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Sample records for monolingual italian preterms

  1. Cognitive profiles in bilingual children born to immigrant parents and Italian monolingual native children with specific learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Anna; Nacinovich, Renata; Bertuletti, Nadia; Montrasi, Valentina; Marchetti, Sara; Neri, Francesca; Bomba, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children(®) - fourth edition IV (WISC IV) intellectual profile of two groups of children with specific learning disorder, a group of bilingual children and a group of monolingual Italian children, in order to identify possible significant differences between them. A group of 48 bilingual children and a group of 48 Italian monolingual children were included in this study. A preliminary comparison showed the homogeneity of the two groups regarding learning disorder typology and sociodemographic characteristics (age at WISC IV assessment, sex and years of education in Italy) with the exception of socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was then used as a covariate in the analysis. Even if the two groups were comparable in specific learning disorder severity and, in particular, in the text comprehension performance, our findings showed that the WISC IV performances of the bilingual group were significantly worse than the Italian group in Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=0.03), in General Ability Index (P=0.03), in Working Memory Index (P=0.009) and in some subtests and clusters requiring advanced linguistic abilities. These results support the hypothesis of a weakness in metalinguistic abilities in bilingual children with specific learning disorders than monolinguals. If confirmed, this result must be considered in the rehabilitation treatment.

  2. Cognitive profiles in bilingual children born to immigrant parents and Italian monolingual native children with specific learning disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Anna; Nacinovich, Renata; Bertuletti, Nadia; Montrasi, Valentina; Marchetti, Sara; Neri, Francesca; Bomba, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to compare the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children® – fourth edition IV (WISC IV) intellectual profile of two groups of children with specific learning disorder, a group of bilingual children and a group of monolingual Italian children, in order to identify possible significant differences between them. Patients and methods A group of 48 bilingual children and a group of 48 Italian monolingual children were included in this study. A preliminary comparison showed the homogeneity of the two groups regarding learning disorder typology and sociodemographic characteristics (age at WISC IV assessment, sex and years of education in Italy) with the exception of socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was then used as a covariate in the analysis. Results Even if the two groups were comparable in specific learning disorder severity and, in particular, in the text comprehension performance, our findings showed that the WISC IV performances of the bilingual group were significantly worse than the Italian group in Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=0.03), in General Ability Index (P=0.03), in Working Memory Index (P=0.009) and in some subtests and clusters requiring advanced linguistic abilities. Conclusion These results support the hypothesis of a weakness in metalinguistic abilities in bilingual children with specific learning disorders than monolinguals. If confirmed, this result must be considered in the rehabilitation treatment. PMID:28115851

  3. Cognitive profiles in bilingual children born to immigrant parents and Italian monolingual native children with specific learning disorders

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    Riva A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anna Riva, Renata Nacinovich, Nadia Bertuletti, Valentina Montrasi, Sara Marchetti, Francesca Neri, Monica Bomba Child and Adolescent Mental Health Department, University of Milan Bicocca, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children® – fourth edition IV (WISC IV intellectual profile of two groups of children with specific learning disorder, a group of bilingual children and a group of monolingual Italian children, in order to identify possible significant differences between them. Patients and methods: A group of 48 bilingual children and a group of 48 Italian monolingual children were included in this study. A preliminary comparison showed the homogeneity of the two groups regarding learning disorder typology and sociodemographic characteristics (age at WISC IV assessment, sex and years of education in Italy with the exception of socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was then used as a covariate in the analysis. Results: Even if the two groups were comparable in specific learning disorder severity and, in particular, in the text comprehension performance, our findings showed that the WISC IV performances of the bilingual group were significantly worse than the Italian group in Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=0.03, in General Ability Index (P=0.03, in Working Memory Index (P=0.009 and in some subtests and clusters requiring advanced linguistic abilities. Conclusion: These results support the hypothesis of a weakness in metalinguistic abilities in bilingual children with specific learning disorders than monolinguals. If confirmed, this result must be considered in the rehabilitation treatment. Keywords: children, bilingualism, WISC IV, SLD

  4. Long-Term Effects of Preterm Birth on Language and Literacy at Eight Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarini, Annalisa; Sansavini, Alessandra; Fabbri, Cristina; Savini, Silvia; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether specific linguistic difficulties in preterm children persist at eight years and to examine the interrelationships between language and literacy in this population, compared with a control group of full-term children. Sixty-eight monolingual Italian preterms and 26 chronologically matched controls…

  5. Characteristics of Phonological Development as a Risk Factor for Language Development in Italian-Speaking Pre-Term Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Laura; Majorano, Marinella; Fasolo, Mirco; Salerni, Nicoletta; Suttora, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed the early linguistic development of Italian pre-term children. Samples of spontaneous pre-linguistic and verbal production were recorded at 12 and 18 months of age from two groups of children: 24 pre-term children and 15 full-term children. The Italian version of the MacArthur-Bates Questionnaire was administered at 24 months…

  6. Does the Native Language Influence Lexical Composition in Very Preterm Children at the Age of Two Years? A Cross-Linguistic Comparison Study of Italian and Finnish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, Suvi; Savini, Silvia; Guarini, Annalisa; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Matomäki, Jaakko; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena; Lehtonen, Liisa; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Sansavini, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    This cross-linguistic study investigated whether the native language has any influence on lexical composition among Italian (N = 125) and Finnish (N = 116) very preterm (born at Italian and 146 Finnish full-term children). The investigation also covered the effect of maternal education…

  7. Does the Native Language Influence Lexical Composition in Very Preterm Children at the Age of Two Years? A Cross-Linguistic Comparison Study of Italian and Finnish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, Suvi; Savini, Silvia; Guarini, Annalisa; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Matomäki, Jaakko; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena; Lehtonen, Liisa; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Sansavini, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    This cross-linguistic study investigated whether the native language has any influence on lexical composition among Italian (N = 125) and Finnish (N = 116) very preterm (born at <32 gestational weeks) children at 24 months (controls: 125 Italian and 146 Finnish full-term children). The investigation also covered the effect of maternal education…

  8. Long-term effects of preterm birth on language and literacy at eight years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarini, Annalisa; Sansavini, Alessandra; Fabbri, Cristina; Savini, Silvia; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2010-09-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether specific linguistic difficulties in preterm children persist at eight years and to examine the interrelationships between language and literacy in this population, compared with a control group of full-term children. Sixty-eight monolingual Italian preterms and 26 chronologically matched controls were recruited. Language (grammar comprehension, lexical production and phonological awareness), literacy (reading comprehension, reading and writing) and general cognitive development were investigated. Results showed no general delay in preterms, but slight difficulties in specific linguistic abilities (grammar, lexicon, phoneme synthesis and deletion of the first syllable), more difficulties in literacy (speed in reading and accuracy in writing) and certain correlations among competencies turning out to be different from the control group. In conclusion, our study established that a partially atypical trajectory emerged in preterms, showing specific long-term effects of preterm birth on language and literacy development.

  9. Linguistic and cognitive skills in Sardinian-Italian bilingual children

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    Maria eGarraffa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a study which tested receptive Italian grammatical competence and general cognitive abilities in bilingual Italian-Sardinian children and age-matched monolingual Italian children attending the first and second year of primary school in the Nuoro province of Sardinia, where Sardinian is still widely spoken. The results show that across age groups the performance of Sardinian-Italian bilingual children is in most cases indistinguishable from that of monolingual Italian children, in terms of both Italian language skills and general cognitive abilities. However, where there are differences, these emerge gradually over time and are mostly in favor of bilingual children.

  10. Pronominal Objects in English-Italian and Spanish-Italian Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serratrice, Ludovica; Sorace, Antonella; Filiaci, Francesca; Baldo, Michela

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of typological relatedness, language of the community, and age, in predicting similarities and differences between English-Italian, Spanish-Italian bilingual children and their monolingual child and adult counterparts in the acceptability of pre- and postverbal object pronouns in [[plus or minus]focus] contexts in…

  11. Determiners in Bilingual German-Italian Children: What They Tell Us about the Relation between Language Influence and Language Dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupisch, Tanja

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses the question of whether language dominance and cross-linguistic influence are related by investigating the acquisition of determiner omission in four bilingual German-Italian children. The study begins by showing that monolingual Italian learners omit determiners less extensively than monolingual German learners. If bilingual…

  12. Do bilinguals outperform monolinguals?

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    Sejdi Sejdiu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between second dialect acquisition and the psychological capacity of the learner is still a divisive topic that generates a lot of debate. A few researchers contend that the acquisition of the second dialect tends to improve the cognitive abilities in various individuals, but at the same time it could hinder the same abilities in other people. Currently, immersion is a common occurrence in some countries. In the recent past, it has significantly increased in its popularity, which has caused parents, professionals, and researchers to question whether second language acquisition has a positive impact on cognitive development, encompassing psychological ability. In rundown, the above might decide to comprehend the effects of using a second language based on the literal aptitudes connected with the native language. The issue of bilingualism was seen as a disadvantage until recently because of two languages being present which would hinder or delay the development of languages. However, recent studies have proven that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in tasks which require more attention.

  13. English as a Foreign Language in Bilingual Language-minority Children, Children with Dyslexia and Monolingual Typical Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacci, Paola; Canducci, Elisa; Gravagna, Giulia; Palladino, Paola

    2017-05-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating literacy skills in English as a foreign language in three different groups of children: monolinguals with dyslexia (n = 19), typically developing bilinguals (language-minority) (n = 19) and a control group of monolinguals (Italian) (n = 76). Bilinguals were not expected to fail in English measures, and their gap with monolinguals would be expected to be limited to the instructional language, owing to underexposure. All participants were enrolled in Italian primary schools (fourth and fifth grades). A non-verbal reasoning task and Italian and English literacy tasks were administered. The Italian battery included word and non-word reading (speed and accuracy), word and non-word writing, and reading comprehension; the English battery included similar tasks, except for the non-word writing. Bilingual children performed similarly to typical readers in English tasks, whereas in Italian tasks, their performance was similar to that of typical readers in reading speed but not in reading accuracy and writing. Children with dyslexia underperformed compared with typically developing children in all English and Italian tasks, except for reading comprehension in Italian. Profile analysis and correlational analyses were further discussed. These results suggest that English as a foreign language might represent a challenge for students with dyslexia but a strength for bilingual language-minority children. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. [Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics, TIB].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarini, Claudia; Poltronieri, Elisabetta

    2004-01-01

    The article aims at illustrating the characteristics and functions of a monolingual thesaurus, focusing on the Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics (Thesaurus Italiano di Bioetica, TIB) the controlled vocabulary used to index and retrieve documents within SIBIL (Italian Online Bioethics Information System). TIB includes controlled terms (descriptors) translated from the Bioethics Thesaurus adopted by the Kennedy Institute of Ethics of the Georgetown University of Washington and revised according to the Italian context of study and scientific debate in the field of bioethics. The overall amount of TIB terms consists in over 1600 headings. Methods to link thesaurus terms hierarchically, by association and by showing synonyms as recommended in ISO standards are applied with reference to descriptors drawn from TIB. Future plans to make the English version of TIB available online within European networks are also illustrated, aiming at spreading information relating to bioethics at an international level.

  15. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is born too early, before 37 weeks of pregnancy have been completed. In 2015, preterm birth affected about 1 of every 10 infants born in the United States. Preterm birth rates decreased from 2007 to 2014, and CDC research shows ...

  16. Preterm Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preterm labor is labor that starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. It can lead to premature ... babies may face serious health risks. Symptoms of preterm labor include Contractions every 10 minutes or more ...

  17. Monolingual and Bilingual Children's Social Preferences for Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Behrend, Douglas A.; Said, Lyakout Mohamed; Girgis, Helana; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Past research has shown that young monolingual children exhibit language-based social biases: they prefer native language to foreign language speakers. The current research investigated how children's language preferences are influenced by their own bilingualism and by a speaker's bilingualism. Monolingual and bilingual 4- to 6-year-olds heard…

  18. Preterm milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, J D

    1980-03-01

    This editorial addresses the question of how best to feed the low birth weight infant. A study by Atkinson et al. on the composition of preterm mothers' milk found the nitrogen concentration in preterm milk to be considerably higher than in term milk. Preterm milk may be uniquely suited to the growth requirements of preterm infants. With the exception of calcium and phosphorus, preterm milk fits the requirements for preterm infant growth. Because of the difficulties of sustaining lactation without the infant sucking at the breast, partly due to the mother's motivation in the face of all the difficulties of having a baby in a Special Care Baby Unit, and partly due to the associated socioeconomic disadvantages, it is not possible for all mothers who deliver preterm babies to sustain their lactation. The composition of preterm milk should be used as a guide for the preparation of a human milk formula built from human milk products from a milk bank. The development of a human milk formula must take into account variations in the absorption of nutrients in low birth weight infants which may be affected by the processing of the milk, and variations in fat absorption in preterm infants which occur even when they are fed their mothers' fresh unprocessed milk.

  19. Multilingual Researchers Internationalizing Monolingual English-Only Education through Post-Monolingual Research Methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Singh

    2017-01-01

    The argument advanced in this Special Issue of Education Sciences favors democratizing knowledge production and dissemination across the humanities and social sciences through the mainstreaming of multilingual researchers capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire. An important contribution of the papers in this Special Issue is the promise that post-monolingual research methodology holds for collaborative projects among multilingual and monolingual researchers that ta...

  20. Lexical knowledge of monolingual and bilingual children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhallen, M.; Schoonen, R.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to gain insight into the lexico-semantic knowledge of bilingual children growing up in a second-language immersion environment. The research focus is on aspects of lexical knowledge that are relevant for school success. Data were obtained by asking 40 monolingual

  1. Monolingual Dictionary Use in an EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Holi Ibrahim Holi

    2012-01-01

    Caledonian College of Engineering, Oman, has been encouraging its students to use monolingual dictionaries rather than bilingual or bilingualized ones in classroom and during the exams. This policy with has been received with mixed feelings and attitudes. Therefore, this study strives to explore teachers' and students' attitudes about the use of…

  2. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Scientific Name Preterm labor Preterm birth Preterm infant Late-preterm birth ... first-time pregnancies No benefit in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...

  3. Bilingualism as a potential strategy to improve executive function in preterm infants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Lauren M; Baralt, Melissa; Darcy Mahoney, Ashley E

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with long-term deficits in executive functioning and cognitive performance. Using the model of brain plasticity as a theoretical framework, it is possible that preterm infants' neurodevelopmental sequelae can be altered. Evidence suggests that bilingualism confers cognitive advantages on executive functioning, so it is possible that bilingualism may improve preterm infants' neurodevelopment. However, bilingualism has only been studied in term children. This review examined literature that compared the performance of preterm-born children to term children and bilingual children to monolingual children on executive function tasks. To address cognitive disparities in preterm-born children, studies investigating the effect of bilingualism on preterm infants' executive functioning is warranted.

  4. Multilingual Researchers Internationalizing Monolingual English-Only Education through Post-Monolingual Research Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Singh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The argument advanced in this Special Issue of Education Sciences favors democratizing knowledge production and dissemination across the humanities and social sciences through the mainstreaming of multilingual researchers capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire. An important contribution of the papers in this Special Issue is the promise that post-monolingual research methodology holds for collaborative projects among multilingual and monolingual researchers that tap into intercultural divergences across languages. Together these papers give warrant to multilingual researchers, including Higher Degree Researchers develop their capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire, an educational innovation that could be of immense benefit to scholars working predominantly monolingual universities. Through their thought provoking papers presented in this Special Issue, these researchers invites those working in the education sciences to seriously consider the potential benefits of multiplying the intellectual resources used for theorizing that is possible through activating, mobilizing and deploying researchers’ multilingual resources in knowledge production and dissemination.

  5. Preterm labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Weile, Louise Katrine Kjær; Lamont, Ronald Francis

    2014-01-01

    and arrange in utero transfer to a center with neonatal intensive care facilities, both of which reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity. Few tocolytics (β₂-agonists and atosiban) are licensed for use as tocolytics and only one was developed specifically to treat preterm labor (atosiban). Accordingly, most...

  6. Preterm labor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sayres Jr, WG

    2010-01-01

    .... For the patient in preterm labor, only antenatal corticosteroids and delivery in a facility with a level III neonatal intensive care unit have been shown to improve outcomes consistently. Tocolytic agents may delay delivery for up to 48 hours, enabling the administration of antenatal corticosteroids or maternal transfer. Routine use of antibiotics ...

  7. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth ... Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” or “ ...

  8. Receptive Vocabulary Differences in Monolingual and Bilingual Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi

    2012-01-01

    English receptive vocabulary scores from 797 monolingual and 808 bilingual participants between the ages of 17 and 89 years old were aggregated from 20 studies to compare standard scores across language groups. The distribution of scores was unimodal for both groups but the mean score was significantly different, with monolinguals obtaining higher…

  9. Language Learning from Inconsistent Input: Bilingual and Monolingual Toddlers Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bree, Elise; Verhagen, Josje; Kerkhoff, Annemarie; Doedens, Willemijn; Unsworth, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    This study examines novel language learning from inconsistent input in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. We predicted an advantage for the bilingual toddlers on the basis of the structural sensitivity hypothesis. Monolingual and bilingual 24-month-olds performed two novel language learning experiments. The first contained consistent input, and…

  10. Beginning To Read among Monolingual and Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, Concepcion M.; And Others

    This study examined language and reading ability in English monolinguals, Spanish monolinguals, and two bilingual groups at the beginning of kindergarten and at the beginning of first grade. The study also compared the family background of the children on home literacy, parent education, and the parents' aspirations for their children. In…

  11. Monolingual accounting dictionaries for EFL text production

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    Sandro Nielsen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Monolingual accounting dictionaries are important for producing financial reporting texts in English in an international setting, because of the lack of specialised bilingual dictionaries. As the intended user groups have different factual and linguistic competences, they require specific types of information. By identifying and analysing the users' factual and linguistic competences, user needs, use-situations and the stages involved in producing accounting texts in English as a foreign language, lexicographers will have a sound basis for designing the optimal English accounting dictionary for EFL text production. The monolingual accounting dictionary needs to include information about UK, US and international accounting terms, their grammatical properties, their potential for being combined with other words in collocations, phrases and sentences in order to meet user requirements. Data items that deal with these aspects are necessary for the international user group as they produce subject-field specific and register-specific texts in a foreign language, and the data items are relevant for the various stages in text production: draft writing, copyediting, stylistic editing and proofreading.

  12. Native-language recognition abilities in 4-month-old infants from monolingual and bilingual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, L; Sebastián-Gallés, N

    1997-12-01

    This study examined the capacity of 4-month-old infants to identify their maternal language when phonologically similar languages are contrasted, using a visual orientation procedure with a reaction time measure. Infants from monolingual and bilingual environments were compared in order to analyze whether differences in linguistic background affect this behavioral response. In experiment 1 the validity of the procedure was assessed with a pair of phonologically dissimilar languages (Catalan or Spanish vs. English). In experiment 2, 20 infants from monolingual environments tested in a similar language contrast (Catalan vs. Spanish) indicated that discrimination is already possible at that age. Results from experiment 3, using low-pass filtered utterances, suggested that infants can rely on information about supra-segmental features to make this distinction. For the infants growing up in bilingual environments no preference for either of the familiar languages was found. Moreover, when their maternal language was contrasted either with English or with Italian, in both cases the bilingual group showed a similar pattern, consisting of significantly longer latencies for the familiar language. Possible interpretations of this unexpected pattern of results are discussed and its implications for bilingual language acquisition are considered.

  13. Rethinking monolingual instructional strategies in multilingual classrooms

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    Jim Cummins

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three inter-related assumptions regarding best practice in second/foreign language teaching and bilingual/immersion education continue to dominate classroom instruction. These assumptions are that: (a the target language (TL should be used exclusively for instructional purposes without recourse to students’ first language (L1; (b translation between L1 and TL has no place in the language classroom; and (c within immersion and bilingual programs, the two languages should be kept rigidly separate. Research evidence provides minimal support for these assumptions and they are also inconsistent with the instructional implications of current theory in the areas of cognitive psychology and applied linguistics. Based on current research and theory, a set of bilingual instructional strategies are proposed and concrete examples are provided to illustrate how these strategies can be used together with monolingual strategies in a balanced and complementary way.

  14. Italian Modernities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    assumptions that have substituted for thought and that have perpetuated prejudices both within and outside Italy’s borders. Grounded in meticulous historical and ethnological research, Italian Modernities deserves as wide an audience as its scholarship is deep.” (Michael Herzfeld, Ernest E. Monrad Professor...

  15. Profile of phonological awareness in bilingual and monolingual children

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Lourdes Bernadete Rocha de; Leite,Aline Gisele Conceição

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the performance of phonological awareness skills in bilingual and monolingual students of both genders. Methods: This research presents an observational, cross-sectional descriptive study conducted with 17 students from the 3rd grade, aged between seven years and 8 years and 11 months, with similar socioeconomic level, from two private schools, being one a monolingual school, and the other a bilingual one. Children at risk for auditory deprivation of any degree, those...

  16. Bilingual and Monolingual Children Prefer Native-Accented Speakers

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    Andre L. eSouza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adults and young children prefer to affiliate with some individuals rather than others. Studies have shown that monolingual children show in-group biases for individuals who speak their native language without a foreign accent (Kinzler, Dupoux, & Spelke, 2007. Some studies have suggested that bilingual children are less influenced than monolinguals by language variety when attributing personality traits to different speakers (Anisfeld & Lambert, 1964, which could indicate that bilinguals have fewer in-group biases and perhaps greater social flexibility. However, no previous studies have compared monolingual and bilingual children’s reactions to speakers with unfamiliar foreign accents. In the present study, we investigated the social preferences of 5-year-old English and French monolinguals and English-French bilinguals. Contrary to our predictions, both monolingual and bilingual preschoolers preferred to be friends with native-accented speakers over speakers who spoke their dominant language with an unfamiliar foreign accent. This result suggests that both monolingual and bilingual children have strong preferences for in-group members who use a familiar language variety, and that bilingualism does not lead to generalized social flexibility.

  17. SYNONYMS IN GERMAN ONLINE MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARIES

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    Paloma Sánchez Hernández

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study includes both theoretical and qualitative research and falls within the framework of semantics and lexicography. It is based on work conducted as a part of the COMBIDIGILEX research project: MINECO-FEDER FFI2015-64476-P. The lexicographical description proposed in the COMBIDIGILEX project is based on the foundations of bilingual lexicography from an onomasiological perspective, including paradigmatic information and syntagmatic analysis, which is useful to users creating texts for students at an advanced level. The project analyses verbal lexemes in German and Spanish based on a paradigmatic, syntagmatic, orthographic and morphological perspective (among others. Subsequently, a contrastive analysis was conducted between both languages. In this contribution, we first analyse what paradigmatic information is, including its relevance to a dictionary. Paradigmatic information includes not only synonyms and antonyms but also hyperonyms and hyponyms, which often complete the lexicographical article in a general dictionary. Paradigmatic relations can be observed in light of semantic definitions or may independently become part of the lexical entry. Forming the paradigmatic information of an entry in an independent manner is known as “intentionelle Paradigmatik”, and it constitutes a series of advantages in the dictionary (Hausmann 1991b: 2794. This type of information aids the processes of production and expands vocabulary. Next, we examine the appearance of synonyms in three German online monolingual dictionaries – DWDS, WORTSCHATZLEXIKON and DUDEN ONLINE – from the semantic perspective of cognition verbs. The primary objective of the study is to demonstrate the relevance of this type of information as well as the needs it covers from a user’s perspective. Offering the user a series of lexical elements along with information on semantic relations of a paradigmatic nature thus addresses the issue of users having an array of

  18. Italian Succession Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    De Tullio, Giandomenico

    2012-01-01

    Italian inheritance law based on the Roman law of succession including legitimate succession and testamentary succession. The importance of drafting an Italian will and the legal requirements according to Italian Law.

  19. Preterm dietary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, G; Fenger-Gron, J

    2014-01-01

    To describe eating habits and possible feeding intolerance among preterm infants based on type of nutrition.......To describe eating habits and possible feeding intolerance among preterm infants based on type of nutrition....

  20. The preterm parturition syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romero, R; Espinoza, J; Kusanovic, JP; Gotsch, F; Hassan, S; Erez, O; Chaiworapongsa, T; Mazor, M

    2006-01-01

    The implicit paradigm that has governed the study and clinical management of preterm labour is that term and preterm parturition are the same processes, except for the gestational age at which they occur...

  1. A monolingual mind can have two time lines: Exploring space-time mappings in Mandarin monolinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenxing; Sun, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Can a mind accommodate two time lines? Miles, Tan, Noble, Lumsden and Macrae (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 18, 598-604, 2011) shows that Mandarin-English bilinguals have both a horizontal space-time mapping consistent with linguistic conventions within English and a vertical representation of time commensurate with Mandarin. However, the present study, via two experiments, demonstrates that Mandarin monolinguals possess two mental time lines, i.e., one horizontal and one vertical line. This study concludes that a Mandarin speaker has two mental time lines not because he/she has acquired L2 English, but because there are both horizontal and vertical expressions in Mandarin spatiotemporal metaphors. Specifically, this study highlights the fact that a horizontal time line does exist in a Mandarin speaker's cognition, even if he/she is a Mandarin monolingual instead of a ME bilingual. Taken together, the evidence in hand is far from sufficient to support Miles et al.'s (2011) conclusion that ME bilinguals' horizontal concept of time is manipulated by English. Implications for theoretical issues concerning the language-thought relationship in general and the effect of bilingualism on cognition in particular are discussed.

  2. Prediction of preterm delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilms, F.F.

    2014-01-01

    Preterm delivery is in quantity and in severity an important issue in the obstetric care in the Western world. There is considerable knowledge on maternal and obstetric risk factors of preterm delivery. Of the women presenting with preterm labor, the majority is pregnant with a male fetus and in

  3. Prediction of preterm delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilms, F.F.

    2014-01-01

    Preterm delivery is in quantity and in severity an important issue in the obstetric care in the Western world. There is considerable knowledge on maternal and obstetric risk factors of preterm delivery. Of the women presenting with preterm labor, the majority is pregnant with a male fetus and in Cau

  4. The auditory attention status in Iranian bilingual and monolingual people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayiere Mansoori

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Bilingualism, as one of the discussing issues of psychology and linguistics, can influence the speech processing. Of several tests for assessing auditory processing, dichotic digit test has been designed to study divided auditory attention. Our study was performed to compare the auditory attention between Iranian bilingual and monolingual young adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 students including 30 Turkish-Persian bilinguals and 30 Persian monolinguals aged between 18 to 30 years in both genders. Dichotic digit test was performed on young individuals with normal peripheral hearing and right hand preference. Results: No significant correlation was found between the results of dichotic digit test of monolinguals and bilinguals (p=0.195, and also between the results of right and left ears in monolingual (p=0.460 and bilingual (p=0.054 groups. The mean score of women was significantly more than men (p=0.031. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between bilinguals and monolinguals in divided auditory attention; and it seems that acquisition of second language in lower ages has no noticeable effect on this type of auditory attention.

  5. Compiling the First Monolingual Lusoga Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minah Nabirye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In this research article a study is made of the approach followed to compile the first-ever monolingual dictionary for Lusoga. Lusoga is a Bantu language spoken in Uganda by slightly over two mil-lion people. Being an under-resourced language, the Lusoga orthography had to be designed, a grammar written, and a corpus built, before embarking on the compilation of the dictionary. This compilation was aimed at attaining an academic degree, hence requiring a rigorous research methodology. Firstly, the prevail-ing methods for compiling dictionaries were mainly practical and insufficient in explaining the theoretical linguistic basis for dictionary compilation. Since dictionaries are based on meaning, the theory of meaning was used to account for all linguistic data considered in dictionaries. However, meaning is considered at a very abstract level, far removed from the process of compiling dictionaries. Another theory, the theory of modularity, was used to bridge the gap between the theory of meaning and the compilation process. The modular theory explains how the different modules of a language contribute information to the different parts of the dictionary article or dictionary information in general. Secondly, the research also had to contend with the different approaches for analysing Bantu languages for Bantu and European audiences. A descrip-tion of the Bantu- and European-centred approaches to Bantu studies was undertaken in respect of (a the classification of Lusoga words, and (b the specification of their citations. As a result, Lusoga lexicography deviates from the prevailing Bantu classification and citation of nouns, adjectives and verbs in particular. The dictionary was tested on two separate occasions and all the feedback was considered in the compilation pro-cess. This article, then, gives an overall summary of all the steps involved in the compilation of the Eiwanika ly'Olusoga, i.e. the Monolingual Lusoga Dictionary

  6. Effects of primary and secondary morphological family size in monolingual and bilingual word processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, K.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.; Schreuder, R.; Baayen, Harald

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated primary and secondary morphological family size effects in monolingual and bilingual processing, combining experimentation with computational modeling. Family size effects were investigated in an English lexical decision task for Dutch-English bilinguals and English monolingu

  7. Word Magic Revisited: Monolingual and Bilingual Children's Understanding of the Word-Object Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Tamar; Pinker, Steven A.

    1983-01-01

    Results showed that monolingual and bilingual preschoolers understand equally that objects may be renamed. However, monolinguals were more likely to mention the object's properties when justifying an answer, whereas bilinguals were more likely to mention social context. (Author/MP)

  8. Flexibility in task switching by monolinguals and bilinguals*

    Science.gov (United States)

    WISEHEART, MELODY; VISWANATHAN, MYTHILI; BIALYSTOK, ELLEN

    2015-01-01

    Many bilinguals routinely switch between their languages, yet mixed evidence exists about the transfer of language switching skills to broader domains that require attentional control such as task switching. Monolingual and bilingual young adults performed a nonverbal task-switching paradigm in which they viewed colored pictures of animals and indicated either the animal or its color in response to a cue. Monolinguals and bilinguals performed similarly when switching between tasks (local switch cost) in a mixed-task block, but bilinguals demonstrated a smaller mixing effect (global switch cost) than monolinguals, indicating better ability to reconfigure stimulus–response associations. These results suggest that regular practice using multiple languages confers a broader executive function advantage shown as improved flexibility in task switching. PMID:26877705

  9. Effective Look-up Techniques to Approach a Monolingual Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauman Al Amin Ali El Sayed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A dictionary is (a learning tool that can help the language learner in acquiring great knowledge of and about a foreign language. Almost all language learners buy or at least possess, at one time, a monolingual or bilingual dictionary, to which the learner may refer to look up the meaning of words. Unfortunately, using dictionary to look up the meaning of words seems to be the most important service, which a dictionary is expected to provide to language learners. In fact, a dictionary provides much data about language to its readers such as telling them about: the word spelling, phonology, phonetics, etymology, stylistics and definitions among other aspects. This paper sheds light on how the dictionary can teach its readers with special focus on monolingual dictionary. Hence, the discussion of this paper will centre on how dictionaries can teach students rather than on how students can learn from them. Keywords: monolingual dictionary, learning strategies, language acquisition, lexicography

  10. Novel word retention in bilingual and monolingual speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui Fong eKan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to examine word retention in bilinguals and monolinguals. Long-term word retention is an essential part of vocabulary learning. Previous studies have documented that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in terms of retrieving newly-exposed words. Yet, little is known about whether or to what extent bilinguals are different from monolinguals in word retention. Participants were 30 English-speaking monolingual adults and 30 bilingual adults who speak Spanish as a home language and learned English as a second language during childhood. In a previous study (Kan, Sadagopan, Janich, & Andrade, 2014, the participants were exposed to the target novel words in English, Spanish, and Cantonese. In this current study, word retention was measured a week after the fast mapping task. No exposures were given during the one-week interval. Results showed that bilinguals and monolinguals retain a similar number of words. However, participants produced more words in English than in either Spanish or Cantonese. Correlation analyses revealed that language knowledge plays a role in the relationships between fast mapping and word retention. Specifically, within- and across-language relationships between bilinguals’ fast mapping and word retention were found in Spanish and English, by contrast, within-language relationships between monolinguals’ fast mapping and word retention were found in English and across-language relationships between their fast mapping and word retention performance in English and Cantonese. Similarly, bilinguals differed from monolinguals in the relationships among the word retention scores in three languages. Significant correlations were found among bilinguals’ retention scores. However, no such correlations were found among monolinguals’ retention scores. The overall findings suggest that bilinguals’ language experience and language knowledge most likely contribute to how they learn and retain new words.

  11. Does preterm birth increase a child's risk for language impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansavini, Alessandra; Guarini, Annalisa; Justice, Laura M; Savini, Silvia; Broccoli, Serena; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo

    2010-12-01

    Although premature birth is associated with lags in language acquisition, it is unclear whether preterms exhibit an elevated risk for language impairment (LI). This study determined whether preterms, without frank cerebral damage, at 2;6 and 3;6 exhibited a higher rate of risk for LI as compared to full-terms, and also sought to identify predictors of risk. Sixty-four Italian very immature preterms were assessed longitudinally at 2;6 and 3;6; age-matched full-terms served as controls at 2;6 (n=22) and 3;6 (n=40). Each completed individualized assessments of cognition and language ability. At each time point, using cut-offs specific to each of the language measures, children were differentiated into two groups (at risk for LI, not at risk). The percentage of full-terms at risk for LI at 2;6 (9.1% to 13.6%) and 3;6 (7.5%) was consistent with prior estimates of LI at these ages. The percentage of preterms at risk for LI at 2;6 (16.1% to 24.1%) and 3;6 (34.4%) was higher at both ages and statistically significant at 3;6 (difference=26.8%, 95% CI=12.3% to 41.4%). The best model predicting risk status at 3;6 was preterms' mean length of utterance (MLU) at 2;6, (sensitivity 72.73%, specificity 85%) when adjusting for maternal education. Preterms exhibit a heightened risk for LI in the preschool years, since about one in four preterms at 2;6 and one in three preterms at 3;6 experiences significant lags in language acquisition. Findings argue the importance of early identification of language difficulties among preterms coupled with implementation of systematic language-focused interventions for these youngsters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Brain Network Activity in Monolingual and Bilingual Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Cheryl L.; Luk, Gigi; Craik, Fergus I.M.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Bilingual older adults typically have better performance on tasks of executive control (EC) than do their monolingual peers, but differences in brain activity due to language experience are not well understood. Based on studies showing a relation between the dynamic range of brain network activity and performance on EC tasks, we hypothesized that life-long bilingual older adults would show increased functional connectivity relative to monolinguals in networks related to EC. We assessed intrinsic functional connectivity and modulation of activity in task vs. fixation periods in two brain networks that are active when EC is engaged, the frontoparietal control network (FPC) and the salience network (SLN). We also examined the default mode network (DMN), which influences behavior through reduced activity during tasks. We found stronger intrinsic functional connectivity in the FPC and DMN in bilinguals than in monolinguals. Although there were no group differences in the modulation of activity across tasks and fixation, bilinguals showed stronger correlations than monolinguals between intrinsic connectivity in the FPC and task-related increases of activity in prefrontal and parietal regions. This bilingual difference in network connectivity suggests that language experience begun in childhood and continued throughout adulthood influences brain networks in ways that may provide benefits in later life. PMID:25445783

  13. Working Memory Development in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Julia; Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Two studies are reported comparing the performance of monolingual and bilingual children on tasks requiring different levels of working memory. In the first study, 56 5-year-olds performed a Simon-type task that manipulated working memory demands by comparing conditions based on two rules and four rules and manipulated conflict resolution demands…

  14. Coordination of Executive Functions in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Two groups of 8-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual completed a complex classification task in which they made semantic judgments on stimuli that were presented either visually or auditorily. The task requires coordinating a variety of executive control components, specifically working memory, inhibition, and shifting. When each of…

  15. Receptive Vocabulary Differences in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi; Peets, Kathleen F.; Yang, Sujin

    2010-01-01

    Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738…

  16. Language learning and control in monolinguals and bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2012-08-01

    Parallel language activation in bilinguals leads to competition between languages. Experience managing this interference may aid novel language learning by improving the ability to suppress competition from known languages. To investigate the effect of bilingualism on the ability to control native-language interference, monolinguals and bilinguals were taught an artificial language designed to elicit between-language competition. Partial activation of interlingual competitors was assessed with eye-tracking and mouse-tracking during a word recognition task in the novel language. Eye-tracking results showed that monolinguals looked at competitors more than bilinguals, and for a longer duration of time. Mouse-tracking results showed that monolinguals' mouse movements were attracted to native-language competitors, whereas bilinguals overcame competitor interference by increasing the activation of target items. Results suggest that bilinguals manage cross-linguistic interference more effectively than monolinguals. We conclude that language interference can affect lexical retrieval, but bilingualism may reduce this interference by facilitating access to a newly learned language. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. Troubling Literacy: Monolingual Assumptions, Multilingual Contexts, and Language Teacher Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Russell

    2011-01-01

    The current educational context in many English speaking countries is one where literacy is understood to be essentially monolingual in orientation; that is, an understanding of literacy around a single common language, with the emphasis on identifying universal, normative "standards" and "benchmarks", such as the…

  18. School Leadership along the Trajectory from Monolingual to Multilingual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenzi-Moreno, Laura; Hesson, Sarah; Menken, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the critical role of school leaders in language policy change, and specifically in shifting their language education policies and practices from monolingual to multilingual. We examine the process of language policy change in three schools that were involved in a project aimed at increasing the knowledge base of school…

  19. Language Learning and Control in Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotti, James; Marian, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Parallel language activation in bilinguals leads to competition between languages. Experience managing this interference may aid novel language learning by improving the ability to suppress competition from known languages. To investigate the effect of bilingualism on the ability to control native-language interference, monolinguals and bilinguals…

  20. Stakeholder Perspectives on CLIL in a Monolingual Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Nina K.

    2016-01-01

    This article documents the findings of a study concerning the perspectives on Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in the monolingual context of Jaén. The research has involved the design, validation and administration of two sets of questionnaires to 745 informants (692 students and 53 teachers) within eight secondary schools with a…

  1. Preterm Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna G Gopagondanahalli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE is a recognizable and defined clinical syndrome in term infants that results from a severe or prolonged hypoxic ischemic episode before or during birth. However, in the preterm infant, defining hypoxic ischemic injury, its clinical course, monitoring and outcomes remains complex. Few studies examine preterm HIE, and these are heterogeneous, with variable inclusion criteria and outcomes reported. We examine the available evidence that implies that the incidence of hypoxic ischemic insult in preterm infants is probably higher than recognized, and follows a more complex clinical course, with higher rates of adverse neurological outcomes, compared to term infants. This review aims to elucidate the causes and consequences of preterm hypoxia ischemia, the subsequent clinical encephalopathy syndrome, diagnostic tools and outcomes. Finally, we suggest a uniform definition for preterm HIE that may help in identifying infants most at risk of adverse outcomes and amenable to neuroprotective therapies.

  2. Acquisition of German pluralization rules in monolingual and multilingual children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaretsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-yearold monolingual German and bi/multilingual immigrant children tested with a modified, validated version of the Marburger Sprachscreening (MSS language test and 476 children tested with the SETK 3-5 language test. Classified correct and wrong answers to MSS and SETK 3-5 plural items were compared. The acquisition patterns of immigrants corresponded to those of younger German children. Both monolingual German and immigrant children demonstrated generally the same universal frequency and phonetically/phonologically based error patterns, irrespective of their linguistic background, but with different tendencies such as overgeneralization of -s by German children only.

  3. The auditory attention status in Iranian bilingual and monolingual people

    OpenAIRE

    Nayiere Mansoori; Seyed Ali Akbar Tahaei; Zahra Jafari; Mohammad Kamali

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Bilingualism, as one of the discussing issues of psychology and linguistics, can influence the speech processing. Of several tests for assessing auditory processing, dichotic digit test has been designed to study divided auditory attention. Our study was performed to compare the auditory attention between Iranian bilingual and monolingual young adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 students including 30 Turkish-Persian bilinguals and 30 Persian mo...

  4. Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children

    OpenAIRE

    Bialystok, Ellen; PEETS, KATHLEEN F.; Yang, Sujin; Luk, Gigi

    2010-01-01

    Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738 children between 3 and 10 years old and demonstrate a consistent difference in receptive vocabulary between the two groups. Two preliminary analyses s...

  5. Acquisition of German pluralization rules in monolingual and multilingual children

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen Zaretsky; Lange, Benjamin P.; Euler, Harald A.; Katrin Neumann

    2013-01-01

    Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-year- old monolingual German and bi/multilingual immigrant children tested with a modified, validated version of the Marburger Sprachscreening (MSS) language test and 476 chi...

  6. Lexical Selection Differences between Monolingual and Bilingual Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Deanna C.; Chung-Fat-Yim, Ashley; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Three studies are reported investigating how monolinguals and bilinguals resolve within-language competition when listening to isolated words. Participants saw two pictures that were semantically-related, phonologically-related, or unrelated and heard a word naming one of them while event-related potentials were recorded. In Studies 1 and 2, the pictures and auditory cue were presented simultaneously and the related conditions produced interference for both groups. Monolinguals showed reduced N400s to the semantically-related pairs but there was no modulation in this component by bilinguals. Study 3 inserted an interval between picture and word onset. For picture onset, both groups exhibited reduced N400s to semantically-related pictures; for word onset, both groups showed larger N400s to phonologically-related pictures. Overall, bilinguals showed less integration of related items in simultaneous (but not sequential) presentation, presumably because of interference from the activated non-English language. Thus, simple lexical selection for bilinguals includes more conflict than it does for monolinguals. PMID:26684415

  7. Initiation of preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelec, Małgorzata; Pałczyński, Bogusław; Krzemieniewska, Joanna; Karmowski, Mikołaj; Koryś, Jerzy; Lątkowski, Krzysztof; Karmowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Preterm births are still a major problem in obstetrics. It is estimated that preterm births occur in about 12% of all pregnancies. Due to advances in medical technology and better care of fetuses and premature babies, the preterm mortality rate has been falling (as recently as 1995 the survival rate in the US for premature infants born at 34 weeks amounted to only a fraction of the corresponding rate for those born after 37 weeks). In the US in 2005, preterm births cost society approximately $26 billion, and medical care for premature babies cost more than $51 billion. Only the richest countries can afford such costly medical care. That is why it is not only the individual aspects but also the social aspects that are important when studying preterm birth mechanisms and ways of preventing them. The existing research indicates that both spontaneous mature birth and preterm birth begin and proceed in a similar manner. This is confirmed by the similar involvement in both processes of corticotropin-releasing hormone, urocortin, extracellular stress protein HSP70 (amniotic fluid heat shock protein), prostaglandins, proinflammatory cytokines or glucocorticosteroids. Apparently, at the beginning of either a preterm birth or a term birth, there is a stimulus that ends the development of the fetus or initiates birth. This stimulus works via feedback through placental hormones and through substances present in the fetal membranes, ultimately leading to functional progesterone withdrawal (FPW), thus leaving the uterus sensitive to contractive factors.

  8. Management of preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hole, J W; Tressler, T B

    2001-02-01

    Preterm labor and delivery continues to be one of the most serious problems in obstetrics, both medically and socioeconomically. The more classically used definitions of preterm delivery may not be useful in this era of advances in neonatal care. Similarly, the classically used criteria for "success" in tocolysis may obscure benefits from prolongation of gestation that does not meet these criteria. This article reviews the etiologic theories, risk factors, diagnostic techniques, and possible primary and adjunctive modes of therapy for preterm labor. The emphasis of these recommendations is on their clinical utility for the practicing obstetric care provider.

  9. Limits on Monolingualism? A comparison of monolingual and bilingual infants’ abilities to integrate lexical tone in novel word learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leher eSingh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To construct their first lexicon, infants must determine the relationship between native phonological variation and the meanings of words. This process is arguably more complex for bilingual learners who are often confronted with phonological conflict: phonological variation that is lexically relevant in one language may be lexically irrelevant in the other. In a series of four experiments, the present study investigated English-Mandarin bilingual infants’ abilities to negotiate phonological conflict introduced by learning both a tone and a non-tone language. In a novel word learning task, bilingual children were tested on their sensitivity to tone variation in English and Mandarin contexts. Their abilities to interpret tone variation in a language-dependent manner were compared to those of monolingual Mandarin learning infants. Results demonstrated that at 12 to 13 months, bilingual infants demonstrated the ability to bind tone to word meanings in Mandarin, but to disregard tone variation when learning new words in English. In contrast, monolingual learners of Mandarin did not show evidence of integrating tones into word meanings in Mandarin at the same age even though they were learning a tone language. However, a tone discrimination paradigm confirmed that monolingual Mandarin learning infants were able to tell these tones apart at 12 to 13 months under a different set of conditions. Later, at 17 to 18 months, monolingual Mandarin learners were able to bind tone variation to word meanings when learning new words. Our findings are discussed in terms of cognitive adaptations associated with bilingualism that may ease the negotiation of phonological conflict and facilitate precocious uptake of certain properties of each language.

