WorldWideScience

Sample records for monolingual english speaking

  1. Development and Validation of Extract the Base: An English Derivational Morphology Test for Third through Fifth Grade Monolingual Students and Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Huggins, A. Corinne; Carlo, Maria; Malabonga, Valerie; Kenyon, Dorry; Louguit, Mohammed; August, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of the Extract the Base test (ETB), which assesses derivational morphological awareness. Scores on this test were validated for 580 monolingual students and 373 Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in third through fifth grade. As part of the validation of the internal structure,…

  2. Exploring problem solving strategies on multiple-choice science items: Comparing native Spanish-speaking English Language Learners and mainstream monolinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachchaf, Rachel Rae

    The purpose of this study was to compare how English language learners (ELLs) and monolingual English speakers solved multiple-choice items administered with and without a new form of testing accommodation---vignette illustration (VI). By incorporating theories from second language acquisition, bilingualism, and sociolinguistics, this study was able to gain more accurate and comprehensive input into the ways students interacted with items. This mixed methods study used verbal protocols to elicit the thinking processes of thirty-six native Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs), and 36 native-English speaking non-ELLs when solving multiple-choice science items. Results from both qualitative and quantitative analyses show that ELLs used a wider variety of actions oriented to making sense of the items than non-ELLs. In contrast, non-ELLs used more problem solving strategies than ELLs. There were no statistically significant differences in student performance based on the interaction of presence of illustration and linguistic status or the main effect of presence of illustration. However, there were significant differences based on the main effect of linguistic status. An interaction between the characteristics of the students, the items, and the illustrations indicates considerable heterogeneity in the ways in which students from both linguistic groups think about and respond to science test items. The results of this study speak to the need for more research involving ELLs in the process of test development to create test items that do not require ELLs to carry out significantly more actions to make sense of the item than monolingual students.

  3. The Efficacy of Child-Centered Play Therapy with Hispanic Spanish-Speaking Children when Conducted by a Monolingual English-Speaking Counselor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Lola V.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of child-centered play therapy as an intervention when the client and the counselor do not speak the same language. The participants of the study were 34 Spanish-speaking children of Hispanic descent ranging in age from 4 to 8 who were referred to counseling for exhibiting…

  4. The Prevalence of English Monolingualism and Its Association with Generational Status among Hmong Americans, 2005-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Sao Xiong; Nao Xiong

    2011-01-01

    Using the American Community Survey's multi-year (2005-2009) Public Use Microdata Sample, we estimate the prevalence of English monolingualism and statistically analyze the association between English monolingualism and generational status within the U.S. Hmong population. Our findings show that the odds of speaking only English among the second generation is almost three times more compared to the first generation. Data from the 2009 ACS PUMS further indicate that there is a linear an...

  5. Compositions in English: Comparing the Works of Monolinguals, Passive Bilinguals, and Active Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Eka Rini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to see whether the subjects’ “monolingualism” and “bilingualism” (monolinguals learning an L2 and bilinguals learning an L3 influence their study on English, especially writing. The term “bilinguals” also means “multilinguals” in this study. Bilinguals in this paper are classified into two; first, passive bilinguals who are only exposed to another local language, besides speaking Bahasa Indonesia at home, and second, active bilinguals who are exposed to and also speak other language(s and Bahasa Indonesia at home. The findings show that the monolingual and the active bilingual are better than the passive one; the active bilingual is better than the monolingual. However, if the passive and the active bilingual are combined, the monolingual is better than the bilinguals.

  6. My Hesitation to Speak English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Naruha

    2015-01-01

    Even though English was the author's favorite subject, she was not good at speaking in English, and always tried to avoid it. However, it did not matter because she did not have to speak to demonstrate her English ability. After entering university, her lack of confidence in speaking English became a major issue, and other students face the same…

  7. Developmental change in tone perception in Mandarin monolingual, English monolingual, and Mandarin-English bilingual infants: Divergences between monolingual and bilingual learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leher; Fu, Charlene S L; Seet, Xian Hui; Tong, Ashley P Y; Wang, Joelle L; Best, Catherine T

    2018-09-01

    Most languages use lexical tone to discriminate the meanings of words. There has been recent interest in tracking the development of tone categories during infancy. These studies have focused largely on monolingual infants learning either a tone language or a non-tone language. It remains to be seen how bilingual infants learning one tone language (e.g., Mandarin) and one non-tone language (e.g., English) discriminate tones. Here, we examined infants' discrimination of two Mandarin tones pairs: one salient and one subtle. Discrimination was investigated in three groups: Mandarin-English bilinguals, English monolinguals, and Mandarin monolinguals at 6 months and 9 months of age in a cross-sectional design. Results demonstrated relatively strong Mandarin tone discrimination in Mandarin monolinguals, with salient tone discrimination at 6 months and both salient and subtle tone discrimination at 9 months. English monolinguals discriminated neither contrast at 6 months but discriminated the salient contrast at 9 months. Surprisingly, there was no evidence for tone discrimination in Mandarin-English bilingual infants. In a second experiment, 12- and 13-month-old Mandarin-English bilingual and English monolingual infants were tested to determine whether bilinguals would demonstrate tone sensitivity at a later age. Results revealed a lack of tone sensitivity at 12 or 13 months in bilingual infants, yet English monolingual infants were sensitive to both salient and subtle Mandarin tone contrasts at 12 or 13 months. Our findings provide evidence for age-related convergence in Mandarin tone discrimination in English and Mandarin monolingual infants and for a distinct pattern of tone discrimination in bilingual infants. Theoretical implications for phonetic category acquisition are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Young Spanish-English Speaking Children's Reading Attitudes in Relation to Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Carla L.; Gabas, Clariebelle M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Reading attitudes are recognised as an influencing factor on the language and literacy achievement of school age monolingual English-speaking children. The relationship between reading attitudes and achievement in young Spanish-speaking English Learners (ELs) remains understudied. Purpose: The aim of the current study was to describe…

  9. Monolingual versus multilingual acquisition of English morphology: what can we expect at age 3?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Ruth J; Eadie, Patricia A; Reilly, Sheena

    2011-01-01

    age. The findings have important implications for researchers and clinicians involved in the management of linguistically diverse populations by advancing knowledge of early multilingual English morpheme acquisition and building awareness of acquisition patterns among multilingual and monolingual English-speaking children at 3 years of age. © 2011 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.

  10. Measuring growth in bilingual and monolingual children's english productive vocabulary development: the utility of combining parent and teacher report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagh, Shaher Banu; Pan, Barbara Alexander; Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined growth in the English productive vocabularies of bilingual and monolingual children between ages 24 and 36 months and explored the utility and validity of supplementing parent reports with teacher reports to improve the estimation of children's vocabulary. Low-income, English-speaking and English/Spanish-speaking parents and Early Head Start and Head Start program teachers completed the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory, Words and Sentences for 85 children. Results indicate faster growth rates for monolingual than for bilingual children and larger vocabularies for bilingual children who spoke mostly English than mostly Spanish at home. Parent-teacher composite reports, like parent reports, significantly related to children's directly assessed productive vocabulary at ages 30 and 36 months, but parent reports fit the model better. Implications for vocabulary assessment are discussed.

  11. Students’ Motivation in Speaking English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mas Darul Ihsan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the English teacher in the classroom, there will be some problems or conditions need to be accomplished. Teacher will see some of the students are very motivated, motivated or even feeling ignored in studying English. The learners who have contacted with English will find that some features are quite easy and extremely difficult. One of the more complicated problems of second or foreign languages learning and  teaching has been to define and apply the construct of motivation in the classroom. Motivation is a concept without physical reality, we cannot see motivation; we see effort, interest, attitude and desire. For speaking, it is important first to give competence and then performance. Competence is more likely to the extent a communicator is motivated to be so. Motivation is the extent to which a communicator is drawn towards or pushed away from communicating competently in a given context then performed. This is a descriptive  quantitative research. The data obtained from the questionnaire distributed and analyzed to get the result.  The date taken from the students of Muhammadiyah 1 Senior High School Gresik in Easy-Speaking course. The researcher wanted to know the students’ motivation in practicing speaking English in Easy-Speaking course. The results show that 1 the learners effort in practicing speaking English is 56.1 %. 2 The learners’ interest in practicing speaking English is 49.7 %. 3 The learners’ attitude towards practicing speaking English is 59.9 %. 4 The learners’ desire in practicing speaking English is 71.43 %. Then, some suggestions are made: 1 Using media is very important both to increase the learners’ motivation and to give a big opportunity to learners to explore their idea. 2 Giving more variations techniques in teaching and learning process in order do not monotonous. 3 Giving prizes, encouraging and giving extra points for learners who can express their idea by speaking English well. 4 Creating

  12. The Role of Oral Language Skills in Reading and Listening Comprehension of Text: A Comparison of Monolingual (L1) and Bilingual (L2) Speakers of English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, Selma

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the role of oral language skills in reading comprehension and listening comprehension levels of 125 monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) English-speaking learners (M = 121.5 months, SD = 4.65) in England. All testing was conducted in English. The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the measures of oral language and text…

  13. How much exposure to English is necessary for a bilingual toddler to perform like a monolingual peer in language tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Allegra; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Farag, Rafalla; Krott, Andrea; Arreckx, Frédérique; Dennis, Ian; Floccia, Caroline

    2014-11-01

    Bilingual children are under-referred due to an ostensible expectation that they lag behind their monolingual peers in their English acquisition. The recommendations of the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists (RCSLT) state that bilingual children should be assessed in both the languages known by the children. However, despite these recommendations, a majority of speech and language professionals report that they assess bilingual children only in English as bilingual children come from a wide array of language backgrounds and standardized language measures are not available for the majority of these. Moreover, even when such measures do exist, they are not tailored for bilingual children. It was asked whether a cut-off exists in the proportion of exposure to English at which one should expect a bilingual toddler to perform as well as a monolingual on a test standardized for monolingual English-speaking children. Thirty-five bilingual 2;6-year-olds exposed to British English plus an additional language and 36 British monolingual toddlers were assessed on the auditory component of the Preschool Language Scale, British Picture Vocabulary Scale and an object-naming measure. All parents completed the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory (Oxford CDI) and an exposure questionnaire that assessed the proportion of English in the language input. Where the CDI existed in the bilingual's additional language, these data were also collected. Hierarchical regression analyses found the proportion of exposure to English to be the main predictor of the performance of bilingual toddlers. Bilingual toddlers who received 60% exposure to English or more performed like their monolingual peers on all measures. K-means cluster analyses and Levene variance tests confirmed the estimated English exposure cut-off at 60% for all language measures. Finally, for one additional language for which we had multiple participants, additional language CDI production scores were

  14. Filial Therapy with Monolingual Spanish-Speaking Mothers: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii; Cook, Katrina; Rangel-Gomez, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a phenomenological study of filial therapy with monolingual, Spanish-speaking mothers living in the United States. Four mothers participated in a 5-week training in filial therapy. Data from the interviews revealed four emergent themes. These include (a) challenges in integrating play therapy skills in everyday life, (b)…

  15. Use of Monolingual and Bilingual Dictionaries among Students of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kavalir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of dictionary use in 32 firstyear students of English at the University of Ljubljana in the academic year 2009/2010 shows that students use a variety of dictionaries with a slight preponderance of monolingual dictionaries over bilingual ones. The bilingual dictionaries listed do not include some of the most recent and most comprehensive dictionaries while some of the most frequently used resources are quite modest sized. The students are already predominantly users of electronic and online dictionaries with a lower frequency of printed resources – a trend which is only likely to accelerate with the advent of new bilingual online dictionaries. These results have practical relevance for teachers in all sectors, from primary and secondary schools to universities, as they point towards a need for additional training in the use of bilingual dictionaries. The transition from printed to electronic and online resources can also be expected to induce changes in EFL methodology at all levels.

  16. Orthographic Context Sensitivity in Vowel Decoding by Portuguese Monolingual and Portuguese-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the pronunciation of the first vowel in decoding disyllabic pseudowords derived from Portuguese words. Participants were 96 Portuguese monolinguals and 52 Portuguese-English bilinguals of equivalent Portuguese reading levels. The results indicate that sensitivity to vowel context emerges early, both in monolinguals and in…

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Working Memory Rating Scale for Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Grimm, Ryan; Gerber, Michael; Orosco, Michael; Swanson, H. Lee; Lussier, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    The Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS) was designed as a behavioral rating tool to assist teachers in identifying students at risk of working memory difficulties. The instrument was originally normed on 417 monolingual English-speaking children from the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the WMRS…

  18. Manifestations of developmental dyslexia in monolingual Persian speaking students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouretemad, Hamid R; Khatibi, Ali; Zarei, Mojtaba; Stein, John

    2011-07-01

    Manifestations of dyslexia depend on language systems and scripts. This study explored the prevalence and clinical features of developmental dyslexia among monolingual Persian students and provided insights on mechanisms involved in reading Persian. To measure reading ability we developed a new instrument, Analysis of Persian Reading Ability, which had acceptable validity and reliability. A total of 1562 children aged 6 ½ - 14 were randomly selected from a population of 109696 primary school students in the city of Qom, Iran. Using a variety of statistical and clinical criteria, 82 (5.2%) of the sample were classified as dyslexics. A detailed analysis of reading errors revealed eight types of errors related to three categories. The most frequent category in both dyslexic and the matched control group was phonological, followed by pragmatic and visual errors. The observed prevalence rate of dyslexia and reading error categories would suggest that Persian in vowel-free format is an opaque language and predominant use of a sub-lexical strategy is involved when reading Persian.

  19. Improving English Speaking Ability Through Classroom Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Afrizal, M

    2015-01-01

    Speaking is one of important parts in teaching language because it includes one of four basic language skills. Nevertheless, in MA NU BANAT Kudus, the writer found that most of students there still get the difficulties in studying speaking. It may be caused by the method used in teaching English, especially speaking. Classroom Discussion is a method that can be applied in teaching English, especially to improve the ability of speaking. In this method, hopefully, the students get a big opportu...

  20. Developing the Students’ English Speaking Ability Through Impromptu Speaking Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumettu, A.; Runtuwene, T. L.

    2018-01-01

    Having multi -purposes, English mastery has becomea necessary for us.Of the four language skills, speaking skill should get the first priority in English teaching and speaking skills development cannot be separated from listening.One communicative way of developing speaking skill is impromptu speaking,a method sudden speaking which depends only on experience and insight by applying spontaneity or improvisation. It is delivered based on the need of the moment of speaking using simple language.This research aims to know (1). Why impromptu speaking is necessary in teaching speaking? (2). How can impromptu speaking develop the students’ speaking skills.The method of this research is qualitative method and the techniques of data collection are: observation,interview and documentation. The results of data analysis using Correlation shows a strong relation between the students’ speaking ability and impromptu speaking method (r = 0.80).The research show that by using impromptu speaking method, the students are trained to interact faster naturally and spontaneously and enrich their vocabulary and general science to support speaking development through interview, speech, presentation, discussion and storytelling.

  1. Language Growth in English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children from 2.5 to 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Ribot, Krystal M

    2017-11-01

    To describe the trajectories of English and Spanish language growth in typically developing children from bilingual homes and compare those with the trajectories of English growth in children from monolingual homes, to assess effects of dual language exposure on language growth in typically developing children. Expressive vocabularies were assessed at 6-month intervals from age 30 to 60 months, in English for monolinguals and English and Spanish for bilinguals. Use of English and Spanish in the home was assessed via parental report. Multilevel modeling, including parent education as a covariate, revealed that children from bilingual homes lagged 6 months to 1 year behind monolingual children in English vocabulary growth. The size of the lag was related to the relative amount of English use in the home, but the relation was not linear. Increments in English use conferred the greatest benefit most among homes with already high levels of English use. These homes also were likely to have 1 parent who was a native English speaker. Bilingual children showed stronger growth in English than in Spanish. Bilingual children can lag 6 months to 1 year behind monolingual children in normal English language development. Such lags may not necessarily signify clinically relevant delay if parents report that children also have skills in the home language. Shorter lags are associated with 2 correlated factors: more English exposure and more exposure from native English speakers. Early exposure to Spanish in the home does not guarantee acquisition of Spanish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Multilingual Researchers Internationalizing Monolingual English-Only Education through Post-Monolingual Research Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Singh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The argument advanced in this Special Issue of Education Sciences favors democratizing knowledge production and dissemination across the humanities and social sciences through the mainstreaming of multilingual researchers capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire. An important contribution of the papers in this Special Issue is the promise that post-monolingual research methodology holds for collaborative projects among multilingual and monolingual researchers that tap into intercultural divergences across languages. Together these papers give warrant to multilingual researchers, including Higher Degree Researchers develop their capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire, an educational innovation that could be of immense benefit to scholars working predominantly monolingual universities. Through their thought provoking papers presented in this Special Issue, these researchers invites those working in the education sciences to seriously consider the potential benefits of multiplying the intellectual resources used for theorizing that is possible through activating, mobilizing and deploying researchers’ multilingual resources in knowledge production and dissemination.

  3. An Action Research Study into the Role of Student Negotiation in Enhancing Perceived Student Engagement during English Speaking Classes at University Level in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uztosun, Mehmet Sercan; Skinner, Nigel; Cadorath, Jill

    2018-01-01

    A major issue in English language teaching in Turkey and other monolingual countries is the teaching of spoken English. This article reports the initial and final stages of an action research study which used student negotiation to enhance student engagement in speaking classes. The research was conducted in the English Language Teaching…

  4. The Comparison of the Monolingual and Bilingual Japanese Students in The English Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ienneke Indra Dewi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Article is intended to know whether the monolingual or bilingual Japanese students are better in the English achievement and whether the exposure of English influences the ability. The data were taken from 60 Japanese students who are supposed to fill in the questionnaires regarding their language background. The English achievement data were taken from the students’ scores in Senior High School National Examination and the data further were compared to the TOEFL English score. The analysis is carried out using ANOVA analysis. This research indicates that monolinguals are better learners in English and exposure is proved to influence the students’ ability in English.                                                  

  5. Stress Judgment and Production in English Derivation, and Word Reading in Adult Mandarin-Speaking English Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wei-Lun; Jarmulowicz, Linda

    2017-08-01

    For monolingual English-speaking children, judgment and production of stress in derived words, including words with phonologically neutral (e.g., -ness) and non-neutral suffixes (e.g., -ity), is important to both academic vocabulary growth and to word reading. For Mandarin-speaking adult English learners (AELs) the challenge of learning the English stress system might be complicated by cross-linguistic differences in prosodic function and features. As Mandarin-speakers become more proficient in English, patterns similar to those seen in monolingual children could emerge in which awareness and use of stress and suffix cues benefit word reading. A correlational design was used to examine the contributions of English stress in derivation with neutral and non-neutral suffixes to English word and nonword reading. Stress judgment in non-neutral derivation predicted word reading after controlling for working memory and English vocabulary; whereas stress production in neutral derivation contributed to word reading and pseudoword decoding, independent of working memory and English vocabulary. Although AELs could use stress and suffix cues for word reading, AELs were different from native English speakers in awareness of non-neutral suffix cues conditioning lexical stress placement. AELs may need to rely on lexical storage of primary stress in derivations with non-neutral suffixes.

  6. Comparing Bilingual to Monolingual Learners on English Spelling: A Meta-analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Quiroz, Blanca; Dixon, L Quentin; Joshi, R Malatesha

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on a meta-analysis to examine how bilingual learners compare with English monolingual learners on two English spelling outcomes: real-word spelling and pseudo-word spelling. Eighteen studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were retrieved. The study-level variables and characteristics (e.g. sample size, study design and research instruments) were coded, and 29 independent effect sizes across the 18 retrieved studies were analysed. We found that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on real-word spelling overall and more so in early grades, but monolinguals outperformed bilinguals on pseudo-word spelling. Further, bilinguals at risk for reading difficulties did better on real-word spelling than monolinguals at risk for reading difficulties. Having investigated systematic sources of variability in effect sizes, we conclude that in comparison with their monolingual peers, bilingual learners, especially those from alphabetic L1 backgrounds, are able to master constrained skills, such as English spelling, in the current instructional context. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Reading, syntactic, orthographic, and working memory skills of bilingual Arabic-English speaking Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Siegel, Linda S

    2002-11-01

    This study assessed the reading, language, and memory skills of 56 bilingual Arab-Canadian children age's 9-14. English was their main instructional language, and Arabic was the language spoken at home. All children attended a Heritage Language Program in Toronto where they were taught to read and write Arabic. The children were administered word and pseudo-word reading, language, and working memory tests in English and Arabic. The majority of the children showed at least adequate proficiency in both languages. There was a significant relationship between the acquisition of word and pseudo-word reading working memory, and syntactic awareness skills in the two languages. The poor readers in Arabic had lower scores on all linguistic tasks, except the visual task. There were no significant differences between bilingual English Arabic children and monolingual English-speaking children on the reading, language, and memory tasks. However, bilingual English Arabic children who had reading problems in English had higher scores on English pseudo-word reading and spelling tasks than monolingual English-speaking children with reading disabilities, probably because of positive transfer from the regular nature of Arabic orthography. In this case, bilingualism does not appear to have negative consequences for the development of language reading skills in both languages--Arabic and English--despite the different nature of the two orthographies.

  8. Cognitive Development in Bilingual and Monolingual Lower-Class Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Barbara; Goldstein, David

    1979-01-01

    The cognitive development of lower-class English-speaking monolingual and English-Spanish speaking bilingual children in kindergarten, third, and sixth grades was compared by means of standard verbal and nonverbal measures. The verbal ability of bilingual children was assessed in both English and Spanish. Their scores in both languages were low.…

  9. The International English Language Testing System (IELTS): The Speaking Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, D. E.

    1991-01-01

    The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) assesses proficiency in English both generally and for special purposes of non-native English speakers studying, training, or learning English in English-speaking countries. The Speaking subtest of the IELTS measures a candidate's general proficiency in speaking in everyday situations via a…

  10. What Can Errors Tell Us about Differences between Monolingual and Bilingual Vocabulary Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2018-01-01

    Error patterns in vocabulary learning data were used as a window into the mechanisms that underlie vocabulary learning performance in bilinguals vs. monolinguals. English--Spanish bilinguals (n = 18) and English-speaking monolinguals (n = 18) were taught novel vocabulary items in association with English translations. At testing, participants…

  11. STUDENTS’ ATTRIBUTIONS ON THEIR ENGLISH SPEAKING ENHANCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustinus Mali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Attribution refers to explanations and reasons that people provide for progress, achievement, and even failure towards something they have experienced, particularly in their language learning. This study aimed to investigate the attributions that students had for their English-speaking enhancement. The participants of the study were eighteen students at Sekolah Tinggi Pariwisata Ambarukmo Yogyakarta (STIPRAM. Open-ended questionnaire and interview were used as the instruments to collect the data. On the questionnaire, the participants were specifically asked to provide written responses to three statements, while in the interview process, the researcher involved three participants to provide further clarification toward their written responses on the questionnaire. The data analysis revealed that a clear purpose of doing particular English speaking activities, strategy, and the positive motivation/encouragement from friends as well as from the teacher became the major students’ attributions on their English-speaking enhancement. Besides, this study would seem to indicate that a teacher took an essential role in the enhancement of the students’ English speaking skill. Eventually, this study proposed some pedagogical implications for the development of teaching and learning in English speaking classes specifically in Indonesian context.

  12. Comparison of Iranian Monolingual and Bilingual EFL Students' Listening Comprehension in Terms of Watching English Movie with Latinized Persian Subtitles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamchi, Roghayeh; Kumar, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    The main concern of the present study was to compare Iranian monolingual and bilingual EFL students' listening comprehension in terms of Latinized Persian subtitling of English movie to see whether there was a significant difference between monolinguals and bilinguals on immediate linguistic comprehension of the movie. Latinized Persian subtitling…

  13. Predicting English Word Reading Skills for Spanish-Speaking Students in First Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez, Mariela; Rinaldi, Claudia

    2006-10-01

    This article describes the word reading skills in English and Spanish for a sample of 244 Spanish-speaking, English-learning (hence, bilingual) students in first grade and presents a predictive model for English word reading skills. The children in the study were assessed at the end of kindergarten and first grade, respectively. Data were gathered with 3 subtests of the Woodcock Language Proficiency Battery and a researcher-developed phonological awareness task. Results showed that, on average, children's English word reading skills were similar to monolingual norms whereas their Spanish word reading skills averaged 1 SD below the mean. English vocabulary, English phonological awareness, and Spanish word reading skills in kindergarten were found to be significant predictors of English word reading skills in first grade. Educational implications for screening language and reading skills and promising areas for targeted instruction for this population are discussed.

  14. An Examination of English Speaking Tests and Research on English Speaking Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuji

    This paper examines both overseas and domestic tests of English speaking ability from the viewpoint of the crucial testing elements such as definition of speaking ability, validity, reliability, and practicality. The paper points out problems to be solved and proposes suggestions for constructing an oral proficiency test in order to determine the…

  15. 29 CFR 1606.7 - Speak-English-only rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speak-English-only rules. 1606.7 Section 1606.7 Labor... BECAUSE OF NATIONAL ORIGIN § 1606.7 Speak-English-only rules. (a) When applied at all times. A rule requiring employees to speak only English at all times in the workplace is a burdensome term and condition...

  16. The iPad as a Research Tool for the Understanding of English Plurals by English, Chinese, and Other L1 Speaking 3- and 4-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu Rattanasone, Nan; Davies, Benjamin; Schembri, Tamara; Andronos, Fabia; Demuth, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Learning about what young children with limited spoken language know about the grammar of their language is extremely challenging. Researchers have traditionally used looking behavior as a measure of language processing and to infer what overt choices children might make. However, these methods are expensive to setup, require specialized training, are time intensive for data analysis and can have considerable dropout rates. For these reasons, we have developed a forced choice task delivered on an iPad based on our eye-tracking studies with English monolinguals (Davies et al., 2016, under review). Using the iPad we investigated 3- and 4-year-olds' understanding of the English plural in preschool centers. The primary aim of the study was to provide evidence for the usefulness of the iPad as a language research tool. We evaluated the usefulness of the iPad with second language (L2) learning children who have limited L2 language skills. Studies with school aged Chinese-speaking children show below native performance on English inflectional morphology despite 5-6 years of immersion (Jia, 2003; Jia and Fuse, 2007; Paradis et al., 2016). However, it is unclear whether this is specific only to children who speak Chinese as their first language (L1) or if younger preschoolers will also show similar challenges. We tested three groups of preschoolers with different L1s (English, Chinese, and other languages). L1 Chinese children's performance was below both English monolinguals and children speaking Other L1 languages, providing evidence that English inflections are specifically challenging for Chinese-speaking children. The results provide further evidence to support previous eye-tracking findings with monolinguals and studies with older bilinguals. The study provides evidence for the usefulness of iPads as research tool for studying language acquisition. Implications for future application of the iPad as a teaching and intervention tool, and limitations for the method, are

  17. Cross-Cultural Transfer in Gesture Frequency in Chinese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Wing Chee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine cross-cultural differences in gesture frequency and the extent to which exposure to two cultures would affect the gesture frequency of bilinguals when speaking in both languages. The Chinese-speaking monolinguals from China, English-speaking monolinguals from America, and Chinese-English bilinguals from…

  18. The Attitudes and Perceptions of Non-Native English Speaking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    native English speaking adults toward explicit grammar instruction (EGI). The factors influencing those attitudes and perceptions are also explored. The data collected in this study indicate that adult English as a second language (ESL) students ...

  19. The English Monolingual Dictionary: Its Use among Second Year Students of University Technology of Malaysia, International Campus, Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manan, Amerrudin Abd.; Al-Zubaidi, Khairi Obaid

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted to seek information on English Monolingual Dictionary (EMD) use among 2nd year students of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, International Campus, Kuala Lumpur (UTMKL). Specifically, the researchers wish to discover, firstly, the students' habit and attitude in EMD use; secondly, to discover their knowledge with regard to…

  20. English as a Foreign Language in Bilingual Language-minority Children, Children with Dyslexia and Monolingual Typical Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacci, Paola; Canducci, Elisa; Gravagna, Giulia; Palladino, Paola

    2017-05-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating literacy skills in English as a foreign language in three different groups of children: monolinguals with dyslexia (n = 19), typically developing bilinguals (language-minority) (n = 19) and a control group of monolinguals (Italian) (n = 76). Bilinguals were not expected to fail in English measures, and their gap with monolinguals would be expected to be limited to the instructional language, owing to underexposure. All participants were enrolled in Italian primary schools (fourth and fifth grades). A non-verbal reasoning task and Italian and English literacy tasks were administered. The Italian battery included word and non-word reading (speed and accuracy), word and non-word writing, and reading comprehension; the English battery included similar tasks, except for the non-word writing. Bilingual children performed similarly to typical readers in English tasks, whereas in Italian tasks, their performance was similar to that of typical readers in reading speed but not in reading accuracy and writing. Children with dyslexia underperformed compared with typically developing children in all English and Italian tasks, except for reading comprehension in Italian. Profile analysis and correlational analyses were further discussed. These results suggest that English as a foreign language might represent a challenge for students with dyslexia but a strength for bilingual language-minority children. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Rater Judgment and English Language Speaking Proficiency. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2005-01-01

    The paper investigates whether there is a shared perception of speaking proficiency among raters from different English speaking countries. More specifically, this study examines whether there is a significant difference among English language learning (ELL) teachers, residing in Australia, Canada, the UK, and the USA when rating speech samples of…

  2. Satisfaction With Communication in Primary Care for Spanish-Speaking and English-Speaking Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Kori B; Skinner, Asheley C; Yin, H Shonna; Rothman, Russell L; Sanders, Lee M; Delamater, Alan; Perrin, Eliana M

    Effective communication with primary care physicians is important yet incompletely understood for Spanish-speaking parents. We predicted lower satisfaction among Spanish-speaking compared to English-speaking Latino and non-Latino parents. Cross-sectional analysis at 2-month well visits within the Greenlight study at 4 pediatric resident clinics. Parents reported satisfaction with 14 physician communication items using the validated Communication Assessment Tool (CAT). High satisfaction was defined as "excellent" on each CAT item. Mean estimations compared satisfaction for communication items among Spanish- and English-speaking Latinos and non-Latinos. We used generalized linear regression modeling, adjusted for parent age, education, income, and clinic site. Among Spanish-speaking parents, we compared visits conducted in Spanish with and without an interpreter, and in English. Compared to English-speaking Latino (n = 127) and non-Latino parents (n = 432), fewer Spanish-speaking parents (n = 303) reported satisfaction with 14 communication items. No significant differences were found between English-speaking Latinos and non-Latinos. Greatest differences were found in the use of a greeting that made the parent comfortable (59.4% of Spanish-speaking Latinos endorsing "excellent" vs 77.5% English-speaking Latinos, P English-speaking Latinos, P < .01). After adjusting for parent age, education, income, and study site, Spanish-speaking Latinos were still less likely to report high satisfaction with these communication items. Satisfaction was not different among Spanish-speaking parents when the physician spoke Spanish versus used an interpreter. Satisfaction with physician communication was associated with language but not ethnicity. Spanish-speaking parents less frequently report satisfaction with communication, and innovative solutions to enhance communication quality are needed. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  3. Improving English Speaking Fluency: The Role of Six Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Shahini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study, using an open interview, set out to investigate the roles six factors, including age, university education, teachers of English Language institutes, teaching English, dictionary, and note-taking, played in improving English speaking fluency of seventeen fluent Iranian EFL speakers. The participants were chosen purposefully based on the speaking scale of Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL. The findings indicated that early age had a great impact on the participants’ speaking fluency. They mentioned that they could not pick up fluency if they had started learning English at older ages. Moreover, university education had no effect on enhancing their fluency. They stated that not having enough opportunities to speak English in classrooms, being exposed to wrong amounts of input from their classmates or even from some university instructors, having no access to English native speakers in English Language Departments, professors’ talking in native language out of classes, in their offices or even sometimes in classes all led to their losing motivation after entering the university. In contrast, teachers in English language institutes had a supportive role in increasing the participants’ English learning. Although two participants quit teaching English since it had a negative influence on their speaking, it had a positive impact on improving speaking ability of the rest. And finally, fruitful strategies were suggested on how to use dictionaries and note-takings.

