…

  13. Orthographic Context Sensitivity in Vowel Decoding by Portuguese Monolingual and Portuguese-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the pronunciation of the first vowel in decoding disyllabic pseudowords derived from Portuguese words. Participants were 96 Portuguese monolinguals and 52 Portuguese-English bilinguals of equivalent Portuguese reading levels. The results indicate that sensitivity to vowel context emerges early, both in monolinguals and in…

  14. Language Proficiency and Executive Control in Proactive Interference: Evidence from Monolingual and Bilingual Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer…

  15. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Differences in Executive Control between Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Raluca; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined executive control in sixty-two 5-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual using behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) measures. All children performed equivalently on simple response inhibition (gift delay), but bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on interference suppression and complex response…

  16. What Can Errors Tell Us about Differences between Monolingual and Bilingual Vocabulary Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2018-01-01

    Error patterns in vocabulary learning data were used as a window into the mechanisms that underlie vocabulary learning performance in bilinguals vs. monolinguals. English--Spanish bilinguals (n = 18) and English-speaking monolinguals (n = 18) were taught novel vocabulary items in association with English translations. At testing, participants…

  17. Relative clauses as a benchmark for Minimalist parsing

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    Thomas Graf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Minimalist grammars have been used recently in a series of papers to explain well-known contrasts in human sentence processing in terms of subtle structural differences. These proposals combine a top-down parser with complexity metrics that relate parsing difficulty to memory usage. So far, though, there has been no large-scale exploration of the space of viable metrics. Building on this earlier work, we compare the ability of 1600 metrics to derive several processing effects observed with relative clauses, many of which have been proven difficult to unify. We show that among those 1600 candidates, a few metrics (and only a few can provide a unified account of all these contrasts. This is a welcome result for two reasons: First, it provides a novel account of extensively studied psycholinguistic data. Second, it significantly limits the number of viable metrics that may be applied to other phenomena, thus reducing theoretical indeterminacy.

  18. Motion based parsing for video from observational psychology

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    Kokaram, Anil; Doyle, Erika; Lennon, Daire; Joyeux, Laurent; Fuller, Ray

    2006-01-01

    In Psychology it is common to conduct studies involving the observation of humans undertaking some task. The sessions are typically recorded on video and used for subjective visual analysis. The subjective analysis is tedious and time consuming, not only because much useless video material is recorded but also because subjective measures of human behaviour are not necessarily repeatable. This paper presents tools using content based video analysis that allow automated parsing of video from one such study involving Dyslexia. The tools rely on implicit measures of human motion that can be generalised to other applications in the domain of human observation. Results comparing quantitative assessment of human motion with subjective assessment are also presented, illustrating that the system is a useful scientific tool.

  19. Machine learning to parse breast pathology reports in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rong; Ouyang, Lizhi; Li, Clara; He, Yue; Griffin, Molly; Taghian, Alphonse; Smith, Barbara; Yala, Adam; Barzilay, Regina; Hughes, Kevin

    2018-01-29

    Large structured databases of pathology findings are valuable in deriving new clinical insights. However, they are labor intensive to create and generally require manual annotation. There has been some work in the bioinformatics community to support automating this work via machine learning in English. Our contribution is to provide an automated approach to construct such structured databases in Chinese, and to set the stage for extraction from other languages. We collected 2104 de-identified Chinese benign and malignant breast pathology reports from Hunan Cancer Hospital. Physicians with native Chinese proficiency reviewed the reports and annotated a variety of binary and numerical pathologic entities. After excluding 78 cases with a bilateral lesion in the same report, 1216 cases were used as a training set for the algorithm, which was then refined by 405 development cases. The Natural language processing algorithm was tested by using the remaining 405 cases to evaluate the machine learning outcome. The model was used to extract 13 binary entities and 8 numerical entities. When compared to physicians with native Chinese proficiency, the model showed a per-entity accuracy from 91 to 100% for all common diagnoses on the test set. The overall accuracy of binary entities was 98% and of numerical entities was 95%. In a per-report evaluation for binary entities with more than 100 training cases, 85% of all the testing reports were completely correct and 11% had an error in 1 out of 22 entities. We have demonstrated that Chinese breast pathology reports can be automatically parsed into structured data using standard machine learning approaches. The results of our study demonstrate that techniques effective in parsing English reports can be scaled to other languages.

  20. Using machine learning to parse breast pathology reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yala, Adam; Barzilay, Regina; Salama, Laura; Griffin, Molly; Sollender, Grace; Bardia, Aditya; Lehman, Constance; Buckley, Julliette M; Coopey, Suzanne B; Polubriaginof, Fernanda; Garber, Judy E; Smith, Barbara L; Gadd, Michele A; Specht, Michelle C; Gudewicz, Thomas M; Guidi, Anthony J; Taghian, Alphonse; Hughes, Kevin S

    2017-01-01

    Extracting information from electronic medical record is a time-consuming and expensive process when done manually. Rule-based and machine learning techniques are two approaches to solving this problem. In this study, we trained a machine learning model on pathology reports to extract pertinent tumor characteristics, which enabled us to create a large database of attribute searchable pathology reports. This database can be used to identify cohorts of patients with characteristics of interest. We collected a total of 91,505 breast pathology reports from three Partners hospitals: Massachusetts General Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Newton-Wellesley Hospital, covering the period from 1978 to 2016. We trained our system with annotations from two datasets, consisting of 6295 and 10,841 manually annotated reports. The system extracts 20 separate categories of information, including atypia types and various tumor characteristics such as receptors. We also report a learning curve analysis to show how much annotation our model needs to perform reasonably. The model accuracy was tested on 500 reports that did not overlap with the training set. The model achieved accuracy of 90% for correctly parsing all carcinoma and atypia categories for a given patient. The average accuracy for individual categories was 97%. Using this classifier, we created a database of 91,505 parsed pathology reports. Our learning curve analysis shows that the model can achieve reasonable results even when trained on a few annotations. We developed a user-friendly interface to the database that allows physicians to easily identify patients with target characteristics and export the matching cohort. This model has the potential to reduce the effort required for analyzing large amounts of data from medical records, and to minimize the cost and time required to glean scientific insight from these data.

  1. Chomsky-Schützenberger parsing for weighted multiple context-free languages

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    Tobias Denkinger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We prove a Chomsky-Schützenberger representation theorem for multiple context-free languages weighted over complete commutative strong bimonoids. Using this representation we devise a parsing algorithm for a restricted form of those devices.

  2. Use of Monolingual and Bilingual Dictionaries among Students of English

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    Monika Kavalir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of dictionary use in 32 firstyear students of English at the University of Ljubljana in the academic year 2009/2010 shows that students use a variety of dictionaries with a slight preponderance of monolingual dictionaries over bilingual ones. The bilingual dictionaries listed do not include some of the most recent and most comprehensive dictionaries while some of the most frequently used resources are quite modest sized. The students are already predominantly users of electronic and online dictionaries with a lower frequency of printed resources – a trend which is only likely to accelerate with the advent of new bilingual online dictionaries. These results have practical relevance for teachers in all sectors, from primary and secondary schools to universities, as they point towards a need for additional training in the use of bilingual dictionaries. The transition from printed to electronic and online resources can also be expected to induce changes in EFL methodology at all levels.

  3. Grammar-Based Specification and Parsing of Binary File Formats

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    William Underwood

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The capability to validate and view or play binary file formats, as well as to convert binary file formats to standard or current file formats, is critically important to the preservation of digital data and records. This paper describes the extension of context-free grammars from strings to binary files. Binary files are arrays of data types, such as long and short integers, floating-point numbers and pointers, as well as characters. The concept of an attribute grammar is extended to these context-free array grammars. This attribute grammar has been used to define a number of chunk-based and directory-based binary file formats. A parser generator has been used with some of these grammars to generate syntax checkers (recognizers for validating binary file formats. Among the potential benefits of an attribute grammar-based approach to specification and parsing of binary file formats is that attribute grammars not only support format validation, but support generation of error messages during validation of format, validation of semantic constraints, attribute value extraction (characterization, generation of viewers or players for file formats, and conversion to current or standard file formats. The significance of these results is that with these extensions to core computer science concepts, traditional parser/compiler technologies can potentially be used as a part of a general, cost effective curation strategy for binary file formats.

  4. Parsing (malicious pleasures: Schadenfreude and gloating at others’ adversity

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    Colin Wayne Leach

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We offer the first empirical comparison of the pleasure in seeing (i.e., schadenfreude and in causing (i.e., gloating others’ adversity. In Study 1, we asked participants to recall and report on an (individual or group episode of pleasure that conformed to our formal definition of schadenfreude, gloating, pride, or joy, without reference to an emotion word. Schadenfreude and gloating were distinct in the situational features of the episode, participants’ appraisals of it, and their expressions of pleasure (e.g., smiling, boasting. In Study 2, we had participants imagine being in an (individual or group emotion episode designed to fit our conceptualization of schadenfreude or gloating. Individual and group versions of the emotions did not differ much in either study. However, the two pleasures differed greatly in their situational features, appraisals, experience, and expression. This parsing of the particular pleasures of schadenfreude and gloating brings nuance to the study of (malicious pleasure, which tends to be less finely conceptualized and examined than displeasure despite its importance to social relations.

  5. Toward the Soundness of Sense Structure Definitions in Thesaurus-Dictionaries. Parsing Problems and Solutions

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    Neculai Curteanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we point out some difficult problems of thesaurus-dictionary entry parsing, relying on the parsing technology of SCD (Segmentation-Cohesion-Dependency configurations, successfully applied on six largest thesauri -- Romanian (2, French, German (2, and Russian. \\textbf{Challenging Problems:} \\textbf{(a}~Intricate and~/~or recursive structures of the lexicographic segments met in the entries of certain thesauri; \\textbf{(b}~Cyclicity (recursive calls of some sense marker classes on marker sequences; \\textbf{(c}~Establishing the hypergraph-driven dependencies between all the atomic and non-atomic sense definitions. Classical approach to solve these parsing problems is hard mainly because of depth-first search of sense definitions and markers, the substantial complexity of entries, and the sense tree dynamic construction embodied within these parsers. \\textbf{SCD-based Parsing Solutions:} \\textbf{(a}~The SCD parsing method is a procedural tool, completely formal grammar-free, handling the recursive structure of the lexicographic segments by procedural non-recursive calls performed on the SCD parsing configurations of the entry structure. \\textbf{(b}~For dealing with cyclicity (recursive calls between secondary sense markers and the sense enumeration markers, we proposed the Enumeration Closing Condition, sometimes coupled with New{\\_}Paragraphs typographic markers transformed into numeral sense enumeration. \\textbf{(c}~These problems, their lexicographic modeling and parsing solutions are addressed to both dictionary parser programmers to experience the SCD-based parsing method, as well as to lexicographers and thesauri designers for tailoring balanced lexical-semantics granularities and sounder sense tree definitions of the dictionary entries.

  6. Effects of primary and secondary morphological family size in monolingual and bilingual word processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, K.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.; Schreuder, R.; Baayen, Harald

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated primary and secondary morphological family size effects in monolingual and bilingual processing, combining experimentation with computational modeling. Family size effects were investigated in an English lexical decision task for Dutch-English bilinguals and English

  7. Compositions in English: Comparing the Works of Monolinguals, Passive Bilinguals, and Active Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Eka Rini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to see whether the subjects’ “monolingualism” and “bilingualism” (monolinguals learning an L2 and bilinguals learning an L3 influence their study on English, especially writing. The term “bilinguals” also means “multilinguals” in this study. Bilinguals in this paper are classified into two; first, passive bilinguals who are only exposed to another local language, besides speaking Bahasa Indonesia at home, and second, active bilinguals who are exposed to and also speak other language(s and Bahasa Indonesia at home. The findings show that the monolingual and the active bilingual are better than the passive one; the active bilingual is better than the monolingual. However, if the passive and the active bilingual are combined, the monolingual is better than the bilinguals.

  8. Age of dementia diagnosis in community dwelling bilingual and monolingual Hispanic Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Deborah M; Gasquoine, Philip G; Weimer, Amy A

    2015-05-01

    Bilingualism has been reported to delay the age of retrospective report of first symptom in dementia. This study determined if the age of clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia occurred later for bilingual than monolingual, immigrant and U.S. born, Hispanic Americans. It involved a secondary analysis of the subset of 81 bi/monolingual dementia cases identified at yearly follow-up (1998 through 2008) using neuropsychological test results and objective diagnostic criteria from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging that involved a random sampling of community dwelling Hispanic Americans (N = 1789). Age of dementia diagnosis was analyzed in a 2 × 2 (bi/monolingualism × immigrant/U.S. born) ANOVA that space revealed both main effects and the interaction were non-significant. Mean age of dementia diagnosis was descriptively (but not significantly) higher in the monolingual (M = 81.10 years) than the bilingual (M = 79.31) group. Overall, bilingual dementia cases were significantly better educated than monolinguals, but U.S. born bilinguals and monolinguals did not differ significantly in education. Delays in dementia symptomatology pertaining to bilingualism are less likely to be found in studies: (a) that use age of clinical diagnosis vs. retrospective report of first dementia symptom as the dependent variable; and (b) involve clinical cases derived from community samples rather than referrals to specialist memory clinics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Manifestations of developmental dyslexia in monolingual Persian speaking students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouretemad, Hamid R; Khatibi, Ali; Zarei, Mojtaba; Stein, John

    2011-07-01

    Manifestations of dyslexia depend on language systems and scripts. This study explored the prevalence and clinical features of developmental dyslexia among monolingual Persian students and provided insights on mechanisms involved in reading Persian. To measure reading ability we developed a new instrument, Analysis of Persian Reading Ability, which had acceptable validity and reliability. A total of 1562 children aged 6 ½ - 14 were randomly selected from a population of 109696 primary school students in the city of Qom, Iran. Using a variety of statistical and clinical criteria, 82 (5.2%) of the sample were classified as dyslexics. A detailed analysis of reading errors revealed eight types of errors related to three categories. The most frequent category in both dyslexic and the matched control group was phonological, followed by pragmatic and visual errors. The observed prevalence rate of dyslexia and reading error categories would suggest that Persian in vowel-free format is an opaque language and predominant use of a sub-lexical strategy is involved when reading Persian.

  10. Novel Morpheme Learning in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Megan; Sheena, Enanna; Roman, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to examine the utility of a novel morpheme learning task for indexing typical language abilities in children characterized by diverse language backgrounds. Method Three groups of 5- to 6-year-old children were tested: monolingual speakers of English, native speakers of Spanish who also spoke English (Spanish-L1 bilinguals), and native speakers of English who also spoke Spanish (English-L1 bilinguals). All children were taught a new derivational morpheme /ku/ marking part–whole distinction in conjunction with English nouns. Retention was measured via a receptive task, and sensitivity and reaction time (RT) data were collected. Results All three groups of children learned the novel morpheme successfully and were able to generalize its use to untaught nouns. Furthermore, language characteristics (degree of exposure and levels of performance on standardized measures) did not contribute to bilingual children's learning outcomes. Conclusion Together, the findings indicate that this particular version of the novel morpheme learning task may be resistant to influences associated with language background and suggest potential usefulness of the task to clinical practice. PMID:28399578

  11. Deep PDF parsing to extract features for detecting embedded malware.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Cross, Jesse S. (Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO)

    2011-09-01

    The number of PDF files with embedded malicious code has risen significantly in the past few years. This is due to the portability of the file format, the ways Adobe Reader recovers from corrupt PDF files, the addition of many multimedia and scripting extensions to the file format, and many format properties the malware author may use to disguise the presence of malware. Current research focuses on executable, MS Office, and HTML formats. In this paper, several features and properties of PDF Files are identified. Features are extracted using an instrumented open source PDF viewer. The feature descriptions of benign and malicious PDFs can be used to construct a machine learning model for detecting possible malware in future PDF files. The detection rate of PDF malware by current antivirus software is very low. A PDF file is easy to edit and manipulate because it is a text format, providing a low barrier to malware authors. Analyzing PDF files for malware is nonetheless difficult because of (a) the complexity of the formatting language, (b) the parsing idiosyncrasies in Adobe Reader, and (c) undocumented correction techniques employed in Adobe Reader. In May 2011, Esparza demonstrated that PDF malware could be hidden from 42 of 43 antivirus packages by combining multiple obfuscation techniques [4]. One reason current antivirus software fails is the ease of varying byte sequences in PDF malware, thereby rendering conventional signature-based virus detection useless. The compression and encryption functions produce sequences of bytes that are each functions of multiple input bytes. As a result, padding the malware payload with some whitespace before compression/encryption can change many of the bytes in the final payload. In this study we analyzed a corpus of 2591 benign and 87 malicious PDF files. While this corpus is admittedly small, it allowed us to test a system for collecting indicators of embedded PDF malware. We will call these indicators features throughout

  12. Comparing Bilingual to Monolingual Learners on English Spelling: A Meta-analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Quiroz, Blanca; Dixon, L Quentin; Joshi, R Malatesha

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on a meta-analysis to examine how bilingual learners compare with English monolingual learners on two English spelling outcomes: real-word spelling and pseudo-word spelling. Eighteen studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were retrieved. The study-level variables and characteristics (e.g. sample size, study design and research instruments) were coded, and 29 independent effect sizes across the 18 retrieved studies were analysed. We found that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on real-word spelling overall and more so in early grades, but monolinguals outperformed bilinguals on pseudo-word spelling. Further, bilinguals at risk for reading difficulties did better on real-word spelling than monolinguals at risk for reading difficulties. Having investigated systematic sources of variability in effect sizes, we conclude that in comparison with their monolingual peers, bilingual learners, especially those from alphabetic L1 backgrounds, are able to master constrained skills, such as English spelling, in the current instructional context. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Inclusion Strategies for Multi-word Units in Monolingual Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Louw

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article focuses on inclusion strategies for different types of multi-word units, beit as part of the macrostructure or embedded as treatment units in the microstructure of a specificdictionary. The types of multi-word units discussed range from multi-word lexical items to collocationsand multi-word compound lexical items. The general principles set out in this article areapplied specifically to monolingual school dictionaries that target learners of English in the juniorsecondary phase.In order to discuss inclusion strategies adequately it is, however, necessary to make a cursorydistinction between idioms and collocations, on the one hand, and between collocations and multiwordcompound lexical items, on the other. It is shown that current monolingual dictionaries oftenfail to distinguish between these types and therefore apply potentially confusing inclusion strategies.In the discussion of inclusion strategies for multi-word lexical items that follows, it is shownthat, whereas loan groups and group prepositions require lemmatisation as full multilexical lemmas,the strategy for idioms is not as simple. The problems with a full lemmatisation of idioms arepointed out and an alternative system, whereby idioms are consistently included as sublemmaswith full microstructural treatment, is proposed.Next it is shown that collocations do not have lexical item status and can therefore not betreated in the same way as multi-word lexical items. However, provision must be made that somecollocations may need additional microstructural treatment addressed to them.Lastly, inclusion strategies for multi-word compound lexical items, which frequently occur inEnglish, are discussed. The practice of sublemmatising so-called "transparent" compound lexicalitems and giving them no or little microstructural treatment, is shown to be inappropriate forschool dictionaries.Hopefully the guidelines provided in this article can be of some help in clearing up

  14. Interface strategies in monolingual and end-state L2 Spanish grammars are not that different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmen eParafita Couto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores syntactic, pragmatic, and lexical influences on adherence to SV and VS orders in native and fluent L2 speakers of Spanish. A judgment task examined 20 native monolingual and 20 longstanding L2 bilingual Spanish speakers’ acceptance of SV and VS structures. Seventy-six distinct verbs were tested under a combination of syntactic and pragmatic constraints. Our findings challenge the hypothesis that internal interfaces are acquired more easily than external interfaces (Sorace, 2005, 2011; Sorace & Filiaci, 2006; White 2006. Additional findings are that (a bilinguals' judgments are less firm overall than monolinguals' (i.e., monolinguals are more likely to give extreme yes or no judgments and (b individual verbs do not necessarily behave as predicted under standard definitions of unaccusatives and unergatives. Correlations of the patterns found in the data with verb frequencies suggest that usage-based accounts of grammatical knowledge could help provide insight into speakers' knowledge of these constructs.

  15. Interface strategies in monolingual and end-state L2 Spanish grammars are not that different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parafita Couto, María C; Mueller Gathercole, Virginia C; Stadthagen-González, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This study explores syntactic, pragmatic, and lexical influences on adherence to SV and VS orders in native and fluent L2 speakers of Spanish. A judgment task examined 20 native monolingual and 20 longstanding L2 bilingual Spanish speakers' acceptance of SV and VS structures. Seventy-six distinct verbs were tested under a combination of syntactic and pragmatic constraints. Our findings challenge the hypothesis that internal interfaces are acquired more easily than external interfaces (Sorace, 2005, 2011; Sorace and Filiaci, 2006; White, 2006). Additional findings are that (a) bilinguals' judgments are less firm overall than monolinguals' (i.e., monolinguals are more likely to give extreme "yes" or "no" judgments) and (b) individual verbs do not necessarily behave as predicted under standard definitions of unaccusatives and unergatives. Correlations of the patterns found in the data with verb frequencies suggest that usage-based accounts of grammatical knowledge could help provide insight into speakers' knowledge of these constructs.

  16. Comparison of Iranian Monolingual and Bilingual EFL Students' Listening Comprehension in Terms of Watching English Movie with Latinized Persian Subtitles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamchi, Roghayeh; Kumar, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    The main concern of the present study was to compare Iranian monolingual and bilingual EFL students' listening comprehension in terms of Latinized Persian subtitling of English movie to see whether there was a significant difference between monolinguals and bilinguals on immediate linguistic comprehension of the movie. Latinized Persian subtitling…

  17. Generative re-ranking model for dependency parsing of Italian sentences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangati, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a general framework for dependency parsing of Italian sentences based on a combination of discriminative and generative models. We use a state-of-the-art discriminative model to obtain a k-best list of candidate structures for the test sentences, and use the generative model to compute

  18. Towards a Robuster Interpretive Parsing: learning from overt forms in Optimality Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biró, T.

    2013-01-01

    The input data to grammar learning algorithms often consist of overt forms that do not contain full structural descriptions. This lack of information may contribute to the failure of learning. Past work on Optimality Theory introduced Robust Interpretive Parsing (RIP) as a partial solution to this

  19. Single-View 3D Scene Reconstruction and Parsing by Attribute Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaobai; Zhao, Yibiao; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we present an attribute grammar for solving two coupled tasks: i) parsing a 2D image into semantic regions; and ii) recovering the 3D scene structures of all regions. The proposed grammar consists of a set of production rules, each describing a kind of spatial relation between planar surfaces in 3D scenes. These production rules are used to decompose an input image into a hierarchical parse graph representation where each graph node indicates a planar surface or a composite surface. Different from other stochastic image grammars, the proposed grammar augments each graph node with a set of attribute variables to depict scene-level global geometry, e.g., camera focal length, or local geometry, e.g., surface normal, contact lines between surfaces. These geometric attributes impose constraints between a node and its off-springs in the parse graph. Under a probabilistic framework, we develop a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to construct a parse graph that optimizes the 2D image recognition and 3D scene reconstruction purposes simultaneously. We evaluated our method on both public benchmarks and newly collected datasets. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of achieving state-of-the-art scene reconstruction of a single image.

  20. Neural Semantic Parsing by Character-based Translation: Experiments with Abstract Meaning Representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noord, Rik; Bos, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate the character-level translation method for neural semantic parsing on a large corpus of sentences annotated with Abstract Meaning Representations (AMRs). Using a sequence-to-sequence model, and some trivial preprocessing and postprocessing of AMRs, we obtain a baseline accuracy of 53.1

  1. ParseCNV integrative copy number variation association software with quality tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glessner, Joseph T; Li, Jin; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2013-03-01

    A number of copy number variation (CNV) calling algorithms exist; however, comprehensive software tools for CNV association studies are lacking. We describe ParseCNV, unique software that takes CNV calls and creates probe-based statistics for CNV occurrence in both case-control design and in family based studies addressing both de novo and inheritance events, which are then summarized based on CNV regions (CNVRs). CNVRs are defined in a dynamic manner to allow for a complex CNV overlap while maintaining precise association region. Using this approach, we avoid failure to converge and non-monotonic curve fitting weaknesses of programs, such as CNVtools and CNVassoc, and although Plink is easy to use, it only provides combined CNV state probe-based statistics, not state-specific CNVRs. Existing CNV association methods do not provide any quality tracking information to filter confident associations, a key issue which is fully addressed by ParseCNV. In addition, uncertainty in CNV calls underlying CNV associations is evaluated to verify significant results, including CNV overlap profiles, genomic context, number of probes supporting the CNV and single-probe intensities. When optimal quality control parameters are followed using ParseCNV, 90% of CNVs validate by polymerase chain reaction, an often problematic stage because of inadequate significant association review. ParseCNV is freely available at http://parsecnv.sourceforge.net.

  2. Introduction to special issue on machine learning approaches to shallow parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammerton, J; Osborne, M; Armstrong, S; Daelemans, W

    2002-01-01

    This article introduces the problem of partial or shallow parsing (assigning partial syntactic structure to sentences) and explains why it is an important natural language processing (NLP) task. The complexity of the task makes Machine Learning an attractive option in comparison to the handcrafting

  3. Tackling Error Propagation through Reinforcement Learning: A Case of Greedy Dependency Parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, M.N.; Fokkens, A.S.

    Error propagation is a common problem in NLP. Reinforcement learning explores erroneous states during training and can therefore be more robust when mistakes are made early in a process. In this paper, we apply reinforcement learning to greedy dependency parsing which is known to suffer from error

  4. Fuzzy context-free languages - Part 2: Recognition and parsing algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    2005-01-01

    In a companion paper [P.R.J. Asveld, Fuzzy context-free languages---Part 1: Generalized fuzzy context-free grammars, Theoret. Comp. Sci. (2005)] we used fuzzy context-free grammars in order to model grammatical errors resulting in erroneous inputs for robust recognizing and parsing algorithms for

  5. Quantitative and qualitative differences in the lexical knowledge of monolingual and bilingual children on the LITMUS-CLT task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Carmit; Goldstein, Tamara; Armon-Lotem, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    While bilingual children follow the same milestones of language acquisition as monolingual children do in learning the syntactic patterns of their second language (L2), their vocabulary size in L2 often lags behind compared to monolinguals. The present study explores the comprehension and production of nouns and verbs in Hebrew, by two groups of 5- to 6-year olds with typical language development: monolingual Hebrew speakers (N = 26), and Russian-Hebrew bilinguals (N = 27). Analyses not only show quantitative gaps between comprehension and production and between nouns and verbs, with a bilingual effect in both, but also a qualitative difference between monolinguals and bilinguals in their production errors: monolinguals' errors reveal knowledge of the language rules despite temporary access difficulties, while bilinguals' errors reflect gaps in their knowledge of Hebrew (L2). The nature of Hebrew as a Semitic language allows one to explore this qualitative difference in the semantic and morphological level.

  6. Integrating high dimensional bi-directional parsing models for gene mention tagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Nan; Chang, Yu-Ming; Kuo, Cheng-Ju; Lin, Yu-Shi; Huang, Han-Shen; Chung, I-Fang

    2008-07-01

    Tagging gene and gene product mentions in scientific text is an important initial step of literature mining. In this article, we describe in detail our gene mention tagger participated in BioCreative 2 challenge and analyze what contributes to its good performance. Our tagger is based on the conditional random fields model (CRF), the most prevailing method for the gene mention tagging task in BioCreative 2. Our tagger is interesting because it accomplished the highest F-scores among CRF-based methods and second over all. Moreover, we obtained our results by mostly applying open source packages, making it easy to duplicate our results. We first describe in detail how we developed our CRF-based tagger. We designed a very high dimensional feature set that includes most of information that may be relevant. We trained bi-directional CRF models with the same set of features, one applies forward parsing and the other backward, and integrated two models based on the output scores and dictionary filtering. One of the most prominent factors that contributes to the good performance of our tagger is the integration of an additional backward parsing model. However, from the definition of CRF, it appears that a CRF model is symmetric and bi-directional parsing models will produce the same results. We show that due to different feature settings, a CRF model can be asymmetric and the feature setting for our tagger in BioCreative 2 not only produces different results but also gives backward parsing models slight but constant advantage over forward parsing model. To fully explore the potential of integrating bi-directional parsing models, we applied different asymmetric feature settings to generate many bi-directional parsing models and integrate them based on the output scores. Experimental results show that this integrated model can achieve even higher F-score solely based on the training corpus for gene mention tagging. Data sets, programs and an on-line service of our gene

  7. Learning with and by Language: Bilingual Teaching Strategies for the Monolingual Language-Aware Geography Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawski, Michael; Budke, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Geography lessons center on a language-based product with socially relevant geographic content. The subject of geography in secondary schools in Germany faces three major challenges that make a stronger focus on language in the monolingual geography classroom necessary. First, more than 30 percent of German pupils in secondary schools have a…

  8. Bilingualised or Monolingual Dictionaries? Preferences and Practices of Advanced ESL Learners in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a questionnaire and interview survey on Cantonese ESL learners' preference for bilingualised dictionaries or monolingual dictionaries. The questionnaire survey was implemented with about 160 university English majors in Hong Kong and three focus group interviews were conducted with 14 of these participants.…

  9. Comparing the Effect of Using Monolingual versus Bilingual Dictionary on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners' Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangari, Saeideh; Dogolsara, Shokoufeh Abbasi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of using two types of dictionaries (monolingual and bilingual) on Iranian intermediate EFL learners' vocabulary learning. An OPT (Oxford placement test, 2001) was administered among 90 students 60 of whom were selected as the participants of this study. They were sophomore students studying English as a…

  10. Filial Therapy with Monolingual Spanish-Speaking Mothers: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii; Cook, Katrina; Rangel-Gomez, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a phenomenological study of filial therapy with monolingual, Spanish-speaking mothers living in the United States. Four mothers participated in a 5-week training in filial therapy. Data from the interviews revealed four emergent themes. These include (a) challenges in integrating play therapy skills in everyday life, (b)…

  11. Planning Abilities in Bilingual and Monolingual Children: Role of Verbal Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; McDonald, Margarethe; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2018-01-01

    We examined the role of verbal mediation in planning performance of English–Spanish-speaking bilingual children and monolingual English-speaking children, between the ages of 9 and 12 years. To measure planning, children were administered the Tower of London (ToL) task. In a dual-task paradigm, children completed ToL problems under three conditions: with no secondary task (baseline), with articulatory suppression, and with non-verbal motor suppression. Analyses revealed generally shorter planning times for bilinguals than monolinguals but both groups performed similarly on number of moves and execution times. Additionally, bilingual children were more efficient at planning throughout the duration of the task while monolingual children showed significant gains with more practice. Children’s planning times under articulatory suppression were significantly shorter than under motor suppression as well as the baseline condition, and there was no difference in planning times between monolingual and bilingual children during articulatory suppression. These results demonstrate that bilingualism influences performance on a complex EF measure like planning, and that these effects are not related to verbal mediation. PMID:29593620

  12. Behavioral Problems and Reading Difficulties among Language Minority and Monolingual Urban Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Margaret E.; Wechsler-Zimring, Adrianna; Noam, Gil; Wolf, Maryanne; Katzir, Tami

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the potentially compounding effect of language minority (LM) status on problem behaviors among urban second and third grade-level poor readers. Univariate analyses showed that a disproportionate percentage of both LM and English monolingual (L1) poor readers already displayed clinically significant levels of anxiety, social…

  13. The Home Language Environment of Monolingual and Bilingual Children and Their Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheele, Anna F.; Leseman, Paul P. M.; Mayo, Aziza Y.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between home language learning activities and vocabulary in a sample of monolingual native Dutch (n = 58) and bilingual immigrant Moroccan-Dutch (n = 46) and Turkish-Dutch (n = 55) 3-year-olds, speaking Tarifit-Berber, a nonscripted language, and Turkish as their first language (L1), respectively. Despite…

  14. Differences in Word Recognition between Early Bilinguals and Monolinguals: Behavioral and ERP Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Minna; Hulten, Annika; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral and brain responses (ERPs) of bilingual word recognition to three fundamental psycholinguistic factors, frequency, morphology, and lexicality, in early bilinguals vs. monolinguals. Earlier behavioral studies have reported larger frequency effects in bilinguals' nondominant vs. dominant language and in some studies…

  15. Narrative Development among Language-Minority Children: The Role of Bilingual versus Monolingual Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Shaul, Yehudit

    2013-01-01

    The development of script schema, as a source of narrative knowledge, is an essential stage in this knowledge construction. This study focused on the role of bilingual versus monolingual preschool education in the development of script schema knowledge in Russian (L1) and Hebrew (L2) among Russian/Hebrew-speaking children in Israel. The preschool…

  16. Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Performance of Monolingual and Bilingual Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…

  17. Phoneme Awareness, Vocabulary and Word Decoding in Monolingual and Bilingual Dutch Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Marije; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilingually raised children in the Netherlands, who receive literacy instruction in their second language only, show an advantage on Dutch phoneme-awareness tasks compared with monolingual Dutch-speaking children. Language performance of a group of 47 immigrant first-grade children with various…

  18. Production and Processing of Subject-Verb Agreement in Monolingual Dutch Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Elma; Vasic, Nada; de Jong, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated whether errors with subject-verb agreement in monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) are influenced by verb phonology. In addition, the productive and receptive abilities of Dutch acquiring children with SLI regarding agreement inflection were compared. Method: An SLI…

  19. Monolingualism and Prescriptivism: The Ecology of Slovene in the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savski, Kristof

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the ecology of Slovene in the twentieth century by focusing on two key emergent themes. It focuses firstly on monolingualism as a key goal for Slovene language planners, starting with their efforts to create a standard language with no German influences in the nineteenth century, and continuing in their work to prevent…

  20. The Monolingual Cataloging Monolith: A Barrier to Library Access for Readers of Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that despite growing awareness of frontline public service concerns in accommodating Spanish speakers, little care is invested in the technical processing side of the library's responsibility to Spanish speakers. Examines the usefulness and accessibility of online public access catalogs for monolingual Spanish readers, focusing on records…

  1. Planning Abilities in Bilingual and Monolingual Children: Role of Verbal Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; McDonald, Margarethe; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2018-01-01

    We examined the role of verbal mediation in planning performance of English-Spanish-speaking bilingual children and monolingual English-speaking children, between the ages of 9 and 12 years. To measure planning, children were administered the Tower of London (ToL) task. In a dual-task paradigm, children completed ToL problems under three conditions: with no secondary task (baseline), with articulatory suppression, and with non-verbal motor suppression. Analyses revealed generally shorter planning times for bilinguals than monolinguals but both groups performed similarly on number of moves and execution times. Additionally, bilingual children were more efficient at planning throughout the duration of the task while monolingual children showed significant gains with more practice. Children's planning times under articulatory suppression were significantly shorter than under motor suppression as well as the baseline condition, and there was no difference in planning times between monolingual and bilingual children during articulatory suppression. These results demonstrate that bilingualism influences performance on a complex EF measure like planning, and that these effects are not related to verbal mediation.

  2. Comparing Narrative Microstructure between Bilingual Balochi-Persian and Monolingual Persian Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Arabpour

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, with rapid increase of bilingual children, more attention about different patterns of the bilingual children narratives is needed. The aim of this study was to compare microstructure level of narratives generated by typical developing kindergarten children who were bilingual in Persian and Balochi with monolingual Persian speakers. Method: Thirty Persian-speaking monolingual and thirteen available bilingual children (aged 48 months old participated in this study. Children’s story telling was audio-recorded and analyzed using the Persian-NAP (Narrative Assessment Protocol guidelines. Results: All of the NAP indicators include of group structure, phrase structure, modifiers, noun and verbs didn’t show significant difference between monolingual and bilingual children (0.06≤p≤0.5. Conclusion: We didn’t find different performance in the five NAP indicators between bilingual and monolingual children. It may be suggested that the different patterns of creating phrases and sentences in two languages don’t affect the grammatical use of them in second language.