  10. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  11. Preterm delivery risk in migrants in Italy: an observational prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosta, Elena; Tomasoni, Lina R; Frusca, Tiziana; Triglia, Maria; Pirali, Francesco; El Hamad, Issa; Castelli, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Various studies have ascertained different birth outcomes between resident and migrant populations in western countries. Considering preterm delivery (multilanguage questionnaire enquiring about sociodemographic and obstetric data. Additional information including last menstrual period was obtained from personal obstetric records. As many as 471 puerperas entered the study: 366 Italian and 105 migrant women coming from eastern Europe (41.9%), Asia (20%), South America (10.5%), and Africa (27.6%). Of the migrant population, 67 of 105 (63.8%) were at their first delivery in Italy (median interval from arrival: 3.8 y). Gestational age at delivery was assessed for 456 of 471 women (103 migrants and 353 Italians). A total of 36 (7.9%) preterm deliveries were registered: 22 (6.2%) in Italian and 14 (13.6%) in migrant puerperas (p value = 0.015). The highest preterm delivery rate was observed in African women (20.7%), while women from eastern Europe had a similar rate to Italians. In univariate analysis, factors associated to preterm delivery were parity and length of permanence in Italy. We could not demonstrate any correlation with smoking or with a delayed access to antenatal care (first obstetric evaluation after 12 complete weeks of gestation). In multivariate analysis, African origin was the only independent risk factor for preterm delivery [odds ratio (OR) = 3.54; p = 0.018]. In our setting, preterm delivery occurred more frequently in migrant women, particularly of African origin, and it is not associated to delayed access to antenatal care.

  12. Italian information geographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paradiso

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A range of papers focusing on Italian cases of ICTs use and changes in society are presented here in this NETCOM issue. A national research group on Geography of Information Society was founded in 2007 and hosted by the Italian Geographical Society later evolved in a specialty group within AgeI, the Association of Italian Geographers. This issue brings together papers from members of the Italian specialty group along the general theme of Internet mediation in everyday life. A pre...

  13. Health Information in Italian (Italiano)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → Italian (Italiano) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/italian.html Health Information in Italian (Italiano) To use ...

  14. Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi; Peets, Kathleen F.; Yang, Sujin

    2015-01-01

    Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738 children between 3 and 10 years old and demonstrate a consistent difference in receptive vocabulary between the two groups. Two preliminary analyses suggest that this difference does not change with different language pairs and is largely confined to words relevant to a home context rather than a school context. PMID:25750580

  15. Perception of a native vowel contrast by Dutch monolingual and bilingual infants : A bilingual perceptual lead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369509870; Kager, R.W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072294124

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Facing previous mixed findings between monolingual and bilingual infants’ phonetic development during perceptual reorganization, the current study aims at examining the perceptual development of a native vowel contrast (/I/-/i/) by Dutch monolingual and bilingual infants. Design: We tested

  16. Are there differences in selective attention and conflict resolution between monolingual and bilingual children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mondt, K.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Balériaux, D.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Hadzibeganovic, T.; Denolin, V.; Craen, P. van de

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Possible differences in selective attention and conflict resolution between monolingual and bilingual children were tested in an fMRI study. Methods An adopted version of the Stroop task was conducted on 19 monolingual- and bilingual (French/Dutch) children with a mean age of 8.9 years in

  17. Global-Local and Trail-Making Tasks by Monolingual and Bilingual Children: Beyond Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    In 3 experiments, a total of 151 monolingual and bilingual 6-year-old children performed similarly on measures of language and cognitive ability; however, bilinguals solved the global-local and trail-making tasks more rapidly than monolinguals. This bilingual advantage was found not only for the traditionally demanding conditions (incongruent…

  18. Language Proficiency and Executive Control in Proactive Interference: Evidence from Monolingual and Bilingual Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer…

  19. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Differences in Executive Control between Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Raluca; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined executive control in sixty-two 5-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual using behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) measures. All children performed equivalently on simple response inhibition (gift delay), but bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on interference suppression and complex response…

  20. Orthographic Context Sensitivity in Vowel Decoding by Portuguese Monolingual and Portuguese-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the pronunciation of the first vowel in decoding disyllabic pseudowords derived from Portuguese words. Participants were 96 Portuguese monolinguals and 52 Portuguese-English bilinguals of equivalent Portuguese reading levels. The results indicate that sensitivity to vowel context emerges early, both in monolinguals and in…

  1. Are there differences in selective attention and conflict resolution between monolingual and bilingual children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mondt, K.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Balériaux, D.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Hadzibeganovic, T.; Denolin, V.; Craen, P. van de

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Possible differences in selective attention and conflict resolution between monolingual and bilingual children were tested in an fMRI study. Methods An adopted version of the Stroop task was conducted on 19 monolingual- and bilingual (French/Dutch) children with a mean age of 8.9 years in

  2. Do French-English Bilingual Children Gesture More than Monolingual Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoladis, Elena; Pika, Simone; Marentette, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that bilingual adults use more gestures than English monolinguals. Because no study has compared the gestures of bilinguals and monolinguals in both languages, the high gesture rate could be due to transfer from a high gesture language or could result from the use of gesture to aid in linguistic access. In this study we…

  3. Effects of Speech Practice on Fast Mapping in Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Pui Fong; Sadagopan, Neeraja; Janich, Lauren; Andrade, Marixa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the effects of the levels of speech practice on fast mapping in monolingual and bilingual speakers. Method: Participants were 30 English-speaking monolingual and 30 Spanish-English bilingual young adults. Each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 3 practice conditions prior to the fast-mapping task: (a) intensive…

  4. South Italian Festivals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, Herman

    2000-01-01

    South Italian Festivals is a story and study of socio-economic changes in an Italian mountain town Calvello (Basilicata) over a five-hundred-year period; from traditional society to modernity. Instead of exploring a single festival the book studies a ritual one year cycle of local and ecclesiastical

  5. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a l

  6. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  7. Neuroprotection in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Berger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants born before the 30th week of pregnancy are especially at risk of perinatal brain damage which is usually a result of cerebral ischemia or an ascending intrauterine infection. Prevention of preterm birth and early intervention given signs of imminent intrauterine infection can reduce the incidence of perinatal cerebral injury. It has been shown that administering magnesium intravenously to women at imminent risk of a preterm birth leads to a significant reduction in the likelihood of the infant developing cerebral palsy and motor skill dysfunction. It has also been demonstrated that delayed clamping of the umbilical cord after birth reduces the rate of brain hemorrhage among preterm infants by up to 50%. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells seem to have significant neuroprotective potential in animal experiments, as they increase the rate of regeneration of the damaged cerebral area. Clinical tests of these types of therapeutic intervention measures appear to be imminent. In the last trimester of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone increase significantly. Preterm infants are removed abruptly from this estradiol and progesterone rich environment. It has been demonstrated in animal experiments that estradiol and progesterone protect the immature brain from hypoxic-ischemic lesions. However, this neuroprotective strategy has unfortunately not yet been subject to sufficient clinical investigation.

  8. Perception of English vowels by bilingual Chinese-English and corresponding monolingual listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Fox, Robert A

    2014-06-01

    This study compares the underlying perceptual structure of vowel perception in monolingual Chinese, monolingual English and bilingual Chinese-English listeners. Of particular interest is how listeners' spatial organization of vowels is affected either by their L1 or their experience with L2. Thirteen English vowels, /i, I, e, epsilon, ae, u, omega, o, (see symbol), alpha, (see symbol)I, alphaI, alphaomega/, embedded in /hVd/ syllable produced by an Ohio male speaker were presented in pairs to three groups of listeners. Each listener rated 312 vowel pairs on a nine-point dissimilarity scale. The responses from each group were analyzed using a multidimensional scaling program (ALSCAL). Results demonstrated that all three groups of listeners used high/low and front/back distinctions as the two most important dimensions to perceive English vowels. However, the vowels were distributed in clusters in the perceptual space of Chinese monolinguals, while they were appropriately separated and located in that of bilinguals and English monolinguals. Besides the two common perceptual dimensions, each group of listeners utilized a different third dimension to perceive these English vowels. English monolinguals used high-front offset. Bilinguals used a dimension mainly correlated to the distinction of monophthong/diphthong. Chinese monolinguals separated two high vowels, /i/ and /u/, from the rest of vowels in the third dimension. The difference between English monolinguals and Chinese monolinguals evidenced the effect of listeners' native language on the vowel perception. The difference between Chinese monolinguals and bilingual listeners as well as the approximation of bilingual listeners' perceptual space to that of English monolinguals demonstrated the effect of L2 experience on listeners' perception of L2 vowels.

  9. Antibiotics and preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, H L; Ernest, J M

    2001-08-01

    Prematurity is a profound obstetric problem and to date no effective treatment or prevention strategies have been found. Many animal and clinical data exist to link infection and preterm labor, yet clinical trials examining the effect of antibiotic treatment in patients with patterns labor and intact membranes have been conflicting and disappointing. Beyond treatment to reduce neonatal group B streptococcal infection, sexually transmitted infections, symptomatic bacterial vaginosis, and bacteriuria, no clinical data exist at this time to support the routine use of antibiotics in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes.

  10. [Preterm delivery and asymptomatic bacteriuria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Jesús Pérez; Meza, Jesús Gaitán; Reyes, Juan Carlos Lona; Barón, Guadalupe Panduro; Hernández, Juan Francisco Castro

    2008-08-01

    The relation between asymptomatic bacteriuria and spontaneous preterm birth is a controversial topic. To determine the association between asymptomatic bacteriuria and spontaneous preterm birth. Case-control study in 92 preterm pregnancies and 92 term pregnancies at the Hospital Civil de Guadalajara Dr. Juan I. Menchaca between June 2005 and January 2006. Asymptomatic bacteriuria as a risk factor of spontaneous preterm birth was investigated. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was more frequent in cases (p = 0.048); with a trend to be associated with preterm birth (OR: 2.39; CI 95: 1.10-5.28). From 92 preterm newborns, 21 (22.8%) had less than 32 weeks, and 71 (77.2%) +/- 32 weeks. Most frequent isolated bacteriae were: E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. mirabilis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria had a moderate trend to be associated with preterm birth, and infectious processes are only a part of its multiple etiologies.

  11. Language, motor and cognitive development of extremely preterm children: modeling individual growth trajectories over the first three years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansavini, Alessandra; Pentimonti, Jill; Justice, Laura; Guarini, Annalisa; Savini, Silvia; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Survival rate of extremely low gestational age (ELGA) newborns has increased over 80% in the last 15 years, but its consequences on the short- and longer-term developmental competencies may be severe. The aim of this study was to describe growth trajectories of linguistic, motor and cognitive skills among ELGA children, compared to full-term (FT) peers, from the first to the third year of life, a crucial period for development. Growth curve analysis was used to examine individual and group differences in terms of initial status at 12 months and rate of growth through the second and the third year of life with five points of assessment. Twenty-eight monolingual Italian children, of whom 17 were ELGA (mean GA 25.7 weeks) and 11 were FT children, were assessed through the BSID-III at 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months for language skills and at 12, 24 and 30 months for motor and cognitive skills. ELGA children presented significantly lower scores than FT peers in language, motor and cognitive skills and they did not overcome their disadvantage by 3 years, even if their corrected age was taken into account. Concerning growth curves, in motor development a significant increasing divergence was found showing a Matthew effect with the preterm sample falling further behind the FT sample. In linguistic and cognitive development, instead, a stable gap between the two samples was found. In addition, great inter-individual differences in rate of change were observed for language development in both samples. Our findings highlight the theoretical and clinical relevance of analyzing, through growth curve analyses, the developmental trajectories of ELGA children in language skills taking into account their inter-individual variability also across motor and cognitive domains. After reading this article, the reader will interpret: (a) characteristics and growth trajectories of ELGA children from the first to the third year of life with respect to FT children in language, motor and

  12. The relationship between vocabulary and short-term memory measures in monolingual and bilingual speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that bilingualism may influence the efficiency of lexical access in adults. The goals of this research were (1) to compare bilingual and monolingual adults on their native-language vocabulary performance, and (2) to examine the relationship between short-term memory skills and vocabulary performance in monolinguals and bilinguals. In Experiment 1, English-speaking monolingual adults and simultaneous English–Spanish bilingual adults were administered measures of receptive English vocabulary and of phonological short-term memory. In Experiment 2, monolingual adults were compared to sequential English–Spanish bilinguals, and were administered the same measures as in Experiment 1, as well as a measure of expressive English vocabulary. Analyses revealed comparable levels of performance on the vocabulary and the short-term memory measures in the monolingual and the bilingual groups across both experiments. There was a stronger effect of digit-span in the bilingual group than in the monolingual group, with high-span bilinguals outperforming low-span bilinguals on vocabulary measures. Findings indicate that bilingual speakers may rely on short-term memory resources to support word retrieval in their native language more than monolingual speakers. PMID:22518091

  13. A preterm lifeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Zimmermann, Renathe; Petersen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To present an Early Discharge Programme model for preterm infants based on family-centred care, and to describe its impact on the infants and families. DESIGN AND METHODS: Methods included longitudinal growth assessments of 218 premature infants and a qualitative synthesis of two focus...

  14. Italian active volcanoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobertoSantacroce; RenawCristofolini; LuigiLaVolpe; GiovanniOrsi; MauroRosi

    2003-01-01

    The eruptive histories, styles of activity and general modes of operation of the main active Italian volcanoes,Etna, Vulcano, Stromboli, Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei and Ischia, are described in a short summary.

  15. The Italian activist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, Michele

    2012-02-01

    Italian theoretical physicist Giorgio Parisi has been an outspoken critic of Silvio Berlusconi's lack of support for science. He talks about how physics may fare under the new administration led by the economist Mario Monti.

  16. Factors associated with preterm, early preterm and late preterm birth in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nynke R van den Broek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Assessment of risk factors for preterm birth in a population with high incidence of preterm birth and HIV infection. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data for 2,149 women included in a community based randomized placebo controlled trial for the prevention of preterm birth (APPLe trial (ISRCTN84023116 with gestational age at birth determined through ultrasound measurement in early pregnancy. Multivariate Logistic Regression analyses to obtain models for three outcome variables: all preterm, early preterm, and late preterm birth. FINDINGS: No statistical differences were noted for the prevalence of HIV infection (p = 0.30 or syphilis (p = 0.12 between women who delivered preterm versus term. BMI (Adjusted OR 0.91 (0.85-0.97; p = 0.005 and weight gain (Adjusted OR 0.89 (0.82-0.97; p = 0.006 had an independent, protective effect. Previous preterm birth doubled the odds of preterm birth (Adjusted OR 2.13 (1.198-3.80; p = 0.01. Persistent malaria (despite malaria prophylaxis increased the risk of late preterm birth (Adjusted OR 1.99 (1.05-3.79; p = 0.04. Age <20 (Adjusted OR 1.73 (1.03-2.90; p = 0.04 and anemia (Adjusted OR 1.95 (1.08-3.52; p = 0.03 were associated with early preterm birth (<34 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Despite claims that HIV infection is an important cause of preterm birth in Africa, we found no evidence of an association in this population (unexposed to anti-retroviral treatment. Persistent malaria was associated with late preterm birth. Maternal undernourishment and anemia were independently associated with early preterm birth. The study did not assess whether the link was direct or whether a common precursor such as chronic infection was responsible for both maternal effects and early labour.

  17. Italian protesters win concessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2008-12-01

    Thousands of researchers and students who have taken to the streets in protest at reforms of Italian universities and public research institutes have won some limited concessions from the government. The protesters had argued that the reforms, which include significant budget cuts, would further weaken a research base that is already short of resources. The Italian government maintains that its reforms are necessary to modernize a university system that is corrupt and inefficient, but has reversed some of the cuts.

  18. Use of Monolingual and Bilingual Dictionaries among Students of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kavalir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of dictionary use in 32 firstyear students of English at the University of Ljubljana in the academic year 2009/2010 shows that students use a variety of dictionaries with a slight preponderance of monolingual dictionaries over bilingual ones. The bilingual dictionaries listed do not include some of the most recent and most comprehensive dictionaries while some of the most frequently used resources are quite modest sized. The students are already predominantly users of electronic and online dictionaries with a lower frequency of printed resources – a trend which is only likely to accelerate with the advent of new bilingual online dictionaries. These results have practical relevance for teachers in all sectors, from primary and secondary schools to universities, as they point towards a need for additional training in the use of bilingual dictionaries. The transition from printed to electronic and online resources can also be expected to induce changes in EFL methodology at all levels.

  19. Differential Language Functioning of Monolinguals and Bilinguals on Positive-Negative Emotional Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirzadeh, Shiela; Hajiabed, Mohammadreza

    2016-02-01

    The present interdisciplinary research investigates the differential emotional expression between Persian monolinguals and Persian-English bilinguals. In other words, the article was an attempt to answer the questions whether bilinguals and monolinguals differ in the expression of positive and negative emotions elicited through sad and happy autobiographies and measured through UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist. The result of this pioneering work indicated no significant difference between Persian monolinguals and Persian-English bilinguals in expressing happy memories while differences were observed on sad memories. Bilinguals expressed more negative emotions in their L2 than L1. This outcome support the dominant claim that second language is the preferred language for the expression of sad emotions since it is the language of emotional detachment and distance. Further analysis on the number of words bilinguals and monolinguals used to express both sad and happy autobiographies indicated that bilinguals used more words in expressing both sad and happy autobiographies.

  20. Executive Function Differences Between Bilingual Arabic-English and Monolingual Arabic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than monolinguals, while others showed that monolinguals perform significantly better. Other studies showed no significant differences between both groups, findings which were argued to be due to methodological issues. A total of 50 Arabic monolingual and Arabic-English bilingual children ranging 7-10 years of age participated in the current study. Six executive function tasks, divided into two categories (inhibition of improper response tasks, and behavioral operational control tasks), were administered. Results did not show significant differences for most executive functions.

  1. Compositions in English: Comparing the Works of Monolinguals, Passive Bilinguals, and Active Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Eka Rini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to see whether the subjects’ “monolingualism” and “bilingualism” (monolinguals learning an L2 and bilinguals learning an L3 influence their study on English, especially writing. The term “bilinguals” also means “multilinguals” in this study. Bilinguals in this paper are classified into two; first, passive bilinguals who are only exposed to another local language, besides speaking Bahasa Indonesia at home, and second, active bilinguals who are exposed to and also speak other language(s and Bahasa Indonesia at home. The findings show that the monolingual and the active bilingual are better than the passive one; the active bilingual is better than the monolingual. However, if the passive and the active bilingual are combined, the monolingual is better than the bilinguals.

  2. Language proficiency and executive control in proactive interference: evidence from monolingual and bilingual children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer intrusions from previous lists even though they recalled the same number of words. For the adults, bilinguals recalled more words than monolinguals when the scores were corrected for differences in vocabulary. In addition, there was a strong effect of vocabulary in which higher vocabulary participants recalled more words irrespective of language group. These results point to the important role of vocabulary in verbal performance and memory. They also suggest that bilinguals may compensate for weaker language proficiency with their greater executive control to achieve the same or better levels of performance as monolinguals.

  3. Dublin City University at CLEF 2004: experiments in monolingual, bilingual and multilingual retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Gareth J.F.; Burke, Michael; Judge, John; Khasin, Anna; Lam-Adesina, Adenike M.; Wagner, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    The Dublin City University group participated in the monolingual, bilingual and multilingual retrieval tasks this year. The main focus of our investigation this year was extending our retrieval system to document languages other than English, and completing the multilingual task comprising four languages: English, French, Russian and Finnish. Results from our French monolingual experiments indicate that working in French is more effective for retrieval than adopting document and topic translat...

  4. Exeter at CLEF 2003: Experiments with machine translation for monolingual, bilingual and multilingual retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Lam-Adesina, Adenike M.; Jones, Gareth J.F.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Exeter group participated in the monolingual, bilingual and multilingual-4 retrieval tasks this year. The main focus of our investigation this year was the small multilingual task comprising four languages, French, German, Spanish and English. We adopted a document translation strategy and tested four merging techniques to combine results from the separate document collections, as well as a merged collection strategy. For both the monolingual and bilingual tasks we explored ...

  5. Age of dementia diagnosis in community dwelling bilingual and monolingual Hispanic Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Deborah M; Gasquoine, Philip G; Weimer, Amy A

    2015-05-01

    Bilingualism has been reported to delay the age of retrospective report of first symptom in dementia. This study determined if the age of clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia occurred later for bilingual than monolingual, immigrant and U.S. born, Hispanic Americans. It involved a secondary analysis of the subset of 81 bi/monolingual dementia cases identified at yearly follow-up (1998 through 2008) using neuropsychological test results and objective diagnostic criteria from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging that involved a random sampling of community dwelling Hispanic Americans (N = 1789). Age of dementia diagnosis was analyzed in a 2 × 2 (bi/monolingualism × immigrant/U.S. born) ANOVA that space revealed both main effects and the interaction were non-significant. Mean age of dementia diagnosis was descriptively (but not significantly) higher in the monolingual (M = 81.10 years) than the bilingual (M = 79.31) group. Overall, bilingual dementia cases were significantly better educated than monolinguals, but U.S. born bilinguals and monolinguals did not differ significantly in education. Delays in dementia symptomatology pertaining to bilingualism are less likely to be found in studies: (a) that use age of clinical diagnosis vs. retrospective report of first dementia symptom as the dependent variable; and (b) involve clinical cases derived from community samples rather than referrals to specialist memory clinics.

  6. Italian in the Modern World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, Elvira, Ed.

    This booklet of 15 reprinted letters sent in response to a query concerning the actual use of Italian in the United States designates various areas of professional application. Some reference to current Italian publications is included. It is hoped that these letters will help promote the study of Italian in American schools. (RL)

  7. Invulnerable High Risk Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, David R.; And Others

    In an effort to look at factors moderating the negative effects of preterm low birthweight and perinatal illness, the study followed up (at 7 and 12 months of age) 50 preterm infants whose cumulative morbidity score was greater than 100 and/or who had a life threatening complication. Home visits provided ratings of maternal sensitivity, the…

  8. Neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Arend F.; Roze, Elise

    2011-01-01

    AIM To determine the distribution of cognitive and motor scores in preterm children, and to establish the influence of brain lesions and decreasing gestational age thereon. METHOD One hundred and six very preterm children (63 males, 43 females; gestational age 24.0-31.6wk; birthweight 480-2275g) wer

  9. Preterm Birth: Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…

  10. Preterm Birth: Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…

  11. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  12. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  13. [Risk predictors for preterm birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, Roberto Eduardo; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2009-04-01

    Among the clinical factors for preterm birth, some confer substantial increased risk, including a history of preterm birth, multiple gestation and vaginal bleeding in the second trimester. However, these factors are present only in a minority of women who ultimately deliver preterm and thus have low sensitivity. Cervical dilatation, effacement and position as determined by manual examination have been related to an increased risk of preterm birth but also suffer from low sensitivity and positive predictive values. Cervical length measured with transvaginal ultrasound has also been related to an increased risk of preterm birth as cervical length decreases. The reported sensitivity is better than other tests, but positive predictive value is low. The principal utility of the fetal fibronectin assay lies in its negative predictive value in symptomatic women. Increased sensitivity has been reported when cervical length is used in combination with fetal fibronectin.

  14. What Is Preterm Labor and Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 70% of preterm infants are born during the late-preterm time frame. 3 Preterm birth is the most common cause of infant death ... NICHD News and Spotlights Common tests for preterm birth not useful for ... in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...

  15. Italian Minister visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Passing through Geneva, the Italian Deputy Minister for Productive Activities, Dr. Adolfo Urso, came to visit the SM18 hall where LHC magnets are tested. From left to right: Adolfo Urso, Deputy Minister for Productive Activities, CERN's Roberto Saban, Director General Luciano Maiani, Mario Gerbino, Director General of the Ministry and Lucio Rossi, LHC Main Magnet and Superconductors Group Leader.

  16. Factors Associated with Preterm, Early Preterm and Late Preterm Birth in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Nynke R.; Jean-Baptiste, Rachel; Neilson, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessment of risk factors for preterm birth in a population with high incidence of preterm birth and HIV infection. Methods Secondary analysis of data for 2,149 women included in a community based randomized placebo controlled trial for the prevention of preterm birth (APPLe trial (ISRCTN84023116) with gestational age at birth determined through ultrasound measurement in early pregnancy. Multivariate Logistic Regression analyses to obtain models for three outcome variables: all preterm, early preterm, and late preterm birth. Findings No statistical differences were noted for the prevalence of HIV infection (p = 0.30) or syphilis (p = 0.12) between women who delivered preterm versus term. BMI (Adjusted OR 0.91 (0.85–0.97); p = 0.005) and weight gain (Adjusted OR 0.89 (0.82–0.97); p = 0.006) had an independent, protective effect. Previous preterm birth doubled the odds of preterm birth (Adjusted OR 2.13 (1.198–3.80); p = 0.01). Persistent malaria (despite malaria prophylaxis) increased the risk of late preterm birth (Adjusted OR 1.99 (1.05–3.79); p = 0.04). Age <20 (Adjusted OR 1.73 (1.03–2.90); p = 0.04) and anemia (Adjusted OR 1.95 (1.08–3.52); p = 0.03) were associated with early preterm birth (<34 weeks). Conclusions Despite claims that HIV infection is an important cause of preterm birth in Africa, we found no evidence of an association in this population (unexposed to anti-retroviral treatment). Persistent malaria was associated with late preterm birth. Maternal undernourishment and anemia were independently associated with early preterm birth. The study did not assess whether the link was direct or whether a common precursor such as chronic infection was responsible for both maternal effects and early labour. PMID:24595186

  17. Hemolysis in Preterm Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Robert D; Yaish, Hassan M

    2016-06-01

    Hemolysis can be an important cause of hyperbilirubinemia in premature and term neonates. It can result from genetic abnormalities intrinsic to or factors exogenous to normal to red blood cells (RBCs). Hemolysis can lead to a relatively rapid increase in total serum/plasma bilirubin, hyperbilirubinemia that is somewhat slow to fall with phototherapy, or hyperbilirubinemia that is likely to rebound after phototherapy. Laboratory methods for diagnosing hemolysis are more difficult to apply, or less conclusive, in preterm infants. Transfusion of donor RBCs can present a bilirubin load that must be metabolized. Genetic causes can be identified by next-generation sequencing panels.

  18. Care for women with prior preterm birth

    OpenAIRE

    Iams, Jay D.; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    Women who have delivered an infant between 16 and 36 weeks’ gestation have an increased risk of preterm birth in subsequent pregnancies. The risk increases with more than 1 preterm birth and is inversely proportional to the gestational age of the previous preterm birth. African American women have rates of recurrent preterm birth that are nearly twice that of women of other backgrounds. An approximate risk of recurrent preterm birth can be estimated by a comprehensive reproductive history, wi...

  19. Sequential congruency effects reveal differences in disengagement of attention for monolingual and bilingual young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, John G; Chung-Fat-Yim, Ashley; Friesen, Deanna C; Mak, Lorinda; Bialystok, Ellen

    2017-06-01

    Three studies examined the hypothesis that bilinguals can more rapidly disengage attention from irrelevant information than monolinguals by investigating the impact of previous trial congruency on performance in a simple flanker task. In Study 1, monolingual and bilingual young adults completed two versions of a flanker task. There were no differences between language groups on mean reaction time using standard analyses for congruent or incongruent trials or the size of the flanker effect. Sequential congruency effects (SCEs) however, which account for previous trial congruency, were smaller for bilinguals than for monolinguals. This finding was strongest at the shortest response-to-stimulus interval (RSI). Study 2 replicated this effect using a slightly different flanker task and a shorter RSI than study 1. Study 3 showed that at long RSIs, where behavioral SCE differences between groups disappear because of sufficient time to recover from the previous trial, event-related potentials demonstrated a continued influence of previous trial congruency for monolinguals but not bilinguals at both the N2 and the P3, replicating the reaction time effects in Studies 1 and 2. Together, these studies demonstrate that bilinguals experience less influence from previous trial congruency and have greater ability to disengage attention from the previous trial in order to focus attention on the current trial than is found for monolinguals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparing Bilingual to Monolingual Learners on English Spelling: A Meta-analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Quiroz, Blanca; Dixon, L Quentin; Joshi, R Malatesha

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on a meta-analysis to examine how bilingual learners compare with English monolingual learners on two English spelling outcomes: real-word spelling and pseudo-word spelling. Eighteen studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were retrieved. The study-level variables and characteristics (e.g. sample size, study design and research instruments) were coded, and 29 independent effect sizes across the 18 retrieved studies were analysed. We found that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on real-word spelling overall and more so in early grades, but monolinguals outperformed bilinguals on pseudo-word spelling. Further, bilinguals at risk for reading difficulties did better on real-word spelling than monolinguals at risk for reading difficulties. Having investigated systematic sources of variability in effect sizes, we conclude that in comparison with their monolingual peers, bilingual learners, especially those from alphabetic L1 backgrounds, are able to master constrained skills, such as English spelling, in the current instructional context. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Cerebral oximetry in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Gorm; Andresen, Bjørn; Plomgaard, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a major cause of death before 5 years of age and it is a major cause of neurodevelopmental impairment across the world. Preterm infants are most unstable during the transition between fetal and newborn life during the first days of life and most brain damage occurs...... in this period. The brain of the preterm infant is accessible for tissue oximetry by near-infrared spectroscopy. Cerebral oximetry has the potential to improve the long-term outcome by helping to tailor the support of respiration and circulation to the individual infant's needs, but the evidence is still lacking...

  2. Preterm labor and premature birth: Are you at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... labor and premature birth: Are you at risk? Preterm labor and premature birth: Are you at risk? ... for preterm labor and premature birth. What are preterm labor and premature birth? Preterm and premature mean ...

  3. Italian library associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Petaros-Kmetec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, five library associations of national significance function at present. There are special associations of ecclesiastic libraries, prison libraries, architecture libraries and libraries with artistic material. The role of the general national association, covering all types of libraries including documentation centres, is played by the Italian Library Association. It strive for the development of a contemporary Italian library system comparable to international standards, monitors library legislation, promotes education for librarians and keeps the librarians and the broader public informed about the importance of libraries and librarianship for society. The activity and efforts of the association are reflected through their website offering much information and links to similar sites. ILA presents and realises its activities for both, the librarians and the public users. A great deal of actions promoting libraries and the Library Association might be interesting for Slovenia and perhaps transferred to our environment.

  4. Crosslinguistic Influence at the Syntax-Pragmatics Interface: Subjects and Objects in English-Italian Bilingual and Monolingual Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serratrice, Ludovica; Sorace, Antonella; Paoli, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    The findings from a number of recent studies indicate that, even in cases of successful bilingual first language acquisition, the possibility remains of a certain degree of crosslinguistic influence when the choice between syntactic options is affected by discourse pragmatics. In this study we focussed on the use of referring expressions, prime…

  5. Language-experience facilitates discrimination of /d-th/ in monolingual and bilingual acquisition of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundara, Megha; Polka, Linda; Genesee, Fred

    2006-06-01

    To trace how age and language experience shape the discrimination of native and non-native phonetic contrasts, we compared 4-year-olds learning either English or French or both and simultaneous bilingual adults on their ability to discriminate the English /d-th/ contrast. Findings show that the ability to discriminate the native English contrast improved with age. However, in the absence of experience with this contrast, discrimination of French children and adults remained unchanged during development. Furthermore, although simultaneous bilingual and monolingual English adults were comparable, children exposed to both English and French were poorer at discriminating this contrast when compared to monolingual English-learning 4-year-olds. Thus, language experience facilitates perception of the English /d-th/ contrast and this facilitation occurs later in development when English and French are acquired simultaneously. The difference between bilingual and monolingual acquisition has implications for language organization in children with simultaneous exposure.

  6. Effects of semantic richness on lexical processing in monolinguals and bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Taler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of number of senses (NoS, a measure of semantic richness, was examined in monolingual English speakers (n=17 and bilingual speakers of English and French (n=18. Participants completed lexical decision tasks while EEG was recorded: monolinguals completed the task in English only, and bilinguals completed two lexical decision tasks, one in English and one in French. Effects of NoS were observed in both participant groups, with shorter response times and reduced N400 amplitudes to high relative to low NoS items. These effects were stronger in monolinguals than in bilinguals. Moreover, we found dissociations across languages in bilinguals, with stronger behavioral NoS effects in English and stronger event-related potential (ERP NoS effects in French. This finding suggests that different aspects of linguistic performance may be stronger in each of a bilingual’s two languages.

  7. Effects of Semantic Richness on Lexical Processing in Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taler, Vanessa; López Zunini, Rocío; Kousaie, Shanna

    2016-01-01

    The effect of number of senses (NoS), a measure of semantic richness, was examined in monolingual English speakers (n = 17) and bilingual speakers of English and French (n = 18). Participants completed lexical decision tasks while EEG was recorded: monolinguals completed the task in English only, and bilinguals completed two lexical decision tasks, one in English and one in French. Effects of NoS were observed in both participant groups, with shorter response times and reduced N400 amplitudes to high relative to low NoS items. These effects were stronger in monolinguals than in bilinguals. Moreover, we found dissociations across languages in bilinguals, with stronger behavioral NoS effects in English and stronger event-related potential (ERP) NoS effects in French. This finding suggests that different aspects of linguistic performance may be stronger in each of a bilingual’s two languages. PMID:27524963

  8. Who can communicate with whom? Language experience affects infants' evaluation of others as monolingual or multilingual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Casey E; Onishi, Kristine H; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2015-01-01

    Adults recognize that people can understand more than one language. However, it is unclear whether infants assume other people understand one or multiple languages. We examined whether monolingual and bilingual 20-month-olds expect an unfamiliar person to understand one or more than one language. Two speakers told a listener the location of a hidden object using either the same or two different languages. When different languages were spoken, monolinguals looked longer when the listener searched correctly, bilinguals did not; when the same language was spoken, both groups looked longer for incorrect searches. Infants rely on their prior language experience when evaluating the language abilities of a novel individual. Monolingual infants assume others can understand only one language, although not necessarily the infants' own; bilinguals do not. Infants' assumptions about which community of conventions people belong to may allow them to recognize effective communicative partners and thus opportunities to acquire language, knowledge, and culture.

  9. Spatial role-taking ability among bilingual and monolingual kindergarten children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrell, J

    1987-03-01

    Fifty-seven children enrolled in a bilingual Spanish kindergarten program, assigned to appropriate language and age-related groups, were shown a graduated sequence of increasingly complex arrangements of multicolored blocks and were asked to judge how the original arrangement would look from the opposite and the side perspectives. A series of 2(younger vs. older) X 3(Spanish Monolingual vs. English Monolingual vs. Spanish-English Bilingual) ANOVAs for each of the types of responses (correct, incorrect, egocentric) showed a significant main effect for age on the incorrect answers. No differences associated with egocentrism were obtained. There was no relationship between age and success with simple and complex spatial tasks. As opposed to other studies that suggest certain cognitive advantages for young bilingual children, this study indicates no perceptible differences associated with being monolingual or bilingual at the ages of 5 and 6 for spatial tasks.

  10. Women in Italian astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    This document gives some quantitative facts about the role of women in Italian astronomy. More than 26% of Italian IAU members are women: this is the largest fraction among the world leading countries in astronomy. Most of this high fraction is due to their presence in INAF, where women make up 32% of the research staff (289 out of 908) and 40% of the technical/administrative staff (173 out of 433); the percentage is slightly lower among permanent research staff (180 out of 599, about 30%). The presence of women is lower in the Universities (27 out of 161, about 17%, among staff). In spite of these (mildly) positive facts, we notice that similarly to other countries (e.g. USA and Germany) career prospects for Italian astronomers are clearly worse for women than for men. Within INAF, the fraction of women is about 35-40% among non-permanent position, 36% for Investigators, 17% for Associato/Primo Ricercatore, and only 13% among Ordinario/Dirigente di Ricerca. The situation is even worse at University (only 6% ...

  11. Language Skills and Reading Comprehension in English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children in Grades 2-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Rebecca D.; Proctor, C. Patrick; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hartranft, Anna M.; Doyle, Brie; Zelinke, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated language skills and reading comprehension with English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children in grades 2-5. Of the 377 children in the sample, 207 were English monolingual and 170 were Spanish-English bilingual. Data were collected within a cohort-sequential design for two academic years in the fall and…

  12. Language Skills and Reading Comprehension in English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children in Grades 2-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Rebecca D.; Proctor, C. Patrick; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hartranft, Anna M.; Doyle, Brie; Zelinke, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated language skills and reading comprehension with English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children in grades 2-5. Of the 377 children in the sample, 207 were English monolingual and 170 were Spanish-English bilingual. Data were collected within a cohort-sequential design for two academic years in the fall and…

  13. Phonological Whole-Word Measures in 3-Year-Old Bilingual Children and Their Age-Matched Monolingual Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunta, Ferenc; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian; Ingram, David

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated phonological whole-word measures and consonant accuracy in bilingual and monolingual children to investigate how target approximations drive phonological acquisition. The study included eight bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking 3-year-olds and their monolingual peers (eight Spanish and eight American English).…

  14. Mnemonic Value of Orthography for Vocabulary Learning in Monolinguals and Language Minority English-Speaking College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Katharine Pace; Ehri, Linnea C.; Lauterbach, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined whether exposure to spellings of new vocabulary words improved monolinguals' and language minority (LM) students' (n = 25) memory for pronunciations, meanings, and spellings of the words. College students who are native English-speaking monolinguals (n = 12) and LM students who learned English as their second language (n = 13)…

  15. Differences between Monolinguals and Bilinguals/Males and Females in English Reading Comprehension and Reading Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharrad, Mohammad; Sadeghi Benis, Aram Reza

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims at finding the differences between bilingual and monolingual learners across gender in the use of cognitive, metacognitive, and total reading strategies, as well as reading comprehension ability. To this end, 50 Persian-Turkish bilinguals and 36 Persian monolinguals participated in the study. A standard test of reading…

  16. The relationship of socioeconomic status to preterm contractions and preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Nedra S

    2012-11-01

    Spontaneous preterm labor precedes approximately 50% of preterm births. One to 10% of pregnant women are hospitalized for preterm labor. This study examines the relationship of socioeconomic indicators, family income, education and type of insurance, with preterm contractions and subsequent preterm delivery. Data were from the pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system on 107,926 women who had singleton births during 2000-2002. Data on preterm contractions, family income, and type of insurance during pregnancy were from the maternal questionnaire. Maternal education and gestational age were derived from birth certificate data. Predicted marginal probabilities from logistic regression models were used to calculate the adjusted cumulative incidence and cumulative risk ratio of preterm contractions and preterm delivery. Median annual household income was approximately $30,000. More than one-fourth (28.1 95% CI: 27.7, 28.6) of women experienced preterm contractions, and these women were 3 times as likely (18 vs. 5%) to deliver preterm as women without preterm contractions. Only 58% of women who delivered preterm reported contractions. Lower income and Medicaid-paid care were independently associated with an increased risk of preterm contractions but not with preterm delivery. The association of lower income and Medicaid enrollment with preterm contractions but not preterm delivery suggests that SES is associated with the initiation of the pathway to spontaneous preterm delivery rather than access to or the success of interventions to prevent delivery following the onset of contractions.

  17. THE COMPARISON OF THE MONOLINGUAL AND BILINGUAL JAPANESE STUDENTS IN THE ENGLISH ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ienneke Indra Dewi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Article is intended to know whether the monolingual or bilingual Japanese students are betterin the English achievement and whether the exposure of English influences the ability. The data weretaken from 60 Japanese students who are supposed to fill in the questionnaires regarding theirlanguage background. The English achievement data were taken from the students’ scores in SeniorHigh School National Examination and the data further were compared to the TOEFL English score.The analysis is carried out using ANOVA analysis. This research indicates that monolinguals arebetter learners in English and exposure is proved to influence the students’ ability in English.

  18. Pseudothrombocytopenia in a preterm neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Robert D; Sola, Martha C; Rimsza, Lisa M; McMahan, Michael J; Calhoun, Darlene A

    2004-07-01

    Severe and prolonged thrombocytopenia is not uncommon among ill preterm infants. Pseudothrombocytopenia, which has the appearance of severe and prolonged thrombocytopenia, has not been described in this population. We observed a preterm neonate who had EDTA-independent pseudothrombocytopenia and conclude that this condition should be considered when severe and prolonged thrombocytopenia occurs in a neonate in the absence of clinical signs of platelet-type hemorrhage.

  19. Genomics of Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Muglia, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling human birth timing at term, or resulting in preterm birth, have been the focus of considerable investigation, but limited insights have been gained over the past 50 years. In part, these processes have remained elusive because of divergence in reproductive strategies and physiology shown by model organisms, making extrapolation to humans uncertain. Here, we summarize the evolution of progesterone signaling and variation in pregnancy maintenance and termination. We use this comparative physiology to support the hypothesis that selective pressure on genomic loci involved in the timing of parturition have shaped human birth timing, and that these loci can be identified with comparative genomic strategies. Previous limitations imposed by divergence of mechanisms provide an important new opportunity to elucidate fundamental pathways of parturition control through increasing availability of sequenced genomes and associated reproductive physiology characteristics across diverse organisms. PMID:25646385

  20. Smoking and Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Rachel; Bernal, Andrés López

    2015-08-01

    Premature birth is a significant global problem and the leading cause of newborn deaths. Tobacco smoking has been associated with premature birth for over 50 years. The mechanisms through which smoking exerts its effects on pregnancy outcomes remain unclear. In this review, we discuss rates of prematurity and smoking in pregnancy, the evidence of a causal relationship between tobacco and preterm birth, and proposed biochemical pathways through which the interaction is mediated. The suggested mechanisms include nicotine-induced vasoconstriction, carbon monoxide-induced fetal hypoxia, cadmium disruption of calcium signaling, altered steroid hormone production, disruption of prostaglandin synthesis, and changed responses to oxytocin. The relative importance of each of these pathways is yet to be ascertained. Further research is necessary to explore the mechanisms through which smoking exerts its effect on gestational length and the process of parturition. Moreover, the risks of nicotine replacement in pregnancy should be investigated further. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Bilingual Children's Long-Term Outcomes in English as a Second Language: Language Environment Factors Shape Individual Differences in Catching up with Monolinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Jia, Ruiting

    2017-01-01

    Bilingual children experience more variation in their language environment than monolingual children and this impacts their rate of language development with respect to monolinguals. How long it takes for bilingual children learning English as a second language (L2) to display similar abilities to monolingual age-peers has been estimated to be 4-6…

  2. Italian Textile Machinery Seminar in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT) and the Italian Trade Commission will hold a technological seminar on "Italian textile machinery: the way to improve Bangladesh textile competitiveness"

  3. Infection, antibiotics, and preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locksmith, G; Duff, P

    2001-10-01

    The relationship between genital tract infection and preterm delivery has been established on the basis of biochemical, microbiological, and clinical evidence. In theory, pathogenic bacteria may ascend from the lower reproductive tract into the uterus, and the resulting inflammation leads to preterm labor, rupture of the membranes, and birth. A growing body of evidence suggests that preterm labor and/rupture of the membranes are triggered by micro-organisms in the genital tract and by the host response to these organisms, ie, elaboration of cytokines and proteolytic enzymes. Epidemiologic and in vitro studies do not prove a cause-and-effect relationship between infection and preterm birth. However, the preponderance of evidence indicates that treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic lower genital tract infections such as bacterial vaginosis (BV), trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia will lower the risk of preterm delivery. Based on current evidence, pregnant women who note an abnormal vaginal discharge should be tested for BV, trichomonas, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. Those who test positive should be treated appropriately. A 3- to 7-day course of antibiotic treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy is clinically indicated to reduce the risk of pyelonephritis and preterm delivery. Routine screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea should be performed for women at high risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases. The practice of routine screening for BV in asymptomatic women who are at low risk for preterm delivery cannot be supported based on evidence from the literature. Routine screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy is cost-effective, particularly in high-prevalence populations. The results of antibiotic trials for the treatment of preterm labor have been inconsistent. In the absence of reasonable evidence that antimicrobial therapy leads to significant prolongation of pregnancy in the setting of preterm labor

  4. Funding fears spark Italian protests

    CERN Multimedia

    Abbott, A

    2001-01-01

    150 Italian scientists took part in a symbolic funeral in Milan for Italian research. Scientists are worried that the new government will reduce support for basic research. Rumours that budgets will be cut are being confirmed and last week the government rejected the 3-year plan of the National Research Council, which had proposed an expansion of staff (1/2 page).