  4. Temporal features of word-initial /s/+stop clusters in bilingual Mandarin-English children and monolingual English children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the durational features of English word-initial /s/+stop clusters produced by bilingual Mandarin (L1)-English (L2) children and monolingual English children and adults. The participants included two groups of five- to six-year-old bilingual children: low proficiency in the L2 (Bi-low) and high proficiency in the L2 (Bi-high), one group of age-matched English children, and one group of English adults. Each participant produced a list of English words containing /sp, st, sk/ at the word-initial position followed by /a, i, u/, respectively. The absolute durations of the clusters and cluster elements and the durational proportions of elements to the overall cluster were measured. The results revealed that Bi-high children behaved similarly to the English monolinguals whereas Bi-low children used a different strategy of temporal organization to coordinate the cluster components in comparison to the English monolinguals and Bi-high children. The influence of language experience and continuing development of temporal features in children were discussed.

  5. Novel word retention in bilingual and monolingual speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Pui Fong; Sadagopan, Neeraja

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine word retention in bilinguals and monolinguals. Long-term word retention is an essential part of vocabulary learning. Previous studies have documented that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in terms of retrieving newly-exposed words. Yet, little is known about whether or to what extent bilinguals are different from monolinguals in word retention. Participants were 30 English-speaking monolingual adults and 30 bilingual adults who speak Spanish as a home language and learned English as a second language during childhood. In a previous study (Kan et al., 2014), the participants were exposed to the target novel words in English, Spanish, and Cantonese. In this current study, word retention was measured a week after the fast mapping task. No exposures were given during the one-week interval. Results showed that bilinguals and monolinguals retain a similar number of words. However, participants produced more words in English than in either Spanish or Cantonese. Correlation analyses revealed that language knowledge plays a role in the relationships between fast mapping and word retention. Specifically, within- and across-language relationships between bilinguals' fast mapping and word retention were found in Spanish and English, by contrast, within-language relationships between monolinguals' fast mapping and word retention were found in English and across-language relationships between their fast mapping and word retention performance in English and Cantonese. Similarly, bilinguals differed from monolinguals in the relationships among the word retention scores in three languages. Significant correlations were found among bilinguals' retention scores. However, no such correlations were found among monolinguals' retention scores. The overall findings suggest that bilinguals' language experience and language knowledge most likely contribute to how they learn and retain new words.

  6. Using Mobile Phone to Overcome Students’ Anxiety in Speaking English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machmud Karmila

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to discover whether the use of mobile phone can minimize students’ anxiety in speaking English and in turn will improve their speaking skill. Anxiety has become a major problem for students when asked to speak in a speaking class. Using quasi experimental method, the data of this research was collected through questionnaire of foreign language anxiety classroom scale, and oral test for speaking ability. Factorial design 2 x2 using ANOVA is used to analyze the data of this research. The result has shown: (1 the score of students’ learning achievement in speaking English who were taught by using mobile phone application was higher than the students’ who were taught by using conventional teaching. It means that the use of mobile phone application results in better influence towards students’ speaking ability; (2 The learning achievement of the students with high anxiety in speaking English who were taught by using mobile phone application was higher than the high-anxiety students who were taught by conventional teaching; (3 The learning achievement in speaking English of low anxiety students who were taught by using mobile phone application was higher than low anxiety students’ who were taught by conventional teaching.

  7. English-Speaking and Spanish-Speaking Domestic Violence Perpetrators: An MMPI-2 Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ronald L.; Flowers, John V.; Bulnes, Alejandro; Olmsted, Eileen; Carbajal-Madrid, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    The use of assessments to characterize domestic violence perpetrators continues to develop with an emphasis on increasing the effectiveness of domestic violence interventions. The present study examines and compares Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2 responses from 41 English-speaking and 48 Spanish-speaking men who were in…

  8. Strategies of Learning Speaking Skill by Indonesian Learners of English and Their Contribution to Speaking Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistar, Junaidi; Umamah, Atik

    2014-01-01

    This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the attempts to reveal: (1) the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2) the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners'…

  9. Health services utilisation disparities between English speaking and non-English speaking background Australian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jack

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the differences in health services utilisation and the associated risk factors between infants from non-English speaking background (NESB and English speaking background (ESB within Australia. Methods We analysed data from a national representative longitudinal study, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC which started in 2004. We used survey logistic regression coupled with survey multiple linear regression to examine the factors associated with health services utilisation. Results Similar health status was observed between the two groups. In comparison to ESB infants, NESB infants were significantly less likely to use the following health services: maternal and child health centres or help lines (odds ratio [OR] 0.56; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.40-0.79; maternal and child health nurse visits (OR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.95; general practitioners (GPs (OR 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.83; and hospital outpatient clinics (OR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31-0.93. Multivariate analysis results showed that the disparities could not be fully explained by the socioeconomic status and language barriers. The association between English proficiency and the service utilised was absent once the NESB was taken into account. Maternal characteristics, family size and income, private health insurance and region of residence were the key factors associated with health services utilisation. Conclusions NESB infants accessed significantly less of the four most frequently used health services compared with ESB infants. Maternal characteristics and family socioeconomic status were linked to health services utilisation. The gaps in health services utilisation between NESB and ESB infants with regard to the use of maternal and child health centres or phone help, maternal and child health nurse visits, GPs and paediatricians require appropriate policy attentions and interventions.

  10. THE DIRECTIVE SPEECH ACTS USED IN ENGLISH SPEAKING CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khatib Bayanuddin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses about an analysis of the directive speech acts used in english speaking class at the third semester of english speaking class of english study program of IAIN STS Jambi. The aims of this research are to describe the types of directive speech acts and politeness strategies that found in English speaking class. This research used descriptive qualitative method. This method used to describe clearly about the types and politeness strategies of directive speech acts based on the data in English speaking class. The result showed that in English speaking class that there are some types and politeness strategies of directive speech acts, such as: requestives, questions, requirements, prohibitives, permissives, and advisores as types, as well as on-record indirect strategies (prediction statement, strong obligation statement, possibility statement, weaker obligation statement, volitional statement, direct strategies (imperative, performative, and nonsentential strategies as politeness strategies. The achievement of this research are hoped can be additional knowledge about linguistics study, especially in directive speech acts and can be developed for future researches. Key words: directive speech acts, types, politeness strategies.

  11. Cheater's Guide to Speaking English Like a Native

    CERN Document Server

    De Mente, Boye

    2007-01-01

    Native English-speakers use a large number of proverbs and colloquial expressions in their daily conversations. These common sayings, which evolved over the centuries, are like "codes" that reveal the cultural values and attitudes of the speakers. To fully understand and communicate in English, it's necessary to be familiar with these expressions and know how and when to use them. The Cheater's Guide to Speaking English like a Native is a shortcut to achieving that goal.

  12. Visual perceptual abilities of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports an investigation of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children's general visual perceptual abilities. The Developmental Test of Visual Perception was administered to 41 native Chinese-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 4 mo. in Hong Kong and 35 English-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 2 mo. in Melbourne. Of interest were the two interrelated components of visual perceptual abilities, namely, motor-reduced visual perceptual and visual-motor integration perceptual abilities, which require either verbal or motoric responses in completing visual tasks. Chinese-speaking children significantly outperformed the English-speaking children on general visual perceptual abilities. When comparing the results of each of the two different components, the Chinese-speaking students' performance on visual-motor integration was far better than that of their counterparts (ES = 2.70), while the two groups of students performed similarly on motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities. Cultural factors such as written language format may be contributing to the enhanced performance of Chinese-speaking children's visual-motor integration abilities, but there may be validity questions in the Chinese version.

  13. Pair Negotiation When Developing English Speaking Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohórquez Suárez, Ingrid Liliana; Gómez Sará, Mary Mily; Medina Mosquera, Sindy Lorena

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes what characterizes the negotiations of seventh graders at a public school in Bogotá when working in pairs to develop speaking tasks in EFL classes. The inquiry is a descriptive case study that follows the qualitative paradigm. As a result of analyzing the data, we obtained four consecutive steps that characterize students'…

  14. Novel word retention in bilingual and monolingual speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui Fong eKan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to examine word retention in bilinguals and monolinguals. Long-term word retention is an essential part of vocabulary learning. Previous studies have documented that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in terms of retrieving newly-exposed words. Yet, little is known about whether or to what extent bilinguals are different from monolinguals in word retention. Participants were 30 English-speaking monolingual adults and 30 bilingual adults who speak Spanish as a home language and learned English as a second language during childhood. In a previous study (Kan, Sadagopan, Janich, & Andrade, 2014, the participants were exposed to the target novel words in English, Spanish, and Cantonese. In this current study, word retention was measured a week after the fast mapping task. No exposures were given during the one-week interval. Results showed that bilinguals and monolinguals retain a similar number of words. However, participants produced more words in English than in either Spanish or Cantonese. Correlation analyses revealed that language knowledge plays a role in the relationships between fast mapping and word retention. Specifically, within- and across-language relationships between bilinguals’ fast mapping and word retention were found in Spanish and English, by contrast, within-language relationships between monolinguals’ fast mapping and word retention were found in English and across-language relationships between their fast mapping and word retention performance in English and Cantonese. Similarly, bilinguals differed from monolinguals in the relationships among the word retention scores in three languages. Significant correlations were found among bilinguals’ retention scores. However, no such correlations were found among monolinguals’ retention scores. The overall findings suggest that bilinguals’ language experience and language knowledge most likely contribute to how they learn and retain new words.

  15. English Speakers Attend More Strongly than Spanish Speakers to Manner of Motion when Classifying Novel Objects and Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Alan W.; Meissner, Christian A.; Lechuga, Julia; Schwartz, Bennett L.; Albrechtsen, Justin S.; Iglesias, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments provide evidence that the conceptualization of moving objects and events is influenced by one's native language, consistent with linguistic relativity theory. Monolingual English speakers and bilingual Spanish/English speakers tested in an English-speaking context performed better than monolingual Spanish speakers and bilingual…

  16. Native-English Speaking Instructors Teaching Writing in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Zhou, Xiaodi; Fu, Danling

    2015-01-01

    This article presents two separate but related studies on native-English speaking (NES) instructors' teaching writing practice in Chinese universities. One study is a case study that explores the teaching practice of three NES instructors' writing instruction in a southern Chinese university as well as students' responses to their practice.…

  17. Using Public Speaking Tasks in English Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberri-Shea, Gina

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide suggestions for using public speaking tasks in English language teaching (ELT) and to highlight some of their many advantages. For the purpose of this article, the author will focus on two types of these tasks: student presentations and debates. Student presentations may consist of either individual or…

  18. Attitudes toward Suicide among English-Speaking Urban Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, George; Leenars, Antoon A.

    1995-01-01

    A sample of 196 English-speaking Canadian adults residing in 6 major cities of Canada were administered the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire. Results are discussed along 10 major dimensions: stigma of suicide, normality, the right to die, acceptability, cry for help, mental illness, religion, antecedents, impulsivity, and incidence. (JPS)

  19. Motivation to Speak English: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer, Ali; Yesilyurt, Savas

    2017-01-01

    Based on a modern motivation theory of learning, self-determination theory (SDT), this study aimed to investigate the relationships between English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' motivation to speak, autonomous regulation, autonomy support from teachers, and classroom engagement, with both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The…

  20. My Students Don't Speak English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Amy M.

    2012-01-01

    Today's classrooms are increasingly diverse, and some of the students may be learning English at the same time they're trying to learn math, science, and history. Many new teachers are left to decide on their own how best to address the variety of backgrounds, languages, and experiences their students bring to the classroom. For new teachers with…

  1. Pair Negotiation When Developing English Speaking Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Liliana Bohórquez Suárez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes what characterizes the negotiations of seventh graders at a public school in Bogotá when working in pairs to develop speaking tasks in EFL classes. The inquiry is a descriptive case study that follows the qualitative paradigm. As a result of analyzing the data, we obtained four consecutive steps that characterize students’ negotiations: Establishing a connection with a partner to work with, proposing practical alternatives, refusing mates’ propositions, and making practical decisions. Moreover, we found that the constant performance of the process of negotiation provokes students to construct a sociolinguistic identity that allows agreements to emerge.

  2. EIGHT KEYS BEFORE LEARNING TO SPEAK ENGLISH: (A Proposal for Motivating EFL Speaking Learners in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Wafi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Being able to speak English fluently is as measuring rod for someone who is said to be good at English. In Indonesian context, English is still as foreign language and this becomes problem for them who want to learn it. The problem could be caused by the difficulty of the English itself, the learners’ personality and the process in learning it. There are ample solutions to deal with those difficulties; however, the writer provides a solution as a proposal for motivating the learners; there are 8 keys to be possessed by the learners before they learn to speak English. They are (1 Listen up, (2 be good at imitating, (3 use the mouth, (4 check the voice, (5 have the motion, (6 smile, (7 thank God, and (8 love. The solution is as inner drive or  instrinsic motivation for the learners and it can also be used by the teachers, tutors and lecturers as reference for motivatingthe learners in learning or in mastering English speaking.

  3. Variable Production of English Past Tense Morphology: A Case Study of a Thai-Speaking Learner of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapobaratanakul, Chariya; Pongpairoj, Nattama

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated variable production of English past tense morphology by an L1 Thai-speaking learner of English. Due to the absence of the past tense inflectional morphology in the Thai language, production of English past tense morphemes poses a persistent problem for L1 Thai-speaking learners of English. Hypotheses have been made in…

  4. Angles on the English-Speaking World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volume 9 takes up the questions – national, sociolinguistic, strategic, economic and educational – which arise in relation to the increasing use of English alongside national or vernacular languages, focusing on its use as the language of instruction in Danish Universities. Inevitably, this also ....... Their contributions give some of the flavor of the argument that has been going on with increasing intensity in Denmark for the past ten years.......Volume 9 takes up the questions – national, sociolinguistic, strategic, economic and educational – which arise in relation to the increasing use of English alongside national or vernacular languages, focusing on its use as the language of instruction in Danish Universities. Inevitably, this also...

  5. Differences between Spanish monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children in their calculation of entailment-based scalar implicatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Syrett

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we extend investigations of the possible effects of cross-linguistic influence at the pragmatics-syntax interface (Hulk & Müller 2000; Müller & Hulk 2001; Serratrice, Sorace & Paoli 2004, by presenting two experiments designed to probe how Spanish monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual preschool-age children approach the ‘some, but not all’ 'scalar implicature '(SI associated with 'algunos '(‘some’. We compare 'algunos 'and 'unos '(also a ‘some’ indefinite, but one that is not context-linked and does not induce an SI, and 'algunos 'and 'todos '(the universal quantifier ‘every/all’. The performance of the children is compared to fluent adult Spanish heritage speakers. Experiment 1 is a variation of Noveck’s (2001 statement evaluation task, also replicated by Guasti et al'. '(2005. Experiment 2 is a forced-choice picture selection task. Results demonstrate that adults were the only group to consistently calculate the SI associated with 'algunos '– a finding that was expected to some extent, given that our tasks were stripped of the contextual support that could benefit children’s pragmatic reasoning. While bilingual and monolingual children displayed comparable performance across tasks, bilinguals in Experiment 2 appeared to experience difficulty with judgments related to 'todos '– a pattern we attribute (in light of independent findings to the cognitive overload in the task, not the lexical entry of this quantifier. We conclude that young monolingual and bilingual children confront the same challenges when called upon to deploy pragmatic skills in a discourse context. This article is part of the special collection:Acquisition of Quantification

  6. Executive Functioning in Spanish- and English-Speaking Head Start Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lisa J.; Greenfield, Daryl B.

    2017-01-01

    A growing percentage of low-income children in the United States come from Spanish-speaking homes and are dual language learners (DLLs). Recent research shows that bilingual children, compared to monolinguals, have enhanced executive functioning (EF), a set of foundational cognitive skills that predict higher social-emotional competence and…

  7. Bilingual and Monolingual Children Prefer Native-Accented Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre L. eSouza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adults and young children prefer to affiliate with some individuals rather than others. Studies have shown that monolingual children show in-group biases for individuals who speak their native language without a foreign accent (Kinzler, Dupoux, & Spelke, 2007. Some studies have suggested that bilingual children are less influenced than monolinguals by language variety when attributing personality traits to different speakers (Anisfeld & Lambert, 1964, which could indicate that bilinguals have fewer in-group biases and perhaps greater social flexibility. However, no previous studies have compared monolingual and bilingual children’s reactions to speakers with unfamiliar foreign accents. In the present study, we investigated the social preferences of 5-year-old English and French monolinguals and English-French bilinguals. Contrary to our predictions, both monolingual and bilingual preschoolers preferred to be friends with native-accented speakers over speakers who spoke their dominant language with an unfamiliar foreign accent. This result suggests that both monolingual and bilingual children have strong preferences for in-group members who use a familiar language variety, and that bilingualism does not lead to generalized social flexibility.

  8. Bilingual and monolingual children prefer native-accented speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, André L; Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Adults and young children prefer to affiliate with some individuals rather than others. Studies have shown that monolingual children show in-group biases for individuals who speak their native language without a foreign accent (Kinzler et al., 2007). Some studies have suggested that bilingual children are less influenced than monolinguals by language variety when attributing personality traits to different speakers (Anisfeld and Lambert, 1964), which could indicate that bilinguals have fewer in-group biases and perhaps greater social flexibility. However, no previous studies have compared monolingual and bilingual children's reactions to speakers with unfamiliar foreign accents. In the present study, we investigated the social preferences of 5-year-old English and French monolinguals and English-French bilinguals. Contrary to our predictions, both monolingual and bilingual preschoolers preferred to be friends with native-accented speakers over speakers who spoke their dominant language with an unfamiliar foreign accent. This result suggests that both monolingual and bilingual children have strong preferences for in-group members who use a familiar language variety, and that bilingualism does not lead to generalized social flexibility.

  9. Beating the Odds: A Longitudinal Investigation of Low-Income Dual-Language and Monolingual Children's English Language and Literacy Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Myae; Vukelich, Carol; Buell, Martha; Meacham, Sohyun

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study reports on the results of a longitudinal investigation of the language and early literacy development of a sample of dual-language learners (DLLs) and monolingual English speakers from low-income families who received an Early Reading First intervention during their Head Start preschool year. A total of 62…

  10. Tornado hazard communication disparities among Spanish-speaking individuals in an English-speaking community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlborn, Leslie; Franc, Jeffrey Michael

    2012-02-01

    The state of Oklahoma, known for destructive tornados, has a native Spanish-speaking (NSS) population of approximately 180,241, of which 50% report being able to speak English "very well" (US Census Bureau). With almost 50% of these native Spanish-speaking persons being limited English proficient (LEP), their reception of tornado hazard communications may be restricted. This study conducted in northeast Oklahoma (USA) evaluates the association between native language and receiving tornado hazard communications. This study was a cross-sectional survey conducted among a convenience sample of NSS and native English-speaking (NES) adults at Xavier Clinic and St. Francis Trauma Emergency Center in Tulsa, OK, USA from September 2009 through December 2009. Of the 82 surveys administered, 80 were returned, with 40 NES and 40 NSS participants. A scoring system (Severe Weather Information Reception (SWIR)) was developed to quantify reception of hazard information among the study participants (1-3 points=poor reception, 4-5=adequate reception, 6-8=excellent reception). Pearson's chi-squared test was used to calculate differences between groups with Yates' continuity correction applied where appropriate, and SWIR scores were analyzed using ANOVA. P-valuestornado siren. NSS were less likely to have Internet access (Ptornado warning reception between NSS and NES. Poor English proficiency was noted to be 75% among NSS, which is approximately 25% more than estimated by the US Census Bureau. This study demonstrates a need for emergency managers to recognize when appropriate and overcome communication disparities among limited English proficient populations.

  11. Tips to Students for Speaking English Effectively in Multicultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘萍

    2002-01-01

    There exists great confusion among students about the choice of words in speaking English.They feel it difficult to express themselves very effectively and clearly.In a highly competitive society with strong tendency to merge in multicultures,one my fail to attain his goal in life if he/she turns a blind eye to the importance of effectively speaking international language-English because English is an indispensble communicating means in colorful world.This article offers criteria that can be used by English speaders to measure whether their words contribute to an effective oral style.Language is symbolic,so the words contribute to an effective oral style.Language is symbolic,so the words we use in our speeches represent ideas,objects and feelings,The resders,not only the students,can be informed of the fact that ideas are clarified through vivid,emphatic and appropriate expressions in addition to precise,specific,concrete,simple language.

  12. Pre-Service English Teachers' Beliefs on Speaking Skill Based on Motivational Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinçer, Ali; Yesilyurt, Savas

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore pre-service English teachers' perceptions of teaching speaking in Turkey, the importance they give to this language skill, and their self-evaluation of their speaking competence. With case design and maximum variation sampling approach, seven pre-service English teachers' beliefs about speaking skills were gathered in…

  13. Turkish- and English-speaking children display sensitivity to perceptual context in the referring expressions they produce in speech and gesture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Özlem Ece; So, Wing-Chee; Özyürek, Asli; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Speakers choose a particular expression based on many factors, including availability of the referent in the perceptual context. We examined whether, when expressing referents, monolingual English- and Turkish-speaking children: (1) are sensitive to perceptual context, (2) express this sensitivity in language-specific ways, and (3) use co-speech gestures to specify referents that are underspecified. We also explored the mechanisms underlying children’s sensitivity to perceptual context. Children described short vignettes to an experimenter under two conditions: The characters in the vignettes were present in the perceptual context (perceptual context); the characters were absent (no perceptual context). Children routinely used nouns in the no perceptual context condition, but shifted to pronouns (English-speaking children) or omitted arguments (Turkish-speaking children) in the perceptual context condition. Turkish-speaking children used underspecified referents more frequently than English-speaking children in the perceptual context condition; however, they compensated for the difference by using gesture to specify the forms. Gesture thus gives children learning structurally different languages a way to achieve comparable levels of specification while at the same time adhering to the referential expressions dictated by their language. PMID:22904588

  14. Observing Pair-Work Task in an English Speaking Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Achmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on students’ pair-work interactions to develop their speaking skills in an ELT classroom which consisted of international learners. A number of 16 learners of intermediate proficiency with IELTS score band 5.5 were observed. The teacher had paired those he considered among them to be the more competent ones (hereafter, stronger with the less competent ones (hereafter, weaker; therefore, eight pairs were observed during the lesson. The task given to the students was to express ‘Agree and Disagree’ in the context of giving opinions related to social life. Based on the observations, the task was successfully implemented by six pairs; thus, the two others faced some problems. From the first pair, it was seen that the stronger student had intimated the weaker one into speaking during the task. The other pair, who was both of the same native, did not converse in English as expected and mostly used their native language to speak with one another presumably due to respect from the stronger student towards the weaker one. In situations like this, when pair-work becomes unproductive, rotating pairs is recommended to strengthen information sharing and assigning roles to avoid a student from taking over the activity from his or her pair. In conclusion, pairing international learners with mixed speaking proficiency by teachers must be conducted as effectively as possible by initially identifying their ability and learning culture to profoundly expand the students’ language resources.

  15. Survey of Native English Speakers and Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners in Tertiary Introductory Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Lawrence M.; Wagler, Amy E.; Esquinca, Alberto; Valenzuela, M. Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    The framework of linguistic register and case study research on Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) learning statistics informed the construction of a quantitative instrument, the Communication, Language, And Statistics Survey (CLASS). CLASS aims to assess whether ELLs and non-ELLs approach the learning of statistics differently with…

  16. EMPOWERING NON-NATIVE ENGLISH SPEAKING TEACHERS THROUGH CRITICAL PEDAGOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hayati

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Critical pedagogy is a teaching approach that aims to develop students’ critical thinking, political and social awareness, and self esteem through dialogue learning and reflection. Related to the teaching of EFL, this pedagogy holds the potential to empower non native English speaking teachers (NNESTs when incorporated into English teacher education programs. It can help aspiring NNESTs to grow awareness of the political and sociocultural implications of EFL teaching, to foster their critical thinking on any concepts or ideas regarding their profession, and more importantly, to recognize their strengths as NNESTs. Despite the potential, the role of critical pedagogy in improving EFL teacher education program in Indonesia has not been sufficiently discussed. This article attempts to contribute to the discussion by looking at a number of ways critical pedagogy can be incorporated in the programs, the rationale for doing so, and the challenges that might come on the way.

  17. The Development and Validation of the "Academic Spoken English Strategies Survey (ASESS)" for Non-Native English Speaking Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Rui M.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the three-year development and validation of a new assessment tool--the Academic Spoken English Strategies Survey (ASESS). The questionnaire is the first of its kind to assess the listening and speaking strategy use of non-native English speaking (NNES) graduate students. A combination of sources was used to develop the…

  18. Inclusion of non-English-speaking patients in research: A single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Rachel; Halpin, Erin; Staffa, Steven J; Benson, Lindsey; DiNardo, James A; Nasr, Viviane G

    2018-05-01

    Considering the recent increase in medical care provided to patients from foreign countries and the diversity of languages spoken by families living within the United States, it is important to determine whether non-English-speaking patients have access to participate in clinical research from which they may benefit. We aimed to determine the number of non-English-speaking patients presenting to Boston Children's Hospital for medical care between 2011 and 2016, the number of clinical research protocols active within the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine approved to enroll non-English-speaking patients, as well as the number of both non-English- and English-speaking patients approached and enrolled in these studies. Furthermore, we attempted to determine barriers that may have prevented non-English-speaking patients from inclusion in clinical research. We conducted a retrospective review of various data sources during a 5-year period. Data included the number of non-English-speaking patients presenting to Boston Children's Hospital for care as well as the number of English- and non-English-speaking patients approached for studies at the Department of Anesthesiology each year. Additionally, we reviewed data from the IRB which included the justification that research teams provided when opting to exclude non-English-speaking participants. In addition, we attempted to determine the barriers that may have prevented these patients from inclusion in research protocols. We found that the number of non-English-speaking patients presenting to Boston Children's Hospital increased over time. However, the number of studies approved to enroll non-English-speaking patients within the Department of Anesthesiology and the rate of enrollment of these patients did not increase at the same rate. In order to increase the number of non-English-speaking patients approached to participate in research, we must improve cultural awareness and provide investigators

  19. Clinically speaking: A communication skills program for students from non-English speaking backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Caroline San; Rogan, Fran; Kilstoff, Kathleen; Brown, Di

    2006-09-01

    This paper reports on the design, delivery and evaluation of an innovative oral communication skills program for first year students in a Bachelor of Nursing degree at an Australian university. This program was introduced in 2004 to meet the needs of first year undergraduate students from non-English speaking backgrounds who had experienced difficulties with spoken English while on clinical placement. The program consisted of early identification of students in need of communication development, a series of classes incorporated into the degree program to address students' needs, followed by a clinical placement block. This paper describes the structure of the program, discusses some of the major problems encountered by students in the clinical setting and presents some of the teaching strategies used to address these problems. Evaluations of the program suggest that students' communication skills and confidence improved, resulting in a more positive clinical experience for the majority of students.

  20. Pinyin and English Invented Spelling in Chinese-Speaking Students Who Speak English as a Second Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Liu, Ru-De; McBride, Catherine A; Fan, Chung-Hau; Xu, Le; Wang, Jia

    2018-05-07

    This study examined pinyin (the official phonetic system that transcribes the lexical tones and pronunciation of Chinese characters) invented spelling and English invented spelling in 72 Mandarin-speaking 6th graders who learned English as their second language. The pinyin invented spelling task measured segmental-level awareness including syllable and phoneme awareness, and suprasegmental-level awareness including lexical tones and tone sandhi in Chinese Mandarin. The English invented spelling task manipulated segmental-level awareness including syllable awareness and phoneme awareness, and suprasegmental-level awareness including word stress. This pinyin task outperformed a traditional phonological awareness task that only measured segmental-level awareness and may have optimal utility to measure unique phonological and linguistic features in Chinese reading. The pinyin invented spelling uniquely explained variance in Chinese conventional spelling and word reading in both languages. The English invented spelling uniquely explained variance in conventional spelling and word reading in both languages. Our findings appear to support the role of phonological activation in Chinese reading. Our experimental linguistic manipulations altered the phonological awareness item difficulties.

  1. A case study of an ESL Student learning English in an English Speaking Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Taufiq

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Different students who learn English as the second language has various problems and strategies to overcome. A case study on an international student who learns English as a second language in an English speaking country raised some problems he had and offered some strategies he used during the process of learning. The progress of learning from the first time coming and studying at a college in Australia was mainly the core data collected on this study. The data copes from his formal academic learning experience and also from informal situation that he met at his everyday life. This study applied qualitative research method and use interview and recording as the instruments. The data were analized through three stages: data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing. The results of the study show that the learner experiences a range of English learning problems which happened after his coming to Australia and some strategies he used to overcome.

  2. The English Monolingual Dictionary: Its Use among Second Year Students of University Technology of Malaysia, International Campus, Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amerrudin Abd. Manan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to seek information on English Monolingual Dictionary (EMD use among 2nd year students of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, International Campus, Kuala Lumpur (UTMKL. Specifically, the researchers wish to discover, firstly the students’ habit and attitude in EMD use; secondly, to discover their knowledge with regard to the language learning resources available in EMD; thirdly, to discover their skill in using EMD, and finally, to discover whether there were formal instructions in EMD use when they were studying in their former schools and tertiary education. One hundred and ninety-six students took part in the survey by answering a questionnaire. The results of the study reveal that the respondents were poor users of EMD. They rarely consulted the EMD; their knowledge of the language learning resources in the EMD was limited; most perceived their EMD skill as average, and there was no instruction in EMD when they were at tertiary education and previously when they were at school.