  3. Post-Monolingual Research Methodology: Multilingual Researchers Democratizing Theorizing and Doctoral Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Singh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the ground-breaking research in the study of languages in doctoral education. It argues for democratizing the production and dissemination of original contributions to knowledge through activating and mobilizing multilingual Higher Degree Researchers’ (HDRs capabilities for theorizing through them using their full linguistic repertoire. This paper contributes to this study’s development of post-monolingual research methodology which provides a theoretic-pedagogical framework for multilingual HDRs (a to use their full linguistic repertoire in their research; (b to develop their capabilities for theorizing and (c to construct potentially valuable theoretical tools using metaphors, images, concepts and modes of critique. This paper is based on a longitudinal program of collaborative research whereby monolingual Anglophone and multilingual HDRs jointly developed their capabilities for theorizing through producing Anglo-Chinese analytical tools, and the associated pedagogies for using their languages in doctoral research. This longitudinal research program has been undertaken in the field of doctoral education to further a defining feature of democracy, namely linguistic diversity. This research has been conducted with the aims of promoting the multilingualism of Australian universities and activating linguistic communities of scholars to use their full linguistic repertoire in their research. The main finding arising from this program of research has been the development of post-monolingual research methodology which (a uses the divergences within and between languages to undertake theorizing and (b in co-existence with the tensions posed by monolingualism, especially the insistence on using extant theories available in only one language. Doctoral pedagogies of intellectual/racial equality provide multilingual HDRs with insights into the debates about the geopolitics governing the use of languages in the production and

  4. Language Proficiency and Sustained Attention in Monolingual and Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessel Boerma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The language profiles of children with language impairment (LI and bilingual children can show partial, and possibly temporary, overlap. The current study examined the persistence of this overlap over time. Furthermore, we aimed to better understand why the language profiles of these two groups show resemblance, testing the hypothesis that the language difficulties of children with LI reflect a weakened ability to maintain attention to the stream of linguistic information. Consequent incomplete processing of language input may lead to delays that are similar to those originating from reductions in input frequency.Methods: Monolingual and bilingual children with and without LI (N = 128, aged 5–8 years old, participated in this study. Dutch receptive vocabulary and grammatical morphology were assessed at three waves. In addition, auditory and visual sustained attention were tested at wave 1. Mediation analyses were performed to examine relationships between LI, sustained attention, and language skills.Results: Children with LI and bilingual children were outperformed by their typically developing (TD and monolingual peers, respectively, on vocabulary and morphology at all three waves. The vocabulary difference between monolinguals and bilinguals decreased over time. In addition, children with LI had weaker auditory and visual sustained attention skills relative to TD children, while no differences between monolinguals and bilinguals emerged. Auditory sustained attention mediated the effect of LI on vocabulary and morphology in both the monolingual and bilingual groups of children. Visual sustained attention only acted as a mediator in the bilingual group.Conclusion: The findings from the present study indicate that the overlap between the language profiles of children with LI and bilingual children is particularly large for vocabulary in early (preschool years and reduces over time. Results furthermore suggest that the overlap may be

  5. Pippi — Painless parsing, post-processing and plotting of posterior and likelihood samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Pat

    2012-11-01

    Interpreting samples from likelihood or posterior probability density functions is rarely as straightforward as it seems it should be. Producing publication-quality graphics of these distributions is often similarly painful. In this short note I describe pippi, a simple, publicly available package for parsing and post-processing such samples, as well as generating high-quality PDF graphics of the results. Pippi is easily and extensively configurable and customisable, both in its options for parsing and post-processing samples, and in the visual aspects of the figures it produces. I illustrate some of these using an existing supersymmetric global fit, performed in the context of a gamma-ray search for dark matter. Pippi can be downloaded and followed at http://github.com/patscott/pippi.

  6. Fetching and Parsing Data from the Web with OpenRefine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Peter Williamson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available OpenRefine is a powerful tool for exploring, cleaning, and transforming data. An earlier Programming Historian lesson, “Cleaning Data with OpenRefine”, introduced the basic functionality of Refine to efficiently discover and correct inconsistency in a data set. Building on those essential data wrangling skills, this lesson focuses on Refine’s ability to fetch URLs and parse web content. Examples introduce some of the advanced features to transform and enhance a data set including: - fetch URLs using Refine - construct URL queries to retrieve information from a simple web API - parse HTML and JSON responses to extract relevant data - use array functions to manipulate string values - use Jython to extend Refine’s functionality It will be helpful to have basic familiarity with OpenRefine, HTML, and programming concepts such as variables and loops to complete this lesson.

  7. Tackling Error Propagation through Reinforcement Learning: A Case of Greedy Dependency Parsing

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Minh; Fokkens, Antske

    2017-01-01

    Error propagation is a common problem in NLP. Reinforcement learning explores erroneous states during training and can therefore be more robust when mistakes are made early in a process. In this paper, we apply reinforcement learning to greedy dependency parsing which is known to suffer from error propagation. Reinforcement learning improves accuracy of both labeled and unlabeled dependencies of the Stanford Neural Dependency Parser, a high performance greedy parser, while maintaining its eff...

  8. Cross-Lingual Dependency Parsing with Late Decoding for Truly Low-Resource Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Schlichtkrull, Michael Sejr; Søgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    In cross-lingual dependency annotation projection, information is often lost during transfer because of early decoding. We present an end-to-end graph-based neural network dependency parser that can be trained to reproduce matrices of edge scores, which can be directly projected across word alignments. We show that our approach to cross-lingual dependency parsing is not only simpler, but also achieves an absolute improvement of 2.25% averaged across 10 languages compared to the previous state...

  9. Is human sentence parsing serial or parallel? Evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, Jens-Max; Bader, Markus; Meng, Michael; Bayer, Josef

    2003-01-01

    In this ERP study we investigate the processes that occur in syntactically ambiguous German sentences at the point of disambiguation. Whereas most psycholinguistic theories agree on the view that processing difficulties arise when parsing preferences are disconfirmed (so-called garden-path effects), important differences exist with respect to theoretical assumptions about the parser's recovery from a misparse. A key distinction can be made between parsers that compute all alternative syntactic structures in parallel (parallel parsers) and parsers that compute only a single preferred analysis (serial parsers). To distinguish empirically between parallel and serial parsing models, we compare ERP responses to garden-path sentences with ERP responses to truly ungrammatical sentences. Garden-path sentences contain a temporary and ultimately curable ungrammaticality, whereas truly ungrammatical sentences remain so permanently--a difference which gives rise to different predictions in the two classes of parsing architectures. At the disambiguating word, ERPs in both sentence types show negative shifts of similar onset latency, amplitude, and scalp distribution in an initial time window between 300 and 500 ms. In a following time window (500-700 ms), the negative shift to garden-path sentences disappears at right central parietal sites, while it continues in permanently ungrammatical sentences. These data are taken as evidence for a strictly serial parser. The absence of a difference in the early time window indicates that temporary and permanent ungrammaticalities trigger the same kind of parsing responses. Later differences can be related to successful reanalysis in garden-path but not in ungrammatical sentences. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science B.V.

  10. Learning for Semantic Parsing with Kernels under Various Forms of Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    natural language sentences to their formal executable meaning representations. This is a challenging problem and is critical for developing computing...sentences are semantically tractable. This indi- cates that Geoquery is more challenging domain for semantic parsing than ATIS. In the past, there have been a...Combining parsers. In Proceedings of the Conference on Em- pirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and Very Large Corpora (EMNLP/ VLC -99), pp. 187–194

  11. Incremental Learning of Context Free Grammars by Parsing-Based Rule Generation and Rule Set Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsuhiko; Hoshina, Akemi

    This paper discusses recent improvements and extensions in Synapse system for inductive inference of context free grammars (CFGs) from sample strings. Synapse uses incremental learning, rule generation based on bottom-up parsing, and the search for rule sets. The form of production rules in the previous system is extended from Revised Chomsky Normal Form A→βγ to Extended Chomsky Normal Form, which also includes A→B, where each of β and γ is either a terminal or nonterminal symbol. From the result of bottom-up parsing, a rule generation mechanism synthesizes minimum production rules required for parsing positive samples. Instead of inductive CYK algorithm in the previous version of Synapse, the improved version uses a novel rule generation method, called ``bridging,'' which bridges the lacked part of the derivation tree for the positive string. The improved version also employs a novel search strategy, called serial search in addition to minimum rule set search. The synthesis of grammars by the serial search is faster than the minimum set search in most cases. On the other hand, the size of the generated CFGs is generally larger than that by the minimum set search, and the system can find no appropriate grammar for some CFL by the serial search. The paper shows experimental results of incremental learning of several fundamental CFGs and compares the methods of rule generation and search strategies.

  12. Monolingual versus multilingual acquisition of English morphology: what can we expect at age 3?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Ruth J; Eadie, Patricia A; Reilly, Sheena

    2011-01-01

    At least two-thirds of the world's children grow up in environments where more than one language is spoken. Despite the global predominance of multilingualism, much remains unknown regarding the language acquisition of children acquiring multiple languages compared with monolingual children. A greater understanding of multilingualism is crucial for speech-language pathologists given the increasing number of children being raised in linguistically diverse environments. To investigate the expressive morphological abilities of multilingual children acquiring English, compared with monolingual children, at 3 years of age. Participants were 148 children (74 multilingual children; 74 matched monolingual children; mean age of 3 years 4 months) already participating in a larger prospective longitudinal cohort study of language development in Melbourne, Australia. Thirty-one languages in addition to English were represented within the embedded cohort. All participants completed a direct language assessment to measure their expressive abilities across a range of English morphemes. The parents of the multilingual participants completed an interview regarding the children's language backgrounds and experiences. The Multilingual Group typically performed below the Monolingual Group in terms of their accurate use and mastery of English morphemes at 3 years of age, although variable expressive abilities were indicated within each group. The same morphemes were shown to be mastered by relatively higher proportions of each group. Likewise, the same forms were mastered by relatively lower proportions of each group. The results indicated similarities between the children's acquisition of English morphology, regardless of whether they were acquiring English only or in combination with another language(s) at 3 years of age. This study found a range of similarities and differences between multilingual compared with monolingual children's acquisition of English morphology at 3 years of

  13. "gnparser": a powerful parser for scientific names based on Parsing Expression Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzherin, Dmitry Y; Myltsev, Alexander A; Patterson, David J

    2017-05-26

    Scientific names in biology act as universal links. They allow us to cross-reference information about organisms globally. However variations in spelling of scientific names greatly diminish their ability to interconnect data. Such variations may include abbreviations, annotations, misspellings, etc. Authorship is a part of a scientific name and may also differ significantly. To match all possible variations of a name we need to divide them into their elements and classify each element according to its role. We refer to this as 'parsing' the name. Parsing categorizes name's elements into those that are stable and those that are prone to change. Names are matched first by combining them according to their stable elements. Matches are then refined by examining their varying elements. This two stage process dramatically improves the number and quality of matches. It is especially useful for the automatic data exchange within the context of "Big Data" in biology. We introduce Global Names Parser (gnparser). It is a Java tool written in Scala language (a language for Java Virtual Machine) to parse scientific names. It is based on a Parsing Expression Grammar. The parser can be applied to scientific names of any complexity. It assigns a semantic meaning (such as genus name, species epithet, rank, year of publication, authorship, annotations, etc.) to all elements of a name. It is able to work with nested structures as in the names of hybrids. gnparser performs with ≈99% accuracy and processes 30 million name-strings/hour per CPU thread. The gnparser library is compatible with Scala, Java, R, Jython, and JRuby. The parser can be used as a command line application, as a socket server, a web-app or as a RESTful HTTP-service. It is released under an Open source MIT license. Global Names Parser (gnparser) is a fast, high precision tool for biodiversity informaticians and biologists working with large numbers of scientific names. It can replace expensive and error

  14. The Prevalence of English Monolingualism and Its Association with Generational Status among Hmong Americans, 2005-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Sao Xiong; Nao Xiong

    2011-01-01

    Using the American Community Survey's multi-year (2005-2009) Public Use Microdata Sample, we estimate the prevalence of English monolingualism and statistically analyze the association between English monolingualism and generational status within the U.S. Hmong population. Our findings show that the odds of speaking only English among the second generation is almost three times more compared to the first generation. Data from the 2009 ACS PUMS further indicate that there is a linear an...

  15. Lexicographic Approaches to Sense Disambiguation in Monolingual Dictionaries and Equivalent Differentiation in Bilingual Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Vrbinc

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses methods of sense disambiguation in monolingual dictionaries and equivalent differentiation in bilingual dictionaries. In current dictionaries, sense disambiguation and equivalent differentiation is presented in the form of specifiers or glosses, collocators or indications of context, (domain labels, metalinguistic and encyclopaedic information. Each method is presented and illustrated by actual samples of dictionary articles taken from mono and bilingual dictionaries. The last part of the article is devoted to equivalent differentiation in bilingual decoding dictionaries. In bilingual dictionaries, equivalent differentiation is often needed to describe the lack of agreement between the source language (SL and target language (TL. The article concludes by stating that equivalent differentiation should be written in the native language of the target audience and sense indicators in a monolingual learner’s dictionary should be words that the users are most familiar with.

  16. The Comparison of the Monolingual and Bilingual Japanese Students in The English Achievement

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    Ienneke Indra Dewi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Article is intended to know whether the monolingual or bilingual Japanese students are better in the English achievement and whether the exposure of English influences the ability. The data were taken from 60 Japanese students who are supposed to fill in the questionnaires regarding their language background. The English achievement data were taken from the students’ scores in Senior High School National Examination and the data further were compared to the TOEFL English score. The analysis is carried out using ANOVA analysis. This research indicates that monolinguals are better learners in English and exposure is proved to influence the students’ ability in English.                                                  

  17. The timing and magnitude of Stroop interference and facilitation in monolinguals and bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Emily L; VAN Heuven, Walter J B; Conklin, Kathy

    2013-04-01

    Executive control abilities and lexical access speed in Stroop performance were investigated in English monolinguals and two groups of bilinguals (English-Chinese and Chinese-English) in their first (L1) and second (L2) languages. Predictions were based on a bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, implicating cognitive control ability as the critical factor determining Stroop interference; and two bilingual lexical disadvantage hypotheses, focusing on lexical access speed. Importantly, each hypothesis predicts different response patterns in a Stroop task manipulating stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). There was evidence for a bilingual cognitive advantage, although this effect was sensitive to a number of variables including proficiency, language immersion, and script. In lexical access speed, no differences occurred between monolinguals and bilinguals in their native languages, but there was evidence for a delay in L2 processing speed relative to the L1. Overall, the data highlight the multitude of factors affecting executive control and lexical access speed in bilinguals.

  18. Impact of the linguistic environment on speech perception : comparing bilingual and monolingual populations

    OpenAIRE

    Roessler, Abeba, 1981-

    2012-01-01

    The present dissertation set out to investigate how the linguistic environment affects speech perception. Three sets of studies have explored effects of bilingualism on word recognition in adults and infants and the impact of first language linguistic knowledge on rule learning in adults. In the present work, we have found evidence in three auditory priming studies that bilingual adults, in contrast to monolinguals have developed mechanisms to effectively overcome interference from irrelevant...

  19. Monolingual or bilingual intervention for primary language impairment? A randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thordardottir, Elin; Cloutier, Geneviève; Ménard, Suzanne; Pelland-Blais, Elaine; Rvachew, Susan

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the clinical effectiveness of monolingual versus bilingual language intervention, the latter involving speech-language pathologist-parent collaboration. The study focuses on methods that are currently being recommended and that are feasible within current clinical contexts. Bilingual children with primary language impairment who speak a minority language as their home language and French as their second (n=29, mean age=5 years) were randomly assigned to monolingual treatment, bilingual treatment, and no-treatment (delayed-treatment) conditions. Sixteen sessions of individual language intervention were offered, targeting vocabulary and syntactic skills in French only or bilingually, through parent collaboration during the clinical sessions. Language evaluations were conducted before and after treatment by blinded examiners; these evaluations targeted French as well as the home languages. An additional evaluation was conducted 2 months after completion of treatment to assess maintenance of gains. Both monolingual and bilingual treatment followed a focused stimulation approach. Results in French showed a significant treatment effect for vocabulary but no difference between treatment conditions. Gains were made in syntax, but these gains could not be attributed to treatment given that treatment groups did not improve more than the control group. Home language probes did not suggest that the therapy had resulted in gains in the home language. The intervention used in this study is in line with current recommendations of major speech-language pathology organizations. However, the findings indicate that the bilingual treatment created through collaboration with parents was not effective in creating a sufficiently intense bilingual context to make it significantly different from the monolingual treatment. Further studies are needed to assess the gains associated with clinical modifications made for bilingual children and to search for effective ways

  20. Bilinguals Have Different Hemispheric Lateralization in Visual Word Processing from Monolinguals

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    Sze-Man Lam

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous bilingual studies showed reduced hemispheric asymmetry in visual tasks such as face perception in bilinguals compared with monolinguals, suggesting experience in reading one or two languages could be a modulating factor. Here we examined whether difference in hemispheric asymmetry in visual tasks can also be observed in bilinguals who have different language backgrounds. We compared the behavior of three language groups in a tachistoscopic English word sequential matching task: English monolinguals (or alphabetic monolinguals, A-Ms, bilinguals with an alphabetic-L1 and English-L2 (alphabetic-alphabetic bilinguals, AA-Bs, and bilinguals with Chinese-L1 and English-L2 (logographic-alphabetic bilinguals, LA-Bs. The results showed that AA-Bs had a stronger right visual field/ left hemispheric (LH advantage than A-Ms and LA-Bs, suggesting that different language learning experiences can influence how visual words are processed in the brain. In addition, we showed that this effect could be accounted for by a computational model that implements a theory of hemispheric asymmetry in perception (i.e., the Double Filtering by Frequency theory; Ivry & Robertson, 1998; the modeling data suggested that this difference may be due to both the difference in participants' vocabulary size and the difference in word-to-sound mapping between alphabetic and logographic languages.

  1. The moderating effect of orthographic consistency on oral vocabulary learning in monolingual and bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubenville, Kathleen; Sénéchal, Monique; Malette, Melissa

    2014-10-01

    Two studies were conducted to assess whether (a) the incidental presence of print facilitates the acquisition of oral vocabulary, (b) the facilitative effect of print is moderated by phoneme-to-grapheme consistency, and (c) the findings obtained with monolingual children generalize to bilingual children. In total, 71 monolingual French-speaking children (M age = 9 years 2 months) in Study 1 and 64 bilingual children (M age = 9 years 3 months) in Study 2 participated in one of three conditions: consistent print, inconsistent print, or no print. Children were to learn novel labels for unfamiliar objects in a paired-associate paradigm. In both studies, print facilitated the acquisition and recall of expressive vocabulary. The effect of print consistency, however, varied across studies. As expected, monolingual children exposed to consistent print learned more novel labels than children exposed to inconsistent print. In contrast, bilingual children exposed to inconsistent print learned and recalled more labels than children exposed to consistent print. These intriguing findings might be due to differences in attention allocation during training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Who can communicate with whom? Language experience affects infants' evaluation of others as monolingual or multilingual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Casey E; Onishi, Kristine H; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2015-01-01

    Adults recognize that people can understand more than one language. However, it is unclear whether infants assume other people understand one or multiple languages. We examined whether monolingual and bilingual 20-month-olds expect an unfamiliar person to understand one or more than one language. Two speakers told a listener the location of a hidden object using either the same or two different languages. When different languages were spoken, monolinguals looked longer when the listener searched correctly, bilinguals did not; when the same language was spoken, both groups looked longer for incorrect searches. Infants rely on their prior language experience when evaluating the language abilities of a novel individual. Monolingual infants assume others can understand only one language, although not necessarily the infants' own; bilinguals do not. Infants' assumptions about which community of conventions people belong to may allow them to recognize effective communicative partners and thus opportunities to acquire language, knowledge, and culture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Predictors of Processing-Based Task Performance in Bilingual and Monolingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buac, Milijana; Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we examined performance of bilingual Spanish-English-speaking and monolingual English-speaking school-age children on a range of processing-based measures within the framework of Baddeley’s working memory model. The processing-based measures included measures of short-term memory, measures of working memory, and a novel word-learning task. Results revealed that monolinguals outperformed bilinguals on the short-term memory tasks but not the working memory and novel word-learning tasks. Further, children’s vocabulary skills and socioeconomic status (SES) were more predictive of processing-based task performance in the bilingual group than the monolingual group. Together, these findings indicate that processing-based tasks that engage verbal working memory rather than short-term memory may be better-suited for diagnostic purposes with bilingual children. However, even verbal working memory measures are sensitive to bilingual children’s language-specific knowledge and demographic characteristics, and therefore may have limited clinical utility. PMID:27179914

  4. Parsing and Quantification of Raw Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer Data Using RawQuant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchik, Kevin A; Moggridge, Sophie; Chen, David D Y; Morin, Gregg B; Hughes, Christopher S

    2018-06-01

    Effective analysis of protein samples by mass spectrometry (MS) requires careful selection and optimization of a range of experimental parameters. As the output from the primary detection device, the "raw" MS data file can be used to gauge the success of a given sample analysis. However, the closed-source nature of the standard raw MS file can complicate effective parsing of the data contained within. To ease and increase the range of analyses possible, the RawQuant tool was developed to enable parsing of raw MS files derived from Thermo Orbitrap instruments to yield meta and scan data in an openly readable text format. RawQuant can be commanded to export user-friendly files containing MS 1 , MS 2 , and MS 3 metadata as well as matrices of quantification values based on isobaric tagging approaches. In this study, the utility of RawQuant is demonstrated in several scenarios: (1) reanalysis of shotgun proteomics data for the identification of the human proteome, (2) reanalysis of experiments utilizing isobaric tagging for whole-proteome quantification, and (3) analysis of a novel bacterial proteome and synthetic peptide mixture for assessing quantification accuracy when using isobaric tags. Together, these analyses successfully demonstrate RawQuant for the efficient parsing and quantification of data from raw Thermo Orbitrap MS files acquired in a range of common proteomics experiments. In addition, the individual analyses using RawQuant highlights parametric considerations in the different experimental sets and suggests targetable areas to improve depth of coverage in identification-focused studies and quantification accuracy when using isobaric tags.

  5. A hierarchical methodology for urban facade parsing from TLS point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuqiang; Zhang, Liqiang; Mathiopoulos, P. Takis; Liu, Fangyu; Zhang, Liang; Li, Shuaipeng; Liu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    The effective and automated parsing of building facades from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) point clouds of urban environments is an important research topic in the GIS and remote sensing fields. It is also challenging because of the complexity and great variety of the available 3D building facade layouts as well as the noise and data missing of the input TLS point clouds. In this paper, we introduce a novel methodology for the accurate and computationally efficient parsing of urban building facades from TLS point clouds. The main novelty of the proposed methodology is that it is a systematic and hierarchical approach that considers, in an adaptive way, the semantic and underlying structures of the urban facades for segmentation and subsequent accurate modeling. Firstly, the available input point cloud is decomposed into depth planes based on a data-driven method; such layer decomposition enables similarity detection in each depth plane layer. Secondly, the labeling of the facade elements is performed using the SVM classifier in combination with our proposed BieS-ScSPM algorithm. The labeling outcome is then augmented with weak architectural knowledge. Thirdly, least-squares fitted normalized gray accumulative curves are applied to detect regular structures, and a binarization dilation extraction algorithm is used to partition facade elements. A dynamic line-by-line division is further applied to extract the boundaries of the elements. The 3D geometrical façade models are then reconstructed by optimizing facade elements across depth plane layers. We have evaluated the performance of the proposed method using several TLS facade datasets. Qualitative and quantitative performance comparisons with several other state-of-the-art methods dealing with the same facade parsing problem have demonstrated its superiority in performance and its effectiveness in improving segmentation accuracy.

  6. PyParse: a semiautomated system for scoring spoken recall data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solway, Alec; Geller, Aaron S; Sederberg, Per B; Kahana, Michael J

    2010-02-01

    Studies of human memory often generate data on the sequence and timing of recalled items, but scoring such data using conventional methods is difficult or impossible. We describe a Python-based semiautomated system that greatly simplifies this task. This software, called PyParse, can easily be used in conjunction with many common experiment authoring systems. Scored data is output in a simple ASCII format and can be accessed with the programming language of choice, allowing for the identification of features such as correct responses, prior-list intrusions, extra-list intrusions, and repetitions.

  7. Mobile Backend as a Service: the pros and cons of parse

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Phu

    2016-01-01

    Using a pre-built backend for an application is an affordable and swift approach to prototyping new application ideas. Mobile Backend as a Service (MBaaS) is the term for pre-built backend systems that developers can use. However, it is advisable to understand the pros and the cons of an MBaaS before deciding to use it. The aim of the thesis was to determine the advantages and disadvantages of using Parse, a provider of mobile backend as a service, in application development. Parse’s defin...

  8. (Invariability in the Samoan syntax/prosody interface and consequences for syntactic parsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine M. Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While it has long been clear that prosody should be part of the grammar influencing the action of the syntactic parser, how to bring prosody into computational models of syntactic parsing has remained unclear. The challenge is that prosodic information in the speech signal is the result of the interaction of a multitude of conditioning factors. From this output, how can we factor out the contribution of syntax to conditioning prosodic events? And if we are able to do that factorization and define a production model from the syntactic grammar to a prosodified utterance, how can we then define a comprehension model based on that production model? In this case study of the Samoan morphosyntax-prosody interface, we show how to factor out the influence of syntax on prosody in empirical work and confirm there is invariable morphosyntactic conditioning of high edge tones. Then, we show how this invariability can be precisely characterized and used by a parsing model that factors the various influences of morphosyntax on tonal events. We expect that models of these kinds can be extended to more comprehensive perspectives on Samoan and to languages where the syntax/prosody coupling is more complex.

  9. FastaValidator: an open-source Java library to parse and validate FASTA formatted sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Jost; Gerken, Jan; Hankeln, Wolfgang; Schweer, Timmy; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2014-06-14

    Advances in sequencing technologies challenge the efficient importing and validation of FASTA formatted sequence data which is still a prerequisite for most bioinformatic tools and pipelines. Comparative analysis of commonly used Bio*-frameworks (BioPerl, BioJava and Biopython) shows that their scalability and accuracy is hampered. FastaValidator represents a platform-independent, standardized, light-weight software library written in the Java programming language. It targets computer scientists and bioinformaticians writing software which needs to parse quickly and accurately large amounts of sequence data. For end-users FastaValidator includes an interactive out-of-the-box validation of FASTA formatted files, as well as a non-interactive mode designed for high-throughput validation in software pipelines. The accuracy and performance of the FastaValidator library qualifies it for large data sets such as those commonly produced by massive parallel (NGS) technologies. It offers scientists a fast, accurate and standardized method for parsing and validating FASTA formatted sequence data.

  10. Parsing partial molar volumes of small molecules: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nisha; Dubins, David N; Pomès, Régis; Chalikian, Tigran V

    2011-04-28

    We used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in conjunction with the Kirkwood-Buff theory to compute the partial molar volumes for a number of small solutes of various chemical natures. We repeated our computations using modified pair potentials, first, in the absence of the Coulombic term and, second, in the absence of the Coulombic and the attractive Lennard-Jones terms. Comparison of our results with experimental data and the volumetric results of Monte Carlo simulation with hard sphere potentials and scaled particle theory-based computations led us to conclude that, for small solutes, the partial molar volume computed with the Lennard-Jones potential in the absence of the Coulombic term nearly coincides with the cavity volume. On the other hand, MD simulations carried out with the pair interaction potentials containing only the repulsive Lennard-Jones term produce unrealistically large partial molar volumes of solutes that are close to their excluded volumes. Our simulation results are in good agreement with the reported schemes for parsing partial molar volume data on small solutes. In particular, our determined interaction volumes() and the thickness of the thermal volume for individual compounds are in good agreement with empirical estimates. This work is the first computational study that supports and lends credence to the practical algorithms of parsing partial molar volume data that are currently in use for molecular interpretations of volumetric data.

  11. Process of 3D wireless decentralized sensor deployment using parsing crossover scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert H.R. Ko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN usually consists of numerous wireless devices deployed in a region of interest, each able to collect and process environmental information and communicate with neighboring devices. It can thus be regarded as a Multi-Agent System for territorial security, where individual agents cooperate with each other to avoid duplication of effort and to exploit other agent’s capacities. The problem of sensor deployment becomes non-trivial when we consider environmental factors, such as terrain elevations. Due to the fact that all sensors are homogeneous, the chromosomes that encode sensor positions are actually interchangeable, and conventional crossover schemes such as uniform crossover would cause some redundancy as well as over-concentration in certain specific geographical area. We propose a Parsing Crossover Scheme that intends to reduce redundancy and ease geographical concentration pattern in an effort to facilitate the search. The proposed parsing crossover method demonstrates better performances than those of uniform crossover under different terrain irregularities.

  12. Attribute And-Or Grammar for Joint Parsing of Human Pose, Parts and Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seyoung; Nie, Xiaohan; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2017-07-25

    This paper presents an attribute and-or grammar (A-AOG) model for jointly inferring human body pose and human attributes in a parse graph with attributes augmented to nodes in the hierarchical representation. In contrast to other popular methods in the current literature that train separate classifiers for poses and individual attributes, our method explicitly represents the decomposition and articulation of body parts, and account for the correlations between poses and attributes. The A-AOG model is an amalgamation of three traditional grammar formulations: (i)Phrase structure grammar representing the hierarchical decomposition of the human body from whole to parts; (ii)Dependency grammar modeling the geometric articulation by a kinematic graph of the body pose; and (iii)Attribute grammar accounting for the compatibility relations between different parts in the hierarchy so that their appearances follow a consistent style. The parse graph outputs human detection, pose estimation, and attribute prediction simultaneously, which are intuitive and interpretable. We conduct experiments on two tasks on two datasets, and experimental results demonstrate the advantage of joint modeling in comparison with computing poses and attributes independently. Furthermore, our model obtains better performance over existing methods for both pose estimation and attribute prediction tasks.

  13. Structural brain differences between monolingual and multilingual patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease: Evidence for cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Hilary D; Nikelski, Jim; Pilon, Randi; Steffener, Jason; Chertkow, Howard; Phillips, Natalie A

    2018-01-31

    Two independent lines of research provide evidence that speaking more than one language may 1) contribute to increased grey matter in healthy younger and older adults and 2) delay cognitive symptoms in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer disease (AD). We examined cortical thickness and tissue density in monolingual and multilingual MCI and AD patients matched (within Diagnosis Groups) on demographic and cognitive variables. In medial temporal disease-related (DR) areas, we found higher tissue density in multilingual MCIs versus monolingual MCIs, but similar or lower tissue density in multilingual AD versus monolingual AD, a pattern consistent with cognitive reserve in AD. In areas related to language and cognitive control (LCC), both multilingual MCI and AD patients had thicker cortex than the monolinguals. Results were largely replicated in our native-born Canadian MCI participants, ruling out immigration as a potential confound. Finally, multilingual patients showed a correlation between cortical thickness in LCC regions and performance on episodic memory tasks. Given that multilinguals and monolinguals were matched on memory functioning, this suggests that increased gray matter in these regions may provide support to memory functioning. Our results suggest that being multilingual may contribute to increased gray matter in LCC areas and may also delay the cognitive effects of disease-related atrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. How bilingualism shapes the functional architecture of the brain: A study on executive control in early bilinguals and monolinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costumero, Víctor; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Ávila, César

    2015-12-01

    The existence of a behavioral advantage of bilinguals over monolinguals during executive tasks is controversial. A new approach to this issue is to investigate the effect of bilingualism on neural control when performing these tasks as a window to understand when behavioral differences are produced. Here, we tested if early bilinguals use more language-related networks than monolinguals while performing a go/no-go task that includes infrequent no-go and go trials. The RTs and accuracy in both groups did not differ. An independent component analyses (ICA) revealed, however, that bilinguals used the left fronto-parietal network and the salience network more than monolinguals while processing go infrequent cues and no-go cues, respectively. It was noteworthy that the modulation of these networks had opposite correlates with performance in bilinguals and monolinguals, which suggests that between-group differences were more qualitative than quantitative. Our results suggest that bilinguals may differently develop the involvement of the executive control networks that comprise the left inferior frontal gyrus during cognitive control tasks than monolinguals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. White-matter development is different in bilingual and monolingual children: a longitudinal DTI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Ghazal Mohades

    Full Text Available Although numerous people grow up speaking more than one language, the impact of bilingualism on brain developing neuroanatomy is still poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether the changes in the mean fractional-anisotropy (MFA of language pathways are different between bilingual and monolingual children. Simultaneous-bilinguals, sequential-bilinguals and monolingual, male and female 10-13 years old children participated in this longitudinal study over a period of two years. We used diffusion tensor tractography to obtain mean fractional-anisotropy values of four language related pathways and one control bundle: 1-left-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus/lIFOF, 2-left-arcuate fasciculus/lAF/lSLF, 3-bundle arising from the anterior part of corpus-callosum and projecting to orbital lobe/AC-OL, 4-fibres emerging from anterior-midbody of corpus-callosum (CC to motor cortices/AMB-PMC, 5- right-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus rIFOF as the control pathway unrelated to language. These values and their rate of change were compared between 3 groups. FA-values did not change significantly over two years for lAF/lSLF and AC-OL. Sequential-bilinguals had the highest degree of change in the MFA value of lIFOF, and AMB-PMC did not present significant group differences. The comparison of MFA of lIFOF yielded a significantly higher FA-value in simultaneous bilinguals compared to monolinguals. These findings acknowledge the existing difference of the development of the semantic processing specific pathway between children with different semantic processing procedure. These also support the hypothesis that age of second language acquisition affects the maturation and myelination of some language specific white-matter pathways.

  16. A Cultural Perspective on Sexual Health: HIV Positive and Negative Monolingual Hispanic Women in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Loubet, Olga M; Vamos, Szonja; Jones, Deborah L; Lopez, Eliot; Weiss, Stephen M

    2011-06-01

    This study explored feelings and attitudes with regard to HIV and sexual health among 82 monolingual Spanish-speaking, HIV-positive ( n = 30) and at-risk women ( n = 52), participating in the NOW en Español Project-a cognitive behavioral sexual risk-reduction intervention in Miami, Florida. Hispanic cultural values and beliefs, such as machismo, marianismo, and sexual silence, emerged throughout the intervention as important determinants of sexual behavior. Recommendations for integrating these culture-specific issues in sexual health interventions for Hispanic women are provided.

  17. Speech perception and vocabulary growth: A longitudinal study of Finnish-Russian bilinguals and Finnish monolinguals from infancy to three years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvén, M.; Voeten, M.J.M.; Kouvo, A.M.; Lundén, M.