  5. Maternal race and intergenerational preterm birth recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Marcela C; Lee, Jong Hyung; Grant, Jacqueline H; Miles, Gandarvaka; Stoddard, Gregory J; Chapman, Derek A; Manuck, Tracy A

    2017-10-01

    Preterm birth is a complex disorder with a heritable genetic component. Studies of primarily White women born preterm show that they have an increased risk of subsequently delivering preterm. This risk of intergenerational preterm birth is poorly defined among Black women. Our objective was to evaluate and compare intergenerational preterm birth risk among non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White mothers. This was a population-based retrospective cohort study, using the Virginia Intergenerational Linked Birth File. All non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White mothers born in Virginia 1960 through 1996 who delivered their first live-born, nonanomalous, singleton infant ≥20 weeks from 2005 through 2009 were included. We assessed the overall gestational age distribution between non-Hispanic Black and White mothers born term and preterm (preterm (preterm birth, 34-36 weeks; and early preterm birth, preterm birth among all eligible births; and (2) suspected spontaneous preterm birth among births to women with medical complications (eg, diabetes, hypertension, preeclampsia and thus higher risk for a medically indicated preterm birth). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds of preterm birth and spontaneous preterm birth by maternal race and maternal gestational age after adjusting for confounders including maternal education, maternal age, smoking, drug/alcohol use, and infant gender. Of 173,822 deliveries captured in the intergenerational birth cohort, 71,676 (41.2%) women met inclusion criteria for this study. Of the entire cohort, 30.0% (n = 21,467) were non-Hispanic Black and 70.0% were non-Hispanic White mothers. Compared to non-Hispanic White mothers, non-Hispanic Black mothers were more likely to have been born late preterm (6.8% vs 3.7%) or early preterm (2.8 vs 1.0%), P preterm were not at an increased risk of early or late preterm delivery compared to non-Hispanic White mothers born term. The risk of early preterm birth was most

  6. Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Performance of Monolingual and Bilingual Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…

  7. Feature binding and the processing of global-local shapes in bilingual and monolingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottini, Milvia; Pieroni, Laura; Spataro, Pietro; Devescovi, Antonella; Longobardi, Emiddia; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of bilingualism and age on a color-shape binding task (assessing visual working memory) and a global-local task (assessing inhibitory processes) in a sample of 55 bilingual and 49 monolingual children 8 and 10 years old. In the color-shape binding task, corrected recognition scores increased in older children; bilingual children performed better than monolinguals in the shape-only condition, but the two groups were equally accurate in the color-only and combination conditions. In the global-local task, accuracy was higher in bilingual than in monolingual children, particularly on incongruent trials; monolingual children showed a strong global precedence effect (higher accuracy in the global than in the local conditions and greater global-to-local interference), whereas bilingual children exhibited a small, but significant, local precedence effect (higher accuracy in the local than in the global conditions and greater local-to-global interference). These findings confirm and extend previous evidence indicating that the bilingualism advantage is more pronounced in working memory tasks involving inhibitory processes.

  8. Bilingual and monolingual children attend to different cues when learning new words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana eColunga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The way in which children learn language can vary depending on their language environment. Previous work suggests that bilingual children may be more sensitive to pragmatic cues from a speaker when learning new words than monolingual children are. On the other hand, monolingual children may rely more heavily on object properties than bilingual children do. In this study we manipulate these two sources of information within the same paradigm, using eye gaze as a pragmatic cue and similarity along different dimensions as an object cue. In the crucial condition, object and pragmatic cues were inconsistent with each other. Our results showed that in this ambiguous condition monolingual children attend more to object property cues whereas bilingual children attend more to pragmatic cues. Control conditions showed that monolingual children were sensitive to eye gaze and bilingual children were sensitive to similarity by shape; it was only when the cues were inconsistent that children’s preference for one or the other cue was apparent. Our results suggest that children learn to weigh different cues depending on their relative informativeness in their environment

  9. Executive Function Differences between Bilingual ArabicEnglish and Monolingual Arabic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than…

  10. Word Mapping and Executive Functioning in Young Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Barac, Raluca; Blaye, Agnes; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2010-01-01

    The effect of bilingualism on the cognitive skills of young children was investigated by comparing performance of 162 children who belonged to one of two age groups (approximately 3- and 4.5-year-olds) and one of three language groups on a series of tasks examining executive control and word mapping. The children were monolingual English speakers,…

  11. Priming a Perspective in Spanish Monolingual Children: The Use of Syntactic Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez, Perla B.; Shimpi, Priya M.; Waterfall, Heidi R.; Huttenlocher, Janellen

    2009-01-01

    We used a syntactic priming paradigm to show priming effects for active and passive forms in monolingual Spanish-speaking four- and five-year-olds. In a baseline experiment, we examined children's use of the "fue"-passive form and found it was virtually non-existent in their speech, although they produced important elements of the form. Children…

  12. Narrative Development among Language-Minority Children: The Role of Bilingual versus Monolingual Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Shaul, Yehudit

    2013-01-01

    The development of script schema, as a source of narrative knowledge, is an essential stage in this knowledge construction. This study focused on the role of bilingual versus monolingual preschool education in the development of script schema knowledge in Russian (L1) and Hebrew (L2) among Russian/Hebrew-speaking children in Israel. The preschool…

  13. Developmental and communicative factors affecting VOT production in English and Arabic bilingual and monolingual speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ghada

    2001-05-01

    VOT patterns were investigated in the production of three Lebanese-English bilinguals' aged 5, 7, and 10, six aged-matched monolingual controls from the bilinguals' immediate communities, and the parents of bilinguals and monolinguals. The aim was to examine the extent to which children exposed to two languages acquire separate VOT patterns for each language and to determine the factors that affect such acquisition. Results showed that VOT patterns for each bilingual child differed significantly across the two languages. But while the contrast in English resembled a monolingual-like model, that for Arabic exhibited persisting developmental features; explanations were offered in terms of the relationship between input and complexity of voicing lead production. Evidence was used from developmental changes that were noted for two of the bilingual subjects over a period of 18 months. English code-switches produced by the bilinguals during Arabic sessions exhibited different VOT patterns from those produced during English sessions, which underlined the importance of taking the language context into consideration. Finally, results from monolinguals and bilinguals showed that the short lag categories for the two languages were different despite a degree of overlap. Such findings require finer divisions of the three universal VOT categories to account for language-specific patterns.

  14. The Use of Spanish by a Monolingual Kindergarten Teacher to Support English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana C.; Gilmetdinova, Alsu; Pelaez-Morales, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a case study of a kindergarten, monolingual teacher and how she used Spanish, the home language of her Latino/a students who are English language learners (ELLs), in the classroom. The article focuses on how the teacher develops and uses her emerging knowledge of Spanish to scaffold students' learning, specifically when…

  15. Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Performance of Monolingual and Bilingual Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…

  16. Phoneme awareness, vocabulary and word decoding in monolingual and bilingual Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Leseman, P.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilingually raised children in the Netherlands, who receive literacy instruction in their second language only, show an advantage on Dutch phoneme-awareness tasks compared with monolingual Dutch-speaking children. Language performance of a group of 47

  17. Finding "le mot juste": Differences between Bilingual and Monolingual Children's Lexical Access in Comprehension and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Stephanie; Nicoladis, Elena

    2009-01-01

    By school age, some bilingual children can score equivalently to monolinguals in receptive vocabulary but still lag in expressive vocabulary. In this study, we test whether bilingual children have greater difficulty with lexical access, as has been reported for adult bilinguals. School-aged French-English bilingual children were given tests of…

  18. Differences in Word Recognition between Early Bilinguals and Monolinguals: Behavioral and ERP Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Minna; Hulten, Annika; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral and brain responses (ERPs) of bilingual word recognition to three fundamental psycholinguistic factors, frequency, morphology, and lexicality, in early bilinguals vs. monolinguals. Earlier behavioral studies have reported larger frequency effects in bilinguals' nondominant vs. dominant language and in some studies…

  19. Defying Monolingual Education: Alternative Bilingual Discourse Practices in Selected Coloured Schools in Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Felix

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores how bilingual learners and teachers challenge the monolingual discourses prescribed in language education policy and models in pursuit of voice and agency in classroom interaction. Through an examination of observation, interview and classroom interaction data in selected coloured primary and secondary schools in Cape Town, the…

  20. A Comparative Study of Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies among Monolingual and Bilingual Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Keshavarz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some researchers argue that linguistic knowledge of one’s native language facilitates the acquisition of additional languages (see, for example, Cenoz & Valencia, 1994; Grenfell & Harris, 2006; Hakuta, 1990; Keshavarz & Astaneh, 2004. To contribute to this line of research, the present study investigated the probability of significant differences among monolingual and bilingual EFL learners in their awareness and perceived use of metacognitive reading strategies and in the subscales of these strategies (i.e., global, supportive, and problem-solving strategies. To achieve this goal, 100 Persian monolingual and 100 Azeri Turkish-Persian bilingual male and female second-year university students, majoring in English Literature, ELT, and Translation with the age range of 20-28 participated in the study.  Both groups took the Nelson Test of English language proficiency and completed the Metacognitive Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI questionnaire. Participants’ reading strategy use was determined by asking them to rate their self-perceived reading ability in English on a 5-point Likert scale. The results of data analyses revealed significant differences between monolingual and bilingual learners in the use of overall and global metacognitive reading strategies with bilingual learners having greater awareness of these two strategies. However, no significant difference was found between monolingual and bilingual participants in the use of problem-solving and supportive metacognitive strategies.

  1. Guidelines for the Establishment and Development of Monolingual Thesauri for Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    These guidelines are applicable in the sector of information and documentation for the preparation and development of monolingual thesauri for information storage and retrieval, irrespective of the technical field being dealt with. No provision has been made for mathematical and structural chemical formulae. The guidelines are drafted for general…

  2. Monolingual and Bilingual Preschoolers' Use of Gestures to Interpret Ambiguous Pronouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow, W. Quin

    2015-01-01

    Young children typically do not use order-of-mention to resolve ambiguous pronouns, but may do so if given additional cues, such as gestures. Additionally, this ability to utilize gestures may be enhanced in bilingual children, who may be more sensitive to such cues due to their unique language experience. We asked monolingual and bilingual…

  3. Executive Function Differences between Bilingual ArabicEnglish and Monolingual Arabic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than…

  4. The Use of Spanish by a Monolingual Kindergarten Teacher to Support English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana C.; Gilmetdinova, Alsu; Pelaez-Morales, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a case study of a kindergarten, monolingual teacher and how she used Spanish, the home language of her Latino/a students who are English language learners (ELLs), in the classroom. The article focuses on how the teacher develops and uses her emerging knowledge of Spanish to scaffold students' learning, specifically when…

  5. Phoneme awareness, vocabulary and word decoding in monolingual and bilingual Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Leseman, P.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilingually raised children in the Netherlands, who receive literacy instruction in their second language only, show an advantage on Dutch phoneme-awareness tasks compared with monolingual Dutch-speaking children. Language performance of a group of 47

  6. The Influence of Emotional Arousal on Affective Priming in Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarriba, Jeanette; Canary, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    The activation of arousal components for emotion-laden words in English (e.g. kiss, death) was examined in two groups of participants: English monolinguals and Spanish-English bilinguals. In Experiment 1, emotion-laden words were rated on valence and perceived arousal. These norms were used to construct prime-target word pairs that were used in…

  7. Differences in Word Recognition between Early Bilinguals and Monolinguals: Behavioral and ERP Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Minna; Hulten, Annika; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Cunillera, Toni; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the behavioral and brain responses (ERPs) of bilingual word recognition to three fundamental psycholinguistic factors, frequency, morphology, and lexicality, in early bilinguals vs. monolinguals. Earlier behavioral studies have reported larger frequency effects in bilinguals' nondominant vs. dominant language and in some studies…

  8. Post-Monolingual Research Methodology: Multilingual Researchers Democratizing Theorizing and Doctoral Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Singh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the ground-breaking research in the study of languages in doctoral education. It argues for democratizing the production and dissemination of original contributions to knowledge through activating and mobilizing multilingual Higher Degree Researchers’ (HDRs capabilities for theorizing through them using their full linguistic repertoire. This paper contributes to this study’s development of post-monolingual research methodology which provides a theoretic-pedagogical framework for multilingual HDRs (a to use their full linguistic repertoire in their research; (b to develop their capabilities for theorizing and (c to construct potentially valuable theoretical tools using metaphors, images, concepts and modes of critique. This paper is based on a longitudinal program of collaborative research whereby monolingual Anglophone and multilingual HDRs jointly developed their capabilities for theorizing through producing Anglo-Chinese analytical tools, and the associated pedagogies for using their languages in doctoral research. This longitudinal research program has been undertaken in the field of doctoral education to further a defining feature of democracy, namely linguistic diversity. This research has been conducted with the aims of promoting the multilingualism of Australian universities and activating linguistic communities of scholars to use their full linguistic repertoire in their research. The main finding arising from this program of research has been the development of post-monolingual research methodology which (a uses the divergences within and between languages to undertake theorizing and (b in co-existence with the tensions posed by monolingualism, especially the insistence on using extant theories available in only one language. Doctoral pedagogies of intellectual/racial equality provide multilingual HDRs with insights into the debates about the geopolitics governing the use of languages in the production and

  9. Visit of the Italian President

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    "CERN stands as the demonstration of the great results that science can achieve [...] when it succeeds in getting all the main players in international scientific cooperation involved," stated the President of the Italian Republic, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, in front of an overcrowded and enthusiastic Main Auditorium. The President visited CERN on 2nd December, and met the CERN directorate as well as the Italians at CERN. With about 1500 Italians working at CERN, which is one sixth of the total personnel, they are the second largest nationality at CERN. The Italian President visited the CMS assembly hall and the LHC superconducting magnet test hall before meeting the CERN community, in particular Italian personnel, in the main auditorium. There he emphasised the role of CERN as a transnational model for research which not only achieved great results in science but is also a powerful vehicle for progress in other fields. President Ciampi visits the LHC superconducting test hall together with Luciano Maiani and Lu...

  10. Vowels, consonants, and lexical tones: Sensitivity to phonological variation in monolingual Mandarin and bilingual English-Mandarin toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wewalaarachchi, Thilanga D; Wong, Liang Hui; Singh, Leher

    2017-03-02

    Although bilingual learners represent the linguistic majority, much less is known about their lexical processing in comparison with monolingual learners. In the current study, bilingual and monolingual toddlers were compared on their ability to recognize familiar words. Children were presented with correct pronunciations and mispronunciations, with the latter involving a vowel, consonant, or tone substitution. A robust ability to recognize words when their labels were correctly pronounced was observed in both groups. Both groups also exhibited a robust ability to reject vowel, tone, and consonant mispronunciations as possible labels for familiar words. However, time course analyses revealed processing differences based on language background; relative to Mandarin monolinguals, Mandarin-English bilingual toddlers demonstrated reduced efficiency in recognizing correctly pronounced words. With respect to mispronunciations, Mandarin-English bilingual learners demonstrated reduced sensitivity to tone mispronunciations relative to Mandarin monolingual toddlers. Moreover, the relative cost of mispronunciations differed for monolingual and bilingual toddlers. Monolingual toddlers demonstrated least sensitivity to consonants followed by vowels and tones, whereas bilingual toddlers demonstrated least sensitivity to tone, followed by consonants and then by vowels. Time course analyses revealed that both groups were sensitive to vowel and consonant variation. Results reveal both similarities and differences in monolingual and bilingual learners' processing of familiar words in Mandarin Chinese.

  11. Spontaneous preterm birth : prevention, management and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Gustaaf Michiel

    2001-01-01

    Preterm birth (birth before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy) is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Strategies to prevent and adequately treat preterm labour, in order to postpone birth and to identify risk factors for neonatal damage due to preterm birth, have to be developed by obs

  12. Spontaneous preterm birth : prevention, management and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Gustaaf Michiel

    1999-01-01

    Preterm birth (birth before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy) is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Strategies to prevent and adequately treat preterm labour, in order to postpone birth and to identify risk factors for neonatal damage due to preterm birth, have to be developed by

  13. Multiple gestations and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, F; Senat, M-V

    2016-04-01

    Preterm birth is a major concern in modern obstetrics, and an important source of morbidity and mortality in newborns. Among twin pregnancies, especially, preterm birth is highly prevalent, and it accounts for almost 50% of the complications observed in this obstetrical population. In this article, we review the existing literature regarding the prediction and prevention of preterm birth in both symptomatic and asymptomatic twin pregnancies. In asymptomatic twin pregnancies, the best two predictive tests were cervical length (CL) measurement and cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin (fFN) testing. A single measurement of transvaginal CL at 20-24 weeks of gestation term pregnancy. Cervicovaginal fFN may be slightly less accurate than CL; however, it has a high negative predictive value in women presenting with threatened preterm labor, as rate of preterm birth. Cervical pessaries might be of interest in cases where there is a short cervix (<25 mm and <38 mm, respectively) but these results need to confirmed in future trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Language Proficiency and Sustained Attention in Monolingual and Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Tessel; Leseman, Paul; Wijnen, Frank; Blom, Elma

    2017-01-01

    Background: The language profiles of children with language impairment (LI) and bilingual children can show partial, and possibly temporary, overlap. The current study examined the persistence of this overlap over time. Furthermore, we aimed to better understand why the language profiles of these two groups show resemblance, testing the hypothesis that the language difficulties of children with LI reflect a weakened ability to maintain attention to the stream of linguistic information. Consequent incomplete processing of language input may lead to delays that are similar to those originating from reductions in input frequency. Methods: Monolingual and bilingual children with and without LI (N = 128), aged 5-8 years old, participated in this study. Dutch receptive vocabulary and grammatical morphology were assessed at three waves. In addition, auditory and visual sustained attention were tested at wave 1. Mediation analyses were performed to examine relationships between LI, sustained attention, and language skills. Results: Children with LI and bilingual children were outperformed by their typically developing (TD) and monolingual peers, respectively, on vocabulary and morphology at all three waves. The vocabulary difference between monolinguals and bilinguals decreased over time. In addition, children with LI had weaker auditory and visual sustained attention skills relative to TD children, while no differences between monolinguals and bilinguals emerged. Auditory sustained attention mediated the effect of LI on vocabulary and morphology in both the monolingual and bilingual groups of children. Visual sustained attention only acted as a mediator in the bilingual group. Conclusion: The findings from the present study indicate that the overlap between the language profiles of children with LI and bilingual children is particularly large for vocabulary in early (pre)school years and reduces over time. Results furthermore suggest that the overlap may be explained by

  15. Language Proficiency and Sustained Attention in Monolingual and Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessel Boerma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The language profiles of children with language impairment (LI and bilingual children can show partial, and possibly temporary, overlap. The current study examined the persistence of this overlap over time. Furthermore, we aimed to better understand why the language profiles of these two groups show resemblance, testing the hypothesis that the language difficulties of children with LI reflect a weakened ability to maintain attention to the stream of linguistic information. Consequent incomplete processing of language input may lead to delays that are similar to those originating from reductions in input frequency.Methods: Monolingual and bilingual children with and without LI (N = 128, aged 5–8 years old, participated in this study. Dutch receptive vocabulary and grammatical morphology were assessed at three waves. In addition, auditory and visual sustained attention were tested at wave 1. Mediation analyses were performed to examine relationships between LI, sustained attention, and language skills.Results: Children with LI and bilingual children were outperformed by their typically developing (TD and monolingual peers, respectively, on vocabulary and morphology at all three waves. The vocabulary difference between monolinguals and bilinguals decreased over time. In addition, children with LI had weaker auditory and visual sustained attention skills relative to TD children, while no differences between monolinguals and bilinguals emerged. Auditory sustained attention mediated the effect of LI on vocabulary and morphology in both the monolingual and bilingual groups of children. Visual sustained attention only acted as a mediator in the bilingual group.Conclusion: The findings from the present study indicate that the overlap between the language profiles of children with LI and bilingual children is particularly large for vocabulary in early (preschool years and reduces over time. Results furthermore suggest that the overlap may be

  16. T-complex measures in bilingual Spanish-English and Turkish-German children and monolingual peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Tanja; Shafer, Valerie L.; Kiefer, Markus; Vidal, Nancy; Yu, Yan H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Lateral temporal neural measures (Na and T-complex Ta and Tb) of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) index maturation of auditory/speech processing. These measures are also sensitive to language experience in adults. This paper examined neural responses to a vowel sound at temporal electrodes in four- to five-year-old Spanish-English bilinguals and English monolinguals and in five- to six-year-old Turkish-German bilinguals and German monolinguals. The goal was to determine whether obligatory AEPs at temporal electrode sites were modulated by language experience. Language experience was defined in terms of monolingual versus bilingual status as well as the amount and quality of the bilingual language experience. Method AEPs were recorded at left and right temporal electrode sites to a 250-ms vowel [Ɛ] from 20 monolingual (American)-English and 18 Spanish-English children from New York City, and from 11 Turkish-German and 13 monolingual German children from Ulm, Germany. Language background information and standardized verbal and non-verbal test scores were obtained for the children. Results The results revealed differences in temporal AEPs (Na and Ta of the T-complex) between monolingual and bilingual children. Specifically, bilingual children showed smaller and/or later peak amplitudes than the monolingual groups. Ta-amplitude distinguished monolingual and bilingual children best at right electrode sites for both the German and American groups. Amount of experience and type of experience with the target language (English and German) influenced processing. Conclusions The finding of reduced amplitudes at the Ta latency for bilingual compared to monolingual children indicates that language specific experience, and not simply maturational factors, influences development of the neural processes underlying the Ta AEP, and suggests that lateral temporal cortex has an important role in language-specific speech perception development. PMID:28267801

  17. A time sharing cross-sectional study of monolinguals and bilinguals at different levels of second language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A

    1986-10-01

    Several methodological factors associated with the concurrent activities (finger-tapping) paradigm were considered in a cross-sectional study investigating cerebral patterns of asymmetry in three groups of English-speaking non-Hispanic dextral males at three levels of second language (Spanish) acquisition and one control group of monolinguals. Results revealed the fluent bilinguals to be bilateral and significantly different from other groups for native language tasks in English. Moreover, a priori contrasts indicate that greater right- than left-hand disruption in concurrent tapping may be typical of monolinguals, but can be influenced by other factors. Monolingual reliability test-retest correlations were .77 and .47.

  18. Bacterial vaginosis and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns-James, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been clear for more than 2 decades that bacterial vaginosis increases the risk for preterm birth in some women, it is not yet fully understood why this association exists or how best to modify the risk. Incomplete understanding of this polymicrobial condition and difficulties in classification contribute to the challenge. The relationship between altered vaginal microflora and preterm birth is likely mediated by host immune responses. Because treatment of bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy does not improve preterm birth rates, and may in fact increase them, screening and treatment of asymptomatic pregnant women is discouraged. Symptomatic women should be treated for symptom relief. This article reviews the pathophysiology of bacterial vaginosis and controversy surrounding management during pregnancy. Agents currently recommended for treatment of this condition are reviewed. © 2011 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  19. Preterm nutrition and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramel, Sara E; Georgieff, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    The brain is the most highly metabolic organ in the preterm neonate and consumes the greatest amount of nutrient resources for its function and growth. As preterm infants survive at greater rates, neurodevelopment has become the primary morbidity outcome of interest. While many factors influence neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants, nutrition is of particular importance because the healthcare team has a great deal of control over its provision. Studies over the past 30 years have emphasized the negative neurodevelopmental consequences of poor nutrition and growth in the preterm infant. While all nutrients are important for brain development, certain ones including glucose, protein, fats (including long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids), iron, zinc, copper, iodine, folate and choline have particularly large roles in the preterm infant. They affect major brain processes such as neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation, myelination and synaptogenesis, all of which are proceeding at a rapid pace between 22 and 42 weeks' post-conception. At the macronutrient level, weight gain, linear growth (independent of weight gain) and head circumference growth are markers of nutritional status. Each has been associated with long-term neurodevelopment. The relationship of micronutrients to neurodevelopment in preterm infants is understudied in spite of the large effect these nutrients have in other young populations. Nutrients do not function alone to stimulate brain development, but rather in concert with growth factors, which in turn are dependent on adequate nutrient status (e.g. protein, zinc) as well as on physiologic status. Non-nutritional factors such as infection, corticosteroids, and inflammation alter how nutrients are accreted and distributed, and also suppress growth factor synthesis. Thus, nutritional strategies to optimize brain growth and development include assessment of status at birth, aggressive provision of nutrients that are critical in this time

  20. Non-Standard Italian Dialect Heritage Speakers' Acquisition of Clitic Placement in Standard Italian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines the acquisition of object clitic placement in Standard Italian by heritage speakers (HSs) of non-standard Italian dialects. It compares two different groups of Standard Italian learners--Northern Italian dialect HSs and Southern Italian dialect HSs--whose heritage dialects contrast with each other in clitic word order.…

  1. New human milk fortifiers for the preterm infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bertino

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Given its unique nutritional and functional advantages, human milk (HM should be considered as the first choice for the nutrition of all infants, including preterm newborns. Since its protein, mineral and energy contents are not suitable to meet the high needs of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW infants, HM should be fortified for these components. Fortification of HM is an important nutritional intervention in order to provide appropriate nutritional intake and appropriate growth. The standard fortification strategy has yielded inadequate protein intakes, resulting in slower growth as compared to preterm formulas. Improvement of outcomes depends on new fortification strategies, considering the large variability of HM composition. Individualized fortification, either targeted or adjustable, has been shown to be effective and practical in attaining adequate protein intakes and growth.Most commercially available multi-nutrient fortifiers and protein concentrates are derived from bovine milk (BM, which has a protein composition very different from that of HM. The use of BM proteins has been recently questioned for possible association with intestinal inflammation in VLBW infants. Recently, one HM-based fortifier was shown to be associated with lower necrotizing enterocolitis rates and lower mortality in extremely premature infants, compared to BM-based products. Other milk sources are currently under evaluation: a randomized, controlled, single-blind clinical trial, coordinated by the Neonatal Unit of the University of Turin in collaboration with the Italian National Research Council of Turin and the University of Cagliari, is being carried out to evaluate the adequacy of fortifiers derived from donkey milk for the nutrition of preterm infants.

  2. Italian petroleum industry: Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonaventura, R.

    1988-06-01

    The refining industry in Italy is at a turning point. AgipPetroli is on the stage of implementing a wide rationalization program of their industrial structures to reach the efficiency levels of their strongest competitors. This process is outlined within the framework of the evolution that the Italian and European industry is undergoing following the modifications which have occurred in the market starting from the first oil crisis. Furthermore, it is part of the AgipPetroli strategy to develop a plan aimed at adapting the structures to improve the quality of the products in accordance with the new environmental standards and to upgrade the value of the growing volumes of domestic crudes. This effort implies the adoption of advanced technologies which will also allow the Company to remain competitive in the long run.

  3. Italian Volcano Supersites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, G.

    2011-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are among the geohazards that may have a substantial economic and social impact, even at worldwide scale. Large populated regions are prone to volcanic hazards worldwide. Even local phenomena may affect largely populated areas and in some cases even megacities, producing severe economic losses. On a regional or global perspective, large volcanic eruptions may affect the climate for years with potentially huge economic impacts, but even relatively small eruptions may inject large amounts of volcanic ash in the atmosphere and severely affect air traffic over entire continents. One of main challenges of the volcanological community is to continuously monitor and understand the internal processes leading to an eruption, in order to give substantial contributions to the risk reduction. Italian active volcanoes constitute natural laboratories and ideal sites where to apply the cutting-edge volcano observation systems, implement new monitoring systems and to test and improve the most advanced models and methods for investigate the volcanic processes. That's because of the long tradition of volcanological studies resulting into long-term data sets, both in-situ and from satellite systems, among the most complete and accurate worldwide, and the large spectrum of the threatening volcanic phenomena producing high local/regional/continental risks. This contribution aims at presenting the compound monitoring systems operating on the Italian active volcanoes, the main improvements achieved during the recent studies direct toward volcanic hazard forecast and risk reductions and the guidelines for a wide coordinated project aimed at applying the ideas of the GEO Supersites Initiative at Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei / Vesuvius areas.

  4. Care for women with prior preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iams, Jay D.; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Women who have delivered an infant between 16 and 36 weeks’ gestation have an increased risk of preterm birth in subsequent pregnancies. The risk increases with more than 1 preterm birth and is inversely proportional to the gestational age of the previous preterm birth. African American women have rates of recurrent preterm birth that are nearly twice that of women of other backgrounds. An approximate risk of recurrent preterm birth can be estimated by a comprehensive reproductive history, with emphasis on maternal race, the number and gestational age of prior births, and the sequence of events preceding the index preterm birth. Interventions including smoking cessation, eradication of asymptomatic bacteriuria, progestational agents, and cervical cerclage can reduce the risk of recurrent preterm birth when employed appropriately. PMID:20417491

  5. Care for women with prior preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iams, Jay D; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2010-08-01

    Women who have delivered an infant between 16 and 36 weeks' gestation have an increased risk of preterm birth in subsequent pregnancies. The risk increases with more than 1 preterm birth and is inversely proportional to the gestational age of the previous preterm birth. African American women have rates of recurrent preterm birth that are nearly twice that of women of other backgrounds. An approximate risk of recurrent preterm birth can be estimated by a comprehensive reproductive history, with emphasis on maternal race, the number and gestational age of prior births, and the sequence of events preceding the index preterm birth. Interventions including smoking cessation, eradication of asymptomatic bacteriuria, progestational agents, and cervical cerclage can reduce the risk of recurrent preterm birth when employed appropriately. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of nonverbal working memory in morphosyntactic processing by school-aged monolingual and bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Davidson, Meghan M; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined the relationship between nonverbal working memory and morphosyntactic processing in monolingual native speakers of English and bilingual speakers of English and Spanish. We tested 42 monolingual children and 42 bilingual children between the ages of 8 and 10years matched on age and nonverbal IQ. Children were administered an auditory Grammaticality Judgment task in English to measure morphosyntactic processing and a visual N-Back task and Corsi Blocks task to measure nonverbal working memory capacity. Analyses revealed that monolinguals were more sensitive to English morphosyntactic information than bilinguals, but the groups did not differ in reaction times or response bias. Furthermore, higher nonverbal working memory capacity was associated with greater sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations in bilinguals but not in monolinguals. The findings suggest that nonverbal working memory skills link more tightly to syntactic processing in populations with lower levels of language knowledge.

  7. The role of non-verbal working memory in morphosyntactic processing by school-aged monolingual and bilingual children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Davidson, Meghan M.; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between non-verbal working memory and morphosyntactic processing in monolingual native speakers of English and bilingual speakers of English and Spanish. We tested 42 monolingual children and 42 bilingual children between the ages of 8 and 10, matched on age and non-verbal IQ. Children were administered an auditory Grammaticality Judgment task in English to measure morphosyntatic processing, and a visual N-Back task and a Corsi Blocks task to measure non-verbal working memory capacity. Analyses revealed that monolinguals were more sensitive to English morphosyntactic information than bilinguals, but the groups did not differ in reaction times or response bias. Furthermore, higher non-verbal working memory capacity was associated with greater sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations in bilinguals, but not in monolinguals. The findings suggest that non-verbal working memory skills link more tightly to syntactic processing in populations with lower levels of language knowledge. PMID:26550957

  8. Factors associated with preterm birth in Cardiff, Wales. II. Indicated and spontaneous preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meis, P J; Michielutte, R; Peters, T J; Wells, H B; Sands, R E; Coles, E C; Johns, K A

    1995-08-01

    Our purpose was to examine and contrast associations of risk factors with spontaneous preterm birth and indicated preterm birth. Separate multiple logistic regression analyses were performed of indicated and spontaneous preterm births in a large database of births in Cardiff, Wales. Spontaneous preterm births were associated with young maternal age, low maternal weight, low or high parity, previous abortion, smoking, and early pregnancy bleeding. Indicated preterm births were associated with older age, low weight, previous stillbirth, bacteriuria, and early pregnancy bleeding. Spontaneous and indicated preterm births have different overall profiles of association with pregnancy risk factors.

  9. The comprehension of Italian relative clauses in poor readers and in children with Specific Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Arosio

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI and children with Developmental Dyslexia (DD have problems comprehending relative clauses (RCs and find object RCs more difficult than subject RCs, as do typically developing children. Few studies have compared these groups directly, leaving it unclear whether the problems observed in children with DD are similar to those described in SLI. Work with typically developing children has shown that the comprehension of passive RCs is less challenging than that of object RCs. It is argued that this asymmetry depends on intervention effects as modelized in a Relativized Minimality framework. Since movement is challenging for children with SLI and those with DD, examining and comparing their comprehension of object RCs and passive RCs can broaden our understanding of their language deficits. In fact, both structures involve movement, but the moved element and the movement configuration are different. In our study we investigated the comprehension of subject RCs, object RCs and passive RCs in 12 Italian monolingual children with SLI (mean age: 7;6, 13 Italian monolingual children with DD (mean age: 10;7 and 50 typically developing controls matched for age, grammar and vocabulary. Results from a picture selection task show that: (i subject RCs are unproblematic for all children; (ii object RCs are challenging for children with SLI, children with DD and younger typically developing controls; (iii passive RCs are better understood than object RCs in all groups, but still problematic for children with SLI and younger typically developing controls. Our data show that intervention effects are found in children with SLI and children with DD and that those with SLI have a deficit in transferring thematic roles to moved elements. Our results point out that some of the children with DD have a mild grammatical deficit that was undetected or escaped standardized tests.

  10. Psychotherapy across languages: beliefs, attitudes and\\ud practices of monolingual and multilingual therapists\\ud with their multilingual patients

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, B; Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates beliefs, attitudes and practices of 101 monolingual and multilingual therapists in their interactions with multilingual patients. We adopted a\\ud mixed-method approach, using an on-line questionnaire with 27 closed questions which were analysed quantitatively and informed questions in interviews with one monolingual\\ud and two multilingual therapists. A principal component analysis yielded a four-factor solution accounting for 41% of the variance. The first dime...

  11. Preterm birth and its outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhin Radhanpuri

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: In our population preterm birth is more common in poor socio economic status, women with anaemia, malnutrition and these factors can be eliminated by proper nutrition and health education by health workers. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 153-157

  12. Asymmetry and infants born preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijsink, J.

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of the thesis was to contribute to the diagnostic process and clinical decision making by pediatric physiotherapists in very young infants with an atypical motor performance, influenced by both an asymmetric development, and a development according to a preterm birth. In Part I, the

  13. Prophylactic Probiotics for Preterm Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rie; Greisen, Gorm; Schrøder, Morten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major morbidity and cause of mortality in preterm neonates. Probiotics seem to have a beneficial role in preventing NEC, which is confirmed in meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We therefore aimed to review and confirm the effica...

  14. Particulate matter and preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  15. Biomarkers of spontaneous preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polettini, Jossimara; Cobo, Teresa; Kacerovsky, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Despite decades of research on risk indicators of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), reliable biomarkers are still not available to screen or diagnose high-risk pregnancies. Several biomarkers in maternal and fetal compartments have been mechanistically linked to PTB, but none of them are reliable...

  16. Particulate matter and preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  17. Allostatic Load and Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Olson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a universal health problem that is one of the largest unmet medical needs contributing to the global burden of disease. Adding to its complexity is that there are no means to predict who is at risk when pregnancy begins or when women will actually deliver. Until these problems are addressed, there will be no interventions to reduce the risk because those who should be treated will not be known. Considerable evidence now exists that chronic life, generational or accumulated stress is a risk factor for preterm delivery in animal models and in women. This wear and tear on the body and mind is called allostatic load. This review explores the evidence that chronic stress contributes to preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in animal and human studies. It explores how allostatic load can be used to, firstly, model stress and preterm birth in animal models and, secondly, how it can be used to develop a predictive model to assess relative risk among women in early pregnancy. Once care providers know who is in the highest risk group, interventions can be developed and applied to mitigate their risk.

  18. Intrauterine infection and preterm labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Varkha; Hirsch, Emmet

    2011-01-01

    Summary Preterm labor is defined as labor that begins before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. More than 12% of infants born in the USA are preterm. At least 40% of preterm births are associated with intrauterine infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are members of a family of cell-surface proteins responsible for recognition of a diverse spectrum of bacterial, viral and fungal pathogens. TLRs initiate the host innate (i.e. non-adaptive) immune response, inducing a proinflammatory cascade involving cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, and other effector molecules that result in the characteristic phenomena of labor, such as uterine contractions and rupture of fetal membranes. These cascades may also be activated by mechanisms that are not primarily infectious but are accompanied by inflammatory responses. Now that the molecular mechanisms linking infection and labor have been, to a large extent, elucidated, the challenge is to identify points of overlap with non-infectious causes of labor and to find intervention strategies that can minimize the negative impact of preterm delivery. PMID:21944863

  19. Fetal sex and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challis, J; Newnham, J; Petraglia, F; Yeganegi, M; Bocking, A

    2013-02-01

    Rates of preterm birth vary between different populations and ethnic groups. Epidemiologic studies have suggested that the incidence of preterm birth is also higher in pregnancies carrying a male fetus; the male:female difference is greater in earlier preterm pregnancy. Placental or chorion trophoblast cells from pregnancies with a male fetus produced more pro-inflammatory TNFα in response to LPS stimulation and less anti-inflammatory IL-10 and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) than cells from pregnancies with a female fetus, more prostaglandin synthase (PTGS-2) and less prostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH). These results suggest that in the presence of a male fetus the trophoblast has the potential to generate a more pro-inflammatory environment. Maturation of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and expression of placental genes, particularly 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 are also expressed in a sex dependent manner, consistent with the sex-biasing influences on gene networks. Sex differences in these activities may affect clinical outcomes of pre- and post-dates pregnancies and fetal/newborn wellbeing. These factors need consideration in studies of placental function and in the development of personalized strategies for the diagnosis of preterm labor and postnatal health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential Allocation of Attention During Speech Perception in Monolingual and Bilingual Listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Lori B; Berkes, Matthias; Bialystok, Ellen

    Attention is required during speech perception to focus processing resources on critical information. Previous research has shown that bilingualism modifies attentional processing in nonverbal domains. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to determine whether bilingualism also modifies auditory attention during speech perception. We measured attention to word onsets in spoken English for monolinguals and Chinese-English bilinguals. Auditory probes were inserted at four times in a continuous narrative: concurrent with word onset, 100 ms before or after onset, and at random control times. Greater attention was indexed by an increase in the amplitude of the early negativity (N1). Among monolinguals, probes presented after word onsets elicited a larger N1 than control probes, replicating previous studies. For bilinguals, there was no N1 difference for probes at different times around word onsets, indicating less specificity in allocation of attention. These results suggest that bilingualism shapes attentional strategies during English speech comprehension.

  1. Differential Allocation of Attention During Speech Perception in Monolingual and Bilingual Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Lori B.; Berkes, Matthias; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Attention is required during speech perception to focus processing resources on critical information. Previous research has shown that bilingualism modifies attentional processing in nonverbal domains. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to determine whether bilingualism also modifies auditory attention during speech perception. We measured attention to word onsets in spoken English for monolinguals and Chinese-English bilinguals. Auditory probes were inserted at four times in a continuous narrative: concurrent with word onset, 100 ms before or after onset, and at random control times. Greater attention was indexed by an increase in the amplitude of the early negativity (N1). Among monolinguals, probes presented after word onsets elicited a larger N1 than control probes, replicating previous studies. For bilinguals, there was no N1 difference for probes at different times around word onsets, indicating less specificity in allocation of attention. These results suggest that bilingualism shapes attentional strategies during English speech comprehension. PMID:27110579

  2. Neural differences between monolinguals and early bilinguals in their native language during comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, P; González, J; Ventura-Campos, N; Rodríguez-Pujadas, A; Sanjuán, A; Ávila, C

    2015-11-01

    Research has shown that semantic processing of sentences engages more activity in the bilingual compared to the monolingual brain and, more specifically, in the inferior frontal gyrus. The present study aims to extend those results and examines whether semantic and also grammatical sentence processing involve different cerebral structures when testing in the native language. In this regard, highly proficient Spanish/Catalan bilinguals and Spanish monolinguals made grammatical and semantic judgments in Spanish while being scanned. Results showed that both types of judgments recruited more cerebral activity for bilinguals in language-related areas including the superior and middle temporal gyri. Such neural differences co-occurred with similar performance at the behavioral level. Taken together, these data suggest that early bilingualism shapes the brain and cognitive processes in sentence comprehension even in their native language; on the other hand, they indicate that brain over activation in bilinguals is not constrained to a specific area.

  3. Language differences between monolingual English and bilingual English-Spanish young children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valicenti-McDermott, Maria; Tarshis, Nancy; Schouls, Melissa; Galdston, Molly; Hottinger, Kathryn; Seijo, Rosa; Shulman, Lisa; Shinnar, Shlomo

    2013-07-01

    Bilingualism is common worldwide and increasingly prevalent, but there is little information about bilingual children with autism spectrum disorder. The goal of the study was to compare expressive and receptive language skills in monolingual English and bilingual English-Spanish children with autism spectrum disorder. A review of the multidisciplinary evaluations done in toddlers who were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder at a university-affiliated center between 2003 and 2010 was performed. Data included demographics, developmental testing, autistic characteristics, and expressive and receptive language skills, obtained from formal speech and language evaluation. A total of 80 toddlers were identified, 40 classified as bilingual English-Spanish. Compared with monolinguals, bilingual children were more likely to vocalize and utilize gestures, with no other differences in language skills. There were no differences in cognitive functioning and autistic features between the groups. In this study, bilingualism did not negatively affect language development in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

  4. Evaluation of some Information Retrieval models for Gujarati Ad hoc Monolingual Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    J., Joshi Hardik; Jyoti, Pareek

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the work towards Gujarati Ad hoc Monolingual Retrieval task for widely used Information Retrieval (IR) models. We present an indexing baseline for the Gujarati Language represented by Mean Average Precision (MAP) values. Our objective is to obtain a relative picture of a better IR model for Gujarati Language. Results show that Classical IR models like Term Frequency Inverse Document Frequency (TF_IDF) performs better when compared to few recent probabilistic IR models. Th...

  5. Differential Allocation of Attention During Speech Perception in Monolingual and Bilingual Listeners

    OpenAIRE

    Astheimer, Lori B.; Berkes, Matthias; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Attention is required during speech perception to focus processing resources on critical information. Previous research has shown that bilingualism modifies attentional processing in nonverbal domains. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to determine whether bilingualism also modifies auditory attention during speech perception. We measured attention to word onsets in spoken English for monolinguals and Chinese-English bilinguals. Auditory probes were inserted at four times...

  6. The moderating effect of orthographic consistency on oral vocabulary learning in monolingual and bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubenville, Kathleen; Sénéchal, Monique; Malette, Melissa

    2014-10-01

    Two studies were conducted to assess whether (a) the incidental presence of print facilitates the acquisition of oral vocabulary, (b) the facilitative effect of print is moderated by phoneme-to-grapheme consistency, and (c) the findings obtained with monolingual children generalize to bilingual children. In total, 71 monolingual French-speaking children (M age = 9 years 2 months) in Study 1 and 64 bilingual children (M age = 9 years 3 months) in Study 2 participated in one of three conditions: consistent print, inconsistent print, or no print. Children were to learn novel labels for unfamiliar objects in a paired-associate paradigm. In both studies, print facilitated the acquisition and recall of expressive vocabulary. The effect of print consistency, however, varied across studies. As expected, monolingual children exposed to consistent print learned more novel labels than children exposed to inconsistent print. In contrast, bilingual children exposed to inconsistent print learned and recalled more labels than children exposed to consistent print. These intriguing findings might be due to differences in attention allocation during training.

  7. Bilinguals Have Different Hemispheric Lateralization in Visual Word Processing from Monolinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze-Man Lam

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous bilingual studies showed reduced hemispheric asymmetry in visual tasks such as face perception in bilinguals compared with monolinguals, suggesting experience in reading one or two languages could be a modulating factor. Here we examined whether difference in hemispheric asymmetry in visual tasks can also be observed in bilinguals who have different language backgrounds. We compared the behavior of three language groups in a tachistoscopic English word sequential matching task: English monolinguals (or alphabetic monolinguals, A-Ms, bilinguals with an alphabetic-L1 and English-L2 (alphabetic-alphabetic bilinguals, AA-Bs, and bilinguals with Chinese-L1 and English-L2 (logographic-alphabetic bilinguals, LA-Bs. The results showed that AA-Bs had a stronger right visual field/ left hemispheric (LH advantage than A-Ms and LA-Bs, suggesting that different language learning experiences can influence how visual words are processed in the brain. In addition, we showed that this effect could be accounted for by a computational model that implements a theory of hemispheric asymmetry in perception (i.e., the Double Filtering by Frequency theory; Ivry & Robertson, 1998; the modeling data suggested that this difference may be due to both the difference in participants' vocabulary size and the difference in word-to-sound mapping between alphabetic and logographic languages.

  8. Age of language learning shapes brain structure: a cortical thickness study of bilingual and monolingual individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Denise; Mok, Kelvin; Chen, Jen-Kai; Watkins, Kate E

    2014-04-01

    We examined the effects of learning a second language (L2) on brain structure. Cortical thickness was measured in the MRI datasets of 22 monolinguals and 66 bilinguals. Some bilingual subjects had learned both languages simultaneously (0-3 years) while some had learned their L2 after achieving proficiency in their first language during either early (4-7 years) or late childhood (8-13 years). Later acquisition of L2 was associated with significantly thicker cortex in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and thinner cortex in the right IFG. These effects were seen in the group comparisons of monolinguals, simultaneous bilinguals and early and late bilinguals. Within the bilingual group, significant correlations between age of acquisition of L2 and cortical thickness were seen in the same regions: cortical thickness correlated with age of acquisition positively in the left IFG and negatively in the right IFG. Interestingly, the monolinguals and simultaneous bilinguals did not differ in cortical thickness in any region. Our results show that learning a second language after gaining proficiency in the first language modifies brain structure in an age-dependent manner whereas simultaneous acquisition of two languages has no additional effect on brain development.