  3. Professional Development in Japanese Non-Native English Speaking Teachers' Identity and Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    This mixed methods study investigates how Japanese non-native English speaking teachers' (NNESTs) efficacy and identity are developed and differentiated from those of native English speaking teachers (NESTs). To explore NNESTs' efficacy, this study focuses on the contributing factors, such as student engagement, classroom management, instructional…

  4. Examining Oral Reading Fluency Trajectories Among English Language Learners and English Speaking Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane R. Jimerson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Students’ oral reading fluency growth from first through fourth grade was used to predict their achievement on the Stanford Achievement Test (9th ed.; SAT-9 Reading using a latent growth model. Two conditional variables related to student status were used to determine the effects on reading performance - English language learners (ELLs with low socioeconomic status and low socioeconomic (SES status alone. Results revealed that both types of student status variables reliably predicted low performance on initial first grade oral reading fluency, which later predicted fourth grade performance on the SAT-9. However, the reading fluency trajectories of the ELLs and monolingual English students were not significantly different. In addition, when both student status variables and letter naming fluency were used to predict initial oral reading fluency, letter naming fluency dominated the prediction equation, suggesting that an initial pre-reading skill, letter naming fluency, better explained fourth grade performance on the SAT-9 than either ELL with low SES or low SES alone. The discussion focuses on how to better enable these readers and how oral reading fluency progress monitoring can be used to assist school personnel in determining which students need additional instructional assistance.

  5. Longitudinal analysis of receptive vocabulary growth in young Spanish English-speaking children from migrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher; Leacox, Lindsey

    2014-01-01

    The authors of this study described developmental trajectories and predicted kindergarten performance of Spanish and English receptive vocabulary acquisition of young Latino/a English language learners (ELLs) from socioeconomically disadvantaged migrant families. In addition, the authors examined the extent to which gender and individual initial performance in Spanish predict receptive vocabulary performance and growth rate. The authors used hierarchical linear modeling of 64 children's receptive vocabulary performance to generate growth trajectories, predict performance at school entry, and examine potential predictors of rate of growth. The timing of testing varied across children. The ELLs (prekindergarten to 2nd grade) participated in 2-5 testing sessions, each 6-12 months apart. The ELLs' average predicted standard score on an English receptive vocabulary at kindergarten was nearly 2 SDs below the mean for monolingual peers. Significant growth in the ELLs' receptive vocabulary was observed between preschool and 2nd grade, indicating that the ELLs were slowly closing the receptive vocabulary gap, although their average score remained below the standard score mean for age-matched monolingual peers. The ELLs demonstrated a significant decrease in Spanish receptive vocabulary standard scores over time. Initial Spanish receptive vocabulary was a significant predictor of growth in English receptive vocabulary. High initial Spanish receptive vocabulary was associated with greater growth in English receptive vocabulary and decelerated growth in Spanish receptive vocabulary. Gender was not a significant predictor of growth in either English or Spanish receptive vocabulary. ELLs from low socioeconomic backgrounds may be expected to perform lower in English compared with their monolingual English peers in kindergarten. Performance in Spanish at school entry may be useful in identifying children who require more intensive instructional support for English vocabulary

  6. Greek Loans in English and the Teaching of Modern Greek to English Speaking Students (within a Communicative Language Teaching Framework).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzipanayiotidou, A.; And Others

    In constructing a syllabus for the teaching of Modern Greek as a foreign language to English-speaking students, it is suggested that some lexical items be taught from the corpus of Greek loan words in English. These words fall into the following categories: direct loans; words that, in joining English, have acquired a different meaning, which was…

  7. Effects of the Differences between Native and Non-Native English-Speaking Teachers on Students' Attitudes and Motivation toward Learning English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pae, Tae-Il

    2017-01-01

    This study presents findings on three research agendas: (1) the difference between native English-speaking teachers (NESTs) and non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) in students' attitudes toward and motivation for learning English, (2) the moderating effect of the type of class (i.e., English Conversation vs. Practical English) on the…

  8. Articulation Skills in Spanish-Speaking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Thomas A.

    The purpose of the research was to develop an articulation test for Spanish-speakers and to field-test the instrument in both a monolingual Spanish-speaking environment and a bilingual Spanish/English environment. Such a test is needed because there has been little available to enable the diagnostician, whose clientele includes Spanish-speakers,…

  9. Feedback in online course for non-native English-speaking students

    CERN Document Server

    Olesova, Larisa

    2013-01-01

    Feedback in Online Course for Non-Native English-Speaking Students is an investigation of the effectiveness of audio and text feedback provided in English in an online course for non-native English-speaking students. The study presents results showing how audio and text feedback can impact on non-native English-speaking students' higher-order learning as they participate in an asynchronous online course. It also discusses the results of how students perceive both types of the feedback provided. In addition, the study examines how the impact and perceptions differ when the instructor giving the

  10. An Exploratory Case Study of Young Children's Interactive Play Behaviours with a Non-English Speaking Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohi; Md-Yunus, Sham'ah; Son, Won In; Meadows, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This study is an examination of preschool-age English speaking children's interactive play behaviours with a non-English speaking child (NEC). The play types of a NEC were reported using the Parten's categories of solitary, parallel and interactive play. In addition, English-speaking children's interactive play with a NEC were reported in this…

  11. Environmental Considerations: Home and School Comparison of Spanish-English Speakers' Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carla W.; Callender, Maya F.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined differences in the quantity of child vocalizations (CVs) between preschool and home environments using the Language Environmental Analysis (LENA). The sample included monolingual English-speaking children (n = 27) and Spanish-English speaking dual language learners (n = 30). A two-way mixed effects analysis of variance with one…

  12. Language and EFL Teacher Preparation in Non-English-Speaking Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Arna S.

    Linguistic and paralinguistic problems faced by non-native-English speakers training to be teachers of English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL) in non-English-speaking environments are discussed. Relevant theories of second language learning and acquisition are reviewed, and the affective factors and sociocultural variables that appear to…

  13. Developmental trajectories of preschool early literacy skills: a comparison of language-minority and monolingual-English children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Farver, Joann M; Nakamoto, Jonathan; Eppe, Stefanie

    2013-10-01

    This study utilized latent growth-curve analyses to determine if the early literacy skills of children who were Spanish-speaking language-minority (LM) followed a similar quantitative growth profile over a preschool year as that of a group of children from a comparable socioeconomic (SES) background but who were not LM. Participants, who ranged in age from 37 to 60 months (M = 50.73; SD = 5.04), included 540 Spanish-speaking LM and 408 non-LM children (47% girls) who were enrolled in 30 Head Start classrooms. Scores on a measure of oral language and measures of code-related skills (i.e., phonological awareness, print knowledge) were lower for LM children than for non-LM children. LM children experienced significantly faster growth in oral language skills than did non-LM children. Growth for print knowledge and blending was similar for LM and non-LM children, whereas LM children experienced slightly less growth than non-LM children on elision. The inclusion of child (i.e., initial language scores, age, nonverbal cognitive ability) and family (i.e., maternal/paternal education, 2-parent household, father employment) variables eliminated initial differences between LM and non-LM children on the code-related variables, and the effect was due primarily to children's initial oral language skills. These results indicate that the early risk for reading-related problems experienced by Spanish-speaking LM children is due both to low SES and to their LM status, and they highlight the critical need for the development, evaluation, and deployment of early instructional programs for LM children with limited English oral language proficiency.

  14. Multilingualism in Brussels: "I'd Rather Speak English"

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Paul; Toebosch, AnneMarie

    2008-01-01

    Language is both a divisive and a unifying force in Brussels. Historically predominantly Dutch-speaking, surrounded by the officially Dutch-speaking federal state of Flanders, located in a majority Dutch-speaking nation-state, and with the majority of its Belgian citizens Francophone, Brussels has officially been bilingual Dutch-French since 1962.…

  15. Improving Speaking by Listening Cultivating English Thinking and Expression--Probe into the Teaching of "Business English Listening"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wencheng

    2009-01-01

    The comprehensive listening curriculum occupies an important position in elementary teaching stage for English major. How could we arrange the listening class better? Considering the characteristics of comprehensive listening curriculum for English major, teachers can help students improve speaking by listening, cultivating their thinking and…

  16. To Speak Like a TED Speaker--A Case Study of TED Motivated English Public Speaking Study in EFL Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingxia; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Dongyu

    2016-01-01

    This paper intends to investigate the effectiveness of a new course pattern--TED-motivated English Public Speaking Course in EFL teaching in China. This class framework adopts TED videos as the learning materials to stimulate students to be a better speaker. Meanwhile, it aims to examine to what extent the five aspects of language skills are…

  17. On the Awareness of English Polysemous Words by Arabic-Speaking EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulafah Abdul Salam Alnamer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study measures the extent to which Arabic-speaking EFL learners are aware of polysemy in English. It also investigates whether the English proficiency level of Arabic-speaking EFL learners plays a role in their ability to distinguish between the various meanings of English polysemous words, and whether they face problems when they encounter these words in unusual contexts (i.e. the contexts that employ the extended meanings of the target polysemous words. To these ends, a translation test in which the participants were asked to give full Arabic translation for fifteen English sentences was designed. The words open, run, and make were the target polysemous words in this study. The Results show that Arabic-speaking EFL learners have little awareness of polysemy in English, and their English proficiency level does play a role in their ability to distinguish between the different meanings of English polysemous words. It was also found that Arabic-speaking EFL learners have no problems guessing the primary meaning of the English polysemous words. However, they face difficulty guessing the extended meanings of polysemous words in unusual contexts. Moreover, some Arabic-speaking EFL learners can guess the extended meanings of the polysemous words they encounter in familiar contexts, or when they understand some cues provided to disambiguate these words. This study concludes with some pedagogical implications and recommendations for further studies.

  18. Variation Theory and the Reception of Chinese Literature in the English-speaking World

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Shunqing

    2015-01-01

    In his article "Variation Theory and Reception of Chinese Literature in the English-Speaking World" Shunqing Cao introduces "variation theory" he developed and suggests that the framework can be applied in studying the dissemination and reception of Chinese literature in the English-speaking world. Cao argues that cultural and literary differences produce variations in literary exchanges among different cultures and variation theory concentrates on these variations. With unique perspectives o...

  19. So They Want Us to Learn French: Promoting and Opposing Bilingualism in English-Speaking Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayday, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1960s, bilingualism has become a defining aspect of Canadian identity. And yet, fifty years after the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism was formed and with over forty years of federal government funding and supports for second-language education, relatively few English Canadians speak or choose to speak French. What…

  20. DIFFICULTIES OF SPEAKING THAT ARE ENCOUNTERED BY ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDENTS AT AL MARGEB UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Dalem

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the speaking difficulties encountered by English language students at Al Margeb University, and to discover the causes of such difficulties. Speaking English has been a vital importance in international communication. Speaking fluent English is a common problem among the nonnative speakers. The second language learners have gone through a variety of cases to learn how to speak not only correct grammar and using the right vocabulary but with correct accent and pronunciation. Many obstacles, therefore, have been known as the predictors of such a problem among the language learners.  According to the review of literature, appropriate speaking instruction was found to be the learners' priority and a field in which they need more attention. In this paper the writer highlight the speaking difficulties encountered by English language students at Al Margeb University, which are considered to be the most urgent for every teacher, such as fear of mistakes, shyness, anxiety, lack of confidence and lack of motivation. This paper can be useful to teachers to consider their language learners' speaking needs in English language teaching and learning context.

  1. Speaking

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, James

    2011-01-01

    Make yourself understood in business. This brand new self-study book is the perfect way for business people who spend a lot of time on the phone or in meetings and want to improve their spoken English, getting their message across effectively. The focus is on the key language required to speak English accurately in business. 'Collins English for Business' is a new series of self-study skills books which focus on the language you really need to do business in English - wherever you are in the world. Each title includes tips on how to communicate effectively and how to communicate inter-culturally. Other titles in the series: Listening and Writing. * Powered by COBUILD - using the real language of business English * Contents: Twenty 4-page units cover the key areas, such as Networking and Small Talk, Telephoning, Telephone and Video Conferencing, Presentations and Interviews. * Each unit contains: - Exercises focused on vocabulary or key structures - Grammar tips - Key phrases * Audio CD: dialogues are recorded...

  2. Chiropractic claims in the English-speaking world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Edzard; Gilbey, Andrew

    2010-04-09

    Some chiropractors and their associations claim that chiropractic is effective for conditions that lack sound supporting evidence or scientific rationale. This study therefore sought to determine the frequency of World Wide Web claims of chiropractors and their associations to treat, asthma, headache/migraine, infant colic, colic, ear infection/earache/otitis media, neck pain, whiplash (not supported by sound evidence), and lower back pain (supported by some evidence). A review of 200 chiropractor websites and 9 chiropractic associations' World Wide Web claims in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States was conducted between 1 October 2008 and 26 November 2008. The outcome measure was claims (either direct or indirect) regarding the eight reviewed conditions, made in the context of chiropractic treatment. We found evidence that 190 (95%) chiropractor websites made unsubstantiated claims regarding at least one of the conditions. When colic and infant colic data were collapsed into one heading, there was evidence that 76 (38%) chiropractor websites made unsubstantiated claims about all the conditions not supported by sound evidence. Fifty-six (28%) websites and 4 of the 9 (44%) associations made claims about lower back pain, whereas 179 (90%) websites and all 9 associations made unsubstantiated claims about headache/migraine. Unsubstantiated claims were made about asthma, ear infection/earache/otitis media, neck pain, The majority of chiropractors and their associations in the English-speaking world seem to make therapeutic claims that are not supported by sound evidence, whilst only 28% of chiropractor websites promote lower back pain, which is supported by some evidence. We suggest the ubiquity of the unsubstantiated claims constitutes an ethical and public health issue.

  3. The Arts, the Common Core, and English Language Development in the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfader, Christa Mulker; Brouillette, Liane

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: Throughout schooling, English learners (ELs) perform well below their monolingual English-speaking peers on literacy assessments, and Hispanics make up the majority of EL students in the United States. There is a strong consensus about the importance of early English oral language skills for ELs' literacy development, yet…

  4. Factors that enhance English-speaking speech-language pathologists' transcription of Cantonese-speaking children's consonants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockart, Rebekah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2013-08-01

    To investigate speech-language pathology students' ability to identify errors and transcribe typical and atypical speech in Cantonese, a nonnative language. Thirty-three English-speaking speech-language pathology students completed 3 tasks in an experimental within-subjects design. Task 1 (baseline) involved transcribing English words. In Task 2, students transcribed 25 words spoken by a Cantonese adult. An average of 59.1% consonants was transcribed correctly (72.9% when Cantonese-English transfer patterns were allowed). There was higher accuracy on shared English and Cantonese syllable-initial consonants /m,n,f,s,h,j,w,l/ and syllable-final consonants. In Task 3, students identified consonant errors and transcribed 100 words spoken by Cantonese-speaking children under 4 additive conditions: (1) baseline, (2) +adult model, (3) +information about Cantonese phonology, and (4) all variables (2 and 3 were counterbalanced). There was a significant improvement in the students' identification and transcription scores for conditions 2, 3, and 4, with a moderate effect size. Increased skill was not based on listeners' proficiency in speaking another language, perceived transcription skill, musicality, or confidence with multilingual clients. Speech-language pathology students, with no exposure to or specific training in Cantonese, have some skills to identify errors and transcribe Cantonese. Provision of a Cantonese-adult model and information about Cantonese phonology increased students' accuracy in transcribing Cantonese speech.

  5. The Effect of Pecha Kucha Presentations on Students' English Public Speaking Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the Pecha Kucha presentation format on English as foreign language learners' public speaking anxiety. The participants were 49 students in the English Translation and Interpretation Department of a state university in Turkey. A pre- and post-test experimental research design was used in…

  6. The Knowledge Base of Non-Native English-Speaking Teachers: Perspectives of Teachers and Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengjuan; Zhan, Ju

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the knowledge base of non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) working in the Canadian English as a second language (ESL) context. By examining NNESTs' experiences in seeking employment and teaching ESL in Canada, and investigating ESL program administrators' perceptions and hiring practices in relation to NNESTs, it…

  7. The importance of a near-native accent. : Do the Dutch speak English or Double Dutch?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    drs. Frans Hermans

    2014-01-01

    The importance of a near-native accent. This talk will discuss whether or not it is important for EFL-teachers to try and achieve a near-native generally accepted accent for their students. The focus will be on the credibility of non-native speakers of English while speaking English in a

  8. Chinese Students' Perceptions of Native English-Speaking Teachers in EFL Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zhenhui

    2010-01-01

    The article reports the views of 20 Chinese English as a foreign Language (EFL) students on the strengths and weaknesses of native English-speaking (NES) teachers in EFL teaching. Responding to an open-ended questionnaire and in-depth interviews, EFL students named the following as NES teachers' strengths: native language authenticity, cultural…

  9. Auditory Processing, Linguistic Prosody Awareness, and Word Reading in Mandarin-Speaking Children Learning English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wei-Lun; Jarmulowicz, Linda; Bidelman, Gavin M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined language-specific links among auditory processing, linguistic prosody awareness, and Mandarin (L1) and English (L2) word reading in 61 Mandarin-speaking, English-learning children. Three auditory discrimination abilities were measured: pitch contour, pitch interval, and rise time (rate of intensity change at tone onset).…

  10. Prosody teaching matters in developing speaking skills for Farsi-English interpreter trainees : An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yenkimaleki, M.; V.J., van Heuven

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of explicit teaching of prosody on developing speaking skills for Farsi-English interpreter trainees. Two groups of student interpreters were formed. All were native speakers of Farsi who studied English translation and interpreting at the BA level at

  11. Analyzing cognitive and spelling skills in Spanish-speaking English-language learners and English-speaking Canadian learners Analizando procesos cognitivos y de escritura en niños hispano-parlantes que aprenden inglés como segunda lengua y niños canadienses de habla inglesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel O’Shanahan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The principal purpose of this study has been to analyze the cognitive processes and spelling skills in Spanish-speaking English-language learners. A sample of English-speaking Canadian learners and Spanish-speaking English-language learners was selected from different Canadian schools in the Vancouver District within British Columbia's province. We examined cognitive and spelling skills of English-speaking students and Spanish-speaking English language learners in the primary grades. We hypothesized that there would be a positive transfer from cognitive and linguistic processes from L1 to L2 spelling skills development, if no significant differences were observed among native English speakers and Spanish-language learners on these measures. There were no significant differences between the English –language learners and the native English speakers on measures of phonological awareness and spelling skills. However, English-speaking Canadian learners performed better than Spanish-speaking English-language learners on vocabulary and syntactic awareness. El objetivo principal de este estudio ha sido analizar los procesos cognitivos y de escritura de niños hispano-parlantes que aprenden el inglés como segunda lengua. Para ello se seleccionó a una muestra de niños canadienses de habla inglesa y otra de hispano-parlantes que reciben instrucción en inglés como segunda lengua en escuelas canadienses del distrito de Vancouver en la provincia canadiense de Columbia Británica (British Columbia. Se tomaron medidas de competencia lingu?ística (vocabulario y conciencia sintáctica, memoria de trabajo, conciencia fonológica y escritura de palabras y pseudopalabras en inglés para el grupo de monolingu?es, y las mismas medidas en los idiomas inglés y español para el grupo de hispano-parlantes. Nuestra predicción es que si existe un efecto de transferencia de L1 sobre L2 entonces existiría relación entre los procesos cognitivos y de escritura que

  12. Designing a Competence-Based Syllabus for Turkish Speaking Learners of English in Terms of Accessibility to Universal Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, Emrullah

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on designing an English grammar syllabus for Turkish speaking English learners, which is based on the assumption that learning English grammar will be simpler and easier for Turkish speaking learners if it is introduced in a way by which they can achieve accessibility to Universal Grammar. In this study, I analyze almost all…

  13. Teaching English Speaking Skills to the Arab Students in the Saudi School in Kuala Lumpur: Problems and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sobhi, Bandar Mohammad Saeed; Preece, Abdul Shakour

    2018-01-01

    Of the four English language skills, speaking enjoys a superior status. Accordingly, it should be given high priority while teaching. In spite of its importance, teaching English speaking skill to Arab EFL learners has always been an exacting task for Arab teachers of English because it is considered a foreign language, i.e. not widely spoken or…

  14. A comparison of proficiency levels in 4-year-old monolingual and trilingual speakers of Afrikaans, isiXhosa and South African English across SES boundaries, using LITMUS-CLT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perold Potgieter, Anneke; Southwood, Frenette

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how trilinguals fare on the cross-linguistic lexical tasks (CLT)-Afrikaans, -isiXhosa and -South African English (SAE) (cf. Haman et al., 2015) compared to monolingual controls, and whether the CLT-Afrikaans renders comparable results across socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. The LITMUS-CLTs were administered to 41 low SES 4-year-olds (11 trilinguals; 10 monolingual speakers of Afrikaans, isiXhosa and SAE) and the LITMUS-CLT-Afrikaans to 11 mid-SES 4-year-old monolinguals. Results (a) indicate that trilinguals' proficiency in their exposure-dominant language did not differ significantly from monolinguals' proficiency, but their proficiency in their additional two languages was significantly lower than monolinguals' proficiency; (b) reflect the extent, but not current amount, of exposure trilinguals had had over time to each of their languages; and (c) show that low and mid-SES monolinguals differed significantly on noun-related, but not verb-related, CLT measures. Possible reasons for and the clinical implications of these results are discussed.

  15. Mobility limitations and fear of falling in non-English speaking older Mexican-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Eric G; Conatser, Phillip; Karabulut, Murat; Leveille, Suzanne G; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Cote, Sarah; Tucker, Katherine L; Barton, Bruce; Bean, Jonathan F; Al Snih, Soham; Markides, Kyriakos S

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether older Mexican-Americans who cannot speak and/or understand spoken English have higher rates of mobility limitations or fear of falling than their English-speaking counterparts. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 1169 community-dwelling Mexican-Americans aged 72-96 years from the 2000-2001 wave of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly. Mobility limitations were defined as having a Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9, and fear of falling by participant report of being somewhat, fairly, or very afraid of falling. We determined the rates and odds ratios, for having mobility limitations and fear of falling as a function of English ability in those who were 72-96, English 85.7% had mobility limitations and 61.6% were afraid of falling, compared to 77.6% and 57.5%, respectively, of English speakers. Before adjusting for covariates, participants who did not speak and/or understand spoken English were more likely to have mobility limitations (odds ratio: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.4) but not fear of falling, compared to English speakers. Among those aged ≥80 years, but not those English were more likely to have mobility limitations (odds ratio: 4.8; 95% CI:2.0-11.5) and fear of falling (odds ratio: 2.0; 95% CI:1.3-3.1). Older Mexican-Americans who do not speak or understand spoken English have a higher rate of mobility limitations and fear of falling than their English-speaking counterparts.

  16. Proficiency in English sentence stress production by Cantonese speakers who speak English as a second language (ESL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Manwa L; Chen, Yang

    2011-12-01

    The present study examined English sentence stress produced by native Cantonese speakers who were speaking English as a second language (ESL). Cantonese ESL speakers' proficiency in English stress production as perceived by English-speaking listeners was also studied. Acoustical parameters associated with sentence stress including fundamental frequency (F0), vowel duration, and intensity were measured from the English sentences produced by 40 Cantonese ESL speakers. Data were compared with those obtained from 40 native speakers of American English. The speech samples were also judged by eight native listeners who were native speakers of American English for placement, degree, and naturalness of stress. Results showed that Cantonese ESL speakers were able to use F0, vowel duration, and intensity to differentiate sentence stress patterns. Yet, both female and male Cantonese ESL speakers exhibited consistently higher F0 in stressed words than English speakers. Overall, Cantonese ESL speakers were found to be proficient in using duration and intensity to signal sentence stress, in a way comparable with English speakers. In addition, F0 and intensity were found to correlate closely with perceptual judgement and the degree of stress with the naturalness of stress.

  17. L2 vs. L3 Initial State: A Comparative Study of the Acquisition of French DPs by Vietnamese Monolinguals and Cantonese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Yan-Kit Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares the initial state of second language acquisition (L2A) and third language acquisition (L3A) from the generative linguistics perspective. We examine the acquisition of the Determiner Phrase (DP) by two groups of beginning French learners: an L2 group (native speakers of Vietnamese who do not speak any English) and an L3 group…

  18. THE CONTRIBUTION OF ENGLISH STUDENTS’ SPEAKING STRATEGIES AND MOTIVATION ON THEIR SPEAKING ABILITY AT TARBIYAH FACULTY OF IAIN IMAM BONJOL PADANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kustati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aims of the study are to describe: 1. Speaking strategies that are most frequently used by the students of the English Department in Tarbiyah Faculty; 2. The contribution of Students’ Speaking-Related LLS in developing their speaking ability; and, 3. The contribution of students’ learning motivation in the development of their speaking skills. speaking test, strategy inventory for language learning (SILL, and learning motivation questionnaire were employed to collect the data. The research findings revealed that there were thirty-four speaking strategies which were most frequently used by high, average, and low achievement students. The findings also showed that bothe students’ speaking strategies and motivation give significant contribution on students’ speaking ability.  Thus, speaking lecturers are expected to be able to implement innovative and varied teaching techniques.

  19. Planning Abilities in Bilingual and Monolingual Children: Role of Verbal Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; McDonald, Margarethe; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2018-01-01

    We examined the role of verbal mediation in planning performance of English-Spanish-speaking bilingual children and monolingual English-speaking children, between the ages of 9 and 12 years. To measure planning, children were administered the Tower of London (ToL) task. In a dual-task paradigm, children completed ToL problems under three conditions: with no secondary task (baseline), with articulatory suppression, and with non-verbal motor suppression. Analyses revealed generally shorter planning times for bilinguals than monolinguals but both groups performed similarly on number of moves and execution times. Additionally, bilingual children were more efficient at planning throughout the duration of the task while monolingual children showed significant gains with more practice. Children's planning times under articulatory suppression were significantly shorter than under motor suppression as well as the baseline condition, and there was no difference in planning times between monolingual and bilingual children during articulatory suppression. These results demonstrate that bilingualism influences performance on a complex EF measure like planning, and that these effects are not related to verbal mediation.

  20. Text-Speak: Its Influence on the English Spelling Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A. Arellano

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the perceived influence of texting on the English spelling skills of the Teacher Education students of the West Visayas State University – Janiuay Campus (WVSU-JC. It likewise aimed to determine the significant differences on the influence of texting on the English spelling skills of the students when they were grouped as to sex, course and year level and to ascertain the significant relationship between the students’ perceived influence of texting and their performance in English spelling. This study utilized the descriptive method in describing how texting or text messaging influenced the English spelling ability of WVSU-JC Teacher Education students. Two hundred five (205 randomly selected Teacher Education students were utilized as respondents of the study. Researcher-made instruments such as English spelling test and a questionnaire checklist that described the influence of texting on the English spelling skills of the students were used to gather data. Means and standard deviation were used to describe the influence of texting on the English spelling skills of the students. The t-test and ANOVA were used to assess the significant differences on the influence of texting on the respondents’ English spelling skills and Pearson’s-r correlation was used to test the significant relationship between the students’ perceived influence of texting and their performance in English spelling. Results revealed that there was no significant relationship between the Teacher Education students’ perceived influence of texting and performance on their English spelling test and that texting moderately influence the English spelling skills of the Teacher Education students when the respondents were taken as an entire group and as to sex, course and year level. The English spelling skills of the Teacher Education students were good when the respondents were taken as an entire group and when the respondents were grouped

  1. Performance on Auditory and Visual Tasks of Inhibition in English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Adults: Do Bilinguals Have a Cognitive Advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Jamie L.; Fernandez, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Bilingual individuals have been shown to be more proficient on visual tasks of inhibition compared with their monolingual counterparts. However, the bilingual advantage has not been evidenced in all studies, and very little is known regarding how bilingualism influences inhibitory control in the perception of auditory information. The…

  2. Expressive Vocabulary Development in Children from Bilingual and Monolingual Homes: A Longitudinal Study from Two to Four Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Burridge, Andrea; Ribot, Krystal M; Welsh, Stephanie N

    2014-10-01

    The early course of language development among children from bilingual homes varies in ways that are not well described and as a result of influences that are not well understood. Here, we describe trajectories of relative change in expressive vocabulary from 22 to 48 months and vocabulary achievement at 48 months in two groups of children from bilingual homes (children with one and children with two native Spanish-speaking parents [ n s = 15 and 11]) and in an SES-equivalent group of children from monolingual English homes ( n = 31). The two groups from bilingual homes differed in their mean levels of English and Spanish skills, in their developmental trajectories during this period, and in the relation between language use at home and their vocabulary development. Children with two native Spanish-speaking parents showed steepest gains in total vocabulary and were more nearly balanced bilinguals at 48 months. Children with one native Spanish- and one native English-speaking parent showed trajectories of relative decline in Spanish vocabulary. At 48 months, mean levels of English skill among the bilingual children were comparable to monolingual norms, but children with two native Spanish-speaking parents had lower English scores than the SES-equivalent monolingual group. Use of English at home was a significant positive predictor of English vocabulary scores only among children with a native English-speaking parent. These findings argue that efforts to optimize school readiness among children from immigrant families should facilitate their access to native speakers of the community language, and efforts to support heritage language maintenance should include encouraging heritage language use by native speakers in the home.

  3. AN ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY IN ENGLISH CONVERSATION CLUB (ECC PROGRAM AT THE 3rd SEMESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fadhly Farhy Abbas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is based on students’ speaking ability who had followed the EnglishConversation Club (ECC program especially for the third semester of English Department. Thepurpose of this study was to analyze the students’ speaking ability at the 3rd semester in the EnglishConversation Club FKIP UNILAK Pekanbaru. The type of the research was mixed method in typeof explanatory design. The number of participant was 53 students. The researcher used twoinstruments, those were test and interview. In analyzing the data, it used in descriptive statistics.The result of the analysis showed that the average score of 3rd semester students’ speaking abilitywas 45.42. It can be concluded that the students’ speaking ability was categorized into failed . Thescore of Standard Deviation was 7.02, Variance was 49.30, and Range was 36 points . It meansthat the students’ speaking ability was homogeneous. According to the Z-Score, it can be seen that49.06% students’ ability was higher than average and 50.94% students ability was below theaverage. In conclusion, the students’ ability in learning speaking English was failed, it had beenaffected by some factors, those were lack of vocabulary, grammar and motivation. It was supportedby the interview, eventhough the students’ perception to English Conversation Club (ECCprogram was positive, but in fact, the students’ frequency to speak English was seldom, they wereless practice speaking English everyday.Keywords : Speaking , English Conversation Club (ECC

  4. Observing Pair-Work Task in an English Speaking Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achmad, Diana; Yusuf, Yunisrina Qismullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on students' pair-work interactions to develop their speaking skills in an ELT classroom which consisted of international learners. A number of 16 learners of intermediate proficiency with IELTS score band 5.5 were observed. The teacher had paired those he considered among them to be the more competent ones (hereafter, stronger)…

  5. Errors on Ghanaian Students' Written English: Is Speaking School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-02

    Oct 2, 2016 ... a problem language variety as far as their academic careers are concerned. ... non-Speaking group comprised 10 female students and 5 males. ... there was not a single kind of error that was exclusively committed by ... 1 while the same thing is done with errors found in the scripts of ..... New York: Linguistic.