    2014-01-01

    Growth modeling was applied to monolingual (N = 26) and bilingual (N = 28) word learning from 14 to 36 months. Level and growth rate of vocabulary were lower for Finnish-Russian bilinguals than for Finnish monolinguals. Processing of Finnish speech sounds at 7 but not at 11 months predicted level,

  18. Sleep Disrupts High-Level Speech Parsing Despite Significant Basic Auditory Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makov, Shiri; Sharon, Omer; Ding, Nai; Ben-Shachar, Michal; Nir, Yuval; Zion Golumbic, Elana

    2017-08-09

    The extent to which the sleeping brain processes sensory information remains unclear. This is particularly true for continuous and complex stimuli such as speech, in which information is organized into hierarchically embedded structures. Recently, novel metrics for assessing the neural representation of continuous speech have been developed using noninvasive brain recordings that have thus far only been tested during wakefulness. Here we investigated, for the first time, the sleeping brain's capacity to process continuous speech at different hierarchical levels using a newly developed Concurrent Hierarchical Tracking (CHT) approach that allows monitoring the neural representation and processing-depth of continuous speech online. Speech sequences were compiled with syllables, words, phrases, and sentences occurring at fixed time intervals such that different linguistic levels correspond to distinct frequencies. This enabled us to distinguish their neural signatures in brain activity. We compared the neural tracking of intelligible versus unintelligible (scrambled and foreign) speech across states of wakefulness and sleep using high-density EEG in humans. We found that neural tracking of stimulus acoustics was comparable across wakefulness and sleep and similar across all conditions regardless of speech intelligibility. In contrast, neural tracking of higher-order linguistic constructs (words, phrases, and sentences) was only observed for intelligible speech during wakefulness and could not be detected at all during nonrapid eye movement or rapid eye movement sleep. These results suggest that, whereas low-level auditory processing is relatively preserved during sleep, higher-level hierarchical linguistic parsing is severely disrupted, thereby revealing the capacity and limits of language processing during sleep. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Despite the persistence of some sensory processing during sleep, it is unclear whether high-level cognitive processes such as speech

  19. Cuidado de enfermagem a pessoas com hipertensão fundamentado na teoria de Parse Atención de enfermería a personas con hipertensión basada en la teoría de Parse Nursing care to people with hypertension based on Parse's theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Vládia Freire da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo propõe o cuidado de enfermagem, baseado nos princípios de Parse, a pessoas com hipertensão consultadas na Estratégia Saúde da Família. Estudo descritivo, de cunho qualitativo, realizado de março a maio de 2011, com quatorze enfermeiros no município de Itapajé-Ceará. Para coleta das informações utilizou-se a entrevista semiestruturada e, para análise, o discurso dos sujeitos. Emergiram três categorias baseadas nos princípios de Parse: Multidimensão dos significados - o enfermeiro conduz ao relato dos significados; Sincronização de ritmos - o enfermeiro ajuda a identificar harmonia e desarmonia; Mobilização da transcendência - o enfermeiro guia o plano de mudanças. Notou-se aproximação dos discursos ao teorizado por Parse quando citaram buscar um cuidado humanizado, com a participação da família, valorização da autonomia, utilização da educação em saúde, com orientações individuais. Percebeu-se a viabilidade na implementação do cuidado de enfermagem fundamentado na Teoria de Parse a pessoas com hipertensão.Este estudio propone la atención de enfermería, basada en los principios de Parse, para personas con hipertensión en la Estrategia de Salud Familiar. Estudio descriptivo, cualitativo, realizado de marzo a mayo/2011, con catorce enfermeros en Itapajé, Ceará. Para la recolección de las informaciones, se utilizó la entrevista semiestructurada y para análisis, el discurso de los sujetos. Emergieron tres categorías: Multidimensiones de los significados - el enfermero conduce al relato de los significados; Sincronización de los ritmos - el enfermero ayuda a identificar armonía y desarmonía; Movilización de la trascendencia - el enfermero guía el plan de cambios. Se observó semejanzas entre el enfoque de los discursos y la Teoría de Parse, cuando citaron la búsqueda de atención humanizada, con participación de la familia, valoración de la autonomía, uso de la educación en salud

  20. Selective attention to the mouth is associated with expressive language skills in monolingual and bilingual infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Tawny; Atagi, Natsuki; Johnson, Scott P

    2018-05-01

    Infants increasingly attend to the mouths of others during the latter half of the first postnatal year, and individual differences in selective attention to talking mouths during infancy predict verbal skills during toddlerhood. There is some evidence suggesting that trajectories in mouth-looking vary by early language environment, in particular monolingual or bilingual language exposure, which may have differential consequences in developing sensitivity to the communicative and social affordances of the face. Here, we evaluated whether 6- to 12-month-olds' mouth-looking is related to skills associated with concurrent social communicative development-including early language functioning and emotion discriminability. We found that attention to the mouth of a talking face increased with age but that mouth-looking was more strongly associated with concurrent expressive language skills than chronological age for both monolingual and bilingual infants. Mouth-looking was not related to emotion discrimination. These data suggest that selective attention to a talking mouth may be one important mechanism by which infants learn language regardless of home language environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Excitatory and inhibitory priming by attended and ignored non-recycled words with monolinguals and bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Ewald; Nkrumah, Ivy K; Chen, Zhe

    2018-03-03

    Experiments examining identity priming from attended and ignored novel words (words that are used only once except when repetition is required due to experimental manipulation) in a lexical decision task are reported. Experiment 1 tested English monolinguals whereas Experiment 2 tested Twi (a native language of Ghana, Africa)-English bilinguals. Participants were presented with sequential pairs of stimuli composed of a prime followed by a probe, with each containing two items. The participants were required to name the target word in the prime display, and to make a lexical decision to the target item in the probe display. On attended repetition (AR) trials the probe target item was identical to the target word on the preceding attentional display. On ignored repetition (IR) trials the probe target item was the same as the distractor word in the preceding attentional display. The experiments produced facilitated (positive) priming in the AR trials and delayed (negative) priming in the IR trials. Significantly, the positive and negative priming effects also replicated across both monolingual and bilingual groups of participants, despite the fact that the bilinguals were responding to the task in their non-dominant language.

  2. GFFview: A Web Server for Parsing and Visualizing Annotation Information of Eukaryotic Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Feilong; Chen, Shi-Yi; Wu, Zhou-Lin; Hu, Yongsong; Jia, Xianbo; Lai, Song-Jia

    2017-10-01

    Owing to wide application of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology, more and more eukaryotic genomes have been extensively annotated, such as the gene structure, alternative splicing, and noncoding loci. Annotation information of genome is prevalently stored as plain text in General Feature Format (GFF), which could be hundreds or thousands Mb in size. Therefore, it is a challenge for manipulating GFF file for biologists who have no bioinformatic skill. In this study, we provide a web server (GFFview) for parsing the annotation information of eukaryotic genome and then generating statistical description of six indices for visualization. GFFview is very useful for investigating quality and difference of the de novo assembled transcriptome in RNA-seq studies.

  3. “Less of the Heroine than the Woman”: Parsing Gender in the British Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Carlile

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay offers two methods that will help students resist the temptation to judge eighteenth-century novels by twenty-first-century standards. These methods prompt students to parse the question of whether female protagonists in novels—in this case, Daniel Defoe’s Roxana (1724, Samuel Johnson’s Rasselas (1759, and Charlotte Lennox’s Sophia (1762—are portrayed as perfect models or as complex humans. The first method asks them to engage with definitions of the term “heroine,” and the second method uses word clouds to extend their thinking about the complexity of embodying a mid-eighteenth-century female identity.

  4. A Python package for parsing, validating, mapping and formatting sequence variants using HGVS nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Reece K; Rico, Rudolph; Hare, Emily; Garcia, John; Westbrook, Jody; Fusaro, Vincent A

    2015-01-15

    Biological sequence variants are commonly represented in scientific literature, clinical reports and databases of variation using the mutation nomenclature guidelines endorsed by the Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS). Despite the widespread use of the standard, no freely available and comprehensive programming libraries are available. Here we report an open-source and easy-to-use Python library that facilitates the parsing, manipulation, formatting and validation of variants according to the HGVS specification. The current implementation focuses on the subset of the HGVS recommendations that precisely describe sequence-level variation relevant to the application of high-throughput sequencing to clinical diagnostics. The package is released under the Apache 2.0 open-source license. Source code, documentation and issue tracking are available at http://bitbucket.org/hgvs/hgvs/. Python packages are available at PyPI (https://pypi.python.org/pypi/hgvs). Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. BAIK– PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE BASED ON INDONESIAN LEXICAL PARSING FOR MULTITIER WEB DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Hasanudin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Business software development with global team is increasing rapidly and the programming language as development tool takes the important role in the global web development. The real user friendly programming language should be written in local language for programmer who has native language is not in English. This paper presents our design of BAIK (Bahasa Anak Indonesia untuk Komputerscripting language which syntax is modeled with Bahasa Indonesian for multitier web development. Researcher propose the implementation of Indonesian Parsing Engine and Binary Search Tree structure for memory allocation of variable and compose the language features that support basic Object Oriented Programming, Common Gateway Interface, HTML style manipulation and database connection. Our goal is to build real programming language from simple structure design for web development using Indonesian lexical words. Pengembangan bisnis perangkat lunak dalam tim berskala global meningkat dengan cepat dan bahasa pemrograman berperan penting dalam pengembangan web secara global. Bahasa pemrograman yang benar-benar ramah terhadap pengguna harus ditulis dalam bahasa lokal programmer yang bahasa ibunya bukan Bahasa Inggris. Paper ini menyajikan desain dari bahasa penulisan BAIK (Bahasa Anak Indonesia untuk Komputer, yang sintaksisnya dimodelkan dengan Bahasa Indonesia untuk pengembangan web multitier. Peneliti mengusulkan implementasi dari parsing engine Bahasa Indonesia dan struktur binary search tree untuk alokasi memori terhadap variabel, serta membuat fitur bahasa yang mendukung dasar pemrograman berbasis objek, common gateway interface, manipulasi gaya HTML, dan koneksi basis data. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menciptakan bahasa pemrograman yang sesungguhnya dan menggunakan desain struktur sederhana untuk pengembangan web dengan menggunakan kata-kata dari Bahasa Indonesia.

  6. "I May Be a Native Speaker but I'm Not Monolingual": Reimagining "All" Teachers' Linguistic Identities in TESOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Teacher linguistic identity has so far mainly been researched in terms of whether a teacher identifies (or is identified by others) as a native speaker (NEST) or nonnative speaker (NNEST) (Moussu & Llurda, 2008; Reis, 2011). Native speakers are presumed to be monolingual, and nonnative speakers, although by definition bilingual, tend to be…

  7. The Use of a Monolingual Dictionary for Meaning Determination by Advanced Cantonese ESL Learners in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a study which investigated advanced Cantonese English as a Second Language (ESL) learners' use of a monolingual dictionary for determining the meanings of familiar English words used in less familiar contexts. Thirty-two university English majors in Hong Kong participated in a dictionary consultation task,…

  8. Assessing the Effectiveness of Monolingual, Bilingual, and "Bilingualised" Dictionaries in the Comprehension and Production of New Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Batia; Hadar, Linor

    1997-01-01

    Examines the differences in effectiveness of three types of dictionaries--monolingual, bilingual, and "bilingualised" in the comprehension and production of new words by learners of English as a foreign language. The study tested participants on the comprehension of target words and on their ability to use these words in their own sentences. (16…

  9. The English Monolingual Dictionary: Its Use among Second Year Students of University Technology of Malaysia, International Campus, Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manan, Amerrudin Abd.; Al-Zubaidi, Khairi Obaid

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted to seek information on English Monolingual Dictionary (EMD) use among 2nd year students of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, International Campus, Kuala Lumpur (UTMKL). Specifically, the researchers wish to discover, firstly, the students' habit and attitude in EMD use; secondly, to discover their knowledge with regard to…

  10. The semantic network, lexical access, and reading comprehension in monolingual and bilingual children : An individual differences study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spätgens, T.; Schoonen, R.

    Using a semantic priming experiment, the influence of lexical access and knowledge of semantic relations on reading comprehension was studied in Dutch monolingual and bilingual minority children. Both context-independent semantic relations in the form of category coordinates and context-dependent

  11. Success of Using Technology and Manipulatives To Introduce Numerical Problem Solving Skills in Monolingual/Bilingual Early Childhood Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsa, Trisha

    1999-01-01

    Pilots and evaluates a math activity initially utilizing M&Ms as manipulatives, then progressing to computer software math activities, in five early childhood classrooms. Concludes that there were no significant differences between learning tasks, monolingual students vs. bilingual students, and manipulative (hands-off) activities vs. computer…

  12. Language Growth in English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children from 2.5 to 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Ribot, Krystal M

    2017-11-01

    To describe the trajectories of English and Spanish language growth in typically developing children from bilingual homes and compare those with the trajectories of English growth in children from monolingual homes, to assess effects of dual language exposure on language growth in typically developing children. Expressive vocabularies were assessed at 6-month intervals from age 30 to 60 months, in English for monolinguals and English and Spanish for bilinguals. Use of English and Spanish in the home was assessed via parental report. Multilevel modeling, including parent education as a covariate, revealed that children from bilingual homes lagged 6 months to 1 year behind monolingual children in English vocabulary growth. The size of the lag was related to the relative amount of English use in the home, but the relation was not linear. Increments in English use conferred the greatest benefit most among homes with already high levels of English use. These homes also were likely to have 1 parent who was a native English speaker. Bilingual children showed stronger growth in English than in Spanish. Bilingual children can lag 6 months to 1 year behind monolingual children in normal English language development. Such lags may not necessarily signify clinically relevant delay if parents report that children also have skills in the home language. Shorter lags are associated with 2 correlated factors: more English exposure and more exposure from native English speakers. Early exposure to Spanish in the home does not guarantee acquisition of Spanish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Terminology and Labelling Words by Subject in Monolingual Dictionaries – What Do Domain Labels Say to Dictionary Users?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nová, Jana; Mžourková, Hana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 2 (2017), s. 296-304 ISSN 0021-5597 Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : terminology * terms * lexicography * monolingual dictionary * e- dictionary * domain labels * Czech Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Linguistics http://www.juls.savba.sk/ediela/jc/2017/2/jc17-02.pdf

  14. Surmounting the Tower of Babel: Monolingual and bilingual 2-year-olds' understanding of the nature of foreign language words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Chen, Ke Heng; Xu, Fei

    2014-03-01

    Languages function as independent and distinct conventional systems, and so each language uses different words to label the same objects. This study investigated whether 2-year-old children recognize that speakers of their native language and speakers of a foreign language do not share the same knowledge. Two groups of children unfamiliar with Mandarin were tested: monolingual English-learning children (n=24) and bilingual children learning English and another language (n=24). An English speaker taught children the novel label fep. On English mutual exclusivity trials, the speaker asked for the referent of a novel label (wug) in the presence of the fep and a novel object. Both monolingual and bilingual children disambiguated the reference of the novel word using a mutual exclusivity strategy, choosing the novel object rather than the fep. On similar trials with a Mandarin speaker, children were asked to find the referent of a novel Mandarin label kuò. Monolinguals again chose the novel object rather than the object with the English label fep, even though the Mandarin speaker had no access to conventional English words. Bilinguals did not respond systematically to the Mandarin speaker, suggesting that they had enhanced understanding of the Mandarin speaker's ignorance of English words. The results indicate that monolingual children initially expect words to be conventionally shared across all speakers-native and foreign. Early bilingual experience facilitates children's discovery of the nature of foreign language words. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Análisis de los posibles desde la teoría de Parse en una persona con Alzheimer The analysis of the possibles through Parse's theory on a person with Alzheimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virtudes Rodero-Sánchez

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cuando una persona acude al sistema sanitario con un problema de salud, con mucha frecuencia se le va a pedir que introduzca cambios en sus hábitos y estilo de vida. Esta demanda se suele concretar en un pacto-compromiso que se establece persona-profesional. Hemos observado que este pacto, a pesar de que el profesional se esfuerza en enmarcarlo en objetivos realistas, con demasiada frecuencia sobreviene la frustración, sobre todo en escenarios de cronicidad. La teoría de Parse nos ofrece una manera diferente de abordar el cambio. En la teoría de Parse, El Ser Humano en Devenir, los posibles son la expresión de la fuerza, entendida como una manera única de transformación, que consiste en avanzar con las esperanzas, anhelos y los proyectos de la persona. Planteamos: en primer lugar un análisis de los elementos de lo que Parse llama su tercer principio, la co-trancendencia con los posibles; en segundo lugar el análisis de los posibles desde este marco de referencia a través de una narrativa; y por último la práctica enfermera.When a person comes to the Health Care System with a health problem will often be asked to change some of his habits and lifestyles. This demand becomes a compromise-pact between the person and the professional. We have observed that in this compromise-pact, despite the effort of the professional to hide it behind realist targets, the patient usually becomes frustrated, especially in cases of chronic illnesses. Parse's theory offers us a different way to approach the change. In Parse's theory, The Human Becoming, the possibles are the expression of power, understood as a unique way of transformation, consisting in advancing with the hopes, desires and projects of a person. We suggest, first of all, an analysis of the elements that Parse calls her third principle: co-transcendence with the possibles; secondly, the analysis of the possibles from the basis of this reference framework through a narration and, finally

  16. Natural Science and Technology Terminology in the Sesotho sa Leboa Monolingual Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Mojapelo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The main purpose of this article is to make a comparative analysis of the structural and the lexical differences between coinage and transliteration, as methods for the acquisition of foreign natural sci-ence and technology lexical items, which are meant for inclusion in the Sesotho sa Leboa comprehensive monolingual dictionary, Pukuntšutlhaloši ya Sesotho sa Leboa. With the exception of the multilingual glossaries ('dictionaries' as they are called, which are compiled by the National Language Service of the Department of Arts and Culture, the Sesotho sa Leboa National Lexicography Unit does not at present have any monolin-gual dictionary specializing in specific subjects like natural science and technology. As a start, the Lexicogra-phy Unit decided to include this specialized terminology in the second edition of its comprehensive monolin-gual dictionary. The main purpose for lemmatizing the natural science and technology terminology is to give these lexical items comprehensive definitions in Sesotho sa Leboa, instead of 'a one word translation defini-tion' as is the case in the bilingual and multilingual dictionaries.

    Keywords: TRANSLITERATION, COINAGE, COINED LEXICAL ITEM, LOAN WORD, ADOPTIVE, FOREIGN WORD, LEXICOGRAPHY, SOTHOIZED WORD, INDIGENOUS WORD, NATURAL SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, COMPOUND WORD, AMBIGUITY

    Opsomming: Natuurwetenskaplike en tegnologiese terminologie in die Sesotho sa Leboa eentalige woordeboek. Die hoofdoel van hierdie artikel is om 'n ver-gelykende ontleding te maak van die strukturele en die leksikale verskille tussen nuutskepping en transliterasie as metodes vir die verwerwing van vreemde natuurwetenskaplike en tegnologiese leksikale items wat bedoel is vir insluiting in die Sesotho sa Leboa omvattende eentalige woorde-boek Pukuntšutlhaloši ya Sesotho sa Leboa. Met die uitsondering van die meertalige woordelyste ("woordeboeke" soos hulle genoem word wat deur die Nasionale Taaldiens van die

  17. Thoughts and Views on the Compilation of Monolingual Dictionaries in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.C.P Golele

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Developing and documenting the eleven official languages of South Africa on all levels of communication in order to fulfil all the roles and uses characteristic of truly official languages is a great challenge. To meet this need various bodies such as the National Lexicography Units have been established by the Pan South African Language Board (PanSALB. As far as dictionary compilation is concerned, acquaintance with the state-of-the-art developments in the theory and practice of lexicography is necessary. The focus of the African languages should be directed onto the compilation of monolingual dictionaries. It is important that these monolingual dictionaries should be usable right from the start on a continuous basis. Continued attention should be given to enlarging the corpora and actual consultation of these corpora on the macro- and microstructural levels. The end-products should be of a high lexicographic standard, well-balanced in terms of lemma selection, length of the articles, maximum utilisation of available dictionary space etc. They should also be planned and compiled in such a way that the transition from paper dictionaries to electronic dictionaries could be easily and naturally accomplished. Advanced and continued training in the compilation of monolingual dictionaries should be presented. Keywords: MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARIES, OFFICIAL LANGUAGES, DICTIONARY COMPILATION, CORPORA, NATIONAL LEXICOGRAPHY UNITS, TARGET USERS, DICTIONARY USE, DICTIONARY CULTURE, CORE TERMS Opsomming: Gedagtes en beskouings oor die samestelling van eentalige woordeboeke in Suid-Afrika. Die ontwikkeling en dokumentering van die elf amptelike tale van Suid-Afrika op alle vlakke van kommunikasie om alle rolle en gebruike van werklik amptelike tale te vervul, is 'n groot uitdaging. Om in hierdie behoefte te voorsien, is liggame soos die Nasionale Leksikografie-eenhede deur die Pan Suid-Afrikaanse Taalraad (PanSAT tot stand gebring. Wat

  18. Exploratory factor analysis of borderline personality disorder criteria in monolingual Hispanic outpatients with substance use disorders†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel F.; Añez, Luis Miguel; Paris, Manuel; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD) in Hispanic patients. Subjects were 130 monolingual Hispanic adults who had been admitted to a specialty outpatient clinic that provides psychiatric and substance abuse services to Spanish-speaking individuals. All were reliably assessed with the Spanish-Language Version of the Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders. After evaluating internal consistency of the BPD criterion set, an exploratory factor analysis was performed using principal axis factoring. Results suggested a unidimensional structure, and were consistent with similar studies of the DSM-IV criteria for BPD in non-Hispanic samples. These findings have implications for understanding borderline psychopathology in this population, and for the overall validity of the DSM-IV BPD construct. PMID:20472296

  19. Guide to LIBXSIF, a Library for Parsing the Extended Standard Input Format of Accelerated Beamlines(LCC-0060)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenenbaum, P

    2003-01-01

    We describe LIBXSIF, a standalone library for parsing the Extended Standard Input Format of accelerator beamlines. Included in the description are: documentation of user commands; full description of permitted accelerator elements and their attributes; the construction of beamline lists; the mechanics of adding LIBXSIF to an existing program; and ''under the hood'' details for users who wish to modify the library or are merely morbidly curious

  20. A Pipelining Implementation for Parsing X-ray Diffraction Source Data and Removing the Background Noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Michael A; Biem, Alain; McIntyre, Stewart; Xie Yuzhen

    2010-01-01

    Synchrotrons can be used to generate X-rays in order to probe materials at the atomic level. One approach is to use X-ray diffraction (XRD) to do this. The data from an XRD experiment consists of a sequence of digital image files which for a single scan could consist of hundreds or even thousands of digital images. Existing analysis software processes these images individually sequentially and is usually used after the experiment is completed. The results from an XRD detector can be thought of as a sequence of images, generated during the scan by the X-ray beam. If these images could be analyzed in near real-time, the results could be sent to the researcher running the experiment and used to improve the overall experimental process and results. In this paper, we report on a stream processing application to remove background from XRD images using a pipelining implementation. We describe our implementation techniques of using IBM Infosphere Streams for parsing XRD source data and removing the background. We present experimental results showing the super-linear speedup attained over a purely sequential version of the algorithm on a quad-core machine. These results demonstrate the potential of making good use of multi-cores for high-performance stream processing of XRD images.

  1. Parsing pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: forensic chemistry, receptor models, and source control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Kirk T; Pietari, Jaana; Boehm, Paul D

    2014-04-01

    A realistic understanding of contaminant sources is required to set appropriate control policy. Forensic chemical methods can be powerful tools in source characterization and identification, but they require a multiple-lines-of-evidence approach. Atmospheric receptor models, such as the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)'s chemical mass balance (CMB), are increasingly being used to evaluate sources of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments. This paper describes the assumptions underlying receptor models and discusses challenges in complying with these assumptions in practice. Given the variability within, and the similarity among, pyrogenic PAH source types, model outputs are sensitive to specific inputs, and parsing among some source types may not be possible. Although still useful for identifying potential sources, the technical specialist applying these methods must describe both the results and their inherent uncertainties in a way that is understandable to nontechnical policy makers. The authors present an example case study concerning an investigation of a class of parking-lot sealers as a significant source of PAHs in urban sediment. Principal component analysis is used to evaluate published CMB model inputs and outputs. Targeted analyses of 2 areas where bans have been implemented are included. The results do not support the claim that parking-lot sealers are a significant source of PAHs in urban sediments. © 2013 SETAC.

  2. Parsing the Dictionary of Modern Literary Russian Language with the Method of SCD Configurations. The Lexicographic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Curteanu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the experience of parsing other five, sensibly different, Romanian, French, and German largest dictionaries, to \\textbf{\\textit{DMLRL}} (Dictionary of Modern Literary Russian Language [18], using the optimal and portable parsing method of SCD (Segmentation-Cohesion-Dependency configurations [7], [11], [15]. The purpose of the present paper is to elaborate the lexicographic modeling of \\textbf{\\textit{DMLRL}}, which necessarily precedes the sense tree parsing dictionary entries. The following \\textbf{\\textit{three}} SCD configurations are described: the \\textbf{\\textit{first one}} has to separate the lexicographic segments in a \\textbf{\\textit{DMLRL}} entry, the \\textbf{\\textit{second}} SCD-configuration concentrates on the SCD marker classes and their hypergraph hierarchy for \\textbf{\\textit{DMLRL}} primary and secondary senses, while the \\textbf{\\textit{third}} SCD configuration hands down the same modeling process to the atomic sense definitions and their examples-to-definitions. The dependency hypergraph of the third SCD configuration, interconnected to the one of the second SCD configuration, is specified completely at the atomic sense level for the first time, exceeding the SCD configuration modeling for other five dictionaries [15], [14]. Numerous examples from \\textbf{\\textit{DMLRL}} and comparison to \\textbf{\\textit{DLR-DAR}} Romanian thesaurus-dictionary support the proposed \\textbf{\\textit{DMLRL}} lexicographic modeling.

  3. How much exposure to English is necessary for a bilingual toddler to perform like a monolingual peer in language tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Allegra; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Farag, Rafalla; Krott, Andrea; Arreckx, Frédérique; Dennis, Ian; Floccia, Caroline

    2014-11-01

    Bilingual children are under-referred due to an ostensible expectation that they lag behind their monolingual peers in their English acquisition. The recommendations of the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists (RCSLT) state that bilingual children should be assessed in both the languages known by the children. However, despite these recommendations, a majority of speech and language professionals report that they assess bilingual children only in English as bilingual children come from a wide array of language backgrounds and standardized language measures are not available for the majority of these. Moreover, even when such measures do exist, they are not tailored for bilingual children. It was asked whether a cut-off exists in the proportion of exposure to English at which one should expect a bilingual toddler to perform as well as a monolingual on a test standardized for monolingual English-speaking children. Thirty-five bilingual 2;6-year-olds exposed to British English plus an additional language and 36 British monolingual toddlers were assessed on the auditory component of the Preschool Language Scale, British Picture Vocabulary Scale and an object-naming measure. All parents completed the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory (Oxford CDI) and an exposure questionnaire that assessed the proportion of English in the language input. Where the CDI existed in the bilingual's additional language, these data were also collected. Hierarchical regression analyses found the proportion of exposure to English to be the main predictor of the performance of bilingual toddlers. Bilingual toddlers who received 60% exposure to English or more performed like their monolingual peers on all measures. K-means cluster analyses and Levene variance tests confirmed the estimated English exposure cut-off at 60% for all language measures. Finally, for one additional language for which we had multiple participants, additional language CDI production scores were

  4. Constraints on Tone Sensitivity in Novel Word Learning by Monolingual and Bilingual Infants: Tone Properties Are More Influential than Tone Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Denis; Singh, Leher; Mattock, Karen; Woo, Pei J.; Kalashnikova, Marina

    2018-01-01

    This study compared tone sensitivity in monolingual and bilingual infants in a novel word learning task. Tone language learning infants (Experiment 1, Mandarin monolingual; Experiment 2, Mandarin-English bilingual) were tested with Mandarin (native) or Thai (non-native) lexical tone pairs which contrasted static vs. dynamic (high vs. rising) tones or dynamic vs. dynamic (rising vs. falling) tones. Non-tone language, English-learning infants (Experiment 3) were tested on English intonational contrasts or the Mandarin or Thai tone contrasts. Monolingual Mandarin language infants were able to bind tones to novel words for the Mandarin High-Rising contrast, but not for the Mandarin Rising-Falling contrast; and they were insensitive to both the High-Rising and the Rising-Falling tone contrasts in Thai. Bilingual English-Mandarin infants were similar to the Mandarin monolinguals in that they were sensitive to the Mandarin High-Rising contrast and not to the Mandarin Rising-Falling contrast. However, unlike the Mandarin monolinguals, they were also sensitive to the High Rising contrast in Thai. Monolingual English learning infants were insensitive to all three types of contrasts (Mandarin, Thai, English), although they did respond differentially to tone-bearing vs. intonation-marked words. Findings suggest that infants' sensitivity to tones in word learning contexts depends heavily on tone properties, and that this influence is, in some cases, stronger than effects of language familiarity. Moreover, bilingual infants demonstrated greater phonological flexibility in tone interpretation. PMID:29354077

  5. Measuring growth in bilingual and monolingual children's english productive vocabulary development: the utility of combining parent and teacher report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagh, Shaher Banu; Pan, Barbara Alexander; Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined growth in the English productive vocabularies of bilingual and monolingual children between ages 24 and 36 months and explored the utility and validity of supplementing parent reports with teacher reports to improve the estimation of children's vocabulary. Low-income, English-speaking and English/Spanish-speaking parents and Early Head Start and Head Start program teachers completed the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory, Words and Sentences for 85 children. Results indicate faster growth rates for monolingual than for bilingual children and larger vocabularies for bilingual children who spoke mostly English than mostly Spanish at home. Parent-teacher composite reports, like parent reports, significantly related to children's directly assessed productive vocabulary at ages 30 and 36 months, but parent reports fit the model better. Implications for vocabulary assessment are discussed.

  6. Discipline, Dilemmas, Decisions and Data Distribution in the Planning and Compilation of Monolingual Dictionaries

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    Rufus H Gouws

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Bilingual dictionaries play an important role in the standardisation of a language and are often the first dictionary type to be compiled for a given speech community. However, this may never lead to an underestimation of the role and importance of monolingual descriptive dictionaries in the early lexicographic development of a language. In the planning of first descriptive dictionaries the choice of the proper subtype and a consistent application of theoretical principles should be regarded as of extreme importance. Even the compilation of a restricted descriptive dictionary should be done according to similar theoretical principles as those applying to comprehensive dictionaries. This contribution indicates a number of dilemmas confronting the lexicographer during the compilation of restricted monolingual descriptive dictionaries. Attention is given to the role of lexicographic functions and the choice and presentation of lexicographic data, with special reference to the presentation of certain types of polysemous senses which are subjected to frequency of use restrictions. Emphasis is placed on the value of a heterogeneous article structure and a micro-architecture in the articles of restricted dictionaries.

    Keywords: ACCESS STRUCTURE, DATA DISTRIBUTION, FRAME STRUCTURE, FRE-QUENCY OF USE, HETEROGENEOUS ARTICLE STRUCTURE, LEXICOGRAPHIC FUNC-TIONS, LEXICOGRAPHIC PROCESS, MICRO-ARCHITECTURE, MONOLINGUAL DICTION-ARY, POLYSEMY, SEMANTIC DATA, TEXT BLOCK, USER-FRIENDLINESS, USER-PERSPEC-TIVE, VERTICAL ARCHITECTONIC EXTENSION

    Opsomming: Dissipline, dilemmas, besluite en dataverspreiding in die beplanning en samestelling van eentalige woordeboeke. Tweetalige woordeboeke speel 'n belangrike rol in die standaardisering van taal en is dikwels die eerste woordeboektipe wat vir 'n bepaalde taalgemeenskap saamgestel word. Dit mag egter nie tot 'n geringskatting lei van die rol en waarde van eentalige verklarende woordeboeke in die

  7. Terminology and Labelling Words by Subject in Monolingual Dictionaries – What Do Domain Labels Say to Dictionary Users ?

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    Nová Jana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on labelling words by subject in a non-specialized dictionary. We compare the existing monolingual dictionaries of Czech and their ways of labelling terms of medicine and related fields; besides apparent differences between dictionaries, there are also inconsistencies within one dictionary. We consider pros and cons of domain labels as such and their usability in the light of needs and limits of dictionary users, with the aim to motivate further discussion on related issues.

  8. Disregarding the Corpus: Head-word and Sense Treatment in Shona Monolingual Lexicography*

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    Webster M. Mavhu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: With specific reference to Shona monolingual lexicography, this article discusses how corpus-based lexicographers might, in some instances, decide not strictly to adhere to the corpus when it comes to headword and sense treatment. The writer is a member of the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI, formerly known as the African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project. ALRI is a nonfaculty interdisciplinary unit dedicated to research on and the development of African languages in Zimbabwe. The writer is part of the six-member team that compiled the now published Shona monolingual, synchronic, medium-sized and general-purpose dictionary Du-ramazwi Guru ReChiShona (2001. The article originates from the writer's experience of working on this dictionary. The article highlights the fact that being corpus-based does not necessarily imply being corpus-bound.

    Keywords: CORPUS, CORPUS-BASED, FREQUENCY, HEADWORD, LEXICOGRAPHY, SENSE, SHONA, SLANG, SYNONYMS

    Opsomming: Verontagsaming van die korpus: Trefwoord- en betekenisbe-handeling in die Sjona- eentalige leksikografie. Met spesifieke verwysing na die Sjona- eentalige leksikografie bespreek hierdie artikel hoe korpusgebaseerde leksikograwe in som-mige gevalle kan besluit om nie streng by die korpus te bly wanneer dit kom by trefwoord- en betekenisbehandeling nie. Die skrywer is 'n lid van die African Language Research Institute (AL-RI, vroeër bekend as die African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project. ALRI is 'n niefakulteits- interdissiplinêre eenheid wat hom beywer vir navorsing oor en die ontwikkeling van die Afrikatale in Zimbabwe. Die skrywer is deel van 'n span van ses lede wat die reeds gepubliseerde Sjona- een-talige, sinchroniese, middelgroot en meerdoelige woordeboek Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona (2001 saamgestel het. Die artikel het uit die skrywer se ervaring van werk aan hierdie woordeboek ont-staan. Die artikel belig die feit dat korpusgebaseerdheid nie noodwendig

  9. Cultural Aspects in the Shona Monolingual Dictionary Duramazwi Guru reChiShona*

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    Nomalanga Mpofu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In the compilation of dictionaries, lexicographers also take cognisance of the culture which is inherent in a language. This article will look at the way the cultural aspect is interwoven in the practice of dictionary making. Language is at the core of culture and it is the major vehicle for the transmission of a people's beliefs and values. Language is also an expression of social struc-tures and attitudes. No culture can exist which does not have a natural language at its centre. A language thus reflects a particular culture. Culture in this article will be taken to mean whatever a person must know in order to function in a particular society (Wardhaugh 1998: 215. The article will look at two aspects: (1 the interrelationship between language and culture and its bearing on lexicography; and (2 the treatment of cultural aspects in Duramazwi Guru reChiShona (2001. Examples used in this article are drawn from the advanced Shona monolingual dictionary Duramazwi Guru reChiShona, and other Shona dictionaries, both monolingual and bilingual.

    Keywords: CULTURAL COMPETENCE, CULTURAL ASPECTS, CULTURAL MEANING, CULTURE, DICTIONARY, EUPHEMISM, EXTENDED MEANING, IDIOM, LEXICOGRAPHY, PROVERBS, SHONA, SHONA SOCIETY, TABOO

    Opsomming: Kulturele aspekte in die Sjona- eentalige woordeboek. By die samestelling van woordeboeke neem leksikograwe ook kennis van die kultuur wat inherent aan 'n taal is. Hierdie artikel sal kyk na die manier waarop die kulturele aspek verweef is met die praktyk van woordeboekmaak. Taal lê aan die kern van kultuur en dit is die hoofmedium vir die oordrag van 'n volk se opvattings en waardes. Taal is ook 'n uitdrukking van sosiale strukture en houdings. Geen kultuur kan bestaan wat nie 'n natuurlike taal as middelpunt het nie. 'n Taal weerspieël gevolglik 'n bepaalde kultuur. Kultuur in hierdie artikel sal verstaan word om alles te beteken wat 'n persoon moet weet om in 'n betrokke maatskappy te funksioneer

  10. Language profiles of monolingual and bilingual Finnish preschool children at risk for language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Martin; Korkman, Marit; Mickos, Annika; Byring, Roger

    2008-01-01

    A large proportion of children are exposed to more than one language, yet research on simultaneous bilingualism has been relatively sparse. Traditionally, there has been concern that bilingualism may aggravate language difficulties of children with language impairment. However, recent studies have not found specific language impairment (SLI) or language-related problems to be increased by bilingualism. The topic of bilingualism and its effects has high actuality in Finland, where increasing numbers of children in the country's 6% Swedish-speaking minority grow up in bilingual families, where one parent's primary language is Swedish and the other's Finnish. The present study aimed at exploring the influence of such bilingualism on the language profiles of children from this population at risk for language impairment (LI). Participants were recruited from a language screening of 339 children from kindergartens with instruction only in Swedish, from the Swedish-speaking parts of Finland. Of these children, 33 (9.7%) were defined as a Risk Group for LI, whereas 48 non-risk children were randomly selected to form a control group. When subdividing the children according to home language, 35 were found to be monolingual, Swedish-speaking, and 46 were Swedish-Finnish bilingual. The children underwent neuropsychological assessment during their preschool year. Assessment methods included subtests from the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scale of Intelligence - Revised and the NEPSY Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment. A repeated-measures multiple analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) showed a significant effect of risk of LI on the NEPSY language scores. The effect of home language was not significant and there was no interaction between home language and risk for LI. Non-verbal IQ was controlled for. Across groups, bilingual children scored lower than monolingual children only on measures of vocabulary and sentence repetition. Although a slight general cost of

  11. English as a Foreign Language in Bilingual Language-minority Children, Children with Dyslexia and Monolingual Typical Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacci, Paola; Canducci, Elisa; Gravagna, Giulia; Palladino, Paola

    2017-05-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating literacy skills in English as a foreign language in three different groups of children: monolinguals with dyslexia (n = 19), typically developing bilinguals (language-minority) (n = 19) and a control group of monolinguals (Italian) (n = 76). Bilinguals were not expected to fail in English measures, and their gap with monolinguals would be expected to be limited to the instructional language, owing to underexposure. All participants were enrolled in Italian primary schools (fourth and fifth grades). A non-verbal reasoning task and Italian and English literacy tasks were administered. The Italian battery included word and non-word reading (speed and accuracy), word and non-word writing, and reading comprehension; the English battery included similar tasks, except for the non-word writing. Bilingual children performed similarly to typical readers in English tasks, whereas in Italian tasks, their performance was similar to that of typical readers in reading speed but not in reading accuracy and writing. Children with dyslexia underperformed compared with typically developing children in all English and Italian tasks, except for reading comprehension in Italian. Profile analysis and correlational analyses were further discussed. These results suggest that English as a foreign language might represent a challenge for students with dyslexia but a strength for bilingual language-minority children. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Bilingualism at the core of the brain. Structural differences between bilinguals and monolinguals revealed by subcortical shape analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgaleta, Miguel; Sanjuán, Ana; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sebastian-Galles, Núria; Ávila, César

    2016-01-15

    Naturally acquiring a language shapes the human brain through a long-lasting learning and practice process. This is supported by previous studies showing that managing more than one language from early childhood has an impact on brain structure and function. However, to what extent bilingual individuals present neuroanatomical peculiarities at the subcortical level with respect to monolinguals is yet not well understood, despite the key role of subcortical gray matter for a number of language functions, including monitoring of speech production and language control - two processes especially solicited by bilinguals. Here we addressed this issue by performing a subcortical surface-based analysis in a sample of monolinguals and simultaneous bilinguals (N=88) that only differed in their language experience from birth. This analysis allowed us to study with great anatomical precision the potential differences in morphology of key subcortical structures, namely, the caudate, accumbens, putamen, globus pallidus and thalamus. Vertexwise analyses revealed significantly expanded subcortical structures for bilinguals compared to monolinguals, localized in bilateral putamen and thalamus, as well as in the left globus pallidus and right caudate nucleus. A topographical interpretation of our results suggests that a more complex phonological system in bilinguals may lead to a greater development of a subcortical brain network involved in monitoring articulatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The learner as lexicographer: using monolingual and bilingual corpora to deepen vocabulary knowledge

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    Kristina HMELJAK SANGAWA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning vocabulary is one of the most challenging tasks faced by learners with a non-kanji background when learning Japanese as a foreign language. However, learners are often not aware of the range of different aspects of word knowledge they need in order to successfully use Japanese. This includes not only the spoken and written form of a word and its meaning, but also morphological, grammatical, collocational, connotative and pragmatic knowledge as well as knowledge of social constraints to be observed. In this article, we present some background data on the use of dictionaries among students of Japanese at the University of Ljubljana, a selection of resources and a series of exercises developed with the following aims: a to foster greater awareness of the different aspects of Japanese vocabulary, both from a monolingual and a contrastive perspective, b to learn about tools and methods that can be applied in different contexts of language learning and language use, and c to develop strategies for learning new vocabulary, reinforcing knowledge about known vocabulary, and effectively using this knowledge in receptive and productive language tasks.