  9. Magnesium sulphate for preventing preterm birth in threatened preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Caroline A; Brown, Julie; McKinlay, Christopher J D; Middleton, Philippa

    2014-08-15

    Magnesium sulphate has been used in some settings as a tocolytic agent to inhibit uterine activity in women in preterm labour with the aim of preventing preterm birth. To assess the effects of magnesium sulphate therapy given to women in threatened preterm labour with the aim of preventing preterm birth and its sequelae. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (last searched 31 January 2014). Randomised controlled trials of magnesium sulphate as the only tocolytic, administered by any route, compared with either placebo, no treatment or alternative tocolytic therapy (not magnesium sulphate) to women considered to be in preterm labour. At least two review authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias and undertook data extraction independently. The 37 included trials (total of 3571 women and over 3600 babies) were generally of moderate to high risk of bias. Antenatal magnesium sulphate was compared with either placebo, no treatment, or a range of alternative tocolytic agents.For the primary outcome of giving birth within 48 hours after trial entry, no significant differences were seen between women who received magnesium sulphate and women who did not (whether placebo/no alternative tocolytic drug, betamimetics, calcium channel blockers, cox inhibitors, prostaglandin inhibitors, or human chorionic gonadotropin) (19 trials, 1913 women). Similarly for the primary outcome of serious infant outcome, there were no significant differences between the infants exposed to magnesium sulphate and those not (whether placebo/no alternative tocolytic drug, betamimetics, calcium channel blockers, cox inhibitors, prostaglandin inhibitors, human chorionic gonadotropin or various tocolytic drugs) (18 trials; 2187 babies). No trials reported the outcome of extremely preterm birth. In the seven trials that reported serious maternal outcomes, no events were recorded.In the group treated with magnesium sulphate compared with women receiving

  10. Early vs delayed clamping of the umbilical cord in full term, preterm and very preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, N.K.; Weber, T.

    2008-01-01

    Randomized studies from 2006 and two meta-analyses published in 2007 agree that clamping of the umbilical cord can be delayed. For the preterm and very preterm infant benefits include less need for blood transfusion and less morbidity, especially for the very preterm male infant. For the term...

  11. Socio-economic inequality in preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt;

    2009-01-01

    by maternal educational attainment and analysed in 5-year intervals from 1981 to 2000. Compared with mothers with >12 years of education, mothers with years of education had similarly increased risks of very, and to a lesser extent moderately, preterm birth in all four countries. The educational gradient...... increased slightly over time in very preterm births in Denmark, while there was a slight narrowing of the gap in Sweden. In moderately preterm births, the educational inequality gap was constant over the study period in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, but narrowed in Finland. The educational gradient in preterm...

  12. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together with a f......A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...... with a fast acting effect on fish oil....

  13. Cerebral palsy in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demeši-Drljan Čila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Cerebral palsy (CP is one of the leading causes of neurological impairment in childhood. Preterm birth is a significant risk factor in the occurrence of CP. Clinical outcomes may include impairment of gross motor function and intellectual abilities, visual impairment and epilepsy. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among gestational age, type of CP, functional ability and associated conditions. Methods. The sample size was 206 children with CP. The data were obtained from medical records and included gestational age at birth, clinical characteristics of CP and associated conditions. Clinical CP type was determined according to Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe (SCPE and topographically. Gross motor function abilities were evaluated according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS. Results. More than half of the children with CP were born prematurely (54.4%. Statistically significant difference was noted with respect to the distribution of various clinical types of CP in relation to gestational age (p < 0.001. In the group with spastic bilateral CP type, there is a greater proportion of children born preterm. Statistically significant difference was noted in the functional classification based on GMFCS in terms of gestational age (p = 0.049, children born at earlier gestational age are classified at a higher GMFCS level of functional limitation. The greatest percentage of children (70.0% affected by two or more associated conditions was found in the group that had extremely preterm birth, and that number declined with increasing maturity at birth. Epilepsy was more prevalent in children born at greater gestational age, and this difference in distribution was statistically significant (p = 0.032. Conclusion. The application of antenatal and postnatal protection of preterm children should be a significant component of the CP prevention strategy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  14. Strategies to Prevent Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Phillips Newnham

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available After several decades of research we now have evidence that at least six interventions are suitable for immediate use in contemporary clinical practice within high-resource settings and can be expected to safely reduce the rate of preterm birth. These interventions involve strategies to prevent non-medically indicated late preterm birth; use of maternal progesterone supplementation; surgical closure of the cervix with cerclage; prevention of exposure of pregnant women to cigarette smoke; judicious use of fertility treatments; and dedicated preterm birth prevention clinics. Quantification of the extent of success is difficult to predict and will be dependent on other clinical, cultural, societal and economic factors operating in each environment. Further success can be anticipated in the coming years as other research discoveries are translated into clinical practice, including new approaches to treating intra-uterine infection, improvements in maternal nutrition and lifestyle modifications to ameliorate maternal stress. The widespread use of human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination in girls and young women will decrease the need for surgical interventions on the cervix and can be expected to further reduce the risk of early birth.Together, this array of clinical interventions, each based on a substantial body of evidence, is likely to reduce rates of preterm birth and prevent death and disability in large numbers of children. The process begins with an acceptance that early birth is not an inevitable and natural feature of human reproduction. Preventative strategies are now available and need to be applied. The best outcomes may come from developing integrated strategies designed specifically for each health care environment.

  15. Strategies to Prevent Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, John P.; Dickinson, Jan E.; Hart, Roger J.; Pennell, Craig E.; Arrese, Catherine A.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    After several decades of research, we now have evidence that at least six interventions are suitable for immediate use in contemporary clinical practice within high-resource settings and can be expected to safely reduce the rate of preterm birth. These interventions involve strategies to prevent non-medically indicated late preterm birth; use of maternal progesterone supplementation; surgical closure of the cervix with cerclage; prevention of exposure of pregnant women to cigarette smoke; judicious use of fertility treatments; and dedicated preterm birth prevention clinics. Quantification of the extent of success is difficult to predict and will be dependent on other clinical, cultural, societal, and economic factors operating in each environment. Further success can be anticipated in the coming years as other research discoveries are translated into clinical practice, including new approaches to treating intra-uterine infection, improvements in maternal nutrition, and lifestyle modifications to ameliorate maternal stress. The widespread use of human papillomavirus vaccination in girls and young women will decrease the need for surgical interventions on the cervix and can be expected to further reduce the risk of early birth. Together, this array of clinical interventions, each based on a substantial body of evidence, is likely to reduce rates of preterm birth and prevent death and disability in large numbers of children. The process begins with an acceptance that early birth is not an inevitable and natural feature of human reproduction. Preventative strategies are now available and need to be applied. The best outcomes may come from developing integrated strategies designed specifically for each health-care environment. PMID:25477878

  16. Suction patterns in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, M; Martínez, G; González, M; Díaz Rosselló, J L

    1993-01-01

    The suction pattern for breast and bottle feeding in two groups of preterm infants is described. The time elapsed between birth and the moment of suction was longer in preterm neonates born at lower gestational ages for both groups studied, breast and bottle fed (figure 1). The evolution of suckling in breastfeeding was analyzed in a composite study (longitudinal and transverse) in a group of 16 neonates starting from 32 weeks of gestation. The velocity of milk extraction during suckling varied with gestational age. It was uniform at lower gestational ages, then it became faster in the first minutes and at the 36th week, it was very similar to that of mature neonates (figure 2 and table I). The evaluation of bottle feeding was performed in a transverse study in 46 preterm neonates which had been exclusively bottle fed during 1 or 2 weeks. All of them had previously been fed using an orogastric tube. Nourishing time was shorter than in breastfeeding; the average duration was 3.7 minutes (table II). The greatest volume was ingested in the first minute, 40% (range between 44 and 25%) (figure 3). The frequency of suction did not change the duration of feeding, but it was found that the efficiency of suction (number of suctions to ingest 1 cc) was significantly lower in the first minute (Anova, p < 0.05) (figure 4).

  17. Genitourinary pathogens and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnington, Marianne; Kortsalioudaki, Christini; Heath, Paul

    2013-06-01

    The aim is to describe and quantify the association between genitourinary tract infections and preterm birth. Recent studies confirm the importance of identifying and treating both asymptomatic and symptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy, which is reflected in current antenatal screening guidelines. These guidelines do not recommend routine screening for other asymptomatic lower genital infections (bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas and gonorrhoea) reflecting inconsistent study results, which may reflect differences in study design, size, diagnostics and the timing of screening in pregnancy. Screening for group B Streptococcus (GBS) late in pregnancy is recognized to reduce neonatal disease, but there is a striking lack of robust studies, specifically randomized controlled trials (RCTs), considering the effect of GBS screening earlier in pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcomes. The potential for screening and treatment of genitourinary tract infections in pregnancy to reduce preterm birth rates has been demonstrated in some RCTs. Current guidelines do not reflect these data because of inconsistencies across the body of evidence. There is a need for robust RCTs to confirm or refute earlier data, to inform the optimal timing for screening in pregnancy and to better quantify the contribution of individual infections to the burden of preterm birth.

  18. Cervical accelerometry in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Eric W; Vice, Frank L; Bosma, James F; Gewolb, Ira H

    2002-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method to use digital signal processing (DSP) technology to describe quantitatively and statistically swallow-associated sounds in preterm infants and to use this method to analyze changes as infants mature. Twelve recordings of accelerometric and physiological data on bottle-feeding preterm infants between 32 and 39 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) were analyzed. Cervical auscultation was performed using an accelerometer attached over the larynx. Acoustic data were recorded and graphically displayed using DSP software. Initial discrete sounds (IDSs) were identified and used to construct an average waveform from which a 'variance index' (VI) was calculated for each infant. The shape of the IDS waveforms became progressively more uniform with advancing PMA, as indicated by a significant inverse correlation between VI and PMA (r=0.739; p=0.006). DSP technology facilitated the development of a new method to quantitatively analyze feeding in preterm infants. This method provides an elegant tool to track maturation of infant feeding and assessing feeding readiness. This technique makes the interpretation of cervical auscultation data less subjective by replacing the verbal description of the sounds of feeding with quantitative numeric values. It is anticipated that this method can be automated to facilitate further the analysis of cervical accelerometry data.

  19. Cord blood lipoprotein profile in term, preterm, and late preterm newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, Sedigheh; Najafi, Raziyeh; Kelishadi, Roya

    2014-01-01

    Background: High concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and apolipoprotein B in newborns with low gestational age may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases in the future. We investigated the lipid profile in term, late preterm and preterm Iranian infants. Materials and Methods: A total number of 99 term (gestational age ≥37 weeks), preterm (gestational age 0.05). Conclusion: In this study, the cord blood concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-C were lower in term than in preterm and late preterm infants. This finding should be considered in infant nutrition and preventive measures. PMID:25657747

  20. Cord blood lipoprotein profile in term, preterm, and late preterm newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Ghaemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and apolipoprotein B in newborns with low gestational age may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases in the future. We investigated the lipid profile in term, late preterm and preterm Iranian infants. Materials and Methods: A total number of 99 term (gestational age ≥37 weeks, preterm (gestational age 0.05. Conclusion: In this study, the cord blood concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-C were lower in term than in preterm and late preterm infants. This finding should be considered in infant nutrition and preventive measures.

  1. A Handbook for Teachers of Italian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollica, Anthony, Ed.

    This handbook for teachers of Italian consists of a collection of 16 essays by noted professionals in the field of Italian instruction: (1) "Fundamentals of Language Learning and Language Instruction," by A. Papalia; (2) "Linguistic Methodology and the Teacher of Italian," by R.J. Di Pietro; (3) "Preparation for Language Teaching," by F.J. Bosco;…

  2. Italian/Italiano. Resource Guides for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jenny

    This resource guide, intended for current prospective teachers of Italian, is designed as a source of information and inspiration for Italian instructors at all educational levels. The first of the guide's 11 chapters provides a brief general introduction to this book. Chapter 2 looks at the status of and rationale for Italian language instruction…

  3. Italian/Italiano. Resource Guides for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jenny

    This resource guide, intended for current prospective teachers of Italian, is designed as a source of information and inspiration for Italian instructors at all educational levels. The first of the guide's 11 chapters provides a brief general introduction to this book. Chapter 2 looks at the status of and rationale for Italian language instruction…

  4. How bilingualism shapes the functional architecture of the brain: A study on executive control in early bilinguals and monolinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costumero, Víctor; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Ávila, César

    2015-12-01

    The existence of a behavioral advantage of bilinguals over monolinguals during executive tasks is controversial. A new approach to this issue is to investigate the effect of bilingualism on neural control when performing these tasks as a window to understand when behavioral differences are produced. Here, we tested if early bilinguals use more language-related networks than monolinguals while performing a go/no-go task that includes infrequent no-go and go trials. The RTs and accuracy in both groups did not differ. An independent component analyses (ICA) revealed, however, that bilinguals used the left fronto-parietal network and the salience network more than monolinguals while processing go infrequent cues and no-go cues, respectively. It was noteworthy that the modulation of these networks had opposite correlates with performance in bilinguals and monolinguals, which suggests that between-group differences were more qualitative than quantitative. Our results suggest that bilinguals may differently develop the involvement of the executive control networks that comprise the left inferior frontal gyrus during cognitive control tasks than monolinguals.

  5. Phonotactic Acquisition in Healthy Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has shown that preterm infants are at higher risk for cognitive/language delays than full-term infants. Recent studies, focusing on prosody (i.e. rhythm, intonation), have suggested that prosodic perception development in preterms is indexed by maturational rather than postnatal/listening age. However, because prosody is heard…

  6. The clinical presentation of preterm cerebellar haemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M. Ecury-Goossen (Ginette); J. Dudink (Jeroen); M. Leguin (Maarten); M. Feijen-Roon (Monique); S. Horsch (Sandra); P. Govaert (Paul)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of this study was to evaluate clinical symptoms and findings on cranial ultrasound (CUS) in preterm infants with cerebellar haemorrhage through retrospective analysis of all preterm infants with a postnatal CUS or MRI diagnosis of cerebellar haemorrhage admitted in a tertia

  7. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...... with a fast acting effect on fish oil....

  8. Literacy Skills of Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Alison; Crosbie, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Most children born preterm are considered neurologically normal and free of disability. However in follow-up studies at school age, preterm children, born without major impairment, have been shown to have lower cognitive abilities and associated academic, social and behavioural difficulties. This study investigated the literacy, phonological…

  9. Literacy Skills of Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Alison; Crosbie, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Most children born preterm are considered neurologically normal and free of disability. However in follow-up studies at school age, preterm children, born without major impairment, have been shown to have lower cognitive abilities and associated academic, social and behavioural difficulties. This study investigated the literacy, phonological…

  10. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...

  11. DTI reveals structural differences in white matter tracts between bilingual and monolingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Struys, Esli; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Mondt, Katrien; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert

    2012-01-30

    The impact of bilingualism on the microstructure of the white matter pathways related to language processing is assessed in elementary school children by magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI). Forty children, 8-11 years old, subdivided into 3 different groups (15 simultaneous bilinguals, 15 sequential bilinguals and 10 monolinguals), were scanned. The hypothesis was that the starting age and the manner of second language acquisition would affect the characteristics of language circuitry. In each subject the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) was obtained for four major white matter pathways: 1 - the left arcuate fasciculus/superior longitudinal fasciculus (lAF/lSLF) that connects Broca's area in the opercular and triangular regions of the left inferior frontal gyrus to the posterior language zone, 2 - the left inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus (lIFOF), connecting anterior regions in the frontal lobe with posterior regions in the temporal occipital lobes, 3 - the bundle arising from the anterior part of the corpus callosum projecting to the orbital lobe (AC-OL) and 4 - the fibers emerging from the anterior midbody (AMB) of the corpus callosum that associate with the premotor and supplementary motor cortices (AMB-PMC). The three groups did not show significant differences in mean FA over the lAF/lSLF or AMB-PMC tracts. In simultaneous bilingual subjects the lIFOF tracts had higher mean FA value compared to monolinguals and also sequential bilinguals, whereas the comparison for the AC-OL fibers yielded a significantly lower mean FA value in simultaneous bilingual subjects compared to monolinguals. In both cases the FA value for sequential bilinguals was intermediate to that of the other two groups. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of bilingualism related adaptation of white matter microstructure in the human brain.

  12. White-matter development is different in bilingual and monolingual children: a longitudinal DTI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Rosseel, Yves; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert; Baeken, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous people grow up speaking more than one language, the impact of bilingualism on brain developing neuroanatomy is still poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether the changes in the mean fractional-anisotropy (MFA) of language pathways are different between bilingual and monolingual children. Simultaneous-bilinguals, sequential-bilinguals and monolingual, male and female 10-13 years old children participated in this longitudinal study over a period of two years. We used diffusion tensor tractography to obtain mean fractional-anisotropy values of four language related pathways and one control bundle: 1-left-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus/lIFOF, 2-left-arcuate fasciculus/lAF/lSLF, 3-bundle arising from the anterior part of corpus-callosum and projecting to orbital lobe/AC-OL, 4-fibres emerging from anterior-midbody of corpus-callosum (CC) to motor cortices/AMB-PMC, 5- right-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus rIFOF as the control pathway unrelated to language. These values and their rate of change were compared between 3 groups. FA-values did not change significantly over two years for lAF/lSLF and AC-OL. Sequential-bilinguals had the highest degree of change in the MFA value of lIFOF, and AMB-PMC did not present significant group differences. The comparison of MFA of lIFOF yielded a significantly higher FA-value in simultaneous bilinguals compared to monolinguals. These findings acknowledge the existing difference of the development of the semantic processing specific pathway between children with different semantic processing procedure. These also support the hypothesis that age of second language acquisition affects the maturation and myelination of some language specific white-matter pathways.

  13. White-matter development is different in bilingual and monolingual children: a longitudinal DTI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Ghazal Mohades

    Full Text Available Although numerous people grow up speaking more than one language, the impact of bilingualism on brain developing neuroanatomy is still poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether the changes in the mean fractional-anisotropy (MFA of language pathways are different between bilingual and monolingual children. Simultaneous-bilinguals, sequential-bilinguals and monolingual, male and female 10-13 years old children participated in this longitudinal study over a period of two years. We used diffusion tensor tractography to obtain mean fractional-anisotropy values of four language related pathways and one control bundle: 1-left-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus/lIFOF, 2-left-arcuate fasciculus/lAF/lSLF, 3-bundle arising from the anterior part of corpus-callosum and projecting to orbital lobe/AC-OL, 4-fibres emerging from anterior-midbody of corpus-callosum (CC to motor cortices/AMB-PMC, 5- right-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus rIFOF as the control pathway unrelated to language. These values and their rate of change were compared between 3 groups. FA-values did not change significantly over two years for lAF/lSLF and AC-OL. Sequential-bilinguals had the highest degree of change in the MFA value of lIFOF, and AMB-PMC did not present significant group differences. The comparison of MFA of lIFOF yielded a significantly higher FA-value in simultaneous bilinguals compared to monolinguals. These findings acknowledge the existing difference of the development of the semantic processing specific pathway between children with different semantic processing procedure. These also support the hypothesis that age of second language acquisition affects the maturation and myelination of some language specific white-matter pathways.

  14. Preterm Infants and Parents’ self-esteem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Hanne; Madsen, Mette Kold

    Background: Little is known about parents to preterm infants and their self-esteem. The care of preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is in accordance with the principles of Family Centered Care. Previously, focus has mainly been on the mother-infant-dyad. Current research has...... shown that involving the father at an early stage improves the psychological dynamic of fatherhood and encourages bonding with the infant. The self-esteem of parents appears to be negatively affected after preterm birth. Objective: To get more knowledge and a deeper understanding of the preterm parents......’ experiences of their self-esteem during admission to the NICU and later eight months after discharge. Method and data collection: A qualitative semi-structured interview was conducted in two phases: 1) Three weeks after giving birth to a preterm infant and eight months after discharge. Parents were...

  15. Nonverbal Communication among Italian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri-Bernardoni, Joseph M.

    Participant observation and author introspection were used to collect data in this study of nonverbal communication among Italian Americans in three large American cities. Discussion is given to kinesics (gestures and signs), haptics (touch), proxemics (interiors of homes, exteriors of homes, and spatial arrangements at a wedding dinner), and…

  16. Education and Italian Regional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Liberto, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the connection between growth and human capital in a convergence regression for the panel of Italian regions. We include measures of average primary, secondary and tertiary education. We find that increased education seems to contribute to growth only in the South. Decomposing total schooling into its three constituent…

  17. Security Implications Of Italian Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    227 Although Italians take pride in many of their traditions, longstanding political instability and inefficiency are not sources of satisfaction . A...it would move towards overcoming a division of labour among allies that is obsolete, thereby allowing for more effective management of current

  18. Subtypes of Preterm Birth and the Risk of Postneonatal Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath-Rayne, Beena D.; DeFranco, Emily A.; Chung, Ethan; Chen, Aimin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the differences in postneonatal death risk among 3 clinical subtypes of preterm birth: preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM), indicated preterm birth, and spontaneous preterm labor. Study design We analyzed the 2001–2005 US linked birth/infant death (birth cohort) datasets. The preterm birth subtypes were classified using information on the birth certificate: reported PROM, induction of labor, cesarean section, and complications of pregnancy and labor. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate covariate-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% CIs for postneonatal death (from days 28 to 365). Estimation was given for preterm birth subtypes in a week-by-week analysis. Causes of death were analyzed by preterm birth subtype and then separately at 24–27, 28–31, and 32–36 weeks of gestation. Results For the total of 1 895 350 singleton preterm births who survived the neonatal period, the postneonatal mortality rate was 1.11% for preterm PROM, 0.78% for indicated preterm birth, and 0.53% for spontaneous preterm labor. Preterm PROM was associated with significantly higher risk of postneonatal death compared with spontaneous preterm labor in infants born at 27 weeks gestation or later. Similarly, indicated preterm birth was associated with a significantly higher risk of postneonatal death than spontaneous preterm labor in infants born at 25 weeks gestation or later. Preterm PROM and indicated preterm birth were associated with greater risk of death in the postneonatal period compared with spontaneous preterm labor, irrespective of the cause of death. Conclusion Subtypes of preterm birth carry different risks of postneonatal mortality. Prevention of preterm-related postneonatal death may require more research into the root causes of preterm birth subtypes. PMID:22878113

  19. A Cultural Perspective on Sexual Health: HIV Positive and Negative Monolingual Hispanic Women in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Loubet, Olga M; Vamos, Szonja; Jones, Deborah L; Lopez, Eliot; Weiss, Stephen M

    2011-06-01

    This study explored feelings and attitudes with regard to HIV and sexual health among 82 monolingual Spanish-speaking, HIV-positive (n = 30) and at-risk women (n = 52), participating in the NOW en Español Project-a cognitive behavioral sexual risk-reduction intervention in Miami, Florida. Hispanic cultural values and beliefs, such as machismo, marianismo, and sexual silence, emerged throughout the intervention as important determinants of sexual behavior. Recommendations for integrating these culture-specific issues in sexual health interventions for Hispanic women are provided.

  20. Preterm Birth: An Overview of Risk Factors and Obstetrical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Amanda; Graham, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and a major public health concern. Risk factors for preterm birth include a history of preterm birth, short cervix, infection, short interpregnancy interval, smoking, and African-American race. The use of progesterone therapy to treat mothers at risk for preterm delivery is becoming more…

  1. Preterm Birth: An Overview of Risk Factors and Obstetrical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Amanda; Graham, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and a major public health concern. Risk factors for preterm birth include a history of preterm birth, short cervix, infection, short interpregnancy interval, smoking, and African-American race. The use of progesterone therapy to treat mothers at risk for preterm delivery is becoming more…

  2. Pattern of mother-child feeding interactions in preterm and term dyads at 18 and 24 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eSalvatori

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Literature on mother-child feeding interactions during the transition to self-feeding in preterm populations is lacking, particularly through observational methods. The present research study aims to look at the longitudinal patterns of mother- toddler feeding interactions, comparing preterm and full term dyads. To this end, a multi-method approach was used to collect data from 27 preterm and 20 full-term toddlers and their mothers. For each dyad, mother-child interactions were observed during the snack time at 18 and 24 months of age and then assessed through the Italian version of the Feeding Scale. Higher scores on the scale indicate a less healthy pattern of interaction. Additionally, at both points in time, mothers completed the BDI-II questionnaire as a screen for maternal depression and the child’s developmental stage was assessed using the Griffiths Scales. A series of repeated measures ANOVAs were run to detect differences in feeding interactions between the two groups at the time of assessment. Our results show that preterm dyads report overall higher levels of maternal negative affection, interactional conflicts and less dyadic reciprocity during the meal compared to full-term dyads. Additionally, longitudinal data show that dyadic conflict decreases in both groups, whereas the child’s food refusal behaviors increase in the preterm group from 18 to 24 months. No differences were reported for both the BDI-II and the child’s development for the two groups. The results reveal that regardless of maternal depression and the child’s developmental stage, the two groups show different trajectories in the pattern of feeding interactions during the transition to self –feeding, at 18 and 24 months, with overall less positive interactions in preterm mother-child dyads.

  3. Designing for Diversity: The Role of Reading Strategies and Interactive Vocabulary in a Digital Reading Environment for Fifth-Grade Monolingual English and Bilingual Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bridget; Proctor, C. Patrick; Uccelli, Paola; Mo, Elaine; Snow, Catherine E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relative contribution of reading comprehension strategies and interactive vocabulary in Improving Comprehension Online (ICON), a universally designed web-based scaffolded text environment designed to improve fifth-grade monolingual English and bilingual students' reading achievement. Seventy-five monolingual English and 31…

  4. Exploring Non-Native English-Speaking Teachers' Beliefs about the Monolingual Approach: Differences between Pre-Service and In-Service Korean Teachers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2016-01-01

    The non-native English-speaking teachers' (NNESTs) beliefs about the monolingual approach have not been sufficiently studied in the teaching of English as a foreign language (EFL). In examining the NNESTs' beliefs about that issue, the present study adapts Guy Cook's recent framework, according to which the monolingual approach is based upon four…

  5. The Persistence and Functional Impact of English Language Difficulties Experienced by Children Learning English as an Additional Language and Monolingual Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Katie E; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2017-07-12

    This study explored whether a monolingual-normed English language battery could identify children with English as an additional language (EAL) who have persistent English language learning difficulties that affect functional academic attainment. Children with EAL (n = 43) and monolingual English-speaking children (n = 46) completed a comprehensive monolingual-normed English language battery in Year 1 (ages 5-6 years) and Year 3 (ages 7-8 years). Children with EAL and monolingual peers, who either met monolingual criteria for language impairment or typical development on the language battery in Year 1, were compared on language growth between Year 1 and Year 3 and on attainment in national curriculum assessments in Year 2 (ages 6-7 years). Children with EAL and monolingual peers who met monolingual criteria for language impairment in Year 1 continued to display comparably impaired overall language ability 2 years later in Year 3. Moreover, these groups displayed comparably low levels of academic attainment in Year 2, demonstrating comparable functional impact of their language difficulties. Monolingual-normed language batteries in the majority language may have some practical value for identifying bilingual children who need support with language learning, regardless of the origin of their language difficulties.

  6. Do Young Bilinguals Acquire Past Tense Morphology like Monolinguals, Only Later? Evidence from French-English and Chinese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoladis, Elena; Song, Jianhui; Marentette, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that preschool bilingual children lag behind same-aged monolinguals in their production of correct past tense forms. This lag has been attributed to bilinguals' less frequent exposure to either language. If so, bilingual children acquire the past tense like monolinguals, only later. In this study, we compared the…

  7. Absence of Circadian Rhythms of Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes and Preterm Placental Abruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Ananth, Cande V.; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Qiu, Chun-fang; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Data regarding circadian rhythm in the onset of spontaneous preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) and placental abruption (PA) cases are conflicting. We modeled the time of onset of preterm PROM and PA cases and examined if the circadian profiles varied based on the gestational age at delivery. Methods We used parametric and nonparametric methods, including trigonometric regression in the framework of generalized linear models, to test the presence of circadian rhythms in the time of onset of preterm PROM and PA cases, among 395 women who delivered a singleton between 2009 and 2010 in Lima, Peru. Results We found a diurnal circadian pattern, with a morning peak at 07h:32’ (95%CI:05h:46’ – 09h:18’) among moderate preterm PROM cases (P-value<0.001), and some evidence of a diurnal circadian periodicity among PA cases in term infants (P-value=0.067). However, we did not find evidence of circadian rhythms in the time of onset of extremely or very preterm PROM (P-value=0.259) and preterm PA (P-value=0.224). Conclusions The circadian rhythms of the time of onset of preterm PROM and PA cases varied based on gestational weeks at delivery. While circadian rhythms were presented among moderate preterm PROM and term PA cases, there was no evidence of circadian rhythms among preterm PA and very or extremely preterm PROM cases, underlying other mechanisms associated with the time of onset. PMID:25453346

  8. Resolving the uncertainty of preterm symptoms: women's experiences with the onset of preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Marianne E; Saks, Nancy P; Harris, Susan

    2002-01-01

    To describe expectant women's experiences with the onset of preterm labor. Qualitative, using grounded theory methods. Southwestern tertiary women's hospital. Thirty pregnant women who were less than 35 weeks gestation, had experienced preterm labor within the past 7 days, and had no previous experience with preterm labor. Taped and transcribed interviews. Themes that emerged from the interview data included the following: recognition and naming of sensations, a consistent pattern of attribution of symptoms, the threat or risk inferred by the attributed cause of the symptom pattern, the associated certainty or uncertainty about these attributions, the process of interpreting and verifying symptom meaning, and the decision to self-manage the symptoms or engage health care assistance. The core process of women experiencing the onset of preterm labor symptoms was identified as "resolving the uncertainty of preterm labor symptoms: recognizing and responding to the possibilities." Preterm labor often is not within expectant women's consciousness. They may attribute the symptoms to nonthreatening causes, which results in delays in seeking care for preterm labor. Education about symptom patterns at the onset of preterm labor will increase the probability that women and their health care providers will recognize and interpret the early, subtle symptoms that herald the onset of preterm labor. Uncertainty in illness theory and attribution theory offer frameworks for understanding women's experiences with the onset of preterm labor.

  9. Inflammatory Response in Preterm and Very Preterm Newborns with Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Cervantes, Enrique; Mancilla-Ramírez, Javier; González-Canudas, Jorge; Alba, Erika; Santillán-Ballesteros, René; Morales-Barquet, Deneb; Sandoval-Plata, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    The response of the adaptive immune system is usually less intense in premature neonates than term neonates. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether immunological parameters vary between preterm (PT) neonates (≥32 weeks of gestational age) and very preterm (VPT) neonates (<32 weeks of gestational age). A cross-sectional study was designed to prospectively follow PT and VPT neonates at risk of developing sepsis. Plasma concentrations of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-10 were detected using flow cytometry. C-reactive protein (C-RP) and the complex SC5b-9 were detected in the plasma using commercial kits. A total of 83 patients were included. The laboratory results and clinical histories showed that 26 patients had sepsis; 14 were VPT, and 12 were PT. The levels of C-RP, SC5b-9 (innate immune response mediators), and IL-10 or IL-4 (anti-inflammatory cytokines) were elevated during sepsis in both groups. IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6 (proinflammatory cytokines) were differentially elevated only in PT neonates. The VPT neonates with sepsis presented increases in C-RP, SC5b-9, and anti-inflammatory cytokines but not in proinflammatory cytokines, whereas PT neonates showed increases in all studied mediators of inflammation. PMID:27293317

  10. Two independently constructed Italian trait taxonomies : Comparisons among Italian and between Italian and Germanic languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, Boele; Di Blas, L; Perugini, M

    1998-01-01

    Two existing selection procedures are distinguished, exemplified in the Dutch and German trait taxonomies. The characteristic features of the two approaches are identified in two independently constructed Italian taxonomies. We test the two approaches for their effects on the resulting trait

  11. Short-term respiratory outcomes in late preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate short-term respiratory outcomes in late preterm infants (LPI) compared with those of term infants (TI). Methods A retrospective study conducted in a single third level Italian centre (2005–2009) to analyse the incidence and risk factors of composite respiratory morbidity (CRM), the need for adjunctive therapies (surfactant therapy, inhaled nitric oxide, pleural drainage), the highest level of respiratory support (mechanical ventilation – MV, nasal continuous positive airway pressure – N-CPAP, nasal oxygen) and the duration of pressure support (hours in N-CPAP and/or MV). Results During the study period 14,515 infants were delivered. There were 856 (5.9%) LPI and 12,948 (89.2%) TI. CRM affected 105 LPI (12.4%), and 121 TI (0.9%), with an overall rate of 1.6%. Eighty-four LPI (9.8%) and 73 TI (0.56%) received respiratory support, of which 13 LPI (1.5%) and 16 TI (0.12%) were ventilated. The adjusted OR for developing CRM significantly increased from 3.3 (95% CI 2.0-5.5) at 37 weeks to 40.8 (95% CI 19.7-84.9%) at 34 weeks. The adjusted OR for the need of MV significantly increased from 3.4 (95% CI 1.2-10) at 37 weeks to 34.4 (95% CI 6.7-180.6%) at 34 weeks. Median duration of pressure support was significantly higher at 37 weeks (66.6 h vs 40.5 h). Twin pregnancies were related to a higher risk of CRM (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.6-7.3), but not independent of gestational age (GA). Cesarean section (CS) was associated with higher risk of CRM independently of GA, but the OR was lower in CS with labour (2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.4 vs 3.0, 95% CI 2.1-4.2). Conclusions In this single third level care study late preterm births, pulmonary diseases and supportive respiratory interventions were lower than previously documented. LPI are at a higher risk of developing pulmonary disease than TI. Infants born from elective cesarean sections, late preterm twins in particular and 37 weekers too might benefit from preventive intervention. PMID:24893787

  12. Short-term respiratory outcomes in late preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natile, Miria; Ventura, Maria Luisa; Colombo, Marco; Bernasconi, Davide; Locatelli, Anna; Plevani, Cristina; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Tagliabue, Paolo

    2014-06-03

    To evaluate short-term respiratory outcomes in late preterm infants (LPI) compared with those of term infants (TI). A retrospective study conducted in a single third level Italian centre (2005-2009) to analyse the incidence and risk factors of composite respiratory morbidity (CRM), the need for adjunctive therapies (surfactant therapy, inhaled nitric oxide, pleural drainage), the highest level of respiratory support (mechanical ventilation - MV, nasal continuous positive airway pressure--N-CPAP, nasal oxygen) and the duration of pressure support (hours in N-CPAP and/or MV). During the study period 14,515 infants were delivered. There were 856 (5.9%) LPI and 12,948 (89.2%) TI. CRM affected 105 LPI (12.4%), and 121 TI (0.9%), with an overall rate of 1.6%. Eighty-four LPI (9.8%) and 73 TI (0.56%) received respiratory support, of which 13 LPI (1.5%) and 16 TI (0.12%) were ventilated. The adjusted OR for developing CRM significantly increased from 3.3 (95% CI 2.0-5.5) at 37 weeks to 40.8 (95% CI 19.7-84.9%) at 34 weeks. The adjusted OR for the need of MV significantly increased from 3.4 (95% CI 1.2-10) at 37 weeks to 34.4 (95% CI 6.7-180.6%) at 34 weeks. Median duration of pressure support was significantly higher at 37 weeks (66.6 h vs 40.5 h). Twin pregnancies were related to a higher risk of CRM (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.6-7.3), but not independent of gestational age (GA). Cesarean section (CS) was associated with higher risk of CRM independently of GA, but the OR was lower in CS with labour (2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.4 vs 3.0, 95% CI 2.1-4.2). In this single third level care study late preterm births, pulmonary diseases and supportive respiratory interventions were lower than previously documented. LPI are at a higher risk of developing pulmonary disease than TI. Infants born from elective cesarean sections, late preterm twins in particular and 37 weekers too might benefit from preventive intervention.

  13. Barriers and successful strategies to antiretroviral adherence among HIV-infected monolingual Spanish-speaking patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D A; Roberts, K Johnston; Hoffman, D; Molina, A; Lu, M C

    2003-04-01

    Focus groups were conducted with HIV-infected, monolingual Spanish-speaking patients (N = 81) taking antiretrovirals in order to: (1) determine what barriers impede medication adherence; (2) determine what strategies facilitate adherence; and (3) investigate the health care provider-patient relationship and whether it impacts adherence. Both quantitative and qualitative information was gathered. Participants were prescribed an average of 11 pills per day (M = 11.4, SD = 7.0, range = 1-30). Only 32% of participants were consistently adherent when self-report of medication taking (yesterday, the day before yesterday, and last Saturday) was compared to prescribed regimen. The most frequently reported strategies were: learning more about the medications (77%), accepting the need to take them (75%) and refilling prescriptions early or on time (70%). Barriers most often reported were: feeling depressed or overwhelmed (21%), simply forgetting (19%) and sleeping through a dose (17%). From the qualitative data, four main issues emerged: patient characteristics, the health care professional-patient relationship, language and cultural barriers within the health care system, and the medication regimen. Among this Latino sample, having someone to live for was extremely important in terms of patient adherence. Language barriers were reported, and the use of translators was not always seen as a sufficient remedy. Differences between monolingual Spanish-speaking patients' and English-speaking patients' strategies and barriers are discussed.

  14. Proficiency and Control in Verbal Fluency Performance across the Lifespan for Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Deanna C.; Luo, Lin; Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The verbal fluency task is a widely used neuropsychological test of word retrieval efficiency. Both category fluency (e.g., list animals) and letter fluency (e.g., list words that begin with F) place demands on semantic memory and executive control functions. However letter fluency places greater demands on executive control than category fluency, making this task well-suited to investigating potential bilingual advantages in word retrieval. Here we report analyses on category and letter fluency for bilinguals and monolinguals at four ages, namely, 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, young adults, and older adults. Three main findings emerged: 1) verbal fluency performance improved from childhood to young adulthood and remained relatively stable in late adulthood; 2) beginning at 10-years-old, the executive control requirements for letter fluency were less effortful for bilinguals than monolinguals, with a robust bilingual advantage on this task emerging in adulthood; 3) an interaction among factors showed that category fluency performance was influenced by both age and vocabulary knowledge but letter fluency performance was influenced by bilingual status. PMID:25642427

  15. Using monolingual neuropsychological test norms with bilingual Hispanic americans: application of an individual comparison standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard; Gonzalez, Cassandra Dayanira

    2012-05-01

    Conventional neuropsychological norms developed for monolinguals likely overestimate normal performance in bilinguals on language but not visual-perceptual format tests. This was studied by comparing neuropsychological false-positive rates using the 50th percentile of conventional norms and individual comparison standards (Picture Vocabulary or Matrix Reasoning scores) as estimates of preexisting neuropsychological skill level against the number expected from the normal distribution for a consecutive sample of 56 neurologically intact, bilingual, Hispanic Americans. Participants were tested in separate sessions in Spanish and English in the counterbalanced order on La Bateria Neuropsicologica and the original English language tests on which this battery was based. For language format measures, repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance showed that individual estimates of preexisting skill level in English generated the mean number of false positives most approximate to that expected from the normal distribution, whereas the 50th percentile of conventional English language norms did the same for visual-perceptual format measures. When using conventional Spanish or English monolingual norms for language format neuropsychological measures with bilingual Hispanic Americans, individual estimates of preexisting skill level are recommended over the 50th percentile.

  16. Discrimination of foreign language speech contrasts by English monolinguals and French/English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie-Sebileau, Pippa; Davis, Chris

    2014-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether late French/English bilinguals are able to utilize knowledge of bilabial stop contrasts that exist in each of their separate languages to discriminate bilabial stop contrasts from a new language (Thai). Secondary aims were to determine associations between bilabial stop consonant production in the L1 and the L2, between language learning factors and production and discrimination, and to compare English bilinguals' and monolinguals' discrimination. Three Thai bilabial stop consonant pairs differentiated by Voice Onset Time (VOT) (combinations of [b], [p], and [p(h)]) were presented to 28 French-English bilinguals, 25 English-French bilinguals, and 43 English monolinguals in an AX discrimination task. It was hypothesized that L2 experience would facilitate discrimination of contrasts that were phonemic in the L2 but not in the L1 for bilinguals. Only limited support for this hypothesis was found. However, results indicate that high production proficiency bilinguals had higher discrimination of the phonemic L2 contrasts (non-phonemic in L1). Discrimination patterns indicate lasting L1 influence, with similarity between unknown foreign language contrasts and L1 contrasts influencing discrimination rates. Production results show evidence for L2 influence in the L1. Results are discussed in the context of current speech perception models.

  17. Fructosamine levels and hyperglycemia in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyarmati, Judit; Tokes-Fuzesi, Margit; Kovacs, Gabor L; Gaal, Valeria; Vida, Gabriella; Ertl, Tibor

    2009-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is a common complication of prematurity, which requires attention because of its high prevalence and multiple consequences. Serum fructosamine used in diabetic patients provides information about the average glucose concentration in the preceding period of 2-3 weeks. We investigated the physiologic characteristics of a glycemic marker, fructosamine, in preterm and term neonates. We also studied its association with hyperglycemia and related morbidities of preterm infants. Fructosamine levels of 22 extremely premature (gestational age, GA: 25.8 +/- 1.0 weeks), 36 moderately premature (GA: 29.8 +/- 1.3 weeks) and 26 term infants (GA: 39.1 +/- 1.3 weeks) were determined in the 1st week of life. Fructosamine assay was repeated in all preterm neonates in the 4th and 7th postnatal weeks. Hyperglycemic episodes and main morbidities of preterm infants were recorded and analyzed in association with fructosamine levels. Preterm infants had higher fructosamine levels after birth compared to term infants and a postnatal fall was observed. Serum fructosamine did not show association with the occurrence of hyperglycemia or its main morbidities in preterm infants. In the framework of our study, we could not confirm the usefulness of fructosamine determination in the glycemic control of preterm neonates during the perinatal period. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Challenges and Consequences of Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Preterm births have been a challenge to obstetricians and paediatricians. Preterm births affect all population irrespective of age, race and economic status due to lack of seriousness and awareness among the pregnant women. Preterm birth is one of the leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality, amounting to billions of dollars each year, thus increasing the cost for health care. Proper awareness programs about preterm birth may help the women population to know and understand better the signs and symptoms of preterm labour. Preterm birth is a complex cluster of problems with a set of overlapping factors of influence. Its causes may include individual-level behavioral and psychosocial factors, neighborhood characteristics, environmental exposures, medical conditions, infertility treatments, biological factors and genetics. Many of these factors occur in combination, particularly in those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged or who are members of racial and ethnic minority groups. The empirical investigation was carried out to draw correlation between preterm birth and eventuality through this study.

  19. Activity restriction and risk of preterm delivery().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Heather I; Sciscione, Anthony; Ananth, Cande V; Drassinower, Daphnie; Obican, Sarah G; Wapner, Ronald J

    2017-07-06

    We sought to determine whether activity restriction (AR) in a cohort of women at high risk for preterm delivery is associated with the risk of preterm delivery. This is a secondary analysis of the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units MFMU's Preterm Prediction Study; a multicenter prospective cohort study designed to identify risk factors of preterm birth (PTB). The study group consisted of women with a singleton gestation that at their first study visit (23-24 weeks) had at least one of the following criteria: patient reported contractions, severe back pain, a cervical length preterm delivery (preterm. In this cohort, 9.7% (n = 105) of women were recommended AR, with 37.1% (n = 39) having a PTB. In the group not recommended AR (n = 981), 14.3% (n = 140) delivered preterm. In this cohort of women at high risk for PTB, activity restriction was associated with an increased risk of PTB. The use of AR in this population should be discouraged.

  20. Delayed development of systemic immunity in preterm pigs as a model for preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Jiang, Pingping; Frøkiær, Hanne;

    2016-01-01

    Preterm neonates are highly sensitive to systemic infections in early life but little is known about systemic immune development following preterm birth. We hypothesized that preterm neonates have immature systemic immunity with distinct developmental trajectory for the first several weeks of life......, relative to those born at near-term or term. Using pigs as a model, we characterized blood leukocyte subsets, antimicrobial activities and TLR-mediated cytokine production during the first weeks after preterm birth. Relative to near-term and term pigs, newborn preterm pigs had low blood leukocyte counts......, poor neutrophil phagocytic rate, and limited cytokine responses to TLR1/2/5/7/9 and NOD1/2 agonists. The preterm systemic responses remained immature during the first postnatal week, but thereafter showed increased blood leukocyte numbers, NK cell proportion, neutrophil phagocytic rate and TLR2...