  6. Neuropsychological test performance and prediction of functional capacities among Spanish-speaking and English-speaking patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, D A; Rubert, M P; Argüelles, T; Duara, R

    1995-03-01

    Neuropsychological measures have been widely used by clinicians to assist them in making judgments regarding a cognitively impaired patient's ability to independently perform important activities of daily living. However, important questions have been raised concerning the degree to which neuropsychological instruments can predict a broad array of specific functional capacities required in the home environment. In the present study, we examined 127 English-speaking and 56 Spanish-speaking patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and determined the extent to which various neuropsychological measures and demographic variables were predictive of performance on functional measures administered within the clinical setting. Among English-speaking AD patients, Block Design and Digit-Span of the WAIS-R, as well as tests of language were among the strongest predictors of functional performance. For Spanish-speakers, Block Design, The Mini-Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) and Digit Span had the optimal predictive power. When stepwise regression was conducted on the entire sample of 183 subjects, ethnicity emerged as a statistically significant predictor variable on one of the seven functional tests (writing a check). Despite the predictive power of several of the neuropsychological measures for both groups, most of the variability in objective functional performance could not be explained in our regression models. As a result, it would appear prudent to include functional measures as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation for dementia.

  7. Increasing Senior High School Students’ Ability In Speaking English Through Contextual Storytelling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyke Machrita Mamahit

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed (1 to increase the ability of students XII Grade Science 6 Senior High School state 7 Manado in speaking English through contextual storytelling method, (2 to increase the motivation and interest of students XII Grade Science 6 Senior High School state 7 Manado in speaking English through contextual storytelling method. This research is Classroom Action Research. The population was 325 students and the sample was 30 students. The research data was collected using performance test of cycle 1, 2, 3 and questionnaire. The research results indicated that the use of contextual storytelling method in learning English significantly increased the ability, interest and motivation of students XII Grade Science 6 Senior High School state 7 Manado in speaking English. The percentage of students who achieved the minimum score increased from 60 % in the first cycle became 70 % in the second cycle, and it increased 90 % in the third cycle. The students’ interest and motivation in speaking English increased from 70 % in first cycle became 80 % in the second cycle and it became 90 % in the third cycle.

  8. Text-Speak: Its Influence on the English Spelling Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy A. Arellano; Raymund B. Gemora

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the perceived influence of texting on the English spelling skills of the Teacher Education students of the West Visayas State University – Janiuay Campus (WVSU-JC). It likewise aimed to determine the significant differences on the influence of texting on the English spelling skills of the students when they were grouped as to sex, course and year level and to ascertain the significant relationship between the students’ perceived influence of texting and their per...

  9. Language of Instruction as a Moderator for Transfer of Reading Comprehension Skills among Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, María S.; Barr, Christopher D.; August, Diane; Calderón, Margarita; Artzi, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    This three-year longitudinal study investigated the role of language of instruction in moderating the relationships between initial levels of English oral language proficiency and Spanish reading comprehension and growth in English reading comprehension. The study followed Spanish-speaking English language learners in English-only literacy…

  10. Non-native english speaking elementary ell teachers’ culturally responsive leadership profile in an ESL context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Ekiaka Nzai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Culturally responsive instruction has been suggested as quality education (Edwards, 2003 for minority students in subtractive and additivebilingualism settings. However, analytical curriculum development of several official English programs revealed that the gender-centric (malecentricand Ethno-centric (Euro/Western-centric approaches were deeply embedded in most English textbooks of curriculum development.The intent of partial mixed methods paper consisted of exploring some non-native English speaking teachers English teachers’ culturallyresponsive leadership profile in order to further the discussion on not only how to promote English curriculum transformation in English assecond language (ESL and English as foreign language (EFL settings, but also to effectively train culturally responsive non-native Englishspeaking (NNES English pre-service teachers. Comparative data analysis suggested that there were no causal relationship between NNESEnglish teachers’ culturally responsive leadership styles and their abilities to perform multicultural transformation of English curriculums. To behighly effective in transforming English curriculum, NNES English teachers needed to be systematically trained on how to do so. Implicationsfor NNES English pre-service teacher education are framed from the culturally responsive and anti-oppressive education approaches.

  11. Exploration of open educational resources in non-English speaking communities

    OpenAIRE

    Cristobal Cobo

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, open educational resources (OER) initiatives have created new possibilities for knowledge-sharing practices. This research examines how, where, and when OER are attracting attention in the higher education sector and explores to what extent the OER discussion has moved beyond the English-speaking world. This study analysed English, Spanish, and Portuguese OER queries over a long-term period (2007-2011). The data retrieval was conducted using four online platforms: two ac...

  12. Validation of self-reported health literacy questions among diverse English and Spanish-speaking populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Urmimala; Schillinger, Dean; López, Andrea; Sudore, Rebecca

    2011-03-01

    Limited health literacy (HL) contributes to poor health outcomes and disparities, and direct measurement is often time-intensive. Self-reported HL questions have not been validated among Spanish-speaking and diverse English-speaking populations. To evaluate three self-reported questions: 1 "How confident are you filling out medical forms?"; 2 "How often do you have problems learning about your medical condition because of difficulty understanding written information?"; and 3 "How often do you have someone help you read hospital materials?" Answers were based on a 5-point Likert scale. This was a validation study nested within a trial of diabetes self-management support in the San Francisco Department of Public Health. English and Spanish-speaking adults with type 2 diabetes receiving primary care. Using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (s-TOFHLA) in English and Spanish as the reference, we classified HL as inadequate, marginal, or adequate. We calculated the C-index and test characteristics of the three questions and summative scale compared to the s-TOFHLA and assessed variations in performance by language, race/ethnicity, age, and education. Of 296 participants, 48% were Spanish-speaking; 9% were White, non-Hispanic; 47% had inadequate HL and 12% had marginal HL. Overall, 57% reported being confident with forms "somewhat" or less. The "confident with forms" question performed best for detecting inadequate (C-index = 0.82, (0.77-0.87)) and inadequate plus marginal HL (C index = 0.81, (0.76-0.86); pSpanish and English speakers with adequate HL and those with inadequate and/or inadequate plus marginal HL. The "confident with forms" question or the summative scale may be useful for estimating HL in clinical research involving Spanish-speaking and English-speaking, chronically-ill, diverse populations.

  13. The Impact of Multiple Intelligences-Based Instruction on Developing Speaking Skills of the Pre-Service Teachers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ashraf Atta M. S.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigates the impact of multiple intelligences-based Instruction on developing speaking skills of the pre-service teachers of English. Therefore, the problem of the current study can be stated in the lack of speaking skills of the pre-service teachers of English in Hurgada faculty of Education, South Valley University. To…

  14. MAIN ASPECTS IN LANGUAGE TRAINING OF NON-ENGLISH SPEAKING AIRMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Pazyura

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the globalized world and rapid development of technical progress aviation industry has been gaining more importance for humanity and requires a deeper understanding of the English language, its basic characteristics and mechanisms of functioning. Purpose: The aim of the article is to study the influence of the proficiency of English on flight safety, to consider the main communication problems of non-English speaking aviation personnel, highlight possible directions for training English-speaking personnel. In the article the author tries to show the disadvantage at which non-English speaking airline staff work in case of emergency. The article highlights the issue about high level aviation English proficiency necessary to avoid communication problem. Methods: For the research scientific general methods have been used which are main ways of studying scientific sources, and comparative method for synchronic comparison of events in the different regions. Results: The author concludes that at the same time it is necessary for aviation personnel to master plain language for understanding context of communication, to minimize uncertainty and improve understanding between the controller and pilot. Discussion: It stresses the idea that the language proficiency level that exceeds the minimum standards according to ICAO, contributes significantly to the reduction of communication problems and in such a way ensures safety.

  15. Do Chinese- and English-Speaking Preschoolers Think Differently about Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yao; Farrar, M. Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Metalinguistic awareness is the ability to identify, reflect upon, and manipulate linguistic units. It plays a critical role in reading development. The present study investigated Chinese- and English-speaking preschoolers' metalinguistic awareness development and the role of cognitive and linguistic abilities in its development. Forty-two…

  16. Relationship between Performance on Oral Narrative Retells and Vocabulary Assessments for Spanish-English Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Carla; Wofford, Mary Claire; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    This project aimed to describe oral narrative retells of Spanish-English speaking dual language learners (DLLs) and examine relationships with standardized vocabulary assessments. Investigators described oral narrative retells of 145 DLLs in kindergarten and first grade by number of different words (NDW), words per minute (WPM), and…

  17. Nonnative English-Speaking Teachers in the United States: Issues of Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz de Figueiredo, Eduardo Henrique

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated how nonnative English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) working in K-12 schools in the United States perceive their identities in relation to the school environment and its norms, their coworkers and administrators and the students and their families. Specific attention was given to the teachers' concerns prior to arrival…

  18. Effects of Using Mobile Devices on English Listening Diversity and Speaking for EFL Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Huang, Yueh-Min; Shadiev, Rustam; Wu, Sheng-Yi; Chen, Shu-Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study designed learning activities supported by a mobile learning system for students to develop listening and speaking skills in English as a foreign language (EFL). How students perceive learning activities and a mobile learning system were examined in this study. Additionally, how different practices relate to students' language…

  19. A Classroom-Based Assessment Method to Test Speaking Skills in English for Specific Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberola Colomar, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    This article presents and analyses a classroom-based assessment method to test students' speaking skills in a variety of professional settings in tourism. The assessment system has been implemented in the Communication in English for Tourism course, as part of the Tourism Management degree programme, at Florida Universitaria (affiliated to the…

  20. Auxiliary BE Production by African American English-Speaking Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, April W.; Oetting, Janna B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine 3 forms ("am," "is," "are") of auxiliary BE production by African American English (AAE)-speaking children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Thirty AAE speakers participated: 10 six-year-olds with SLI, 10 age-matched controls, and 10 language-matched controls. BE production was examined through…

  1. The Challenges and Opportunities for Chinese Overseas Postgraduates in English Speaking Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of Chinese students pursue their higher education degree in an overseas university. This research paper sets out to raise a discussion about some of the major challenges that such Chinese postgraduates might experience when studying at universities in English speaking countries drawing from ethnographic and sociological…

  2. The Comparison of Politeness Strategies in Chinese Culture and in Eng-lish Speaking Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆龄

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary society, as the development of globalization a growing tendency of how to communication effective⁃ly between different culture and languages has becoming a matter of fact. Even though a great number of communication strate⁃gies used to reduce the culture shock, obstacles in cultural exchanges still remains due to the culture differences. Politeness theory, as an important communication strategy, is still the most important and influential theory for cross-cultural communication. While there still has a few controversial arguments being conducted. It results in the issue of this article:Is there different compar⁃ing Chinese culture with English Speaking Culture in Terms of Politeness Strategies? In this paper, I will present a general review of classic politeness theories including Brown&Levinson, Leech’s research in English speaking culture and Gu and Xu’s findings in Chinese culture. Among their theories some specific politeness strategies such as face-saving strategy, politeness principle and its maxims will be used to give an image of the difference between Chinese culture and English speaking culture in terms of po⁃liteness strategies. In the definition of‘politeness’, two characteristics are worth mentioning:universality as well as culture-specif⁃ic. Therefore the article concludes by the arguing that, in spite of a few similarities, there are differences between in Chinese cul⁃ture and in English speaking context in politeness.

  3. Haunting Native Speakerism? Students' Perceptions toward Native Speaking English Teachers in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun-huei; Ke, Chung

    2009-01-01

    This paper intends to explore how Taiwanese university students perceive their native-speaking English teachers (NESTs). Mutual expectations between the NESTs and students are also investigated. Collected data include questionnaires from 107 students and interviews with three NESTs and 19 students who have filled out the questionnaire. The result…

  4. Results of the 2015 Relationship Testing Workshop of the English Speaking Working Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Susanne Lunøe; Hallenberg, Charlotte; Simonsen, Bo Thisted

    2015-01-01

    Annually, members of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics are invited to participate in a Relationship Testing Workshop. In 2015, 64 laboratories participated. Here, we present the results from the 2015 workshop, which included relationship testing...

  5. Development of a Cognate Awareness Measure for Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malabonga, Valerie; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Carlo, Maria; August, Diane; Louguit, Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of the Cognate Awareness Test (CAT), which measures cognate awareness in Spanish-speaking English Language Learners (ELLs) in fourth and fifth grade. An investigation of differential performance on the two subtests of the CAT (cognates and noncognates) provides evidence that the instrument is…

  6. Orthography-Induced Transfer in the Production of English-Speaking Learners of Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafat, Yasaman

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a study on the effect of orthography on L1-based phonological transfer in L2 production in 40 novice English-speaking learners of Spanish. In particular, the role of auditory-orthographic training and production and the influence of grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences are examined. Data elicited via a picture-naming task…

  7. The Language Growth of Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Raul; Iglesias, Aquiles

    2013-01-01

    Although the research literature regarding language growth trajectories is burgeoning, the shape and direction of English Language Learners' (ELLs) language growth trajectories are largely not known. This study used growth curve modeling to determine the shape of ELLs' language growth trajectories across 12,248 oral narrative language samples…

  8. Giving Learners a Multicultural Voice: An English Speaking University Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties establishing support for English speakers taking second language electives in postsecondary education in Ireland led to research on how language classes could be more accessible, multicultural, plurilingual and relevant for students in a university language centre. It is important to try and discover why students choose a foreign…

  9. Parent Training and Skill Acquisition and Utilization Among Spanish- and English-Speaking Latino Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Giovanni; Blizzard, Angela M; Barroso, Nicole E; Bagner, Daniel M

    2018-01-01

    In the U.S., there is a growing Latino population, in which parents primarily speak Spanish to their children. Despite the evidence that language preference is associated with level of acculturation and influences parenting practices in these families, no study has compared how Spanish-and English-speaking Latino families acquire and utilize the skills taught during parent-training programs such as Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). Twenty-seven mother-infant Latino dyads received a home-based adaptation of the Child-Directed Interaction (CDI) phase of PCIT as part of a larger randomized control trial. Most infants were male (63%), and their average age was 13.7 months ( SD = 1.43). Most families (52%) lived below the poverty line. The Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System-Third Edition (DPICS-III) was employed to evaluate PCIT skills at baseline and post-treatment, as well as at 3- and 6-month follow-up, assessments. We conducted multiple linear regression analyses among Spanish-speaking (55%) and English-speaking (45%) families to examine differences in acquisition and utilization of do and don't skills at each assessment while controlling for mother's education. Results yielded no group differences in the acquisition rate of do or don't skills at any time point. However, Spanish-speaking mothers used significantly more don't skills than English-speaking mothers at each assessment. Specifically, Spanish-speaking families used significantly more commands at baseline, post-treatment, and the 6-month followup assessments, as well as more questions at post-treatment and at the 6-month follow-up assessments. These findings highlight the importance of addressing cultural values such as respeto to ensure culturally robust parent-training programs for Latino families.

  10. Erasmus Students Using English as a "Lingua Franca": Does Study Abroad in a Non-English-Speaking Country Improve L2 English?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes, Àngels; Arnó, Elisabet; Mancho-Barés, Guzman

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of research on the impact of study abroad (SA) on the development of L2 English when students study in non-anglophone countries. The aim of the present study is to fill this gap by examining 39 Catalan/Spanish students who, as part of an Erasmus exchange, spent a term at universities in non-English-speaking European countries. In…

  11. Perceptions of the Pediatric Hospice Experience among English- and Spanish-Speaking Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienprayoon, Rachel; Marks, Emily; Funes, Maria; Martinez-Puente, Louizza Maria; Winick, Naomi; Lee, Simon Craddock

    2016-01-01

    Many children who die are eligible for hospice enrollment but little is known about parental perceptions of the hospice experience, the benefits, and disappointments. The objective of this study was to explore parental perspectives of the hospice experience in children with cancer, and to explore how race/ethnicity impacts this experience. We held 20 semistructured interviews with 34 caregivers of children who died of cancer and used hospice. Interviews were conducted in the caregivers' primary language: 12 in English and 8 in Spanish. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using accepted qualitative methods. Both English and Spanish speakers described the importance of honest, direct communication by medical providers, and anxieties surrounding the expectation of the moment of death. Five English-speaking families returned to the hospital because of unsatisfactory symptom management and the need for additional supportive services. Alternatively, Spanish speakers commonly stressed the importance of being at home and did not focus on symptom management. Both groups invoked themes of caregiver appraisal, but English-speaking caregivers more commonly discussed themes of financial hardship and fear of insurance loss, while Spanish-speakers focused on difficulties of bedside caregiving and geographic separation from family. The intense grief associated with the loss of a child creates shared experiences, but Spanish- and English-speaking parents describe their hospice experiences in different ways. Additional studies in pediatric hospice care are warranted to improve the care we provide to children at the end of life.

  12. Turkish Senior Nursing Students' Communication Experience With English-Speaking Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvenc, Gulten; Unver, Vesile; Basak, Tulay; Yuksel, Cigdem; Ayhan, Hatice; Kok, Gulsah; Konukbay, Dilek; Kose, Gulsah; Aslan, Ozlem; Tastan, Sevinc; Iyigun, Emine

    2016-02-01

    Simulation has been widely accepted as a valuable learning method in nursing education programs so that nursing students can learn and develop communication skills. The aim of this study was to evaluate nursing students' communication experience with an English-speaking standardized patient in the context of the Rational Administration of Medicines course. Involving both quantitative and qualitative research designs, this descriptive study was conducted with 104 nursing students in Ankara, Turkey, from September 2012 to July 2013. The majority (98.1%) of the participants stated the necessity of improving their English to communicate with English-speaking patients. Three overarching categories, including seven themes, emerged from the description of nursing students' experience: recognition of emotions, experiences during the simulation, and gains. Standardized patient practice emphasized the significance of cultural differences, of knowing and using a foreign language, of communication, and of patient safety. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Planning Abilities in Bilingual and Monolingual Children: Role of Verbal Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; McDonald, Margarethe; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2018-01-01

    We examined the role of verbal mediation in planning performance of English–Spanish-speaking bilingual children and monolingual English-speaking children, between the ages of 9 and 12 years. To measure planning, children were administered the Tower of London (ToL) task. In a dual-task paradigm, children completed ToL problems under three conditions: with no secondary task (baseline), with articulatory suppression, and with non-verbal motor suppression. Analyses revealed generally shorter planning times for bilinguals than monolinguals but both groups performed similarly on number of moves and execution times. Additionally, bilingual children were more efficient at planning throughout the duration of the task while monolingual children showed significant gains with more practice. Children’s planning times under articulatory suppression were significantly shorter than under motor suppression as well as the baseline condition, and there was no difference in planning times between monolingual and bilingual children during articulatory suppression. These results demonstrate that bilingualism influences performance on a complex EF measure like planning, and that these effects are not related to verbal mediation. PMID:29593620

  14. Initial Spanish Proficiency and English Language Development among Spanish-Speaking English Learner Students in New Mexico. REL 2018-286

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Brenda; Liu, Feng; Stoker, Ginger; Slama, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    To what extent do Spanish-speaking English learner students develop English proficiency and grade-level readiness in English language arts and math from early elementary school to upper elementary school? Is there a relationship between proficiency in a student's primary home language, Spanish, and the amount of time needed to attain fluency in…

  15. Diagnostic language consistency among multicultural English-speaking nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieck, K L

    1996-01-01

    Cultural differences among nurses may influence the choice of terminology applicable to use of a nursing diagnostic statement. This study explored whether defining characteristics are consistently applied by culturally varied nurses in an English language setting. Two diagnoses, pain, and high risk for altered skin integrity, were studied within six cultures: African, Asian, Filipino, East Indian, African-American, and Anglo-American nurses. Overall, there was consistency between the cultural groups. Analysis of variance for the pain scale demonstrated differences among cultures on two characteristics of pain, restlessness and grimace. The only difference on the high risk for altered skin integrity scale was found on the distructor, supple skin.

  16. The Impact of Structural Competence towards Speaking Competence of the Fourth Semester Students of English Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nafi Annury

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to define any impact of structural competence towards speaking competence. In this research, the writer used descriptive co-relational method. It was used to describe whether there was an impact between two variables, i.e. structural competence (X as independent variable and speaking competence (Y as dependent variable. The subject of study was the fourth semester students of English department of Tarbiyah Faculty IAIN Walisongo Semarang. After the data had been analyzed, it was found that there was significant impact of structural competence especially in appropriateness. It helped students to arrange words into sentences that they utter.

  17. Characteristics of number transcoding errors of Chinese- versus English-speaking Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Simon Kang Seng; Chia, Pei Shi; Kwek, Kevin; Tan, Wilnard; Hameed, Shahul

    2016-10-01

    Number processing disorder is an acquired deficit in mathematical skills commonly observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), usually as a consequence of neurological dysfunction. Common impairments include syntactic errors (800012 instead of 8012) and intrusion errors (8 thousand and 12 instead of eight thousand and twelve) in number transcoding tasks. This study aimed to understand the characterization of AD-related number processing disorder within an alphabetic language (English) and ideographical language (Chinese), and to investigate the differences between alphabetic and ideographic language processing. Chinese-speaking AD patients were hypothesized to make significantly more intrusion errors than English-speaking ones, due to the ideographical nature of both Chinese characters and Arabic numbers. A simplified number transcoding test derived from EC301 battery was administered to AD patients. Chinese-speaking AD patients made significantly more intrusion errors (p = 0.001) than English speakers. This demonstrates that number processing in an alphabetic language such as English does not function in the same manner as in Chinese. The impaired inhibition capability likely contributes to such observations due to its competitive lexical representation in brain for Chinese speakers.

  18. Investigating the impact of SMS speak on the written work of English first language and English second language high school learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winzker, Kristy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of SMS speak on the written work of English first language (L1 and English second language (L2 grade 8s and 11s. The aim was to establish whether these learners make use of features of SMS speak in their English written work. The participants, 88 learners from an English-Afrikaans dual medium school, completed questionnaires from which the frequency and volume of their SMS use were determined, as well as the features of SMS speak they reportedly use while SMSing. In addition, samples of their English essays were examined for the following features of SMS speak: (deliberate spelling errors; lack of punctuation; over-punctuation; omission of function words; and use of abbreviation, acronyms, emoticons and rebus writing. The questionnaires indicated that these learners are avid users of the SMS. All participants reported using features of SMS speak in their SMSes, and more than 40% reported using SMS speak in their written school work. Despite this, features of SMS speak infrequently occurred in the written work of the learners, which could indicate that the learners are able to assess when it is and is not appropriate to use a certain variety of language. That said, a number of SMS speak features were indeed present in the samples, which indicates that SMS speak had some impact on the written work of these learners. Not all of the nonstandard features of their written English could, however, necessarily be attributed to the influence of SMS speak; specifically some of the spelling and punctuation errors could have occurred in the written English of high school learners from before the advent of cell phones.

  19. Nobody seems to speak English here today: Enhancing assessment and training in aviation English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Douglas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2003 the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO strengthened the provisions that English be made available for international radiotelephony communication. ICAO also developed standards for English proficiency for international pilots and air traffic controllers. However, these standards are applied variably from country to country and in no country are native speakers of English tested for their ability to employ what has been termed "interactional competence" when using English for intercultural communication. Problems with this situation are reviewed and suggestions made for improving English assessment and training.

  20. ADHD and adolescent EFL learners’ speaking complexity, accuracy, and fluency in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Marashi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was an attempt to investigate the relationships among Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and speaking complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF among Iranian EFL learners. To fulfill the purpose of this study, the teachers and parents of 593 male students were given the Farsi version of the CSI-4 ADHD diagnostic questionnaire, out of which 61 students scored above the cut-off score of nine in both the teacher and parent questionnaires. These students then sat for a sample speaking section of the Key English Test (KET; the interviews were scored by two raters according to the measures of CAF. The data were thus analyzed and the results revealed a significant positive correlation between ADHD and speaking fluency; in contrast, a significant negative correlation was observed between ADHD and speaking complexity and ADHD and speaking accuracy. The regressions disclosed that ADHD is a significant predictor of complexity, accuracy, and fluency in speaking. The findings of this study have pedagogical implications for both parents and teachers in contact with students with ADHD with respect to the importance of identifying such students and thus planning and monitoring their progress.

  1. The relationship between spoken English proficiency and participation in higher education, employment and income from two Australian censuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Helen L; Mcleod, Sharynne; Verdon, Sarah; Fuller, Gail

    2018-04-01

    Proficiency in the language of the country of residence has implications for an individual's level of education, employability, income and social integration. This paper explores the relationship between the spoken English proficiency of residents of Australia on census day and their educational level, employment and income to provide insight into multilingual speakers' ability to participate in Australia as an English-dominant society. Data presented are derived from two Australian censuses i.e. 2006 and 2011 of over 19 million people. The proportion of Australians who reported speaking a language other than English at home was 21.5% in the 2006 census and 23.2% in the 2011 census. Multilingual speakers who also spoke English very well were more likely to have post-graduate qualifications, full-time employment and high income than monolingual English-speaking Australians. However, multilingual speakers who reported speaking English not well were much less likely to have post-graduate qualifications or full-time employment than monolingual English-speaking Australians. These findings provide insight into the socioeconomic and educational profiles of multilingual speakers, which will inform the understanding of people such as speech-language pathologists who provide them with support. The results indicate spoken English proficiency may impact participation in Australian society. These findings challenge the "monolingual mindset" by demonstrating that outcomes for multilingual speakers in education, employment and income are higher than for monolingual speakers.

  2. Does the Consecutive Interpreting Approach enhance medical English communication skills of Japanese-speaking students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Hideki; Lefor, Alan K

    2018-04-19

    To determine if the Consecutive Interpreting Approach enhances medical English communication skills of students in a Japanese medical university and to assess this method based on performance and student evaluations.  This is a three-phase study using a mixed-methods design, which starts with four language reproduction activities for 30 medical and 95 nursing students, followed by a quantitative analysis of perfect-match reproduction rates to assess changes over the duration of the study and qualitative error analysis of participants' language reproduction. The final stage included a scored course evaluation and free-form comments to evaluate this approach and to identify effective educational strategies to enhance medical English communication skills. Mean perfect-match reproduction rates of all participants over four reproduction activities differed statistically significantly (repeated measures ANOVA, pEnglish communication skills are enhanced using this approach. Participants expressed positive feedback regarding this instruction method. This approach may be effective to enhance the language skills of non-native English-speaking students seeking to practice medicine in English speaking countries.

  3. The non-English major lecturers speak English: The barriers encountered by adult learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Madkur

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the difficulties and problems faced by non-English major lecturers when they were taking a part in English discussion. This study was a qualitative descriptive research involving 10 non-English major lecturers who took a part in a twice-a-week discussion so-called English Corner. To collect the data, in-depth interview and observation were used. The collected data were analyzed by using Miles and Huberman’s interactive data analysis data model consisting of data reduction, data display and data verifying. The result of the study showed that those barriers could be classified into three problems namely socio-cultural, linguistic and interpersonal problems. The found barriers were expected to be a consideration to find out the solution to make the betterment of English learning among lecturers with the non-English background of study.

  4. “Is it English what we speak?” Irish English and Postcolonial Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariavita Cambria

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the case of Ireland as an anti-litteram postcolonial context. Within this context, a main concern is that of the relationship between language and identity. Irish English (the variety of English spoken in Ireland enjoys a unique position within the constellation of world-wide English varieties. Various factors led to the emergence of Irish English, it may well have developed as a resistance to the (contrasting forces of colonialism and has been perceived as a different vehicle for communication when compared to received colonial English. Scholars now generally believe that Irish people, at a certain moment in time, decided to use a language which offered better possibilities for work. Via the analysis of some postcolonial issues, such as the linguistic crisis of the colonial subject, the paper will first illustrate the circumstances that led to the emergence of Irish English and then list the main features of this variety.

  5. A Study of the Use of a Monolingual Pedagogical Dictionary by Learners of English Engaged in Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Keith; Yuill, Deborah

    1997-01-01

    Presents an account of a study of the role played by a dictionary in the completion of written (encoding) tasks by students of English as a foreign language. The study uses an introspective methodology based on the completion of flowcharts. Results indicate the importance of information on spelling and meanings and the neglect of coded syntactic…

  6. Predictors of Processing-Based Task Performance in Bilingual and Monolingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buac, Milijana; Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we examined performance of bilingual Spanish-English-speaking and monolingual English-speaking school-age children on a range of processing-based measures within the framework of Baddeley’s working memory model. The processing-based measures included measures of short-term memory, measures of working memory, and a novel word-learning task. Results revealed that monolinguals outperformed bilinguals on the short-term memory tasks but not the working memory and novel word-learning tasks. Further, children’s vocabulary skills and socioeconomic status (SES) were more predictive of processing-based task performance in the bilingual group than the monolingual group. Together, these findings indicate that processing-based tasks that engage verbal working memory rather than short-term memory may be better-suited for diagnostic purposes with bilingual children. However, even verbal working memory measures are sensitive to bilingual children’s language-specific knowledge and demographic characteristics, and therefore may have limited clinical utility. PMID:27179914

  7. The Effectiveness of Immersive Multimedia Learning with Peer Support on English Speaking and Reading Aloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asnawi Muslem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impacts of the immersive multimedia learning strategy with peer support on production skills in reading and speaking. Moreover, the effects of it on performance were investigated by student achievement. The quasiexperimental design with post-test was employed for the study. 80 first-year university students enrolled in English as a foreign language course were selected for this study. Data were analysed using one-way ANOVA. The findings showed that the immersive multimedia learning with peer support group reported significantly better performance in all measures of oral production for reading and speaking. Analyses obtained by achievement showed that the high achievement students in the immersive multimedia learning with peer support group reported significantly better performance in all measures of oral production only for speaking while the low achievement students in the immersive multimedia learning with peer supported group reported significantly better performance in all measures of oral production for reading and speaking. These findings showed that the immersive multimedia technique with peer support reduced the use of codeswitching strategies among the students and enabled them to develop oral production skills in English approaching the patterns of native speakers especially among low achievement students.