  14. Comparison of auditory temporal resolution between monolingual Persian and bilingual Turkish-Persian individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, Shaghayegh; Jafari, Zahra; Tahaei, Ali Akbar; Salehi, Masoud

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this study were to prepare a Persian version of the temporal resolution test using the method of Phillips et al (1994) and Stuart and Phillips (1996), and to compare the word-recognition performance in the presence of continuous and interrupted noise as well as the temporal resolution abilities between monolingual (ML) Persian and bilingual (BL) Turkish-Persian young adults. Word-recognition scores (WRSs) were obtained in quiet and in the presence of background competing continuous and interrupted noise at signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of -20, -10, 0, and 10 dB. Two groups of 33 ML Persian and 36 BL Turkish-Persian volunteers participated. WRSs significantly differed between ML and BL subjects at four sensation levels in the presence of continuous and interrupted noise. However, the difference in the release from masking between ML and BL subjects was not significant at the studied SNRs. BL Turkish-Persian listeners seem to show poorer performance when responding to Persian words in continuous and interrupted noise. However, bilingualism may not affect auditory temporal resolution ability.

  15. Thermo-msf-parser: an open source Java library to parse and visualize Thermo Proteome Discoverer msf files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaert, Niklaas; Barsnes, Harald; Vaudel, Marc; Helsens, Kenny; Timmerman, Evy; Sickmann, Albert; Gevaert, Kris; Martens, Lennart

    2011-08-05

    The Thermo Proteome Discoverer program integrates both peptide identification and quantification into a single workflow for peptide-centric proteomics. Furthermore, its close integration with Thermo mass spectrometers has made it increasingly popular in the field. Here, we present a Java library to parse the msf files that constitute the output of Proteome Discoverer. The parser is also implemented as a graphical user interface allowing convenient access to the information found in the msf files, and in Rover, a program to analyze and validate quantitative proteomics information. All code, binaries, and documentation is freely available at http://thermo-msf-parser.googlecode.com.

  16. KAMUS BAHASA ARAB – INDONESIA ONLINE DENGAN PEMECAHAN SUKU KATA MENGGUNAKAN METODE PARSING

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    Anny Yuniarti

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Kebutuhan umat Islam akan fasilitas penunjang belajar bahasa Arab di Indonesia masih belum terpenuhi dengan optimal. Kamus bahasa Arab yang beredar di pasaran sulit dipahami karena minimnya pengetahuan tentang ilmu tata bahasa Arab di kalangan umat Islam. Pada penelitian ini dikembangkan sebuah perangkat lunak yang berfungsi menerjemahkan kata berbahasa Arab dengan metode parsing sehingga dapat mencakup kata-kata yang telah mengalami perubahan bentuk dari bentuk dasarnya. Karena kata bahasa Arab memiliki turunan kata yang jumlahnya cukup besar, dan supaya kamus efisien, maka tidak semua turunan kata disimpan dalam basisdata. Oleh sebab itu diperlukan suatu cara untuk mengenali pola kata, dan cara mengetahui bentuk dasar suatu kata. Keseluruhan perangkat lunak ini diimplementasikan berbasis web sehingga memudahkan pengaksesan pengguna. Dan pengguna tidak memerlukan proses instalasi perangkat lunak atau sistem operasi tertentu. Pembuatan perangkat lunak ini didahului dengan perancangan proses dan perancangan interface. Kemudian rancangan tersebut diimplementasikan menjadi sebuah perangkat lunak yang siap untuk dipakai. Perangkat lunak yang sudah jadi tersebut telah diuji coba sesuai dengan spesifikasi kebutuhan

  17. Pseudocode Interpreter (Pseudocode Integrated Development Environment with Lexical Analyzer and Syntax Analyzer using Recursive Descent Parsing Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lester D. Gimeno

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available –This research study focused on the development of a software that helps students design, write, validate and run their pseudocode in a semi Integrated Development Environment (IDE instead of manually writing it on a piece of paper.Specifically, the study aimed to develop lexical analyzer or lexer, syntax analyzer or parser using recursive descent parsing algorithm and an interpreter. The lexical analyzer reads pseudocodesource in a sequence of symbols or characters as lexemes.The lexemes are then analyzed by the lexer that matches a pattern for valid tokens and passes to the syntax analyzer or parser. The syntax analyzer or parser takes those valid tokens and builds meaningful commands using recursive descent parsing algorithm in a form of an abstract syntax tree. The generation of an abstract syntax tree is based on the specified grammar rule created by the researcher expressed in Extended Backus-Naur Form. The Interpreter takes the generated abstract syntax tree and starts the evaluation or interpretation to produce pseudocode output. The software was evaluated using white-box testing by several ICT professionals and black-box testing by several computer science students based on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 9126 software quality standards. The overall results of the evaluation both for white-box and black-box were described as “Excellent in terms of functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability and portability”.

  18. The effect of recognizability on figure-ground processing: does it affect parsing or only figure selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navon, David

    2011-03-01

    Though figure-ground assignment has been shown to be probably affected by recognizability, it appears sensible that object recognition must follow at least the earlier process of figure-ground segregation. To examine whether or not rudimentary object recognition could, counterintuitively, start even before the completion of the stage of parsing in which figure-ground segregation is done, participants were asked to respond, in a go/no-go fashion, whenever any out of 16 alternative connected patterns (that constituted familiar stimuli in the upright orientation) appeared. The white figure of the to-be-attended stimulus-target or foil-could be segregated from the white ambient ground only by means of a frame surrounding it. Such a frame was absent until the onset of target display. Then, to manipulate organizational quality, the greyness of the frame was either gradually increased from zero (in Experiment 1) or changed abruptly to a stationary level whose greyness was varied between trials (in Experiments 2 and 3). Stimulus recognizability was manipulated by orientation angle. In all three experiments the effect of recognizability was found to be considerably larger when organizational quality was minimal due to an extremely faint frame. This result is argued to be incompatible with any version of a serial thesis suggesting that processing aimed at object recognition starts only with a good enough level of organizational quality. The experiments rather provide some support to the claim, termed here "early interaction hypothesis", positing interaction between early recognition processing and preassignment parsing processes.

  19. Differences between Spanish monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children in their calculation of entailment-based scalar implicatures

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    Kristen Syrett

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we extend investigations of the possible effects of cross-linguistic influence at the pragmatics-syntax interface (Hulk & Müller 2000; Müller & Hulk 2001; Serratrice, Sorace & Paoli 2004, by presenting two experiments designed to probe how Spanish monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual preschool-age children approach the ‘some, but not all’ 'scalar implicature '(SI associated with 'algunos '(‘some’. We compare 'algunos 'and 'unos '(also a ‘some’ indefinite, but one that is not context-linked and does not induce an SI, and 'algunos 'and 'todos '(the universal quantifier ‘every/all’. The performance of the children is compared to fluent adult Spanish heritage speakers. Experiment 1 is a variation of Noveck’s (2001 statement evaluation task, also replicated by Guasti et al'. '(2005. Experiment 2 is a forced-choice picture selection task. Results demonstrate that adults were the only group to consistently calculate the SI associated with 'algunos '– a finding that was expected to some extent, given that our tasks were stripped of the contextual support that could benefit children’s pragmatic reasoning. While bilingual and monolingual children displayed comparable performance across tasks, bilinguals in Experiment 2 appeared to experience difficulty with judgments related to 'todos '– a pattern we attribute (in light of independent findings to the cognitive overload in the task, not the lexical entry of this quantifier. We conclude that young monolingual and bilingual children confront the same challenges when called upon to deploy pragmatic skills in a discourse context. This article is part of the special collection:Acquisition of Quantification

  20. Cognitive profiles in bilingual children born to immigrant parents and Italian monolingual native children with specific learning disorders

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    Riva A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anna Riva, Renata Nacinovich, Nadia Bertuletti, Valentina Montrasi, Sara Marchetti, Francesca Neri, Monica Bomba Child and Adolescent Mental Health Department, University of Milan Bicocca, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children® – fourth edition IV (WISC IV intellectual profile of two groups of children with specific learning disorder, a group of bilingual children and a group of monolingual Italian children, in order to identify possible significant differences between them. Patients and methods: A group of 48 bilingual children and a group of 48 Italian monolingual children were included in this study. A preliminary comparison showed the homogeneity of the two groups regarding learning disorder typology and sociodemographic characteristics (age at WISC IV assessment, sex and years of education in Italy with the exception of socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was then used as a covariate in the analysis. Results: Even if the two groups were comparable in specific learning disorder severity and, in particular, in the text comprehension performance, our findings showed that the WISC IV performances of the bilingual group were significantly worse than the Italian group in Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=0.03, in General Ability Index (P=0.03, in Working Memory Index (P=0.009 and in some subtests and clusters requiring advanced linguistic abilities. Conclusion: These results support the hypothesis of a weakness in metalinguistic abilities in bilingual children with specific learning disorders than monolinguals. If confirmed, this result must be considered in the rehabilitation treatment. Keywords: children, bilingualism, WISC IV, SLD

  1. Expressive Vocabulary Development in Children from Bilingual and Monolingual Homes: A Longitudinal Study from Two to Four Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Burridge, Andrea; Ribot, Krystal M; Welsh, Stephanie N

    2014-10-01

    The early course of language development among children from bilingual homes varies in ways that are not well described and as a result of influences that are not well understood. Here, we describe trajectories of relative change in expressive vocabulary from 22 to 48 months and vocabulary achievement at 48 months in two groups of children from bilingual homes (children with one and children with two native Spanish-speaking parents [ n s = 15 and 11]) and in an SES-equivalent group of children from monolingual English homes ( n = 31). The two groups from bilingual homes differed in their mean levels of English and Spanish skills, in their developmental trajectories during this period, and in the relation between language use at home and their vocabulary development. Children with two native Spanish-speaking parents showed steepest gains in total vocabulary and were more nearly balanced bilinguals at 48 months. Children with one native Spanish- and one native English-speaking parent showed trajectories of relative decline in Spanish vocabulary. At 48 months, mean levels of English skill among the bilingual children were comparable to monolingual norms, but children with two native Spanish-speaking parents had lower English scores than the SES-equivalent monolingual group. Use of English at home was a significant positive predictor of English vocabulary scores only among children with a native English-speaking parent. These findings argue that efforts to optimize school readiness among children from immigrant families should facilitate their access to native speakers of the community language, and efforts to support heritage language maintenance should include encouraging heritage language use by native speakers in the home.

  2. The Lexicographic Treatment of Sublexical and Multilexical Items in a Northern Sotho Monolingual Dictionary: A Challenge for Lexicographers

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    Motlokwe Clifford Mphahlele

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Dictionaries have in the past used a word-based approach in which sublexical and multilexical items were not regarded as lemmata. Metalexicography as the theoretical component of lexicography requires that sublexical and multilexical items be lemmatized and treated as independent lemmata in the macrostructure of dictionaries. One of the greater challenges for compiling a better and user-oriented Northern Sotho monolingual dictionary is to treat sublexical and multi-lexical items as macrostructural elements. Treating these items, the lexicographer faces quite a number of challenges. This article proposes possible ways in which sublexical and multilexical elements could be successfully treated in a Northern Sotho monolingual dictionary. Taking stock of these challenges, the writer comes with suggestions that would assist lexicographers in the compi-lation of a user-friendly, lexicon-based monolingual dictionary that would lead users to successful information retrieval.

    Keywords: SUBLEXICAL ITEMS, MULTILEXICAL ITEMS, AFFIXES, PREFIXAL MOR-PHEMES, SUFFIXAL MORPHEMES, INTEGRATED MICROSTRUCTURE, WORD-BASED APPROACH, LEMMATIZATION, COLLOCATIONS, COMPOUNDS, COMPLEXES, GROUP PREPOSITIONS, FIXED EXPRESSIONS, MORPHEMES, METALEXICOGRAPHICAL ASPECTS, WORD-FORMATION PROCESSES, WORD-INTERNAL FUNCTION, USER-ORIENTED MONO-LINGUAL DICTIONARY, GRAMMAR, HOMONYMOUS LEMMA, POLYSEMOUS LEMMA, DECODING, ENCODING, SEMANTIC COMMENT, SEMANTIC TRANSPARENCY

    Opsomming: Die leksikografiese behandeling van subleksikale en multi-leksikale items in 'n Noord-Sotho- eentalige woordeboek: 'n Uitdaging vir leksikograwe. Woordeboeke het in die verlede 'n woordgebaseerde benadering gevolg waar-by subleksikale en multileksikale items nie as lemmas beskou is nie. Die metaleksikografie as die teoretiese komponent van die leksikografie vereis dat subleksikale en multileksikale items gelem-matiseer word en as onafhanklike lemmas in die makrostuktuur van woordeboeke

  3. Differences in the Association between Segment and Language: Early Bilinguals Pattern with Monolinguals and Are Less Accurate than Late Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Cynthia P.; Bannard, Colin; Smiljanic, Rajka

    2016-01-01

    Early bilinguals often show as much sensitivity to L2-specific contrasts as monolingual speakers of the L2, but most work on cross-language speech perception has focused on isolated segments, and typically only on neighboring vowels or stop contrasts. In tasks that include sounds in context, listeners’ success is more variable, so segment discrimination in isolation may not adequately represent the phonetic detail in stored representations. The current study explores the relationship between language experience and sensitivity to segmental cues in context by comparing the categorization patterns of monolingual English listeners and early and late Spanish–English bilinguals. Participants categorized nonce words containing different classes of English- and Spanish-specific sounds as being more English-like or more Spanish-like; target segments included phonemic cues, cues for which there is no analogous sound in the other language, or phonetic cues, cues for which English and Spanish share the category but for which each language varies in its phonetic implementation. Listeners’ language categorization accuracy and reaction times were analyzed. Our results reveal a largely uniform categorization pattern across listener groups: Spanish cues were categorized more accurately than English cues, and phonemic cues were easier for listeners to categorize than phonetic cues. There were no differences in the sensitivity of monolinguals and early bilinguals to language-specific cues, suggesting that the early bilinguals’ exposure to Spanish did not fundamentally change their representations of English phonology. However, neither did the early bilinguals show more sensitivity than the monolinguals to Spanish sounds. The late bilinguals however, were significantly more accurate than either of the other groups. These findings indicate that listeners with varying exposure to English and Spanish are able to use language-specific cues in a nonce-word language categorization

  4. The Effects of Shona Language Change on Monolingual Lexicography: The Need for a Revised Alphabet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Zivenge

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: In this article, the phenomenon of Shona language change, its effects on lexicography and the need for a revised alphabet are discussed. Because of the defective Shona alphabet, lexicographers at the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI encountered problems in handling some words that were potential headwords in dictionaries they were compiling under the ALLEX project. The current Shona alphabet is unable to realize quite a number of sounds and morphemes in lexical items in everyday use by the native Shona speakers, because they are alien loanwords. The article was prompted by the challenges encountered during the compilation of Duramazwi reMimhanzi (Shona Musical Terms Dictionary. It shows how language change accounts for the problem of headword selection and how modifying the current alphabet can enhance monolingual Shona lexicographical work vis-à-vis the development of the Shona language. It therefore stresses the need for a revised alphabet so as to solve orthographical problems during dictionary compilation.

    PFUPISO YECHINYORWA: Matambudziko Anosanganwa Nawo Mukugadzira Maduramazwi eMutauro Mumwe chete neKuda Kwekushanduka Kwemutauro weChiShona: Panofanirwa Kuva neManyorerwo eChiShona Matsva. Muchinyorwa chino vanyori vanoongorora kushanduka kuri kuita mutauro weChiShona nekufamba kuri kuita nguva nematambudziko anosanganikwa nawo nekuda kweshanduko iyi zvikurusei mukugadzira maduramazwi ari mururimi rweChiShona chete. Vanyori vanoonesawo pfungwa yekuti panodiwa manyorerwo matsva. Nyanzvi dzinogadzira maduramazwi paAfrican Languages Research Institute (ALRI dzinosangana namadambudziko esarudzo yamazwi padzinenge dzichisarudza mazwi adzinenge dzichida kuisa mumaduramazwi adzinogadzira pachirongwa chokugadzira maduramazwi chinonzi ALLEX. Dambudziko resarudzo yemazwi rinowanikwa nekuda kwechimiro chebumbiro remanyorerwo eChiShona risingatenderi mamwe mavara ari mune imwe mitauro asiri muChiShona. Bumbiro iri

  5. Parsing in a Dynamical System: An Attractor-Based Account of the Interaction of Lexical and Structural Constraints in Sentence Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Whitney; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Proposes a dynamical systems approach to parsing in which syntactic hypotheses are associated with attractors in a metric space. The experiments discussed documented various contingent frequency effects that cut across traditional linguistic grains, each of which was predicted by the dynamical systems model. (47 references) (Author/CK)

  6. A Comparison between Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary in Bilingual and Monolingual South African School Beginners: Implications for Bilingual Language Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bilingual and monolingual school beginners on measures of simple and complex verbal working memory and receptive and expressive vocabulary. The aim was to determine whether the tests of working memory are fairer measures of language ability than the vocabulary tests for bilingual children when tested in their second language.…

  7. Développement phonético-phonologique en fulfulde et bambara d’enfants monolingues et bilingues : étude du babillage et des premiers mots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cissé, Ibrahima Abdoul Hayou

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive and analytical study is based on two corpora of audiovisual data of monolingual and multilingual children’s babbling and first words gathered in Mali during a period of nearly a year. It is concerned with fundamental discussions about the development and acquisition of language such

  8. The Role of Oral Language Skills in Reading and Listening Comprehension of Text: A Comparison of Monolingual (L1) and Bilingual (L2) Speakers of English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, Selma

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the role of oral language skills in reading comprehension and listening comprehension levels of 125 monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) English-speaking learners (M = 121.5 months, SD = 4.65) in England. All testing was conducted in English. The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the measures of oral language and text…

  9. Performance on Auditory and Visual Tasks of Inhibition in English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Adults: Do Bilinguals Have a Cognitive Advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Jamie L.; Fernandez, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Bilingual individuals have been shown to be more proficient on visual tasks of inhibition compared with their monolingual counterparts. However, the bilingual advantage has not been evidenced in all studies, and very little is known regarding how bilingualism influences inhibitory control in the perception of auditory information. The…

  10. Development and Validation of Extract the Base: An English Derivational Morphology Test for Third through Fifth Grade Monolingual Students and Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Huggins, A. Corinne; Carlo, Maria; Malabonga, Valerie; Kenyon, Dorry; Louguit, Mohammed; August, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of the Extract the Base test (ETB), which assesses derivational morphological awareness. Scores on this test were validated for 580 monolingual students and 373 Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in third through fifth grade. As part of the validation of the internal structure,…

  11. Beating the Odds: A Longitudinal Investigation of Low-Income Dual-Language and Monolingual Children's English Language and Literacy Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Myae; Vukelich, Carol; Buell, Martha; Meacham, Sohyun

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study reports on the results of a longitudinal investigation of the language and early literacy development of a sample of dual-language learners (DLLs) and monolingual English speakers from low-income families who received an Early Reading First intervention during their Head Start preschool year. A total of 62…

  12. Multilingual Effects on EFL Learning: A Comparison of Foreign Language Anxiety Experienced by Monolingual and Bilingual Tertiary Students in the Lao PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongsa, Manivone; Mohamed Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik; Low, Hui Min

    2018-01-01

    Foreign language anxiety is common among adult learners, especially those who lack exposure to the language that they are learning. In this study, we compared the foreign language anxiety experienced by monolingual and bilingual tertiary students in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) who were learning English as a Foreign Language. The…

  13. Bilingual and Monolingual EFL learners’ Use of Writing Metacognitive Strategies and Writing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Poorebrahim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that writing skill of Iranian learners is not at a satisfactory level. One  of  the  ways  to  develop  writing  ability  is  to  improve  strategic  behavior  of  learners.  The current  study  set  out  to  compare  writing  performances  and  patterns  of  using  metacognitive strategies  in  bilinguals  and  monolinguals  as  well  as  seniors  and  freshmen  students.  A  total  of 176  English  major  university  students  took  part  in  the  study  (88  bilinguals  and  88 monolinguals.  Data  were  collected  through  three  instruments:  a  background  questionnaire,  a writing  metacognitive  strategy  questionnaire,  and  participants’  compositions.  A  two-way factorial  ANOVA  was  used  to  analyze  the  data  obtained  through  the  strategy  questionnaire. Since the composition data were not parametric, two Kruskall-Wallis tests were employed for data  analysis. The  results  revealed  that  bilinguals  used  more  metacognitive  strategies  and  had higher  writing  scores  than  monolinguals.  In  addition,  seniors  had  better  writing  performance than freshmen while the difference between them in using strategies was not significant. Based on the results, it can be concluded that teaching writing metacognitive strategies may result in a better writing performance.   استفاده از راهبردهای فراشناختی نوشتار و مهارت نوشتاری زبان آموزان یک زبانه و دو زبانه   تحقیقات اخیر حاکی از عملکرد ضعیف زبان آموزان ایرانی در مهارت نوشتار زبان انگلیسی است. یکی از روشهای بهبود مهارت نوشتار تقویت رفتار استراتژیک زبان آموزان است. در تحقیق پیش رو به مقایسه مهارت نوشتار و الگوهای

  14. Do eye movements reveal differences between monolingual and bilingual children's first-language and second-language reading? A focus on word frequency effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Veronica; Joanisse, Marc F

    2018-09-01

    An extensive body of research has examined reading acquisition and performance in monolingual children. Surprisingly, however, much less is known about reading in bilingual children, who outnumber monolingual children globally. Here, we address this important imbalance in the literature by employing eye movement recordings to examine both global (i.e., text-level) and local (i.e., word-level) aspects of monolingual and bilingual children's reading performance across their first-language (L1) and second-language (L2). We also had a specific focus on lexical accessibility, indexed by word frequency effects. We had three main findings. First, bilingual children displayed reduced global and local L1 reading performance relative to monolingual children, including larger L1 word frequency effects. Second, bilingual children displayed reduced global and local L2 versus L1 reading performance, including larger L2 word frequency effects. Third, both groups of children displayed reduced global and local reading performance relative to adult comparison groups (across their known languages), including larger word frequency effects. Notably, our first finding was not captured by traditional offline measures of reading, such as standardized tests, suggesting that these measures may lack the sensitivity to detect such nuanced between-group differences in reading performance. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that bilingual children's simultaneous exposure to two reading systems leads to eye movement reading behavior that differs from that of monolingual children and has important consequences for how lexical information is accessed and integrated in both languages. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Specificity of the bilingual advantage for memory: Examining cued recall, generalization, and working memory in monolingual, bilingual, and trilingual toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Hiromi Brito

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The specificity of the bilingual advantage in memory was examined by testing groups of monolingual, bilingual, and trilingual 24-month-olds on tasks tapping cued recall, memory generalization and working memory. For the cued recall and memory generalization conditions, there was a 24-hour delay between time of encoding and time of retrieval. In addition to the memory tasks, parent-toddler dyads completed a picture-book reading task, in order to observe emotional responsiveness, and a parental report of productive vocabulary. Results indicated no difference between language groups on cued recall, working memory, emotional responsiveness, or productive vocabulary, but a significant difference was found in the memory generalization condition with only the bilingual group outperforming the baseline control group. These results replicate and extend results from past studies (Brito and Barr, 2012; 2014; Brito et al., in press and suggest a bilingual advantage specific to memory generalization.

  16. Specificity of the bilingual advantage for memory: examining cued recall, generalization, and working memory in monolingual, bilingual, and trilingual toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Natalie H; Grenell, Amanda; Barr, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The specificity of the bilingual advantage in memory was examined by testing groups of monolingual, bilingual, and trilingual 24-month-olds on tasks tapping cued recall, memory generalization and working memory. For the cued recall and memory generalization conditions, there was a 24-h delay between time of encoding and time of retrieval. In addition to the memory tasks, parent-toddler dyads completed a picture-book reading task, in order to observe emotional responsiveness, and a parental report of productive vocabulary. Results indicated no difference between language groups on cued recall, working memory, emotional responsiveness, or productive vocabulary, but a significant difference was found in the memory generalization condition with only the bilingual group outperforming the baseline control group. These results replicate and extend results from past studies (Brito and Barr, 2012, 2014; Brito et al., 2014) and suggest a bilingual advantage specific to memory generalization.

  17. The Monolingual Lusoga Dictionary Faced with Demands from a New User Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minah Nabirye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: In this article, a case is presented of an existing dictionary that is aimed at users with a minimum of primary 7 education, now faced with demands from users in primary 1–3. The reason for this demand is the result of the fact that Lusoga is currently being implemented as a medium of instruction in Uganda, in an environment where there is hardly any literature to serve the intended purpose. A review of the existing literature in and on Lusoga shows that the monolingual Lusoga dictionary — Eiwanika ly'Olusoga (WSG — is the only reference work with essential information, in Lusoga, that can initiate the teaching of Lusoga at the elementary level. Although the information in the WSG may fit the purpose at hand, that information is mainly presented as a summary, with statements of conclusions only. Explanations to ease its access to the new user are thus missing. Findings from a pilot study conducted by the National Curriculum Development Centre on the implementation of the teaching of Lusoga reveal that the new user is not only the primary 1–3 pupil, but also the teacher who will need to instruct that pupil. Since children's literature requires additional consideration beyond what can be presently availed, and since the WSG was actually compiled for an advanced user, the focus is shifted from the primary 1–3 pupil to the primary teacher. For that teacher, it is suggested to compile an additional Guide, expanding on the various extra-matter texts and especially the Language Portrait found in the WSG. This is done on the assumption that once the information is expanded and re-represented, a teacher will be able to combine the information in the Guide with that in the WSG, in order to make a Lusoga syllabus from which to draft Lusoga lessons. Although the ideal would of course be to be able to produce fully-fledged customised primers from scratch, this article's main argument is that in the absence of both human and financial

  18. High-content image informatics of the structural nuclear protein NuMA parses trajectories for stem/progenitor cell lineages and oncogenic transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Sebastián L. [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Liu, Er; Arvind, Varun [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Bushman, Jared [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, New Jersey Center for Biomaterials, Piscataway, NJ (United States); School of Pharmacy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Sung, Hak-Joon [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, New Jersey Center for Biomaterials, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Becker, Matthew L. [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Akron, Akron, OH (United States); Lelièvre, Sophie [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Kohn, Joachim [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, New Jersey Center for Biomaterials, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Vidi, Pierre-Alexandre, E-mail: pvidi@wakehealth.edu [Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Moghe, Prabhas V., E-mail: moghe@rutgers.edu [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Stem and progenitor cells that exhibit significant regenerative potential and critical roles in cancer initiation and progression remain difficult to characterize. Cell fates are determined by reciprocal signaling between the cell microenvironment and the nucleus; hence parameters derived from nuclear remodeling are ideal candidates for stem/progenitor cell characterization. Here we applied high-content, single cell analysis of nuclear shape and organization to examine stem and progenitor cells destined to distinct differentiation endpoints, yet undistinguishable by conventional methods. Nuclear descriptors defined through image informatics classified mesenchymal stem cells poised to either adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation, and oligodendrocyte precursors isolated from different regions of the brain and destined to distinct astrocyte subtypes. Nuclear descriptors also revealed early changes in stem cells after chemical oncogenesis, allowing the identification of a class of cancer-mitigating biomaterials. To capture the metrology of nuclear changes, we developed a simple and quantitative “imaging-derived” parsing index, which reflects the dynamic evolution of the high-dimensional space of nuclear organizational features. A comparative analysis of parsing outcomes via either nuclear shape or textural metrics of the nuclear structural protein NuMA indicates the nuclear shape alone is a weak phenotypic predictor. In contrast, variations in the NuMA organization parsed emergent cell phenotypes and discerned emergent stages of stem cell transformation, supporting a prognosticating role for this protein in the outcomes of nuclear functions. - Highlights: • High-content analysis of nuclear shape and organization classify stem and progenitor cells poised for distinct lineages. • Early oncogenic changes in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are also detected with nuclear descriptors. • A new class of cancer-mitigating biomaterials was identified based on image

  19. High-content image informatics of the structural nuclear protein NuMA parses trajectories for stem/progenitor cell lineages and oncogenic transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Sebastián L.; Liu, Er; Arvind, Varun; Bushman, Jared; Sung, Hak-Joon; Becker, Matthew L.; Lelièvre, Sophie; Kohn, Joachim; Vidi, Pierre-Alexandre; Moghe, Prabhas V.

    2017-01-01

    Stem and progenitor cells that exhibit significant regenerative potential and critical roles in cancer initiation and progression remain difficult to characterize. Cell fates are determined by reciprocal signaling between the cell microenvironment and the nucleus; hence parameters derived from nuclear remodeling are ideal candidates for stem/progenitor cell characterization. Here we applied high-content, single cell analysis of nuclear shape and organization to examine stem and progenitor cells destined to distinct differentiation endpoints, yet undistinguishable by conventional methods. Nuclear descriptors defined through image informatics classified mesenchymal stem cells poised to either adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation, and oligodendrocyte precursors isolated from different regions of the brain and destined to distinct astrocyte subtypes. Nuclear descriptors also revealed early changes in stem cells after chemical oncogenesis, allowing the identification of a class of cancer-mitigating biomaterials. To capture the metrology of nuclear changes, we developed a simple and quantitative “imaging-derived” parsing index, which reflects the dynamic evolution of the high-dimensional space of nuclear organizational features. A comparative analysis of parsing outcomes via either nuclear shape or textural metrics of the nuclear structural protein NuMA indicates the nuclear shape alone is a weak phenotypic predictor. In contrast, variations in the NuMA organization parsed emergent cell phenotypes and discerned emergent stages of stem cell transformation, supporting a prognosticating role for this protein in the outcomes of nuclear functions. - Highlights: • High-content analysis of nuclear shape and organization classify stem and progenitor cells poised for distinct lineages. • Early oncogenic changes in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are also detected with nuclear descriptors. • A new class of cancer-mitigating biomaterials was identified based on image

  20. Conceptual plural information is used to guide early parsing decisions: Evidence from garden-path sentences with reciprocal verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patson, Nikole D; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2009-05-01

    In three eyetracking studies, we investigated the role of conceptual plurality in initial parsing decisions in temporarily ambiguous sentences with reciprocal verbs (e.g., While the lovers kissed the baby played alone). We varied the subject of the first clause using three types of plural noun phrases: conjoined noun phrases (the bride and the groom), plural definite descriptions (the lovers), and numerically quantified noun phrases (the two lovers). We found no evidence for garden-path effects when the subject was conjoined (Ferreira & McClure, 1997), but traditional garden-path effects were found with the other plural noun phrases. In addition, we tested plural anaphors that had a plural antecedent present in the discourse. We found that when the antecedent was conjoined, garden-path effects were absent compared to cases in which the antecedent was a plural definite description. Our results indicate that the parser is sensitive to the conceptual representation of a plural constituent. In particular, it appears that a Complex Reference Object (Moxey et al., 2004) automatically activates a reciprocal reading of a reciprocal verb.

  1. SmilesDrawer: Parsing and Drawing SMILES-Encoded Molecular Structures Using Client-Side JavaScript.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Daniel; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2018-01-22

    Here we present SmilesDrawer, a dependency-free JavaScript component capable of both parsing and drawing SMILES-encoded molecular structures client-side, developed to be easily integrated into web projects and to display organic molecules in large numbers and fast succession. SmilesDrawer can draw structurally and stereochemically complex structures such as maitotoxin and C 60 without using templates, yet has an exceptionally small computational footprint and low memory usage without the requirement for loading images or any other form of client-server communication, making it easy to integrate even in secure (intranet, firewalled) or offline applications. These features allow the rendering of thousands of molecular structure drawings on a single web page within seconds on a wide range of hardware supporting modern browsers. The source code as well as the most recent build of SmilesDrawer is available on Github ( http://doc.gdb.tools/smilesDrawer/ ). Both yarn and npm packages are also available.

  2. High-content image informatics of the structural nuclear protein NuMA parses trajectories for stem/progenitor cell lineages and oncogenic transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Sebastián L; Liu, Er; Arvind, Varun; Bushman, Jared; Sung, Hak-Joon; Becker, Matthew L; Lelièvre, Sophie; Kohn, Joachim; Vidi, Pierre-Alexandre; Moghe, Prabhas V

    2017-02-01

    Stem and progenitor cells that exhibit significant regenerative potential and critical roles in cancer initiation and progression remain difficult to characterize. Cell fates are determined by reciprocal signaling between the cell microenvironment and the nucleus; hence parameters derived from nuclear remodeling are ideal candidates for stem/progenitor cell characterization. Here we applied high-content, single cell analysis of nuclear shape and organization to examine stem and progenitor cells destined to distinct differentiation endpoints, yet undistinguishable by conventional methods. Nuclear descriptors defined through image informatics classified mesenchymal stem cells poised to either adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation, and oligodendrocyte precursors isolated from different regions of the brain and destined to distinct astrocyte subtypes. Nuclear descriptors also revealed early changes in stem cells after chemical oncogenesis, allowing the identification of a class of cancer-mitigating biomaterials. To capture the metrology of nuclear changes, we developed a simple and quantitative "imaging-derived" parsing index, which reflects the dynamic evolution of the high-dimensional space of nuclear organizational features. A comparative analysis of parsing outcomes via either nuclear shape or textural metrics of the nuclear structural protein NuMA indicates the nuclear shape alone is a weak phenotypic predictor. In contrast, variations in the NuMA organization parsed emergent cell phenotypes and discerned emergent stages of stem cell transformation, supporting a prognosticating role for this protein in the outcomes of nuclear functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The interaction of parsing rules and argument – Predicate constructions: implications for the structure of the Grammaticon in FunGramKB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Fumero Pérez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Functional Grammar Knowledge Base (FunGramKB, (Periñán-Pascual and Arcas-Túnez 2010 is a multipurpose lexico-conceptual knowledge base designed to be used in different Natural Language Processing (NLP tasks. It is complemented with the ARTEMIS (Automatically Representing Text Meaning via an Interlingua–based System application, a parsing device linguistically grounded on Role and Reference Grammar (RRG that transduces natural language fragments into their corresponding grammatical and semantic structures. This paper unveils the different phases involved in its parsing routine, paying special attention to the treatment of argumental constructions. As an illustrative case, we will follow all the steps necessary to effectively parse a For-Benefactive structure within ARTEMIS. This methodology will reveal the necessity to distinguish between Kernel constructs and L1-constructions, since the latter involve a modification of the lexical template of the verb. Our definition of L1-constructions leads to the reorganization of the catalogue of FunGramKB L1-constructions, formerly based on Levin’s (1993 alternations. Accordingly, a rearrangement of the internal configuration of the L1-Constructicon within the Grammaticon is proposed.