  1. Delayed development of systemic immunity in preterm pigs as a model for preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Jiang, Pingping; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Preterm neonates are highly sensitive to systemic infections in early life but little is known about systemic immune development following preterm birth. We hypothesized that preterm neonates have immature systemic immunity with distinct developmental trajectory for the first several weeks of life......, relative to those born at near-term or term. Using pigs as a model, we characterized blood leukocyte subsets, antimicrobial activities and TLR-mediated cytokine production during the first weeks after preterm birth. Relative to near-term and term pigs, newborn preterm pigs had low blood leukocyte counts......, poor neutrophil phagocytic rate, and limited cytokine responses to TLR1/2/5/7/9 and NOD1/2 agonists. The preterm systemic responses remained immature during the first postnatal week, but thereafter showed increased blood leukocyte numbers, NK cell proportion, neutrophil phagocytic rate and TLR2...

  2. Socio-economic inequality in preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt

    2009-01-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, there were large social and structural changes within the Nordic countries. Here we examine time changes in risks of preterm birth by maternal educational attainment in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Information on gestational age and maternal socio-economic...... position was obtained from the NorCHASE database, which includes comparable population-based register data of births from Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway from 1981 to 2000. The risks of very preterm birth (... birth remained broadly stable from 1981 to 2000 in all four countries. Consequently, the socio-economic inequalities in preterm birth were not strongly influenced by structural changes during the period....

  3. [MISSCARE Survey - Italian Version: findings from an Italian validation study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sist, Luisa; Contini, Carla; Bandini, Anna; Bandini, Stefania; Massa, Licia; Zanin, Roberta; Maricchio, Rita; Gianesini, Gloria; Bassi, Erika; Tartaglini, Daniela; Palese, Alvisa; Ferraresi, Annamaria

    2017-01-01

    The Missed Nursing Care (MNC) refers to nursing interventions that are not completed, partially completed, or postponed. Despite the relevance of MNC, no assessment tools are available in the Italian context, and no data regarding the occurrence of this phenomenon has been documented on a large scale to date. The study aims were: (1) to validate the Italian version of the MISSCARE Survey tool; (2) to measure the prevalence of missed interventions and reasons for missed care as perceived by clinical nurses working in Italian health care settings. After having conducted the forward and backward translation, pre-pilot and pilot phases were developed to ensure face and content validity as well as semantic and conceptual equivalence of the Italian version with the original version. The MISSCARE survey questionnaire was then distributed to 1,233 clinical nurses of whom 1,003 completed the questionnaire. Overall, 979 questionnaires were analysed. The questionnaires were completed from January to March 2012, by nurses working in medical and surgical hospital departments in the Emilia Romagna region of Italy. Construct validity and internal consistency of the instrument were assessed. The face and content validity were ascertained by a group of experts. The instrument acceptability was good given that 79.4% of respondents replied to all items. Construct validity was investigated by an Exploratory Factor Analysis. Four factors explaining 64.18% of variance emerged: communication, lack of facilities/supplies, lack of staff, and unexpected events. Internal consistency, evaluated with Cronbach a, was 0.94. The nursing interventions omitted with greater frequency were, in order: ambulation (74.8%), passive mobilization (69.6%) and oral care (51.3%). The three main reasons for missed interventions were: an unexpected increase in the number of patients (90.5%), increased instability of the clinical condition (86.1%) and insufficient human resources (85.5%). The Italian version of

  4. Language Policy and Planning: The Case of Italian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Italian Sign Language (LIS) is the name of the language used by the Italian Deaf community. The acronym LIS derives from Lingua italiana dei segni ("Italian language of signs"), although nowadays Italians refers to LIS as Lingua dei segni italiana, reflecting the more appropriate phrasing "Italian sign language." Historically,…

  5. Language Policy and Planning: The Case of Italian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Italian Sign Language (LIS) is the name of the language used by the Italian Deaf community. The acronym LIS derives from Lingua italiana dei segni ("Italian language of signs"), although nowadays Italians refers to LIS as Lingua dei segni italiana, reflecting the more appropriate phrasing "Italian sign language." Historically,…

  6. Somatotype of elite Italian gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massidda, Myosotis; Toselli, Stefania; Brasili, Patricia; Calò, Carla M

    2013-09-01

    The somatotyping method is especially helpful in sports in which the body could directly influence the biomechanics of movements and the performance's results. The purpose of this study was to determine the somatotype of elite Italian gymnasts and to compare it in terms of competition levels. The sample comprised 64 elite gymnasts (42 females (F), somatotype 1.4-4.4-3.2; and 22 males (M), somatotype 1.6-6.3-2.1) belonging to the Italian National Artistic Gymnastic Team (2007) at different competition levels: Allieve, Junior, and Senior. Mean whole somatotypes, by competition levels, were not significantly different in both sexes (Female gymnasts: Allieve, 1.3-4.6-3.3; Junior, 1.3-4.2-3.6; Senior, 1.7-4.2-2.7; Male gymnasts: Junior, 1.5-6.3-2.5; Senior, 1.7-6.3-1.6). Male Junior gymnasts exhibited greater ectomorphy than Senior athletes (F1,20 = 7.75, p < 0.01). Compared to other elite athletes male and female gymnasts tend to be less endomorphic and more mesomorphic. This study highlighted the peculiarities of the somatotype of Italian elite gymnasts and their strong homogeneity, evident also from the low values of somatotype attitudinal mean (SAM). The results emphasize the need for a specific somatotype to reach an elite level in sport and the need to integrate the somatotype analysis between the scientific instruments for selecting talent also in artistic gymnastics.

  7. Production and On-Line Comprehension of Definiteness in English and Dutch by Monolingual and Sequential Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chondrogianni, Vasiliki; Vasic, Nada; Marinis, Theodoros; Blom, Elma

    2015-01-01

    The present article examines production and on-line processing of definite articles in Turkish-speaking sequential bilingual children acquiring English and Dutch as second languages (L2) in the UK and in the Netherlands, respectively. Thirty-nine 6-8-year-old L2 children and 48 monolingual (L1) age-matched children participated in two separate…

  8. Linguistic knowledge, fluency and metacognitive knowledge as components of reading comprehension in adolescent low achievers: differences between monolinguals and bilinguals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trapman, M.J.W.; Van Gelderen, Amos; Van Steensel, Roel; Van Schooten, Erik; Hulstijn, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate the role of linguistic knowledge, fluency and meta-cognitive knowledge in Dutch reading comprehension of monolingual and bilingual adolescent academic low achievers in the Netherlands. Results show that these components are substantially associated with reading comprehen

  9. Subject-Verb Agreement in Specific Language Impairment: A Study of Monolingual and Bilingual German-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothweiler, Monika; Chilla, Solveig; Clahsen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates phenomena that have been claimed to be indicative of Specific Language Impairment (SLI) in German, focusing on subject-verb agreement marking. Longitudinal data from fourteen German-speaking children with SLI, seven monolingual and seven Turkish-German successive bilingual children, were examined. We found similar patterns…

  10. Surmounting the Tower of Babel: Monolingual and bilingual 2-year-olds' understanding of the nature of foreign language words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Chen, Ke Heng; Xu, Fei

    2014-03-01

    Languages function as independent and distinct conventional systems, and so each language uses different words to label the same objects. This study investigated whether 2-year-old children recognize that speakers of their native language and speakers of a foreign language do not share the same knowledge. Two groups of children unfamiliar with Mandarin were tested: monolingual English-learning children (n=24) and bilingual children learning English and another language (n=24). An English speaker taught children the novel label fep. On English mutual exclusivity trials, the speaker asked for the referent of a novel label (wug) in the presence of the fep and a novel object. Both monolingual and bilingual children disambiguated the reference of the novel word using a mutual exclusivity strategy, choosing the novel object rather than the fep. On similar trials with a Mandarin speaker, children were asked to find the referent of a novel Mandarin label kuò. Monolinguals again chose the novel object rather than the object with the English label fep, even though the Mandarin speaker had no access to conventional English words. Bilinguals did not respond systematically to the Mandarin speaker, suggesting that they had enhanced understanding of the Mandarin speaker's ignorance of English words. The results indicate that monolingual children initially expect words to be conventionally shared across all speakers-native and foreign. Early bilingual experience facilitates children's discovery of the nature of foreign language words.

  11. The Acquisition of Speech Rhythm by Three-Year-Old Bilingual and Monolingual Children: Cantonese and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Peggy P. K.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the acquisition of speech rhythm by Cantonese-English bilingual children and their age-matched monolingual peers. Languages can be classified in terms of rhythmic characteristics that define English as stress-timed and Cantonese as syllable-timed. Few studies have examined the concurrent acquisition of rhythmically…

  12. Syntactic, Semantic and Pragmatic Correlates of the Acquisition of Exhaustivity in "Wh"-Questions: A Study of Polish Monolingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forys-Nogala, Malgorzata; Haman, Ewa; Katsos, Napoleon; Krajewski, Grzegorz; Schulz, Petra

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates relationships between acquisition of exhaustivity in single and multiple "wh"-questions, mastery of semantic and pragmatic aspects of quantifier comprehension, and general skills in receptive grammar. The participants of the study were 25 Polish monolingual typically developing children aged 4;02-6;02, who were…

  13. The Production of Referring Expressions in Oral Narratives of Chinese-English Bilingual Speakers and Monolingual Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Lei, Jianghua

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the extent to which the production of referring expressions such as noun phrases and pronouns to fulfill various discourse functions in narratives of Chinese-English bilingual children matches that of their monolingual peers in each of the two languages. Spoken narratives in English and Chinese were elicited from 30 9-year-old…

  14. The use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in monolingual and bilingual children with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelman, Marianne; Bol, Gerard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in the spoken Dutch of monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) and bilingual Frisian-Dutch children with SLI. Both SLI groups appeared to be less efficient in their use of subject-verb ag

  15. Monolingual and Bilingual Recognition of Regular and Irregular English Verbs: Sensitivity to Form Similarity Varies with First Language Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnight-Brown, Dana M.; Chen, Lang; Hua, Shu; Kostic, Aleksandar; Feldman, Laurie Beth

    2007-01-01

    We used a cross-modal priming procedure to explore the processing of irregular and regular English verb forms in both monolinguals and bilinguals (Serbian-English, Chinese-English). Materials included irregular nested stem (drawn-DRAW), irregular change stem (ran-RUN), and regular past tense-present tense verb pairs that were either low…

  16. Immigrant Parents' Choice of a Bilingual versus Monolingual Kindergarten for Second-Generation Children: Motives, Attitudes, and Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Moin, Victor; Leikin, Mark; Breitkopf, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how immigrant parents describe and explain their family language policy concerning their child's preschool bilingual development, and also explored the factors linked to the parents' choice of bilingual or monolingual kindergarten for their child. The study design was based on a comparison of 2 groups of parents: those who…

  17. Creating the DISEQuA corpus: a multilingual test set for the monolingual question Answering tasks at CLEF 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnini, B.; Romagnoli, S.; Vallin, A.; Herrera, J.; Peñas, A.; Peinado, V.; Verdejo, F.; de Rijke, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the procedure adopted by the three co-ordinators of the CLEF 2003 question answering track (ITC-irst, UNED and ILLC) to create the question set for the monolingual tasks. Despite thelittle resources available, the three groups collaborated and managed to formulate and verify a l

  18. Metacognitions about Language Skill and Working Memory among Monolingual and Bilingual College Students: When Does Multilingualism Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransdell, Sarah; Barbier, Marie-Laure; Niit, Toomas

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has shown that individual differences in working memory (WM) are highly predictive of a wide range of cognitive behaviours. Until recently, research has focused on monolingual, or undifferentiated, populations. The present research compares metacognitive awareness, as measured by self-ratings of reading, writing, speaking and…

  19. Comparison of Spanish Morphology in Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth P.; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Auza, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    This study compares Spanish morphosyntax error types and magnitude in monolingual Spanish and Spanish-English bilingual children with typical language development (TD) and language impairment (LI). Performance across groups was compared using cloze tasks that targeted articles, clitics, subjunctives, and derivational morphemes in 57 children.…

  20. Increase in Speech Recognition Due to Linguistic Mismatch between Target and Masker Speech: Monolingual and Simultaneous Bilingual Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandruccio, Lauren; Zhou, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether improved speech recognition during linguistically mismatched target-masker experiments is due to linguistic unfamiliarity of the masker speech or linguistic dissimilarity between the target and masker speech. Method: Monolingual English speakers (n = 20) and English-Greek simultaneous bilinguals (n = 20) listened to…

  1. Intercultural Interactions of Mono-Cultural, Mono-Lingual Local Students in Small Group Learning Activities: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Cassandra; Fozdar, Farida; Volet, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the understandings and experiences of mono-cultural, mono-lingual local students in relation to intercultural interactions within small group learning activities at university. Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital are employed to illuminate a number of barriers to intercultural interaction. Using qualitative…

  2. Language Growth in English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children from 2.5 to 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Ribot, Krystal M

    2017-08-10

    To describe the trajectories of English and Spanish language growth in typically developing children from bilingual homes and compare those with the trajectories of English growth in children from monolingual homes, to assess effects of dual language exposure on language growth in typically developing children. Expressive vocabularies were assessed at 6-month intervals from age 30 to 60 months, in English for monolinguals and English and Spanish for bilinguals. Use of English and Spanish in the home was assessed via parental report. Multilevel modeling, including parent education as a covariate, revealed that children from bilingual homes lagged 6 months to 1 year behind monolingual children in English vocabulary growth. The size of the lag was related to the relative amount of English use in the home, but the relation was not linear. Increments in English use conferred the greatest benefit most among homes with already high levels of English use. These homes also were likely to have 1 parent who was a native English speaker. Bilingual children showed stronger growth in English than in Spanish. Bilingual children can lag 6 months to 1 year behind monolingual children in normal English language development. Such lags may not necessarily signify clinically relevant delay if parents report that children also have skills in the home language. Shorter lags are associated with 2 correlated factors: more English exposure and more exposure from native English speakers. Early exposure to Spanish in the home does not guarantee acquisition of Spanish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intercultural Interactions of Mono-Cultural, Mono-Lingual Local Students in Small Group Learning Activities: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Cassandra; Fozdar, Farida; Volet, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the understandings and experiences of mono-cultural, mono-lingual local students in relation to intercultural interactions within small group learning activities at university. Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital are employed to illuminate a number of barriers to intercultural interaction. Using qualitative…

  4. Immigrant Parents' Choice of a Bilingual versus Monolingual Kindergarten for Second-Generation Children: Motives, Attitudes, and Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Moin, Victor; Leikin, Mark; Breitkopf, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how immigrant parents describe and explain their family language policy concerning their child's preschool bilingual development, and also explored the factors linked to the parents' choice of bilingual or monolingual kindergarten for their child. The study design was based on a comparison of 2 groups of parents: those who…

  5. The Use of a Monolingual Dictionary for Meaning Determination by Advanced Cantonese ESL Learners in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a study which investigated advanced Cantonese English as a Second Language (ESL) learners' use of a monolingual dictionary for determining the meanings of familiar English words used in less familiar contexts. Thirty-two university English majors in Hong Kong participated in a dictionary consultation task,…

  6. Seizures in Preterm Neonates: A Multicenter Observational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C; Shellhaas, Renée A; Tsuchida, Tammy N; Chang, Taeun; Wusthoff, Courtney J; Chu, Catherine J; Cilio, M Roberta; Bonifacio, Sonia L; Massey, Shavonne L; Abend, Nicholas S; Soul, Janet S

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize seizures among preterm neonates enrolled in the Neonatal Seizure Registry, a prospective cohort of consecutive neonates with seizures at seven pediatric centers that follow the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society's neonatal electroencephalography monitoring guideline. Of 611 enrolled neonates with seizures, 92 (15%) were born preterm. Seizure characteristics were evaluated by gestational age at birth for extremely preterm (preterm (28 to preterm (32 to preterm neonates. Hypothermia therapy was utilized in 15 moderate to late preterm subjects with encephalopathy. The presence of subclinical seizures, monotherapy treatment failure, and distribution of seizure burden (including status epilepticus) was similar in preterm and term neonates. However, exclusively subclinical seizures occurred more often in preterm than term neonates (24% vs 14%). Phenobarbital was the most common initial medication for all gestational age groups, and failure to respond to an initial loading dose was 63% in both preterm and term neonates. Mortality was similar among the three preterm gestational age groups; however, preterm mortality was more than twice that of term infants (35% vs 15%). Subclinical seizures were more common and mortality was higher for preterm than term neonates. These data underscore the importance of electroencephalographic monitoring and the potential for improved management in preterm neonates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Altered gene expression in human placenta after suspected preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, D; Strunk, M; Breton, P; Paules, C; Benito, R; Moreno, E; Garcés, M; Godino, J; Schoorlemmer, J

    2017-07-01

    Suspected preterm labour occurs in around 9% of pregnancies. However, almost two-thirds of women admitted for threatened preterm labour ultimately deliver at term and are considered risk-free for fetal development. We examined placental and umbilical cord blood samples from preterm or term deliveries after threatened preterm labour as well as term deliveries without threatened preterm labour. We quantitatively analysed the mRNA expression of inflammatory markers (IL6, IFNγ, and TNFα) and modulators of angiogenesis (FGF2, PGF, VEGFA, VEGFB, and VEGFR1). A total of 132 deliveries were analysed. Preterm delivery and term delivery after suspected preterm labour groups showed similar increases in TNFα expression compared with the term delivery control group in umbilical cord blood samples. Placental samples from preterm and term deliveries after suspected preterm labour exhibited significantly increased expression of TNFα and IL6 and decreased expression of IFNγ. Suspected preterm labour was also associated with altered expression of angiogenic factors, although not all differences reached statistical significance. We found gene expression patterns indicative of inflammation in human placentas after suspected preterm labour regardless of whether the deliveries occurred preterm or at term. Similarly, a trend towards altered expression of angiogeneic factors was not limited to preterm birth. These findings suggest that the biological mechanisms underlying threatened preterm labour affect pregnancies independently of gestational age at birth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Italian Journal of Animal Science - Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Russo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The publication of the first issue of the Italian Journal of Animal Science marks two important events for the Associazione Scientifica di Produzione Animale -ASPA- (Italian Scientific Association of Animal Production: the birth of a new scientific journal in English and the end of the publication in Italian of the remarkable journal Zootecnica e Nutrizione Animale, which was started in 1975, as the official organ of the Association.

  9. Italian Journal of Animal Science - Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Russo

    2010-01-01

    The publication of the first issue of the Italian Journal of Animal Science marks two important events for the Associazione Scientifica di Produzione Animale -ASPA- (Italian Scientific Association of Animal Production): the birth of a new scientific journal in English and the end of the publication in Italian of the remarkable journal Zootecnica e Nutrizione Animale, which was started in 1975, as the official organ of the Association.

  10. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC DOAMINS OF DEPRIVATION AND PRETERM BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Neighborhood-level deprivation has long been associated with adverse outcomes, including preterm birth (PTB), as observed in the authors' previous work using a composite deprivation index. Area disadvantage is multifaceted comprising income, employment, education and...

  11. Antimicrobials for Preterm Birth Prevention: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akila Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Preterm birth (PTB remains a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The association between PTB and infection is clear. The purpose of this report is to present a focused review of information on the use of antibiotics to prevent PTB. Methods. We performed a search of the PubMed database restricted to clinical trials or meta-analyses published in English from 1990 through May 2011 using keywords “antibiotics or antimicrobials” and “preterm.” Results. The search yielded 67 abstracts for review. We selected 31 clinical trials (n=26 or meta-analysis (n=5 for further full-text review. Discussion of each eligible clinical trial, its specific inclusion criteria, antibiotic regimen used, and study results are presented. Overall, trials evaluating antibiotic treatment to prevent preterm birth have yielded mixed results regarding any benefit. Conclusion. Routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended for prevention of preterm birth.

  12. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...

  13. Preterm twin gestation and cystic periventricular leucomalacia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resch, B; Jammernegg, A; Vollaard, E; Maurer, U; Mueller, WD; Pertl, B

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To identify risk factors for the development of cystic periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) in twin gestation. Design: Retrospective case-control study. Setting: Tertiary care university hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Graz, Austria. Patients: Preterm twin gest

  14. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC DOAMINS OF DEPRIVATION AND PRETERM BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Neighborhood-level deprivation has long been associated with adverse outcomes, including preterm birth (PTB), as observed in the authors' previous work using a composite deprivation index. Area disadvantage is multifaceted comprising income, employment, education and...

  15. Prevention of preterm delivery in twin pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Tabor, Ann

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of twin gestation has increased markedly over the past decades, mostly because of increased use of assisted reproductive technologies. Twin pregnancies are at increased risk of preterm delivery (i.e. birth before 37 weeks of gestation). Multiple gestations therefore account for 2......-3% of all pregnancies but constitute at least 10% of cases of preterm delivery. Complications from preterm birth are not limited to the neonatal period, such as in retinopathy of prematurity, intraventricular haemorrhage, necrotising enterocolitis, respiratory disorder and sepsis; they can also constitute......, it is mandatory to evaluate the proposed treatments in randomised trials of multiple gestations. In this chapter, we describe the results of trials to prevent preterm delivery in twin pregnancies....

  16. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...

  17. Certain Bacteria May Affect Preterm Birth Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163401.html Certain Bacteria May Affect Preterm Birth Risk Bad 'bugs' tied ... Feb. 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Certain types of bacteria in a pregnant woman's cervix and vagina can ...

  18. Prevention of preterm delivery in twin pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Line; Tabor, Ann

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of twin gestation has increased markedly over the past decades, mostly because of increased use of assisted reproductive technologies. Twin pregnancies are at increased risk of preterm delivery (i.e. birth before 37 weeks of gestation). Multiple gestations therefore account for 2-3% of all pregnancies but constitute at least 10% of cases of preterm delivery. Complications from preterm birth are not limited to the neonatal period, such as in retinopathy of prematurity, intraventricular haemorrhage, necrotising enterocolitis, respiratory disorder and sepsis; they can also constitute sequelae such as abnormal neurophysiological development in early childhood and underachievement in school. Several treatment modalities have been proposed in singleton high-risk pregnancies. The mechanism of initiating labour may, however, be different in singleton and twin gestations. Therefore, it is mandatory to evaluate the proposed treatments in randomised trials of multiple gestations. In this chapter, we describe the results of trials to prevent preterm delivery in twin pregnancies.

  19. Preventing the complications of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, M L

    1992-08-01

    Preterm birth is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Although studies have been complicated by problems of definition and methodology, certain strategies have the potential to reduce both the incidence and the impact of preterm birth. These strategies include accurate assessment of gestational age, education about the signs and symptoms of early labor, recommendations for smoking cessation, and screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in all prenatal patients. In addition, specific interventions such as cervical cerclage may be indicated in certain patients. The role of home uterine monitoring is not yet established. If preterm labor does occur, tocolysis should be used to delay delivery, and in appropriate cases the patient should be transferred to a medical center with a neonatal intensive care unit. Antenatal administration of corticosteroids in preterm labor appears to significantly reduce fetal morbidity.

  20. Natural Science and Technology Terminology in the Sesotho sa Leboa Monolingual Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Mojapelo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The main purpose of this article is to make a comparative analysis of the structural and the lexical differences between coinage and transliteration, as methods for the acquisition of foreign natural sci-ence and technology lexical items, which are meant for inclusion in the Sesotho sa Leboa comprehensive monolingual dictionary, Pukuntšutlhaloši ya Sesotho sa Leboa. With the exception of the multilingual glossaries ('dictionaries' as they are called, which are compiled by the National Language Service of the Department of Arts and Culture, the Sesotho sa Leboa National Lexicography Unit does not at present have any monolin-gual dictionary specializing in specific subjects like natural science and technology. As a start, the Lexicogra-phy Unit decided to include this specialized terminology in the second edition of its comprehensive monolin-gual dictionary. The main purpose for lemmatizing the natural science and technology terminology is to give these lexical items comprehensive definitions in Sesotho sa Leboa, instead of 'a one word translation defini-tion' as is the case in the bilingual and multilingual dictionaries.

    Keywords: TRANSLITERATION, COINAGE, COINED LEXICAL ITEM, LOAN WORD, ADOPTIVE, FOREIGN WORD, LEXICOGRAPHY, SOTHOIZED WORD, INDIGENOUS WORD, NATURAL SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, COMPOUND WORD, AMBIGUITY

    Opsomming: Natuurwetenskaplike en tegnologiese terminologie in die Sesotho sa Leboa eentalige woordeboek. Die hoofdoel van hierdie artikel is om 'n ver-gelykende ontleding te maak van die strukturele en die leksikale verskille tussen nuutskepping en transliterasie as metodes vir die verwerwing van vreemde natuurwetenskaplike en tegnologiese leksikale items wat bedoel is vir insluiting in die Sesotho sa Leboa omvattende eentalige woorde-boek Pukuntšutlhaloši ya Sesotho sa Leboa. Met die uitsondering van die meertalige woordelyste ("woordeboeke" soos hulle genoem word wat deur die Nasionale Taaldiens van die

  1. Opera in the Italian Language Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Salvatore

    1989-01-01

    Describes class activities for incorporating and teaching about opera into the Italian language instruction classroom, focusing on the enhancement of cultural knowledge and understanding that opera offers. (CB)

  2. Nutritional habits in Italian university students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teleman, Adele Anna; de Waure, Chiara; Soffiani, Valentina; Poscia, Andrea; Di Pietro, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    .... We analyzed data collected from Italian university students regarding consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast-foods, sweets, energizing drinks, and coffee, average number of eating episodes per day...

  3. Opera in the Italian Language Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Salvatore

    1989-01-01

    Describes class activities for incorporating and teaching about opera into the Italian language instruction classroom, focusing on the enhancement of cultural knowledge and understanding that opera offers. (CB)

  4. Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in a Preterm Neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Hilliard, Nicholaus J.; Schelonka, Robert L.; Waites, Ken B.

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is an uncommon but potentially serious bacterial pathogen causing infections of the bloodstream, lungs, and central nervous system of preterm neonates. A case of bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a 19-day-old preterm neonate who was successfully treated with vancomycin, tobramycin, meropenem, and clindamycin is described. Implications for the diagnostic laboratory and clinicians when Bacillus species are detected in normally sterile sites are discussed, and the small numbers o...

  5. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein in preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, D; Dembinski, J; Heep, A; Bartmann, P

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) in preterm infants with neonatal bacterial infection (NBI). Methods: Blood samples were analysed of 57 preterm (28+1 to 36+6, median 33+2 weeks gestation) and 17 term infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit within the first 72 hours of life with suspicion of NBI. Samples were obtained at first suspicion of sepsis and after 12 and 24 hours. Diagnosis of NBI was confirmed by raised concentrations of C reactive protein and/or interleukin 6. The influence of gestational age and labour was analysed. Results: Maximum LBP concentrations in infants with NBI were greatly increased compared with infants without NBI (13.0–46.0 µg/ml (median 20.0 µg/ml) v 0.6–17.4 µg/ml (median 4.2 µg/ml)). LBP concentrations in infected infants were not yet significantly raised when NBI was first suspected. The LBP concentrations of preterm infants were comparable to those of term infants. Regression analysis revealed no significant effect of labour or gestational age on LBP. Conclusions: Raised LBP concentrations indicate NBI in preterm and term infants. Preterm infants of > 28 weeks gestation seem to be capable of producing LBP as efficiently as term infants. Neonatal LBP concentrations are not influenced by labour. LBP may be a useful diagnostic marker of NBI in preterm infants. PMID:15499153

  6. Monolingual and bilingual children with and without primary language impairment: core vocabulary comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Manon; Mayer-Crittenden, Chantal; Minor-Corriveau, Michèle; Bélanger, Roxanne

    2014-09-01

    Core vocabulary is an important component of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems for school-aged children who have complex communication needs. One method of identifying core vocabulary for these individuals is to study the vocabulary of speaking children. To date, the use of core vocabulary by speaking bilingual children has not been well documented. The present study compared the core vocabulary used by children who are monolingual (French), and bilingual (French-English; English-French). We also gathered and compared language samples from French-speaking children identified as having primary language impairment (PLI), with the goal of better understanding the language differences demonstrated by children with this disability. Language samples were collected from a total of 57 children within a school setting, in a region where French is a minority language. Contrary to the hypothesis, the analysis of language transcripts revealed that there were no important differences between the core words from the groups studied.

  7. Bilingualism and linguistic politics in Brazil: From monolingual unreality to plurilingual reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ortiz Preuss

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Current article discusses the linguistic policies inBrazil and problematizes explicit or underlying notions of bilingualism in official documents. Different concepts of bilingualism over time are analyzed from a bibliographic and documental study. Further, the types of bilingualism contemplated by linguistic policies are investigated. The status of Portuguese, indigenous, foreign, sign and immigrant languages in these documents is discussed, as well as the legal attitudes related to bilingualism in communities of immigrants, indigenous, deaf and descendants of Negro slaves. An initial legal ambiguity may be noted when essentially monolingual linguistic policies are prioritized. A mild progress has occurred during the last few years, mainly, those related to the acknowledgement of indigenous communities as bi/multilingual. In fact, Brazil’s plurilingual condition and its pluricultural characteristics have not been yet acknowledged.

  8. Pathogenesis of preterm labor and preterm premature rupture of membranes associated with intraamniotic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, R; Romero, R; Edwin, S S; David, C

    1997-03-01

    We have proposed a model in which the initiation of human parturition in the presence of infection is controlled by the host. Systemic maternal infections such as pyelonephritis or localized infections such as deciduitis can trigger parturition by the activation of the monocyte and macrophage system in peripheral blood and human decidua. Preterm labor and preterm PROM can, according to this, be considered events that occur when the intrauterine or maternal environment is hostile and threaten the survival of the fetal-maternal pair. From this point of view, the initiation of preterm labor may have survival value. Why does intrauterine infection result in preterm labor in some cases and PROM in others? It is possible that regulation of different components of the host response has an important role to play in determining clinical presentation. Thus, if preferential activation of the host response leads to the secretion of uterotonic agents (i.e., prostaglandins), preterm labor will result. On the other hand, if the activation of the host response results predominantly in the production of proteases (i.e., leukocyte elastase and MMPs), patients are more likely to experience PROM. Preterm labor and preterm PROM can be considered expressions of the same basic phenomenon: activation of the host-defense macrophage system. Although we have provided evidence that infection is an important factor in the pathogenesis of these conditions, preterm parturition should be considered as a syndrome with multiple causes.

  9. Brazilian multicentre study on preterm birth (EMIP: prevalence and factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Passini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm birth rate is increasing and is currently a worldwide concern. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of preterm birth in a sample of health facilities in Brazil and to identify the main risk factors associated with spontaneous preterm births. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a multicentre cross sectional study on preterm births in 20 referral obstetric hospitals with a case-control component to identify factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Surveillance was implemented at all centres to identify preterm births. For eligible consenting women, data were collected through a post-delivery questionnaire completed with information from all mother-newborn medical records until death or discharge or at a maximum of 60 days post-delivery, whichever came first. The risk of spontaneous preterm birth was estimated with OR and 95%CI for several predictors. A non-conditional logistic regression analysis was then performed to identify independently associated factors. The overall prevalence of preterm birth was 12.3%. Among them, 64.6% were spontaneous and 35.4% therapeutic. In the case-control component, 2,682 spontaneous preterm births were compared to a sample of 1,146 term births. Multivariate analyses identified the following as risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth among women with at least one previous birth: a previous preterm birth (ORadj = 3.19, 2.30-4.43, multiple pregnancy (ORadj = 29.06, 8.43-100.2, cervical insufficiency (ORadj = 2.93, 1.07-8.05, foetal malformation (ORadj = 2.63, 1.43-4.85, polyhydramnios (ORadj = 2.30, 1.17-4.54, vaginal bleeding (ORadj = 2.16, 1.50-3.11, and previous abortion (ORadj = 1.39, 1.08-1.78. High BMI (ORadj = 0.94, 0.91-0.97 and weight gain during gestation (ORadj = 0.92, 0.89-0.95 were found to be protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: The preterm birth rate in these health facilities in Brazil is high and spontaneous preterm births

  10. The Italian National Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The Italian National Seismic Network is composed by about 400 stations, mainly broadband, installed in the Country and in the surrounding regions. About 110 stations feature also collocated strong motion instruments. The Centro Nazionale Terremoti, (National Earthquake Center), CNT, has installed and operates most of these stations, although a considerable number of stations contributing to the INGV surveillance has been installed and is maintained by other INGV sections (Napoli, Catania, Bologna, Milano) or even other Italian or European Institutions. The important technological upgrades carried out in the last years has allowed for significant improvements of the seismic monitoring of Italy and of the Euro-Mediterranean Countries. The adopted data transmission systems include satellite, wireless connections and wired lines. The Seedlink protocol has been adopted for data transmission. INGV is a primary node of EIDA (European Integrated Data Archive) for archiving and distributing, continuous, quality checked data. The data acquisition system was designed to accomplish, in near-real-time, automatic earthquake detection and hypocenter and magnitude determination (moment tensors, shake maps, etc.). Database archiving of all parametric results are closely linked to the existing procedures of the INGV seismic monitoring environment. Overall, the Italian earthquake surveillance service provides, in quasi real-time, hypocenter parameters which are then revised routinely by the analysts of the Bollettino Sismico Nazionale. The results are published on the web page http://cnt.rm.ingv.it/ and are publicly available to both the scientific community and the the general public. This presentation will describe the various activities and resulting products of the Centro Nazionale Terremoti. spanning from data acquisition to archiving, distribution and specialised products.

  11. Competition Advocacy: the Italian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Rebecchini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Competition advocacy is considered, together with enforcement, the core business of an antitrust authority. Broadly speaking there are at least three main tasks regularly performed by most, if not all, antitrust agencies that are amenable to the advocacy function: addressing laws and regulations in order to remove unnecessary impediments to competition; engaging in sector enquiries to understand markets behavior and identify critical issues; explaining the benefits of open competitive markets to the public opinion. This article examines these three main tasks and outlines the challenges for competition agencies, with references to the experience of the Italian Competition Authority (ICA and the initiatives undertaken at international level.

  12. Nutritional recommendations for the late-preterm infant and the preterm infant after hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapillonne, Alexandre; O'Connor, Deborah L; Wang, Danhua; Rigo, Jacques

    2013-03-01

    Early nutritional support of preterm infants is critical to life-long health and well being. Numerous studies have demonstrated that preterm infants are at increased risk of mortality and morbidity, including disturbances in brain development. To date, much attention has focused on enhancing the nutritional support of very low and extremely low birth weight infants to improve survival and quality of life. In most countries, preterm infants are sent home before their expected date of term birth for economic or other reasons. It is debatable whether these newborns require special nutritional regimens or discharge formulas. Furthermore, guidelines that specify how to feed very preterm infants after hospital discharge are scarce and conflicting. On the other hand, the late-preterm infant presents a challenge to health care providers immediately after birth when decisions must be made about how and where to care for these newborns. Considering these infants as well babies may place them at a disadvantage. Late-preterm infants have unique and often-unrecognized medical vulnerabilities and nutritional needs that predispose them to greater rates of morbidity and hospital readmissions. Poor or inadequate feeding during hospitalization may be one of the main reasons why late-preterm infants have difficulty gaining weight right after birth. Providing optimal nutritional support to late premature infants may improve survival and quality of life as it does for very preterm infants. In this work, we present a review of the literature and provide separate recommendations for the care and feeding of late-preterm infants and very preterm infants after discharge. We identify gaps in current knowledge as well as priorities for future research. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Secondary Predicates in Italian and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Paola

    An analysis of the nature of secondary predicates takes a comparative approach, using Italian and English. Distributional properties and extraction facts are accounted for, and an explanation for the fact that resultatives are not allowed in Romance languages is sought on the basis of Italian evidence. It is argued that the semantic distinction…

  14. Counseling the Nontraditional Italian-American Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregoria, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    Draws from interviews with five female Italian-American community college students who were over 30 when they began or resumed their education to assess the special educational and counseling needs of these non-traditional students. Cites lack of family support, restrictive sex-role stereotyping, and negative images of Italian-Americans as…

  15. Italian Textile Machinery Industry Focuses on Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As for fashion industry,Italian brands always play as one of the leaders influencing the global trends.This time,in Shanghai,the Italian textile machinery manufacturers highlight the latest proposals on sustainability and eco-friendly technology.

  16. Assessing the Cost Efficiency of Italian Universities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Salerno, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    This study uses Data Envelopment Analysis to evaluate the cost efficiency of 52 Italian public universities. In addition to being one of the first such cost studies of the Italian system, it explicitly takes into account the internal cost structure of institutions’ education programs; a task not pre

  17. A nice book on Italian rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Bellavere C

    2008-01-01

    A recent book on the Italian rodents is presented. The book treats the ecology of rodents as well as more applied topics like the impact of rodents on human activities and the management and control of rodents populations. Written in Italian.

  18. the use of dexamethasone in women with preterm premature rupture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C Stewart, D Woods, G Moller, E Coetzee, P Smith,. JAnthony; University of the ... advocate their [antenatal corticosteroids] routine use in this ... first 3 days after birth. These tests ..... preterm labour or elective preterm delivery', and that this is.

  19. Bioactive Milk for Intestinal Maturation in Preterm Neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi

    inflammatory response. This immaturity predisposes preterm infants to various nutritional challenges and clinical conditions, including feeding intolerance, growth restriction, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), sepsis and long-term consequences. The quality of milk fed to preterm infants during the first...

  20. Preterm Birth Risk Spikes in Mothers with Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167666.html Preterm Birth Risk Spikes in Mothers With Sleep Disorders Pregnant ... during pregnancy may increase the risk of preterm birth, a new study finds. The California research looked ...

  1. The immune consequences of preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Melville

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth occurs in 11% of live births globally and accounts for 35% of all newborn deaths. Preterm newborns have immature immune systems, with reduced innate and adaptive immunity; their immune systems may be further compromised by various factors associated with preterm birth.The immune systems of preterm infants have a smaller pool of monocytes and neutrophils, impaired ability of these cells to kill pathogens, and lower production of cytokines which limits T cell activation and reduces the ability to fight bacteria and detect viruses in cells, compared to term infants.Intrauterine inflammation is a major contributor to preterm birth, and causes premature immune activation and cytokine production. This can induce immune tolerance leading to reduced newborn immune function. Intrauterine inflammation is associated with an increased risk of early-onset sepsis and likely has long-term adverse immune consequences.Requisite medical interventions further impact on immune development and function. Antenatal corticosteroid treatment to prevent newborn respiratory disease is routine but may be immunosuppressive, and has been associated with febrile responses, reductions in lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production, and increased risk of infection. Invasive medical procedures result in an increased risk of late-onset sepsis. Respiratory support can cause chronic inflammatory lung disease associated with increased risk of long-term morbidity.Colonisation of the infant by microorganisms at birth is a significant contributor to the establishment of the microbiome. Caesarean section affects infant colonisation, potentially contributing to lifelong immune function and wellbeing.Several factors associated with preterm birth alter immune function. A better understanding of perinatal modification of the preterm immune system will allow for the refinement of care to minimise lifelong adverse immune consequences.

  2. Optimizing nutrition of the preterm infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, William W Jr

    2017-01-01

    The goal of nutrition of the preterm infant is to meet the growth rate of the healthy fetus of the same gestational age and to produce the same body composition of the healthy fetus in terms of organ growth, tissue components, and cell number and structure. Nutritional quantity and quality are fundamental for normal growth and development of preterm infants, including neurodevelopmental outcomes. Failure to provide the necessary amounts of all of the essential nutrients has produced not only growth failure, but also increased morbidity and less than optimal neurodevelopment. Growth velocities during the NICU hospitalization period for preterm infants exert a significant effect on neurodevelopmental and anthropometric outcomes. Despite the obvious need for optimal nutrition, growth failure is almost universal among preterm infants. There is every reason, therefore, to optimize nutrition of the preterm infant, in terms of total energy and protein, but also in terms of individual components such as amino acids, specific carbohydrates and lipids, and even oxygen. This review presents scientific rationale for nutrient requirements and practical guidelines and approaches to intravenous and enteral feeding for preterm infants. Intravenous feeding, including amino acids, should be started right after birth at rates that are appropriate for the gestational age of the infant. Enteral feeding should be started as soon as possible after birth, using mother's colostrum and milk as first choices. Enteral feeding should begin with trophic amounts and advanced as rapidly as tolerated, decreasing IV nutrition accordingly, while maintaining nutrient intakes at recommended rates. Feeding protocols are valuable for improving nutrition and related outcomes. Further research is needed to determine the optimal nutrition and rate of growth in preterm infants that will achieve optimal neurocognitive benefits while minimizing the longer-term risk of chronic diseases.

  3. How much exposure to English is necessary for a bilingual toddler to perform like a monolingual peer in language tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Allegra; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Farag, Rafalla; Krott, Andrea; Arreckx, Frédérique; Dennis, Ian; Floccia, Caroline

    2014-11-01

    Bilingual children are under-referred due to an ostensible expectation that they lag behind their monolingual peers in their English acquisition. The recommendations of the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists (RCSLT) state that bilingual children should be assessed in both the languages known by the children. However, despite these recommendations, a majority of speech and language professionals report that they assess bilingual children only in English as bilingual children come from a wide array of language backgrounds and standardized language measures are not available for the majority of these. Moreover, even when such measures do exist, they are not tailored for bilingual children. It was asked whether a cut-off exists in the proportion of exposure to English at which one should expect a bilingual toddler to perform as well as a monolingual on a test standardized for monolingual English-speaking children. Thirty-five bilingual 2;6-year-olds exposed to British English plus an additional language and 36 British monolingual toddlers were assessed on the auditory component of the Preschool Language Scale, British Picture Vocabulary Scale and an object-naming measure. All parents completed the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory (Oxford CDI) and an exposure questionnaire that assessed the proportion of English in the language input. Where the CDI existed in the bilingual's additional language, these data were also collected. Hierarchical regression analyses found the proportion of exposure to English to be the main predictor of the performance of bilingual toddlers. Bilingual toddlers who received 60% exposure to English or more performed like their monolingual peers on all measures. K-means cluster analyses and Levene variance tests confirmed the estimated English exposure cut-off at 60% for all language measures. Finally, for one additional language for which we had multiple participants, additional language CDI production scores were

  4. Terbutaline pump maintenance therapy after threatened preterm labor for preventing preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, K; Cook, L A; Gallo, M F; Grimes, D A

    2002-01-01

    Women with preterm labor that is arrested with tocolytic therapy are at increased risk of recurrent preterm labor. Terbutaline pump maintenance therapy has been given to such women to decrease the risk of recurrent preterm labor, preterm birth, and its consequences. To determine the effectiveness and safety of terbutaline pump maintenance therapy after threatened preterm labor in preventing preterm birth and its complications. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register (searched May 2002) and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2002). Randomized trials comparing terbutaline pump maintenance therapy with alternative therapy, placebo, or no therapy after threatened preterm labor. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies for inclusion and then extracted data from eligible studies. We included two studies. Terbutaline pump maintenance therapy did not appear to offer any advantages over the saline placebo pump or oral terbutaline maintenance therapy in preventing preterm births by prolonging pregnancy or its complications among women with arrested preterm labor. The weighted mean difference (WMD) for gestational age at birth was -0.1 weeks (95% confidence interval (CI) -1.7 to 1.4) for terbutaline pump therapy compared with saline placebo pump for both trials combined and 1.4 weeks (95% CI -1.1 to 3.9) for terbutaline pump versus oral terbutaline therapy for the first trial. The second trial reported a relative risk (RR) of 1.17 (95% CI 0.79 to 1.73) of preterm birth (less than 37 completed weeks) and a RR of 0.97 (95% CI 0.51 to 1.84) of very preterm birth (less than 34 completed weeks) for terbutaline pump compared with saline placebo pump. Terbutaline pump therapy also did not result in a higher rate of therapy continuation or a lower rate of infant complications. No data were reported on long-term infant outcomes, costs, or maternal assessment of therapy. Terbutaline pump maintenance therapy has not

  5. A study of risk factors for preterm labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon F. Fernandes

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: If we take into account the increase in multiple pregnancies and induced preterm birth, spontaneous preterm birth in singleton pregnancies has probably decreased. This decrease in preterm birth is undoubtedly related to better prenatal care for all pregnant women. The recognition of risk factors for preterm labour constitutes a part of basic prenatal care. Most etiological factors are modifiable, and preconception counselling should emphasize and address these issues. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1306-1312

  6. Occupational lifting of heavy loads and preterm birth:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge, Stine Bjerrum; Pedersen, Jacob Krabbe; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and preterm birth. The risk of preterm birth was estimated for total burden lifted per day and number of medium and heavy loads lifted per day.......To examine the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and preterm birth. The risk of preterm birth was estimated for total burden lifted per day and number of medium and heavy loads lifted per day....