  8. The Interpretation of "in Context" Verbal Probability Expressions Used in International Accounting Standards: A Comparison of English and Chinese Students Studying at English Speaking Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Safrul Izani Mohd; Gardner, John C.; Sulong, Zunaidah; McGowan, Carl B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the differences in the interpretation of ten "in context" verbal probability expressions used in accounting standards between native Chinese speaking and native English speaking accounting students in United Kingdom universities. The study assesses the degree of grouping factors consensus on the numerical…

  9. "Speaking English Naturally": The Language Ideologies of English as an Official Language at a Korean University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jinsook

    2016-01-01

    This study explores language ideologies of English at a Korean university where English has been adopted as an official language. This study draws on ethnographic data in order to understand how speakers respond to and experience the institutional language policy. The findings show that language ideologies in this university represent the…

  10. Help! They Don't Speak English: Partnering Preservice Teachers with Adult English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Laura M.

    2008-01-01

    It is well documented that parent and family involvement in children's education correlates with success in school. The increasing number of English Language Learners in public schools has created a need for teacher educators to prepare preservice teachers to be able to work with families who have limited English. This study examined the outcomes…

  11. Improving advance care planning for English-speaking and Spanish-speaking older adults: study protocol for the PREPARE randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sudore, RL; Barnes, DE; Le, GM; Ramos, R; Osua, SJ; Richardson, SA; Boscardin, J; Schillinger, D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Advance care planning (ACP) is a process that allows patients to identify their goals for medical care. Traditionally, ACP has focused on completing advance directives; however, we have expanded the ACP paradigm to also prepare patients to communicate their wishes and make informed decisions. To this end, we created an ACP website called PREPARE (http://www.prepareforyourcare.org) to prepare diverse English-speaking and Spanish-speaking older adults for medical decision-making. H...

  12. English vowel identification and vowel formant discrimination by native Mandarin Chinese- and native English-speaking listeners: The effect of vowel duration dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Lin; Tao, Sha; Wang, Wenjing; Dong, Qi; Guan, Jingjing; Liu, Chang

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between English vowel identification and English vowel formant discrimination for native Mandarin Chinese- and native English-speaking listeners. The identification of 12 English vowels was measured with the duration cue preserved or removed. The thresholds of vowel formant discrimination on the F2 of two English vowels,/Λ/and/i/, were also estimated using an adaptive-tracking procedure. Native Mandarin Chinese-speaking listeners showed significantly higher thresholds of vowel formant discrimination and lower identification scores than native English-speaking listeners. The duration effect on English vowel identification was similar between native Mandarin Chinese- and native English-speaking listeners. Moreover, regardless of listeners' language background, vowel identification was significantly correlated with vowel formant discrimination for the listeners who were less dependent on duration cues, whereas the correlation between vowel identification and vowel formant discrimination was not significant for the listeners who were highly dependent on duration cues. This study revealed individual variability in using multiple acoustic cues to identify English vowels for both native and non-native listeners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Skype™ Conference Calls: A Way to Promote Speaking Skills in the Teaching and Learning of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeferson Romaña Correa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research project on the teaching and learning of English through the use of Skype™ conference calls. The research was carried out with a group of 12 English as a foreign language adult learners in the language institute of Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, Bogotá, Colombia. The findings of this study suggest that Skype™ conference calls might be considered as an influential computer-mediated communication tool in order to promote English as a foreign language adult A1 learners’ speaking skill, especially for social interaction purposes and oral reinforcement of both language fluency and course contents outside of classroom settings.

  14. English language training for Navy enlisted personnel who speak English as a second language

    OpenAIRE

    Abalos, Aurora S.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Communication problems exist for English as a second language (ESL) personnel in Recruit Training Commands and Navy work places. Good English language programs could improve the communication problems in the training environment and in the work place by providing language instruction right after enlistment. In this study, the adequacy of the existing ESL training programs in the Navy and other ESL training programs currently used in the ...

  15. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) among Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners (ELLs) in State Science Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilich, Maria O.

    Psychometricians and test developers evaluate standardized tests for potential bias against groups of test-takers by using differential item functioning (DIF). English language learners (ELLs) are a diverse group of students whose native language is not English. While they are still learning the English language, they must take their standardized tests for their school subjects, including science, in English. In this study, linguistic complexity was examined as a possible source of DIF that may result in test scores that confound science knowledge with a lack of English proficiency among ELLs. Two years of fifth-grade state science tests were analyzed for evidence of DIF using two DIF methods, Simultaneous Item Bias Test (SIBTest) and logistic regression. The tests presented a unique challenge in that the test items were grouped together into testlets---groups of items referring to a scientific scenario to measure knowledge of different science content or skills. Very large samples of 10, 256 students in 2006 and 13,571 students in 2007 were examined. Half of each sample was composed of Spanish-speaking ELLs; the balance was comprised of native English speakers. The two DIF methods were in agreement about the items that favored non-ELLs and the items that favored ELLs. Logistic regression effect sizes were all negligible, while SIBTest flagged items with low to high DIF. A decrease in socioeconomic status and Spanish-speaking ELL diversity may have led to inconsistent SIBTest effect sizes for items used in both testing years. The DIF results for the testlets suggested that ELLs lacked sufficient opportunity to learn science content. The DIF results further suggest that those constructed response test items requiring the student to draw a conclusion about a scientific investigation or to plan a new investigation tended to favor ELLs.

  16. The South African English Smartphone Digits-in-Noise Hearing Test: Effect of Age, Hearing Loss, and Speaking Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, Jenni-Marí; Swanepoel, De Wet; Myburgh, Hermanus Carel; Smits, Cas

    2017-11-20

    This study determined the effect of hearing loss and English-speaking competency on the South African English digits-in-noise hearing test to evaluate its suitability for use across native (N) and non-native (NN) speakers. A prospective cross-sectional cohort study of N and NN English adults with and without sensorineural hearing loss compared pure-tone air conduction thresholds to the speech reception threshold (SRT) recorded with the smartphone digits-in-noise hearing test. A rating scale was used for NN English listeners' self-reported competence in speaking English. This study consisted of 454 adult listeners (164 male, 290 female; range 16 to 90 years), of whom 337 listeners had a best ear four-frequency pure-tone average (4FPTA; 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) of ≤25 dB HL. A linear regression model identified three predictors of the digits-in-noise SRT, namely, 4FPTA, age, and self-reported English-speaking competence. The NN group with poor self-reported English-speaking competence (≤5/10) performed significantly (p English-speaking competence for the N and NN groups (≥6/10) and NN group alone (≤5/10). Logistic regression models, which include age in the analysis, showed a further improvement in sensitivity and specificity for both groups (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.962 and 0.903, respectively). Self-reported English-speaking competence had a significant influence on the SRT obtained with the smartphone digits-in-noise test. A logistic regression approach considering SRT, self-reported English-speaking competence, and age as predictors of best ear 4FPTA >25 dB HL showed that the test can be used as an accurate hearing screening tool for N and NN English speakers. The smartphone digits-in-noise test, therefore, allows testing in a multilingual population familiar with English digits using dynamic cutoff values that can be chosen according to self-reported English-speaking competence and age.

  17. Predicting First Grade Reading Achievement for Spanish-Speaking Kindergartners: Is Early Literacy Screening in English Valid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Karen L.; Invernizzi, Marcia A.; Huang, Francis

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the viability of using kindergarten measures of phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, and orthographic knowledge, administered in English, to predict first grade reading achievement of Spanish-speaking English language learners. The primary research question was: Do kindergarten measures of early literacy skills in…

  18. The Impact of a Systematic and Explicit Vocabulary Intervention in Spanish with Spanish-Speaking English Learners in First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Johanna; Baker, Doris Luft; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Smolkowski, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a 15-min daily explicit vocabulary intervention in Spanish on expressive and receptive vocabulary knowledge and oral reading fluency in Spanish, and on language proficiency in English. Fifty Spanish-speaking English learners who received 90 min of Spanish reading instruction in an early transition model were…

  19. Teaching Effectiveness of Non-Native English-Speaking Teachers in Business Disciplines: Intercultural Communication Apprehension and Ethnocentrism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayadeera, Nadana; Mihret, Dessalegn Getie; Hewa Dulige, Jayasinghe

    2018-01-01

    Teaching effectiveness of non-native English-speaking teachers (NNEST) in accounting, economics and finance has become a significant issue due to the increasing trend of hiring NNEST in business schools. However, the literature has focused on the English language competence of NNEST, which is only one element of the factors that influence teaching…

  20. English- and Spanish-speaking Latina mothers' beliefs about food, health, and mothering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomel, Jessica N; Zamora, Angela

    2007-10-01

    Parent beliefs regarding food, health, and child feeding behaviors among Latinos have not been well-documented. A series of eight focus groups were conducted with English-speaking and Spanish-speaking low-income Latina mothers of preschoolers to investigate their beliefs regarding how food and food preparation are related to their children's health and to their own roles as mothers. Systematic content analysis using NUDIST 6 revealed seven themes discussed by the focus groups. Integration of these themes revealed three major areas of consideration: (1) a lack of connection between the domains of eating, overweight, and health outcomes; (2) the role of parent modeling of eating behaviors; and (3) the use of feeding strategies that may not be conducive to the development of healthy eating behaviors. Furthermore, the data suggest that there are important distinctions among Latinos based on language preference, and that a "one-size-fits-all" approach to modeling Latino mothers' feeding beliefs may not be appropriate.

  1. Validity of Montreal Cognitive Assessment in non-english speaking patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Syam; Justus, Sunitha; Meluveettil, Radhamani; Menon, Ramshekhar N; Sarma, Sankara P; Kishore, Asha

    2015-01-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment is a brief and easy screening tool for accurately testing cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. We tested its validity for use in non-English (Malayalam) speaking patients with Parkinson's disease. We developed a Malayalam (a south-Indian language) version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment and applied to 70 patients with Parkinson's disease and 60 age- and education-matched healthy controls. Metric properties were assessed, and the scores were compared with the performance in validated Malayalam versions of Mini Mental Status Examination and Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Malayalam showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability and its scores correlated with Mini Mental Status Examination (patients: R = 0.70; P speaking Parkinson's disease patients for early screening and potential future interventions for cognitive dysfunction.

  2. "Nobody Told Me They Didn't Speak English!": Teacher Language Views and Student Linguistic Repertoires in Hutterite Colony Schools in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzuk, Andrea; Nelson, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative study of five monolingual teachers' understandings of the linguistic repertoires of their multilingual students. These teachers deliver the Saskatchewan provincial curricula in English to Hutterite colony students who are users of three languages: (a) spoken Hutterisch as a home and community language, (b)…

  3. Influence of Current Input-Output and Age of First Exposure on Phonological Acquisition in Early Bilingual Spanish-English-Speaking Kindergarteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Felter, Roxanna; Cooperson, Solaman J.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Peña, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although some investigations of phonological development have found that segmental accuracy is comparable in monolingual children and their bilingual peers, there is evidence that language use affects segmental accuracy in both languages. Aims: To investigate the influence of age of first exposure to English and the amount of current…

  4. Verb Errors of Bilingual and Monolingual Basic Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Olga

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the grammatical control of verbs exercised by 145 monolingual English and Generation 1.5 bilingual developmental writers in narrative essays using quantitative and qualitative methods. Generation 1.5 students made more errors than their monolingual peers in each category investigated, albeit in only 2 categories was the…

  5. Regulatory risk in the utilities industry: An empirical study of the English-speaking countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaggero, Alberto A.

    2007-01-01

    The economic theory on regulation suggests that firms subject to incentive regulation, such as price cap, bear more risk than firms subject to cost plus regulation, such as rate of return regulation. This hypothesis is tested empirically using a sample of 93 regulated companies operating in six English-speaking countries: Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, UK and USA, during the period 1995-2004. I replicate the methodology of the existing literature and also apply panel data techniques to my sample. The results obtained do not support the hypothesis that price cap regulation imposes more risk. (author)

  6. Removing obstacles for African American English-speaking children through greater understanding of language difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Barbara Zurer; Conner, Tracy; Jackson, Janice E

    2013-01-01

    Language difference among speakers of African American English (AAE) has often been considered language deficit, based on a lack of understanding about the AAE variety. Following Labov (1972), Wolfram (1969), Green (2002, 2011), and others, we define AAE as a complex rule-governed linguistic system and briefly discuss language structures that it shares with general American English (GAE) and others that are unique to AAE. We suggest ways in which mistaken ideas about the language variety add to children's difficulties in learning the mainstream dialect and, in effect, deny them the benefits of their educational programs. We propose that a linguistically informed approach that highlights correspondences between AAE and the mainstream dialect and trains students and teachers to understand language varieties at a metalinguistic level creates environments that support the academic achievement of AAE-speaking students. Finally, we present 3 program types that are recommended for helping students achieve the skills they need to be successful in multiple linguistic environments.

  7. Intelligibility in Context Scale: Normative and Validation Data for English-Speaking Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne; Crowe, Kathryn; Shahaeian, Ameneh

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe normative and validation data on the Intelligibility in Context Scale (ICS; McLeod, Harrison, & McCormack, 2012c) for English-speaking children. The ICS is a 7-item, parent-report measure of children's speech intelligibility with a range of communicative partners. Data were collected from the parents of 803 Australian English-speaking children ranging in age from 4;0 (years;months) to 5;5 (37.0% were multilingual). The mean ICS score was 4.4 (SD = 0.7) out of a possible total score of 5. Children's speech was reported to be most intelligible to their parents, followed by their immediate family, friends, and teachers; children's speech was least intelligible to strangers. The ICS had high internal consistency (α = .94). Significant differences in scores were identified on the basis of sex and age but not on the basis of socioeconomic status or the number of languages spoken. There were significant differences in scores between children whose parents had concerns about their child's speech (M = 3.9) and those who did not (M = 4.6). A sensitivity of .82 and a specificity of .58 were established as the optimal cutoff. Test-retest reliability and criterion validity were established for 184 children with a speech sound disorder. There was a significant low correlation between the ICS mean score and percentage of phonemes correct (r = .30), percentage of consonants correct (r = .24), and percentage of vowels correct (r = .30) on the Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology (Dodd, Hua, Crosbie, Holm, & Ozanne, 2002). Thirty-one parents completed the ICS related to English and another language spoken by their child with a speech sound disorder. The significant correlations between the scores suggest that the ICS may be robust between languages. This article provides normative ICS data for English-speaking children and additional validation of the psychometric properties of the ICS. The robustness of the ICS was suggested

  8. Evaluation and comparison of epidural analgesia in labour related information on French and English-speaking websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitalier, Fabien; De Lamer, Sabine; Barbaz, Mathilde; Laffon, Marc; Remérand, Francis

    2018-01-31

    The medical information on the Internet is better in English than in other languages. The information about Epidural Analgesia In Labour (EAIL) available on French-speaking websites is of poor quality. The quality of the information about EAIL should be better in English, but there is no comparison available. This study has assessed and compared the quality of the information about EAIL available on French and English-speaking websites. Keywords "epidural", "épidurale" and/or "péridurale" were used in the French, Canadian and American Google ® and Yahoo ® search engines. Two independent assessors assessed the 20 first websites for each engine search. They used an evaluation form created from French, Canadian and American recommendations. This form assessed the structure quality (Structure Score/25) and the medical information quality (Medical Information Score/30) of the websites. The addition of both scores gives the Global Score (/55). Seventy-one websites were assessed, 39 French-speaking and 32 English-speaking websites. Structure, Medical Information and Global Scores (expressed as mean (SD)) were respectively 11 (4), 13 (5), 24 (8) for the French-speaking websites and 11 (4), 12 (4), 23 (7) for the English-speaking websites. There was no statistical significant difference between both languages. Information about EAIL available on French and English-speaking websites is of poor quality and there is no difference in the information quality, whatever the language. A consideration on Internet medical information improvement is needed. A high quality dedicated website should be created and broadcasted. Copyright © 2018 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. “When I speak English, I feel international”. Exchange students’ construction of social identity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cancino, Rita

    “When I speak English, I feel international”. Exchange students’ construction of social identity in Denmark. Students from various countries participate in the English courses for Ph.D. and Master students at Aalborg University, Denmark. Here they try to achieve a fluency in English that permits...... them to participate in classes and to pass their exams in English, write their thesis in English, etc. The students have different nationalities and identities. While learning English, they try to adapt to Denmark and the Danish culture and language. English plays the role as the lingua franca per se...... in the globalized world and in Denmark aswell. Studies show that language influence a person’s social identity. In this paper I will present the case of a group of foreign students and the construction of identity while participating in English courses. Particularly interesting is the ‘international identity...

  10. POLITENESS ON WHATSAPP: THE RESPONSES TO GREETINGS AND CONGRATULATIONS BY ENGLISH SPEAKING GROUPS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Purnomo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last three years, WhatsApp (WA has become one of the most popular means of instant communication between individuals and the most preferred medium for contact among people who belong to a specific group. This tool provides the opportunity to send and receive text, audio and visual messages. Guidelines for writing WA messages are not available, and people may often be unsure which politeness and languages are appropriate. This research is intended to investigate the politeness markers used by English speaking groups in Indonesia to respond greetings and congratulations. This study is of a qualitative and descriptive nature. The data were the responses on behalf of 50 group members of English Student Club, 200 ones of English Teachers and 50 ones of English Lecturers, as evidenced in the politeness markers they respond to greetings and congratulations posted on the WA. Furthermore, the data were analyzed by using the parameter of politeness markers (Spencer-Oatey, 2008. The research findings show that the group members used various politeness markers on one occasion, but violate them on another occasion. The politeness markers they used from the most to the least frequency are politeness markers to greet, to agree, to give compliments, to express gratitude, to give notice, to apologize, to request, to give alternative suggestions, to command and to refuse. The value of this study contributes towards understanding politeness in online environments, such as WA, which is used for smooth communication through the establishment and maintenance of interpersonal relationships.

  11. Health Care Disparities Among English-Speaking and Spanish-Speaking Women With Pelvic Organ Prolapse at Public and Private Hospitals: What Are the Barriers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alas, Alexandriah N; Dunivan, Gena C; Wieslander, Cecelia K; Sevilla, Claudia; Barrera, Biatris; Rashid, Rezoana; Maliski, Sally; Eilber, Karen; Rogers, Rebecca G; Anger, Jennifer Tash

    The objective of this study was to compare perceptions and barriers between Spanish-speaking and English-speaking women in public and private hospitals being treated for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Eight focus groups, 4 in English and 4 in Spanish, were conducted at 3 institutions with care in female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery. Standardized questions were asked regarding patients' emotions to when they initially noticed the POP, if they sought family support, and their response to the diagnosis and treatment. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory qualitative methods. Thirty-three women were Spanish-speaking and 25 were English-speaking. Spanish speakers were younger (P = 0.0469) and less likely to have a high school diploma (P speaking women had more concerns that the bulge or treatments could lead to cancer, were more resistant to treatment options, and were less likely to be offered surgery. Women in the private hospital desired more information, were less embarrassed, and were more likely to be offered surgery as first-line treatment. The concept emerged that patient care for POP varied based on socioeconomic status and language and suggested the presence of disparities in care for underserved women with POP. The discrepancies in care for Spanish-speaking women and women being treated at public hospitals suggest that there are disparities in care for POP treatment for underserved women. These differences may be secondary to profit-driven pressures from private hospitals or language barriers, low socioeconomic status, low health literacy, and barriers to health care.

  12. Effects of primary and secondary morphological family size in monolingual and bilingual word processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, K.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.; Schreuder, R.; Baayen, Harald

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated primary and secondary morphological family size effects in monolingual and bilingual processing, combining experimentation with computational modeling. Family size effects were investigated in an English lexical decision task for Dutch-English bilinguals and English

  13. The Model of the Development of Instructional Material for Enhancing Students' English Speaking Skills at Elementary Schools in Bandar Lampung

    OpenAIRE

    Sutiyono, Akhmad

    2014-01-01

    The main problem of the research is what instructional material that should be developed to enhance students' speaking skills. The main objective of this research is to develop English instructional material for enhancing students' speaking skills at elementary schools. In conducting the research, the writer used Research and Development method. The data of the research were collected through observation, questionnaire, interview, test, and documentation. The validation of the model was carri...

  14. Shared antenatal care fails to rate well with women of non-English-speaking backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, R; Lumley, J; Yelland, J; Rice, P L

    1998-01-05

    To compare the views of women from non-English-speaking backgrounds who received antenatal care at a public hospital clinic with those whose care was shared between a public hospital clinic and a general practitioner. Structured interviews in the language of the woman's choice. Women were recruited from the postnatal wards of three maternity teaching hospitals in Melbourne between July 1994 and November 1995, and interviewed six to nine months later. Women born in Vietnam, Turkey and the Philippines who gave birth to a live healthy baby (over 1500 g) were eligible. Of 435 women recruited, 318 (Vietnamese [32.7%], Filipino [33.6%] and Turkish [33.6%]) completed the study. Women's ratings of their antenatal care overall and views on specific aspects of their antenatal care. Women in shared care (n = 151) were not more likely than women in public clinic care (n = 143) to rate their care as "very good" (odds ratio [OR], 1.38; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.72-2.63). Satisfaction with particular aspects of care (waiting times, opportunity to ask questions, whether caregivers were rushed, whether concerns were taken seriously) did not differ significantly between those in shared care and those in public clinic care. Women in shared care were not happier with their medical care than women in public clinic care (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.35-1.96), but were more likely to see a caregiver who spoke their language (OR, 17.69; 95% CI, 6.15-69.06), although two-thirds still saw a GP who spoke only English. Shared antenatal care is not more satisfying than public clinic care for women from non-English-speaking backgrounds. Further evaluation of shared care is clearly needed.

  15. Advanced Cantonese ESL Learners' Use of a Monolingual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    monolingual dictionaries by Hong Kong advanced Cantonese ESL learners in the production of .... (COBUILD6), and one using Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English 5th ...... A Contrastive Study of Pocket Electronic Diction- aries and ...

  16. Exploration of Open Educational Resources in Non-English Speaking Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobal Cobo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, open educational resources (OER initiatives have created new possibilities for knowledge-sharing practices. This research examines how, where, and when OER are attracting attention in the higher education sector and explores to what extent the OER discussion has moved beyond the English-speaking world. This study analysed English, Spanish, and Portuguese OER queries over a long-term period (2007-2011. The data retrieval was conducted using four online platforms: two academic journal databases (Web of Knowledge and Scopus, one video-sharing Web site (YouTube, and one document-sharing Web site (Scribd. The number (more than 32,860 of search results collected indicate an increasing interest in online OER discussion across languages, particularly outside academic journal databases. Additionally, a widening ‘language gap’ between OER discussions in English and other languages was identified in several platforms. This research reports some of the cultural and language challenges caused by the expansion of the OER discussion and highlights relevant findings in this field.

  17. SOLVING THE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING PROBLEM IN DELIVERING ENGLISH PRESENTATION THROUGH 3-P TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadif Ulfia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Solving the Students’ Speaking Problem in Delivering English Presentation Through 3-P Technique. The aims of this study were to (1 identify whether and to what extent 3-P Technique can improve the students’ speaking competence in delivering presentation;(2 describe the teaching and learning when 3-P technique is implemented in English class. This research was conducted at the eleventh grades of MAN 1 Bojonegoro. The subjects of the research were the teacher and the students in the academic year 2016/2017. This study applied 3 cycle action research. In collecting the data, the researcher used observations through field notes, video recording, questionnaire and interview. To analyze the quantitative data, the researcher applied descriptive statistics. Besides, to analyze qualitative data, the researcher applied constant comparative method as suggested by Garner. The findings shows that: (1 3-P Technique can improve students’ speaking competence in delivering presentation in terms of students achievement, fluency, pronunciation, ability to express their opinions, arguments, and ideas using appropriate vocabulary and grammatical form, using appropriate body language, voice control, gesture, and eye contact; and (2 3-P technique can improve classroom situation in terms of increasing students’ motivation and participation, creating live teaching atmosphere, and increasing teacher motivation. Key words: Speaking, 3 P technique, Action research Abstrak: Memecahkan Masalah Keterampilan Berbicara Siswa dalam Menyampaikan Presentasi Berbahasa Inggris Melalui Teknik 3-P. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk (1 mengidentifikasi dan mengetahui sejauh mana teknik 3-P dapat meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara para siswa dalam menyampaikan sebuah presentasi; (2 mendeskripsikan kegiatan pembelajaran dalam penerapan teknik 3-P dalam pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada kelas sebelas MAN 1 Bojonegoro. Subyek  penelitian ini

  18. Language-Specific Effects on Story and Procedural Narrative tasks between Korean-speaking and English-speaking Individuals with Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee Eun Sung

    2015-04-01

    Results suggested that Korean-speaking individuals with aphasia produced more numbers of different verbs, number of verbs per utterance and higher VNRs than English speakers. Both groups generated more words in story. The significant two-way interactions between the language group and task type suggested that there are task-specific effects on linguistic measures across the groups. The study implied that the linguistic characteristics differentially affected language symptoms of aphasia across the different languages and task types.

  19. Internet-based developmental screening: a digital divide between English- and Spanish-speaking parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambidge, Simon J; Phibbs, Stephanie; Beck, Arne; Bergman, David Aaron

    2011-10-01

    Internet-based developmental screening is being implemented in pediatric practices across the United States. Little is known about the application of this technology in poor urban populations. We describe here the results of focus groups, surveys, and in-depth interviews during home visits with families served by an urban safety-net organization to address the question of whether it is possible to use Internet or e-mail communication for medical previsit engagement in a population that is majority Hispanic, of low socioeconomic status, and has many non-English-speaking families. This study included families in 4 clinics within a safety-net health care system. The study design included the use of (1) parental surveys (n = 200) of a convenience sample of parents whose children received primary care in the clinics, (2) focus groups (n = 7 groups) with parents, and (3) in-depth interviews during home visits with 4 families. We used χ(2) and multivariate analyses to compare Internet access in English- and Spanish-speaking families. Standard qualitative methods were used to code focus-group texts and identify convergent themes. In multivariate analysis, independent factors associated with computer use were English versus Spanish language (odds ratio: 3.2 [95% confidence interval: 1.4-6.9]) and education through at least high school (odds ratio: 4.7 [95% confidence interval: 2.3-9.7]). In focus groups, the concept of parental previsit work, such as developmental screening tests, was viewed favorably by all groups. However, many parents expressed reservations about doing this work by using the Internet or e-mail and stated a preference for either paper or telephone options. Many Spanish-speaking families discussed lack of access to computers and printers. In this economically disadvantaged population, language and maternal education were associated with access to the Internet. Given the potential power of previsit work to tailor well-child visits to the needs of

  20. Noninitiation and Noncompletion of HPV Vaccine Among English- and Spanish-Speaking Parents of Adolescent Girls: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Karen; Barnard, Juliana; O'Leary, Sean T; Lockhart, Steven; Jimenez-Zambrano, Andrea; Stokley, Shannon; Dempsey, Amanda; Kempe, Allison

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends routine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for female adolescents aged 11 to 12 years, yet vaccination rates remain low. We conducted a qualitative study to understand English- and Spanish-speaking parents' reasons for noninitiation or noncompletion of the HPV vaccine series for their daughters. Parents of female adolescents aged 12 to 15 years who had not initiated or not completed the HPV vaccine series were identified through administrative data in 2 large urban safety net health care systems in Colorado. Focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted with English-speaking parents and in-depth interviews were conducted with Spanish-speaking parents. All data were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for thematic content by experienced analysts using established qualitative content analysis techniques. Forty-one parents participated in the study. Thirty parents participated in individual interviews and 11 parents participated in 1 of 2 focus groups. The most common reasons for noninitiation and noncompletion among English-speaking parents included a low perceived risk of HPV infection, vaccine safety concerns, and distrust of government and/or medicine. In contrast, Spanish-speaking parents most often reported that providers had either not encouraged initiation of the HPV vaccine series or had not explained the necessity of completing the series. Some noninitiating parents, particularly Spanish-speaking ones, also cited concerns that vaccination would encourage sexual activity. The reasons for noninitiation and noncompletion of the HPV vaccine series differed substantially between English- and Spanish-speaking parents. To maximize uptake of HPV vaccine, varying approaches might be needed to effectively target specific populations. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.

  1. "If I speak English, what am I? I am full man, me": Emotional impact and barriers for refugees and asylum seekers learning English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Tania; de C Williams, Amanda C

    2017-01-01

    Lack of proficiency in the language of the host country predicts distress among refugees, but many refugees and asylum seekers in the United Kingdom have less than functional English. This study examined how learning English affected refugees' and asylum seekers' lives, particularly their emotional wellbeing, to explore what factors, particularly psychological ones, facilitated or impeded their learning English. We recruited 16 refugees and asylum seekers from an inner-city National Health Service trauma service and from a charity providing one-to-one English classes. All participants were interviewed in English. Interview data were analysed using thematic analysis from a critical realist perspective. Interviewees provided consistent accounts of their efforts to learn English, integrated into often unsettled and difficult lives. The analysis generated six themes in two domains. The impact of learning English was mainly positive, associated with autonomy, sense of achievement, and aspirations. Barriers to learning English consisted of other problems affecting refugees' capacity to learn, limited opportunities to speak English, and a sense of shame associated with perceived lack of English language competence. Findings highlight the need to provide adequate psychological support for refugees and asylum seekers learning English, recognising its importance in promoting both their integration in the UK and their individual psychological well-being.