  4. A comparison of proficiency levels in 4-year-old monolingual and trilingual speakers of Afrikaans, isiXhosa and South African English across SES boundaries, using LITMUS-CLT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perold Potgieter, Anneke; Southwood, Frenette

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how trilinguals fare on the cross-linguistic lexical tasks (CLT)-Afrikaans, -isiXhosa and -South African English (SAE) (cf. Haman et al., 2015) compared to monolingual controls, and whether the CLT-Afrikaans renders comparable results across socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. The LITMUS-CLTs were administered to 41 low SES 4-year-olds (11 trilinguals; 10 monolingual speakers of Afrikaans, isiXhosa and SAE) and the LITMUS-CLT-Afrikaans to 11 mid-SES 4-year-old monolinguals. Results (a) indicate that trilinguals' proficiency in their exposure-dominant language did not differ significantly from monolinguals' proficiency, but their proficiency in their additional two languages was significantly lower than monolinguals' proficiency; (b) reflect the extent, but not current amount, of exposure trilinguals had had over time to each of their languages; and (c) show that low and mid-SES monolinguals differed significantly on noun-related, but not verb-related, CLT measures. Possible reasons for and the clinical implications of these results are discussed.

  5. The Parsing Syllable Envelopes Test for Assessment of Amplitude Modulation Discrimination Skills in Children: Development, Normative Data, and Test-Retest Reliability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sharon; Chong-White, Nicky; Mealings, Kiri; Beechey, Tim; Dillon, Harvey; Young, Taegan

    2018-02-01

    Intensity peaks and valleys in the acoustic signal are salient cues to syllable structure, which is accepted to be a crucial early step in phonological processing. As such, the ability to detect low-rate (envelope) modulations in signal amplitude is essential to parse an incoming speech signal into smaller phonological units. The Parsing Syllable Envelopes (ParSE) test was developed to quantify the ability of children to recognize syllable boundaries using an amplitude modulation detection paradigm. The envelope of a 750-msec steady-state /a/ vowel is modulated into two or three pseudo-syllables using notches with modulation depths varying between 0% and 100% along an 11-step continuum. In an adaptive three-alternative forced-choice procedure, the participant identified whether one, two, or three pseudo-syllables were heard. Development of the ParSE stimuli and test protocols, and collection of normative and test-retest reliability data. Eleven adults (aged 23 yr 10 mo to 50 yr 9 mo, mean 32 yr 10 mo) and 134 typically developing, primary-school children (aged 6 yr 0 mo to 12 yr 4 mo, mean 9 yr 3 mo). There were 73 males and 72 females. Data were collected using a touchscreen computer. Psychometric functions (PFs) were automatically fit to individual data by the ParSE software. Performance was related to the modulation depth at which syllables can be detected with 88% accuracy (referred to as the upper boundary of the uncertainty region [UBUR]). A shallower PF slope reflected a greater level of uncertainty. Age effects were determined based on raw scores. z Scores were calculated to account for the effect of age on performance. Outliers, and individual data for which the confidence interval of the UBUR exceeded a maximum allowable value, were removed. Nonparametric tests were used as the data were skewed toward negative performance. Across participants, the performance criterion (UBUR) was met with a median modulation depth of 42%. The effect of age on the UBUR was

  6. Temporal features of word-initial /s/+stop clusters in bilingual Mandarin-English children and monolingual English children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the durational features of English word-initial /s/+stop clusters produced by bilingual Mandarin (L1)-English (L2) children and monolingual English children and adults. The participants included two groups of five- to six-year-old bilingual children: low proficiency in the L2 (Bi-low) and high proficiency in the L2 (Bi-high), one group of age-matched English children, and one group of English adults. Each participant produced a list of English words containing /sp, st, sk/ at the word-initial position followed by /a, i, u/, respectively. The absolute durations of the clusters and cluster elements and the durational proportions of elements to the overall cluster were measured. The results revealed that Bi-high children behaved similarly to the English monolinguals whereas Bi-low children used a different strategy of temporal organization to coordinate the cluster components in comparison to the English monolinguals and Bi-high children. The influence of language experience and continuing development of temporal features in children were discussed.

  7. The Relationship of Bilingualism Compared to Monolingualism to the Risk of Cognitive Decline or Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukadam, Naaheed; Sommerlad, Andrew; Livingston, Gill

    2017-01-01

    Bilingualism may contribute to cognitive reserve, protect against cognitive decline, and delay the onset of dementia. We systematically reviewed evidence about the effect of bilingualism on subsequent cognitive decline or dementia. We searched electronic databases and references for longitudinal studies comparing cognitive decline in people who were bilingual with those who were monolingual and evaluated study quality. We conducted meta-analyses using random effects models to calculate pooled odds ratio of incident dementia. We included 13/1,156 eligible articles. Meta-analysis of prospective studies of the effects of bilingualism on future dementia gave a combined Odds Ratio of dementia of 0.96 (95% CI 0.74-1.23) in bilingual participants (n = 5,527) compared to monolinguals. Most retrospective studies found that bilingual people were reported to develop symptoms of cognitive decline at a later age than monolingual participants. We did not find that bilingualism protects from cognitive decline or dementia from prospective studies. Retrospective studies are more prone to confounding by education, or cultural differences in presentation to dementia services and are therefore not suited to establishing causative links between risk factors and outcomes.

  8. Vocabulary Use by Low, Moderate, and High ASL-Proficient Writers Compared to Hearing ESL and Monolingual Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Jenny L; Morgan, Dianne; DiGello, Elizabeth; Wiles, Jill; Rivers, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    The written English vocabulary of 72 deaf elementary school students of various proficiency levels in American Sign Language (ASL) was compared with the performance of 60 hearing English-as-a-second-language (ESL) speakers and 61 hearing monolingual speakers of English, all of similar age. Students were asked to retell "The Tortoise and the Hare" story (previously viewed on video) in a writing activity. Writing samples were later scored for total number of words, use of words known to be highly frequent in children's writing, redundancy in writing, and use of English function words. All deaf writers showed significantly lower use of function words as compared to their hearing peers. Low-ASL-proficient students demonstrated a highly formulaic writing style, drawing mostly on high-frequency words and repetitive use of a limited range of function words. The moderate- and high-ASL-proficient deaf students' writing was not formulaic and incorporated novel, low-frequency vocabulary to communicate their thoughts. The moderate- and high-ASL students' performance revealed a departure from findings one might expect based on previous studies with deaf writers and their vocabulary use. The writing of the deaf writers also differed from the writing of hearing ESL speakers. Implications for deaf education and literacy instruction are discussed, with special attention to the fact that ASL-proficient, deaf second-language learners of English may be approaching English vocabulary acquisition in ways that are different from hearing ESL learners.

  9. The English Monolingual Dictionary: Its Use among Second Year Students of University Technology of Malaysia, International Campus, Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amerrudin Abd. Manan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to seek information on English Monolingual Dictionary (EMD use among 2nd year students of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, International Campus, Kuala Lumpur (UTMKL. Specifically, the researchers wish to discover, firstly the students’ habit and attitude in EMD use; secondly, to discover their knowledge with regard to the language learning resources available in EMD; thirdly, to discover their skill in using EMD, and finally, to discover whether there were formal instructions in EMD use when they were studying in their former schools and tertiary education. One hundred and ninety-six students took part in the survey by answering a questionnaire. The results of the study reveal that the respondents were poor users of EMD. They rarely consulted the EMD; their knowledge of the language learning resources in the EMD was limited; most perceived their EMD skill as average, and there was no instruction in EMD when they were at tertiary education and previously when they were at school.

  10. Memória Auditiva-Verbal e Funções Executivas em Crianças Bilingues (Português Europeu/Francês) e Monolingues (Português Europeu) dos 10 aos 11 anos de idade

    OpenAIRE

    Spínola, Jennifer Gomes

    2011-01-01

    O principal objectivo deste estudo foi verificar se o desempenho de crianças bilingues difere das monolingues no que concerne à memória auditiva-verbal e funções executivas. Neste estudo de carácter descritivo-comparativo participaram 70 estudantes do 5º ano de escolaridade, com idades compreendidas entre os 10 e 11 anos de idade. (M= 10,24; DP= 0,43). Dos 70 estudantes, 30 são bilingues (Português Europeu/ Francês) e frequentam o ensino bilingue e 40 são monolingues (Português Europeu) e fre...

  11. The Treatment of Polysemy and Homonymy in Monolingual General-purpose Dictionaries with Special Reference to Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eventhough Ndlovu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This article focuses on the treatment of polysemy and homonymy in general-purpose monolingual dictionaries with special reference to Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele. It was found that there are some inconsistencies in the treatment of polysemous and homonymous entries in this dictionary. The article shows that an overreliance on one criterion, particularly etymology, to distinguish polysemy and homonymy is often misleading and unreliable. Polysemy itself has its own inherent complexities, among these being the problem of determining the exact number of meanings of a polysemous lemma. When the meanings of a polysemous lemma are listed, the central or primary meaning, which is not always easily ascertainable, should come first. A holistic approach is proposed to distinguish polysemy and homonymy, which entails the use of the following criteria: etymology, relatedness vs unrelatedness of meaning, componential analysis, the identification of the central or core meaning and the test of ambiguity. Whatever results are obtained from a particular criterion, these findings must be compared with those of other criteria, and verified against native speakers' intuitive knowledge and introspective judgements.

    OPSOMMING: Die behandeling van polisemie en homonimie in eentalige algemene woordeboeke met spesiale verwysing na Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele. Hierdie artikel fokus op die behandeling van polisemie en homonimie in algemene eentalige woordeboeke met spesiale verwysing na Isichazamazwi SesiNdebele. Daar is vasgestel dat daar 'n aantal inkonsekwensies in die behandeling van poliseme en homonieme inskrywings in hierdie woordeboek is. Die artikel toon dat 'n te groot steun op een kriterium, veral etimologie, om polisemie en homonimie te onderskei, dikwels misleidend en onbetroubaar is. Polisemie self het sy eie inherente gekompliseerdhede waarvan sommige die probleem is om die presiese aantal betekenisse van 'n poliseme lemma te bepaal. Wanneer

  12. Noun and verb knowledge in monolingual preschool children across 17 languages: Data from Cross-linguistic Lexical Tasks (LITMUS-CLT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haman, Ewa; Łuniewska, Magdalena; Hansen, Pernille; Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Chiat, Shula; Bjekić, Jovana; Blažienė, Agnė; Chyl, Katarzyna; Dabašinskienė, Ineta; Engel de Abreu, Pascale; Gagarina, Natalia; Gavarró, Anna; Håkansson, Gisela; Harel, Efrat; Holm, Elisabeth; Kapalková, Svetlana; Kunnari, Sari; Levorato, Chiara; Lindgren, Josefin; Mieszkowska, Karolina; Montes Salarich, Laia; Potgieter, Anneke; Ribu, Ingeborg; Ringblom, Natalia; Rinker, Tanja; Roch, Maja; Slančová, Daniela; Southwood, Frenette; Tedeschi, Roberta; Tuncer, Aylin Müge; Ünal-Logacev, Özlem; Vuksanović, Jasmina; Armon-Lotem, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the cross-linguistic comparability of the newly developed lexical assessment tool Cross-linguistic Lexical Tasks (LITMUS-CLT). LITMUS-CLT is a part the Language Impairment Testing in Multilingual Settings (LITMUS) battery (Armon-Lotem, de Jong & Meir, 2015). Here we analyse results on receptive and expressive word knowledge tasks for nouns and verbs across 17 languages from eight different language families: Baltic (Lithuanian), Bantu (isiXhosa), Finnic (Finnish), Germanic (Afrikaans, British English, South African English, German, Luxembourgish, Norwegian, Swedish), Romance (Catalan, Italian), Semitic (Hebrew), Slavic (Polish, Serbian, Slovak) and Turkic (Turkish). The participants were 639 monolingual children aged 3;0-6;11 living in 15 different countries. Differences in vocabulary size were small between 16 of the languages; but isiXhosa-speaking children knew significantly fewer words than speakers of the other languages. There was a robust effect of word class: accuracy was higher for nouns than verbs. Furthermore, comprehension was more advanced than production. Results are discussed in the context of cross-linguistic comparisons of lexical development in monolingual and bilingual populations.

  13. Monolingual and Bilingual Infants’ Ability to Use Non-native Tone for Word Learning Deteriorates by the Second Year After Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liquan Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported a non-native word learning advantage for bilingual infants at around 18 months. We investigated developmental changes in infant interpretation of sounds that aid in object mapping. Dutch monolingual and bilingual (exposed to Dutch and a second non-tone-language infants’ word learning ability was examined on two novel label–object pairings using syllables differing in Mandarin tones as labels (flat vs. falling. Infants aged 14–15 months, regardless of language backgrounds, were sensitive to violations in the label–objects pairings when lexical tones were switched compared to when they were the same as habituated. Conversely at 17–18 months, neither monolingual nor bilingual infants demonstrated learning. Linking with existing literature, infants’ ability to associate non-native tones with meanings may be related to tonal acoustic properties and/or perceptual assimilation to native prosodic categories. These findings provide new insights into the relation between infant tone perception, learning, and interpretative narrowing from a developmental perspective.

  14. Do bilinguals outperform monolinguals?

    OpenAIRE

    Sejdi Sejdiu

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between second dialect acquisition and the psychological capacity of the learner is still a divisive topic that generates a lot of debate. A few researchers contend that the acquisition of the second dialect tends to improve the cognitive abilities in various individuals, but at the same time it could hinder the same abilities in other people. Currently, immersion is a common occurrence in some countries. In the recent past, it has significantly increased in its popularity, w...

  15. Exploring problem solving strategies on multiple-choice science items: Comparing native Spanish-speaking English Language Learners and mainstream monolinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachchaf, Rachel Rae

    The purpose of this study was to compare how English language learners (ELLs) and monolingual English speakers solved multiple-choice items administered with and without a new form of testing accommodation---vignette illustration (VI). By incorporating theories from second language acquisition, bilingualism, and sociolinguistics, this study was able to gain more accurate and comprehensive input into the ways students interacted with items. This mixed methods study used verbal protocols to elicit the thinking processes of thirty-six native Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs), and 36 native-English speaking non-ELLs when solving multiple-choice science items. Results from both qualitative and quantitative analyses show that ELLs used a wider variety of actions oriented to making sense of the items than non-ELLs. In contrast, non-ELLs used more problem solving strategies than ELLs. There were no statistically significant differences in student performance based on the interaction of presence of illustration and linguistic status or the main effect of presence of illustration. However, there were significant differences based on the main effect of linguistic status. An interaction between the characteristics of the students, the items, and the illustrations indicates considerable heterogeneity in the ways in which students from both linguistic groups think about and respond to science test items. The results of this study speak to the need for more research involving ELLs in the process of test development to create test items that do not require ELLs to carry out significantly more actions to make sense of the item than monolingual students.

  16. Parsing multiple processes of high temperature impacts on corn/soybean yield using a newly developed CLM-APSIM modeling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, B.; Guan, K.; Chen, M.

    2016-12-01

    Future agricultural production faces a grand challenge of higher temperature under climate change. There are multiple physiological or metabolic processes of how high temperature affects crop yield. Specifically, we consider the following major processes: (1) direct temperature effects on photosynthesis and respiration; (2) speed-up growth rate and the shortening of growing season; (3) heat stress during reproductive stage (flowering and grain-filling); (4) high-temperature induced increase of atmospheric water demands. In this work, we use a newly developed modeling framework (CLM-APSIM) to simulate the corn and soybean growth and explicitly parse the above four processes. By combining the strength of CLM in modeling surface biophysical (e.g., hydrology and energy balance) and biogeochemical (e.g., photosynthesis and carbon-nitrogen interactions), as well as that of APSIM in modeling crop phenology and reproductive stress, the newly developed CLM-APSIM modeling framework enables us to diagnose the impacts of high temperature stress through different processes at various crop phenology stages. Ground measurements from the advanced SoyFACE facility at University of Illinois is used here to calibrate, validate, and improve the CLM-APSIM modeling framework at the site level. We finally use the CLM-APSIM modeling framework to project crop yield for the whole US Corn Belt under different climate scenarios.

  17. How age of bilingual exposure can change the neural systems for language in the developing brain: a functional near infrared spectroscopy investigation of syntactic processing in monolingual and bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinska, K K; Petitto, L A

    2013-10-01

    Is the developing bilingual brain fundamentally similar to the monolingual brain (e.g., neural resources supporting language and cognition)? Or, does early-life bilingual language experience change the brain? If so, how does age of first bilingual exposure impact neural activation for language? We compared how typically-developing bilingual and monolingual children (ages 7-10) and adults recruit brain areas during sentence processing using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) brain imaging. Bilingual participants included early-exposed (bilingual exposure from birth) and later-exposed individuals (bilingual exposure between ages 4-6). Both bilingual children and adults showed greater neural activation in left-hemisphere classic language areas, and additionally, right-hemisphere homologues (Right Superior Temporal Gyrus, Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus). However, important differences were observed between early-exposed and later-exposed bilinguals in their earliest-exposed language. Early bilingual exposure imparts fundamental changes to classic language areas instead of alterations to brain regions governing higher cognitive executive functions. However, age of first bilingual exposure does matter. Later-exposed bilinguals showed greater recruitment of the prefrontal cortex relative to early-exposed bilinguals and monolinguals. The findings provide fascinating insight into the neural resources that facilitate bilingual language use and are discussed in terms of how early-life language experiences can modify the neural systems underlying human language processing. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Expressive Morphological Skills of Dual Language Learning and Monolingual German Children: Exploring Links to Duration of Preschool Attendance, Classroom Quality, and Classroom Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilly-Marlen Bihler

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of research has been documenting environmental factors that support preschoolers’ vocabulary skills. However, less is known about how environmental factors are related to morphological skills of dual language learners (DLLs and single language learners (SLLs. We examined connections with preschool experiences by investigating the effects of duration of preschool attendance, classroom quality, and classroom composition variables (percentage of DLLs and percentage of children from families with a low socio-economic status on preschoolers’ expressive morphological skills. Several multilevel regression models were estimated using cross-sectional data from 835 children (n = 255 DLLs aged 30–47 months. These children were nested in 169 preschool classrooms in Germany. As a control task, we also investigated children’s phonological processing abilities, for which we found, as expected, no differences between DLLs and SLLs. Our main finding was that DLL children scored lower in expressive morphological skills than their German monolingual peers, but this difference was considerably smaller in classrooms that scored high in instructive teacher–child interactions (measured by the Classroom Assessment Scoring System for pre-kindergarten children; CLASS Pre-K. Taken together, these results support the notion that supportive teacher–child instructive interactions have a positive impact on the development of DLLs’ morphological skills.

  19. MAD parsing and conversion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhov, Dmitri N.

    2000-01-01

    The authors describe design and implementation issues while developing an embeddable MAD language parser. Two working applications of the parser are also described, namely, MAD-> C++ converter and C++ factory. The report contains some relevant details about the parser and examples of converted code. It also describes some of the problems that were encountered and the solutions found for them

  20. Parsing Universal Dependencies without training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez Alonso, Héctor; Agić, Željko; Plank, Barbara; Søgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    We propose UDP, the first training-free parser for Universal Dependencies (UD). Our algorithm is based on PageRank and a small set of head attachment rules. It features two-step decoding to guarantee that function words are attached as leaf nodes. The parser requires no training, and it is

  1. Partial dependency parsing for Irish

    OpenAIRE

    Uí Dhonnchadha, Elaine; van Genabith, Josef

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a partial dependency parser for Irish, in which Constraint Grammar (CG) rules are used to annotate dependency relations and grammatical functions in unrestricted Irish text. Chunking is performed using a regular-expression grammar which operates on the dependency tagged sentences. As this is the first implementation of a parser for unrestricted Irish text (to our knowledge), there were no guidelines or precedents available. Therefore deciding what constitutes a syntac...

  2. Parsing statistical machine translation output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.; Vetulani, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increasing research into the use of syntax during statistical machine translation, the incorporation of syntax into language models has seen limited success. We present a study of the discriminative abilities of generative syntax-based language models, over and above standard n-gram models,

  3. The Heart of the Matter: Methodological Challenges in Developing a Contemporary 257-269 Reading Programme for Monolingual Lexicography, from the Perspective of the Dictionary Unit for South African English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Pienaar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article argues the importance of the reading programme as the pivotal issue inthe lexicographic process. It is essentially a practical article which outlines strategies for developingand implementing a reading programme for monolingual lexicography. The arguments are informedby theory, together with an examination of the data-collection procedures followed by theDictionary Unit for South African English (DSAE and a survey of current practice in major Englishdictionary units around the world, namely the Oxford English Dictionary, the Canadian OxfordDictionary, the Australian National Dictionary Centre and the New Zealand Dictionary Centre.The reading programme for the DSAE is first defined and contextualized within its mission statement.The article then explores the challenges inherent in sampling contemporary written and spokenEnglish in the South African multilingual context. It is intended to inform the DSAE's intakepolicy, in terms of the following critical issues:

    — the definition of South African English,

    — the monitoring and selection of print, oral and electronic sources,

    — the excerpting of citations and relevant bibliographic information, and

    — the recruiting and training of readers.

    These interlinked aspects of the reading programme have crucial implications for the quality andauthority of the monolingual dictionary on historical principles.

    Keywords: READING PROGRAMME, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, HISTORICAL PRINCIPLES, CONTEMPORARY, INTAKE, CITATIONS, STRATEGIES

    Opsomming: Die kern van die saak: Metodologiese uitdagings by die ontwikkelingvan 'n eietydse leesprogram vir eentalige leksikografie, uit dieperspektief van die Dictionary Unit for South African English. Hierdie artikelbepleit die belangrikheid van die leesprogram as die kernsaak in die leksikografiese proses. Dit ishoofsaaklik 'n praktiese artikel wat stategieë vir die ontwikkeling en implementering van 'n

  4. Subdomain sensitive statistical parsing using raw corpora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plank, B.; Sima'an, K.

    2008-01-01

    Modern statistical parsers are trained on large annotated corpora (treebanks). These treebanks usually consist of sentences addressing different subdomains (e.g. sports, politics, music), which implies that the statistics gathered by current statistical parsers are mixtures of subdomains of language

  5. Parsing and Tagging of Binlingual Dictionary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, Huanfeng; Karagol-Ayan, Burcu; Doermann, David S; Oard, Doug; Wang, Jianqiang

    2003-01-01

    Bilingual dictionaries hold great potential as a source of lexical resources for training and testing automated systems for optical character recognition, machine translation, and cross-language information retrieval...

  6. Parsing and Tagging of Bilingual Dictionary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, Huanfeng; Karagol-Ayan, Burcu; Doermann, David S; Oard, Doug; Wang, Jianqiang

    2003-01-01

    Bilingual dictionaries hold great potential as a source of lexical resources for training and testing automated systems for optical character recognition, machine translation, and cross-language information retrieval...

  7. Breaking the Resource Bottleneck for Multilingual Parsing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hwa, Rebecca; Resnik, Philip; Weinberg, Amy

    2005-01-01

    ...-quality English resources. We present a large-scale experiment showing that Chinese dependency trees can be induced by using an English parser, a word alignment package, and a large corpus of sentence-aligned bilingual text...

  8. Memory Retrieval in Parsing and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, Ananda Lila Zoe

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation explores the relationship between the parser and the grammar in error-driven retrieval by examining the mechanism underlying the illusory licensing of subject-verb agreement violations ("agreement attraction"). Previous work motivates a two-stage model of agreement attraction in which the parser predicts the verb's…

  9. A Sound Abstraction of the Parsing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Katsoris, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    In formal verification, cryptographic messages are often represented by algebraic terms. This abstracts not only from the intricate details of the real cryptography, but also from the details of the non-cryptographic aspects: the actual formatting and structuring of messages. We introduce a new a...

  10. Parsing (malicious) pleasures : schadenfreude and gloating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leach, Colin Wayne; Spears, Russell; Manstead, Antony S. R.

    2015-01-01

    We offer the first empirical comparison of the pleasure in seeing (i.e., schadenfreude) and in causing (i.e., gloating) others' adversity. In Study 1, we asked participants to recall and report on an (individual or group) episode of pleasure that conformed to our formal definition of schadenfreude,

  11. Parsing Chinese-Russian Military Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    as over 100 trucks and about a dozen aircraft from its nearby base in Kant , Kyrgyzstan, including Su-24 Fencer tactical bombers, Su-25 Frogfoot...to the exercise site through mountainous terrain, and some attack planes stationed at the CSTO base in Kant , Kyr- gyzstan.81 Kazakhstan sent an air

  12. Irish treebanking and parsing: a preliminary evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn, Teresa; Cetinoglu, Ozlem; Foster, Jennifer; Uí Dhonnchadha, Elaine; Dras, Mark; van Genabith, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Language resources are essential for linguistic research and the development of NLP applications. Low- density languages, such as Irish, therefore lack significant research in this area. This paper describes the early stages in the development of new language resources for Irish – namely the first Irish dependency treebank and the first Irish statistical dependency parser. We present the methodology behind building our new treebank and the steps we take to leverage upon the few existing resou...

  13. A Formal Model of Ambiguity and its Applications in Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    structure indicates linguisti- cally implausible segmentation that might be generated using dictionary - driven approaches...derivation. As was done in the monolingual case, the functions LHS, RHSi, RHSo and υ can be extended to a derivation δ. D(q) where q ∈V denotes the... monolingual parses. My algorithm runs more efficiently than O(n6) with many grammars (including those that required using heuristic search with other parsers

  14. On failure of the pruning technique in "error repair in shift-reduce parsers"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertsch, E; Nederhof, MJ

    A previous article presented a technique to compute the least-cost error repair by incrementally generating configurations that result from inserting and deleting tokens in a syntactically incorrect input. An additional mechanism to improve the run-time efficiency of this algorithm by pruning some

  15. Using Monolingual and Bilingual Corpora in Lexicography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miangah, Tayebeh Mosavi

    2009-01-01

    Constructing and exploiting different types of corpora are among computer applications exposed to the researchers in different branches of science including lexicography. In lexicography, different types of corpora may be of great help in finding the most appropriate uses of words and expressions by referring to numerous examples and citations.…

  16. Monolingual and bilingual learners' dictionaries | Gouws | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of an unambiguous identification of the relevant lexicographic functions is emphasised and the notions of function condensation and function merging are introduced. It is shown that the typological choice should be determined by a function-based approach to dictionary usage. Keywords: bilingual dictionary ...

  17. Some Features of Monolingual LSP Dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    119 tion. Therefore, an important product of lexicography is a dictionary or word- .... graphic language description, focusing on the set of eventual questions from ..... (3) "Absence" (Matrimonial Causes Act 1950 (c. 25), s. 14 (3)) means "physi-.

  18. Cultural Aspects in the Shona Monolingual Dictionary:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riette Ruthven

    All this knowledge is acquired socially through interaction. ... about the meaning of a word without recognising the wider social and cultural reality of ..... tics. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Goodenough, W.H. 1957. Cultural Anthropology and ...

  19. Acquisition by Processing Theory: A Theory of Everything?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Susanne E.

    2004-01-01

    Truscott and Sharwood Smith (henceforth T&SS) propose a novel theory of language acquisition, "Acquisition by Processing Theory" (APT), designed to account for both first and second language acquisition, monolingual and bilingual speech perception and parsing, and speech production. This is a tall order. Like any theoretically ambitious…

  20. LR-parsing of Extended Context-free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Kristensen, Bent Bruun

    1976-01-01

    To improve the readability of a grammar it is common to use extended context free grammars (ECFGs) which are context free grammars (CFGs) extended with the repetition operator (*), the alternation operator (¦) and parentheses to express the right hand sides of the productions. The topic treated h...

  1. Parsing with Regular Expressions & Extensions to Kleene Algebra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grathwohl, Niels Bjørn Bugge

    . In the second part of this thesis, we study two extensions to Kleene algebra. Chomsky algebra is an algebra with a structure similar to Kleene algebra, but with a generalized mu-operator for recursion instead of the Kleene star. We show that the axioms of idempotent semirings along with continuity of the mu......-operator completely axiomatize the equational theory of the context-free languages. KAT+B! is an extension to Kleene algebra with tests (KAT) that adds mutable state. We describe a test algebra B! for mutable tests and give a commutative coproduct between KATs. Combining the axioms of B! with those of KAT and some...

  2. Understanding of Navy Technical Language via Statistical Parsing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rowe, Neil C

    2004-01-01

    ... (both on word senses and word-sense pairs) from a training corpus with a statistical parser. Innovations of our approach are in statistical inheritance of binary co-occurrence probabilities and in weighting...

  3. Collated, parsed, OCO-2 Calibration Data V6r

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Orbiting Carbon Observatory is the first NASA mission designed to collect space-based measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide with the precision, resolution,...

  4. Shallow parsing with long short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammerton, J; Chen, SH; Cheng, HD; Chiu, DKY; Das, S; Duro, R; Kerre, EE; Leong, HV; Li, Q; Lu, M; Romay, MG; Ventura, D; Wu, J

    2003-01-01

    Applying Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to language learning has been an active area of research in connectionism. However much of this work has involved small and/or artificially created data sets, whilst other approaches to language learning are now routinely applied to large real-world

  5. A Parse Tree Model for Analyzing And Detecting SQL Injection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... a difficult task as it requires lots of hard ... additional cost to any organization that may ... change the logic, syntax, or semantic of a .... language (quest language, e.g., MySQL, ..... A Classification of SQL Injection Attacks and.

  6. Learning and Parsing Video Events with Goal and Intent Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    including office, lab, hallway, cor- ridor and near vending machines . Figure 14 shows some screen-shots of the videos. The training video total lasts...most of the ambiguities can be removed by the event context in the top-down bottom-up inference, we will show this in the experiment section. 5 Figure 5...events, and remove the ambiguities in the detection of atomic actions by the event context. The energy of PG is E(PG | I∧) = p(K) K∑ k=1 (ε(pgk | I

  7. Autonomous parsing of behavior in a multi-agent setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderelst, D.; Barakova, E.I.; Rutkowski, L.; Tadeusiewicz, R.

    2008-01-01

    Imitation learning is a promising route to instruct robotic multi-agent systems. However, imitating agents should be able to decide autonomously what behavior, observed in others, is interesting to copy. Here we investigate whether a simple recurrent network (Elman Net) can be used to extract

  8. Differentially regulated NADPH: cytochrome p450 oxidoreductases in parsely

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopmann, E.; Hahlbrock, K.

    1997-01-01

    Two NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (CPRs) from parsley (Petroselinum crispum) were cloned, and the complete proteins were expressed and functionally identified in yeast. The two enzymes, designated CPR1 and CPR2, are 80% identical in amino acid sequence with one another and about 75% identical with CPRs from several other plant species. The mRNA accumulation patterns for CPR1 and CPR2 in fungal elicitor-treated or UV-irradiated cultured parsley cells and in developing or infected parsley plants were compared with those for cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), one of the most abundant CPR-dependent P450 enzymes in plants. All treatments strongly induced the mRNAs for C4H and CPR1 but not for CPR2, suggesting distinct metabolic roles of CPR1 and CPR2 and a functional relationship between CPR1 and C4H

  9. A Tandem Semantic Interpreter for Incremental Parse Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-28

    syntactic role to semantic role. An exam - ple from Fillmore [10] is the sentence I copied that letter, which can be uttered when point- ing either to...person. We want the word fiddle to have the sort predicate violin as its lexical interpretation, how- ever, notthing. Thus, for Ross went for his fiddle...to receive an interpretation, a sort hierarchy is needed to establish that all violins are things. A well-structured sort hierarchy allows newly added

  10. A Sound Abstraction of the Parsing Problem (Extended Version)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Katsoris, Georgios

    algebraic model to include these details and define a small, simple language to precisely describe message formats. We support fixed-length fields, variablelength fields with offsets, tags, and encodings into smaller alphabets like Base64, thereby covering both classical formats as in TLS and modern XML...

  11. Parsing the Gulf between Africans and African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashly Nsangou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The rise in African immigrants to the US provides an opportunity to assess relations between Africans and African Americans in college. An online survey of 322 current and recently-graduated college students (including 45 Africans, 160 African Americans, and 117 whites assessed respondents’ experiences of racism in US high schools and colleges. Semi-structured interviews of 30 students (10 African, 10 African American and 10 white students supplemented these data. Even within a sociopolitical context of more visible racial intolerance, Black intra-racial cohesion was absent. Although more first- and second-generation Africans (73% felt that they had been judged while living in the US compared to African Americans (34% or whites (20%, for 70–80% of respondents, this had occurred only in high school. Despite experiencing these judgments, Africans’ identity related more to their focus on education than their race, reflected in a higher proportion who felt intense family pressure to attend college (65% compared to African Americans (37% and whites (39%. Interview data confirmed previous reports in the literature that African Americans lack a sense of connection to Africans, attributed to Africans’ purported sense of superiority and disregard for African Americans’ ongoing struggle to end oppression. These mixed-methods data suggest that intermingling in the college environment has not resulted in first- and second-generation Africans and African Americans sharing a common in-group, race-based identity. We discuss the implications of overlooking ethnic distinctions due to presumptions of racial homogeneity that deprive Black individuals of their uniqueness.

  12. ClinVar data parsing [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This software repository provides a pipeline for converting raw ClinVar data files into analysis-friendly tab-delimited tables, and also provides these tables for the most recent ClinVar release. Separate tables are generated for genome builds GRCh37 and GRCh38 as well as for mono-allelic variants and complex multi-allelic variants. Additionally, the tables are augmented with allele frequencies from the ExAC and gnomAD datasets as these are often consulted when analyzing ClinVar variants. Overall, this work provides ClinVar data in a format that is easier to work with and can be directly loaded into a variety of popular analysis tools such as R, python pandas, and SQL databases.

  13. Document Image Parsing and Understanding using Neuromorphic Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    processing speed at different layers. In the pattern matching layer, the computing power of multicore processors is explored to reduce the processing...developed to reduce the processing speed at different layers. In the pattern matching layer, the computing power of multicore processors is explored... cortex where the complex data is reduced to abstract representations. The abstract representation is compared to stored patterns in massively parallel

  14. A Knowledge-Based Approach to Robust Parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oltmans, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a natural-language processing system that is used as part of an information retrieval system. Specifically, I focus on the development of a system that performs robust syntactic analysis of scientific texts

  15. Collated, parsed, OCO-2 Calibration Data V6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Orbiting Carbon Observatory is the first NASA mission designed to collect space-based measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide with the precision, resolution,...

  16. Collated, parsed, OCO-2 Science or Calibration Data V6

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Orbiting Carbon Observatory is the first NASA mission designed to collect space-based measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide with the precision, resolution,...

  17. Collated, parsed, OCO-2 Calibration Data V7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Orbiting Carbon Observatory is the first NASA mission designed to collect space-based measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide with the precision, resolution,...

  18. Parsing regulatory DNA: General tasks, techniques, and the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    plays a more important role than had been appreciated (see. Pearson 2006 for a ... and for a practical guide on how to use PhyloGibbs, there is an upcoming review .... overall, in user-determined “windows"; it, too, can take advantage of one ...

  19. Iguana: a practical data-dependent parsing framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Afroozeh (Ali); A. Izmaylova (Anastasia)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractData-dependent grammars extend context-free grammars with arbitrary computation, variable binding, and constraints. These features provide the user with the freedom and power to express syntactic constructs outside the realm of context-free grammars, e.g., indentation rules in Haskell

  20. Ordering the Senses in a Monolingual Dictionary Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, David L.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews issues to be considered in determining the order of meanings for a lexeme in a dictionary entry and compares techniques for deciding order. Types of ordering include importance, frequency, logical ordering, dominant meaning, syntactic, and historical. (MSE)

  1. Multi-Word Units in Monolingual Scandinavian Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoonderbeek Hansen, Inger

    Referat af NFL (Nordisk Forening for Leksikografi) Symposium om Ordforbindelser i monolingvale nordiske ordbøger. Introduktion, referat af alle 13 foredrag og efterfølgende diskussion samt konklusion....