  7. Epilepsy and vaccinations: Italian guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruna, Dario; Balestri, Paolo; Zamponi, Nelia; Grosso, Salvatore; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Romeo, Antonino; Franzoni, Emilio; Osti, Maria; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Longhi, Riccardo; Verrotti, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Reports of childhood epilepsies in temporal association with vaccination have had a great impact on the acceptance of vaccination programs by health care providers, but little is known about this possible temporal association and about the types of seizures following vaccinations. For these reasons the Italian League Against Epilepsy (LICE), in collaboration with other Italian scientific societies, has decided to generate Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy. The aim of Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy is to present recent unequivocal evidence from published reports on the possible relationship between vaccines and epilepsy in order to provide information about contraindications and risks of vaccinations in patients with epilepsy. The following main issues have been addressed: (1) whether contraindications to vaccinations exist in patients with febrile convulsions, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies; and (2) whether any vaccinations can cause febrile seizures, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination (MMR) increase significantly the risk of febrile seizures. Recent observations and data about the relationships between vaccination and epileptic encephalopathy show that some cases of apparent vaccine-induced encephalopathy could in fact be caused by an inherent genetic defect with no causal relationship with vaccination.

  8. Italian Rett database and biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Katia; Meloni, Ilaria; Scala, Elisa; Ariani, Francesca; Caselli, Rossella; Pescucci, Chiara; Longo, Ilaria; Artuso, Rosangela; Bruttini, Mirella; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Speciale, Caterina; Causarano, Vincenza; Hayek, Giuseppe; Zappella, Michele; Renieri, Alessandra; Mari, Francesca

    2007-04-01

    Rett syndrome is the second most common cause of severe mental retardation in females, with an incidence of approximately 1 out of 10,000 live female births. In addition to the classic form, a number of Rett variants have been described. MECP2 gene mutations are responsible for about 90% of classic cases and for a lower percentage of variant cases. Recently, CDKL5 mutations have been identified in the early onset seizures variant and other atypical Rett patients. While the high percentage of MECP2 mutations in classic patients supports the hypothesis of a single disease gene, the low frequency of mutated variant cases suggests genetic heterogeneity. Since 1998, we have performed clinical evaluation and molecular analysis of a large number of Italian Rett patients. The Italian Rett Syndrome (RTT) database has been developed to share data and samples of our RTT collection with the scientific community (http://www.biobank.unisi.it). This is the first RTT database that has been connected with a biobank. It allows the user to immediately visualize the list of available RTT samples and, using the "Search by" tool, to rapidly select those with specific clinical and molecular features. By contacting bank curators, users can request the samples of interest for their studies. This database encourages collaboration projects with clinicians and researchers from around the world and provides important resources that will help to better define the pathogenic mechanisms underlying Rett syndrome. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Bioactive Milk for Intestinal Maturation in Preterm Neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi

    inflammatory response. This immaturity predisposes preterm infants to various nutritional challenges and clinical conditions, including feeding intolerance, growth restriction, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), sepsis and long-term consequences. The quality of milk fed to preterm infants during the first...... to the improvement of infant formula industry and clinical practices of feeding preterm infants....

  10. Management of preterm labor: atosiban or nifedipine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel de Heus

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Roel de Heus, Eduard J H Mulder, Gerard H A VisserDepartment of Woman and Baby, University Medical Centre Utrecht, The NetherlandsAbstract: Preterm birth is strongly associated with neonatal death and long-term neurological morbidity. The purpose of tocolytic drug administration is to postpone threatening preterm delivery for 48 hours to allow maximal effect of antenatal corticosteroids and maternal transportation to a center with specialized neonatal care facilities. There is uncertainty about the value of atosiban (oxytocin receptor antagonist and nifedipine (calcium channel blocker as first-line tocolytic drugs in the management of preterm labor. For nifedipine, concerns have been raised about unproven safety, lack of placebo-controlled trials, and its off-label use. The tocolytic efficacy of atosiban has also been questioned because of a lack of reduction in neonatal morbidity. This review discusses the available evidence, the pros and cons of either drug and aims to provide information to support a balanced choice of first-line tocolytic drug: atosiban or nifedipine?Keywords: atosiban, oxytocin receptor antagonist, nifedipine, calcium channel blocker, preterm birth, tocolytic drugs, preterm labor

  11. Use of antibiotics to prevent preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, R S; Eschenbach, D A

    1997-08-01

    Our purpose is to review recent data and provide a clinical opinion on the use of antibiotics to prevent preterm birth or related maternal-neonatal complications. A literature review and a synthesis of opinion are provided. During prenatal care, standard practices should be applied regarding Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and bacteriuria. In addition, screen for and treat bacterial vaginosis in patients at high risk for preterm birth but do not treat Ureaplasma urealyticum or group B streptococci genital colonization. With preterm labor and intact membranes, standard practices should be applied regarding group B streptococci prophylaxis. Do not give antibiotics routinely to prolong pregnancy, but in patients with bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis specific treatment should be given. With preterm premature rupture of membranes, standard practices should be applied regarding group B streptococci prophylaxis, but additional antibiotics should also be given to prolong pregnancies at 24 to 32 weeks' gestation. Reported adverse effects have been few to date. However, increased diligence is needed for resistant organisms. In selected clinical settings antibiotic therapy is now indicated to prolong pregnancy and prevent maternal-neonatal complications associated with preterm birth.

  12. Prediction of preterm birth in nulliparous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, D A; Wigton, T R; Owen, J; Socol, M L; Frederiksen, M C

    1994-10-01

    Our goal was to determine whether the mammary stimulation test combined with a risk scoring system and cervical examination at 26 to 28 weeks' gestation could effectively identify private nulliparous patients at risk for spontaneous preterm birth. The mammary stimulation test was performed by 267 nulliparous patients with singleton gestations at 26 to 28 weeks. Risk scores were determined by the method of Creasy et al. and cervical examinations were performed at the first prenatal visit and at 26 to 28 weeks. Summary predictive values were calculated for each test, and a stepwise discriminate analysis was performed. Spontaneous preterm birth occurred at preterm birth: positive result of mammary stimulation test, risk score > or = 10, soft cervix at 26 to 28 weeks, bacteriuria, and current smoking. The best discriminate model included positive result of mammary stimulation test, soft cervix, bacteriuria, current smoking, and prior spontaneous abortion(s). This model identified 19 patients as being at risk for spontaneous preterm birth with sensitivity of 35%, specificity of 96%, and positive predictive value of 47%. Combining the mammary stimulation test with a cervical examination at 26 to 28 weeks' gestation and routinely obtained prenatal data correctly identified 35% of spontaneous preterm births in nulliparous patients with a positive predictive value of 47%. Prospective validation of this model is warranted.

  13. Optimising preterm nutrition: present and future

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, Ann-Marie

    2016-04-01

    The goal of preterm nutrition in achieving growth and body composition approximating that of the fetus of the same postmenstrual age is difficult to achieve. Current nutrition recommendations depend largely on expert opinion, due to lack of evidence, and are primarily birth weight based, with no consideration given to gestational age and\\/or need for catch-up growth. Assessment of growth is based predominately on anthropometry, which gives insufficient attention to the quality of growth. The present paper provides a review of the current literature on the nutritional management and assessment of growth in preterm infants. It explores several approaches that may be required to optimise nutrient intakes in preterm infants, such as personalising nutritional support, collection of nutrient intake data in real-time, and measurement of body composition. In clinical practice, the response to inappropriate nutrient intakes is delayed as the effects of under- or overnutrition are not immediate, and there is limited nutritional feedback at the cot-side. The accurate and non-invasive measurement of infant body composition, assessed by means of air displacement plethysmography, has been shown to be useful in assessing quality of growth. The development and implementation of personalised, responsive nutritional management of preterm infants, utilising real-time nutrient intake data collection, with ongoing nutritional assessments that include measurement of body composition is required to help meet the individual needs of preterm infants.

  14. Stability of Developmental Problems after School Entry of Moderately-Late Preterm and Early Preterm-Born Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornman, Jorijn; de Winter, Andrea F; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-08-01

    To assess the stability of developmental problems in moderately-late preterm-born children compared with early preterm and full term-born children before school entry at age 4 years and 1 year after school entry at age 5 years. We included 376 early preterm, 688 born moderately-late preterm, and 403 full term-born children from the Longitudinal Preterm Outcome Project (LOLLIPOP) cohort study. Developmental problems were assessed by the total score and the 5 domain scores of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at ages 4 (ASQ-4) and 5 (ASQ-5). From the combinations of normal and abnormal ASQ-4 and ASQ-5 scores we constructed 4 categories: consistently normal, emerging, resolving, and persistent problems. The ASQ-4 total score was abnormal more frequently in moderately-late preterm (7.9%, P = .016) and early preterm-born children (13.0%, P preterm-born children had persistence and change comparable with full term-born children, and early preterm-born children had significantly greater rates than full term-born children of persistent (8.4% vs 2.2%, P preterm and moderately-late preterm-born children had mainly emerging motor problems and resolving communication problems, but the changing rates of moderately-late preterm-born children were lower. After school entry, the overall development of moderately-late preterm-born children had stability patterns comparable with full term-born children, whereas early preterm-born children had greater rates of persistent and emerging problems. On the underlying domains, moderately-late preterm-born children had patterns comparable with early preterm-born children but at lower rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prolonged hyperprolactinemia in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, M; Schenker, J; Glassman, M; Ben-david, M

    1978-10-01

    Serum PRL levels were followed serially in full term (FT; 39-41 weeks) and preterm (PT; 30-32 weeks) infants, from birth to 12 and 20 postnatal weeks, respectively. Values were higher in FT infants than in PT infants on day 1 after birth (267 +/- 20 vs. 156 +/- 8 ng/ml) but were similar in both by the age of 2-4 weeks (69 +/- 8 vs. 69 +/- 6 ng/ml). Between the ages of 4-12 weeks, the serum PRL in FT infants fell to near adult levels (24 +/- 2 ng/ml), but this fall was seen much later in PT infants, between 12-20 weeks postnatally (23 +/- 2 ng/ml). When values in FT and PT infants were compared at parallel postmenstrual ages in contradistinction to postnatal ages, a similar course of PRL was discernable in both groups. These data may provide indirect evidence for the establishment and maturation of inhibition of PRL secretion (i.e. PRL-inhibitory factor production) postnatally, between 44-52 weeks postmenstrually.

  16. Palivizumab use in preterm neonates.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kingston, S

    2012-01-31

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis in infants. Palivizumab is an immunoprophylactic agent for RSV prevention in preterm infants and those with neonatal chronic lung disease. This study examines its use across neonatal units in Ireland. A questionnaire was administered to one Consultant Neonatologist or Paediatrician in each of the 20 maternity centres in Ireland about their guidelines for Palivizumab administration. There is variation in administration of Palivizumab with little consistency found between protocols reported in terms of age and presence of chronic lung disease. Ten centres have in house protocols, 3 centres use the American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP) guidelines, 2 centres prefer the UK Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) guidelines and 3 centres do not have a set protocol. Four participants felt its use has impacted on hospital admissions and 61% believe its use is cost effective. The budgetary implication for immunoprophylaxis with Palivizumab in Ireland is estimated at 1.5 to 2 million euros annually. Given current pharmacoeconomic constraints there is a need to implement a national protocol on RSV immunoprophylaxis.

  17. Palivizumab use in preterm neonates.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kingston, S

    2010-05-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis in infants. Palivizumab is an immunoprophylactic agent for RSV prevention in preterm infants and those with neonatal chronic lung disease. This study examines its use across neonatal units in Ireland. A questionnaire was administered to one Consultant Neonatologist or Paediatrician in each of the 20 maternity centres in Ireland about their guidelines for Palivizumab administration. There is variation in administration of Palivizumab with little consistency found between protocols reported in terms of age and presence of chronic lung disease. Ten centres have in house protocols, 3 centres use the American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP) guidelines, 2 centres prefer the UK Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) guidelines and 3 centres do not have a set protocol. Four participants felt its use has impacted on hospital admissions and 61% believe its use is cost effective. The budgetary implication for immunoprophylaxis with Palivizumab in Ireland is estimated at 1.5 to 2 million euros annually. Given current pharmacoeconomic constraints there is a need to implement a national protocol on RSV immunoprophylaxis.

  18. Birth of a science centre. Italian phenomenology (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rodari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In May 2004 the Balì Museum, Planetarium and interactive science museum, was opened to the public in Italy: 35 hands-on exhibits designed according to the interactive tradition of the Exploratorium in San Francisco, an astronomic observatory for educational activities, a Planetarium with 70 places. With a total investment of about three million euros, about two thirds of which were spent on restructuring the splendid eighteenth-century villa in which it is housed, the undertaking may be considered a small one in comparison with other European science centres. Three million euros: perhaps enough to cover the cost of only the splendid circular access ramp to the brand-new Cosmocaixa in Barcelona, an investment of one hundred million euros. But the interesting aspect of the story of the Balì Museum (but also of other Italian stories, as we shall see lies in the fact that this lively and advanced science centre stands in the bucolic region of the Marches, next to a small town of only 800 inhabitants (Saltara, in the Province of Pesaro and Urbino, in a municipal territory that has a total of 5000. Whereas in Italy the projects for science centres comparable with the Catalan one, for example projects for Rome and Turin, never get off the ground, smaller ones are opening in small and medium-sized towns: why is this? And what does the unusual location of the centres entail for science communication in Italy? This Focus does not claim to tell the whole truth about Italian interactive museums, but it does offer some phenomenological cues to open a debate on the cultural, economic and political premises that favour their lives.

  19. Second trimester cervical length measurement for prediction spontaneous preterm birth in an unselected risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Alberto Borges; da Cunha Caldas, Taciana Mara Rodrigues; Tahan, Luisa Almeida; Petrini, Caetano Galvão; Martins, Wellington P; Costa, Fabricio Da Silva; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2017-07-01

    To assess the predictive capacity of cervical length (CL) measurement underwent during the second trimester ultrasound for prediction preterm birth preterm (preterm birth by assessing the area under receiver operating characteristics curves with its respective confidence intervals (CIs) 95%. Preterm birth preterm birth. There was a weak correlation between CL measurement and gestational age at delivery (R(2)=0.01, P=0.002). Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis of the ability of CL measurement to predict preterm birth preterm birth.

  20. Early literacy and comprehension skills in children learning English as an additional language and monolingual children with language weaknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Fricke, Silke; Schaefer, Blanca; Lervåg, Arne; Hulme, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Many children learning English as an additional language (EAL) show reading comprehension difficulties despite adequate decoding. However, the relationship between early language and reading comprehension in this group is not fully understood. The language and literacy skills of 80 children learning English from diverse language backgrounds and 80 monolingual English-speaking peers with language weaknesses were assessed at school entry (mean age = 4 years, 7 months) and after 2 years of schooling in the UK (mean age = 6 years, 3 months). The EAL group showed weaker language skills and stronger word reading than the monolingual group but no difference in reading comprehension. Individual differences in reading comprehension were predicted by variations in decoding and language comprehension in both groups to a similar degree.

  1. Stability of Developmental Problems after School Entry of Moderately-Late Preterm and Early Preterm-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornman, Jorijn; de Winter, Andrea F.; Kerstjens, Jorien M.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Objective To assess the stability of developmental problems in moderately-late preterm-born children compared with early preterm and full term-born children before school entry at age 4 years and 1 year after school entry at age 5 years. Study design We included 376 early preterm, 688 born

  2. Stability of Developmental Problems after School Entry of Moderately-Late Preterm and Early Preterm-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornman, Jorijn; de Winter, Andrea F; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the stability of developmental problems in moderately-late preterm-born children compared with early preterm and full term-born children before school entry at age 4 years and 1 year after school entry at age 5 years. STUDY DESIGN: We included 376 early preterm, 688 born

  3. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PORTUGUESE ITALIAN RYEGRASS LANDRACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V LOPES

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. is one of the most important forage grass species in Europe. In Portugal 34% of the cultivated area is dedicated to animal fodder. Italian ryegrass area in Entre Douro e Minho (EDM region was mainly with landraces. Changes in traditional agricultural systems are contributing to a major loss of genetic diversity mainly to landraces. Portuguese Italian ryegrass landraces are threatened since nineteen years and collecting missions took place in EDM to ex situ conservation. The main Italian ryegrass landraces from EDM are “castelhano’s” and “verdeal’s” agro type. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of morphological variability between EDM Italian ryegrass landraces, to analyse the existence of duplicates in the germplasm collection and to evaluate the farmer’ classification. The landraces were characterised based on morphological traits of International Plant Genetic Resources Institute and International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants descriptors list and the most discriminated traits were utilised in the multivariate analysis, using NTSYS v.2.0. Italian ryegrass accessions belong to two different agro types based on morphological characteristics and farmers identified. Each landrace showed inter-population variability mainly on “verdeal” landrace. It was possible to differentiate the most of ryegrass accessions using the morphological traits used were initial stage of plant maturity. The EDM germplasm preserves the Italian ryegrass genetic diversity, which is conserved in ex situ and is a good basis for research programs.

  4. Prognostic Accuracy of Electroencephalograms in Preterm Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogtmann, Emilie Pi; Plomgaard, Anne Mette; Greisen, Gorm;

    2017-01-01

    (267 infants). Any aEEG background abnormality was a predictor of abnormal outcome. For prediction of a developmental quotient ...CONTEXT: Brain injury is common in preterm infants, and predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome are relevant. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prognostic test accuracy of the background activity of the EEG recorded as amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) or conventional EEG early in life in preterm infants...... for predicting neurodevelopmental outcome. DATA SOURCES: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. STUDY SELECTION: We included observational studies that had obtained an aEEG or EEG within 7 days of life in preterm infants and reported...

  5. The European arrest warrant in the Italian republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, Luisa

    2008-01-01

    Italian veto in the EU Council reversed by Berlusconi – Italian Parliament: lack of trust in other European Union member states – Italian implementing Act: in between the Framework Decision and the Italian legal order – Case-law of the Corte Cassazione: interpretations in conformity with the

  6. 9 CFR 319.145 - Italian sausage products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Italian sausage products. 319.145... Sausage § 319.145 Italian sausage products. (a) Italian sausage products are cured or uncured sausages... optional ingredients listed in paragraph (b) of this section. (1) “Italian Sausage” shall be prepared with...

  7. Authentic Italian food as Mamma used to make it!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Halberg; d'Ambrosio, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to explore how Italian restaurants define authentic Italian culinary experiences and how these experiences are designed and rendered to the restaurants’ guests.......The purpose of this investigation is to explore how Italian restaurants define authentic Italian culinary experiences and how these experiences are designed and rendered to the restaurants’ guests....

  8. The European Arrest Warrant in the Italian Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, Luisa

    2008-01-01

    Italian veto in the EU Council reversed by Berlusconi – Italian Parliament: lack of trust in other European Union member states – Italian implementing Act: in between the Framework Decision and the Italian legal order – Case-law of the Corte Cassazione: interpretations in conformity with the Framewo

  9. Impact of hospitalizations for bronchiolitis in preterm infants on long-term health care costs in Italy: a retrospective case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roggeri DP

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Daniela Paola Roggeri,1 Alessandro Roggeri,1 Elisa Rossi,2 Salvatore Cataudella,2 Nello Martini,3 1ProCure Solutions, Nembro, Bergamo, 2CINECA Interuniversity Consortium, Bologna, 3Accademia Nazionale di Medicina, Rome, Italy Purpose: Bronchiolitis is an acute inflammatory injury of the bronchioles, and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization for lower respiratory tract infections in preterm infants. This was a retrospective, observational, case-control study conducted in Italy, based on administrative database analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in health care costs of preterm infants with and without early hospitalization for bronchiolitis. Patients and methods: Preterm infants born in the period between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010 and hospitalized for bronchiolitis in the first year of life were selected from the ARNO Observatory database and observed for the first 4 years of life. These preterm infants were compared (paired 1–3 with preterm infants who were not hospitalized for bronchiolitis in the first year of life and with similar characteristics. Only direct health care costs reimbursed by the Italian National Health Service were considered for this study (drugs, hospitalizations, and diagnostic/therapeutic procedures. Results: Of 40,823 newborns in the accrual period, 863 were preterm with no evidence of prophylaxis, and 22 preterm infants were hospitalized for bronchiolitis (cases and paired with 62 controls. Overall, cases had 74% higher average cost per infant in the first 4 years of life than controls (18,624€ versus 10,189€, respectively. The major cost drivers were hospitalizations, accounting for >90% in both the populations. The increase in total yearly health care cost between cases and controls remained substantial even in the fourth year of life for all cost items. A relevant increase in hospitalizations and drug consumption linked to respiratory tract diseases was noted in

  10. Cultural Aspects in the Shona Monolingual Dictionary Duramazwi Guru reChiShona*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomalanga Mpofu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In the compilation of dictionaries, lexicographers also take cognisance of the culture which is inherent in a language. This article will look at the way the cultural aspect is interwoven in the practice of dictionary making. Language is at the core of culture and it is the major vehicle for the transmission of a people's beliefs and values. Language is also an expression of social struc-tures and attitudes. No culture can exist which does not have a natural language at its centre. A language thus reflects a particular culture. Culture in this article will be taken to mean whatever a person must know in order to function in a particular society (Wardhaugh 1998: 215. The article will look at two aspects: (1 the interrelationship between language and culture and its bearing on lexicography; and (2 the treatment of cultural aspects in Duramazwi Guru reChiShona (2001. Examples used in this article are drawn from the advanced Shona monolingual dictionary Duramazwi Guru reChiShona, and other Shona dictionaries, both monolingual and bilingual.

    Keywords: CULTURAL COMPETENCE, CULTURAL ASPECTS, CULTURAL MEANING, CULTURE, DICTIONARY, EUPHEMISM, EXTENDED MEANING, IDIOM, LEXICOGRAPHY, PROVERBS, SHONA, SHONA SOCIETY, TABOO

    Opsomming: Kulturele aspekte in die Sjona- eentalige woordeboek. By die samestelling van woordeboeke neem leksikograwe ook kennis van die kultuur wat inherent aan 'n taal is. Hierdie artikel sal kyk na die manier waarop die kulturele aspek verweef is met die praktyk van woordeboekmaak. Taal lê aan die kern van kultuur en dit is die hoofmedium vir die oordrag van 'n volk se opvattings en waardes. Taal is ook 'n uitdrukking van sosiale strukture en houdings. Geen kultuur kan bestaan wat nie 'n natuurlike taal as middelpunt het nie. 'n Taal weerspieël gevolglik 'n bepaalde kultuur. Kultuur in hierdie artikel sal verstaan word om alles te beteken wat 'n persoon moet weet om in 'n betrokke maatskappy te funksioneer

  11. Disregarding the Corpus: Head-word and Sense Treatment in Shona Monolingual Lexicography*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster M. Mavhu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: With specific reference to Shona monolingual lexicography, this article discusses how corpus-based lexicographers might, in some instances, decide not strictly to adhere to the corpus when it comes to headword and sense treatment. The writer is a member of the African Languages Research Institute (ALRI, formerly known as the African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project. ALRI is a nonfaculty interdisciplinary unit dedicated to research on and the development of African languages in Zimbabwe. The writer is part of the six-member team that compiled the now published Shona monolingual, synchronic, medium-sized and general-purpose dictionary Du-ramazwi Guru ReChiShona (2001. The article originates from the writer's experience of working on this dictionary. The article highlights the fact that being corpus-based does not necessarily imply being corpus-bound.

    Keywords: CORPUS, CORPUS-BASED, FREQUENCY, HEADWORD, LEXICOGRAPHY, SENSE, SHONA, SLANG, SYNONYMS

    Opsomming: Verontagsaming van die korpus: Trefwoord- en betekenisbe-handeling in die Sjona- eentalige leksikografie. Met spesifieke verwysing na die Sjona- eentalige leksikografie bespreek hierdie artikel hoe korpusgebaseerde leksikograwe in som-mige gevalle kan besluit om nie streng by die korpus te bly wanneer dit kom by trefwoord- en betekenisbehandeling nie. Die skrywer is 'n lid van die African Language Research Institute (AL-RI, vroeër bekend as die African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project. ALRI is 'n niefakulteits- interdissiplinêre eenheid wat hom beywer vir navorsing oor en die ontwikkeling van die Afrikatale in Zimbabwe. Die skrywer is deel van 'n span van ses lede wat die reeds gepubliseerde Sjona- een-talige, sinchroniese, middelgroot en meerdoelige woordeboek Duramazwi Guru ReChiShona (2001 saamgestel het. Die artikel het uit die skrywer se ervaring van werk aan hierdie woordeboek ont-staan. Die artikel belig die feit dat korpusgebaseerdheid nie noodwendig

  12. Mechanisms of term and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, W; Challis, J R G

    2002-11-01

    Labour at term and preterm results from activation and then stimulation of the myometrium. Activation can occur through mechanical stretch of the uterus, and by endocrine pathways resulting from increased activity of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In women and in experimental animals, cortisol likely contributes to increased prostaglandin production in fetal tissues through up-regulation of the type 2 prostaglandin H2, synthase-2 (PGHS-2) and down-regulation of 15-OH prostaglandin dehydrogenase. Cortisol increases expression of prostaglandin dehydrogenase in the chorion by reversing the stimulatory effect of progesterone, and may represent "progesterone withdrawal" in the primate. By competing with progesterone inhibition, cortisol also increases expression of placental corticotropin-releasing hormone. Other agents, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, similarly up-regulate PGHS-2 and decrease expression of prostaglandin dehydrogenase. Oxytocin, produced locally within the intrauterine tissues, is also thought to be involved in parturition, and there is a marked increase in oxytocin receptor expression at term. There are thus several mechanisms by which labour at term or preterm may be initiated. These different mechanisms need to be considered in the development of strategies for the detection and management of women in preterm labour. Ongoing studies are investigating the use of oxytocin receptor antagonists, PGHS-2 inhibitors, and nitric oxide to prevent or regulate preterm labour. The presence of fibronectin in vaginal secretions, and elevated maternal serum levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone, estrogens, and cytokines have been examined as possible markers of preterm labour. However, at the present time, we do not have the ability to accurately predict or diagnose preterm labour, nor do we have specific or efficient methods to inhibit labour once it has started.

  13. Looking at the evidence in visual world: eye-movements reveal how bilingual and monolingual Turkish speakers process grammatical evidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Seçkin; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Felser, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers) and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference to information source, through inflectional affixes signaling either direct (-DI) or indirect (-mIş) evidentiality. We conducted an eye-tracking-during-listening experiment where participants were given access to visual 'evidence' supporting the use of either a direct or indirect evidential form. The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well. In contrast, both late and early bilinguals were less accurate and slower to respond to direct than to indirect evidentials. The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data. That is, both late and early bilinguals fixated less frequently on the target picture in the direct than in the indirect evidential condition while the monolinguals showed no difference between these conditions. Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars. We discuss our findings with regard to theories of incomplete acquisition and first language attrition.

  14. Looking at the evidence in visual world: eye-movements reveal how bilingual and monolingual Turkish speakers process grammatical evidentiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçkin eArslan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference to information source, through inflectional affixes signaling either direct (-DI or indirect (-mIş evidentiality. We conducted an eye-tracking-during-listening experiment where participants were given access to visual ‘evidence’ supporting the use of either a direct or indirect evidential form. The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well. In contrast, both late and early bilinguals were less accurate and slower to respond to direct than to indirect evidentials. The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data. That is, both late and early bilinguals fixated less frequently on the target picture in the direct than in the indirect evidential condition while the monolinguals showed no difference between these conditions. Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars. We discuss our findings with regard to theories of incomplete acquisition and first language attrition.

  15. Bilingualism at the core of the brain. Structural differences between bilinguals and monolinguals revealed by subcortical shape analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgaleta, Miguel; Sanjuán, Ana; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sebastian-Galles, Núria; Ávila, César

    2016-01-15

    Naturally acquiring a language shapes the human brain through a long-lasting learning and practice process. This is supported by previous studies showing that managing more than one language from early childhood has an impact on brain structure and function. However, to what extent bilingual individuals present neuroanatomical peculiarities at the subcortical level with respect to monolinguals is yet not well understood, despite the key role of subcortical gray matter for a number of language functions, including monitoring of speech production and language control - two processes especially solicited by bilinguals. Here we addressed this issue by performing a subcortical surface-based analysis in a sample of monolinguals and simultaneous bilinguals (N=88) that only differed in their language experience from birth. This analysis allowed us to study with great anatomical precision the potential differences in morphology of key subcortical structures, namely, the caudate, accumbens, putamen, globus pallidus and thalamus. Vertexwise analyses revealed significantly expanded subcortical structures for bilinguals compared to monolinguals, localized in bilateral putamen and thalamus, as well as in the left globus pallidus and right caudate nucleus. A topographical interpretation of our results suggests that a more complex phonological system in bilinguals may lead to a greater development of a subcortical brain network involved in monitoring articulatory processes.

  16. Looking at the evidence in visual world: eye-movements reveal how bilingual and monolingual Turkish speakers process grammatical evidentiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Seçkin; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Felser, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers) and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference to information source, through inflectional affixes signaling either direct (-DI) or indirect (-mIş) evidentiality. We conducted an eye-tracking-during-listening experiment where participants were given access to visual ‘evidence’ supporting the use of either a direct or indirect evidential form. The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well. In contrast, both late and early bilinguals were less accurate and slower to respond to direct than to indirect evidentials. The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data. That is, both late and early bilinguals fixated less frequently on the target picture in the direct than in the indirect evidential condition while the monolinguals showed no difference between these conditions. Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars. We discuss our findings with regard to theories of incomplete acquisition and first language attrition. PMID:26441762

  17. Thymic size in preterm neonates: a sonographic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Hasselbalch, H; Poulsen, Susanne Dam;

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To assess the variation in size of the thymus in vivo in preterm neonates and to identify relations between thymic size and gestational age (GA), birthweight, occurrence of postnatal infections and maternal alcohol and tobacco intake during pregnancy. METHODS: Eighty preterm neonates with a GA...... and negatively correlated with occurrence of postnatal infection (p preterm...... neonates. A normal range for Ti in preterm neonates has been established. The sonographic method is a safe and effective technique for measuring the size of the thymus in preterm infants....

  18. Thymic size in preterm neonates: a sonographic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Hasselbalch, H; Poulsen, Susanne Dam

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To assess the variation in size of the thymus in vivo in preterm neonates and to identify relations between thymic size and gestational age (GA), birthweight, occurrence of postnatal infections and maternal alcohol and tobacco intake during pregnancy. METHODS: Eighty preterm neonates with a GA...... and negatively correlated with occurrence of postnatal infection (p preterm...... neonates. A normal range for Ti in preterm neonates has been established. The sonographic method is a safe and effective technique for measuring the size of the thymus in preterm infants....

  19. ALICE honours two Italian suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During the ALICE week held in Bologna from 19 to 23 June, the Collaboration recognized two of its top suppliers. From left to right: Robert Terpin (MIPOT), Pier Luigi Bellutti (ITC), Andrea Zanotti, President of ITC, Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University), Gennady Zinovjev (Kiev), Catherine Decosse (CERN), Lodovico Riccati, ALICE Collaboration Board Chair (INFN Torino), Paolo Giubellino (INFN Torino), Mario Zen, Director of ITC, Maurizio Boscardin (ITC), Paolo Tonella (ITC), Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson (CERN), Giacomo Vito Margagliotti (Trieste University), Nevio Grion (INFN Trieste), Marco Bregant (INFN Trieste). Front row from left to right: Paolo Traverso (ITC), Federico Carminati, ALICE Computing Project Leader (CERN), and Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg). It is in the picturesque city of Bologna that the ALICE Collaboration has rewarded two Italian suppliers, Istituto Trentino di Cultura ITC-irst (Trento) and MIPOT (Cormons), both involved in the construction of the Sili...

  20. Energy efficiency: The Italian situation and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerici, Alessandro; Beccarello, Massimo; Gallanti, Massimo

    2010-09-15

    The paper reports the results of a study led by Confindustria (Italian Federation of Industrial Associations) on the Italian situation with respect to energy efficiency policies and their effective implementations. The study is being continuously updated with the contributions of ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development) and ERSE (previously CESI Ricerca) and highlights the obtainable savings through efficient technologies now already available for applications in the final uses of energy for both the industrial, commercial and domestic sectors.

  1. Catholic Modernity and the Italian Constitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the Catholic contribution to the Italian republican and democratic Constitution of 1948. The focus is on the specific way in which the Italian citizen became symbolically coded as a ‘person’ and not as an ‘individual’, inspired by Catholic social philosophy. The Catholic...... project for the new Constitution had a considerable impact on modern Italian culture and politics and on the building of a modern mass democracy and welfare state. During the crucial historical juncture that followed the collapse of Fascism, Catholic politicians and intellectuals sought to interpret...

  2. Faith, existence and birth of preterm babies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Prinds

    The aim is to explore if becoming a mother preterm of a premature baby, actualises existential and religious issues, and to explore the impact of the considerations in their way of coping. It is thus to shed light on these issues, that can both function as a positive coping-resource and the oppos......The aim is to explore if becoming a mother preterm of a premature baby, actualises existential and religious issues, and to explore the impact of the considerations in their way of coping. It is thus to shed light on these issues, that can both function as a positive coping...

  3. Faith, existence and birth of preterm babies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Prinds

    The aim is to explore if becoming a mother preterm of a premature baby, actualises existential and religious issues, and to explore the impact of the considerations in their way of coping. It is thus to shed light on these issues, that can both function as a positive coping-resource and the oppos......The aim is to explore if becoming a mother preterm of a premature baby, actualises existential and religious issues, and to explore the impact of the considerations in their way of coping. It is thus to shed light on these issues, that can both function as a positive coping...

  4. Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a preterm neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Nicholaus J; Schelonka, Robert L; Waites, Ken B

    2003-07-01

    Bacillus cereus is an uncommon but potentially serious bacterial pathogen causing infections of the bloodstream, lungs, and central nervous system of preterm neonates. A case of bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a 19-day-old preterm neonate who was successfully treated with vancomycin, tobramycin, meropenem, and clindamycin is described. Implications for the diagnostic laboratory and clinicians when Bacillus species are detected in normally sterile sites are discussed, and the small numbers of infant infections proven to be due to this organism that have been described previously are reviewed.

  5. Preterm and infection-driven preterm labor: the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and retinoid X receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth-Carson, Sarah J; Permezel, Michael; Rice, Greg E; Lappas, Martha

    2009-06-01

    Approximately 8% of births are complicated by preterm delivery. To improve neonatal outcomes, a greater understanding of the mechanisms surrounding preterm parturition is required. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been implicated in the regulation of labor at term where they exhibit anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, we hypothesize that dysregulation of PPAR expression and activity may be associated with preterm labor and infection-associated preterm labor. The aim of this study was to compare the expression and activity of PPARs and the expression of retinoid X-receptor alpha (RXRA) in gestational tissues from term and preterm deliveries, and from infection-associated preterm deliveries. Quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting and activity ELISA were used to study expression and DNA binding profiles. Compared with term, preterm parturition was associated with an increased expression of PPAR delta (PPARD; mRNA and protein), PPAR gamma (PPARG; protein) and RXRA (protein) in the placenta and PPARD (mRNA and protein) and RXRA (mRNA) in the choriodecidua. There was, however, no change in preterm PPAR DNA binding activity compared with term. Preterm chorioamnionitis (CAM) demonstrated protein degradation in the choriodecidua and was associated with a decline in the mRNA expression of PPAR alpha (PPARA) and RXRA compared with uninfected preterm cases. PPAR DNA binding activity increased in the placenta (PPARD and PPARG) and decreased in the amnion (PPARA and PPARG) in association with preterm CAM. In conclusion, idiopathic preterm deliveries were associated with an increase in PPAR:RXR expression and preterm CAM was associated with a decrease in PPAR:RXR expression and tissue-specific alterations in transcriptional activity. The reasons for such dysregulation remain to be determined; however, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that PPARs may play a role in preterm labor and infection-complicated preterm deliveries.

  6. The Efficiency of Sensory Integration Interventions in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekçetin, Serkan; Akı, Esra; Üstünyurt, Zeynep; Kayıhan, Hülya

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of individualized sensory integration interventions on the sensory processing functions of preterm infants. Thirty-four preterm infants (intervention group) at a corrected age of seven months and 34 term infants (control group) were included. The preterm infants underwent an eight-week sensory integration intervention. Before and after the intervention, the preterm infants' sensory processing functions were evaluated using the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants and compared with those of term infants. Preterm infants had significantly poorer sensory processing function preintervention when compared with term infants. There was a significant improvement in preterm infants' sensory processing functions after the sensory integration intervention. In conclusion, preterm infants should be evaluated for sensory processing disorders and individualized sensory integration interventions should be implemented.

  7. Predicting preterm birth: Cervical length and fetal fibronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Moeun; Miller, Emily S

    2017-09-18

    Spontaneous preterm birth remains the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and accounts for a significant global health burden. Several obstetric strategies to screen for spontaneous preterm delivery, such as cervical length and fetal fibronectin measurement, have emerged. However, the effectiveness of these strategies relies on their ability to accurately predict those pregnancies at increased risk for spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB). Transvaginal cervical shortening is predictive of preterm birth and when coupled with appropriate preterm birth prevention strategies, has been associated with reductions in SPTB in asymptomatic women with a singleton gestation. The use of qualitative fetal fibronectin may be useful in conjunction with cervical length assessment in women with acute preterm labor symptoms, but data supporting its clinical utility remain limited. As both cervical length and qualitative fetal fibronectin have limited capacity to predict preterm birth, further studies are needed to investigate other potential screening modalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neuroimaging biomarkers of preterm brain injury: toward developing the preterm connectome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Wisnowski, Jessica L. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Southern California, Brain and Creativity Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Furtado, Andre [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lepore, Natasha [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Paquette, Lisa [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Center for Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Bluml, Stefan [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Southern California, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    For typically developing infants, the last trimester of fetal development extending into the first post-natal months is a period of rapid brain development. Infants who are born premature face significant risk of brain injury (e.g., intraventricular or germinal matrix hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia) from complications in the perinatal period and also potential long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities because these early injuries can interrupt normal brain maturation. Neuroimaging has played an important role in the diagnosis and management of the preterm infant. Both cranial US and conventional MRI techniques are useful in diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of preterm brain development and injury. Cranial US is highly sensitive for intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and provides prognostic information regarding cerebral palsy. Data are limited regarding the utility of MRI as a routine screening instrument for brain injury for all preterm infants. However, MRI might provide diagnostic or prognostic information regarding PVL and other types of preterm brain injury in the setting of specific clinical indications and risk factors. Further development of advanced MR techniques like volumetric MR imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, metabolic imaging (MR spectroscopy) and functional connectivity are necessary to provide additional insight into the molecular, cellular and systems processes that underlie brain development and outcome in the preterm infant. The adult concept of the ''connectome'' is also relevant in understanding brain networks that underlie the preterm brain. Knowledge of the preterm connectome will provide a framework for understanding preterm brain function and dysfunction, and potentially even a roadmap for brain plasticity. By combining conventional imaging techniques with more advanced techniques, neuroimaging findings will likely be used not only as diagnostic and prognostic tools, but also as biomarkers for long

  9. Neuroimaging biomarkers of preterm brain injury: toward developing the preterm connectome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Furtado, Andre; Lepore, Natasha; Paquette, Lisa; Bluml, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    For typically developing infants, the last trimester of fetal development extending into the first post-natal months is a period of rapid brain development. Infants who are born premature face significant risk of brain injury (e.g., intraventricular or germinal matrix hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia) from complications in the perinatal period and also potential long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities because these early injuries can interrupt normal brain maturation. Neuroimaging has played an important role in the diagnosis and management of the preterm infant. Both cranial US and conventional MRI techniques are useful in diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of preterm brain development and injury. Cranial US is highly sensitive for intraventricular hemorrhage IVH and provides prognostic information regarding cerebral palsy. Data are limited regarding the utility of MRI as a routine screening instrument for brain injury for all preterm infants. However, MRI might provide diagnostic or prognostic information regarding PVL and other types of preterm brain injury in the setting of specific clinical indications and risk factors. Further development of advanced MR techniques like volumetric MR imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, metabolic imaging (MR spectroscopy) and functional connectivity are necessary to provide additional insight into the molecular, cellular and systems processes that underlie brain development and outcome in the preterm infant. The adult concept of the “connectome” is also relevant in understanding brain networks that underlie the preterm brain. Knowledge of the preterm connectome will provide a framework for understanding preterm brain function and dysfunction, and potentially even a roadmap for brain plasticity. By combining conventional imaging techniques with more advanced techniques, neuroimaging findings will likely be used not only as diagnostic and prognostic tools, but also as biomarkers for long-term neurodevelopmental

  10. The learner as lexicographer: using monolingual and bilingual corpora to deepen vocabulary knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina HMELJAK SANGAWA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning vocabulary is one of the most challenging tasks faced by learners with a non-kanji background when learning Japanese as a foreign language. However, learners are often not aware of the range of different aspects of word knowledge they need in order to successfully use Japanese. This includes not only the spoken and written form of a word and its meaning, but also morphological, grammatical, collocational, connotative and pragmatic knowledge as well as knowledge of social constraints to be observed. In this article, we present some background data on the use of dictionaries among students of Japanese at the University of Ljubljana, a selection of resources and a series of exercises developed with the following aims: a to foster greater awareness of the different aspects of Japanese vocabulary, both from a monolingual and a contrastive perspective, b to learn about tools and methods that can be applied in different contexts of language learning and language use, and c to develop strategies for learning new vocabulary, reinforcing knowledge about known vocabulary, and effectively using this knowledge in receptive and productive language tasks.

  11. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  12. Alomar and Marinetti: Catalan and Italian Futurism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak de Perez de la Dehesa, Lil

    1972-01-01

    Suggests that a lecture on Futurism delivered in Catalan at the Ateneo in Barcelona on June 18, 1904, by Gabriel Alomar probably was the greatest influence on F. T. Marinetti and Italian Futurism. (DS)

  13. The history of Italian psychiatry during Fascism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzi, Andrea; Testa, Luana; Del Missier, Giovanni; Dario, Mariopaolo; Stocco, Ester

    2011-09-01

    Specific features characterized Italian psychiatry during Fascism (1922-45), distinguishing it from Nazi psychiatry and giving rise to different operational outcomes, so we have investigated the state of Italian psychiatry during this period. We review the historical situation that preceded it and describe the social and health policies that Fascism introduced following new legislative and regulatory acts. We examine the preventive and therapeutic role played by psychiatry (the electric shock was an Italian invention) and, thanks to the Enciclopedia Italiano published during those years, we are able to highlight psychiatry's relationship to psychology, psychoanalysis, philosophy and religion. The shortcomings of Italian psychiatric research and practice are also seen in terms of what the State failed to do rather than what it did.

  14. Eurasia Project—2007 Italian Camp Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>From July 14 to 29,the Eurasia Project—2007 Italian Camp was held at the Castle Fusano Country Club in Rome. 52 high school students from Germany,Poland,Italy and China participated in the summer camp.

  15. Early preterm delivery due to placenta previa is an independent risk factor for a subsequent spontaneous preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erez, Offer; Novack, Lena; Klaitman, Vered; Erez-Weiss, Idit; Beer-Weisel, Ruthy; Dukler, Doron; Mazor, Moshe

    2012-08-10

    To determine whether patients with placenta previa who delivered preterm have an increased risk for recurrent spontaneous preterm birth. This retrospective population based cohort study included patients who delivered after a primary cesarean section (n = 9983). The rate of placenta previa, its recurrence, and the risk for recurrent preterm birth were determined. Patients who had a placenta previa at the primary CS pregnancy had an increased risk for its recurrence [crude OR of 2.65 (95% CI 1.3-5.5)]. The rate of preterm birth in patients with placenta previa in the primary CS pregnancy was 55.9%; and these patients had a higher rate of recurrent preterm delivery than the rest of the study population (p placenta previa in the primary CS pregnancy, those who delivered preterm had a higher rate of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth regardless of the location of their placenta in the subsequent delivery [OR 3.09 (95% CI 2.1-4.6)]. In comparison to all patients with who had a primary cesarean section, patients who had placenta previa and delivered preterm had an independent increased risk for recurrent preterm birth [OR of 3.6 (95% CI 1.5-8.5)]. Women with placenta previa, who deliver preterm, especially before 34 weeks of gestation, are at increased risk for recurrent spontaneous preterm birth regardless to the site of placental implantation in the subsequent pregnancy. Thus, strict follow up by high risk pregnancies specialist is recommended.

  16. Serial correlation in the Italian futures market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Simone; Reno, Roberto

    2005-05-01

    We study the serial correlation of high-frequency intraday returns on the Italian stock index futures (FIB30) in the period 2000-2002. We adopt three different methods of analysis: the spectral density via Fast Fourier Transform, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and the Variance Ratio test. We find that intraday autocorrelation is mostly negative for time scales lower than 20 minutes, but we support the efficiency of the Italian futures market.