  2. How Do Chinese ESL Learners Recognize English Words during a Reading Test? A Comparison with Romance-Language-Speaking ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongli; Suen, Hoi K.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how Chinese ESL learners recognize English words while responding to a multiple-choice reading test as compared to Romance-language-speaking ESL learners. Four adult Chinese ESL learners and three adult Romance-language-speaking ESL learners participated in a think-aloud study with the Michigan English Language Assessment…

  3. Intervention for bilingual speech sound disorders: A case study of an isiXhosa-English-speaking child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossouw, Kate; Pascoe, Michelle

    2018-03-19

     Bilingualism is common in South Africa, with many children acquiring isiXhosa as a home language and learning English from a young age in nursery or crèche. IsiXhosa is a local language, part of the Bantu language family, widely spoken in the country. Aims: To describe changes in a bilingual child's speech following intervention based on a theoretically motivated and tailored intervention plan. Methods and procedures: This study describes a female isiXhosa-English bilingual child, named Gcobisa (pseudonym) (chronological age 4 years and 2 months) with a speech sound disorder. Gcobisa's speech was assessed and her difficulties categorised according to Dodd's (2005) diagnostic framework. From this, intervention was planned and the language of intervention was selected. Following intervention, Gcobisa's speech was reassessed. Outcomes and results: Gcobisa's speech was categorised as a consistent phonological delay as she presented with gliding of/l/in both English and isiXhosa, cluster reduction in English and several other age appropriate phonological processes. She was provided with 16 sessions of intervention using a minimal pairs approach, targeting the phonological process of gliding of/l/, which was not considered age appropriate for Gcobisa in isiXhosa when compared to the small set of normative data regarding monolingual isiXhosa development. As a result, the targets and stimuli were in isiXhosa while the main language of instruction was English. This reflects the language mismatch often faced by speech language therapists in South Africa. Gcobisa showed evidence of generalising the target phoneme to English words. Conclusions and implications: The data have theoretical implications regarding bilingual development of isiXhosa-English, as it highlights the ways bilingual development may differ from the monolingual development of this language pair. It adds to the small set of intervention studies investigating the changes in the speech of bilingual

  4. Intervention for bilingual speech sound disorders: A case study of an isiXhosa–English-speaking child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Rossouw

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bilingualism is common in South Africa, with many children acquiring isiXhosa as a home language and learning English from a young age in nursery or crèche. IsiXhosa is a local language, part of the Bantu language family, widely spoken in the country.   Aims: To describe changes in a bilingual child’s speech following intervention based on a theoretically motivated and tailored intervention plan.   Methods and procedures: This study describes a female isiXhosa–English bilingual child, named Gcobisa (pseudonym (chronological age 4 years and 2 months with a speech sound disorder. Gcobisa’s speech was assessed and her difficulties categorised according to Dodd’s (2005 diagnostic framework. From this, intervention was planned and the language of intervention was selected. Following intervention, Gcobisa’s speech was reassessed.   Outcomes and results: Gcobisa’s speech was categorised as a consistent phonological delay as she presented with gliding of/l/in both English and isiXhosa, cluster reduction in English and several other age appropriate phonological processes. She was provided with 16 sessions of intervention using a minimal pairs approach, targeting the phonological process of gliding of/l/, which was not considered age appropriate for Gcobisa in isiXhosa when compared to the small set of normative data regarding monolingual isiXhosa development. As a result, the targets and stimuli were in isiXhosa while the main language of instruction was English. This reflects the language mismatch often faced by speech language therapists in South Africa. Gcobisa showed evidence of generalising the target phoneme to English words.   Conclusions and implications: The data have theoretical implications regarding bilingual development of isiXhosa–English, as it highlights the ways bilingual development may differ from the monolingual development of this language pair. It adds to the small set of intervention studies

  5. STUDENTS POSITIVE RESPONSE THROUGH THINK PAIR SHARE STRATEGY ON ENGLISH SPEAKING SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iin Baroroh Ma’arif

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Harmonious communication has an important role in teaching and learning process, especially in encouraging the success of teaching and learning process in the classroom. This research was conducted to know the student's response to the implementation of Think Pair Share strategy in Speaking course. This strategy emphasizes how students are more active in communicating using English in the classroom. The purpose of this research is 1 how the implementation of Think Pair Share strategy in class; 2 how students respond to the Think Pair Share strategy in the classroom; The design of this study is descriptive-qualitative to answer these questions. In this study, researchers themselves are the main instrument. In collecting data, researchers used observation sheets, and field notes.

  6. An Exploration of the Scientific Writing Experience of Nonnative English-Speaking Doctoral Supervisors and Students Using a Phenomenographic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Dean

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonnative English-speaking scholars and trainees are increasingly submitting their work to English journals. The study’s aim was to describe their experiences regarding scientific writing in English using a qualitative phenomenographic approach. Two focus groups (5 doctoral supervisors and 13 students were conducted. Participants were nonnative English-speakers in a Swedish health sciences faculty. Group discussion focused on scientific writing in English, specifically, rewards, challenges, facilitators, and barriers. Participants were asked about their needs for related educational supports. Inductive phenomenographic analysis included extraction of referential (phenomenon as a whole and structural (phenomenon parts aspects of the transcription data. Doctoral supervisors and students viewed English scientific writing as challenging but worthwhile. Both groups viewed mastering English scientific writing as necessary but each struggles with the process differently. Supervisors viewed it as a long-term professional responsibility (generating knowledge, networking, and promotion eligibility. Alternatively, doctoral students viewed its importance in the short term (learning publication skills. Both groups acknowledged they would benefit from personalized feedback on writing style/format, but in distinct ways. Nonnative English-speaking doctoral supervisors and students in Sweden may benefit from on-going writing educational supports. Editors/reviewers need to increase awareness of the challenges of international contributors and maximize the formative constructiveness of their reviews.

  7. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus among women in two English-speaking Caribbean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andall-Brereton, Glennis; Brown, Eulynis; Slater, Sherian; Holder, Yvette; Luciani, Silvana; Lewis, Merle; Irons, Beryl

    2017-06-08

    To characterize high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in a sample of women in two small English-speaking Caribbean countries: Saint Kitts and Nevis and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Sexually active women ≥ 30 years old attending primary care health facilities participated in the study. Each participant had a gynecological examination, and two cervical specimens were collected: (1) a specimen for a Papanicolaou (Pap) test and (2) a sample of exfoliated cervical cells for HPV DNA testing, using the HPV High Risk Screen Real-TM (Sacace). High-risk HPV genotypes were assessed in 404 women in Saint Kitts and Nevis and 368 women in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. High-risk HPV was detected in 102 of 404 (25.2%) in Saint Kitts and Nevis and in 109 of 368 (29.6%) in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. High-risk HPV genotypes 52, 35, 51, 45, and 31 were the most common high-risk types in Saint Kitts and Nevis. In Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the most common high-risk HPV genotypes were 45, 35, 31, 18, and 51. Current age was found to be significantly associated with high-risk HPV infection in both countries. In addition, in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, high parity (> 3 pregnancies) and having had an abnormal Pap smear were found to be independent risk factors for high-risk HPV. These results contribute to the evidence on HPV prevalence for small island states of the Caribbean and support the accelerated introduction of the 9-valent HPV vaccine in the two countries and elsewhere in the English-speaking Caribbean. Use of the study's results to guide the development of policy regarding implementation of HPV testing as the primary screening modality for older women is recommended.

  8. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus among women in two English-speaking Caribbean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glennis Andall-Brereton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To characterize high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV infections in a sample of women in two small English-speaking Caribbean countries: Saint Kitts and Nevis and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Methods Sexually active women ≥ 30 years old attending primary care health facilities participated in the study. Each participant had a gynecological examination, and two cervical specimens were collected: (1 a specimen for a Papanicolaou (Pap test and (2 a sample of exfoliated cervical cells for HPV DNA testing, using the HPV High Risk Screen Real-TM (Sacace. High-risk HPV genotypes were assessed in 404 women in Saint Kitts and Nevis and 368 women in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Results High-risk HPV was detected in 102 of 404 (25.2% in Saint Kitts and Nevis and in 109 of 368 (29.6% in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. High-risk HPV genotypes 52, 35, 51, 45, and 31 were the most common high-risk types in Saint Kitts and Nevis. In Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the most common high-risk HPV genotypes were 45, 35, 31, 18, and 51. Current age was found to be significantly associated with high-risk HPV infection in both countries. In addition, in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, high parity (> 3 pregnancies and having had an abnormal Pap smear were found to be independent risk factors for high-risk HPV. Conclusions These results contribute to the evidence on HPV prevalence for small island states of the Caribbean and support the accelerated introduction of the 9-valent HPV vaccine in the two countries and elsewhere in the English-speaking Caribbean. Use of the study’s results to guide the development of policy regarding implementation of HPV testing as the primary screening modality for older women is recommended.

  9. Reading and reading instruction for children from low-income and non-English-speaking households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaux, Nonie K

    2012-01-01

    Although most young children seem to master reading skills in the early grades of elementary school, many struggle with texts as they move through middle school and high school. Why do children who seem to be proficient readers in third grade have trouble comprehending texts in later grades? To answer this question, Nonie Lesaux describes what is known about reading development and instruction, homing in on research conducted with children from low-income and non-English-speaking homes. Using key insights from this research base, she offers two explanations. The first is that reading is a dynamic and multifaceted process that requires continued development if students are to keep pace with the increasing demands of school texts and tasks. The second lies in the role of reading assessment and instruction in U.S. schools. Lesaux draws a distinction between the "skills-based competencies" that readers need to sound out and recognize words and the "knowledge-based competencies" that include the conceptual and vocabulary knowledge necessary to comprehend a text's meaning. Although U.S. schools have made considerable progress in teaching skills-based reading competencies that are the focus of the early grades, most have made much less progress in teaching the knowledge-based competencies students need to support reading comprehension in middle and high school. These knowledge-based competencies are key sources of lasting individual differences in reading outcomes, particularly among children growing up in low-income and non-English-speaking households. Augmenting literacy rates, Lesaux explains, will require considerable shifts in the way reading is assessed and taught in elementary and secondary schools. First, schools must conduct comprehensive reading assessments that discern learners' (potential) sources of reading difficulties--in both skills-based and knowledge-based competencies. Second, educators must implement instructional approaches that offer promise for

  10. The Use of Retelling Stories Technique in Developing English Speaking Ability of Grade 9 Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasitorn Praneetponkrang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to advocate retelling stories technique for developing speaking ability of grade 9 students in Thailand. Morrow’s theory (1981 and other scholars in retelling stories technique are presented. This technique is integrated in the lesson plans following Morrow’s framework. Narrative text of short stories which refer to daily life and social including pictures have been used for each lesson plan.  Students are trained to work as a group using story’s mind map, illustrations, and role-playing activities in class. There are three main steps of teaching retelling stories: before retelling (alternative techniques, while retelling (students’ practice by using activities of brainstorming, role play, and discussion and retelling story. The lesson plans will be piloted with 15 9th graders. This preliminary study is expected to provide an example of useful techniques in improving speaking ability, thus, it is expected to be used in other foundation English courses for Thai students.

  11. Enhancing Students` Speaking Skill through Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT at English Tadris Department of STAIN Kerinci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Mudra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a classroom action research which conducted in an EFL classroom. The problem of this study is that teaching and learning process tends to be monotonous due to the single method used by English teachers. The learners` speaking course is familiarized with English structures. It requires a communicative and constructive method such as TBLT. The purpose of this study is to describe the effectiveness of TBLT in enhancing students` speaking skill. 30 EFL learners at the seventh semester at STAIN Kerinci took a part in this study. The instruments used to collect the data were speaking test, observation, and field-note. The results of the study showed that there were 2 cycles needed to implement the method. The process of teaching and learning in the first cycle indicates that TBLT improved learners` speaking skill, though some problems were needed to be solved. Unlike the cycle I, the process in the cycle II was improved in term of learners` speaking score and their motivation to attend the course if compared with those in cycle I. So, it is concluded that TBLT is an appropriate method to improve learners` speaking skill.

  12. Using Smartphone-Integrated Model of Teaching to Overcome Students’ Speaking Anxiety in Learning English as a Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmila Machmud

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to investigate the effect of a model of teaching that integrating the use of Smartphone towards the learning achievement of both high and low anxiety students. We found it hard to ask students to speak English during the teaching and learning process. This is caused by their anxiety and also the limitation of time allotment provided to teach speaking skill in schools. The use of Smartphone in teaching speaking is suggested to minimize students’ anxiety from a peer pressure, as well as to overcome the limitation of the time allotment in teaching speaking. Using quasi experimental method, the data of this research was collected from 63 middle school students using questionnaire of foreign language anxiety classroom scale. This questionnaire is used to classify the students into the group of high anxiety and low anxiety students. Oral test for speaking ability is used to measure the students’ learning achievement. Factorial design 2 x2 using ANOVA is utilized to analyze the data of this research. The result has shown that both high and low anxiety groups of students achieve higher score when they are taught by using Smartphone compare to their score when they are taught by using conventional model of teaching. This means that the use of Smartphone integrated model of teaching can overcome the students’ anxiety in speaking English.

  13. Age as an Affective Factor in Influencing Public Speaking Anxiety of English Language Learners at Omar Al-Mukhtar University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaibani, Ahmed; Elmenfi, Fadil

    2016-01-01

    The study is to show how age factor can influence public speaking anxiety among English Language Learners at Omar Al-Mukhtar University. To indicate the influence of age factor a questionnaire was distributed to the participants of the study. As well as correlation was also undertaken to the data collected to investigate the influence of age…

  14. Cross-Cultural Adjustment of Native-Speaking English Teachers (NETs) in Hong Kong: A Factor in Attrition and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chau Kan; Morrison, Keith

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that, despite government support in financial and contractual matters, ongoing problems of retention of Native-speaking English Teachers (NETs) in Hong Kong stem, in part, from problems of cross-cultural adjustment. The paper reports a small-scale qualitative investigation into the experiences of NETS in Hong Kong and finds…

  15. The Unified Language Testing Plan: Speaking Proficiency Test. Spanish and English Pilot Validation Studies. Report Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Julie A.

    This report describes one segment of the Federal Language Testing Board's Unified Language Testing Plan (ULTP), the validation of speaking proficiency tests in Spanish and English. The ULTP is a project to increase standardization of foreign language proficiency measurement and promote sharing of resources among testing programs in the federal…

  16. Self-Regulation Abilities and Spanish-Speaking Preschoolers' Vocabulary and Letter-Word Skills in Spanish and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Francisco; Mikulski, Ariana M.; Conejo, L. Diego

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the heterogeneity in Spanish-speaking children's (N = 117; M age = 53 months; SD = 5 months; 57% boys) vocabulary and letter-word skills in English and Spanish after one year of preschool and the extent to which early self-regulation abilities (i.e., executive function and effortful control) were associated…

  17. A Study of Effect of Dramatic Activities on Improving English Communicative Speaking Skill of Grade 11th Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamsaard, Prisana; Kerdpol, Sakon

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed to reexamine the current EFL communicative speaking skill in high school level in Thailand due to the coming of the entry to ASEAN at the end of the year 2015. Thai students need to be well prepared for workforce in the future since English is used as the working language in ASEAN. The purposes of this paper were to study the…

  18. A Program to Provide Vocational Training to Limited English Speaking Adults in a Correctional Setting. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lane

    The Windham School System implemented a pilot project designed to provide bilingual vocational training to limited English-speaking adults in a correctional setting. Inmate students enrolled in Windham bilingual academic classes on the Eastham Unit of the Texas Department of Corrections were interviewed, and procedures for student screening and…

  19. German Migrant Teachers in Australia: Insights into the Largest Cohort of Non-English Speaking Background Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bense, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    The research reported in this paper investigates the situation of German migrant teachers in Australia. Although German born teachers represent the largest group of non-English speaking background teachers in Australia, there is no study of the circumstances and experiences of these teachers in Australia. This study aims to fill this gap. It…

  20. Results of the 2007 Paternity Testing Workshop of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallenberg, C.; Langkjær, Rikke B.; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of the 2007 Paternity Testing Workshop of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics. The exercise included paternity testing of blood samples from a mother, a child and an alleged father. The laboratories were encouraged to answer...

  1. Results of the 2009 Paternity Testing Workshop of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Susanne Lunøe; Hallenberg, Charlotte; Simonsen, Bo Thisted

    2009-01-01

    Here we present the results of the 2009 Paternity Testing Workshop of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics. The exercise included paternity testing of blood samples from a mother, a child and two alleged fathers. The laboratories were encouraged...

  2. Improving advance care planning for English-speaking and Spanish-speaking older adults: study protocol for the PREPARE randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudore, Rebecca L; Barnes, Deborah E; Le, Gem M; Ramos, Roberto; Osua, Stacy J; Richardson, Sarah A; Boscardin, John; Schillinger, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Advance care planning (ACP) is a process that allows patients to identify their goals for medical care. Traditionally, ACP has focused on completing advance directives; however, we have expanded the ACP paradigm to also prepare patients to communicate their wishes and make informed decisions. To this end, we created an ACP website called PREPARE (http://www.prepareforyourcare.org) to prepare diverse English-speaking and Spanish-speaking older adults for medical decision-making. Here, we describe the study protocol for a randomised controlled efficacy trial of PREPARE in a safety-net setting. The goal is to determine the efficacy of PREPARE to engage diverse English-speaking and Spanish-speaking older adults in a full spectrum of ACP behaviours. Methods and analysis We include English-speaking and Spanish-speaking adults from an urban public hospital who are ≥55 years old, have ≥2 chronic medical conditions and have seen a primary care physician ≥2 times in the last year. Participants are randomised to the PREPARE intervention (review PREPARE and an easy-to-read advance directive) or the control arm (only the easy-to-read advance directive). The primary outcome is documentation of an advance directive and/or ACP discussion. Secondary outcomes include ACP behaviour change processes measured with validated surveys (eg, self-efficacy, readiness) and a broad range of ACP actions (eg, choosing a surrogate, identifying goals for care, discussing ACP with clinicians and/or surrogates). Using blinded outcome ascertainment, outcomes will be measured at 1 week and at 3, 6 and 12 months, and compared between study arms using mixed-effects logistic regression and mixed-effects linear, Poisson or negative binomial regression. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the appropriate Institutional Review Boards and is guided by input from patient and clinical advisory boards and a data safety monitoring board. The results of this study will

  3. A Comparison of English and Mandarin-Speaking Preschool Children’s Imitation of Motion Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhidan Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Typically in English, a “satellite-framed” language, manner is expressed in the verb and path is expressed in supporting words. Past studies using looking time techniques suggest that English-speaking 3-year-olds show language-specific action processing, but 2.5-year-olds preferentially attend to path regardless of native language. In Study 1, we test whether language-specific action component preferences will be reflected in children’s imitation, as a more explicit measure. Children who spoke English saw an adult move an object along a series of platforms using one of two paths and manners. Then, the children were given the opportunity to move the object on a different test platform, which was designed to force them to choose to reproduce either the demonstrated path or the manner. The results showed that 3-year-olds, but not 2.5-year-olds, were more likely to imitate the manner versus the path. In Study 2, we extend the investigation to a less commonly studied language within this domain, Mandarin. Typically in Mandarin, an “equipollently framed” language, both manner and path are expressed within equally significant verbs. The results indicated that 3-year-olds did not show a consistent preference to imitate either the path or the manner. In contrast, 2.5-year-olds were more likely to imitate the path than the manner. This research highlights the potential for the imitation choice paradigm, as an explicit measure, to understand how language affects cognition, and suggests a new language-specific pattern in action interpretation.

  4. Monolingual accounting dictionaries for EFL text production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2006-01-01

    Monolingual accounting dictionaries are important for producing financial reporting texts in English in an international setting, because of the lack of specialised bilingual dictionaries. As the intended user groups have different factual and linguistic competences, they require specific types...... text production. The monolingual accounting dictionary needs to include information about UK, US and international accounting terms, their grammatical properties, their potential for being combined with other words in collocations, phrases and sentences in order to meet user requirements. Data items...... of information. By identifying and analysing the users' factual and linguistic competences, user needs, use-situations and the stages involved in producing accounting texts in English as a foreign language, lexicographers will have a sound basis for designing the optimal English accounting dictionary for EFL...

  5. Monolingual Accounting Dictionaries for EFL Text Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Monolingual accounting dictionaries are important for producing financial reporting texts in English in an international setting, because of the lack of specialised bilingual dictionaries. As the intended user groups have different factual and linguistic competences, they require specific types...... text production. The monolingual accounting dictionary needs to include information about UK, US and international accounting terms, their grammatical properties, their potential for being combined with other words in collocations, phrases and sentences in order to meet user requirements. Data items...... of information. By identifying and analysing the users' factual and linguistic competences, user needs, use-situations and the stages involved in producing accounting texts in English as a foreign language, lexicographers will have a sound basis for designing the optimal English accounting dictionary for EFL...

  6. Quantifying risk: verbal probability expressions in Spanish and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Lawrence D; Vázquez, Miguel E Cortés; Alvarez, Adolfo

    2009-01-01

    To investigate how Spanish- and English-speaking adults interpret verbal probability expressions presented in Spanish and English (eg, posiblemente and possibly, respectively). Professional translators and university students from México and the United States read a series of likelihood statements in Spanish or English and then estimated the certainty implied by each statement. Several terms that are regarded as cognates in English and Spanish elicited significantly different likelihood ratings. Several language equivalencies were also identified. These findings provide the first reported evaluation of Spanish likelihood terms for use in risk communications directed towards monolingual and bilingual Spanish speakers.

  7. Development of Teleological Explanations in Peruvian Quechua-Speaking and U.S. English-Speaking Preschoolers and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Tapia, Ingrid; Gelman, Susan A.; Hollander, Michelle A.; Manczak, Erika M.; Mannheim, Bruce; Escalante, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Teleological reasoning involves the assumption that entities exist for a purpose (giraffes have long necks for reaching leaves). This study examines how teleological reasoning relates to cultural context, by studying teleological reasoning in 61 Quechua-speaking Peruvian preschoolers (M[subscript age] = 5.3 years) and adults in an indigenous…

  8. Survey of US Veterinary Students on Communicating with Limited English Proficient Spanish-Speaking Pet Owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Ruth E; Beck, Alan; Glickman, Larry T; Litster, Annette; Widmar, Nicole J Olynk; Moore, George E

    2015-01-01

    Veterinary schools and colleges generally include communication skills training in their professional curriculum, but few programs address challenges resulting from language gaps between pet owners and practitioners. Due to shifting US demographics, small animal veterinary practices must accommodate an increasing number of limited English proficient (LEP) Spanish-speaking pet owners (SSPOs). A national survey was conducted to assess the interest and preparedness of US veterinary students to communicate with LEP SSPOs when they graduate. This online survey, with more than 2,000 first-, second-, and third-year US veterinary students, revealed that over 50% of students had worked at a practice or shelter that had LEP Spanish-speaking clients. Yet fewer than 20% of these students described themselves as prepared to give medical information to an LEP SSPO. Over three-fourths of respondents agreed that communication with LEP SSPOs was important for veterinarians in general, and two-thirds agreed that communication with LEP SSPOs was important for themselves personally. Ninety percent of students who described themselves as conversant in Spanish agreed that they would be able to communicate socially with SSPOs, while only 55% said they would be able to communicate medically with such clients. Overall, two-thirds of students expressed interest in taking Spanish for Veterinary Professionals elective course while in school, with the strongest interest expressed by those with advanced proficiency in spoken Spanish. Bridging language gaps has the potential to improve communication with LEP SSPOs in the veterinary clinical setting and to improve patient care, client satisfaction, and the economic health of the veterinary profession.

  9. The Heart of the Matter: Methodological Challenges in Developing a Contemporary 257-269 Reading Programme for Monolingual Lexicography, from the Perspective of the Dictionary Unit for South African English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Pienaar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article argues the importance of the reading programme as the pivotal issue inthe lexicographic process. It is essentially a practical article which outlines strategies for developingand implementing a reading programme for monolingual lexicography. The arguments are informedby theory, together with an examination of the data-collection procedures followed by theDictionary Unit for South African English (DSAE and a survey of current practice in major Englishdictionary units around the world, namely the Oxford English Dictionary, the Canadian OxfordDictionary, the Australian National Dictionary Centre and the New Zealand Dictionary Centre.The reading programme for the DSAE is first defined and contextualized within its mission statement.The article then explores the challenges inherent in sampling contemporary written and spokenEnglish in the South African multilingual context. It is intended to inform the DSAE's intakepolicy, in terms of the following critical issues:

    — the definition of South African English,

    — the monitoring and selection of print, oral and electronic sources,

    — the excerpting of citations and relevant bibliographic information, and

    — the recruiting and training of readers.

    These interlinked aspects of the reading programme have crucial implications for the quality andauthority of the monolingual dictionary on historical principles.

    Keywords: READING PROGRAMME, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, HISTORICAL PRINCIPLES, CONTEMPORARY, INTAKE, CITATIONS, STRATEGIES

    Opsomming: Die kern van die saak: Metodologiese uitdagings by die ontwikkelingvan 'n eietydse leesprogram vir eentalige leksikografie, uit dieperspektief van die Dictionary Unit for South African English. Hierdie artikelbepleit die belangrikheid van die leesprogram as die kernsaak in die leksikografiese proses. Dit ishoofsaaklik 'n praktiese artikel wat stategieë vir die ontwikkeling en implementering van 'n

  10. WHAT ENGLISH DO WE SPEAK IN INTERNATIONAL CONTEXTS?: A CONCRETE LANGUAGE WITH ITS PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masina Depperu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available O conceito de ‘expressão concreta’ utilizada por Bachtin e o seu Círculo põe em questão a abordagem linguística que propõe como único modelo a língua padrão para todos os uentes. Que tipo de Inglês é o que falamos, também os falantes de outras língua maternas, para tratar de assuntos específicos -- negócios, política, formação – em contextos internacionais?É evidente que este Inglês já não transmite mais a cultura Britânica, mas aquela dos utentes locais, com acentos e vocabulário diferentes de acordo com o contexto específico e as exigências dos falantes.PALAVRAS-CHAVE: expressão concreta, língua padrão, contextos internacionais.  AbstractThe concept of ‘concrete utterance’ maintained by Bakhtin and its Circle leads to rethink the linguistic approach that proposes a model, or a standard language to all its users. The widely spread phenomenon of English used for specific purposes by speakers of other languages, in the domains of laws, business, politics, education and academics, among the many, poses a debate about what English language we speak in a global context. And consequently, what language is acceptable according to the ‘ norm’.If we consider that in international contexts only few English native-speakers, if any, are involved in the use of English as a vehicular, or a common foreign language, it is immediately evident that a new medium is in use, distant from British culture connotations, and more often locally connoted in terms of different accents, even new lexis adequately chosen by the concrete users in a given, specific, unique context.KEYWORDS: concrete utterance, standard language, global context.

  11. Early Oral Language and Later Reading Development in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: Evidence from a Nine-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Using nationally-representative, longitudinal data on a cohort of Spanish-speaking English language learners in the U.S., this study investigated the extent to which early oral language proficiency in Spanish and English predicts later levels and rates of growth in English reading. Latent growth models indicated that both Spanish and English…

  12. The Effects of Phonological Awareness of Zulu-Speaking Children Learning to Spell in English: A Study of Cross-Language Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Diana Soares; Greenop, Kirston; Fry, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Background: Emergent bilingual Zulu-English speaking children in South Africa have spoken but no written proficiency in Zulu (L1), yet are required to learn to spell English (L2) via English-only literacy instruction. Little research exists on emergent bilingual's phonological awareness (PA) and spelling development, with no L1 formal literacy…

  13. When the Asian Girl Speaks: A Comparative Analysis of Two Young Adult Novels in English Written by Asian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalaine Yanilla Aquino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes two contemporary award winning young adult novels in English: Sing to the Dawn by Minfong Ho, and A Step from Heaven by An Na. Sing to the Dawn, published in Singapore, won first prize in the 1975 Council of Interracial Books for Children in New York; while A Step from Heaven, published in New York, won the 2002 Michael L. Printz Award. By using feminist and critical stylistics, this paper aims to answer the following questions: Do Asians retain their “voice” even when they write in English and live in foreign lands? Given this situation, how do they make their voice heard? How do the two women Asian writers represent the voice of their young female protagonists? Is the voice still distinctly Asian in spite of speaking in English and being written by Asian writers who have long lived in America? When the Asian girl speaks, who listens? Literally and figuratively speaking, has the Asian female finally found her voice?By answering these questions, this paper aims to identify at least some aspects of the Asian “voice” in English and determine the Asian female identity represented in the two young adult novels.

  14. Value of Web-based learning activities for nursing students who speak English as a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Jane; Salamonson, Yenna; Du, Hui Yun; Andrew, Sharon; Frost, Steven A; Dunncliff, Kirstin; Davidson, Patricia M

    2011-07-01

    There is an increasing need to address the educational needs of students with English as a second language. The authors assessed the value of a Web-based activity to meet the needs of students with English as a second language in a bioscience subject. Using telephone contact, we interviewed 21 Chinese students, 24 non-Chinese students with English as a second language, and 7 native English-speaking students to identify the perception of the value of the intervention. Four themes emerged from the qualitative data: (1) Language is a barrier to achievement and affects self-confidence; (2) Enhancement intervention promoted autonomous learning; (3) Focusing on the spoken word increases interaction capacity and self-confidence; (4) Assessment and examination drive receptivity and sense of importance. Targeted strategies to promote language acculturation and acquisition are valued by students. Linking language acquisition skills to assessment tasks is likely to leverage improvements in competence. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. English reading and writing performance of Xitsonga-speaking Grade 7 learners in township schools: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manyike, Tintswalo V.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A clear preference for English as language of teaching and learning (LoLT is evident in most South African schools. However, discrepancies exist between language policy aims and educational outcomes with regard to the successful acquisition of English among English second language (ESL learners. Effective participation in all learning activities is closely linked to learners’ proficiency in the LoLT; poor English proficiency leads to underachievement across the curriculum. In the light of this, a case study as conducted to investigate the English reading and writing performance of Grade 7 Xitsonga-speaking learners in three selected township schools in the Tshwane metropolitan area, Gauteng Province. Firstly, a literature review was undertaken to explore the importance of reading and writing skills in the classroom with particular reference to the demands made on ESL learners. Following this, standardised tests were used to assess the learners’ English reading and writing performance. Findings indicated that learners performed poorly in both reading and writing; however, no significant relationship could be demonstrated between reading and writing, possibly due to the nature of the components of the test. The overall lack of reading and writing competence in English holds implications for learners’ academic achievement in all learning areas in situations in which English is used as the LoLT.

  16. Cultural Adaptation, Parenting and Child Mental Health Among English Speaking Asian American Immigrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther; Cheng, Sabrina; Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2017-08-01

    Contrary to the "model minority" myth, Asian American children, especially those from low-income immigrant families, are at risk for both behavioral and emotional problems early in life. Little is known, however, about the underlying developmental mechanisms placing Asian American children at risk, including the role of cultural adaptation and parenting. This study examined cultural adaptation, parenting practices and culture related parenting values and child mental health in a sample of 157 English speaking Asian American immigrant families of children enrolled in early childhood education programs in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Overall, cultural adaptation and parenting cultural values and behaviors were related to aspects of child mental health in meaningful ways. Parents' cultural value of independence appears to be especially salient (e.g., negatively related to behavior problems and positively related to adaptive behavior) and significantly mediates the link between cultural adaptation and adaptive behavior. Study findings have implications for supporting Asian American immigrant families to promote their young children's mental health.

  17. The Evolution of beliefs and opinions on matters related to marriage and sexual behaviour among French-speaking Catholic Quebecers and English-speaking Protestant Ontarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller, Caia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThe authors argue that the important changes in behaviour related to family andsexual life that were seen in Quebec during the second half of the 20th centuryare a consequence of a major transformation of the foundation of the normativesystem shared by the members of Quebec's main socio-religious group, French speakingCatholics. Using data from Gallup polls, the authors compare theevolution of the opinions of French-speaking Quebec Catholics and English speakingOntario Protestants on matters related to sexual and family behaviourfrom the 1950s to the beginning of the 2000s. The general result is that theevolution of the differences between the two groups is compatible with thehypothesis.FrenchLes auteurs proposent d’expliquer les importants changements qui se sontproduits, dans le Québec de la deuxième moitié du 20e siècle, dans lescomportements liés à la famille et à la vie sexuelle par la transformation dusystème normatif des membres de son principal groupe socio-religieux, lesfrancophones catholiques. À partir des données de sondages Gallup, ilscomparent l'évolution des opinions des francophones catholiques du Québec etdes anglophones protestants de l’Ontario sur des questions liées à la famille etau comportement sexuel et de famille des années 1950 à 2000. L’évolution desdifférences entre les deux groupes est compatible avec l’hypothèse.