  2. Meaning identification and meaning selection for general language monolingual dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Agerbo, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    The traditional way for lexicographers to deal with polysemy in dictionaries is by applying the terms lumping and splitting. We will not follow this tradition. Instead, we argue that the identification and selection of meaning items (= polysems) should be treated in the same way as the identifica......The traditional way for lexicographers to deal with polysemy in dictionaries is by applying the terms lumping and splitting. We will not follow this tradition. Instead, we argue that the identification and selection of meaning items (= polysems) should be treated in the same way...... to references in the world (in this contribution called things), followed by a formulation of the identified meaning items which can be used for reception situations. Not always – as in the case of lemma selection – will all the identified meaning items be included in the dictionary. The selection of identified...... meaning items will depend on the genuine purpose of the dictionary....

  3. Inclusion strategies for multi-word units in monolingual dictionaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the discussion of inclusion strategies for multi-word lexical items that follows, it is shown that, whereas loan groups and group prepositions require lemmatisation as full multilexical lemmas, the strategy for idioms is not as simple. The problems with a full lemmatisation of idioms are pointed out and an alternative system, ...

  4. Validation of the Spanish SIRS with monolingual Hispanic outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Amor A; Rogers, Richard; Hoersting, Raquel

    2010-09-01

    Psychologists are faced with formidable challenges in making their assessment methods relevant to growing numbers of Hispanic clients for whom English is not the primary or preferred language. Among other clinical issues, the determination of malingering has profound consequences for clients. In this investigation, we evaluated a Spanish translation of the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1992) with 80 Spanish-speaking Hispanic American outpatients. Using a between-subjects simulation design, the Spanish SIRS was found to produce reliable results with small standard errors of measurement. Regarding validity, very large effect sizes (mean Cohen's d= 2.00) were observed between feigners and honest responders for the SIRS primary scales. We consider the potential role of the Spanish SIRS with reference to Spanish translations for other assessment instruments.

  5. Trilingual Families in Mainly Monolingual Societies: Working towards a Typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Andreas; Cline, Tony

    2010-01-01

    Trilingualism has often been studied within the framework established for bilingualism. Although there is overlap, the dynamics around trilingualism pose greater variations than is the case with bilingualism. The aim of this study is to analyse the language practices of different groups of trilingual families. Particular attention is paid to the…

  6. Comparison Between Switching and Creativity Among Bilingual and Monolingual Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Yousefi

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion In accordance with the results of the study, it can be concluded that learning English through educational institutions, and at an advanced level, significantly increases the switching capability in children as well as their scores across the three components of creativity (fluency, flexibility, and elaboration. Therefore, the role of second language acquisition should be highlighted because of its contribution to children's creativity and ability to switch. In general, better performances of children are attributed to the capability of switching languages, specific cognitive mechanisms used in the two systems of languages, their familiarity with a new culture and customs while learning a new language, the intensive training sessions as well as the special atmosphere prevailing in the classes.

  7. Compiling a monolingual dictionary for native speakers. | Hanks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phraseology, Syntagmatic Patterns, Problems Of Compositionality, Linguistic Prescriptivism, Lexical Evidence **This article is an edited version of a plenary address delivered at the conference on 'Dictionaries, More Than Words', which took place at the Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia ...

  8. Oral Narratives in Monolingual and Bilingual Preschoolers with SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzonico, Stefano; Chen, Xi; Cleave, Patricia L.; Greenberg, Janice; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Johnson, Carla J.; Milburn, Trelani; Pelletier, Janette; Weitzman, Elaine; Girolametto, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The body of literature on narratives of bilingual children with and without specific language impairment (SLI) is growing. However, little is known about the narrative abilities of bilingual preschool children with SLI and their patterns of growth. Aims: To determine the similarities and differences in narrative abilities between…

  9. The Treatment of Polysemy and Homonymy in Monolingual General ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whatever results are obtained from a particular criterion, these findings must be compared with those of other criteria, and verified against native speakers' intuitive knowledge and introspective judgements. Keywords: Polysemy, Homonymy, Metaphor, Conceptual Meaning, Etymology, Homophones, Homographs, Lemma, ...

  10. Acquisition of German Pluralization Rules in Monolingual and Multilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretsky, Eugen; Lange, Benjamin P.; Euler, Harald A.; Neumann, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-year-old monolingual…

  11. Some features of monolingual LSP dictionaries | Mihindou | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The type of dictionary dealing with technical and sometimes semi-technical vocabulary is compiled to satisfy the needs of those who already have a knowledge of a specific field but want to improve their skills. General purpose dictionaries are well known and users are relatively familiar with them, but it is not necessarily the ...

  12. The Effects of Shona Language Change on Monolingual Lexicography

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    one language into another to fill in communication gaps in the receiving lan- guage. ... influenced by the electronic media, in particular computer, video and audio ... similar features, lexicographers face serious problems in handling headwords ... mental level, change is mediated by phonetic processes so as to ease articula-.

  13. Treatment of spelling variants in Setswana monolingual dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    . ..... Table 8: Variants of Names of persons and places. Setswana variants. English. Aforika, Aferika. Africa. Baebele, Babele, Beibele. Bible. Ennyelane, Engelane ..... MWEs. As in variation amongst individual words, the MWEs such as idioms.

  14. Cultural Aspects in the Shona Monolingual Dictionary "Duramazwi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the compilation of dictionaries, lexicographers also take cognisance of the culture which is inherent in a language. This article will look at the way the cultural aspect is interwoven in the practice of dictionary making. Language is at the core of culture and it is the major vehicle for the transmission of a people's beliefs and ...

  15. Thoughts and views on the compilation of monolingual dictionaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The end-products should be of a high lexicographic standard, well-balanced in terms of lemma selection, length of the articles, maximum utilisation of available dictionary space etc. They should also be planned and compiled in such a way that the transition from paper dictionaries to electronic dictionaries could be easily ...

  16. The Presentation of Word Formation in General Monolingual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper gives suggestions regarding the theoretical approaches that could lead to a better user-directed lexicographic practice. Keywords: Afrikaans dictionaries, cognitive function, complex form, compound, derivative, dictionary function, electronic dictionaries, text production, text reception, user needs, word formation ...

  17. Inclusion Strategies for Multi-word Units in Monolingual Dictionaries*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    In the discussion of inclusion strategies for multi-word lexical items that follows, it is shown ..... abilities of the new generation of corpus-querying tools make this a more or ... automatic extraction of compounds particularly difficult in English".

  18. Thoughts and Views on the Compilation of Monolingual Dictionaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    of users' requirements in the African languages reflect an urgent need for bilin- gual dictionaries ... potential lemmas are generated by members of the community through the definitions. ... as good or bad by their target users. Lemmas should ...

  19. Swahili Learners' Views on the Need for a Monolingual Swahili ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This statement is valid today as it was in 1962 at the Bloomington Lexicogra- phy Conference. .... imb.ana v. 'sing to one another' ji.imb.ia v. ... learners of Swahili would be in a position to appreciate the questions on. Swahili grammar and the ...

  20. Treatment of spelling variants in Setswana monolingual dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    borrowings from adjacent languages such as Afrikaans and English. The paper considers how ... most of which are a consequence of phonological features of different dialects. The paper argues that .... the modern Free State. Mogopa and the ...

  1. Comparison of Context-free Grammars Based on Parsing Generated Test Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Fischer (Bernd); R. Lämmel (Ralf); V. Zaytsev (Vadim); U. Aßmann; J. Saraiva; A.M. Sloane

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThere exist a number of software engineering scenarios that essentially involve equivalence or correspondence assertions for some of the context-free grammars in the scenarios. For instance, when applying grammar transformations during parser development---be it for the sake of

  2. Flat but not shallow : towards flatter representations in deep semantic parsing for precise and feasible inferencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reckman, Hilletje (Hilke) Gezina Bouwke

    2009-01-01

    Simulating human language understanding on the computer is a great challenge. A way to approach it is to represent natural language meanings in logic, and to use logical provers to determine what does and does not follow from a text. What logic is best to use and how natural language meanings are

  3. Parsing glucose entry into the brain: novel findings obtained with enzyme-based glucose biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Wakabayashi, Ken T

    2015-01-21

    Extracellular levels of glucose in brain tissue reflect dynamic balance between its gradient-dependent entry from arterial blood and its use for cellular metabolism. In this work, we present several sets of previously published and unpublished data obtained by using enzyme-based glucose biosensors coupled with constant-potential high-speed amperometry in freely moving rats. First, we consider basic methodological issues related to the reliability of electrochemical measurements of extracellular glucose levels in rats under physiologically relevant conditions. Second, we present data on glucose responses induced in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) by salient environmental stimuli and discuss the relationships between local neuronal activation and rapid glucose entry into brain tissue. Third, by presenting data on changes in NAc glucose induced by intravenous and intragastric glucose delivery, we discuss other mechanisms of glucose entry into the extracellular domain following changes in glucose blood concentrations. Lastly, by showing the pattern of NAc glucose fluctuations during glucose-drinking behavior, we discuss the relationships between "active" and "passive" glucose entry to the brain, its connection to behavior-related metabolic activation, and the possible functional significance of these changes in behavioral regulation. These data provide solid experimental support for the "neuronal" hypothesis of neurovascular coupling, which postulates the critical role of neuronal activity in rapid regulation of vascular tone, local blood flow, and entry of glucose and oxygen to brain tissue to maintain active cellular metabolism.

  4. Implementasi JSON Parsing Pada Aplikasi Mobile E-commerce Studi Kasus : CV V3 Tekno Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Destian Wijaya, Bhakti; E.M.A, Fenty; Fiade, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Sistem operasi Android saat ini merupakan salah satu dari sekian banyak sistem operasi padasmartphone yang sedang mengalami pertumbuhan pesat di dunia, khususnya di Indonesia. CV VitigaTekno Indonesia bergerak di bidang pemasaran gadget membutuhkan media marketing yang dapatdiakses secara online selain website yaitu melalui smartphone. Oleh karena itu penelitian ini berfokuspada bagaimana membuat aplikasi mobile e-commerce pada smartphone Android, dengan caramengambil data yang berasal dari w...

  5. O acesso semântico no parsing sintático: evidências experimentais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Maia

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Este estudo apresenta evidências em favor da hipótese de que o parser faz uso rápido e eficiente de alguns tipos de informação de natureza lexical associados ao verbo no processamento on-line.

  6. Parsing the familiality of oppositional defiant disorder from that of conduct disorder: a familial risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Carter R; Monuteaux, Michael C; Mick, Eric; Hughes, Samantha; Small, Jacqueline; Faraone, Stephen V; Biederman, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Family risk analysis can provide an improved understanding of the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), attending to the comorbidity with conduct disorder (CD). We compared rates of psychiatric disorders in relatives of 78 control probands without ODD and CD (Control, N=265), relatives of 10 control probands with ODD and without CD (ODD, N=37), relatives of 19 ADHD probands without ODD and CD (ADHD, N=71), relatives of 38 ADHD probands with ODD and without CD (ADHD+ODD, N=130), and relatives of 50 ADHD probands with ODD and CD (ADHD+ODD+CD, N=170). Rates of ADHD were significantly higher in all three ADHD groups compared to the Control group, while rates of ODD were significantly higher in all three ODD groups compared to the Control group. Evidence for co-segregation was found in the ADHD+ODD group. Rates of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and addictions in the relatives were significantly elevated only in the ADHD+ODD+CD group. ADHD and ODD are familial disorders, and ADHD plus ODD outside the context of CD may mark a familial subtype of ADHD. ODD and CD confer different familial risks, providing further support for the hypothesis that ODD and CD are separate disorders.

  7. Parsing the role of consonants versus vowels in the classic Takete-Maluma phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Alan K S; Rendall, Drew

    2013-06-01

    Wolfgang Köhler (1929, Gestalt psychology, New York, NY: Liveright) famously reported a bias in people's choice of nonsense words as labels for novel objects, pointing to possible naïve expectations about language structure. Two accounts have been offered to explain this bias, one focusing on the visuomotor effects of different vowel forms and the other focusing on variation in the acoustic structure and perceptual quality of different consonants. To date, evidence in support of both effects is mixed. Moreover, the veracity of either effect has often been doubted due to perceived limitations in methodologies and stimulus materials. A novel word-construction experiment is presented to test both proposed effects using randomized word- and image-generation techniques to address previous methodological concerns. Results show that participants are sensitive to both vowel and consonant content, constructing novel words of relatively sonorant consonants and rounded vowels to label curved object images, and of relatively plosive consonants and nonrounded vowels to label jagged object images. Results point to additional influences on word construction potentially related to the articulatory affordances or constraints accompanying different word forms.

  8. PEG parsing in less space using progressive tabling and dynamic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz; Rasmussen, Ulrik Terp

    2017-01-01

    -case constant and worst-case linear memory use. Furthermore, semantic actions are scheduled before the parser has seen the end of the input. The scheduling is conservative in the sense that no action has to be "undone" in the case of backtracking. The time complexity is O(dmn) where m is the size of the parser...

  9. Parsing a perceptual decision into a sequence of moments of thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eGraziano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical, computational and experimental studies have converged to a model of decision-making in which sensory evidence is stochastically integrated to a threshold, implementing a shift from an analog to a discrete form of computation. Understanding how this process can be chained and sequenced - as virtually all real-life tasks involve a sequence of decisions - remains an open question in neuroscience. We reasoned that incorporating a virtual continuum of possible behavioral outcomes in a simple decision task- a fundamental ingredient of real-life decision making – should result in a progressive sequential approximation to the correct response. We used real-time tracking of motor action in a decision task, as a measure of cognitive states reflecting an internal decision process. We found that response trajectories were spontaneously segmented into a discrete sequence of explorations separated by brief stops (about 200 ms – which remained unconscious to the participants. The characteristics of these stops were indicative of a decision process - a moment of thought: their duration correlated with the difficulty of the decision and with the efficiency of the subsequent exploration. Our findings suggest that simple navigation in an abstract space involves a discrete sequence of explorations and stops and, moreover, that these stops reveal a fingerprint of moments of thought.

  10. Learning for Semantic Parsing and Natural Language Generation Using Statistical Machine Translation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    individual players to take: Productions Meaning of predicates DIRECTIVE → (do PLAYER ACTION) PLAYER should take ACTION. DIRECTIVE → ( dont PLAYER...Computational Lin- guistics (COLING-ACL-2006), Poster Sessions, pp. 263–270. Sydney, Australia. 170 Daniel Gildea and Daniel Jurafsky (2002

  11. Deeper than Shallow: Evidence for Structure-Based Parsing Biases in Second-Language Sentence Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Jeffrey; Witzel, Naoko; Nicol, Janet

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the reading patterns of native speakers (NSs) and high-level (Chinese) nonnative speakers (NNSs) on three English sentence types involving temporarily ambiguous structural configurations. The reading patterns on each sentence type indicate that both NSs and NNSs were biased toward specific structural interpretations. These…

  12. Exercises in Free Syntax. Syntax Definition, Parsing, and Assimilation of Language Conglomerates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravenboer, M.

    2008-01-01

    In modern software development the use of multiple software languages to constitute a single application is ubiquitous. Despite the omnipresent use of combinations of languages, the principles and techniques for using languages together are ad-hoc, unfriendly to programmers, and result in a poor

  13. Parsing cognitive and emotional empathy deficits for negative and positive stimuli in frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Lindsay D; Mitchell, Derek G V; Dziobek, Isabel; MacKinley, Julia; Coleman, Kristy; Rankin, Katherine P; Finger, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy primarily affecting social cognition and emotion, including loss of empathy. Many consider empathy to be a multidimensional construct, including cognitive empathy (the ability to adopt and understand another's perspective) and emotional empathy (the capacity to share another's emotional experience). Cognitive and emotional empathy deficits have been associated with bvFTD; however, little is known regarding the performance of patients with bvFTD on behavioural measures of emotional empathy, and whether empathic responses differ for negative versus positive stimuli. 24 patients with bvFTD and 24 healthy controls completed the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET; Dziobek et al., 2008), a performance-based task that taps both cognitive and emotional facets of empathy, and allows for the discrimination of responses to negative versus positive realistic images. MET scores were also compared with caregiver ratings of patient behaviour on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, which assesses patients' everyday demonstrations of perspective taking and empathic concern. Patients with bvFTD were less accurate than controls at inferring mental states for negative and positive stimuli. They also demonstrated lower levels of shared emotional experience, more positive emotional reactions, and diminished arousal to negative social stimuli relative to controls. Patients showed reduced emotional reactions to negative non-social stimuli as well. Lastly, the MET and IRI measures of emotional empathy were found to be significantly correlated within the bvFTD group. The results suggest that patients with bvFTD show a global deficit in cognitive empathy, and deficient emotional empathy for negative, but not positive, experiences. Further, a generalized emotional processing impairment for negative stimuli was observed, which could contribute to the emotional empathy deficit. This work highlights potential treatment targets and a means to assess the impact of novel therapies on socioemotional impairment in bvFTD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Parsing the Behavioral and Brain Mechanisms of Third-Party Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, Matthew R; Bonnie, Richard J; Hoffman, Morris B; Shen, Francis X; Simons, Kenneth W; Jones, Owen D; Marois, René

    2016-09-07

    The evolved capacity for third-party punishment is considered crucial to the emergence and maintenance of elaborate human social organization and is central to the modern provision of fairness and justice within society. Although it is well established that the mental state of the offender and the severity of the harm he caused are the two primary predictors of punishment decisions, the precise cognitive and brain mechanisms by which these distinct components are evaluated and integrated into a punishment decision are poorly understood. Using fMRI, here we implement a novel experimental design to functionally dissociate the mechanisms underlying evaluation, integration, and decision that were conflated in previous studies of third-party punishment. Behaviorally, the punishment decision is primarily defined by a superadditive interaction between harm and mental state, with subjects weighing the interaction factor more than the single factors of harm and mental state. On a neural level, evaluation of harms engaged brain areas associated with affective and somatosensory processing, whereas mental state evaluation primarily recruited circuitry involved in mentalization. Harm and mental state evaluations are integrated in medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate structures, with the amygdala acting as a pivotal hub of the interaction between harm and mental state. This integrated information is used by the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex at the time of the decision to assign an appropriate punishment through a distributed coding system. Together, these findings provide a blueprint of the brain mechanisms by which neutral third parties render punishment decisions. Punishment undergirds large-scale cooperation and helps dispense criminal justice. Yet it is currently unknown precisely how people assess the mental states of offenders, evaluate the harms they caused, and integrate those two components into a single punishment decision. Using a new design, we isolated these three processes, identifying the distinct brain systems and activities that enable each. Additional findings suggest that the amygdala plays a crucial role in mediating the interaction of mental state and harm information, whereas the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex plays a crucial, final-stage role, both in integrating mental state and harm information and in selecting a suitable punishment amount. These findings deepen our understanding of how punishment decisions are made, which may someday help to improve them. Copyright © 2016 Ginther et al.

  15. Parsing of the free energy of aromatic-aromatic stacking interactions in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostjukov, Viktor V.; Khomytova, Nina M. [Department of Physics, Sevastopol National Technical University, Sevastopol 99053, Crimea (Ukraine); Hernandez Santiago, Adrian A.; Tavera, Anna-Maria Cervantes; Alvarado, Julieta Salas [Faculty of Chemical Sciences, Autonomous University of Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Evstigneev, Maxim P., E-mail: max_evstigneev@mail.ru [Department of Physics, Sevastopol National Technical University, Sevastopol 99053, Crimea (Ukraine)

    2011-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > A protocol for decomposition of the free energy of aromatic stacking is developed. > The factors stabilizing/destabilizing stacking of aromatic molecules are defined. > Hydrophobic contribution is found to be dominant. - Abstract: We report an analysis of the energetics of aromatic-aromatic stacking interactions for 39 non-covalent reactions of self- and hetero-association of 12 aromatic molecules with different structures and charge states. A protocol for computation of the contributions to the total energy from various energetic terms has been developed and the results are consistent with experiment in 92% of all the systems studied. It is found that the contributions from hydrogen bonds and entropic factors are always unfavorable, whereas contributions from van-der-Waals, electrostatic and/or hydrophobic effects may lead to stabilizing or destabilizing factors depending on the system studied. The analysis carried out in this work provides an answer to the questions 'What forces stabilize/destabilize the stacking of aromatic molecules in aqueous-salt solution and what are their relative importance?'

  16. Parsing of the free energy of aromatic-aromatic stacking interactions in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostjukov, Viktor V.; Khomytova, Nina M.; Hernandez Santiago, Adrian A.; Tavera, Anna-Maria Cervantes; Alvarado, Julieta Salas; Evstigneev, Maxim P.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → A protocol for decomposition of the free energy of aromatic stacking is developed. → The factors stabilizing/destabilizing stacking of aromatic molecules are defined. → Hydrophobic contribution is found to be dominant. - Abstract: We report an analysis of the energetics of aromatic-aromatic stacking interactions for 39 non-covalent reactions of self- and hetero-association of 12 aromatic molecules with different structures and charge states. A protocol for computation of the contributions to the total energy from various energetic terms has been developed and the results are consistent with experiment in 92% of all the systems studied. It is found that the contributions from hydrogen bonds and entropic factors are always unfavorable, whereas contributions from van-der-Waals, electrostatic and/or hydrophobic effects may lead to stabilizing or destabilizing factors depending on the system studied. The analysis carried out in this work provides an answer to the questions 'What forces stabilize/destabilize the stacking of aromatic molecules in aqueous-salt solution and what are their relative importance?'

  17. Parsing demographic effects of canine pParvovirus on a Minnesota wolf population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Goyal, Sagar M.

    2011-01-01

    We examined 35 years of relationships among wolf (Canis lupus) pup survival, population change and canine parvovirus (CPV) seroprevalence in Northeastern Minnesota to determine when CPV exerted its strongest effects. Using correlation analysis of data from five periods of 7-years each from 1973 through 2007, we learned that the strongest effect of CPV on pup survival (r = -0.73) and on wolf population change (r = -0.92) was during 1987 to 1993. After that, little effect was documented despite a mean CPV seroprevalence from 1994 of 2007 of 70.8% compared with 52.6% during 1987 to 1993. We conclude that after CPV became endemic and produced its peak effect on the study population, that population developed enough immunity to withstand the disease.

  18. Generic packet descriptions : Verified Parsing and Pretty Printing of Low-Level Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geest, Marcell; Swierstra, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    Complex protocols describing the communication or storage of binary data are difficult to describe precisely. This paper presents a collection of data types for describing a binary data formats; the corresponding parser and pretty printer are generated automatically from a data description. By

  19. Parsing the phenotype of obsessive-compulsive tic disorder (OCTD): a multidisciplinary consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Marazziti, Donatella; Albert, Umberto; Pallanti, Stefano; Gambini, Orsola; Tundo, Antonio; Zanaboni, Carlotta; Servello, Domenico; Rizzo, Renata; Scalone, Luciana; Benatti, Beatrice; Altamura, A Carlo; Porta, Mauro

    2017-06-01

    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Tic Disorder (TD) are highly disabling and often comorbid conditions. Of note, the DSM-5 acknowledged a new 'tic-related' specifier for OCD, which might be referred to as Obsessive-Compulsive Tic Disorder (OCTD), raising new interest toward a better clinical characterisation of affected patients. Available literature indicates that early onset, male gender, sensory phenomena and obsessions of symmetry, aggressiveness, hoarding, exactness and sounds as well as comorbidity with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may be of more frequent observation in patients with OCTD. In order to share expertise in the field from different perspectives, a multidisciplinary panel of Italian clinicians, specifically involved in the clinical care of OCD and TD patients, participated into a consensus initiative, aimed to produce a shared document. As a result, after having examined the most relevant literature, authors sought to critically identify and discuss main epidemiologic, socio-demographic and clinical features characterising OCTD patients, along with other specific aspects including Health-Related Quality-of-Life (HRQoL), economic consequences related with the condition and its management, as well as treatment-related issues, that need to be further investigated.

  20. Preliminary Analysis of a Breadth-First Parsing Algorithm: Theoretical and Experimental Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    sentential-second-object John persuaded Bill that I did it. takes-bare-infinitive John made them take the exam . verb-takes-at-most-one-np-after-it *John...examples of multiple extractions, the second of which appears to be crossed. (83) Which violins are these sonatas, easy [to play t, on ti? ] (84) What

  1. Parsing the peanut panic: the social life of a contested food allergy epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Miranda R

    2013-08-01

    As medical reports over the last decade indicate that food allergies among children are on the rise, peanut allergies in particular have become a topic of intense social debate. While peanut allergies are potentially fatal, they affect very few children at the population level. Yet, peanut allergies are characterized in medical and popular literature as a rising "epidemic," and myriad and broad-based social responses have emerged to address peanut allergy risk in public spaces. This analysis compares medical literature to other textual sources, including media reports, legislation, and advocacy between 1980 and 2010 in order to examine how peanut allergies transformed from a rare medical malady into a contemporary public health problem. I argue that the peanut allergy epidemic was co-constructed through interactions between experts, publics, biomedical categories, and institutions, while social reactions to the putative epidemic expanded the sphere of surveillance and awareness of peanut allergy risk. The characterization of the peanut allergy problem as an epidemic was shaped by mobility across social sites, with both discursive and material effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Movie smoking and youth initiation: parsing smoking imagery and other adult content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Farrelly

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To isolate the independent influence of exposure to smoking and other adult content in the movies on youth smoking uptake. METHODS: We used discrete time survival analysis to quantify the influence of exposure to smoking and other adult content in the movies on transitioning from (1 closed to open to smoking; (2 never to ever trying smoking; and (3 never to ever hitting, slapping, or shoving someone on two or more occasions in the past 30 days. The latter is a comparative outcome, hypothesized to have no correlation with exposure to smoking in the movies. RESULTS: Assessed separately, both exposure to smoking imagery and exposure to adult content were associated with increased likelihood of youth becoming open to smoking (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15 and OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.04-1.17 and having tried smoking (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.00-1.12 and OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.00-1.13. Both measures were also separately associated with aggressive behavior (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.14 and OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15. A very high correlation between the two measures (0.995, p<0.000 prevented an assessment of their independent effects on smoking initiation. CONCLUSION: Although exposure to smoking in the movies is correlated with smoking susceptibility and initiation, the high correlation between exposure to smoking in the movies and other adult content suggests that more research is needed to disentangle their independent influence on smoking.

  3. Movie smoking and youth initiation: parsing smoking imagery and other adult content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Matthew C; Kamyab, Kian; Nonnemaker, James; Crankshaw, Erik; Allen, Jane A

    2012-01-01

    To isolate the independent influence of exposure to smoking and other adult content in the movies on youth smoking uptake. We used discrete time survival analysis to quantify the influence of exposure to smoking and other adult content in the movies on transitioning from (1) closed to open to smoking; (2) never to ever trying smoking; and (3) never to ever hitting, slapping, or shoving someone on two or more occasions in the past 30 days. The latter is a comparative outcome, hypothesized to have no correlation with exposure to smoking in the movies. Assessed separately, both exposure to smoking imagery and exposure to adult content were associated with increased likelihood of youth becoming open to smoking (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15 and OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.04-1.17) and having tried smoking (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.00-1.12 and OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.00-1.13). Both measures were also separately associated with aggressive behavior (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.14 and OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15). A very high correlation between the two measures (0.995, pmovies is correlated with smoking susceptibility and initiation, the high correlation between exposure to smoking in the movies and other adult content suggests that more research is needed to disentangle their independent influence on smoking.

  4. Parsing the Relations of Race and Socioeconomic Status in Special Education Disproportionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Aleksis P.; Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how student and school-level socioeconomic status (SES) measures predict students' odds of being identified for special education, particularly high-incidence disabilities. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten cohort, hierarchical models were used to determine the relations of student and school SES to…

  5. Inducing Head-Driven PCFGs with Latent Heads: Refining a Tree-bank Grammar for Parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prescher, D.; Gama, J.; Camacho, R.; Brazdil, P.; Jorge, A.; Torgo, L.

    2005-01-01

    Although state-of-the-art parsers for natural language are lexicalized, it was recently shown that an accurate unlexicalized parser for the Penn tree-bank can be simply read off a manually refined tree-bank. While lexicalized parsers often suffer from sparse data, manual mark-up is costly and

  6. Transparent parsing : Head-driven processing of verb-final structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, I.C.M.C.

    2002-01-01

    The conceptual guideline underlying this study is that the goal of processing theory should be to construct a transparent parser. A transparent parser is a parser which employs only properties and relations that are available in the grammar, without resorting to processing-specific notions. Under

  7. A New Framework for Textual Information Mining over Parse Trees. CRESST Report 805

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Hamid; Kerr, Deirdre; Iseli, Markus R.

    2011-01-01

    Textual information mining is a challenging problem that has resulted in the creation of many different rule-based linguistic query languages. However, these languages generally are not optimized for the purpose of text mining. In other words, they usually consider queries as individuals and only return raw results for each query. Moreover they…

  8. Parsing cognition in schizophrenia using saccadic eye movements : a selective overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, A; Crawford, TJ; den Boer, JA

    2001-01-01

    Eye movements provide a behavioural measure of sensorimotor processing and higher cognitive functions of the brain. With the development of novel paradigms that can be used for the study of various cognitive operations, saccadic eye movements in particular. have become increasingly popular. Patients

  9. What you Know is What you Parse : How situational knowledge affects sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/296136972

    2009-01-01

    You will never believe what happened at the party yesterday! Ellen kissed Ruben and Peter…. Suppose this is the last thing you read in your friend’s e-mail before your computer breaks down. If you have some prior knowledge regarding the situation described, you would be able to guess how the

  10. The right hippocampus leads the bilateral integration of gamma-parsed lateralized information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Nuria; Martín-Vázquez, Gonzalo; Makarova, Julia; Makarov, Valeri A; Herreras, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether the two hippocampal lobes convey similar or different activities and how they cooperate. Spatial discrimination of electric fields in anesthetized rats allowed us to compare the pathway-specific field potentials corresponding to the gamma-paced CA3 output (CA1 Schaffer potentials) and CA3 somatic inhibition within and between sides. Bilateral excitatory Schaffer gamma waves are generally larger and lead from the right hemisphere with only moderate covariation of amplitude, and drive CA1 pyramidal units more strongly than unilateral waves. CA3 waves lock to the ipsilateral Schaffer potentials, although bilateral coherence was weak. Notably, Schaffer activity may run laterally, as seen after the disruption of the connecting pathways. Thus, asymmetric operations promote the entrainment of CA3-autonomous gamma oscillators bilaterally, synchronizing lateralized gamma strings to converge optimally on CA1 targets. The findings support the view that interhippocampal connections integrate different aspects of information that flow through the left and right lobes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16658.001 PMID:27599221

  11. A Precise Method for Cloth Configuration Parsing Applied to Single-Arm Flattening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the contribution that visual perception affords to a robotic manipulation task in which a crumpled garment is flattened by eliminating visually detected wrinkles. In order to explore and validate visually guided clothing manipulation in a repeatable and controlled environment, we have developed a hand-eye interactive virtual robot manipulation system that incorporates a clothing simulator to close the effector-garment-visual sensing interaction loop. We present the technical details and compare the performance of two different methods for detecting, representing and interpreting wrinkles within clothing surfaces captured in high-resolution depth maps. The first method we present relies upon a clustering-based method for localizing and parametrizing wrinkles, while the second method adopts a more advanced geometry-based approach in which shape-topology analysis underpins the identification of the cloth configuration (i.e., maps wrinkles. Having interpreted the state of the cloth configuration by means of either of these methods, a heuristic-based flattening strategy is then executed to infer the appropriate forces, their directions and gripper contact locations that must be applied to the cloth in order to flatten the perceived wrinkles. A greedy approach, which attempts to flatten the largest detected wrinkle for each perception-iteration cycle, has been successfully adopted in this work. We present the results of our heuristic-based flattening methodology which relies upon clustering-based and geometry-based features respectively. Our experiments indicate that geometry-based features have the potential to provide a greater degree of clothing configuration understanding and, as a consequence, improve flattening performance. The results of experiments using a real robot (as opposed to simulated robot also confirm our proposition that a more effective visual perception system can advance the performance of cloth manipulation.

  12. Post-Monolingual Research Methodology: Multilingual Researchers Democratizing Theorizing and Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the ground-breaking research in the study of languages in doctoral education. It argues for democratizing the production and dissemination of original contributions to knowledge through activating and mobilizing multilingual Higher Degree Researchers' (HDRs) capabilities for theorizing through them using their full linguistic…

  13. Preposition Entries in UK Monolingual Learners' Dictionaries: Problems and Possible Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstromberg, Seth

    2001-01-01

    Presents a selective examination of the entries of the preposition "on" in five advanced learners' dictionaries published in the United Kingdom. The principal concern is the preposition "on" as a signifier of contact with a surface--especially an upper surface. (Author/VWL)

  14. Use of monolingual and comparable corpora in the classroom to translate adverbial connectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Sánchez Cárdenas

    2016-04-01

    This research explored the reasons why certain adverbial discourse connectors, apparently easy to translate, are a source of translation problems that cannot be easily resolved with a bilingual dictionary. Moreover, this study analyzed the use of parallel corpora in the translation classroom and how it can increase the quality of text production. For this purpose, we compared student translations before and after receiving training on the use of corpus analysis tools.

  15. Use of monolingual and comparable corpora in the classroom to translate adverbial connectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Sánchez Cárdenas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research in terminology has traditionally focused on nouns. Considerably less attention has been paid to other grammatical categories such as adverbs. However, these words can also be problematic for the novice translator, who tends to use the translation correspondences in bilingual dictionaries without realizing that formal equivalence is not necessarily the same as textual equivalence. However, semantic values, acquired in context, go far beyond dictionary meaning and are related to phenomena such as semantic prosody and preferences of lexical selection that can vary, depending on text type and specialized domain. This research explored the reasons why certain adverbial discourse connectors, apparently easy to translate, are a source of translation problems that cannot be easily resolved with a bilingual dictionary. Moreover, this study analyzed the use of parallel corpora in the translation classroom and how it can increase the quality of text production. For this purpose, we compared student translations before and after receiving training on the use of corpus analysis tools

  16. Prepositions in UK Monolingual Learners; Dictionaries: Expanding on Lindstromberg's Problems and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brala, Marija M.

    2002-01-01

    Comments on Lindstromberg's (2001) article that argues that prepositional representation in dictionaries is frequently inadequate. Suggests that Lindstromberg's arguments are not exhaustive, and that he fails to include crucial psycholinguistic studies and to relate his views to current linguistic theories. (Author/VWL)

  17. TOC: Table of Contents Practices of Primary Journals--Recommendations for Monolingual, Multilingual and International Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Stephen; And Others

    Table of contents (TOC) practices of some 120 primary journals were analyzed. The journals were randomly selected. The method of randomization is described. The samples were selected from a university library with a holding of approximately 12,000 titles published worldwide. A questionnaire was designed. Purpose was to find uniformity and…

  18. Phonotactic Probability Effect in Nonword Recall and Its Relationship with Vocabulary in Monolingual and Bilingual Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Marielle H.; Leseman, Paul P. M.; Boom, Jan; Mayo, Aziza Y.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined to what extent information in long-term memory concerning the distribution of phoneme clusters in a language, so-called long-term phonotactic knowledge, increased the capacity of verbal short-term memory in young language learners and, through increased verbal short-term memory capacity, supported these children's first…

  19. Narrative Abilities of Monolingual and Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment: Implications for Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Tessel; Leseman, Paul; Timmermeister, Mona; Wijnen, Frank; Blom, Elma

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding and expressing a narrative's macro-structure is relatively independent of experience in a specific language. A narrative task is therefore assumed to be a less biased method of language assessment for bilingual children than many other norm-referenced tests and may thus be particularly valuable to identify language…

  20. Diversity, Super-Diversity, and Monolingual Language Ideology in the United States: Tolerance or Intolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Terrence G.

    2014-01-01

    Each new demographic shift and economic or social change bring seemingly new issues into popular and political focus--questions, debates, and policies about the role of language in education and society and the recent claims that transnational migrations and globalization are resulting in unprecedented forms of ethnolinguisic…

  1. Connective processing by bilingual children and monolinguals with specific language impairment : distinct profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak, W.M.; Tribushinina, E.; Lomako, Julia; Gagarina, N.; Abrosova, Ekaterina; Sanders, T.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Production studies show that both Russian-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and bilingual children for whom Russian is a non-dominant language have difficulty distinguishing between the near-synonymous connectives i ‘and’ and a ‘and/but’. I is a preferred connective when

  2. Comparative Language Development in Bilingual and Monolingual Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily M.; Kohlmeier, Theresa L.; Durán, Lillian K.