  17. Paracetamol and Preterm Infants: a painless liaison?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W.E. Roofthooft (Daniella)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In the late 1980s there was a true turnabout on the important issue of neonatal pain. Then, Anand and co-workers [1, 2], published a trial on preterm infants randomly allocated to fentanyl with a muscle relaxant or muscle relaxant only during surgical patent ductus arte

  18. Prediction of preterm birth in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrydimas, George; Sotiriadis, Alexandros

    2014-02-01

    About 13% of twins are born before 34 weeks and 7% before 32 weeks. The prediction of preterm birth in twins is based on the same tests as in singleton pregnancies. In twin pregnancies, the cut-off for short cervix at the second trimester scan is less than 25 mm (compared with 15 mm in singletons); length less than 20 mm is associated with 42% risk for birth before 32 weeks and cervical length less than 25 mm is associated with 28% risk for birth before 28 weeks. The measurement of cervical length in pregnancies with symptoms of preterm labour may have limited accuracy in predicting preterm birth. In asymptomatic women, a positive fetal fibronectin test seems to be associated with 35% risk for birth before 32 weeks and 40% risk for birth less than 34 weeks, whereas a negative test decreases the risk to 6% and 17%, respectively. The differences in the predictive value of tests between twins and singletons reflect the diverse pathophysiology of preterm birth between the two groups.

  19. Ontogeny of midazolam glucuronidation in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.N. de Wildt (Saskia); G.L. Kearns (Greg); D.J. Murry (Darryl); G. Koren (Gideon); J.N. van den Anker (John)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: In preterm infants, the biotransformation of midazolam (M) to 1-OH-midazolam (OHM) by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is developmentally immature, but it is currently unknown whether the glucuronidation of OHM to 1-OH-midazolam glucuronide (OHMG) is also decreased. The aim of our

  20. Ontogeny of midazolam glucuronidation in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.N. de Wildt (Saskia); G.L. Kearns (Greg); D.J. Murry (Darryl); G. Koren (Gideon); J.N. van den Anker (John)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: In preterm infants, the biotransformation of midazolam (M) to 1-OH-midazolam (OHM) by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is developmentally immature, but it is currently unknown whether the glucuronidation of OHM to 1-OH-midazolam glucuronide (OHMG) is also decreased. The aim of our s

  1. Donor human milk for preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanoglu, Sertac; Corpeleijn, Willemijn; Moro, Guido

    2013-01-01

    The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition aims to document the existing evidence of the benefits and common concerns deriving from the use of donor human milk (DHM) in preterm infants. The comment also outlines gaps in knowledge a...

  2. Ultrasonically detectable cerebellar haemorrhage in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Lisa Kenyon

    2011-07-01

    To determine the frequency and pattern of cerebellar haemorrhage (CBH) on routine cranial ultrasound (cUS) imaging in infants of ≤32 weeks gestation, and to investigate how extremely preterm infants with CBH differ from those with severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH).

  3. Proteomic Biomarkers for Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacerovsky, Marian; Lenco, Juraj; Musilova, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    This review aimed to identify, synthesize, and analyze the findings of studies on proteomic biomarkers for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Three electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of proteomic biomarkers for PTB published...

  4. Preterm Infant Massage Therapy Research: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, preterm infant massage therapy studies are reviewed. Massage therapy has led to weight gain in preterm infants when moderate pressure massage was provided. In studies on passive movement of the limbs, preterm infants also gained significantly more weight, and their bone density also increased. Research on ways of delivering the massage is also explored including using mothers versus therapists and the added effects of using oils. The use of mothers as therapists was effective in at least one study. The use of oils including coconut oil and safflower oil enhanced the average weight gain, and the transcutaneous absorption of oil also increased triglycerides. In addition, the use of synthetic oil increased vagal activity, which may indirectly contribute to weight gain. The weight gain was associated with shorter hospital stays and, thereby, significant hospital cost savings. Despite these benefits, preterm infant massage is only practiced in 38% of neonatal intensive care units. This may relate to the underlying mechanisms not being well understood. The increases noted in vagal activity, gastric motility, insulin and IGF-1 levels following moderate pressure massage are potential underlying mechanisms. However, those variables combined do not explain all of the variance in weight gain, highlighting the need for additional mechanism studies. PMID:20137814

  5. Oral and respiratory control for preterm feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Steven M

    2009-06-01

    Feeding competency is a frequent and serious challenge to the neonatal intensive care unit survivors and to the physician-provider-parent teams. The urgency of effective assessment and intervention techniques is obviated to promote safe swallow, as attainment of oral feeding for the preterm infant/newborn is one of the prerequisites for hospital discharge. If left unresolved, feeding problems may persist into early childhood and may require management by pediatric gastroenterologists and feeding therapists. This review highlights studies aimed at understanding the motor control and development of nonnutritive and nutritive suck, swallow, and coordination with respiration in preterm populations. Functional linkages between suck-swallow and swallow-respiration manifest transitional forms during late gestation and can be delayed or modified by sensory experience and/or disease processes. Moreover, brainstem central pattern generator (CPG) networks and their neuromuscular targets attain functional status at different rates, which ultimately influences cross-system interactions among individual CPGs. Entrainment of trigeminal primary afferents to activate the suck CPG is one example of a clinical intervention to prime cross-system interactions among ororhythmic pattern generating networks in the preterm and term infants. The genesis of within-system CPG control for rate and amplitude scaling matures differentially for suck, mastication, swallow, and respiration. Cross-system interactions among these CPGs represent targets of opportunity for new interventions that optimize experience-dependent mechanisms to promote robust ororhythmic patterning and safe swallows among preterm infants.

  6. Pulmonary oedema after hexoprenaline administration in preterm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-05-18

    May 18, 1991 ... preterm labour there appears to be.a limited appreciation of the need for cardiovascular .... On initiation of tocolysis, hexoprenaline 10 JIg is· given ... but not to induce a maternal tachycardia above l20/min. This procedure was ...

  7. Effects of Antenatal Corticosteroids in Preterm Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Gon Wang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal corticosteroid administration is one of the most effective methods to improve perinatal outcomes. It reduces the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates. Antenatal corticosteroids are also effective in treating maternal hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count syndrome. However, complications in neonates and mothers may occur when antenatal corticosteroids are given, including infection, sepsis and maternal pulmonary edema. The National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference recommends treatment regimens of either two 12 mg doses of betamethasone given intramuscularly 24 hours apart or four 6 mg doses of dexamethasone given intramuscularly 12 hours apart between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation in pregnancies at risk for preterm delivery. The benefits are most apparent when the corticosteroids are administered between 24 hours and 7 days before delivery. In principle, antenatal steroid therapy should not be routinely repeated in patients with preterm labor. For preterm premature rupture of membranes at less than 30–32 weeks of gestation, antenatal corticosteroids are also suggested as long as there is no evidence of infection.

  8. Advancing Evidence in Preterm Neonatal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Pamela K.; Robinson, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Few interventions and treatments for premature infants have undergone the rigors of a randomized controlled trial (RCT), the cornerstone of evidence-based healthcare. Multiple barriers in establishing a quality evidence base for the care of preterm infants are examined including the systematic exclusion of children from drug trials, vulnerability…

  9. Weibull Distributions for the Preterm Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha, N

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study are to evaluate the levels of CRH at pregnancy by using Weibull distributions. Also this study found the rate of change in placental CRH and the level of maternal cortisol in preterm delivery by the mathematical formulas.

  10. Protein Intake and Growth in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Tonkin BND (Hons

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This review aimed to investigate the relationship between varying levels of enteral protein intake and growth in preterm infants, regardless of feeding method. Data Sources. Electronic databases were searched for relevant studies, as were review articles, reference lists, and text books. Study Selection. Trials were included if they were randomized or quasirandomized, participants were 1000 g.

  11. The Italian Way to Carsharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Laurino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Carsharing (CS is increasing its role worldwide as an alternative transport mode, often more sustainable than private transport with self-owned vehicles. We first focus on the main characteristics of those services and on the impacts they generated, starting from the analysis of  the literature on this topic. CS initiatives are growing everywhere, however numbers are still minor and impacts are still far from a level that can deliver significant aggregate benefits. This paper studies the existing Italian carsharing experiences, trying to understand its strengths, that have allowed its development, but also possible limits and weaknesses. The presence of a national coordination structure (Iniziativa Carsharing - ICS, unique in Europe and created to boost local initiatives providing standardisation and interoperability, surely helped the development of the system. Some initiatives have been successful in terms of membership (in particular Milan, Venice and Turin, but others have been discontinued. Italian users’ characteristics are similar to the ones of users abroad: the majority of users are well educated male, living in small households having one or no cars and using public transport every day. At present, Italian drivers generally still show a scarce propensity to share their cars, considered more as “goods” than as “services”. A case study in Milan, the first and most successful initiative in Italy, shows a significant increase in CS membership after the implementation of a city charging scheme (“Ecopass” at first, then “Area C”. Moving shared cars from garages to “on the street parking” has proved successful too. The usage of the service has changed in time: users have increased (+151% more than runs (+137% – 2006 to 2009, while average length and duration of each run have decreased (-30% and -43% respectively, 2006 to 2010. Milan’s initiative also put s into practice many incentives for users that likely

  12. [Bacterial vaginosis and spontaneous preterm birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabant, G

    2016-12-01

    To determine if bacterial vaginosis is a marker for risk of spontaneous preterm delivery and if its detection and treatment can reduce this risk. Consultation of the database Pubmed/Medline, Science Direct, and international guidelines of medical societies. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a dysbiosis resulting in an imbalance in the vaginal flora through the multiplication of anaerobic bacteria and jointly of a disappearance of well-known protective Lactobacilli. His diagnosis is based on clinical Amsel criteria and/or a Gram stain with establishment of the Nugent score. The prevalence of the BV extraordinarily varies according to ethnic and/or geographical origin (4-58 %), in France, it is close to 7 % in the first trimester of pregnancy (EL2). The link between BV and spontaneous premature delivery is low with an odds ratio between 1.5 and 2 in the most recent studies (EL3). Metronidazole or clindamycin is effective to treat BV (EL3). It is recommended to prescribe one of these antibiotics in the case of symptomatic BV (Professional Consensus). The testing associated with the treatment of BV in the global population showed no benefit in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL2). Concerning low-risk asymptomatic population (defined by the absence of antecedent of premature delivery), it has been failed profit to track and treat the BV in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL1). Concerning the high-risk population (defined by a history of preterm delivery), it has been failed profit to track and treat the VB in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL3). However, in the sub population of patients with a history of preterm delivery occurred in a context of materno-fetal bacterial infection, there may be a benefit to detect and treat early and systematically genital infection, and in particular the BV (Professional Consensus). The screening and treatment of BV during pregnancy in asymptomatic low

  13. Italian citizenship and the descendants of Italian citizens emigrated in Colombia. Removing a social injustice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Castellari

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Law is often the source of social discriminations, but, at the same time, it can be thekey to delete these social discriminations. The authors try to give an example of thisphenomenon, by analyzing the impact of the Italian citizenship’s rules over the descendantsof the Italian citizens emigrated abroad and, especially, in South America.Indeed, according to the former Italian law, only fathers could transmit iure sanguinisthe citizenship to their children: moreover, women automatically lost theItalian citizenship if they get a foreign citizenship by concluding a marriage witha foreign husband.These rules hardly discriminate the Italian women emigrated abroad and, especially,their descendants who were prevented to get the Italian’s citizenship.These discriminatory rules were finally deleted by the Italian Constitutional Courtin the Seventies and in the Eighties: however, the effects of those rules still persisted,since the decision of the Constitutional Court could not overcome the temporal limit of the entry into force of the Constitution (01.01.1948 and, therefore, could not“cover” the discriminatory facts occurred before that date.Finally in 2009, the Italian Supreme Court, by extending the effects ratione temporisof the decisions of the Constitutional Court, “reopened the doors” of the Italiancitizenship to a huge number of Italian citizenship born from Italian women beforethe 01.01.1948.Therefore, the authors focus on the social impact of this decision for all the potentialItalian citizens living in South America and try to assess its juridical effects overthe Italian law.

  14. Risk assessment and management to prevent preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koullali, B; Oudijk, M A; Nijman, T A J; Mol, B W J; Pajkrt, E

    2016-04-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. In this review, we review potential risk factors associated with preterm birth and the subsequent management to prevent preterm birth in low and high risk women with a singleton or multiple pregnancy. A history of preterm birth is considered the most important risk factor for preterm birth in subsequent pregnancy. General risk factors with a much lower impact include ethnicity, low socio-economic status, maternal weight, smoking, and periodontal status. Pregnancy-related characteristics, including bacterial vaginosis and asymptomatic bacteriuria, appear to be of limited value in the prediction of preterm birth. By contrast, a mid-pregnancy cervical length measurement is independently associated with preterm birth and could be used to identify women at risk of a premature delivery. A fetal fibronectin test may be of additional value in the prediction of preterm birth. The most effective methods to prevent preterm birth depend on the obstetric history, which makes the identification of women at risk of preterm birth an important task for clinical care providers.

  15. Center Variation in the Delivery of Indicated Late Preterm Births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga, Sofia; Zhang, Jun; Long, D Leann; Herring, Amy H; Laughon, Matthew; Boggess, Kim; Reddy, Uma M; Grantz, Katherine Laughon

    2016-08-01

    Objective Evidence for optimal timing of delivery for some pregnancy complications at late preterm gestation is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify center variation of indicated late preterm births. Study design We performed an analysis of singleton late preterm and term births from a large U.S. retrospective obstetrical cohort. Births associated with spontaneous preterm labor, major congenital anomalies, chorioamnionitis, and emergency cesarean were excluded. We used modified Poisson fixed effects logistic regression with interaction terms to assess center variation of indicated late preterm births associated with four medical/obstetric comorbidities after adjusting for socio-demographics, comorbidities, and hospital/provider characteristics. Results We identified 150,055 births from 16 hospitals; 9,218 were indicated late preterm births. We found wide variation of indicated late preterm births across hospitals. The extent of center variation was greater for births associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (risk ratio [RR] across sites: 0.45-3.05), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (RR across sites: 0.36-1.27), and placenta previa/abruption (RR across sites: 0.48-1.82). We found less center variation for births associated with diabetes (RR across sites: 0.65-1.39). Conclusion Practice variation in the management of indicated late preterm deliveries might be a source of preventable late preterm birth.

  16. Cervical mucus properties stratify risk for preterm birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha S Critchfield

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ascending infection from the colonized vagina to the normally sterile intrauterine cavity is a well-documented cause of preterm birth. The primary physical barrier to microbial ascension is the cervical canal, which is filled with a dense and protective mucus plug. Despite its central role in separating the vaginal from the intrauterine tract, the barrier properties of cervical mucus have not been studied in preterm birth. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To study the protective function of the cervical mucus in preterm birth we performed a pilot case-control study to measure the viscoelasticity and permeability properties of mucus obtained from pregnant women at high-risk and low-risk for preterm birth. Using extensional and shear rheology we found that cervical mucus from women at high-risk for preterm birth was more extensible and forms significantly weaker gels compared to cervical mucus from women at low-risk of preterm birth. Moreover, permeability measurements using fluorescent microbeads show that high-risk mucus was more permeable compared with low-risk mucus. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that critical biophysical barrier properties of cervical mucus in women at high-risk for preterm birth are compromised compared to women with healthy pregnancy. We hypothesize that impaired barrier properties of cervical mucus could contribute to increased rates of intrauterine infection seen in women with preterm birth. We furthermore suggest that a robust association of spinnbarkeit and preterm birth could be an effectively exploited biomarker for preterm birth prediction.

  17. Practice Bulletin No. 171: Management of Preterm Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and the most common reason for antenatal hospitalization . In the United States, approximately 12% of all live births occur before term, and preterm labor preceded approximately 50% of these preterm births . Although the causes of preterm labor are not well understood, the burden of preterm births is clear-preterm births account for approximately 70% of neonatal deaths and 36% of infant deaths as well as 25-50% of cases of long-term neurologic impairment in children . A 2006 report from the Institute of Medicine estimated the annual cost of preterm birth in the United States to be $26.2 billion or more than $51,000 per premature infant . However, identifying women who will give birth preterm is an inexact process. The purpose of this document is to present the various methods proposed to manage preterm labor and to review the evidence for the roles of these methods in clinical practice. Identification and management of risk factors for preterm labor are not addressed in this document.

  18. Practice Bulletin No. 159 Summary: Management of Preterm Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and the most common reason for antenatal hospitalization (1-4). In the United States, approximately 12% of all live births occur before term, and preterm labor preceded approximately 50% of these preterm births (5, 6). Although the causes of preterm labor are not well understood, the burden of preterm births is clear-preterm births account for approximately 70% of neonatal deaths and 36% of infant deaths as well as 25-50% of cases of long-term neurologic impairment in children (7-9). A 2006 report from the Institute of Medicine estimated the annual cost of preterm birth in the United States to be $26.2 billion or more than $51,000 per premature infant (10). However, identifying women who will give birth preterm is an inexact process. The purpose of this document is to present the various methods proposed to manage preterm labor and to review the evidence for the roles of these methods in clinical practice. Identification and management of risk factors for preterm labor are not addressed in this document.

  19. Practice Bulletin No. 159: Management of Preterm Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and the most common reason for antenatal hospitalization . In the United States, approximately 12% of all live births occur before term, and preterm labor preceded approximately 50% of these preterm births . Although the causes of preterm labor are not well understood, the burden of preterm births is clear-preterm births account for approximately 70% of neonatal deaths and 36% of infant deaths as well as 25-50% of cases of long-term neurologic impairment in children . A 2006 report from the Institute of Medicine estimated the annual cost of preterm birth in the United States to be $26.2 billion or more than $51,000 per premature infant . However, identifying women who will give birth preterm is an inexact process. The purpose of this document is to present the various methods proposed to manage preterm labor and to review the evidence for the roles of these methods in clinical practice. Identification and management of risk factors for preterm labor are not addressed in this document.

  20. College and University Italian Programs in North America: Where Is Italian Phonetics and Phonology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Keith

    1990-01-01

    Argues for the inclusion of courses in phonetics and phonology in college Italian programs, claiming that the myth of Italian as a phonetic language blurs the clear need for such training and that students actually require advanced coursework in phonetics and phonology to improve their articulation and pronunciation. (43 references) (Author/CB)

  1. College and University Italian Programs in North America: Where Is Italian Phonetics and Phonology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Keith

    1990-01-01

    Argues for the inclusion of courses in phonetics and phonology in college Italian programs, claiming that the myth of Italian as a phonetic language blurs the clear need for such training and that students actually require advanced coursework in phonetics and phonology to improve their articulation and pronunciation. (43 references) (Author/CB)

  2. Preterm Birth and Adult Wealth: Mathematics Skills Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basten, Maartje; Jaekel, Julia; Johnson, Samantha; Gilmore, Camilla; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-10-01

    Each year, 15 million babies worldwide are born preterm. Preterm birth is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes across the life span. Recent registry-based studies suggest that preterm birth is associated with decreased wealth in adulthood, but the mediating mechanisms are unknown. This study investigated whether the relationship between preterm birth and low adult wealth is mediated by poor academic abilities and educational qualifications. Participants were members of two British population-based birth cohorts born in 1958 and 1970, respectively. Results showed that preterm birth was associated with decreased wealth at 42 years of age. This association was mediated by decreased intelligence, reading, and, in particular, mathematics attainment in middle childhood, as well as decreased educational qualifications in young adulthood. Findings were similar in both cohorts, which suggests that these mechanisms may be time invariant. Special educational support in childhood may prevent preterm children from becoming less wealthy as adults.

  3. Late preterms: A vulnerable group needing due attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind M Jambagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available "Late preterms may be apparently normal but a vulnerable group of preterm infants needing due attention both by the Obstetricians and Pediatricians. Late preterms like any other preterms are vulnerable to complications such as Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS and other complications seen in a preterm infant. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines recommend administration of antenatal corticosteroids in a mother in premature labor only up to the gestational age of 34 weeks. This is a case report of a preterm baby with a gestational age of 35 weeks which presented with RDS. We are hereby reporting this case to draw attention of the Obstetricians and Pediatricians toward this entity of ′Late Preterm′ to provide better care to them and obtain better outcomes."

  4. Surfactant therapy in late preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yurdakök

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Late preterm (LPT neonates are at a high risk for respiratory distress soon after birth due to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, transient tachypnea of the newborn, persistent pulmonary hypertension, and pneumonia along with an increased need for surfactant replacement therapy, continuous positive airway pressure, and ventilator support when compared with the term neonates. In the past, studies on outcomes of infants with respiratory distress have primarily focused on extremely premature infants, leading to a gap in knowledge and understanding of the developmental biology and mechanism of pulmonary diseases in LPT neonates. Surfactant deficiency is the most frequent etiology of RDS in very preterm and moderately preterm infants, while cesarean section and lung infection play major roles in RDS development in LPT infants. The clinical presentation and the response to surfactant therapy in LPT infants may be different than that seen in very preterm infants. Incidence of pneumonia and occurrence of pneumothorax are significantly higher in LPT and term infants. High rates of pneumonia in these infants may result in direct injury to the type II alveolar cells of the lung with decreasing synthesis, release, and processing of surfactant. Increased permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane to both fluid and solutes is known to result in entry of plasma proteins into the alveolar hypophase, further inhibiting the surface properties of surfactant. However, the oxygenation index value do not change dramatically after ventilation or surfactant administration in LPT infants with RDS compared to very preterm infants. These finding may indicate a different pathogenesis of RDS in late preterm and term infants. In conclusion, surfactant therapy may be of significant benefit in LPT infants with serious respiratory failure secondary to a number of insults. However, optimal timing and dose of administration are not so clear in this group. Additional

  5. Expressive Vocabulary Development in Children from Bilingual and Monolingual Homes: A Longitudinal Study from Two to Four Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Burridge, Andrea; Ribot, Krystal M; Welsh, Stephanie N

    2014-10-01

    The early course of language development among children from bilingual homes varies in ways that are not well described and as a result of influences that are not well understood. Here, we describe trajectories of relative change in expressive vocabulary from 22 to 48 months and vocabulary achievement at 48 months in two groups of children from bilingual homes (children with one and children with two native Spanish-speaking parents [ns = 15 and 11]) and in an SES-equivalent group of children from monolingual English homes (n = 31). The two groups from bilingual homes differed in their mean levels of English and Spanish skills, in their developmental trajectories during this period, and in the relation between language use at home and their vocabulary development. Children with two native Spanish-speaking parents showed steepest gains in total vocabulary and were more nearly balanced bilinguals at 48 months. Children with one native Spanish- and one native English-speaking parent showed trajectories of relative decline in Spanish vocabulary. At 48 months, mean levels of English skill among the bilingual children were comparable to monolingual norms, but children with two native Spanish-speaking parents had lower English scores than the SES-equivalent monolingual group. Use of English at home was a significant positive predictor of English vocabulary scores only among children with a native English-speaking parent. These findings argue that efforts to optimize school readiness among children from immigrant families should facilitate their access to native speakers of the community language, and efforts to support heritage language maintenance should include encouraging heritage language use by native speakers in the home.

  6. Expressive Vocabulary Development in Children from Bilingual and Monolingual Homes: A Longitudinal Study from Two to Four Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Burridge, Andrea; Ribot, Krystal M.; Welsh, Stephanie N.

    2014-01-01

    The early course of language development among children from bilingual homes varies in ways that are not well described and as a result of influences that are not well understood. Here, we describe trajectories of relative change in expressive vocabulary from 22 to 48 months and vocabulary achievement at 48 months in two groups of children from bilingual homes (children with one and children with two native Spanish-speaking parents [ns = 15 and 11]) and in an SES-equivalent group of children from monolingual English homes (n = 31). The two groups from bilingual homes differed in their mean levels of English and Spanish skills, in their developmental trajectories during this period, and in the relation between language use at home and their vocabulary development. Children with two native Spanish-speaking parents showed steepest gains in total vocabulary and were more nearly balanced bilinguals at 48 months. Children with one native Spanish- and one native English-speaking parent showed trajectories of relative decline in Spanish vocabulary. At 48 months, mean levels of English skill among the bilingual children were comparable to monolingual norms, but children with two native Spanish-speaking parents had lower English scores than the SES-equivalent monolingual group. Use of English at home was a significant positive predictor of English vocabulary scores only among children with a native English-speaking parent. These findings argue that efforts to optimize school readiness among children from immigrant families should facilitate their access to native speakers of the community language, and efforts to support heritage language maintenance should include encouraging heritage language use by native speakers in the home. PMID:25089074

  7. Differences between Spanish monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children in their calculation of entailment-based scalar implicatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Syrett

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we extend investigations of the possible effects of cross-linguistic influence at the pragmatics-syntax interface (Hulk & Müller 2000; Müller & Hulk 2001; Serratrice, Sorace & Paoli 2004, by presenting two experiments designed to probe how Spanish monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual preschool-age children approach the ‘some, but not all’ 'scalar implicature '(SI associated with 'algunos '(‘some’. We compare 'algunos 'and 'unos '(also a ‘some’ indefinite, but one that is not context-linked and does not induce an SI, and 'algunos 'and 'todos '(the universal quantifier ‘every/all’. The performance of the children is compared to fluent adult Spanish heritage speakers. Experiment 1 is a variation of Noveck’s (2001 statement evaluation task, also replicated by Guasti et al'. '(2005. Experiment 2 is a forced-choice picture selection task. Results demonstrate that adults were the only group to consistently calculate the SI associated with 'algunos '– a finding that was expected to some extent, given that our tasks were stripped of the contextual support that could benefit children’s pragmatic reasoning. While bilingual and monolingual children displayed comparable performance across tasks, bilinguals in Experiment 2 appeared to experience difficulty with judgments related to 'todos '– a pattern we attribute (in light of independent findings to the cognitive overload in the task, not the lexical entry of this quantifier. We conclude that young monolingual and bilingual children confront the same challenges when called upon to deploy pragmatic skills in a discourse context. This article is part of the special collection:Acquisition of Quantification

  8. Progestogens to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuit, Ewoud; Stock, Sarah; Groenwold, Rolf H H;

    2012-01-01

    Preterm birth is the principal factor contributing to adverse outcomes in multiple pregnancies. Randomized controlled trials of progestogens to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancies have shown no clear benefits. However, individual studies have not had sufficient power to evaluate potential b...... benefits in women at particular high risk of early delivery (for example, women with a previous preterm birth or short cervix) or to determine adverse effects for rare outcomes such as intrauterine death....

  9. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Katrine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn;

    2004-01-01

    The authors evaluated the association between amount and type of alcohol consumed during pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery and whether the relation differs among very (... of alcohol, no increased risk of preterm delivery was found. Among women who consumed seven or more drinks per week, the relative risk of very preterm delivery was 3.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.80, 13.24) compared with that of nondrinkers. There were no differences in the associations between type...

  10. Questionable research practices among italian research psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnoli, Franca; Wicherts, Jelte M; Veldkamp, Coosje L S; Albiero, Paolo; Cubelli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    A survey in the United States revealed that an alarmingly large percentage of university psychologists admitted having used questionable research practices that can contaminate the research literature with false positive and biased findings. We conducted a replication of this study among Italian research psychologists to investigate whether these findings generalize to other countries. All the original materials were translated into Italian, and members of the Italian Association of Psychology were invited to participate via an online survey. The percentages of Italian psychologists who admitted to having used ten questionable research practices were similar to the results obtained in the United States although there were small but significant differences in self-admission rates for some QRPs. Nearly all researchers (88%) admitted using at least one of the practices, and researchers generally considered a practice possibly defensible if they admitted using it, but Italian researchers were much less likely than US researchers to consider a practice defensible. Participants' estimates of the percentage of researchers who have used these practices were greater than the self-admission rates, and participants estimated that researchers would be unlikely to admit it. In written responses, participants argued that some of these practices are not questionable and they have used some practices because reviewers and journals demand it. The similarity of results obtained in the United States, this study, and a related study conducted in Germany suggest that adoption of these practices is an international phenomenon and is likely due to systemic features of the international research and publication processes.

  11. Survey of Italian human milk banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nisi, Giuseppe; Moro, Guido E; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Ambruzzi, Amalia M; Biasini, Augusto; Profeti, Claudio; Tonetto, Paola; Bertino, Enrico

    2015-05-01

    At present, the Italian Association of Donor Human Milk Banks (Associazione Italiana Banche del Latte Umano Donato, AIBLUD) consists of 31 milk banks, whose management is based on Italian Guidelines. In 2013, AIBLUD performed a systematic survey to collect data on the activities of banks operating in Italy in the years previous to this date. The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the operational procedures of Italian Human Milk Banks in order to identify both areas of strength and room for improvement. A questionnaire was utilized to obtain national data from the 28 banks active in the year 2012 in order to evaluate the number of donors, volume of human milk collected, and other information relating to the period 2007 to 2012. In all, 89% of the banks (25/28) responded to the survey. Data received primarily concerned the number of donors, volume of milk collected, and average amount of milk from each donor in the period 2007 to 2012. It was evident that in 2012 human milk banks collected a higher volume of milk than in 2007. Further, the average amount of milk from each donor was higher. Most of the milk banks were following the Italian Guidelines for traceability, control of donors, bacteriological checks, method of pasteurization, storage, thawing, type of containers, and utilization of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points system. This survey identified both areas of strength and room for improvement in the Italian human milk banks. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Questionable research practices among italian research psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Veldkamp, Coosje L. S.; Albiero, Paolo; Cubelli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    A survey in the United States revealed that an alarmingly large percentage of university psychologists admitted having used questionable research practices that can contaminate the research literature with false positive and biased findings. We conducted a replication of this study among Italian research psychologists to investigate whether these findings generalize to other countries. All the original materials were translated into Italian, and members of the Italian Association of Psychology were invited to participate via an online survey. The percentages of Italian psychologists who admitted to having used ten questionable research practices were similar to the results obtained in the United States although there were small but significant differences in self-admission rates for some QRPs. Nearly all researchers (88%) admitted using at least one of the practices, and researchers generally considered a practice possibly defensible if they admitted using it, but Italian researchers were much less likely than US researchers to consider a practice defensible. Participants’ estimates of the percentage of researchers who have used these practices were greater than the self-admission rates, and participants estimated that researchers would be unlikely to admit it. In written responses, participants argued that some of these practices are not questionable and they have used some practices because reviewers and journals demand it. The similarity of results obtained in the United States, this study, and a related study conducted in Germany suggest that adoption of these practices is an international phenomenon and is likely due to systemic features of the international research and publication processes. PMID:28296929

  13. The Lexicographic Treatment of Sublexical and Multilexical Items in a Northern Sotho Monolingual Dictionary: A Challenge for Lexicographers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlokwe Clifford Mphahlele

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Dictionaries have in the past used a word-based approach in which sublexical and multilexical items were not regarded as lemmata. Metalexicography as the theoretical component of lexicography requires that sublexical and multilexical items be lemmatized and treated as independent lemmata in the macrostructure of dictionaries. One of the greater challenges for compiling a better and user-oriented Northern Sotho monolingual dictionary is to treat sublexical and multi-lexical items as macrostructural elements. Treating these items, the lexicographer faces quite a number of challenges. This article proposes possible ways in which sublexical and multilexical elements could be successfully treated in a Northern Sotho monolingual dictionary. Taking stock of these challenges, the writer comes with suggestions that would assist lexicographers in the compi-lation of a user-friendly, lexicon-based monolingual dictionary that would lead users to successful information retrieval.

    Keywords: SUBLEXICAL ITEMS, MULTILEXICAL ITEMS, AFFIXES, PREFIXAL MOR-PHEMES, SUFFIXAL MORPHEMES, INTEGRATED MICROSTRUCTURE, WORD-BASED APPROACH, LEMMATIZATION, COLLOCATIONS, COMPOUNDS, COMPLEXES, GROUP PREPOSITIONS, FIXED EXPRESSIONS, MORPHEMES, METALEXICOGRAPHICAL ASPECTS, WORD-FORMATION PROCESSES, WORD-INTERNAL FUNCTION, USER-ORIENTED MONO-LINGUAL DICTIONARY, GRAMMAR, HOMONYMOUS LEMMA, POLYSEMOUS LEMMA, DECODING, ENCODING, SEMANTIC COMMENT, SEMANTIC TRANSPARENCY

    Opsomming: Die leksikografiese behandeling van subleksikale en multi-leksikale items in 'n Noord-Sotho- eentalige woordeboek: 'n Uitdaging vir leksikograwe. Woordeboeke het in die verlede 'n woordgebaseerde benadering gevolg waar-by subleksikale en multileksikale items nie as lemmas beskou is nie. Die metaleksikografie as die teoretiese komponent van die leksikografie vereis dat subleksikale en multileksikale items gelem-matiseer word en as onafhanklike lemmas in die makrostuktuur van woordeboeke

  14. Differences in the Association between Segment and Language: Early Bilinguals Pattern with Monolinguals and Are Less Accurate than Late Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Cynthia P.; Bannard, Colin; Smiljanic, Rajka

    2016-01-01

    Early bilinguals often show as much sensitivity to L2-specific contrasts as monolingual speakers of the L2, but most work on cross-language speech perception has focused on isolated segments, and typically only on neighboring vowels or stop contrasts. In tasks that include sounds in context, listeners’ success is more variable, so segment discrimination in isolation may not adequately represent the phonetic detail in stored representations. The current study explores the relationship between language experience and sensitivity to segmental cues in context by comparing the categorization patterns of monolingual English listeners and early and late Spanish–English bilinguals. Participants categorized nonce words containing different classes of English- and Spanish-specific sounds as being more English-like or more Spanish-like; target segments included phonemic cues, cues for which there is no analogous sound in the other language, or phonetic cues, cues for which English and Spanish share the category but for which each language varies in its phonetic implementation. Listeners’ language categorization accuracy and reaction times were analyzed. Our results reveal a largely uniform categorization pattern across listener groups: Spanish cues were categorized more accurately than English cues, and phonemic cues were easier for listeners to categorize than phonetic cues. There were no differences in the sensitivity of monolinguals and early bilinguals to language-specific cues, suggesting that the early bilinguals’ exposure to Spanish did not fundamentally change their representations of English phonology. However, neither did the early bilinguals show more sensitivity than the monolinguals to Spanish sounds. The late bilinguals however, were significantly more accurate than either of the other groups. These findings indicate that listeners with varying exposure to English and Spanish are able to use language-specific cues in a nonce-word language categorization

  15. Relation Between Stress During Pregnancy and Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ortiz Martínez, Roberth Alirio; Castillo, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    ...; however, psychopathological components emerge as potentially important risk factors. To determine the relationship between the presence of stress during pregnancy and spontaneous preterm birth...

  16. Magnesium blood levels and preterm labor: a prospective clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hantoushzadeh S

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past two decades we have seen a marked increase in the survival of very low birth weight infants. This increase in survival has been attributed to increased use of corticosteroids, regionalization of perinatal care, improved methods of mechanical ventilation, availability of exogenous surfactant, and improved nutritional therapy. However, the reduction in mortality has not been accompanied by a reduction in neonatal morbidity or long-term handicaps. Preterm labor is a major issue in Iran. Besides various etiologies, preterm labor may be due to a biochemical alteration, such as magnesium. It is known that magnesium plasma levels fall during pregnancy. Since magnesium has an inhibitory role on myometrial contractions attention has been paid to the role of magnesium deficiency in preterm labor. Hypomagnesemia leads to neuromuscular hyperexcitability resulting in muscle cramps and uterine hyperactivity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between serum magnesium levels and preterm delivery in order to circumvent the high morbidity of preterm delivery by early diagnosis of this deficiency.Methods: Serum magnesium was measured in 42 cases of preterm labor of idiopathic etiology (28-37 weeks and 42 normal pregnancies at the same gestational age.Results: Hypomagnesemia was variable in preterm labor cases, with only slightly low values in normal pregnant women.Conclusion: Our study indicates that serum magnesium levels during pregnancy can be a valuable predictive tool for preterm labor. Hypomagnesemia must be considered in all pregnant women with preterm labor and supplementation must be provided effectively.

  17. Exploring Preterm Mothers' Personal Narratives: Influences and Meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Cherie S; Doheny, Kim K

    In this article we report on a study exploring personal narratives of mothers of former preterm infants and the attributed meaning related to that experience over time. Using narrative inquiry as the research method, in-depth, unstructured interviews were conducted with 6 preterm mothers. Findings reveal that a preterm mother's experience is informed by contextual, intrapersonal, and interpersonal dynamics, some predating the birth often with effects that continue for years beyond it. By learning a preterm mother's unique experience and its attributed meaning, nurses can better understand the resulting effect on maternal/family health and well-being and tailor nursing interventions accordingly.

  18. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in preterm infants: association with neurodevelopmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Reina; Sato, Yoshiaki; Ito, Miharu; Sugiyama, Yuichiro; Ogawa, Chikako; Kawai, Hisashi; Nakane, Toshiki; Saito, Akiko; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Natsume, Jun; Hayakawa, Masahiro

    2017-07-19

    To compare magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) metabolite ratios in preterm infants at term-equivalent age with those in term infants and to evaluate the association between MRS metabolites and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 months corrected age in preterm infants. We studied infants born at a gestational age preterm infants and 16 term infants were enrolled in this study. Preterm infants with normal development at 18 months showed significantly lower NAA/Cho ratios in the frontal white matter than term infants. There were no differences in the Cre/Cho ratios between preterm and term infants. At 18 months corrected age, 9 preterm infants with a mild developmental delay showed significantly lower NAA/Cho ratios in the thalamus than 24 preterm infants with normal development. Preterm infants at term-equivalent age showed reduced MRS metabolites (NAA/Cho) compared with term infants. Decreased NAA/Cho ratios in the thalamus were associated with neurodevelopmental delay at 18 months corrected age in preterm infants. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Accuracy of Birth Certificate Data for Classifying Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Molly J; Macones, George A; Tuuli, Methodius G

    2017-05-01

    Classifying preterm birth as spontaneous or indicated is critical both for clinical care and research, yet the accuracy of classification based on different data sources is unclear. We examined the accuracy of preterm birth classification as spontaneous or indicated based on birth certificate data. This is a retrospective cohort study of 123 birth certificates from preterm births in Missouri. Correct classification of spontaneous or indicated preterm birth subtype was based on multi-provider (RN, MFM Fellow, MFM attending) consensus after full medical record review. A categorisation algorithm based on clinical data available in the birth certificate was designed a priori and classification was performed by a single investigator according to the algorithm. Accuracy of birth certificate classification as spontaneous or indicated was compared to the consensus classification. Errors in misclassification were explored. Classification based on birth certificates was correct for 66% of preterm births. Most errors in classification by birth certificate occurred in classifying a birth as spontaneous when it was in fact indicated. The vast majority of errors occurred when preterm rupture of membranes (≥12 h) was checked on the birth certificate causing classification as spontaneous when there was a maternal or fetal indication for delivery. Birth certificate classification overestimated spontaneous preterm birth and underestimated indicated preterm birth compared to classification performed from medical record review. Revisions to birth certificate clinical data would allow more accurate population level surveillance of preterm birth subtypes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Preterm Infants and Parents’ self-esteem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Hanne; Madsen, Mette Kold

    consecutively enrolled into the study. Results: The preliminary findings were created in a theoretical framework of self-esteem understood in a physiological perspective. The interviews showed that individual, relational and structured aspects influenced the parents’ experiences of their self-esteem after birth...... of their preterm infant. The fathers described feeling torn between taking care of the mother and the infant admitted to the NICU. The mothers experienced difficulties in remembering what happened the first 24 hours after giving birth. The relational aspects affected the relationship between mothers and fathers...... of their self-esteem in the first 24 hours after the birth of a preterm infant are influenced by division (the fathers) and amnesia (the mothers). Later, when the parents build up their sense of parenthood they become very susceptible to the mutual relationship, the relationship to the infant and closest...

  1. Molecular and biochemical mechanisms of preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Aarthi R; Loudon, Jenifer A; Bennett, Phillip R

    2004-12-01

    Parturition involves the synchronization of myometrial activity and structural changes of the cervix, leading to regular co-ordinated uterine contractions and cervical dilatation and effacement. The biochemical events involved in parturition resemble an inflammatory reaction, with growing evidence pointing to a crucial role for pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins in labour. There is accumulating evidence that there are common mediators involved in the regulation of 'labour-associated proteins', and that, in each case, an increase or decrease in gene expression mediates changes in their concentration. It is possible, therefore, that targeting these common mediators may represent newer strategies for the prevention of preterm labour. Our aim is to review the mechanical and biochemical mechanisms that may be involved in the processes of term and preterm labour. Specifically, we will consider the regulation of some of the 'labour-associated proteins', chemotactic cytokines, prostaglandins and enzymes of the prostaglandin biosynthetic pathway and the oxytocin receptor.

  2. Microbiome in parturition and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysorekar, Indira U; Cao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Preterm parturition is a one of the most significant global maternal-child health problem. In recent years, there has been an explosion in reports on a role for microbiomes (i.e., a microbial biomass) on a plethora of physiologic and pathologic human conditions. This review aims to describe our current understanding of the microbiome and its impact on parturition, with particular emphasis on preterm birth. We will focus on the roles of vaginal and oral mucosal microbiomes in premature parturition and describe the state-of-the-art methodologies used in microbiome studies. Next, we will present new studies on a potential microbiome in the placenta and how it may affect pregnancy outcomes. Finally, we will propose that host genetic factors can perturb the normal "pregnancy microbiome" and trigger adverse pregnancy outcomes. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Italian singer Annalisa at CERN for a week of filming

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    CERN welcomed Italian singer-songwriter Annalisa for a week-long visit to the Laboratory to shoot an Italian television production about the Laboratory.   Annalisa in the CERN Control Centre.   The Italian artist has a degree in physics from the University of Turin, Italy. She is a singer and songwriter, famous for her successful participation in the Italian talent show, Amici di Maria De Filippi. She has recorded four albums as solo artist and has participated twice in the Sanremo Music Festival, the most important Italian song contest. She has also received numerous Italian music awards, and has earned international recognition. Thanks to her knowledge of physics and her great influence with the Italian youth, Annalisa was selected to host an Italian television production about CERN aimed at young people. 

  4. Bilingual children's long-term outcomes in English as a second language: language environment factors shape individual differences in catching up with monolinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Jia, Ruiting

    2017-01-01

    Bilingual children experience more variation in their language environment than monolingual children and this impacts their rate of language development with respect to monolinguals. How long it takes for bilingual children learning English as a second language (L2) to display similar abilities to monolingual age-peers has been estimated to be 4-6 years, but conflicting findings suggest that even 6 years in school is not enough. Most studies on long-term L2 development have focused on just one linguistic sub-domain, vocabulary, and have not included multiple individual difference factors. For the present study, Chinese first language-English L2 children were given standardized measures of vocabulary, grammar and global comprehension every year from 4 ½ to 6 ½ years of English in school (ages 8½ to 10½); language environment factors were obtained through an extensive parent questionnaire. Children converged on monolingual norms differentially according to the test, with the majority of children reaching monolingual levels of performance on the majority of tests by 5 ½ years of English exposure. Individual differences in outcomes were predicted by length of English exposure, mother's education, mother's English fluency, child's use of English in the home, richness/quality of the English input outside school and age of arrival in Canada. In sum, the timeframe for bilinguals to catch up to monolinguals depends on linguistic sub-domain, task difficulty and on individual children's language environment, making 4-6 years an approximate estimate only. This study also shows that language environment factors shape not only early-stage but also late-stage bilingual development.

  5. Unexpected behavioural consequences of preterm newborns' clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durier, Virginie; Henry, Séverine; Martin, Emmanuelle; Dollion, Nicolas; Hausberger, Martine; Sizun, Jacques

    2015-03-17

    Restrictions of preterm newborns' movements could have consequences ranging from stress enhancement to impairment of their motor development. Therefore, ability to freely express motor activities appears crucial for their behavioural and physiological development. Our aim was to evaluate behavioural issues of two types of clothing used in NICU. We observed 18 healthy 34-37 post-conception week-old preterm newborns, during resting periods, when they were undisturbed by any interventions. Newborns wore either light clothing (bodysuit and a light wrapping) or heavy clothing (pyjamas, cardigan and sleep-sack). The percentages of time each subject spent in different postures were compared between clothing situations. Arm and hand postures differed in relation to clothing: babies bent their arms more and held their hands nearer their heads when in bodysuits than when in sleepwear. Consequently, babies in bodysuits spent more time touching their body or their environment whereas the others generally were touching nothing. Self-touch is an important way to comfort one's self. Heavy clothing may impair self-soothing behaviours of preterm newborn babies that already lack other forms of contact. Results suggest that more attention should be paid to apparently routine and marginal decisions such as choice of clothes.

  6. Occupational lifting, fetal death and preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocevic, Emina; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and risk of fetal death and preterm birth using a job exposure matrix (JEM). METHODS: For 68,086 occupationally active women in the Danish National Birth Cohort, interview information on occupational lifting...... the JEM. We used Cox regression models with gestational age as underlying time variable and adjustment for covariates. RESULTS: We observed 2,717 fetal deaths and 3,128 preterm births within the study cohort. No exposure-response relation was observed for fetal death, but for women with a prior fetal...... death, we found a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.87 (95% CI 1.37, 6.01) for stillbirth (fetal death ≥22 completed gestational weeks) among those who lifted >200 kg/day. For preterm birth, we found an exposure-response relation for primigravid women, reaching a HR of 1.43 (95% CI 1.13, 1.80) for total loads >200...