  18. Teaching a Growing a Population of Non-Native English-Speaking Students in American Universities: Cultural and Linguistic Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina Fava

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of non-native English speaking students in American universities, mostly from Asian countries, presents unprecedented challenges and calls for an in-depth study on how we teach western art music history. This essay challenges some aspects of liberal multiculturalism and proposes the creation of channels of communication that allow non-native English speaking students to understand the premises of a Eurocentric system of knowledge without undermining their own cultural ba...

  19. Teaching a Growing a Population of Non-Native English-Speaking Students in American Universities: Cultural and Linguistic Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Fava

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of non-native English speaking students in American universities, mostly from Asian countries, presents unprecedented challenges and calls for an in-depth study on how we teach western art music history. This essay challenges some aspects of liberal multiculturalism and proposes the creation of channels of communication that allow non-native English speaking students to understand the premises of a Eurocentric system of knowledge without undermining their own cultural backgrounds.

  20. Listening to middle-school Spanish-speaking English language learners: A qualitative study of their perspectives of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Ferrao, Julio E.

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding and explanation of the science achievement gap between Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) and their mainstream peers. The sample of purposefully selected participants (N = 23) included students representing eight Spanish-speaking countries who attended three middle schools (grades 6th-8th), 11 boys and 12 girls, with different years of schooling in the United States, English proficiency levels, and science achievement levels. Data gathering strategies included individual interviews with participants, classroom observations, and analysis of secondary data sources on students' English language proficiency and science achievement. Data interpretation strategies using a critical-interpretive perspective consisted of coding and narrative analysis, including analyses of excerpts and case studies. Two major findings emerge from the study: (1) An inverse relation between participants' number of years of exposure to science learning in an English-only learning environment and their science achievement levels; and (2) specific participant-identified problems, such as learning the science vocabulary, writing in science, the use of mathematics in science, and the lack of sense making in the science classroom. Key recommendations comprise: (1) Acknowledging the value of dual language education; (2) supporting the science-literacy connection; (3) ensuring high-quality science through research-informed instructional strategies; and (4) assessing ELLs' science achievement.

  1. CHARACTERISTICS OF GRADUATE ACCOUNTING PROGRAMS: AN ANALYSIS OF UNIVERSITIES IN ENGLISH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rolim Ensslin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The literature indicates there is a shortage of professors of accounting. For some researchers this lack is related to the high price paid to obtain an advanced degree in this area. According to the American Accounting Association (AAA, graduate programs need to be more attractive, less stressful and less expensive for students. Therefore, the objective of this study is to map the characteristics of the selection process, the courses offered and the requirements to obtain a master’s degree in accounting from universities located in English-speaking. This study can be classified as descriptive, with a theoretical-conceptual nature and a qualitative approach. We rely on secondary sources and apply inductive logic. The main results are that in the United States, 71% of the programs require candidates to have knowledge of accounting, finance, economics, taxes, statistics and mathematics; 75% of Australian universities require a minimum score on the TOEFL for foreign students, 20% have a minimum GPA and 10% require taking the GMAT; and no Canadian university requires a letter of recommendation. Regarding the purpose of the courses, 88% of the institutions that offer master programs in accounting focus on improved professional qualification of accountants. In Australia, 30% of the programs last 18 months, while in Canada this figure is 66% and in New Zealand, 50% of the programs last at least two years. With respect to the graduation requirements, 82% of the universities require between 4 and 9 mandatory disciplines. In conclusion, the master programs in the United States and United Kingdom are relatively more demanding with respect to the degree requirements than in the other countries investigated.

  2. How accessible are interpreter services to dialysis patients of Non-English Speaking background?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Zimbudzi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of utilising professional interpreters in clinicalsettings have been well documented. However, not manystudies have focused on use of professional interpreters bydialysis patients of Non-English Speaking Background (NESBwho are in the clinical settings every second day of their lives.The underlying question for this research was to determinethe level of interpreter utilisation by dialysis patients of NESBat a major urban teaching hospital.MethodA multi-method approach was used involving (a in-depthinterviews of health care professionals working with dialysispatients to elicit their views regarding interpreter access anduse by dialysis patients of NESB, (b observations ofinteractions between staff and dialysis patients of NESB and(c review of medical records belonging to dialysis patients ofNESB who were admitted 24 months prior to the study.ResultsInterviews revealed that only 50% of Health Care Workers(HCWs had accessed an interpreter for dialysis patients ofNESB over a period of six months. Observations of staff/NESBpatient interactions showed that professional interpreterswere used in only 25% of the observed occasions. Thereview of medical records revealed that there was noevidence of interpreter use in 32% of the recordsbelonging to dialysis patients of NESB. The study alsoshowed that non-compliance with dialysis treatmentregime was more likely to occur among patients who hadlimited access to interpreters.ConclusionThe study demonstrated a suboptimal utilisation ofinterpreter services by dialysis patients of NESB. Severalbarriers to inaccessibility and underutilisation ofprofessional interpreters were identified.Recommendations to improve communication betweenHCWs and dialysis patients of NESB are suggested.

  3. Attaining higher coverage: obstacles to overcome. English-speaking Caribbean and Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    In 1983, 8 (42%) of the 19 English-speaking Caribbean countries (including Suriname) achieved at least 50% coverage with 3 doses of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) vaccine among children under 1 year of age and 6 countries (32%) had at least 50% coverage with 3 doses of trivalent oral polio vaccine (TOPV). In addition, 10 countries (53%) achieved over 75% DPT coverage and 11 (58%) achieved over 75% TOPV coverage. Despite this record of progress, several factors continue to impede further gains in immunization coverage. Of particular concern is the high dropout rate. As many as 25% of infants receive their 1st dose of DPT and TOPV but do not return to complete their course of immunization. There is also a need for each health center to estimate its annual target population for immunization every year through analysis of the total live births from the previous year in the health center's catchment area (minus infant mortality). Monthly target figures can thus be computed and coverage monitored. A further problem has been a reluctance on the part of some health workers to administer vaccines simultaneously. This does not reduce effectiveness or increase the risk of complications, and reduces the number of visits needed to complete the immunization schedule. An unresolved question is whether to immunize ill or malnourished children. Decisions on this matter should take into account the availability and accessibility of health care services, the ability to follow-up children who are not immunized, and the likelihood that children will return for subsequent immunizations. Finally, a number of immunizations performed by private practitioners and institutions are not reported. Both public and private health care providers should agree on a standardized reporting format to allow better estimation of coverage.

  4. Systematic review: cultural adaptation and feasibility of screening for autism in non-English speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Maskari, Turkiya S; Melville, Craig A; Willis, Diane S

    2018-01-01

    Screening children for autism has gained wider acceptance within clinical practice, and early intervention has improved outcomes. Increasingly, adapting an existing screening instrument is a common, fast method to create a usable screening tool, especially for countries with limited resources and/or expertise. However, concerns have been raised regarding adaptation adequacy and the feasibility of screening across cultural groups. This study systematically examined the levels of cultural adaptation and feasibility aspects considered when screening for autism in non-English speaking countries to build upon the sparse knowledge that exists on this topic in the literature. Nineteen studies, obtained from five electronic databases, were examined. PRISMA guidance was used for this review. The Ecological Validity Framework model, and Bowen Recommendations for Feasibility were adopted to extract relevant data, which was synthesised narratively. Cultural adaptation within the included studies mostly involved language translation with little information offered to enable conclusions on how the processes were guided and maintained. Few cultural adjustments involved modifying screening methods; clarifying difficult concepts and changing instrument content were employed to address the core values, competence, beliefs, and norms of the adapted culture. However, less attention was given to adapt the screening goals within the context of cultural values, and customs or to consider interactional match between the clients and assessors. The review also highlighted an acceptable level of practicality to screen for autism but did not encourage integrating autism screening within routine practice or beyond the study context for different cultures. Concurring with previous literature, we agree that knowledge on cultural adaptation for autism screening instruments is limited and not sufficiently documented to establish adaptation levels (process and/or contents), and prove adequacy

  5. Trends of development of monolingualism and bilingualism in the educational policy of the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhov, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    The article analyzes the monolingualism policy opposed to the policy of bilingualism inthe language policy of the United States. The author considers the historical background,issues and implementation mechanisms of the monolingualism policy in the multiethnic state,the result of which is directed against cultural diversity and immigrant minority languages.The article defines sources of English monolingualism ideology, racial hostility of majoritytoward minority, ethnic conflict between the m...

  6. The language of science and the high school student: The recognition of concept definitions: A comparison between hindi speaking students in India and english speaking students in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, P. P.; Chipman, H. H.; Pachaury, A. C.

    Sixteen concept words (mass, length, area, volume, solid, liquid, gas, element, compound, mixture, electron, proton, neutron, atom, molecule, and ion) associated with the theme, the nature of matter were described as simple text book definitions after examination of classroom notes and school texts of the last three decades. Sixteen multiple-choice items all of the same form were constructed for each of the concept definitions. The English version of the sixteen item test was given to 1635 high school students in Tasmania (where the language of instruction and the home language is English) and the Hindi version of the test was given to 826 students from the Bhopal/Barwani region of India where the medium of instruction is Hindi. The English and Hindi speaking data are compared from the point of view of development, performance for individual items, and overall performance at grade 10. A number of linguistic hypotheses are examined and reported upon. Although the overall score at grade 10 was identical (10.8/16) for both groups there are differences in development overall and for individual items which are of interest. Overall, the science specificity of the Hindi words does not appear to confer any clearly defined advantage or disadvantage though again there are some interesting individual anomolies.

  7. A study of the effects of English language proficiency and scientific reasoning skills on the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners and native English language-speaking students participating in grade 10 science classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Hector Neftali, Sr.

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of English language proficiency and levels of scientific reasoning skills of Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students on their acquisition of science content knowledge as measured by a state-wide standardized science test. The researcher studied a group of high school Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students participating in Grade 10 science classes. The language proficiency of the students was to be measured through the use of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) instrument. A Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning developed by Lawson (1978) was administered in either English or Spanish to the group of Hispanic English language learners and in English to the group of native English language-speaking students in order to determine their levels of scientific reasoning skills. The students' acquisition of science content knowledge was measured through the use of statewide-standardized science test developed by the State's Department of Education. This study suggests that the levels of English language proficiency appear to influence the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners in the study. The results of the study also suggest that with regards to scientific reasoning skills, students that showed high levels or reflective reasoning skills for the most part performed better on the statewide-standardized science test than students with intuitive or transitional reasoning skills. This assertion was supported by the studies conducted by Lawson and his colleagues, which showed that high levels of reasoning or reflective reasoning skills are prerequisite for most high school science courses. The findings in this study imply that high order English language proficiency combined with high levels of reasoning skills enhances students' abilities to learn science content subject matter. This

  8. Relationship between speaking English as a second language and agitation in people with dementia living in care homes: Results from the MARQUE (Managing Agitation and Raising Quality of life) English national care home survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, C.; Rapaport, P.; Robertson, S.; Marston, L.; Barber, J.; Manela, M.; Livingston, G.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: As not speaking English as a first language may lead to increased difficulties in communication with staff and other residents, we (1) tested our primary hypotheses that care home residents with dementia speaking English as a second language experience more agitation and overall neuropsychiatric symptoms, and (2) explored qualitatively how staff consider that residents' language, ethnicity, and culture might impact on how they manage agitation. METHODS: We interviewed st...

  9. Teaching Physics in English: A Continuing Professional Development for Non-Native English-Speaking Teachers in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruekpramool, Chaninan; Sangpradit, Theerapong

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a Continuing Professional Development (CPD) using English integrated science approach training curriculum and to promote physics teacher's efficacy to be expert teachers and be able to teach Physics in English. The quality of the curriculum was at a high level corresponding to the congruence scores of the…

  10. English in Product Advertisements in Non-English-Speaking Countries in Western Europe: Product Image and Comprehension of the Text

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, M.; Nickerson, C.; Hooft, A.P.J.V. van; Meurs, W.F.J. van; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Nederstigt, U.; Starren, M.B.P.; Crijns, R.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Although English has been shown to be the most frequently used foreign language in product advertisements in countries where it is not the native language, little is known about its effects. This article examines the response to advertisements in English compared to the response to the same ad in

  11. THE CORRELATION BETWEEN STUDENTS’ SELF-ESTEEM AND SPEAKING ACHIEVEMENT OF UNDERGRADUATE EFL STUDENTS OF ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM OF ISLAMIC STATE UNIVERSITY OF RADEN FATAH PALEMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    joni gunawan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to empirically investigate the possible correlation and the influence between students’ self-esteem and speaking achievement. Students in the fifth semester were selected from among undergraduate EFL students of English Education study program at UIN Raden Fatah Palembang as the sample. Speaking test was done to measure students’ speaking achievement. By using oral Proficiency categories from Brown (2004 students’ speaking achievement was scored the five subskills of vocabulary, structure, pronunciation, fluency and comprehensibility. An adult version of Coopersmith self-esteem inventory (CSEI which modified by Ryden (1978 for measuring self-esteem containing 58 items were also administered to the participants. Pearson product moment and regression analysis were used to find out the correlation and the influence between variables. The result showed that there was a significant correlation between students’ self-esteem and speaking achievement with r = .635. Besides, there was also a significant influence of self-esteem on speaking achievement with 40,4%. This study could have implications for English language teachers, course designers, learners, and text book writers. Index Terms - self-esteem, speaking achievement, testing speaking, UIN learners of English

  12. Action video games improve reading abilities and visual-to-auditory attentional shifting in English-speaking children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Sandro; Trevisan, Piergiorgio; Ronconi, Luca; Bertoni, Sara; Colmar, Susan; Double, Kit; Facoetti, Andrea; Gori, Simone

    2017-07-19

    Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties in learning to read and there is some evidence that action video games (AVG), without any direct phonological or orthographic stimulation, improve reading efficiency in Italian children with dyslexia. However, the cognitive mechanism underlying this improvement and the extent to which the benefits of AVG training would generalize to deep English orthography, remain two critical questions. During reading acquisition, children have to integrate written letters with speech sounds, rapidly shifting their attention from visual to auditory modality. In our study, we tested reading skills and phonological working memory, visuo-spatial attention, auditory, visual and audio-visual stimuli localization, and cross-sensory attentional shifting in two matched groups of English-speaking children with dyslexia before and after they played AVG or non-action video games. The speed of words recognition and phonological decoding increased after playing AVG, but not non-action video games. Furthermore, focused visuo-spatial attention and visual-to-auditory attentional shifting also improved only after AVG training. This unconventional reading remediation program also increased phonological short-term memory and phoneme blending skills. Our report shows that an enhancement of visuo-spatial attention and phonological working memory, and an acceleration of visual-to-auditory attentional shifting can directly translate into better reading in English-speaking children with dyslexia.

  13. Differential Language Functioning of Monolinguals and Bilinguals on Positive-Negative Emotional Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirzadeh, Shiela; Hajiabed, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    The present interdisciplinary research investigates the differential emotional expression between Persian monolinguals and Persian-English bilinguals. In other words, the article was an attempt to answer the questions whether bilinguals and monolinguals differ in the expression of positive and negative emotions elicited through sad and happy…

  14. Mothers' attitudes toward adolescent confidential services: development and validation of scales for use in English- and Spanish-speaking populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebb, Kathleen P; Pollack, Lance M; Millstein, Shana; Otero-Sabogal, Regina; Wibbelsman, Charles J

    2014-09-01

    To explore parental beliefs and attitudes about confidential services for their teenagers; and to develop an instrument to assess these beliefs and attitudes that could be used among English and Spanish speakers. The long-term goal is to use this research to better understand and evaluate interventions to improve parental knowledge and attitudes toward their adolescent's access and utilization of comprehensive confidential health services. The instrument was developed using an extensive literature review and theoretical framework followed by qualitative data from focus groups and in-depth interviews. It was then pilot tested with a random sample of English- and Spanish-speaking parents and further revised. The final instrument was administered to a random sample of 1,000 mothers. The psychometric properties of the instrument were assessed for Spanish and English speakers. The instrument consisted of 12 scales. Most Cronbach alphas were >.70 for Spanish and English speakers. Fewer items for Spanish speakers "loaded" for the Responsibility and Communication scales. Parental Control of Health Information failed for Spanish speakers. The Parental Attitudes of Adolescent Confidential Health Services Questionnaire (PAACS-Q) contains 12 scales and is a valid and reliable instrument to assess parental knowledge and attitudes toward confidential health services for adolescents among English speakers and all but one scale was applicable for Spanish speakers. More research is needed to understand key constructs with Spanish speakers. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Health risk behaviours among adolescents in the English-speaking Caribbean: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renwick Shamin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper was to review and summarize research on prevalence of health risk behaviours, their outcomes as well as risk and protective factors among adolescents in the English-speaking Caribbean. Methods Searching of online databases and the World Wide Web as well as hand searching of the West Indian Medical Journal were conducted. Papers on research done on adolescents aged 10 – 19 years old and published during the period 1980 – 2005 were included. Results Ninety-five relevant papers were located. Five papers were published in the 1980s, 47 in the 1990s, and from 2000–2005, 43 papers. Health risk behaviours and outcomes were divided into seven themes. Prevalence data obtained for these, included lifetime prevalence of substance use: cigarettes-24% and marijuana-17%; high risk sexual behaviour: initiation of sexual activity ≤ 10 years old-19% and those having more than six partners-19%; teenage pregnancy: teens account for 15–20% of all pregnancies and one-fifth of these teens were in their second pregnancy; Sexually-Transmitted Infections (STIs: population prevalence of gonorrhoea and/or chlamydia in 18–21 year-olds was 26%; mental health: severe depression in the adolescent age group was 9%, and attempted suicide-12%; violence and juvenile delinquency: carrying a weapon to school in the last 30 days-10% and almost always wanting to kill or injure someone-5%; eating disorders and obesity: overweight-11%, and obesity-7%. Many of the risk behaviours in adolescents were shown to be related to the adolescent's family of origin, home environment and parent-child relationships. Also, the protective effects of family and school connectedness as well as increased religiosity noted in studies from the United States were also applicable in the Caribbean. Conclusion There is a substantial body of literature on Caribbean adolescents documenting prevalence and correlates of health risk behaviours. Future research

  16. Blended Learning Using Video-Based Blogs: Public Speaking for English as a Second Language Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ru-Chu

    2010-01-01

    With globalisation and the advent of information technology, the English language has become more important for second language (L2) learners. This study aimed to establish a blended teaching and learning model combining online and face to face instructional blogging for an English for specific purposes (ESP) course named "English Public…

  17. An Assessment of Hispanic Recruits Who Speak English as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    PREDOMINANTLY IN A SOCIAL SITUATION, SPANISH OR ENGLISH? (Que idioma habla Ud. predominantemente, esparfol o ingles?) TOTAL SPANISH: 36/102 (35.3%) ENGLISH...SPANISH: 23/26 (88.5%) ENGLISH: 0 EQUAL: 3/26 (11.5%) LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT HOME: ( Idioma que habla Ud. en el Hogar) SPANISH: 57/102 (55.9

  18. French Speaking Skills of Grade 8 English Program Students. Research Report 82-08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Margaret

    The speaking skills of grade 8 students in a core French program in Ottawa were compared with the skills of grade 6 students enrolled in the core program. A total of 337 grade 8 students were given a French speaking test. Two-hundred and nine students had taken the test in grade 6. In general, the grade 8 students seemed prepared to express basic…

  19. Test-Taking Strategies in L2 Assessment: The Test of English for International Communication Speaking Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny

    2016-08-01

    This research explored the test-taking strategies associated with the Test of English for International Communication Speaking Test (TOEIC-S) and their relationship with test performance. Capitalizing on two sets of TOEIC-S and a custom-made strategy inventory, the researcher collected data from a total of 215 Taiwanese English learners consisting of 84 males and 131 females with an average age of 20.1 years (SD = 2.6). Quantitative data analysis gave rise to three major findings. First, TOEIC-S test-taking strategy use constituted a multi-faceted construct that involved multiple types of strategic behaviors. Second, these strategic behaviors matched those allowing test-takers to communicate both in real life and in the workplace. Third, communication strategy use and cognitive strategy use both contributed significantly to TOEIC-S performance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Development of a Culturally-Adapted Graphic Novella about Emergency Communication: Collaborations with a Limited English Speaking Chinese Immigrant Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Devora; Seino, Lena; Meischke, Hendrika; Tu, Shin-Ping; Turner, Anne M; Ike, Brooke; Painter, Ian; Yip, Mei-Po

    2016-01-01

    Bystander CPR doubles survival from cardiac arrest but limited English proficient (LEP) individuals face barriers calling 911 and performing CPR. Previous training increases the chance that an individual will perform CPR, yet access to classes in non-English speaking populations is limited. We used a cultural adaptation approach to develop a graphic novella for Chinese LEP immigrants about how to call 911 and perform bystander CPR. Collaboration with members of this community occurred through all stages of novella development. One hundred and thirty-two LEP Chinese adults read the novella and answered a survey measuring behavioral intentions. All respondents stated they would call 911 after witnessing a person's collapse, but those previously trained in CPR were more likely to say that they would perform CPR. All participants indicated that they would recommend this novella to others. Developing culturally-responsive evidence-based interventions is necessary to reduce disproportionate death and disability from cardiac arrest in LEP communities.

  1. Presentation of self and symptoms in primary care consultations involving patients from non-English speaking backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Celia; Sarangi, Srikant; Moss, Becky

    2004-01-01

    This paper draws on the PLEDGE research project (Patients with Limited English and Doctors in General Practice) 1 The Patients with Limited English and Doctors in General Practice (PLEDGE) project was funded by Sir Siegmund Warburg's Voluntary Settlement (2001-2003). The research team was: Celia Roberts, Roger Jones, Becky Moss, Srikant Sarangi and Val Wass. which has a database of 232 video-recorded interactions from GP surgeries in South East London. We focus on the opening episodes-the first opportunity the patient has to report on why they have come to see the doctor-to explore some of the contrasts in self presentation and the interactional work that doctors do when faced with the unexpected. Patients who speak a local London or standard variety of English present three aspects: a description of symptoms, the context in which they occurred, and an affective or epistemic stance. These 'micro discourse routines' are accomplished interactionally through the design of figure/ground relationships, framing and metacommunication and presentation of the 'moral self'. Although some patients from non-English speaking backgrounds use broadly similar 'micro discourse routines', the majority configure the relationship between medically salient facts, adequate contextual information and the stance which conveys the 'moral self' in different and apparently less 'orderly' ways. So openings often become protracted and harder work interactionally for both sides. While conversation analytic studies and communication skills textbooks represent the medical consultations as orderly, we suggest that such apparent orderliness must, at least, be partly the result of ironing out linguistic and cultural diversity. Interactional sociolinguistic analysis is used to shed light on the design of these routines and to provide analytic frameworks for doctors in reflecting on their own practice in ways which challenge patient-centred models.

  2. National Institutes of Health Toolbox Emotion Battery for English- and Spanish-speaking adults: normative data and factor-based summary scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakhanyan, Ida; McKenna, Benjamin S; Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Nowinski, Cindy J; Heaton, Robert K

    2018-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health Toolbox Emotion Battery (NIHTB-EB) is a "common currency", computerized assessment developed to measure the full spectrum of emotional health. Though comprehensive, the NIHTB-EB's 17 scales may be unwieldy for users aiming to capture more global indices of emotional functioning. NIHTB-EB was administered to 1,036 English-speaking and 408 Spanish-speaking adults as a part of the NIH Toolbox norming project. We examined the factor structure of the NIHTB-EB in English- and Spanish-speaking adults and developed factor analysis-based summary scores. Census-weighted norms were presented for English speakers, and sample-weighted norms were presented for Spanish speakers. Exploratory factor analysis for both English- and Spanish-speaking cohorts resulted in the same 3-factor solution: 1) negative affect, 2) social satisfaction, and 3) psychological well-being. Confirmatory factor analysis supported similar factor structures for English- and Spanish-speaking cohorts. Model fit indices fell within the acceptable/good range, and our final solution was optimal compared to other solutions. Summary scores based upon the normative samples appear to be psychometrically supported and should be applied to clinical samples to further validate the factor structures and investigate rates of problematic emotions in medical and psychiatric populations.

  3. A Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 among English- and Spanish-speaking Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Erin L.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Roesch, Scott C.; Riley, Natasha; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a significant problem for ethnic minorities that remains understudied partly due to a lack of strong measures with established psychometric properties. One screening tool, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), which was developed for use in primary care has also gained popularity in research settings. The reliability and validity of the PHQ-9 has been well established among predominantly Caucasian samples, in addition to many minority groups. However, there is little evidence regarding its utility among Hispanic Americans, a large and growing cultural group in the United States. In this study, we investigated the reliability and structural validity of the PHQ-9 in Hispanic American women. A community sample of 479 Latina women from southern California completed the PHQ-9 in their preferred language of English or Spanish. Cronbach’s alphas suggested that there was good internal consistency for both the English- and Spanish-language versions. Structural validity was investigated using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results support a similar one-factor structure with equivalent response patterns and variances among English- and Spanish-speaking Latinas. These results suggest that the PHQ-9 can be used with confidence in both English and Spanish versions to screen Latinas for depression. PMID:21787063

  4. More Limitations to Monolingualism: Bilinguals Outperform Monolinguals in Implicit Word Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Paola; Mulak, Karen E; Fu, Charlene S L; Singh, Leher

    2016-01-01

    To succeed at cross-situational word learning, learners must infer word-object mappings by attending to the statistical co-occurrences of novel objects and labels across multiple encounters. While past studies have investigated this as a learning mechanism for infants and monolingual adults, bilinguals' cross-situational word learning abilities have yet to be tested. Here, we compared monolinguals' and bilinguals' performance on a cross-situational word learning paradigm that featured phonologically distinct word pairs (e.g., BON-DEET) and phonologically similar word pairs that varied by a single consonant or vowel segment (e.g., BON-TON, DEET-DIT, respectively). Both groups learned the novel word-referent mappings, providing evidence that cross-situational word learning is a learning strategy also available to bilingual adults. Furthermore, bilinguals were overall more accurate than monolinguals. This supports that bilingualism fosters a wide range of cognitive advantages that may benefit implicit word learning. Additionally, response patterns to the different trial types revealed a relative difficulty for vowel minimal pairs than consonant minimal pairs, replicating the pattern found in monolinguals by Escudero et al. (2016) in a different English accent. Specifically, all participants failed to learn vowel contrasts differentiated by vowel height. We discuss evidence for this bilingual advantage as a language-specific or general advantage.

  5. African American English-speaking students: an examination of the relationship between dialect shifting and reading outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Holly K; Zhang, Lingling; Hensel, Stephanie L; Quinn, Erin J

    2009-08-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated the contribution made by dialect shifting to reading achievement test scores of African American English (AAE)-speaking students when controlling for the effects of socioeconomic status (SES), general oral language abilities, and writing skills. Participants were 165 typically developing African American 1st through 5th graders. Half were male and half were female, one third were from low-SES homes, and two-thirds were from middle-SES homes. Dialect shifting away from AAE toward Standard American English (SAE) was determined by comparing AAE production rates during oral and written narratives. Structural equation modeling evaluated the relative contributions of AAE rates, SES, and general oral language and writing skills on standardized reading achievement scores. AAE production rates were inversely related to reading achievement scores and decreased significantly between the oral and written narratives. Lower rates in writing predicted a substantial amount of the variance in reading scores, showing a significant direct effect and a significant indirect effect mediated by measures of oral language comprehension. The findings support a dialect shifting-reading achievement hypothesis, which proposes that AAE-speaking students who learn to use SAE in literacy tasks will outperform their peers who do not make this linguistic adaptation.

  6. Investigation of Cross-cultural Communication between Native English-speaking Lecturers and their Students in Turkish Tertiary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Uçkun¹

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultural diversity between students and teachers may be a source of “miscommunication” that compromises the learning/teaching environment. In such cases, students may be accused of poor performance or teachers may be blamed for inadequate methodology. This comparative study aims to examine the education culture in two Turkish universities involving native teachers, English speaking foreign teachers and their Turkish students in an attempt to understand the strengths, weaknesses, and challenges faced by both students and teachers. Four versions of the questionnaire were administered to 15 teachers and 228 students. All four versions focused on classroom management and examination procedures, pedagogy, and other affective factors. The authors aimed to investigate students’ and teachers’ mutual beliefs, perceptions and expectations of each other within the educational context and whether any differences could be accounted for by cultural differences between the two parties. This study was designed by both a Turkish academic and a native English speaking instructor, a collaboration which serves to temper cultural biases inherent to any culturally based inquiry. We hoped to maximize the effectiveness of cross-cultural classrooms as well as to suggest directions for further research

  7. Enhancing student performance: Linking the geography curriculum, instruction, and assessment in the English-speaking Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collymore, Jennifer C.