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of both bilingual children and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is growing rapidly, and early childhood educators may be increasingly likely to encounter bilingual children with ASD in their classrooms. Because ASD significantly affects communication, many parents and professionals may have questions or concerns about…

  3. Grammar Correction in the Writing Centre: Expectations and Experiences of Monolingual and Multilingual Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Although most writing centres maintain policies against providing grammar correction during writing tutorials, it is undeniable that students expect some level of grammar intervention there. Just how much students expect and receive is a matter of speculation. This article examines the grammar-correction issue by reporting on a survey of L1, L2,…

  4. English Teachers' Language Awareness: Away with the Monolingual Bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otwinowska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    The training of language teachers still follows traditional models of teachers' competences and awareness, focusing solely on the target language. Such models are incompatible with multilingual pedagogy, whereby languages are not taught in isolation, and learners' background languages are activated to enhance the process. When teaching…

  5. Contesting Public Monolingualism and Diglossia: Rethinking Political Theory and Language Policy for a Multilingual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    In many language policy and political theory discussions, there is an overt skepticism, and at times outright hostility, towards the ongoing maintenance of private and, especially, public multilingualism, particularly when these include/incorporate the languages of linguistic minorities. For linguistic minority individuals, ongoing multilingualism…

  6. Verb inflection in Monolingual Dutch and Sequential Bilingual Turkish-Dutch Children with and without SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Elma; De Jong, Jan; Orgassa, Antje; Baker, Anne; Weerman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Both children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children who acquire a second language (L2) make errors with verb inflection. This overlap between SLI and L2 raises the question if verb inflection can discriminate between L2 children with and without SLI. In this study we addressed this question for Dutch. The secondary goal of the study…

  7. Processing and Comprehension of Accented Speech by Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Margarethe; Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana; Batko, Michelle; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2018-01-01

    This study tested the effect of Spanish-accented speech on sentence comprehension in children with different degrees of Spanish experience. The hypothesis was that earlier acquisition of Spanish would be associated with enhanced comprehension of Spanish-accented speech. Three groups of 5-6-year-old children were tested: monolingual…

  8. Multi-lingual search engine to access PubMed monolingual subsets: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmoni, Stéfan J; Soualmia, Lina F; Griffon, Nicolas; Grosjean, Julien; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Kergourlay, Ivan; Dahamna, Badisse

    2013-01-01

    PubMed contains many articles in languages other than English but it is difficult to find them using the English version of the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Thesaurus. The aim of this work is to propose a tool allowing access to a PubMed subset in one language, and to evaluate its performance. Translations of MeSH were enriched and gathered in the information system. PubMed subsets in main European languages were also added in our database, using a dedicated parser. The CISMeF generic semantic search engine was evaluated on the response time for simple queries. MeSH descriptors are currently available in 11 languages in the information system. All the 654,000 PubMed citations in French were integrated into CISMeF database. None of the response times exceed the threshold defined for usability (2 seconds). It is now possible to freely access biomedical literature in French using a tool in French; health professionals and lay people with a low English language may find it useful. It will be expended to several European languages: German, Spanish, Norwegian and Portuguese.

  9. Biliteracy Summer Schools: Breaking the Cycle of Monolingualism in Migrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Valls, Fernando; Montoya, Mayda; Valenzuela, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Immigration and the role of language in education have been major issues in governance and education across the world. The current study looks at a family biliteracy program for 2- to 6-year-old students and their parents. The findings shed light on the importance of teacher-community partnerships in bridging the linguistic gap between…

  10. Integrating Content and Language in Institutionally Monolingual Settings: Teacher Positioning and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Translanguaging pedagogy offers a way to differentiate between students' varying linguistic repertoires when embedding an additional language across the curriculum. In this article I draw on positioning theory to show the relevance of teacher positioning to translanguaging pedagogy and differentiation. Differentiation is discussed in relation to…

  11. Comparison of Selective Attention and Intelligence Profile in Bilingual and Monolingual Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Yousefi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion Learning a foreign language (e.g. English may be an effective factor in selective attention and intelligence profile of adolescents. Therefore, the role of learning a foreign language should be considered in selective attention and intelligence profile of adolescents.

  12. LANGUAGE POLICY IN THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD: MONOLINGUALISM AND BILINGUALISM PRACTICE AND LANGUAGE ASSIMILATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir M. Alpatov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of what previously characterized the language situation and language policy within states is transferred to the international level due to globalization. We are facing the growing importance of world languages, especially English. However, globalization (at least in the form in which it exists now does not satisfy the need of identitification for the majority people (except, of course, those for whom English is a mother tongue. This situation can lead to conflicts and even question the effectiveness of globalization processes.

  13. The effects of bilingualism on conflict monitoring, cognitive control, and garden-path recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubner-Rhodes, Susan E; Mishler, Alan; Corbett, Ryan; Andreu, Llorenç; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Trueswell, John C; Novick, Jared M

    2016-05-01

    Bilinguals demonstrate benefits on non-linguistic tasks requiring cognitive control-the regulation of mental activity to resolve information-conflict during processing. This "bilingual advantage" has been attributed to the consistent management of two languages, yet it remains unknown if these benefits extend to sentence processing. In monolinguals, cognitive control helps detect and revise misinterpretations of sentence meaning. Here, we test if the bilingual advantage extends to parsing and interpretation by comparing bilinguals' and monolinguals' syntactic ambiguity resolution before and after practicing N-back, a non-syntactic cognitive-control task. Bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on a high-conflict but not a no-conflict version of N-back and on sentence comprehension, indicating that the advantage extends to language interpretation. Gains on N-back conflict trials also predicted comprehension improvements for ambiguous sentences, suggesting that the bilingual advantage emerges across tasks tapping shared cognitive-control procedures. Because the overall task benefits were observed for conflict and non-conflict trials, bilinguals' advantage may reflect increased cognitive flexibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Contralog: a Prolog conform forward-chaining environment and its application for dynamic programming and natural language parsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilián Imre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The backward-chaining inference strategy of Prolog is inefficient for a number of problems. The article proposes Contralog: a Prolog-conform, forward-chaining language and an inference engine that is implemented as a preprocessor-compiler to Prolog. The target model is Prolog, which ensures mutual switching from Contralog to Prolog and back. The Contralog compiler is implemented using Prolog's de facto standardized macro expansion capability. The article goes into details regarding the target model.

  15. Using PHP to Parse eBook Resources from Drupal 6 to Populate a Mobile Web Page

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior Tidal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ursula C. Schwerin library needed to create a page for its mobile website devoted to subscribed eBooks. These resources, however, were only available through the main desktop website. These resources were organized using the Drupal 6 content management system with contributed and core modules. It was necessary to create a solution to retrieve the eBook databases from the Drupal installation to a separate mobile site.

  16. Parsing the roles of neck-linker docking and tethered head diffusion in the stepping dynamics of kinesin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhechun; Goldtzvik, Yonathan; Thirumalai, D

    2017-11-14

    Kinesin walks processively on microtubules (MTs) in an asymmetric hand-over-hand manner consuming one ATP molecule per 16-nm step. The individual contributions due to docking of the approximately 13-residue neck linker to the leading head (deemed to be the power stroke) and diffusion of the trailing head (TH) that contributes in propelling the motor by 16 nm have not been quantified. We use molecular simulations by creating a coarse-grained model of the MT-kinesin complex, which reproduces the measured stall force as well as the force required to dislodge the motor head from the MT, to show that nearly three-quarters of the step occurs by bidirectional stochastic motion of the TH. However, docking of the neck linker to the leading head constrains the extent of diffusion and minimizes the probability that kinesin takes side steps, implying that both the events are necessary in the motility of kinesin and for the maintenance of processivity. Surprisingly, we find that during a single step, the TH stochastically hops multiple times between the geometrically accessible neighboring sites on the MT before forming a stable interaction with the target binding site with correct orientation between the motor head and the [Formula: see text] tubulin dimer.

  17. Parsing trait and state effects of depression severity on neurocognition: Evidence from a 26-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapas, Casey; Shankman, Stewart A; Harrow, Martin; Goldberg, Joseph F

    2012-11-01

    Cognitive dysfunction in mood disorders falls along a continuum, such that more severe current depression is associated with greater cognitive impairment. It is not clear whether this association reflects transient state effects of current symptoms on cognitive performance, or persistent, trait-like differences in cognition that are related to overall disorder severity. We addressed this question in 42 unipolar and 47 bipolar participants drawn from a 26-year longitudinal study of psychopathology, using measures of attention/psychomotor processing speed, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, and verbal memory. We assessed (a) the extent to which current symptom severity and past average disorder severity predicted unique variance in cognitive performance; (b) whether cognitive performance covaried with within-individual changes in symptom severity; and (c) the stability of neurocognitive measures over six years. We also tested for differences among unipolar and bipolar groups and published norms. Past average depression severity predicted performance on attention/psychomotor processing speed in both groups, and in cognitive flexibility among unipolar participants, even after controlling for current symptom severity, which did not independently predict cognition. Within-participant state changes in depressive symptoms did not predict change in any cognitive domain. All domains were stable over the course of six years. Both groups showed generalized impairment relative to published norms, and bipolar participants performed more poorly than unipolar participants on attention/psychomotor processing speed. The results suggest a stable relationship between mood disorder severity and cognitive deficits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Academic language in early childhood interactions : a longitudinal study of 3- to 6-year-old Dutch monolingual children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, L.F.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines academic language in early childhood. It covers children’s exposure to academic language in early childhood, children’s early production of academic language, the development of academic language proficiency and the co-construction of academic language by children and adults.The

  19. A Study of the Use of a Monolingual Pedagogical Dictionary by Learners of English Engaged in Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Keith; Yuill, Deborah

    1997-01-01

    Presents an account of a study of the role played by a dictionary in the completion of written (encoding) tasks by students of English as a foreign language. The study uses an introspective methodology based on the completion of flowcharts. Results indicate the importance of information on spelling and meanings and the neglect of coded syntactic…

  20. The Use of Monolingual Mobile Dictionaries in the Context of Reading by Intermediate Cantonese EFL Learners in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Di; Xie, Haoran; Wang, Fu Lee

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on dictionary consultation investigated mainly online dictionaries or simple pocket electronic dictionaries as they were commonly used among learners back then, yet the more updated mobile dictionaries were superficially investigated though they have already replaced the pocket electronic dictionaries. These studies are also…

  1. Verbal short-term memory and vocabulary development in monolingual Dutch and bilingual Turkish-Dutch preschoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messer, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing immigration, bilingualism has become part and parcel of the everyday lives of many children. Although research indicates that under favourable circumstances bilingual children can become balanced bilinguals, especially immigrant children seem to have difficulty coping with the

  2. Language and Preliteracy Skills in Bilinguals and Monolinguals at Preschool Age: Effects of Exposure to Richly Inflected Speech from Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silven, Maarit; Rubinov, Evgenia

    2010-01-01

    Language proficiency before school entry has proven to be a powerful predictor of literacy development. This longitudinal study examined how simultaneous exposure to two richly inflected languages from birth contributes to the development of language-related literacy precursors at preschool age compared to peers exposed to one language. The…

  3. Developmental trajectories of preschool early literacy skills: a comparison of language-minority and monolingual-English children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Farver, Joann M; Nakamoto, Jonathan; Eppe, Stefanie

    2013-10-01

    This study utilized latent growth-curve analyses to determine if the early literacy skills of children who were Spanish-speaking language-minority (LM) followed a similar quantitative growth profile over a preschool year as that of a group of children from a comparable socioeconomic (SES) background but who were not LM. Participants, who ranged in age from 37 to 60 months (M = 50.73; SD = 5.04), included 540 Spanish-speaking LM and 408 non-LM children (47% girls) who were enrolled in 30 Head Start classrooms. Scores on a measure of oral language and measures of code-related skills (i.e., phonological awareness, print knowledge) were lower for LM children than for non-LM children. LM children experienced significantly faster growth in oral language skills than did non-LM children. Growth for print knowledge and blending was similar for LM and non-LM children, whereas LM children experienced slightly less growth than non-LM children on elision. The inclusion of child (i.e., initial language scores, age, nonverbal cognitive ability) and family (i.e., maternal/paternal education, 2-parent household, father employment) variables eliminated initial differences between LM and non-LM children on the code-related variables, and the effect was due primarily to children's initial oral language skills. These results indicate that the early risk for reading-related problems experienced by Spanish-speaking LM children is due both to low SES and to their LM status, and they highlight the critical need for the development, evaluation, and deployment of early instructional programs for LM children with limited English oral language proficiency.

  4. Migrants' Alternative Multi-Lingua Franca Spaces as Emergent Re-Producers of Exclusionary Monolingual Nation-State Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté Dalmau, Maria

    2016-01-01

    From a critical sociolinguistic perspective, this article investigates the written linguistic practices of 20 labor migrants from heterogeneous backgrounds who organized their life trajectories in an "ethnic" call shop in a marginal neighborhood near Barcelona. This was a late capitalist institution informally providing the undocumented…

  5. Developing semantic networks : Individual differences in Dutch monolingual and bilingual children’s semantic knowledge and reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spätgens, T.M.

    2018-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is a fundamental requirement for school success, not least because of its importance for the acquisition of literacy skills. However, the acquisition of word knowledge entails more than simply extending vocabulary size. In this dissertation, three other aspects of word knowledge

  6. A search engine to access PubMed monolingual subsets: proof of concept and evaluation in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffon, Nicolas; Schuers, Matthieu; Soualmia, Lina Fatima; Grosjean, Julien; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Kergourlay, Ivan; Dahamna, Badisse; Darmoni, Stéfan Jacques

    2014-12-01

    PubMed contains numerous articles in languages other than English. However, existing solutions to access these articles in the language in which they were written remain unconvincing. The aim of this study was to propose a practical search engine, called Multilingual PubMed, which will permit access to a PubMed subset in 1 language and to evaluate the precision and coverage for the French version (Multilingual PubMed-French). To create this tool, translations of MeSH were enriched (eg, adding synonyms and translations in French) and integrated into a terminology portal. PubMed subsets in several European languages were also added to our database using a dedicated parser. The response time for the generic semantic search engine was evaluated for simple queries. BabelMeSH, Multilingual PubMed-French, and 3 different PubMed strategies were compared by searching for literature in French. Precision and coverage were measured for 20 randomly selected queries. The results were evaluated as relevant to title and abstract, the evaluator being blind to search strategy. More than 650,000 PubMed citations in French were integrated into the Multilingual PubMed-French information system. The response times were all below the threshold defined for usability (2 seconds). Two search strategies (Multilingual PubMed-French and 1 PubMed strategy) showed high precision (0.93 and 0.97, respectively), but coverage was 4 times higher for Multilingual PubMed-French. It is now possible to freely access biomedical literature using a practical search tool in French. This tool will be of particular interest for health professionals and other end users who do not read or query sufficiently in English. The information system is theoretically well suited to expand the approach to other European languages, such as German, Spanish, Norwegian, and Portuguese.

  7. Effectiveness of Bilingual Education in Cambodia: A Longitudinal Comparative Case Study of Ethnic Minority Children in Bilingual and Monolingual Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott; Watt, Ron; Frawley, Jack

    2015-01-01

    There is little research in the developing countries of South East Asia on the effectiveness of bilingual education programmes that use first language instruction for ethnic minority children. This study investigated the effectiveness of a bilingual education programme involving ethnic minority children in Cambodia by comparing their performance…

  8. Are "Diversity Management" and Monolingualism Compatible? About Learning and Using Foreign Languages in a Context of Globalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludi, Georges

    2010-01-01

    Ideologies and communication practices vary hugely in multilingual workplaces. On the one hand, many companies include Diversity Management in their corporate culture because there are theoretical and empirical reasons to believe that a company which employs a diverse workforce enhances its opportunities in a global marketplace whilst improving…

  9. Bidirectionality in Self-Regulation and Expressive Vocabulary: Comparisons between Monolingual and Dual Language Learners in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlmann, Natalie L.; Maier, Michelle F.; Palacios, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Significant differences in language and self-regulation skills exist among children when they enter formal schooling. Contributing to these language differences is a growing population of dual language learners (DLLs) in the United States. Given evidence linking self-regulatory processes and language development, this study explored bidirectional…

  10. Accessing word meaning: Semantic word knowledge and reading comprehension in Dutch monolingual and bilingual fifth-graders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, M.

    2013-01-01

    Word knowledge is one of the key elements in reading comprehension and by extension in school success. At the same time, it is not quite clear which components of lexical knowledge play a role in reading. Is it enough to recognize the words we read? Do we need an in-depth understanding of their

  11. A comparison of the language skills of ELLs and monolinguals who are poor decoders, poor comprehenders, or normal readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Esther; Massey-Garrison, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of this article is to examine how oral language abilities relate to reading profiles in English language learners (ELLs) and English as a first language (EL1) learners, and the extent of similarities and differences between ELLs and EL1s in three reading subgroups: normal readers, poor decoders, and poor comprehenders. The study included 100 ELLs and 50 EL1s in Grade 5. The effect of language group (ELL/EL1) and reading group on cognitive and linguistic skills was examined. Except for vocabulary, there was no language group effect on any measure. However, within ELL and EL1 alike, significant differences were found between reading groups: Normal readers outperformed the two other groups on all the oral language measures. Distinct cognitive and linguistic profiles were associated with poor decoders and poor comprehenders, regardless of language group. The ELL and EL1 poor decoders outperformed the poor comprehenders on listening comprehension and inferencing. The poor decoders displayed phonological-based weaknesses, whereas the poor comprehenders displayed a more generalized language processing weakness that is nonphonological in nature. Regardless of language status, students with poor decoding or comprehension problems display difficulties with various aspects of language.

  12. Expressive Vocabulary Development in Children from Bilingual and Monolingual Homes: A Longitudinal Study from Two to Four Years

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Burridge, Andrea; Ribot, Krystal M.; Welsh, Stephanie N.

    2014-01-01

    The early course of language development among children from bilingual homes varies in ways that are not well described and as a result of influences that are not well understood. Here, we describe trajectories of relative change in expressive vocabulary from 22 to 48 months and vocabulary achievement at 48 months in two groups of children from bilingual homes (children with one and children with two native Spanish-speaking parents [ns = 15 and 11]) and in an SES-equivalent group of children ...

  13. On the relation between dependency distance, crossing dependencies, and parsing. Comment on "Dependency distance: a new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rodríguez, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Liu et al. [1] provide a comprehensive account of research on dependency distance in human languages. While the article is a very rich and useful report on this complex subject, here I will expand on a few specific issues where research in computational linguistics (specifically natural language processing) can inform DDM research, and vice versa. These aspects have not been explored much in [1] or elsewhere, probably due to the little overlap between both research communities, but they may provide interesting insights for improving our understanding of the evolution of human languages, the mechanisms by which the brain processes and understands language, and the construction of effective computer systems to achieve this goal.

  14. A volatile topic: Parsing out the details of Earth's formation through experimental metal-silicate partitioning of volatile and moderately volatile elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, B. M.; Siebert, J.; Blanchard, I.; Badro, J.; Sossi, P.; Moynier, F.

    2017-12-01

    Volatile and moderately volatile elements display different volatilities and siderophilities, as well as varying sensitivity to thermodynamic controls (X, P, T, fO2) during metal-silicate differentiation. The experimental determination of the metal-silicate partitioning of these elements permits us to evaluate processes controlling the distribution of these elements in Earth. In this work, we have combined metal-silicate partitioning data and results for S, Sn, Zn and Cu, and input these characterizations into Earth formation models. Model parameters such as source material, timing of volatile delivery, fO2 path, and degree of impactor equilibration were varied to encompass an array of possible formation scenarios. These models were then assessed to discern plausible sets of conditions that can produce current observed element-to-element ratios (e.g. S/Zn) in the Earth's present-day mantle, while also satisfying current estimates on the S content of the core, at no more than 2 wt%. The results of our models indicate two modes of accretion that can maintain chondritic element-to-element ratios for the bulk Earth and can arrive at present-day mantle abundances of these elements. The first mode requires the late addition of Earth's entire inventory of these elements (assuming a CI-chondritic composition) and late-stage accretion that is marked by partial equilibration of large impactors. The second, possibly more intuitive mode, requires that Earth accreted - at least initially - from volatile poor material preferentially depleted in S relative to Sn, Zn, and Cu. From a chemical standpoint, this source material is most similar to type I chondrule rich (and S poor) materials (Hewins and Herzberg, 1996; Mahan et al., 2017; Amsellem et al., 2017), such as the metal-bearing carbonaceous chondrites.

  15. Parsing parallel evolution: ecological divergence and differential gene expression in the adaptive radiations of thick-lipped Midas cichlid fishes from Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousaki, Tereza; Hull, Pincelli M; Kusche, Henrik; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Franchini, Paolo; Harrod, Chris; Elmer, Kathryn R; Meyer, Axel

    2013-02-01

    The study of parallel evolution facilitates the discovery of common rules of diversification. Here, we examine the repeated evolution of thick lips in Midas cichlid fishes (the Amphilophus citrinellus species complex)-from two Great Lakes and two crater lakes in Nicaragua-to assess whether similar changes in ecology, phenotypic trophic traits and gene expression accompany parallel trait evolution. Using next-generation sequencing technology, we characterize transcriptome-wide differential gene expression in the lips of wild-caught sympatric thick- and thin-lipped cichlids from all four instances of repeated thick-lip evolution. Six genes (apolipoprotein D, myelin-associated glycoprotein precursor, four-and-a-half LIM domain protein 2, calpain-9, GTPase IMAP family member 8-like and one hypothetical protein) are significantly underexpressed in the thick-lipped morph across all four lakes. However, other aspects of lips' gene expression in sympatric morphs differ in a lake-specific pattern, including the magnitude of differentially expressed genes (97-510). Generally, fewer genes are differentially expressed among morphs in the younger crater lakes than in those from the older Great Lakes. Body shape, lower pharyngeal jaw size and shape, and stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) differ between all sympatric morphs, with the greatest differentiation in the Great Lake Nicaragua. Some ecological traits evolve in parallel (those related to foraging ecology; e.g. lip size, body and head shape) but others, somewhat surprisingly, do not (those related to diet and food processing; e.g. jaw size and shape, stable isotopes). Taken together, this case of parallelism among thick- and thin-lipped cichlids shows a mosaic pattern of parallel and nonparallel evolution. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. When bicycle pump is harder to read than bicycle bell: effects of parsing cues in first and second language compound reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemhöfer, K.M.L.; Koester, D.; Schreuder, R.

    2011-01-01

    Reading and understanding morphologically complex words can sometimes be a particular challenge to nonnative speakers. For example, compound words consist of multiple free morphemes, oftentimes without explicit marking of the morpheme boundaries. In a lexical decision task, we investigated compound

  17. CGUG: in silico proteome and genome parsing tool for the determination of "core" and unique genes in the analysis of genomes up to ca. 1.9 Mb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadevan Padmanabhan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viruses and small-genome bacteria (~2 megabases and smaller comprise a considerable population in the biosphere and are of interest to many researchers. These genomes are now sequenced at an unprecedented rate and require complementary computational tools to analyze. "CoreGenesUniqueGenes" (CGUG is an in silico genome data mining tool that determines a "core" set of genes from two to five organisms with genomes in this size range. Core and unique genes may reflect similar niches and needs, and may be used in classifying organisms. Findings CGUG is available at http://binf.gmu.edu/geneorder.html as a web-based on-the-fly tool that performs iterative BLASTP analyses using a reference genome and up to four query genomes to provide a table of genes common to these genomes. The result is an in silico display of genomes and their proteomes, allowing for further analysis. CGUG can be used for "genome annotation by homology", as demonstrated with Chlamydophila and Francisella genomes. Conclusion CGUG is used to reanalyze the ICTV-based classifications of bacteriophages, to reconfirm long-standing relationships and to explore new classifications. These genomes have been problematic in the past, due largely to horizontal gene transfers. CGUG is validated as a tool for reannotating small genome bacteria using more up-to-date annotations by similarity or homology. These serve as an entry point for wet-bench experiments to confirm the functions of these "hypothetical" and "unknown" proteins.

  18. The Efficacy of Child-Centered Play Therapy with Hispanic Spanish-Speaking Children when Conducted by a Monolingual English-Speaking Counselor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Lola V.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of child-centered play therapy as an intervention when the client and the counselor do not speak the same language. The participants of the study were 34 Spanish-speaking children of Hispanic descent ranging in age from 4 to 8 who were referred to counseling for exhibiting…

  19. Bilingual and Monolingual Idiom Processing Is Cut from the Same Cloth: The Role of the L1 in Literal and Figurative Meaning Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Sara D; Weber, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines non-native (L2) and native (L1) listeners' access to figurative idiomatic meaning and literal constituent meaning in two cross-modal priming experiments. Proficient German learners of English (L2) and native speakers of American English (L1) responded to English target words preceded by English idioms embedded in non-biasing prime sentences in a lexical decision task. English idioms differed in levels of translatability: Lexical level idioms had word-for-word translation equivalents in German, while post-lexical level idioms had matching idiomatic concepts in German but could not be translated word for word. Target words either related to the figurative meaning of the idiom or related to the literal meaning of the final constituent word of the idiom (e.g., to pull someone's leg, literal target: walk, figurative target: joke). Both L1 and L2 listeners showed facilitatory priming for literally- and figuratively-related target words compared to unrelated control target words, with only marginal differences between the listener groups. No effect of translatability was found; that is, the existence of word-for-word translation equivalents in German neither facilitated nor hindered meaning activation for German L2 listeners. The results are interpreted in the context of L1 and L2 models of idiom processing as well as further relevant translation studies.

  20. Growth of verbal short-term memory of nonwords varying in phonotactic probability : A longitudinal study with monolingual and bilingual children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messer, Marielle H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304835226; Verhagen, Josje|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/277955882; Boom, Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07472732X; Mayo, Aziza Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/271313404; Leseman, Paul P M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070760810

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the hypothesis that verbal short-term memory growth in young children can be explained by increases in long-term linguistic knowledge. To this aim, we compare children's recall of nonwords varying in phonotactic probability. If our assumption holds, there should be growth in

  1. Navigating between a Monolingual Utopia and Translingual Realities: Experiences of American Learners of Yorùbá as an Additional Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Junko; Sanuth, Kazeem Ké?hìndé

    2018-01-01

    Translingualism advocates for the appreciation of multilingual speakers' fluid, flexible, and creative deployment of semiotic resources without regard to the ideological constructs of named languages. While this scholarship has been developed primarily in the contexts of world Englishes, English as a lingua franca, and bilingual education in…

  2. Is the Monolingual Nation-State Out-of-Date? A Comparative Study of Language Policies in Australia and the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolicz, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses language policy in the multilingual settings of Australia and the Philippines. Examines language policies, language curricula, government initiatives, language attitudes, and cultural maintenance in Australia. Studies language policies, national language development attempts, bilingual policies, viability of minority languages,…

  3. L2 vs. L3 Initial State: A Comparative Study of the Acquisition of French DPs by Vietnamese Monolinguals and Cantonese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Yan-Kit Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares the initial state of second language acquisition (L2A) and third language acquisition (L3A) from the generative linguistics perspective. We examine the acquisition of the Determiner Phrase (DP) by two groups of beginning French learners: an L2 group (native speakers of Vietnamese who do not speak any English) and an L3 group…

  4. There Is No Knowledge Without Terminology. How Terminological Methods and Tools Can Help to Manage Monolingual and Multilingual Knowledge and Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Sauberer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents “10 good reasons for terminology” in any expert field and any language(s by discussing the areas of application in the public and the private sector as well as in science and education. After a short introduction on the history of terminology, the term “ontology” will be discussed, as one of the key terms in current knowledge engineering and terminology. The paper gives an overview on means and methods of assuring and improving the quality of knowledge generation, communication and management through terminology. Also, it introduces the main standards, players and experts in the terminology community, such as the International Network for Terminology (www.termnet.org.

  5. Bilingual and monolingual idiom processing is cut from the same cloth: The role of the L1 in literal and figurative meaning activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Donnell Beck

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines non-native (L2 and native (L1 listeners’ access to figurative idiomatic meaning and literal constituent meaning in two cross-modal priming experiments. Proficient German learners of English (L2 and native speakers of American English (L1 responded to English target words preceded by English idioms embedded in non-biasing prime sentences in a lexical decision task. English idioms differed in levels of translatability: Lexical level idioms had word-for-word translation equivalents in German, while post-lexical level idioms had matching idiomatic concepts in German but could not be translated word for word. Target words either related to the figurative meaning of the idiom or related to the literal meaning of the final constituent word of the idiom (e.g., to pull someone’s leg, literal target: walk, figurative target: joke. Both L1 and L2 listeners showed facilitatory priming for literally- and figuratively-related target words compared to unrelated control target words, with only marginal differences between the listener groups. No effect of translatability was found; that is, the existence of word-for-word translation equivalents in German neither facilitated nor hindered meaning activation for German L2 listeners. The results are interpreted in the context of L1 and L2 models of idiom processing as well as further relevant translation studies.

  6. Is Morphological Awareness a Relevant Predictor of Reading Fluency and Comprehension? New Evidence From Italian Monolingual and Arabic-Italian Bilingual Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta Vernice

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the contribution of morphological awareness to reading competence in a group of Italian L1 and Arabic-Italian early L2 children, i.e., exposed to Italian before 3 years of age. Children from first to fifth grade (age range: 6–11 years old were tested on a range of morphological awareness and lexical tasks. Reading ability was tested through standardized tests of reading fluency and comprehension. Results showed that L1 children outperformed L2 on every measure of morphological awareness, as well as on reading tests. Regression analyses revealed that morphological awareness contributed to a different extent to reading ability across groups. Accuracy in the morphological awareness tasks was a significant predictor of word (and non-word reading fluency in L1 and L2 first and second graders, while only in L1 third to fifth graders, response times and accuracy to a morphological awareness task explained a unique amount of variance in reading comprehension. Our results highlight the critical role of morphological processing in reading efficiency and suggest that a training inspired by morphological awareness may improve reading skills also in bilingual students.

  7. Bilingualism as a Window into the Language Faculty: The Acquisition of Objects in French-Speaking Children in Bilingual and Monolingual Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Leroux, Ana T.; Pirvulescu, Mihaela; Roberge, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Where do the two languages of the bilingual child interact? The literature has debated whether bilingual children have delays in the acquisition of direct objects. The variety of methods and languages involved have prevented clear conclusions. In a transitivity-based approach, null objects are a default structural possibility, present in all…

  8. Bilingualism as Conceptualized and Bilingualism as Lived: A Critical Examination of the Monolingual Socialization of a Child with Autism in a Bilingual Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Betty

    2016-01-01

    This is an ethnographic and discourse analytic case study of a bilingual, minority-language family of a six-year-old child with autism whose family members were committed to speaking English with him. Drawing on "family language policy," the study examines the tensions between the family members' stated beliefs, management efforts, and…

  9. Language and executive functioning in the context of specific language impairment and bilingualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laloi, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present thesis has investigated how French-speaking monolingual and bilingual children with SLI (specific language impairment) performed on various tasks examining language and executive functioning (EF) abilities, in comparison to monolingual and bilingual peers without SLI. Language was

  10. Lexical quality and executive control predict children's first and second language reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raudszus, H.; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2018-01-01

    This study compared how lexical quality (vocabulary and decoding) and executive control (working memory and inhibition) predict reading comprehension directly as well as indirectly, via syntactic integration, in monolingual and bilingual fourth grade children. The participants were 76 monolingual

  11. Are ‘diversity management' and monolingualism compatible? About learning and using foreign languages in a context of globalisation: Sind ,diversity management' und Einsprachigkeit kompatibel? Vom Fremdsprachenlernen und -gebrauch unter dem Einfluss der Globalisierung

    OpenAIRE

    Lüdi, Georges

    2017-01-01

    Ideologies and communication practices vary hugely in multilingual workplaces. On the one hand, many companies include Diversity Management in their corporate culture because there are theoretical and empirical reasons to believe that a company which employs a diverse workforce enhances its opportunities in a global marketplace whilst improving employee satisfaction and thus productivity. On the other hand, globally oriented companies, often the same ones, choose English preferentially as the...

  12. Biologie und Fremdsprachenunterricht. Das Prinzip der Einsprachigkeit im Lichte biologischer Erkenntnisse ueber Denken und Lernen (Biology and Foreign Language Teaching. The Monolingual Principle in the Light of Biological Findings concerning Thinking and Learning).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Rudolf

    1979-01-01

    Draws upon recent publications dealing with brain function (particularly F. Vester, "Denken, Lernen, Vergessen", Munich, 1978) for ideas for foreign language teaching. These include constant use of the foreign language in the classroom, frequent repetition, and avoidance of false associations by explanation in the native language.…

  13. Forest Grammar (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松懋

    1994-01-01

    The syntactic parsing algorithm of weak precedence forest grammar has been introduced and the correctness and unambiguity of this algorithm have been proved. An example is given to the syntactic parsing procedure of weak precedence forest grammar.

  14. SyntaxTrain: Relieving the pain of learning syntax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moth, Andreas Leon Aagaard; Villadsen, Jørgen; Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2011-01-01

    SyntaxTrain parses a Java program and displays the syntax diagrams associated with a syntax error.......SyntaxTrain parses a Java program and displays the syntax diagrams associated with a syntax error....

  15. The Primordial Soup Algorithm : a systematic approach to the specification of parallel parsers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Wil; Janssen, W.P.M.; Poel, Mannes; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Zwiers, Jakob

    1992-01-01

    A general framework for parallel parsing is presented, which allows for a unitied, systematic approach to parallel parsing. The Primordial Soup Algorithm creates trees by allowing partial parse trees to combine arbitrarily. By adding constraints to the general algorithm, a large, class of parallel

  16. Modelling vocabulary development among multilingual children prior to and following the transition to school entry

    OpenAIRE

    MacLeod, Andrea A. N.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R.

    2017-01-01

    Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, mult...

  17. An investigation into the effectiveness of different dictionary types for intermediate learners of german

    OpenAIRE

    Wingate, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    The research reported in this thesis examines two main questions: firstly, which dictionary type, bilingual or monolingual, is most effective for intermediate learners of German for reading comprehension, and secondly, which features make monolingual dictionary definitions effective for these learners. These questions divide the thesis into two parts. The first part compares the effectiveness of the bilingual versus the monolingual dictionary, and the second part compares two different monoli...

  18. Using Bilingual Dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Geoff

    1987-01-01

    Monolingual dictionaries have serious disadvantages in many language teaching situations; bilingual dictionaries are potentially more efficient and more motivating sources of information for language learners. (Author/CB)

  19. The Temple Translator's Workstation Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vanni, Michelle; Zajac, Remi

    1996-01-01

    .... The Temple Translator's Workstation is incorporated into a Tipster document management architecture and it allows both translator/analysts and monolingual analysts to use the machine- translation...