  7. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in healthy preterm babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieff, M; Bamford, M; Benson, J; Bodden, J

    1980-09-01

    Urine was cultured from 51 healthy preterm babies. If the initial bag specimen grew more than 50 000 organisms/ml, a second bag specimen was cultured. After two positive bag specimens a suprapubic urine was cultured. Significant bacteriuria was excluded on the basis of one or two bag specimens in 90% of the babies. Suprapubic urine was sterile in a further 11 babies. Four babies with positive bag specimens were unfortunately not completely investigated: 2 had mixed growths and 2 had pure growths of 100 000 organisms/ml. As we and others consider that bacteriuria can only be diagnosed on a suprapubic sample of urine the incidence of proved infection in our series was zero. If both the babies with a pure growth of 100 000 organisms/ml had true bacteriuria, the incidence would rise to 1.3%. In view of the difficulties in obtaining clean urine samples in preterm babies and as the incidence of bacteriuria is so low, we do not recommend that healthy preterm babies be screened for bacteriuria.

  8. Skinfold thickness of preterm newborns when they become late preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Meral; Ergenekon, Ebru; Beken, Serdar; Kulalı, Ferit; Unal, Sezin; Kazancı, Ebru; Aktas, Selma; Altuntas, Nilgun; Hirfanoglu, Ibrahim; Turkyılmaz, Canan; Koç, Esin; Atalay, Yıldız

    2015-04-01

    Nutrition of very low-birth-weight newborns is important for a good physical and neurologic outcome. Body composition assessment, together with anthropometric measurements, is considered necessary to monitor adequate nutrition and growth. Objectives of this study were to assess body fat changes in newborns ≤32 weeks gestation by weekly skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements and to compare them with those of late preterm infants born at 34, 35, and 36 weeks once they reached 34, 35, and 36 weeks corrected age (CA). Preterm infants ≤32 weeks gestation had SFT measured from 4 body sites, including biceps, triceps, and subscapulary and suprailiac regions, by a Holtain caliper starting from 48 hours of age at weekly intervals until 34, 35, and 36 weeks CA. The measurements were compared with those of late preterm controls born at 34, 35, and 36 weeks gestation. There were 37 preterm infants in the patient group. When reaching 34, 35, and 36 weeks CA, preterm infants had higher SFT values compared with controls in all body sites. Median and range of total SFT were 14.6 mm (9.6-18.9 mm) in patients and 11 mm (7.8-16.4 mm) in controls at 34 weeks CA, 15.5 mm (10.7-21.8 mm) in patients and 12.3 mm (7-17 mm) in controls at 35 weeks CA, and 16.4 mm (11.8-23.7 mm) in patients and 12.9 mm (7-17.8 mm) in controls at 36 weeks CA (P = .001 in all). No sex difference was observed at 34 and 35 weeks. These results show that preterm infants start accumulating excess fat even from early weeks of life. Careful assessment of growth by tools other than simple anthropometric measurements is essential to avoid future complications. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  9. Italian Validation of Homophobia Scale (HS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Ciocca, PsyD, PhD

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The Italian validation of the HS revealed the use of this self‐report test to have good psychometric properties. This study offers a new tool to assess homophobia. In this regard, the HS can be introduced into the clinical praxis and into programs for the prevention of homophobic behavior. Ciocca G, Capuano N, Tuziak B, Mollaioli D, Limoncin E, Valsecchi D, Carosa E, Gravina GL, Gianfrilli D, Lenzi A, and Jannini EA. Italian validation of Homophobia Scale (HS. Sex Med 2015;3:213–218.

  10. Italian Textile Machines on Show at TECHTEXTILE 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ In 2009 edition of Techtextil,which will take place next June in Frankfrut,ACIMIT (Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufactures)and ICE (Italian Institute for Foreign Trade)have organized a Meeting Point.It will host about 10 Italian machinery manufacturers involved in the production of machines for technical textiles.

  11. China Becomes the Second Largest Market for Italian Textile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A few days ago, Milano Unica, the Italian Top Textile Fabric Exhibition was held in Beijing. Silvio Albini, President of the Italian textile fabric show, told reporters that China has become the second largest market for Italian textiles, including Hong Kong. Meanwhile, China is a complex fast-growing market with great demand.

  12. 75 FR 64611 - Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... Proclamation 8585--Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0...; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8585 of October 14, 2010 Italian American Heritage..., generations of Italian Americans have helped shape our society and steer the course of our history. During...

  13. Italian in the Linguistic Landscape of Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluzzi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    This article looks at the presence of Italian in the linguistic landscape (LL) of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Rather surprisingly, Italian is quite visible, and it might even be the most used European language after English. After a general introduction on the Italian language and Malaysia, including the latter's LL, the article goes on to outline the…

  14. ITALIAN TEXTILE MACHINERY WORKSHOP IN SUZHOU(CHINA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Association of Italian Textile Machinery Manufacturers (ACIMIT)and the Italian Trade Commission(ICE)held a technical workshop on Italian textile machinery for the production of technical textiles and nonwovens in China.The workshop occurred in Suzhou(Juangsu Province),on May 24th-25th,2007.

  15. Factors associated with preterm labor in Hormozgan province in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozbeh, Nasibeh; Moradi, Soheila; Soltani, Shirin; Zolfizadeh, Fatemeh; Hasani, Mehdi Tadris; Yabandeh, Asiyeh Pormehr

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preterm labor is the main cause of infants’ death, and the main reason for undesirable consequences of pregnancy which still occur in some births, despite all of the interventions in this regard. The aim of this study was to evaluate every preterm birth and determine its maternal risk factors in Hormozgan province in 2013. Methods This case-control study was conducted in 2013 on the health and hospital records of 735 pregnant mothers with preterm labor (20–37 weeks) which were located in Bandar Abbas in southeast Iran. The sampling method would be multi-stage cluster sampling. The data collecting tool was a valid questionnaire by the Iran Ministry of Health and Medical Education, which included 5 components (demographic information, checking the current pregnancy of the mother, the maternal factors related to preterm labor in the previous pregnancy, evaluating the fetal factors associated with preterm labor in the current pregnancy and other additional information related to the factors associated with prematurity). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, regression and Chi-square tests Results The prevalence of preterm labor in Hormozgan province in 2013 was 5.5%. In our study and among the effective factors on preterm labor, revealed genital-urinary tract infections during pregnancy were (35.8%), PROM (30.3%), history of abortion (19.9%) and unplanned pregnancy (18.1%) in between pregnant women with preterm labor. Our study showed that most mothers had delivered in 33 to 37 weeks among the mothers who had preterm labor in 2013 (75%) and the statistic of very preterm labor (less than 32 weeks) in Hormozgan was 5%. Conclusion Identification of the prevalence and associated factors with preterm labor can reduce the mortality rate and infants’ complications of it in addition to help find a way to prevent this problem.

  16. Endogenous surfactant turnover in preterm infants measured with stable isotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.H. Bunt (Jan Erik); L.J.I. Zimmermann (Luc); J.L.D. Wattimena (Josias); R.H.Th. van Beek (Ron); P.J.J. Sauer (Pieter); V.P. Carnielli (Virgilio)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWe studied surfactant synthesis and turnover in vivo in preterm infants using the stable isotope [U-13C]glucose, as a precursor for the synthesis of palmitic acid in surfactant phosphatidylcholine (PC). Six preterm infants (birth weight, 916 +/- 244 g; gesta

  17. Less Stress : Oxidative stress and glutathione kinetics in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Rook (Denise)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDue to immature antioxidant defenses, preterm infants are at susceptible to oxidative stress, which is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity and periventricular leukomalacia. The general aim of this thesis was to study oxidative stress in preterm infants

  18. Bovine colostrum against gut inflammatory lesions in preterm pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine colostrum is rich in bioactive factors and may prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in pre-term neonates. We hypothesized that both native and sterilized, heat-treated colostrum protect neonates against NEC following preterm birth and formula feeding. Further, we aimed to investigate if pr...

  19. Less Stress : Oxidative stress and glutathione kinetics in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Rook (Denise)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDue to immature antioxidant defenses, preterm infants are at susceptible to oxidative stress, which is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity and periventricular leukomalacia. The general aim of this thesis was to study oxidative stress in preterm infants

  20. Early neurological signs in preterm infants with unilateral intraparenchymal echodensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cioni, G; Bos, AF; Einspieler, C; Ferrari, F; Martijn, A; Paolicelli, PB; Rapisardi, G; Roversi, MF; Prechtl, HFR

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to document the early developmental course of neurological signs in a group of preterm infants at risk for hemiplegia due to unilateral intraparenchymal echodensity (UIPE). Sixteen preterm infants with UIPE and sixteen controls were given serial neurological examinations, ac

  1. Cortical thickness and behavior abnormalities in children born preterm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leire Zubiaurre-Elorza

    Full Text Available AIM: To identify long-term effects of preterm birth and of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL on cortical thickness (CTh. To study the relationship between CTh and cognitive-behavioral abnormalities. METHODS: We performed brain magnetic resonance imaging on 22 preterm children with PVL, 14 preterm children with no evidence of PVL and 22 full-term peers. T1-weighted images were analyzed with FreeSurfer software. All participants underwent cognitive and behavioral assessments by means of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. RESULTS: We did not find global CTh differences between the groups. However, a thinner cortex was found in left postcentral, supramarginal, and caudal middle rostral gyri in preterm children with no evidence of PVL than in the full-term controls, while PVL preterm children showed thicker cortex in right pericalcarine and left rostral middle frontal areas than in preterm children with no evidence of PVL. In the PVL group, internalizing and externalizing scores correlated mainly with CTh in frontal areas. Attentional scores were found to be higher in PVL and correlated with CTh increments in right frontal areas. INTERPRETATION: The preterm group with no evidence of PVL, when compared with full-term children, showed evidence of a different pattern of regional thinning in the cortical gray matter. In turn, PVL preterm children exhibited atypical increases in CTh that may underlie their prevalent behavioral problems.

  2. Maternal and fetal factors observed with late preterm births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Dey

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Higher incidences of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, anaemia and preterm premature rupture of membrane were found with late preterm birth and 10% of newborns required NICU care. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 1969-1973

  3. Cerebral autoregulation in the first day after preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Gitte Holst; Maroun, Lisa L; Larsen, Nanna Brink;

    2012-01-01

    Both systemic inflammation and impaired cerebral autoregulation (CA) have been associated with brain injury in preterm infants. We hypothesized that impaired CA represents a hemodynamic link between inflammation and brain injury.......Both systemic inflammation and impaired cerebral autoregulation (CA) have been associated with brain injury in preterm infants. We hypothesized that impaired CA represents a hemodynamic link between inflammation and brain injury....

  4. Multilevel factors influencing preterm birth in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba W. Masho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparity in preterm is a major problem in the US. Although significant strides have been made in identifying some of the risk factors, the complexities between community and individual factors are not understood. This study examines the influence of individual and community level factors affecting preterm birth among Black and White women in an urban setting. A 10-year live birth registry dataset from a mid-sized, racially diverse city was analyzed (N = 30,591. Data were geocoded and merged with block group level Census data. Five hierarchical models were examined using PROC GLIMMIX. Education, illicit drug use, pregnancy complications, previous preterm birth, paternal presence, inadequate and adequate plus prenatal care, and poverty were associated with preterm births in both Blacks and Whites. In Black women, increasing maternal age, maternal smoking, and a previous infant death were significant predictors of preterm births, which was not the case for White women. Residing in medium or high poverty neighborhoods resulted in 19% and 28% higher odds, respectively, of preterm birth for Black women. In addition to individual level factors, neighborhood poverty is an important risk factor influencing preterm birth. It is essential to engage multisectoral agencies in addressing factors influencing preterm birth.

  5. The role of progesterone in prevention of preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie M Dodd

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Jodie M Dodd, Caroline A CrowtherDiscipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Preterm birth continues to provide an enormous challenge in the delivery of perinatal health care, and is associated with considerable short and long-term health consequences for surviving infants. Progesterone has a role in maintaining pregnancy, by suppression of the calcium–calmodulin–myosin light chain kinase system. Additionally, progesterone has recognized anti-inflammatory properties, raising a possible link between inflammatory processes, alterations in progesterone receptor expression and the onset of preterm labor. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of intramuscular and vaginal progesterone in women considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth have been published, with primary outcomes of perinatal death, preterm birth <34 weeks, and neurodevelopmental handicap in childhood. Eleven randomized controlled trials were included in the systematic review, involving 2714 women and 3452 infants, with results presented according to the reason women were considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth. While there is a potential beneficial effect in the use of progesterone for some women considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth, primarily in the reduction in the risk of preterm birth before 34 weeks gestation, it remains unclear if the observed prolongation of pregnancy translates into improved health outcomes for the infant.Keywords: progesterone, preterm birth, systematic review, randomized trial

  6. Cumulative psychosocial stress, coping resources, and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kingston, Dawn; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Dolan, Siobhan M; Tough, Suzanne C

    2014-12-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a significant international public health issue, with implications for child and family well-being. High levels of psychosocial stress and negative affect before and during pregnancy are contributing factors to shortened gestation and preterm birth. We developed a cumulative psychosocial stress variable and examined its association with early delivery controlling for known preterm birth risk factors and confounding environmental variables. We further examined this association among subgroups of women with different levels of coping resources. Utilizing the All Our Babies (AOB) study, an ongoing prospective pregnancy cohort study in Alberta, Canada (n = 3,021), multinomial logistic regression was adopted to examine the independent effect of cumulative psychosocial stress and preterm birth subgroups compared to term births. Stratified analyses according to categories of perceived social support and optimism were undertaken to examine differential effects among subgroups of women. Cumulative psychosocial stress was a statistically significant risk factor for late preterm birth (OR = 1.73; 95 % CI = 1.07, 2.81), but not for early preterm birth (OR = 2.44; 95 % CI = 0.95, 6.32), controlling for income, history of preterm birth, pregnancy complications, reproductive history, and smoking in pregnancy. Stratified analyses showed that cumulative psychosocial stress was a significant risk factor for preterm birth at psychosocial stress on the risk for early delivery.

  7. Management of preterm delivery in women with abnormal fetal presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Bergenhenegouwen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to answer the following questions. 1. What is the optimal mode of delivery in preterm breech presentation? 2. Does an intended caesarean section reduce the risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity as compared to intended vaginal delivery in preterm breech presentation? 3.

  8. Cytokines and the Risk of Preterm Delivery in Twin Pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Klein, Katharina; Larsen, Helle

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the association between cytokine levels in twin pregnancies and risk of spontaneous preterm delivery, including the effect of progesterone treatment.......To estimate the association between cytokine levels in twin pregnancies and risk of spontaneous preterm delivery, including the effect of progesterone treatment....

  9. Explaining Educational Inequalities in Preterm Birth. The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. Jansen (Pauline); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A. Hofman (Albert); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); H. Raat (Hein)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Although a low socioeconomic status has consistently been associated with an increased risk of preterm birth, little is known about the pathways through which socioeconomic disadvantage influences preterm birth. AIM: To examine mechanisms that might underlie the association

  10. The effects of preterm birth on visual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Myra Ps; Thompson, Benjamin; Black, Joanna; Dai, Shuan; Alsweiler, Jane M

    2017-09-03

    Children born very preterm are at a greater risk of abnormal visual and neurological development when compared to children born at full term. Preterm birth is associated with retinopathy of prematurity (a proliferative retinal vascular disease) and can also affect the development of brain structures associated with post-retinal processing of visual information. Visual deficits common in children born preterm, such as reduced visual acuity, strabismus, abnormal stereopsis and refractive error, are likely to be detected through childhood vision screening programs, ophthalmological follow-up or optometric care. However, routine screening may not detect other vision problems, such as reduced visual fields, impaired contrast sensitivity and deficits in cortical visual processing, that may occur in children born preterm. For example, visual functions associated with the dorsal visual processing stream, such as global motion perception and visuomotor integration, may be impaired by preterm birth. These impairments can continue into adolescence and adulthood and may contribute to the difficulties in learning (particularly reading and mathematics), attention, behaviour and cognition that some children born preterm experience. Improvements in understanding the mechanisms by which preterm birth affects vision will inform future screening and interventions for children born preterm. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  11. Preterm Birth and its Impact on Renal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Valerie A

    2017-07-01

    Preterm birth occurs in approximately 10% of all births worldwide. Preterm infants have reduced nephron numbers at birth in proportion to gestational age, and are at increased risk of neonatal acute kidney injury as well as higher blood pressure, proteinuria, and chronic kidney disease later in life. Rapid catch-up growth in preterm infants, especially if resulting in obesity, is a risk factor for end-stage kidney disease among children with proteinuric renal disease. Preterm birth, however, is a risk factor not only for the infant because mothers who deliver preterm have an increased risk of having subsequent preterm deliveries as well as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease later in life. Preterm birth in a female infant is also a risk factor for her future risk of having a preterm delivery, gestational hypertension, and gestational diabetes, which in turn may impact the development of fetal kidneys and the offspring's risk of hypertension and renal disease. This intergenerational programming cycle, therefore, perpetuates the risks and consequences of prematurity. Interruption of this cycle may be possible through optimization of maternal nutrition and health as well as careful antenatal care, which may in turn reduce the global burden of hypertension and renal disease in subsequent generations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Preterm birth, early growth and adult metabolic health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finken, M.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Children born small-for-gestational-age (SGA) are at risk for short stature, and cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in later life. There is some preliminary evidence for a similar phenotype in survivors of preterm birth. In contrast to children born SGA, preterm infants born appropriate-for-

  13. Evaluation of Feeding Torerance in Intrauterine Growth Restricted Preterm Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozzetti, V.

    2016-01-01

    Intra Uterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) is an important and common problem in obstetrics. The purpose of the present thesis was to investigate: 1. Feeding issues in IUGR preterm infants; 2. Clinical and strumental parameters as predictors of feeding tolerance in IUGR preterm infants; 3. Splanchnic a

  14. Prediction and prevention of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Catherine Y

    2007-08-01

    Rates of preterm birth have continued to rise despite intensive research efforts over the last several decades. A woman who has a spontaneous preterm birth is at high risk for a subsequent preterm birth. Studies have identified clinical, sonographic, and biochemical markers that help to identify the women at highest risk. Determining cervical length and measuring cervicovaginal fibronectin have been proposed as useful tools for evaluating women at risk of preterm birth and may identify those who might benefit from a timely course of antenatal corticosteroids, but effective interventions to prevent preterm birth remain elusive. In the prevention of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth, recent trials have confirmed the use of progesterone beginning in the second trimester as an effective intervention. Optimal management of women with a history of spontaneous preterm birth includes a thorough review of the obstetric, medical, and social history, with attention to potentially reversible causes of preterm birth (eg, smoking cessation, acute infections, strenuous activities), accurate ultrasound dating, consideration of progesterone therapy beginning at 16-20 weeks of gestation, and close surveillance during the pregnancy for evolving findings. Results from the ongoing trials of cerclage as an interventional therapy and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation as a preventive therapy will provide additional knowledge for the optimal management of these high-risk women.

  15. Risk factors of sensorineural hearing loss in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borradori, C; Fawer, C L; Buclin, T; Calame, A

    1997-01-01

    Among 547 preterm infants of Ototoxicity appeared closely related to a prolonged administration and higher total dose of ototoxic drugs, particularly aminoglycosides and furosemide. Finally, we strongly recommend to prospectively and regularly perform audiologic assessment in sick preterm children as hearing loss is of delayed onset and in most cases bilateral and severe.

  16. Changes in globus pallidus with (pre)term kernicterus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Govaert (Paul); R.M.C. Swarte (Renate); S.G.F. Robben (Simon); R.F. de Coo (René); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); M. Sinaasappel (Maarten); J. Barkovich (James); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); M.H. Lequin (Maarten)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: We report serial magnetic resonance (MR) and sonographic behavior of globus pallidus in 5 preterm and 3 term infants with kernicterus and describe the clinical context in very low birth weight preterm infants. On the basis of this information, we suggest mean

  17. Impaired oligodendrocyte maturation in preterm infants : Potential therapeutic targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborg, Erik; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Benders, Manon J.; van Bel, Frank; Fleiss, Bobbi; Gressens, Pierre; Nijboer, Cora H.

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is an evolving challenge in neonatal health care. Despite declining mortality rates among extremely premature neonates, morbidity rates remain very high. Currently, perinatal diffuse white matter injury (WMI) is the most commonly observed type of brain injury in preterm infants and has

  18. Temperature Increases in Preterm Infants During Massage Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Diego, Miguel A.; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Temperature was assessed in 72 preterm infants randomly assigned to a control or a massage therapy group. A greater increase in temperature was noted for preterm infants receiving massage therapy versus a control group, even though the incubator portholes remained open during the 15-minute massage therapy session but not for the control group over an equivalent time period.

  19. Italian Crime Fiction: A Barbarian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Weller

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a means of analysing the differences between Detective Fiction and Crime Fiction, in terms of multi genre content, concentrating especially on the development of Italian works in these fields. It also provides a shortened case study, analysing The Hound of the Baskervilles in this way.

  20. Trading strategies in the Italian interbank market

    CERN Document Server

    Iori, Giulia; Renò, Roberto; Iori, Giulia

    2006-01-01

    Using a data set which includes all transactions among banks in the Italian money market, we study their trading strategies and the dependence among them. We use the Fourier method to compute the variance-covariance matrix of trading strategies. Our results indicate that well defined patterns arise. Two main communities of banks, which can be coarsely identified as small and large banks, emerge.

  1. Stress Assignment in Reading Italian Polysyllabic Pseudowords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulpizio, Simone; Arduino, Lisa S.; Paizi, Despina; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In 4 naming experiments we investigated how Italian readers assign stress to pseudowords. We assessed whether participants assign stress following distributional information such as stress neighborhood (the proportion and number of existent words sharing orthographic ending and stress pattern) and whether such distributional information affects…

  2. Opera: A Natural Component of Italian Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Keith

    1998-01-01

    Presents ideas for a special unit about opera that can be used in high school or college Italian courses. Offers a rationale for using opera, discusses opera in terms of multiple intelligences, explains the integration of an opera unit into regular curriculum, and describes how to develop an opera unit and what concepts to teach. (SM)

  3. Gold Rush to China for Italian Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Italy exported two billion worth of textile machines in 2006, 46% of which went to Asia.China paid 365 million Euro to become the largest importer of ltaly’s machines in Aisa.China, a country that sustains Italian interest in coming,is the country where the investment in textile machines is growing...

  4. Italian Textite Machinery Industry Focuses on Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ At the ITMA Asia+CITME 2010,which was held on June 22at the Shanghai New International Expo Centre in Shanghai,Italian textile machinery manufacturers represented one of the largest foreign delegations: 115exhibitors occupying a total surface area of about 4,000 sq.meters.

  5. Typical and Delayed Lexical Development in Italian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie; Frigerio, Alessandra; Sali, Maria Enrica; Spataro, Pietro; Longobardi, Emiddia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989) was used to compare Italian and English lexical development. The authors addressed the issue of universal versus language-specific aspects of lexical development by testing language, age, and gender effects on vocabulary scores and by comparing vocabulary composition across languages.…

  6. Memory Redux: The foibe on Italian Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knittel, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that the overwhelming success of the television drama Il cuore nel pozzo (Alberto Negrin, 2005) signals a shift in the conception of national history and identity in the Italian popular imagination. In conjunction with Negrin’s earlier film Perlasca: un eroe italiano (2002), the

  7. Opera: A Natural Component of Italian Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Keith

    1998-01-01

    Presents ideas for a special unit about opera that can be used in high school or college Italian courses. Offers a rationale for using opera, discusses opera in terms of multiple intelligences, explains the integration of an opera unit into regular curriculum, and describes how to develop an opera unit and what concepts to teach. (SM)

  8. Stress Assignment in Reading Italian Polysyllabic Pseudowords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulpizio, Simone; Arduino, Lisa S.; Paizi, Despina; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In 4 naming experiments we investigated how Italian readers assign stress to pseudowords. We assessed whether participants assign stress following distributional information such as stress neighborhood (the proportion and number of existent words sharing orthographic ending and stress pattern) and whether such distributional information affects…

  9. The Eureka program and Italian participation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, C.

    This paper describes the Eureka program. The topics developed are historical aspects, the relationship to the SDI program, funding, international cooperation, program management, incentives and problems regarding technology transfer. The Italian involvement is described with reference to research and development in various fields - science, medicine, telecommunications,etc.

  10. Italian and Russian Verse: Two Cultures and Two Mentalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Garzonio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Italian and Russian Verse: Two Cultures and Two Mentalities The present text was given as a talk at Stanford University in 2003. Here the author presents a comparative analysis of Russian and Italian versification and pays attention to the cultural contacts between these two poetical traditions in an effort to define the role played by Italian patterns in Russian verse. In this perspective the author offers a history of Russian poetical translation of Italian texts pointing out the different opinions of Russian poets about the “musicality” of Italian verse. The combined influence of language and culture in modelling different Russian poetical forms in a chronological perspective is underlined.

  11. Moderately preterm children need attention! : Behavior and development of moderately preterm children at toddler age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.

    2016-01-01

    Every year, more than 10.000 children in the Netherlands are born moderately preterm after 32 to 36+6 weeks of gestation, which is 6.1% of all births. These children are at risk for difficulties on the short and long term. Previous studies especially found academic problems and difficulties in atten

  12. Delayed development of systemic immunity in preterm pigs as a model for preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Jiang, Pingping; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    , poor neutrophil phagocytic rate, and limited cytokine responses to TLR1/2/5/7/9 and NOD1/2 agonists. The preterm systemic responses remained immature during the first postnatal week, but thereafter showed increased blood leukocyte numbers, NK cell proportion, neutrophil phagocytic rate and TLR2...

  13. Exploring educational disparities in risk of preterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Gry; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Mortensen, Laust;

    2015-01-01

    characteristics. Nevertheless, there were similar educational differences in risk of preterm delivery in 8 of the 12 cohorts with slope index of inequality varying between 2.2 [95% CI 1.1, 3.3] and 4.0 [95% CI 1.4, 6.6] excess preterm deliveries per 100 singleton deliveries among the educationally most...... data. METHODS: The study included data from 12 European cohorts from Denmark, England, France, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. The cohorts included between 2434 and 99 655 pregnancies. The association between maternal education and preterm delivery (22-36 completed weeks......BACKGROUND: An association between education and preterm delivery has been observed in populations across Europe, but differences in methodology limit comparability. We performed a direct cross-cohort comparison of educational disparities in preterm delivery based on individual-level birth cohort...

  14. A critical role of interleukin-1 in preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau-Vallée, Mathieu; Obari, Dima; Quiniou, Christiane; Lubell, William D; Olson, David M; Girard, Sylvie; Chemtob, Sylvain

    2016-04-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide, and represents a heavy economic and social burden. Despite its broad etiology, PTB has been firmly linked to inflammatory processes. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are produced in gestational tissues in response to stressors and can prematurely induce uterine activation, which precedes the onset of preterm labor. Of all cytokines implicated, interleukin (IL)-1 has been largely studied, revealing a central role in preterm labor. However, currently approved IL-1-targeting therapies have failed to show expected efficacy in pre-clinical studies of preterm labor. Herein, we (a) summarize animal and human studies in which IL-1 or IL-1-targeting therapeutics are implicated with preterm labor, (b) focus on novel IL-1-targeting therapies and diagnostic tests, and (c) develop the case for commercialization and translation means to hasten their development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic Associations with Gestational Length and Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ge; Feenstra, Bjarke; Bacelis, Jonas; Liu, Xueping; Muglia, Lisa M.; Juodakis, Julius; Miller, Daniel E.; Litterman, Nadia; Jiang, Pan-Pan; Russell, Laura; Hinds, David A.; Hu, Youna; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Chen, Xiaoting; Chavan, Arun R.; Wagner, Günter P.; Pavličev, Mihaela; Nnamani, Mauris C.; Maziarz, Jamie; Karjalainen, Minna K.; Rämet, Mika; Sengpiel, Verena; Geller, D Frank; Boyd, Heather A.; Palotie, Aarno; Momany, Allison; Bedell, Bruce; Ryckman, Kelli K.; Huusko, Johanna M.; Forney, Carmy R.; Kottyan, Leah C.; Hallman, Mikko; Teramo, Kari; Nohr, Ellen A.; Davey-Smith, George; Melbye, Mads; Jacobsson, Bo; Muglia, Louis J.

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundDespite evidence that genetic factors contribute to gestational length and preterm birth, robust associations with genetic variants have not been identified. We hypothesized that analyzing larger data sets with gestational length information by genomewide association would reveal trait-influencing variants.MethodsWe performed a genomewide association study in a discovery data set of 43,568 women of European ancestry from 23andMe, Inc., for gestational length as a continuous trait and for term or preterm (preterm birth with genomewide significance. Analysis of mother-infant dyads indicated that these findings likely resulted from maternal genome actions.ConclusionsOur study is the first to identify maternal genetic variants robustly associated with gestational length and preterm birth. Roles of these loci in uterine development, maternal nutrition, and vascular control support their mechanistic involvement and create opportunities to investigate new risk factors for prevention of preterm birth. PMID:28877031

  16. Pathogenesis to Treatment: Preventing Preterm Birth Mediated by Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. McGregor

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of preterm birth and subsequent newborn immaturity is a primary goal of obstetrical care worldwide. Accumulated evidence shows that 1 as many as 25–50% of preterm births are caused by common genital tract infections and subsequent maternal/fetal inflammatory responses; 2 microbial and maternal host factors (phospholipases, proteases, etc. play roles in preterm labor and preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM; 3 integrated aspects of maternal and fetal host responses (inflammation, altered immune adaptations, endocrine and paracrine mechanisms play increasingly understood roles in premature activation of parturition; and 4 identification and systemic treatment of common genitourinary infections, most importantly bacterial vaginosis (BV, reduce the risks of preterm delivery and PROM.

  17. Preterm Birth Affects Dorsal-Stream Functioning Even after Age 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A.; Duret, M.; Mancini, J.; Gire, C.; Deruelle, C.

    2009-01-01

    With increasing numbers of preterm infants surviving, the impact of preterm birth on later cognitive development presents a major interest. This study investigates the impact of preterm birth on later dorsal- and ventral-stream functioning. An atypical pattern of performance was found for preterm children relative to full-term controls, but in the…

  18. Developmental Delay in Moderately Preterm-Born Children at School Entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F.; ten Vergert, Elisabeth M. J.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Bos, Arend F.; B0cca-Tjeertes, I.F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence and nature of developmental delay at preschool age in infants born moderately preterm compared with those born full-term and early preterm. Study design Parents of 927 moderate preterm infants (32-35(+) 6 weeks gestation), 512 early preterm infants ( Results Abn

  19. Executive Function and its Impact on Academic and Behavior Problems in Very Preterm Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S.H. Aarnoudse-Moens (Cornelieke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPreterm birth occurs before 37 weeks of gestation and includes late preterm birth (gestational age: 32-37 weeks), very preterm birth (gestational age < 32 weeks), and extremely preterm birth (gestational age < 27 weeks) according to the World Health Organization (2010). Risk factors

  20. Developmental Delay in Moderately Preterm-Born Children at School Entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F.; ten Vergert, Elisabeth M. J.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Bos, Arend F.; B0cca-Tjeertes, I.F.

    Objective To determine the prevalence and nature of developmental delay at preschool age in infants born moderately preterm compared with those born full-term and early preterm. Study design Parents of 927 moderate preterm infants (32-35(+) 6 weeks gestation), 512 early preterm infants ( Results

  1. Preterm Birth Affects Dorsal-Stream Functioning Even after Age 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A.; Duret, M.; Mancini, J.; Gire, C.; Deruelle, C.

    2009-01-01

    With increasing numbers of preterm infants surviving, the impact of preterm birth on later cognitive development presents a major interest. This study investigates the impact of preterm birth on later dorsal- and ventral-stream functioning. An atypical pattern of performance was found for preterm children relative to full-term controls, but in the…

  2. Executive Function and its Impact on Academic and Behavior Problems in Very Preterm Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S.H. Aarnoudse-Moens (Cornelieke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPreterm birth occurs before 37 weeks of gestation and includes late preterm birth (gestational age: 32-37 weeks), very preterm birth (gestational age < 32 weeks), and extremely preterm birth (gestational age < 27 weeks) according to the World Health Organization (2010). Risk factors asso

  3. Population differences and the effect of vaginal progesterone on preterm birth in women with threatened preterm labor*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Frederik Jan Robin; Karolinski, Ariel; Othenin-Girard, Véronique; Bertolino, María Victoria; Schuit, Ewoud; Salgado, Pablo; Hösli, Irene; Irion, Olivier; Laterra, Cristina; Mol, Ben Willem J; Martinez de Tejada, Begoña

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Threatened preterm labor (tPTL) is a complication of pregnancy. Identification of women and clinical definition differs between countries. This study investigated differences in tPTL and effectiveness of vaginal progesterone to prevent preterm birth (PTB) between two countries. Methods: S

  4. Could cord blood cell therapy reduce preterm brain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingang; McDonald, Courtney A; Fahey, Michael C; Jenkin, Graham; Miller, Suzanne L

    2014-01-01

    Major advances in neonatal care have led to significant improvements in survival rates for preterm infants, but this occurs at a cost, with a strong causal link between preterm birth and neurological deficits, including cerebral palsy (CP). Indeed, in high-income countries, up to 50% of children with CP were born preterm. The pathways that link preterm birth and brain injury are complex and multifactorial, but it is clear that preterm birth is strongly associated with damage to the white matter of the developing brain. Nearly 90% of preterm infants who later develop spastic CP have evidence of periventricular white matter injury. There are currently no treatments targeted at protecting the immature preterm brain. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) contains a diverse mix of stem and progenitor cells, and is a particularly promising source of cells for clinical applications, due to ethical and practical advantages over other potential therapeutic cell types. Recent studies have documented the potential benefits of UCB cells in reducing brain injury, particularly in rodent models of term neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. These studies indicate that UCB cells act via anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects, and release neurotrophic growth factors to support the damaged and surrounding brain tissue. The etiology of brain injury in preterm-born infants is less well understood than in term infants, but likely results from episodes of hypoperfusion, hypoxia-ischemia, and/or inflammation over a developmental period of white matter vulnerability. This review will explore current knowledge about the neuroprotective actions of UCB cells and their potential to ameliorate preterm brain injury through neonatal cell administration. We will also discuss the characteristics of UCB-derived from preterm and term infants for use in clinical applications.

  5. Could cord blood cell therapy reduce preterm brain injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang eLi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in neonatal care have led to significant improvements in survival rates for preterm infants, but this occurs at a cost, with a strong causal link between preterm birth and neurological deficits, including cerebral palsy (CP. Indeed, in high-income countries, up to 50% of children with CP were born preterm. The pathways that link preterm birth and brain injury are complex and multifactorial, but it is clear that preterm birth is strongly associated with damage to the white matter of the developing brain. Nearly 90% of preterm infants who later develop spastic CP have evidence of periventricular white matter injury. There are currently no treatments targeted at protecting the immature preterm brain. Umbilical cord blood (UCB contains a diverse mix of stem and progenitor cells, and is a particularly promising source of cells for clinical applications, due to ethical and practical advantages over other potential therapeutic cell types. Recent studies have documented the potential benefits of UCB cells in reducing brain injury, particularly in rodent models of term neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. These studies indicate that UCB cells act via anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects, and release neurotrophic growth factors to support the damaged and surrounding brain tissue. The etiology of brain injury in preterm-born infants is less well understood than in term infants, but likely results from episodes of hypoperfusion, hypoxia-ischemia, and/or inflammation over a developmental period of white matter vulnerability. This review will explore current knowledge about the neuroprotective actions of UCB cells and their potential to ameliorate preterm brain injury through neonatal cell administration. We will also discuss the characteristics of UCB derived from preterm and term infants for use in clinical applications.

  6. [Preterm delivery: detection of risks and preventive treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althabe, F; Carroli, G; Lede, R; Belizán, J M; Althabe, O H

    1999-06-01

    Every year around the world some 13 million premature children are born. Most of these children are born in developing countries, and they account for the largest share of perinatal morbidity and mortality. This review study analyzed scientifically validated data on interventions to prevent at least some portion of these preterm deliveries and to lessen their impact on neonatal health. The Cochrane and MEDLINE bibliographic databases were consulted. Fifty review pieces and research articles were studied, relating to the following aspects of preterm delivery: risk factors and early detection of the risk of preterm delivery; preventing the risk of preterm delivery; treating preterm delivery once it has begun; and preventing neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. There were few successful approaches to the prediction, prevention, or early detection of the threat of preterm delivery. The only measures that can be recommended for all pregnant women are screening for and treating asymptomatic bacteriuria as a part of prenatal check-ups. Screening for bacterial vaginosis and treating it reduce the incidence of preterm births in pregnant women with a history of premature delivery. In addition, prophylactic cerclage decreases the incidence of premature births in pregnant women who have had more than three preterm births. To treat a delivery that starts early, with or without premature membrane rupture, the interventions that have proved to be effective are administering betamimetics to the parturient woman in order to delay delivery for 48 hours, and using indomethacin for the same purpose, as the second-choice drug. The prenatal administration of corticosteroids to the pregnant woman can induce lung maturation in the fetus and reduce respiratory distress syndrome and ventricular hemorrhage, thus decreasing neonatal mortality. There is a need to continue and support basic and epidemiological research in order to develop new knowledge on the causes and mechanisms of preterm

  7. Bilingual and Monolingual EFL learners’ Use of Writing Metacognitive Strategies and Writing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Poorebrahim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that writing skill of Iranian learners is not at a satisfactory level. One  of  the  ways  to  develop  writing  ability  is  to  improve  strategic  behavior  of  learners.  The current  study  set  out  to  compare  writing  performances  and  patterns  of  using  metacognitive strategies  in  bilinguals  and  monolinguals  as  well  as  seniors  and  freshmen  students.  A  total  of 176  English  major  university  students  took  part  in  the  study  (88  bilinguals  and  88 monolinguals.  Data  were  collected  through  three  instruments:  a  background  questionnaire,  a writing  metacognitive  strategy  questionnaire,  and  participants’  compositions.  A  two-way factorial  ANOVA  was  used  to  analyze  the  data  obtained  through  the  strategy  questionnaire. Since the composition data were not parametric, two Kruskall-Wallis tests were employed for data  analysis. The  results  revealed  that  bilinguals  used  more  metacognitive  strategies  and  had higher  writing  scores  than  monolinguals.  In  addition,  seniors  had  better  writing  performance than freshmen while the difference between them in using strategies was not significant. Based on the results, it can be concluded that teaching writing metacognitive strategies may result in a better writing performance.   استفاده از راهبردهای فراشناختی نوشتار و مهارت نوشتاری زبان آموزان یک زبانه و دو زبانه   تحقیقات اخیر حاکی از عملکرد ضعیف زبان آموزان ایرانی در مهارت نوشتار زبان انگلیسی است. یکی از روشهای بهبود مهارت نوشتار تقویت رفتار استراتژیک زبان آموزان است. در تحقیق پیش رو به مقایسه مهارت نوشتار و الگوهای

  8. Adult Monolingual Policy Becomes Children's Bilingual Practice: Code-Alternation among Children and Staff in an English-Medium Preschool in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Sally; Ottesjö, Cajsa

    2016-01-01

    Parents, teachers and institutions often attempt to implement monolingual policies in bilingual settings, believing that they thereby facilitate children's bilingual development. Children, however, often have their own communicative agendas. In this study, we investigate how the twofold language policy of an English-medium preschool in Sweden is…

  9. The Role of Vocabulary Depth in Predicting Reading Comprehension among English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, C. Patrick; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Montecillo, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of vocabulary depth in reading comprehension among a diverse sample of monolingual and bilingual children in grades 2-4. Vocabulary depth was defined as including morphological awareness, awareness of semantic relations, and syntactic awareness. Two hundred ninety-four children from 3 schools in a…

  10. Linguistic Knowledge, Fluency and Meta-Cognitive Knowledge as Components of Reading Comprehension in Adolescent Low Achievers: Differences between Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapman, Mirjam; van Gelderen, Amos; van Steensel, Roel; van Schooten, Erik; Hulstijn, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate the role of linguistic knowledge, fluency and meta-cognitive knowledge in Dutch reading comprehension of monolingual and bilingual adolescent academic low achievers in the Netherlands. Results show that these components are substantially associated with reading comprehension. However, their role appears to be different…

  11. Importance of Phonological and Orthographic Skills for English Reading and Spelling: A Comparison of English Monolingual and Mandarin-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Fletcher, Janet; Bayliss, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examines the importance of English phonological and orthographic processing skills to English word reading and spelling in 3 groups of younger (8-9 years) and older (11-12 years) children from different language backgrounds: English monolingual, English first language (L1)-Mandarin second language (L2), and Mandarin…

  12. The development of comprehension and reading-related skills in children learning English as an additional language and their monolingual, English-speaking peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, K; Whiteley, H E; Hutchinson, J M

    2011-06-01

    A significant number of pupils in UK schools learn English as an additional language (EAL). Relative differences between the educational attainment of this group and monolingual, English-speaking pupils call for an exploration of the literacy needs of EAL learners. This study explores the developmental progression of reading and listening comprehension skills and a range of reading-related skills in EAL learners, whose first language is of South Asian origin, and their monolingual peers. Participants were 39 children learning EAL and 39 monolingual, English-speaking children who were all in school Year 3 at the start of the study. Children completed standardized measures of comprehension, vocabulary, reading accuracy, and reading fluency in school Year 3 and again in Year 4. The results suggest that, although children learning EAL often demonstrate fast and accurate reading accuracy skills, lower levels of vocabulary knowledge place significant constraints on EAL learners' comprehension of spoken and written texts. Reciprocal relationships between vocabulary and comprehension may lead to increasing gaps in reading comprehension between monolingual and EAL pupils over time. It is proposed that support for the development of vocabulary skills in children learning EAL is needed in early years' classrooms. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  13. The Role of Word Decoding, Vocabulary Knowledge and Meta-Cognitive Knowledge in Monolingual and Bilingual Low-Achieving Adolescents' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Roel; Oostdam, Ron; van Gelderen, Amos; van Schooten, Erik

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analysed the relationships between word decoding, vocabulary knowledge, meta-cognitive knowledge and reading comprehension in low-achieving adolescents and examined whether the strength of these relationships differed between Grade 7 and 9 students and between monolingual and bilingual students. Tests were administered to 328…

  14. The Effects of Dual-Language Support on the Language Skills of Bilingual Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Listening Devices Relative to Their Monolingual Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunta, Ferenc; Douglas, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of supporting both English and Spanish on language outcomes in bilingual children with hearing loss (HL) who used listening devices (cochlear implants and hearing aids). The English language skills of bilingual children with HL were compared to those of their monolingual English-speaking peers'…

  15. The Role of Oral Language Skills in Reading and Listening Comprehension of Text: A Comparison of Monolingual (L1) and Bilingual (L2) Speakers of English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, Selma

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the role of oral language skills in reading comprehension and listening comprehension levels of 125 monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) English-speaking learners (M = 121.5 months, SD = 4.65) in England. All testing was conducted in English. The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the measures of oral language and text…

  16. The Effects of Dual-Language Support on the Language Skills of Bilingual Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Listening Devices Relative to Their Monolingual Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunta, Ferenc; Douglas, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of supporting both English and Spanish on language outcomes in bilingual children with hearing loss (HL) who used listening devices (cochlear implants and hearing aids). The English language skills of bilingual children with HL were compared to those of their monolingual English-speaking peers'…

  17. The Role of Oral Language Skills in Reading and Listening Comprehension of Text: A Comparison of Monolingual (L1) and Bilingual (L2) Speakers of English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, Selma

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the role of oral language skills in reading comprehension and listening comprehension levels of 125 monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) English-speaking learners (M = 121.5 months, SD = 4.65) in England. All testing was conducted in English. The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the measures of oral language and text…

  18. Linguistic Knowledge, Fluency and Meta-Cognitive Knowledge as Components of Reading Comprehension in Adolescent Low Achievers: Differences between Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapman, Mirjam; van Gelderen, Amos; van Steensel, Roel; van Schooten, Erik; Hulstijn, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate the role of linguistic knowledge, fluency and meta-cognitive knowledge in Dutch reading comprehension of monolingual and bilingual adolescent academic low achievers in the Netherlands. Results show that these components are substantially associated with reading comprehension. However, their role appears to be different…

  19. The Development of Comprehension and Reading-Related Skills in Children Learning English as an Additional Language and Their Monolingual, English-Speaking Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, K.; Whiteley, H. E.; Hutchinson, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: A significant number of pupils in UK schools learn English as an additional language (EAL). Relative differences between the educational attainment of this group and monolingual, English-speaking pupils call for an exploration of the literacy needs of EAL learners. Aims: This study explores the developmental progression of reading and…

  20. A Comparison between Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary in Bilingual and Monolingual South African School Beginners: Implications for Bilingual Language Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bilingual and monolingual school beginners on measures of simple and complex verbal working memory and receptive and expressive vocabulary. The aim was to determine whether the tests of working memory are fairer measures of language ability than the vocabulary tests for bilingual children when tested in their second language.…