  20. Cross-Cultural Transfer in Gesture Frequency in Chinese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Wing Chee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine cross-cultural differences in gesture frequency and the extent to which exposure to two cultures would affect the gesture frequency of bilinguals when speaking in both languages. The Chinese-speaking monolinguals from China, English-speaking monolinguals from America, and Chinese-English bilinguals from…

  1. Multilingualism in the English-Language Classroom: Pedagogical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of whether TESOL should clearly articulate a set of pedagogical principles that challenge the assumption that English language teaching (ELT) should be conducted monolingually through English. This "monolingual principle" emphasizes instructional use of the target language (TL) to the exclusion of students' home…

  2. Lexical Quality and Executive Control Predict Children's First and Second Language Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudszus, Henriette; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2018-01-01

    This study compared how lexical quality (vocabulary and decoding) and executive control (working memory and inhibition) predict reading comprehension directly as well as indirectly, via syntactic integration, in monolingual and bilingual fourth grade children. The participants were 76 monolingual and 102 bilingual children (mean age 10 years,…

  3. In Few Words: Linguistic Gap but Adequate Narrative Structure in Preschool Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacci, Paola; Barbieri, Margherita; Tomassini, Marta; Roch, Maja

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare linguistic and narrative skills of monolingual and bilingual preschoolers and to estimate linguistic predictors of the macro-structural level of narratives. A battery of linguistic measures in Italian was administered to sixty-four Monolinguals and sixty-four Early Bilinguals; it included Vocabulary,…

  4. Degree of Bilingualism Modifies Executive Control in Hispanic Children in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Sunesson, Danielle; Hakuta, Kenji; Bialystok, Ellen

    2018-01-01

    Past studies examining the cognitive function of bilingual school-aged children have pointed to enhancements in areas of executive control relative to age-matched monolingual children. The majority of these studies has tested children from a middle-class background and compared performance of bilinguals as a discrete group against monolinguals.…

  5. Online English-English Learner Dictionaries Boost Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmukhamedov, Ulugbek

    2012-01-01

    Learners of English might be familiar with several online monolingual dictionaries that are not necessarily the best choices for the English as Second/Foreign Language (ESL/EFL) context. Although these monolingual online dictionaries contain definitions, pronunciation guides, and other elements normally found in general-use dictionaries, they are…

  6. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Agent Markup Language Computer Aided Knowledge Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    thesaurus ontology and the GEDCOM genealogy ontology. The CALL thesaurus ontology was developed for monolingual thesauri. The Center for Army...corresponding relationships. The ontology design was based on the Guidelines for the Construction, Format and Management of Monolingual Thesauri...rdfs:comment>Terminilogical list of short dictionary containing the terminology of a specific subject field or of related fields</rdfs:comment

  7. The Role of Dictionaries in Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines assumptions about dictionaries, especially the bilingual dictionary, and suggests ways of integrating the monolingual dictionary into the second-language instructional process. Findings indicate that the monolingual dictionary can coexist with bilingual dictionaries within a foreign-language course if the latter are appropriately used as…

  8. Learning across Languages: Bilingual Experience Supports Dual Language Statistical Word Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antovich, Dylan M.; Graf Estes, Katharine

    2018-01-01

    Bilingual acquisition presents learning challenges beyond those found in monolingual environments, including the need to segment speech in two languages. Infants may use statistical cues, such as syllable-level transitional probabilities, to segment words from fluent speech. In the present study we assessed monolingual and bilingual 14-month-olds'…

  9. Effects of Length, Complexity, and Grammatical Correctness on Stuttering in Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jennifer B.; Byrd, Courtney T.; Carlo, Edna J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the effects of utterance length, syntactic complexity, and grammatical correctness on stuttering in the spontaneous speech of young, monolingual Spanish-speaking children. Method: Spontaneous speech samples of 11 monolingual Spanish-speaking children who stuttered, ages 35 to 70 months, were examined. Mean number of syllables,…

  10. Implications for Language Diversity in Instruction in the Context of Target Language Classrooms: Development of a Preliminary Model of the Effectiveness of Teacher Code-Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2012-01-01

    This paper concerns the conceptual and pedagogical issues that revolve around target language (TL) only instruction and teacher code-switching in the context of TL classrooms. To this end, I first examine four intertwined ideas (that is, monolingualism, naturalism, native-speakerism, and absolutism) that run through the monolingual approach to TL…

  11. Bilingualism and Creativity in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikin, Mark; Tovli, Esther

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the possible effect of bilingualism on creativity in nonmathematical and mathematical problem solving among bilingual and monolingual preschoolers. Two groups of children (M age = 71.9 months, SD = 3.6) from the same monolingual kindergartens participated in this study: 15 Russian/Hebrew balanced bilinguals and 16 native…

  12. Case, Inflection, and Subject Licensing in Child Catalan and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindstead, John

    2000-01-01

    Development of specified tense and number morphology in child Catalan and Spanish was found to correlate with the onset of overt subject use in one monolingual child Spanish speaker and four monolingual child Catalan speakers who were studied longitudinally. (Author/VWL)

  13. Comprehension of Competing Argument Marking Systems in Two Australian Mixed Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shannessy, Carmel; Meakins, Felicity

    2012-01-01

    Crosslinguistic influence has been seen in bilingual adult and child learners when compared to monolingual learners. For speakers of Light Warlpiri and Gurindji Kriol there is no monolingual group for comparison, yet crosslinguistic influence can be seen in how the speakers resolve competition between case-marking and word order systems in each…

  14. Prosody and Spoken Word Recognition in Early and Late Spanish-English Bilingual Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutsen, Frank R.; Dvorak, Justin D.; Deweber, Derick D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to compare the influence of word properties on gated single-word recognition in monolingual and bilingual individuals under conditions of native and nonnative accent and to determine whether word-form prosody facilitates recognition in bilingual individuals. Method: Word recognition was assessed in monolingual and…

  15. More Use Almost Always Means a Smaller Frequency Effect: Aging, Bilingualism, and the Weaker Links Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Montoya, Rosa I.; Cera, Cynthia; Sandoval, Tiffany C.

    2008-01-01

    The "weaker links" hypothesis proposes that bilinguals are disadvantaged relative to monolinguals on speaking tasks because they divide frequency-of-use between two languages. To test this proposal, we contrasted the effects of increased word use associated with monolingualism, language dominance, and increased age on picture naming times. In two…

  16. Bilingualism and Working Memory Capacity: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, John G.; Timmer, Kalinka

    2017-01-01

    Bilinguals often outperform monolinguals on executive function tasks, including tasks that tap cognitive flexibility, conflict monitoring, and task-switching abilities. Some have suggested that bilinguals also have greater working memory capacity than comparable monolinguals, but evidence for this suggestion is mixed. We therefore conducted a…

  17. The Influence of Bilingualism on Third Language Acquisition: Focus on Multilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenoz, Jasone

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the advantages that bilinguals have over monolinguals when acquiring an additional language. Bilinguals are more experienced language learners and have potentially developed learning strategies to a larger extent than monolinguals. They also have a larger linguistic and intercultural repertoire at their disposal. In this…

  18. English Speakers Attend More Strongly than Spanish Speakers to Manner of Motion when Classifying Novel Objects and Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Alan W.; Meissner, Christian A.; Lechuga, Julia; Schwartz, Bennett L.; Albrechtsen, Justin S.; Iglesias, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments provide evidence that the conceptualization of moving objects and events is influenced by one's native language, consistent with linguistic relativity theory. Monolingual English speakers and bilingual Spanish/English speakers tested in an English-speaking context performed better than monolingual Spanish speakers and bilingual…

  19. Do word associations assess word knowledge? A comparison of L1 and L2, child and adult word associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, M.; Dingshoff, D.; de Beer, M.; Schoonen, R.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in word associations between monolingual and bilingual speakers of Dutch can reflect differences in how well seemingly familiar words are known. In this (exploratory) study mono-and bilingual, child and adult free word associations were compared. Responses of children and of monolingual

  20. The Use of Arabic in Kuwaiti EFL Classrooms: An Exploratory Study on the Patterns and Functions of Language Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader Alghasab, Maha

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the functions and patterns of language choice in EFL classrooms in a Kuwaiti primary school. It applies the overall order model, specifically the medium of classroom interaction, to identify three patterns of language choice: an English monolingual medium, an Arabic monolingual medium and a bilingual…

  1. Cognitive advantages of bilingual children in different sociolinguistic contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, E.; Boerma, T.; Bosma, E.; Cornips, L.M.E.A.; Everaert, E.

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have shown that bilingual children outperform monolinguals on tasks testing executive functioning, but other studies have not revealed any effect of bilingualism. In this study we compared three groups of bilingual children in the Netherlands, aged 6–7 years, with a monolingual control

  2. Musical Training, Bilingualism, and Executive Function: A Closer Look at Task Switching and Dual-Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether musical training and bilingualism are associated with enhancements in specific components of executive function, namely, task switching and dual-task performance. Participants (n = 153) belonging to one of four groups (monolingual musician, bilingual musician, bilingual non-musician, or monolingual non-musician)…

  3. Influence of English-Language Proficiency on the Cognitive Processing of Survey Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoo; Sha, M. Mandy; Willis, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    When recruiting respondents for cognitive interviews testing translated survey questionnaires, researchers often recommend interviewing monolingual non-English speakers because they are the likely users of the translations. However, these individuals are hard to recruit, and there is no standard definition of monolingual. Using cognitive interview…

  4. Discourses on Bilingualism in Canadian French Immersion Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sylvie; Galiev, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The present article examines discourses on bilingualism in French immersion schools and connects local ideologies of bilingualism to a more global view of what it means to be bilingual in Canada. Bilingualism is usually regarded as two isolated monolingualisms (or monolingual systems) in which there is no place for code-switching, uneven language…

  5. The relationship between bilingualism and selective attention in young adults: Evidence from an ambiguous figures task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Fat-Yim, Ashley; Sorge, Geoff B; Bialystok, Ellen

    2017-03-01

    Previous research has shown that bilinguals outperform monolinguals on a variety of tasks that have been described as involving executive functioning, but the precise mechanism for those effects or a clear definition for "executive function" is unknown. This uncertainty has led to a number of studies for which no performance difference between monolingual and bilingual adults has been detected. One approach to clarifying these issues comes from research with children showing that bilinguals were more able than their monolingual peers to perceive both interpretations of an ambiguous figure, an ability that is more tied to a conception of selective attention than to specific components of executive function. The present study extends this notion to adults by assessing their ability to see the alternative image in an ambiguous figure. Bilinguals performed this task more efficiently than monolinguals by requiring fewer cues to identify the second image. This finding has implications for the role of selective attention in performance differences between monolinguals and bilinguals.

  6. Audio Recording of Children with Dyslalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gheorghe Pentiuc

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present our researches regarding automat parsing of audio recordings. These recordings are obtained from children with dyslalia and are necessary for an accurate identification of speech problems. We develop a software application that helps parsing audio, real time, recordings.

  7. Audio Recording of Children with Dyslalia

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Gheorghe Pentiuc; Maria D. Schipor; Ovidiu A. Schipor

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present our researches regarding automat parsing of audio recordings. These recordings are obtained from children with dyslalia and are necessary for an accurate identification of speech problems. We develop a software application that helps parsing audio, real time, recordings.

  8. How (not) to train a dependency parser: The curious case of jackknifing part-of-speech taggers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agic, Zeljko; Schluter, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    In dependency parsing, jackknifing taggers is indiscriminately used as a simple adaptation strategy. Here, we empirically evaluate when and how (not) to use jackknifing in parsing. On 26 languages, we reveal a preference that conflicts with, and surpasses the ubiquitous ten-folding. We show no cl...

  9. Improving Precision of Generated ASTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    The parser-generator is an essential tool in grammarware and its output, the parse tree in form of the concrete or abstract syntax tree, often forms the basis for the whole structure of the grammarware application. Several tools for Java encode the parse tree in a class hierarchy generated to model...

  10. Effects of Tasks on BOLD Signal Responses to Sentence Contrasts: Review and Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, David; Gow, David

    2012-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies of syntactic processing have been interpreted as identifying the neural locations of parsing and interpretive operations. However, current behavioral studies of sentence processing indicate that many operations occur simultaneously with parsing and interpretation. In this review, we point to issues that arise in…

  11. Deriving prosodic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Günes, Güliz

    2015-01-01

    When we speak, we speak in prosodic chunks. That is, in the speech flow, we produce sound strings that are systematically parsed into intonational units. The parsing procedure not only eases the production of the speaker, but it also provides the hearer clues about how units of meaning interact in

  12. Kokugo Dictionaries as Tools for Learners: Problems and Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom GALLY

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available For second-language learners, monolingual dictionaries can be useful tools because they often provide more detailed explanations of meanings and more extensive vocabulary coverage than bilingual dictionaries do. While learners of English have access to many monolingual dictionaries designed specifically to meet their needs, learners of Japanese must make do with Kokugo dictionaries, that is, monolingual dictionaries intended for native Japanese speakers. This paper, after briefly describing Kokugo dictionaries in general, analyzes a typical entry from such a dictionary to illustrate the advantages and challenges of the use of Kokugo dictionaries by learners of Japanese.

  13. Hvad er en bilingval ordbog?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    2004-01-01

    There is no general agreement on the terms "monolingual dictionary" and "bilingual dictionary". In the theoretical literature several different and sometimes contradicting definitions can be found. Through an analysis of different types of dictionaries, this paper shows that it is impossible...... to draw an exact demarcation line between monolingual and bilingual dictionaries and that the concept of bilinguality in any case is a gradual concept when it is related to dictionaries. Finally, the paper suggests that the concepts of monolingual and bilingual dictionaries are secondary aspects in terms...... of dictionaries and that much more emphasis should be put on the lexicographic functions....

  14. Vowel reduction patterns of early Spanish- English bilinguals receiving continuous L1 and L2 input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byers Emily

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the production of three morphophonetic variations of schwa in American English: the plural allomorph {-s} as in watches, the possessive allomorph {-s} as in Sasha’s, and word-finally as in Russia. The production of these three allomorphs were examined in Miami’s English monolingual and early Spanish-English bilingual populations. Our purpose was to determine how native-like early Spanish-English bilinguals′ spectral qualities and reduced vowel durations were compared to Miami English monolinguals during a reading task. Results indicate that early bilinguals′ reduced vowels followed the same overall pattern as monolinguals, but had different acoustic properties.

  15. Problems in Bilingual Lexicography: Romance and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiezell, Richard John

    1975-01-01

    A bilingual dictionary must be more accurate in definitions than a monolingual. This paper touches on problems of transference between languages, linguistic "cannibalism," and lexical versus connotative meaning. (CK)

  16. Bootstrapping a Multilingual Part-of-speech Tagger in One Person-day

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cucerzan, Silviu; Yarowsky, David

    2002-01-01

    ...) access to an existing monolingual text corpus in the language. The algorithm begins by inducing initial lexical POS distributions from English translations in a bilingual dictionary without POS tags...

  17. The Ideology of the Perfect Dictionary: How Efficient Can a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    well as music, history and psychology. Looking at ... her culture, background, age or level.2 The major hindrance in using a diction- ary is that the user often ..... One Benefit of Monolingual Dictionaries in the Writing Classroom [online]. The.

  18. Characteristics of Swahili-English bilingual agrammatic spontaneous speech and the consequences for understanding agrammatic aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abuom, Tom O.; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    Most studies on spontaneous speech of individuals with agrammatism have focused almost exclusively on monolingual individuals. There is hardly any previous research on bilinguals, especially of structurally different languages; and none on characterization of agrammatism in Swahili. The current

  19. Language, Culture, and Power: Intercultural Bilingual Education among the Urarina of Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bartholomew

    1999-01-01

    The Peruvian national indigenous federation established a bilingual, intercultural teachers' training program to counter stereotypes of indigenous people portrayed in the authoritarian, monolingual Spanish national curriculum, and to enhance language preservation, ethnic mobilization, and cultural survival. A complementary transitional bilingual…

  20. A Narrative Enrichment Programme in literacy development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    speaking Grade 3 learners in monolingual rural schools. Irene Brand ... used to assess how learners recount the various narrative components and the chronology. Keywords: children, meaning-making, drawings, early writings, multimodal pedagogies ...

  1. Conceptualising English as a lingua franca (ELF) as a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of English Studies, University of Vienna, Spitalgasse 2, Hof 8. 1090 Vienna .... warning tone on the use of English as medium of higher education as regards various concerns ... of monolingual English speakers will surely not work.

  2. The impact of lexicography work on language use: A case of Shona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    S. Nyota, Department of Curriculum Studies (shumirainyota2@yahoo.com) and J. Mapara ... monolingual lexicographical work on Shona language use. ... forces the diglossic relationship that exists between Shona and English in Zim- babwe.

  3. SEMANTIC VERBAL FLUENCY OF THE BILINGUAL CHILDREN WITH MILD INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad GLUMBIKJ

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Semantic verbal fluency test is reliable instrument for detection of various kinds of neuropsychological deficits. Participants’ attainments in this test are influenced by array of socio-cultural factors. The occurrence of “twofold semilingualism” belongs to these cultural factors.The objective of this research is to determine differences between monolingual and bilingual children with mild mental retardation in semantic verbal fluency test.The sample consisted of 90 participants with mild mental retardation, of both sexes, aged from 12 to 15. The whole sample was divided into three subsets: 30 monolingual children (M1, who speak only Serbian, 30 monolingual Roma children who do not speak Romany (M2 and 30 bilingual Roma children who speak both, Romany and Serbian language (B.It was found that both groups of monolingual children have better performances in semantic fluency tasks than bilingual children.

  4. Words in a Cultural Context*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2000-07-05

    Jul 5, 2000 ... tudes. This paper examines the case for dictionaries to carry cultural as well as lexical ..... 1 784 pp) is a monolingual French dictionary and encyclopedia combined. ... the food they eat, and events that have shaped their lives.

  5. Stability in Chinese and Malay heritage languages as a source of divergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberse, S.; Moro, F.; Braunmüller, K.; Höder, S.; Kühl, K.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses Malay and Chinese heritage languages as spoken in the Netherlands. Heritage speakers are dominant in another language and use their heritage language less. Moreover, they have qualitatively and quantitatively different input from monolinguals. Heritage languages are often

  6. Stability in Chinese and Malay heritage languages as a source of divergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberse, S.; Moro, F.R.; Braunmüller, K.; Höder, S.; Kühl, K.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses Malay and Chinese heritage languages as spoken in the Netherlands. Heritage speakers are dominant in another language and use their heritage language less. Moreover, they have qualitatively and quantitatively different input from monolinguals. Heritage languages are often

  7. An Annotated Bibliography on Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    In a study of third graders (Spanish- English), students were interviewed by a monolingual English- speaker and an English-dominant Hispanic...phonological measures with the monolingual interviewer. it was interpreted that there was greater accuracy with the Hispanic interviewer, and greater risk... dictionary containing all the difficult words plus distractors were provided, 3. a short lesson on how to inference was given, and 9 4. no cue was

  8. Strengthening Homeland Security through Improved Foreign Language Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    several languages.‖ See Merriam-Webster Online, s.v. ―linguist,‖ accessed 16 MAY 11, http://www.merriam-webster.com/ dictionary /linguist. 7 Ambrose...proficiency.362 Given that one observer has aptly characterized America as ―Profoundly Monolingual ,‖363 such changes in public opinion are unlikely...93 language proficiency,365 organizations will continue to produce less-than-professional- level linguists, and America may prove itself monolingual

  9. The Impact of Changing International Relations on the Scientific and Technical Community (Incidence sur la Communaute Scientifique et Technique des Transformations en cours dans les Relations Internationales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Processing of special formats (diagrams, tables) - Determination of words to be Pre-analysis Programs added to system dictionary Dictionary ...language Lexicon combinations, via a standardized interface (MIR) which maps METAL operates -n both monolingual lexicons and one the results of analyses...in uniform ways. transfer lexicon for each language pair. The monolingual lexi- Unfortunately, there is at present no linguistic theory which cons

  10. A Review of Enterprise Architecture Use in Defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    dictionary of terms; • architecture description language; • architectural information (pertaining both to specific projects and higher level...UNCLASSIFIED 59 Z39.19 2005 Monolingual Controlled Vocabularies, National Information Standards Organisation, Bethesda: NISO Press, 2005. BABOK 2009...togaf/ Z39.19 2005 ANSI/NISO Z39.19 – Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Controlled Vocabularies, Bethesda: NISO

  11. Second-Language Skills for All? Analyzing a Proposed Language Requirement for U.S. Air Force Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    and multilinguals have a higher degree of metalinguistic awareness than monolingual speakers. For example, Jessner (1999) examined problem-solving...content and structure (Rivers, 1996). These learners were able to master more of the language in a shorter time than monolinguals were, as demonstrated by... dictionary . 13. the main ideas and important details of almost all material written within my particular professional field or area of primary interest

  12. The Text Retrieval Conferences (TRECs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    per- form a monolingual run in the target language to act as a baseline. Thirteen groups participated in the TREC-6 CLIR track. Three major...language; the use of machine-readable bilingual dictionaries or other existing linguistic re- sources; and the use of corpus resources to train or...formance for each method. In general, the best cross- language performance was between 50%-75% as ef- fective as a quality monolingual run. The TREC-7

  13. Speechlinks: Robust Cross-Lingual Tactical Communication Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    you have a fever?”, the surface form for a concept category related to “fever-inquiry”. The monolingual patients on the other hand are assumed to be...for the user modeling purpose are from 15 interactions between doctors and standardized patient actors. Both the doctors and patients are monolingual ...limited tag lists of the most common words, but far short of the full tagging dictionaries often used in related work. We show improvements of up to 20 or

  14. English-Chinese Cross-Language IR Using Bilingual Dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    specialized dictionaries together contain about two million entries [6]. 4 Monolingual Experiment The Chinese documents and the Chinese translations of... monolingual performance. The main performance-limiting factor is the limited coverage of the dictionary used in query translation. Some of the key con...English-Chinese Cross-Language IR using Bilingual Dictionaries Aitao Chen , Hailing Jiang , and Fredric Gey School of Information Management

  15. Proceedings of the Pacific Rim International Conference on Artificial Intelligence (11th) held in Daegu, Korea, August/September 2010. PRICAI 2010: Trends in Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    such as paraphrases [6], bilingual or multi-lingual dictionaries [7,8]. The motivation of using bilingual corpus rather than monolingual corpus for...are represented by the monolingual retrieval Mono, dictionary - based translation DT, the simple corpus-based translation model SCT, the bidirectional...time-synchronous finite-state transducer f FST) decoder with Gaussian selection for speedy likelihood calculation. Dictionary . Our phone set contains

  16. Bilingualism and cognitive decline : a story of pride and prejudice

    OpenAIRE

    Woumans, Evy; Versijpt, Jan; Sieben, Anne; Santens, Patrick; Duyck, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    In a recent review, Mukadam, Sommerlad, and Livingston (2017) argue that bilingualism offers no protection against cognitive decline. The authors examined the results of 13 studies (five prospective, eight retrospective) in which monolinguals and bilinguals were compared for cognitive decline and onset of dementia symptoms. Analysis of four of the five prospective studies resulted in the conclusion that there was no difference between monolinguals and bilinguals, whereas seven of the eight re...

  17. Cognitive Reserve in Parkinson's Disease: The Effects of Welsh-English Bilingualism on Executive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Hindle, John V.; Martin-Forbes, Pamela A.; Bastable, Alexandra J. M.; Pye, Kirstie L.; Martyr, Anthony; Whitaker, Christopher J.; Craik, Fergus I. M.; Bialystok, Ellen; Thomas, Enlli M.; Mueller Gathercole, Virginia C.; Clare, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Bilingualism has been shown to benefit executive function (EF) and delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease. This study aims at examining whether a bilingual advantage applies to EF in Parkinson's disease (PD). Method. In a cross-sectional outpatient cohort of monolingual English (n = 57) and bilingual Welsh/English (n = 46) speakers with PD we evaluated the effects of bilingualism compared with monolingualism on performance on EF tasks. In bilinguals we also assessed the effects of ...

  18. Speed up of XML parsers with PHP language implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Bozhidar; Georgieva, Adriana

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, authors introduce PHP5's XML implementation and show how to read, parse, and write a short and uncomplicated XML file using Simple XML in a PHP environment. The possibilities for mutual work of PHP5 language and XML standard are described. The details of parsing process with Simple XML are also cleared. A practical project PHP-XML-MySQL presents the advantages of XML implementation in PHP modules. This approach allows comparatively simple search of XML hierarchical data by means of PHP software tools. The proposed project includes database, which can be extended with new data and new XML parsing functions.

  19. Hardware independence checkout software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Barry W.; Helbig, H. R.

    1990-01-01

    ACSI has developed a program utilizing CLIPS to assess compliance with various programming standards. Essentially the program parses C code to extract the names of all function calls. These are asserted as CLIPS facts which also include information about line numbers, source file names, and called functions. Rules have been devised to establish functions called that have not been defined in any of the source parsed. These are compared against lists of standards (represented as facts) using rules that check intersections and/or unions of these. By piping the output into other processes the source is appropriately commented by generating and executing parsed scripts.

  20. Recursion complexity in cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Roeper, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This volume focuses on recursion, highlighting its central role in modern science. It reveals a host of new theoretical arguments, philosophical perspectives, formal representations and empirical evidence from parsing, acquisition and computer models.

  1. Solving LR Conflicts Through Context Aware Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, C. Rodriguez; Forte, L. Garcia

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm to compute the exact list of tokens expected by any LR syntax analyzer at any point of the scanning process. The lexer can, at any time, compute the exact list of valid tokens to return only tokens in this set. In the case than more than one matching token is in the valid set, the lexer can resort to a nested LR parser to disambiguate. Allowing nested LR parsing requires some slight modifications when building the LR parsing tables. We also show how LR parsers can parse conflictive and inherently ambiguous languages using a combination of nested parsing and context aware scanning. These expanded lexical analyzers can be generated from high level specifications.

  2. Novel 3D Stereoscopic Film Compression using Multiwavelet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... this works based on observing the parsing evaluation of the ... enhance the performance of the quality of the 3D film is .... enhance our understanding of compression the video fra .... rt stereoscopy, for example in future can.

  3. American Telemedicine Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trim( scriptEl.html() ); if ( !slides ) return; // is it json array? if ( /^(\\[)/.test( slides ) ) { try { slides = $.parseJSON( slides ); } ... our ATA Action Center to urge legislators to support policies that improve healthcare. Take action Get Accredited ...

  4. Robert W Floyd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    scientists - Zohar Manna, an authority on the verification of software systems, Robert. Tarjan ... He began as a self taught computer operator, and then went ... important subfields of computer science: the theory of parsing, the semantics of.

  5. VMS forms Output Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These output tables contain parsed and format validated data from the various VMS forms that are sent from any given vessel, while at sea, from the VMS devices on...

  6. HDM/PASCAL Verification System User's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, D.

    1983-01-01

    The HDM/Pascal verification system is a tool for proving the correctness of programs written in PASCAL and specified in the Hierarchical Development Methodology (HDM). This document assumes an understanding of PASCAL, HDM, program verification, and the STP system. The steps toward verification which this tool provides are parsing programs and specifications, checking the static semantics, and generating verification conditions. Some support functions are provided such as maintaining a data base, status management, and editing. The system runs under the TOPS-20 and TENEX operating systems and is written in INTERLISP. However, no knowledge is assumed of these operating systems or of INTERLISP. The system requires three executable files, HDMVCG, PARSE, and STP. Optionally, the editor EMACS should be on the system in order for the editor to work. The file HDMVCG is invoked to run the system. The files PARSE and STP are used as lower forks to perform the functions of parsing and proving.

  7. Parser Adaptation for Social Media by Integrating Normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Goot, Rob; van Noord, Gerardus

    This work explores normalization for parser adaptation. Traditionally, normalization is used as separate pre-processing step. We show that integrating the normalization model into the parsing algorithm is beneficial. This way, multiple normalization candidates can be leveraged, which improves

  8. Applying Semantic Web Concepts to Support Net-Centric Warfare Using the Tactical Assessment Markup Language (TAML)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Childers, Candace M

    2006-01-01

    .... The current approach to automating data processing is to hard-code programs to parse particular data formats, but this approach is not flexible enough to handle the constantly changing data world...

  9. Recognition of Equations Using a Two-Dimensional Stochastic Context-Free Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Philip A.

    1989-11-01

    We propose using two-dimensional stochastic context-free grammars for image recognition, in a manner analogous to using hidden Markov models for speech recognition. The value of the approach is demonstrated in a system that recognizes printed, noisy equations. The system uses a two-dimensional probabilistic version of the Cocke-Younger-Kasami parsing algorithm to find the most likely parse of the observed image, and then traverses the corresponding parse tree in accordance with translation formats associated with each production rule, to produce eqn I troff commands for the imaged equation. In addition, it uses two-dimensional versions of the Inside/Outside and Baum re-estimation algorithms for learning the parameters of the grammar from a training set of examples. Parsing the image of a simple noisy equation currently takes about one second of cpu time on an Alliant FX/80.

  10. Arcus v. 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2018-01-10

    Arcus, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, is a library for calculating, parsing, formatting, converting and comparing both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses and subnets. It accounts for 128-bit numbers on 32-bit platforms.

  11. Home Language Will Not Take Care of Itself: Vocabulary Knowledge in Trilingual Children in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieszkowska, Karolina; Łuniewska, Magdalena; Kołak, Joanna; Kacprzak, Agnieszka; Wodniecka, Zofia; Haman, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Language input is crucial for language acquisition and especially for children's vocabulary size. Bilingual children receive reduced input in each of their languages, compared to monolinguals, and are reported to have smaller vocabularies, at least in one of their languages. Vocabulary acquisition in trilingual children has been largely understudied; only a few case studies have been published so far. Moreover, trilingual language acquisition in children has been rarely contrasted with language outcomes of bilingual and monolingual peers. We present a comparison of trilingual, bilingual, and monolingual children (total of 56 participants, aged 4;5-6;7, matched one-to-one for age, gender, and non-verbal IQ) in regard to their receptive and expressive vocabulary (measured by standardized tests), and relative frequency of input in each language (measured by parental report). The monolingual children were speakers of Polish or English, while the bilinguals and trilinguals were migrant children living in the United Kingdom, speaking English as a majority language and Polish as a home language. The trilinguals had another (third) language at home. For the majority language, English, no differences were found across the three groups, either in the receptive or productive vocabulary. The groups differed, however, in their performance in Polish, the home language. The trilinguals had lower receptive vocabulary than the monolinguals, and lower productive vocabulary compared to the monolinguals. The trilinguals showed similar lexical knowledge to the bilinguals. The bilinguals demonstrated lower scores than the monolinguals, but only in productive vocabulary. The data on reported language input show that input in English in bilingual and trilingual groups is similar, but the bilinguals outscore the trilinguals in relative frequency of Polish input. Overall, the results suggest that in the majority language, multilingual children may develop lexical skills similar to those of

  12. Home Language Will Not Take Care of Itself: Vocabulary Knowledge in Trilingual Children in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Mieszkowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Language input is crucial for language acquisition and especially for children’s vocabulary size. Bilingual children receive reduced input in each of their languages, compared to monolinguals, and are reported to have smaller vocabularies, at least in one of their languages. Vocabulary acquisition in trilingual children has been largely understudied; only a few case studies have been published so far. Moreover, trilingual language acquisition in children has been rarely contrasted with language outcomes of bilingual and monolingual peers. We present a comparison of trilingual, bilingual, and monolingual children (total of 56 participants, aged 4;5–6;7, matched one-to-one for age, gender, and non-verbal IQ in regard to their receptive and expressive vocabulary (measured by standardized tests, and relative frequency of input in each language (measured by parental report. The monolingual children were speakers of Polish or English, while the bilinguals and trilinguals were migrant children living in the United Kingdom, speaking English as a majority language and Polish as a home language. The trilinguals had another (third language at home. For the majority language, English, no differences were found across the three groups, either in the receptive or productive vocabulary. The groups differed, however, in their performance in Polish, the home language. The trilinguals had lower receptive vocabulary than the monolinguals, and lower productive vocabulary compared to the monolinguals. The trilinguals showed similar lexical knowledge to the bilinguals. The bilinguals demonstrated lower scores than the monolinguals, but only in productive vocabulary. The data on reported language input show that input in English in bilingual and trilingual groups is similar, but the bilinguals outscore the trilinguals in relative frequency of Polish input. Overall, the results suggest that in the majority language, multilingual children may develop lexical skills

  13. Cross-lingual parser selection for low-resource languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agic, Zeljko

    2017-01-01

    In multilingual dependency parsing, transferring delexicalized models provides unmatched language coverage and competitive scores, with minimal requirements. Still, selecting the single best parser for any target language poses a challenge. Here, we propose a lean method for parser selection. It ....... It offers top performance, and it does so without disadvantaging the truly low-resource languages. We consistently select appropriate source parsers for our target languages in a realistic cross-lingual parsing experiment....

  14. An integrated architecture for shallow and deep processing

    OpenAIRE

    Crysmann, Berthold; Frank, Anette; Kiefer, Bernd; Müller, Stefan; Neumann, Günter; Piskorski, Jakub; Schäfer, Ulrich; Siegel, Melanie; Uszkoreit, Hans; Xu, Feiyu; Becker, Markus; Krieger, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    We present an architecture for the integration of shallow and deep NLP components which is aimed at flexible combination of different language technologies for a range of practical current and future applications. In particular, we describe the integration of a high-level HPSG parsing system with different high-performance shallow components, ranging from named entity recognition to chunk parsing and shallow clause recognition. The NLP components enrich a representation of natural language te...

  15. Resolving Lexical Ambiguity in a Deterministic Parser

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, Robert W.

    1983-01-01

    This work is an investigation into part of the human sentence parsing mechanism (HSPM), where parsing implies syntactic and non-syntactic analysis. It is hypothesised. that the HSPM consists of at least two processors. We will call the first processor the syntactic processor, and the second will be known as the non-syntactic processor. For normal sentence processing, the two processors are controlled by a 'normal component", whilst when an error occurs, they are controlled by a...

  16. A Database Design for the Brazilian Air Force Flying Unit Operational Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-14

    Company, 1980. 23. Pereira Filho, Jorge da Cunha " Banco de Dados Hoje" Dados e Ideias - Brazilian Magazine , 99 : 55-63 (February 1979). 24. Rich...34QUAIS SAO AS CONDICOES DE EMPREGO OPERACIONAL DO MIRAGE 2120 ?" LIKE "WHAT IS THE FORCESTATUS OF MIRAGE 2120?" % Parsed ! % [ Production added to system...4 - QUAIS SAO AS CONDICOES DE EMPREGO OPERACIONAL DO MIRAGE 2120 ? % Parsed ! % (S DEPLOC) = sbbr % (S-TIME) = 1000 % Endurance = 0200 % (SITCODE

  17. The Horse Raced Past: Gardenpath Processing in Dynamical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Graben, Peter beim

    2012-01-01

    I pinpoint an interesting similarity between a recent account to rational parsing and the treatment of sequential decisions problems in a dynamical systems approach. I argue that expectation-driven search heuristics aiming at fast computation resembles a high-risk decision strategy in favor of large transition velocities. Hale's rational parser, combining generalized left-corner parsing with informed $\\mathrm{A}^*$ search to resolve processing conflicts, explains gardenpath effects in natural...

  18. Sociolinguistically Informed Natural Language Processing: Automating Irony Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-23

    interaction feature using the entire training dataset, and repeated this process 100 times to account for variation due to the SGD procedure. Table 6...Levy and Goldberg , 2014). We parsed the ukWaC corpus (Baroni et al., 2009) using the Stanford Dependency Parser v3.5.2 with Stanford Dependencies...bitrary and variable sizes. We pre-trained our own syntactic embeddings fol- lowing (Levy and Goldberg , 2014). We parsed the ukWaC corpus (Baroni et

  19. GBParsy: A GenBank flatfile parser library with high speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Yeon-Ki

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GenBank flatfile (GBF format is one of the most popular sequence file formats because of its detailed sequence features and ease of readability. To use the data in the file by a computer, a parsing process is required and is performed according to a given grammar for the sequence and the description in a GBF. Currently, several parser libraries for the GBF have been developed. However, with the accumulation of DNA sequence information from eukaryotic chromosomes, parsing a eukaryotic genome sequence with these libraries inevitably takes a long time, due to the large GBF file and its correspondingly large genomic nucleotide sequence and related feature information. Thus, there is significant need to develop a parsing program with high speed and efficient use of system memory. Results We developed a library, GBParsy, which was C language-based and parses GBF files. The parsing speed was maximized by using content-specified functions in place of regular expressions that are flexible but slow. In addition, we optimized an algorithm related to memory usage so that it also increased parsing performance and efficiency of memory usage. GBParsy is at least 5 - 100× faster than current parsers in benchmark tests. Conclusion GBParsy is estimated to extract annotated information from almost 100 Mb of a GenBank flatfile for chromosomal sequence information within a second. Thus, it should be used for a variety of applications such as on-time visualization of a genome at a web site.

  20. Experience with a second language affects the use of fundamental frequency in speech segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broersma, Mirjam; Cho, Taehong; Kim, Sahyang; Martínez-García, Maria Teresa; Connell, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates whether listeners’ experience with a second language learned later in life affects their use of fundamental frequency (F0) as a cue to word boundaries in the segmentation of an artificial language (AL), particularly when the cues to word boundaries conflict between the first language (L1) and second language (L2). F0 signals phrase-final (and thus word-final) boundaries in French but word-initial boundaries in English. Participants were functionally monolingual French listeners, functionally monolingual English listeners, bilingual L1-English L2-French listeners, and bilingual L1-French L2-English listeners. They completed the AL-segmentation task with F0 signaling word-final boundaries or without prosodic cues to word boundaries (monolingual groups only). After listening to the AL, participants completed a forced-choice word-identification task in which the foils were either non-words or part-words. The results show that the monolingual French listeners, but not the monolingual English listeners, performed better in the presence of F0 cues than in the absence of such cues. Moreover, bilingual status modulated listeners’ use of F0 cues to word-final boundaries, with bilingual French listeners performing less accurately than monolingual French listeners on both word types but with bilingual English listeners performing more accurately than monolingual English listeners on non-words. These findings not only confirm that speech segmentation is modulated by the L1, but also newly demonstrate that listeners’ experience with the L2 (French or English) affects their use of F0 cues in speech segmentation. This suggests that listeners’ use of prosodic cues to word boundaries is adaptive and non-selective, and can change as a function of language experience. PMID:28738093