    In a 21st century knowledge society individuals are expected to use their knowledge and skills to think critically, problem solve, make decisions, comprehend new ideas, communicate, and collaborate effectively with others. Helping students achieve this level of performance is no easy task and it brings into focus the fact that the effectiveness of any education system rests on the systemic coordination or alignment of three crucial components: curriculum, instruction and assessment (referred to as the CIA). These components must work in concert to facilitate and enhance student performance. However, educational reform typically targets these components in isolation, often treating only one component, rather than the system as a whole. The misalignment of these components can adversely affect student performance in any discipline. When the CIA components are out of alignment, it is difficult to evaluate student and system performance and achieve improvement in an educational system. Therefore, using geography education in Trinidad & Tobago as a case study, this study examined the nature of the alignment among the CIA components in the advanced geography system in the English- Speaking Caribbean and the extent to which the alignment may be affecting student performance. The study sought to determine the possible sources and causes of misalignment, the challenges to achieving alignment, and ways of achieving greater coordination among the CIA components of the system. The methodology employed in the study involved the use of classroom observations, interviews, and the Surveys of Enacted Curriculum Alignment Model which uses content analyses and surveys. The results showed that there were varying degrees of alignment among the components. There was acceptable alignment (Alignment Index ≥ 0.25) between the curriculum and assessment. However, the alignment between curriculum and instruction or assessment and instruction was poor (Alignment Index ≤ 0.12). The baseline

  8. Total and Conceptual Vocabulary in Spanish–English Bilinguals From 22 to 30 Months: Implications for Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, Cynthia; Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Señor, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Vocabulary assessment holds promise as a way to identify young bilingual children at risk for language delay. This study compares 2 measures of vocabulary in a group of young Spanish–English bilingual children to a single-language measure used with monolingual children. Method Total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were used to measure mean vocabulary size and growth in 47 Spanish–English bilingually developing children from 22 to 30 months of age based on results from the MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI; Fenson et al., 1993) and the Inventario del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas (Jackson-Maldonado et al., 2003). Bilingual children’s scores of total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were compared with CDI scores for a control group of 56 monolingual children. Results The total vocabulary measure resulted in mean vocabulary scores and average rate of growth similar to monolingual growth, whereas conceptual vocabulary scores were significantly smaller and grew at a slower rate than total vocabulary scores. Total vocabulary identified the same proportion of bilingual children below the 25th percentile on monolingual norms as the CDI did for monolingual children. Conclusion These results support the use of total vocabulary as a means of assessing early language development in young bilingual Spanish–English speaking children. PMID:24023382

  9. The Relationship between English Language Proficiency, Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of Non-Native-English-Speaking Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Smitha; Qiqieh, Sura

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to find out the relationship between English Language proficiency, self-esteem, and academic achievement of the students in Abu Dhabi University (ADU). The variables were analyzed using "t" test, chi-squire and Pearson's product moment correlation. In addition, Self-rating scale, Self-esteem inventory and Language…

  10. "It Was Because I Could Speak English That I Got the Job": Neoliberal Discourse in a Chinese English Textbook Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Tao; Yuan, Zhou-min

    2018-01-01

    The issue of neoliberalism has aroused sustained interest among English language teaching (ELT) and applied linguistic researchers who are politically minded. Neoliberalism is a dominant rationality with immense economic, political and ideological consequences in all aspects of social and institutional life in globalization, including foreign…

  11. Advanced Cantonese ESL Learners' Use of a Monolingual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on the results of a research study which investigated the use of monolingual dictionaries by Hong Kong advanced Cantonese ESL learners in the production of target language sentences. Thirty-one English majors participated in a sentence completion task and a sentence construction task with and ...

  12. Developing A Method of Learning English Speaking Skills Based on the Language Functions Used in the Food and Beverage Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denok Lestari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to analyse language functions in  English, specifically those which are used in the context of Food and Beverage Service. The findings of the analysis related to the language functions are then applied in a teaching method which is designed to improve the students’ abilities in speaking English. There are two novelties in this research. The first one is  the theory of language functions which is reconstructed in accordance with the Food and Beverage Service context. Those language functions are: permisive (to soften utterances, to avoid repetition, and  to adjust intonation; interactive (to greet, to have small talks, and farewell; informative (to introduce, to show, to state, to explain, to ask, to agree, to reject, and to confirm; persuasive (to offer, to promise, to suggest, and to persuade; directive (to tell, to order, and to request; indicative (to praise, to complain, to thank, and to apologize. The second  novelty which is more practical is the design  of the ASRI method which consists of four basic components, namely: Aims (the purpose in communicating; Sequence (the operational procedure in handling guests in the restaurant; Role play (the simmulation activities in language learning; and Interaction (the interactive communications between participants. The method of ASRI with the application of the language functions in its ABCD procedure, namely Acquire, Brainstorm, Chance and Develop is proven to be effective in improving the students’ abilities in speaking English, specifically in the context of  Food and Beverage Service.

  13. [Monolingualism, an overlooked multilingual?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, E

    There has been some emphasis on the practice of multi­lingualism. It is seen as encouraging children creativity, lin­guis­­tic sensitivity and openness. In this article, we seek to find out if the different qualities demonstrated in multilingualism can also be developed in a monolingualism context. Despite the fact that it is a single language system - where grammar, accents, the rhythm of the sentence remain unchanged - it will be interesting to draw some parallels with multilingualism. This will lead us to study the processes of oral and written language acquisition in children. The associations with stuttering will also be mentioned.

  14. ADHD and Adolescent EFL Learners' Speaking Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashi, Hamid; Dolatdoost, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study was an attempt to investigate the relationships among Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and speaking complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF) among Iranian EFL learners. To fulfill the purpose of this study, the teachers and parents of 593 male students were given the Farsi version of the CSI-4 ADHD diagnostic…

  15. The Effectiveness of Immersive Multimedia Learning with Peer Support on English Speaking and Reading Aloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslem, Asnawi; Abbas, Merza

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the impacts of the immersive multimedia learning strategy with peer support on production skills in reading and speaking. Moreover, the effects of it on performance were investigated by student achievement. The quasi-experimental design with post-test was employed for the study. 80 first-year university students enrolled in…

  16. Monolingual accounting dictionaries for EFL text production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Nielsen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Monolingual accounting dictionaries are important for producing financial reporting texts in English in an international setting, because of the lack of specialised bilingual dictionaries. As the intended user groups have different factual and linguistic competences, they require specific types of information. By identifying and analysing the users' factual and linguistic competences, user needs, use-situations and the stages involved in producing accounting texts in English as a foreign language, lexicographers will have a sound basis for designing the optimal English accounting dictionary for EFL text production. The monolingual accounting dictionary needs to include information about UK, US and international accounting terms, their grammatical properties, their potential for being combined with other words in collocations, phrases and sentences in order to meet user requirements. Data items that deal with these aspects are necessary for the international user group as they produce subject-field specific and register-specific texts in a foreign language, and the data items are relevant for the various stages in text production: draft writing, copyediting, stylistic editing and proofreading.

  17. Academic Language Knowledge and Comprehension of Science Text for English Language Learners and Fluent English-Speaking Students

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Sandy

    2013-01-01

    As an initial step toward understanding which features of academic language make science-based expository text difficult for students with different English language proficiency (ELP) designations, this study investigated fifth-grade students' thoughts on text difficulty, their knowledge of the features of academic language, and the relationship between academic language and reading comprehension. Forty-five fifth-grade students participated in the study; 18 students were classified as Engli...

  18. A report of the 2000 and 2001 paternity testing workshops of the English speaking working group of the international society for forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallenberg, Charlotte; Morling, Niels

    2002-01-01

    During the last 10 years, the English Speaking Working Group (ESWG) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) has once a year arranged a Paternity Testing Workshop in which blood samples as well as a questionnaire concerning laboratory strategies were distributed to the participat......During the last 10 years, the English Speaking Working Group (ESWG) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) has once a year arranged a Paternity Testing Workshop in which blood samples as well as a questionnaire concerning laboratory strategies were distributed...

  19. Designing acoustics for linguistically diverse classrooms: Effects of background noise, reverberation and talker foreign accent on speech comprehension by native and non-native English-speaking listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhao Ellen

    The current classroom acoustics standard (ANSI S12.60-2010) recommends core learning spaces not to exceed background noise level (BNL) of 35 dBA and reverberation time (RT) of 0.6 second, based on speech intelligibility performance mainly by the native English-speaking population. Existing literature has not correlated these recommended values well with student learning outcomes. With a growing population of non-native English speakers in American classrooms, the special needs for perceiving degraded speech among non-native listeners, either due to realistic room acoustics or talker foreign accent, have not been addressed in the current standard. This research seeks to investigate the effects of BNL and RT on the comprehension of English speech from native English and native Mandarin Chinese talkers as perceived by native and non-native English listeners, and to provide acoustic design guidelines to supplement the existing standard. This dissertation presents two studies on the effects of RT and BNL on more realistic classroom learning experiences. How do native and non-native English-speaking listeners perform on speech comprehension tasks under adverse acoustic conditions, if the English speech is produced by talkers of native English (Study 1) versus native Mandarin Chinese (Study 2)? Speech comprehension materials were played back in a listening chamber to individual listeners: native and non-native English-speaking in Study 1; native English, native Mandarin Chinese, and other non-native English-speaking in Study 2. Each listener was screened for baseline English proficiency level, and completed dual tasks simultaneously involving speech comprehension and adaptive dot-tracing under 15 acoustic conditions, comprised of three BNL conditions (RC-30, 40, and 50) and five RT scenarios (0.4 to 1.2 seconds). The results show that BNL and RT negatively affect both objective performance and subjective perception of speech comprehension, more severely for non

  20. A sublexical training study for spelling in a biliterate Greek- and English-speaking child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niolaki, Georgia Z; Terzopoulos, Aris R; Masterson, Jackie

    2017-06-01

    RI is an emergent trilingual boy, literate in Greek and English, with difficulties in reading and spelling in both languages. Assessment with non-literacy tests revealed a deficit in phonological ability and in visual memory for sequentially presented characters. RI took part in a training programme that targeted sublexical spelling processes. Post-intervention assessment revealed improvement in reading and spelling in Greek but not in English. Assessments of lexical and sublexical skills showed improvement in nonword spelling and nonword reading for Greek. For English, there was some indication of improvement in nonword reading at delayed post-intervention testing, but no evidence of improvement in nonword spelling. Possible reasons for the difference in outcome for the two languages are considered, including the level of transparency of written Greek and English.

  1. Diabetes in the English-speaking Caribbean La diabetes en el Caribe de habla inglesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm Hennis

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Rates of diabetes mellitus in the English-speaking Caribbean have been rising in recent years, and they are projected to continue climbing in the new millennium. Prevalence rates across countries of the African diaspora mirror levels of Western acculturation, and available data emphasize the importance of obesity as a modifiable risk factor. The population-based Barbados Eye Studies have provided new information about the burden of ocular complications of diabetes such as retinopathy and lens opacities. Diabetes was shown to increase the risk of lens opacities, and 14% of prevalent cataract was attributed to diabetes. Persons with type 1 diabetes were particularly at increased risk of retinopathy, as a result of longer durations of illness and poor glycemic control. Other Caribbean studies have suggested that glycemic control in patients evaluated in various clinical settings is suboptimal, which raises important concerns about quality of care. Diabetics are at increased risk of mortality compared with nondiabetics, and that mortality risk increases with higher baseline levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, even among nondiabetics. These data highlight the need for urgent attention to public health and clinical strategies to prevent diabetes in unaffected persons as well as to prevent or reduce the burden of complications among those who are affected. Among the measures that should be adopted to stem the flood of diabetes in the Caribbean region are lifestyle interventions to promote better nutrition and to increase exercise; patient education, particularly about the central role of diabetes self-management; and the multidisciplinary team approach in the provision of care.Las tasas de diabetes mellitus en los países del Caribe de habla inglesa se han venido incrementando en los últimos años y se espera que continúen aumentando en el nuevo milenio. Las tasas de prevalencia en los países receptores de la diáspora africana reflejan los niveles

  2. Assessing Dutch and English Immersion Education in French-Speaking Belgium: Linguistic, Cognitive and Educational Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Hiligsmann, Philippe; Van Mensel, Luk; American Association for Applied Linguistics

    2016-01-01

    Our paper aims to present a 5-year multidisciplinary research project on immersion education in French-speaking Belgium. Our project starts from the premise that although recently published surveys have confirmed that immersion learners outperform traditional L2 learners as far as target language test scores are concerned, it nonetheless remains largely unclear to what extent, in what respect and thanks to which (internal and external) processes and factors immersion students show increased l...

  3. Portfolio Αssessment of Speaking Skills in English as a Foreign Language in Primary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Efthymiou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the assessment of speaking skills with reference to young learners. This is achieved by using an alternative method of assessment, namely portfolios. The general aim is to introduce learners’ to portfolio assessment of their speaking skills and to promote further learning and autonomy making, thus, learning and assessment coexist in a non-threatening mode. Three methodological tools are used for this research; a needs analysis questionnaire addressing the pupils��� needs of the fifth grade of a Greek primary school, the European Portfolio of Languages (ELP - used in tandem with the oral portfolio Dossier - and a final evaluation questionnaire given to the pupils after the completion of the oral portfolio project. Based on the statistical analysis of pupils’ evaluation results and the teacher’s observation throughout the school year, it is evident that the oral portfolio denotes a time-consuming and laborious assessment process. Nevertheless, the pupils see it as an interesting experience and are willing to use it again in the future. In conclusion, students’ portfolios are an innovative method of assessment that can actually promote the development of speaking skills and young learners’ metacognitive strategies in the EFL classroom, and raise their interest in learning.

  4. Influence of current input-output and age of first exposure on phonological acquisition in early bilingual Spanish-English-speaking kindergarteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Felter, Roxanna; Cooperson, Solaman J; Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D

    2016-07-01

    Although some investigations of phonological development have found that segmental accuracy is comparable in monolingual children and their bilingual peers, there is evidence that language use affects segmental accuracy in both languages. To investigate the influence of age of first exposure to English and the amount of current input-output on phonological accuracy in English and Spanish in early bilingual Spanish-English kindergarteners. Also whether parent and teacher ratings of the children's intelligibility are correlated with phonological accuracy and the amount of experience with each language. Data for 91 kindergarteners (mean age = 5;6 years) were selected from a larger dataset focusing on Spanish-English bilingual language development. All children were from Central Texas, spoke a Mexican Spanish dialect and were learning American English. Children completed a single-word phonological assessment with separate forms for English and Spanish. The assessment was analyzed for segmental accuracy: percentage of consonants and vowels correct and percentage of early-, middle- and late-developing (EML) sounds correct were calculated. Children were more accurate on vowel production than consonant production and showed a decrease in accuracy from early to middle to late sounds. The amount of current input-output explained more of the variance in phonological accuracy than age of first English exposure. Although greater current input-output of a language was associated with greater accuracy in that language, English-dominant children were only significantly more accurate in English than Spanish on late sounds, whereas Spanish-dominant children were only significantly more accurate in Spanish than English on early sounds. Higher parent and teacher ratings of intelligibility in Spanish were correlated with greater consonant accuracy in Spanish, but the same did not hold for English. Higher intelligibility ratings in English were correlated with greater current English

  5. EFL Secondary Students’ Perceptions on Native and Nonnative English-Speaking Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelia Tjokrokanoko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the secondary students’ perceptions towards NESTs and NNESTs in an English course in Surabaya regarding the teachers’ teaching competence, cultural knowledge of English language teaching, teaching style, and classroom management. Most secondary students perceived both teacher groups were good at most categories. Using questionnaires distributed to 96 secondary school students of an English course who participated in this study, the researchers found that 38 students took part in doing a focus group interview. The interview was done to capture deeper perceptions that could be gained. The study reported that cultural knowledge of the English language teachers, especially the NESTs, exceeded that of the NNESTs. This research finding also proved that students perceived NESTs to be as good as NNESTs in such areas as teaching grammar, listening, reading, and writing. Furthermore, both NESTs and NNESTs were perceived to be not able to understand the students’ special needs since teachers at the the English course under study handled one level for about twelve meetings only.

  6. Online English-English Learner Dictionaries Boost Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmukhamedov, Ulugbek

    2012-01-01

    Learners of English might be familiar with several online monolingual dictionaries that are not necessarily the best choices for the English as Second/Foreign Language (ESL/EFL) context. Although these monolingual online dictionaries contain definitions, pronunciation guides, and other elements normally found in general-use dictionaries, they are…

  7. Communication challenges experienced by migrants with cancer: A comparison of migrant and English-speaking Australian-born cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Amelia; Lipson-Smith, Ruby; Schofield, Penelope; Gough, Karla; Sze, Ming; Aldridge, Lynley; Goldstein, David; Jefford, Michael; Bell, Melanie L; Butow, Phyllis

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the difficulties faced by different migrant groups is vital to address disparities and inform targeted health-care service delivery. Migrant oncology patients experience increased morbidity, mortality and psychological distress, with this tentatively linked to language and communication difficulties. The objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the communication barriers and challenges experienced by Arabic, Greek and Chinese (Mandarin and Cantonese) speaking oncology patients in Australia. This study employed a cross-sectional design using patient-reported outcome survey data from migrant and English-speaking Australian-born patients with cancer. Patients were recruited through oncology clinics and Australian state cancer registries. Data were collected regarding patient clinical and demographic characteristics and health-care and communication experiences. Data from the clinics and registries were combined for analysis. Significant differences were found between migrant groups in demographic characteristics, communication and health-care experiences, and information and care preferences. Chinese patients cited problems with understanding medical information, the Australian health-care system, and communicating with their health-care team. Conversely, Arabic- and Greek-speaking patients reported higher understanding of the health-care system, and less communication difficulties. Our study findings suggest that migrant groups differ from each other in their health communication expectations and requirements. Lower education and health literacy of some groups may play a role in poorer health outcomes. Public health interventions and assistance provided to migrants should be tailored to the specific needs and characteristics of that language or cultural group. Future research directions are discussed. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the EQ-5D-5L items for English-speaking Asians in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, N; Wang, Y; How, C H; Wong, K Y; Shen, L; Tay, E G; Thumboo, J; Herdman, M

    2015-06-01

    To investigate how the response labels of the 5-level EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L) items are interpreted and used by English-speaking Chinese and non-Chinese Singaporeans, as a means to assessing whether those items are cross-culturally equivalent health-status measures in this Asian population. In face-to-face interviews, Chinese, Malay and Indian visitors to a primary care institution in Singapore were asked to rate the relative severity conveyed by EQ-5D-5L response labels, each containing the keyword of 'no(t),' 'slight(ly),' 'moderate(ly),' 'severe(ly),' or 'unable'/'extreme(ly),' using a 0-100 numerical rating scale. Participants were also asked to describe 25 hypothetical health states using the EQ-5D-5L response labels. Differences between Chinese and Malay/Indian participants in label interpretation and selection were examined using multivariate regression analysis to adjust for participant characteristics. The differences in adjusted mean severity scores for individual EQ-5D-5L labels between Chinese (n = 148) and non-Chinese (Malay: n = 53; Indian: n = 56) participants ranged from 0.0 to 9.0. The relative severity of the labels to the participants supported the ordinality of the EQ-5D-5L response labels and was similar across ethnic groups. Chinese and non-Chinese participants selected similar response labels to describe each hypothetical health state, with the adjusted odds ratios of selecting any type of the five response labels for non-Chinese versus Chinese participants ranging from 0.92 to 1.15 (p > 0.05 for all). The EQ-5D-5L items are likely to generate equivalent health outcomes between English-speaking Chinese and non-Chinese Singaporeans.

  9. Experience of International Education of East Asian Students in English-speaking Countries: A four-dimensional approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L Martinez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Global participation in international education in the last two decades has increased exponentially. International students face difficulties in adjusting to the culture of their host country due to their unique needs (Bertram, Poulakis, Elsasser & Kumar, 2014. This article presents themes comprising the international education phenomenon involving the experiences of East Asian international students in English-speaking countries. The literature reviewed for this article pertains to many aspects of international education, covering the factors that influence the decision to embark on the international education journey to the adjustment experienced by students to the host culture. The authors suggest that the international education experience is comprised of four dimensions: structural, linguistic, internal, and external. We also posit that Confucianism, which many East Asian students follow, influences not only the psycho-social dimension of the international education experience but also their instructional preferences within the structural dimension. We further contend that students’ actual and perceived proficiency (or the lack thereof in the host country’s language greatly shapes all aspects of the student’s international education experience, which then determines the degree of acculturative stress involved and plays a key role in each of the three dimensions. Because of the anticipated continued growth in the number of international students from East Asia attending higher education institutions in English-speaking countries such as the United States, Australia, Canada, and parts of Africa, it is important to examine how each of the dimensions proposed impact each other. Approaching the study of the international education experience one dimension at a time, as many scholars have done, does not completely address all of the unique needs of international students. We suggest that research in this area be conducted holistically by

  10. Secondary Level Teachers: Supply and Demand in Swaziland. Report on the Supply of Secondary Level Teachers in English-Speaking Africa. Country Study No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, John W.; Cammaerts, F. C. A.

    One of 14 studies on the supply of secondary level teachers in English-speaking Africa, this report begins with a survey of Swaziland's geography and economic potentials, and the financial viability of its economic growth. Despite its small size, the wide market areas available and the existence of non-agricultural opportunities give promise of…

  11. The Role of Social Evaluation in Influencing Public Speaking Anxiety of English Foreign Language Learners at Omar Al-Mukhtar University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmenfi, Fadil; Gaibani, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of social evaluation on Public Speaking Anxiety of English foreign language learners at Omar Al-Mukhtar University in Libya. A random sample of 111 students was used in the study. To analyse the collected data, means, standard deviations, a three-way ANOVA analysis, and the correlation coefficients were used with…

  12. An intersectional approach for understanding the vulnerabilities of English-speaking heterosexual Caribbean youth to HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections: Prevention and intervention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Marcia Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Caribbean youth comprise about 30 percent of the English-speaking Caribbean population, and about 81,000 Caribbean and Latin American youth are HIV infected. AIDS is the leading cause of death for 15- to 24-year-old English-speaking Caribbean youth. This article relies on intersectionality theory in the assessment of the macro-level, or structural variables, and micro-level, or individual level, variables that influence the risk-taking sexual behaviors of heterosexual English-speaking Caribbean youth and increase their vulnerability to HIV/sexually transmitted infections. This article offers macro- and micro-level prevention/intervention strategies for reducing the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in English-speaking Caribbean youth, including the promotion of condom use, voluntary male circumcision, and HIV testing and counseling. Suggestions are offered for future research investigations to explore the contributing factors to youth’s vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections and to empirically verify the relationship between and among variables that account for desired outcomes, including decreases in risky sexual behaviors. PMID:28070411

  13. An intersectional approach for understanding the vulnerabilities of English-speaking heterosexual Caribbean youth to HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections: Prevention and intervention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Elizabeth Sutherland

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean youth comprise about 30 percent of the English-speaking Caribbean population, and about 81,000 Caribbean and Latin American youth are HIV infected. AIDS is the leading cause of death for 15- to 24-year-old English-speaking Caribbean youth. This article relies on intersectionality theory in the assessment of the macro-level, or structural variables, and micro-level, or individual level, variables that influence the risk-taking sexual behaviors of heterosexual English-speaking Caribbean youth and increase their vulnerability to HIV/sexually transmitted infections. This article offers macro- and micro-level prevention/intervention strategies for reducing the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in English-speaking Caribbean youth, including the promotion of condom use, voluntary male circumcision, and HIV testing and counseling. Suggestions are offered for future research investigations to explore the contributing factors to youth’s vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections and to empirically verify the relationship between and among variables that account for desired outcomes, including decreases in risky sexual behaviors.

  14. Flipping between Languages? An Exploratory Analysis of the Usage by Spanish-Speaking English Language Learner Tertiary Students of a Bilingual Probability Applet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Lawrence M.; Wagler, Amy E.; Salazar, Berenice

    2016-01-01

    English language learners (ELLs) are a rapidly growing part of the student population in many countries. Studies on resources for language learners--especially Spanish-speaking ELLs--have focused on areas such as reading, writing, and mathematics, but not introductory probability and statistics. Semi-structured qualitative interviews investigated…

  15. The Role of Developmental Levels in Examining the Effect of Subject Types on the Production of Auxiliary "Is" in Young English-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling-Yu; Van Horne, Amanda J. Owen; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Prior work (Guo, Owen, & Tomblin, 2010) has shown that at the group level, auxiliary "is" production by young English-speaking children was symmetrical across lexical noun and pronominal subjects. Individual data did not uniformly reflect these patterns. On the basis of the framework of the gradual morphosyntactic learning (GML)…

  16. Teachers' and Learners' Attitudes towards the Impact of Availability and Use of Daily Newspapers on Students' Speaking Competence in English Language in Secondary Schools in Bungoma County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napwora, Jesse Wekesa; Gudu, Benter Oseno; Mukwa, Chris Wekesa

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights the results of a research conducted in Bungoma County of Kenya between 2008-2009. The objective of the study was to investigate the attitudes of teachers and students towards the impact of availability and use of daily newspapers on students' speaking competence in English language. The study was based on the Communicative…

  17. Dialect Variation of Copula and Auxiliary Verb BE: African American English-Speaking Children with and without Gullah/Geechee Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jessica R.; Oetting, Janna B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We compared copula and auxiliary verb BE use by African American English-speaking children with and without a creole heritage, using Gullah/Geechee as the creole criterion, to determine if differences exist, the nature of the differences, and the impact of the differences on interpretations of ability. Method: Data came from 38 children,…

  18. A report of the 2002-2008 paternity testing workshops of the English speaking working group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anni Rønfeldt; Hallenberg, Charlotte; Simonsen, Bo Thisted

    2009-01-01

    The English Speaking Working Group (ESWG) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) offers an annual Paternity Testing Workshop open to all members of the group. Blood samples, a questionnaire and a paper challenge are sent to the participants. Here, we present the results...

  19. A report of the 1997, 1998 and 1999 Paternity Testing Workshops of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallenberg, C; Morling, N

    2001-01-01

    We present the results of the 1997, 1998 and 1999 Paternity Testing Workshops of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics. The numbers of participating laboratories were 24 (1997), 31 (1998) and 32 (1999). In 1997, all laboratories drew the correct...

  20. Validity Study of the "Preschool Language Scale-4" with English-Speaking Hispanic and European American Children in Head Start Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Cathy H.; Marley, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the "Preschool Language Scale-4" (PLS-4) with a sample of English-speaking Hispanic and European American children who attended Head Start programs. Participants were 440 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years (52% male; 86% Hispanic and 14% European American).…

  1. Nasreddin Hodja Tales May Inspire Turkish Foreign Language Gifted and Talented Students to Speak Better English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtbasi, Metin

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with a special methodology to meet the special needs of Turkish gifted and talented students (GTS) in terms of improving their English oral proficiency. Most GTS are known to have been born also "gifted in languages". Their language awareness shows by their "communicative skills, creative flair and arguing and…

  2. Exploring Metacognitive Online Reading Strategies of Non-Native English-Speaking Translation Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabi, Shayesteh

    2016-01-01

    International students, a growing population in US universities, need to possess excellent reading skills in order to succeed. American universities also benefit from admitting students who do not require remedial English classes. Reading online has become an integrated part of college education, which requires students to have additional skills.…

  3. English Bar as a Venue to Boost Students' Speaking Self-Efficacy at the Tertiary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingxu

    2013-01-01

    Research in EFL and ESL has confirmed that self-efficacy affects language learners' choices of learning tasks, persistence, motivation and achievement. As a cognitive construct, self-efficacy can be strengthened by both outcomes of behaviors and input from the environment. This paper studies the effects of an English Bar, a self-access center for…

  4. Planning of Hiatus-Breaking Inserted /?/ in the Speech of Australian English-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Ivan; Cox, Felicity; Demuth, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Non-rhotic varieties of English often use /?/ insertion as a connected speech process to separate heterosyllabic V1.V2 hiatus contexts. However, there has been little research on children's development of this strategy. This study investigated whether children use /?/ insertion and, if so, whether hiatus-breaking /?/ can be considered…

  5. Business contacts materials for developing listening and speaking skills for the student of business English

    CERN Document Server

    Brieger, N; Hughes, S; West, C

    1985-01-01

    Business Contacts provides classroom or self-study practice in communication skills for the specialist and non-specialist student of business English. The material is designed for adult learners of lower intermediate level and above who wish to revise their language or re-apply it in a business context.

  6. Examining the Simple View of Reading among Subgroups of Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Ryan Ponce

    2015-01-01

    The Simple View of Reading (SVR; Gough & Tunmer, 1986; Hoover & Gough, 1990) has a longstanding history as a model of reading comprehension, but it has mostly been applied to native English speakers. The SVR posits reading comprehension is a function of the interaction between word-level reading skills and oral language skills. It has been…

  7. Shyness-Anxiousness and Receptive Language Skills Development in Spanish- and English-Speaking Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Paul S.; Pula, Kacy; Parks, Craig D.; Cerna, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The present study utilized a short-term longitudinal research design to model the relationship between shyness-anxiousness and receptive language skills. Hypotheses regarding the direction of the causal relationship, mediation, and moderation were evaluated. Subjects included 340 Head Start attendees from primarily English- and Spanish-speaking…

  8. English as a Medium of Instruction in the Gulf: When Students and Teachers Speak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhiah, Hassan; Elhami, Maha

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the effectiveness of English as a medium of instruction (EMI) in the Arabian/Persian Gulf, with special focus on the situation in the United Arab Emirates. The study, undertaken at six universities located in major cities of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Al Ain, Sharjah, Ajman, and Ras Al Khaimah, examines students' and teachers'…

  9. African American English-speaking students: a longitudinal examination of style shifting from kindergarten through second grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Holly K; Kolenic, Giselle E; Hensel, Stephanie L

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was twofold: to examine shifting from African American English (AAE) to mainstream American English (MAE) across the early elementary grades, when students are first exposed to formal instruction in reading; and to examine how metalinguistic and cognitive variables influenced the students' dialectal adaptations from AAE to MAE in a literacy context with higher expectations for MAE. Participants were 102 typically developing AAE-speaking students enrolled in public schools in the northern Midwest. They were enrolled in the project at kindergarten and tested 3 times a year, for 3 years. Approximately half were male and half female, and two-thirds were from low socioeconomic status homes. A style shifting coefficient (SSC) was created to measure amounts of dialect change between contexts and over time by individuals. Some students shifted to MAE in literacy contexts, and shifting was not related to grade. Metalinguistic skills and SSC predicted reading, and metalinguistic skills predicted the SSC at 2nd grade. The findings indicated that cognitive executive functions may contribute to the SSC. The results provide strong support for the dialect shifting-reading achievement hypothesis and indicated that metalinguistic and perhaps executive functioning are important influences on this linguistic adaptation.

  10. Satisfaction with care and decision making among parents/caregivers in the pediatric intensive care unit: a comparison between English-speaking whites and Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, David; Unger, Jennifer B; Ornelas, Beatriz; Chang, Jennifer C; Markovitz, Barry P; Dodek, Peter M; Heyland, Daren K; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2015-04-01

    Because of previously documented health care disparities, we hypothesized that English-speaking Latino parents/caregivers would be less satisfied with care and decision making than English-speaking non-Latino white (NLW) parents/caregivers. An intensive care unit (ICU) family satisfaction survey, Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit Survey (pediatric, 24 question version), was completed by English-speaking parents/caregivers of children in a cardiothoracic ICU at a university-affiliated children's hospital in 2011. English-speaking NLW and Latino parents/caregivers of patients, younger than 18 years, admitted to the ICU were approached to participate on hospital day 3 or 4 if they were at the bedside for greater than or equal to 2 days. Analysis of variance, χ(2), and Student t tests were used. Cronbach αs were calculated. Fifty parents/caregivers completed the survey in each group. Latino parents/caregivers were younger, more often mothers born outside the United States, more likely to have government insurance or no insurance, and had less education and income. There were no differences between the groups' mean overall satisfaction scores (92.6 ± 8.3 and 93.0 ± 7.1, respectively; P = .80). The Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit Survey (pediatric, 24 question version) showed high internal consistency reliability (α = .95 and .91 for NLW and Latino groups, respectively). No disparities in ICU satisfaction with care and decision making between English-speaking NLW and Latino parents/caregivers were found. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Marking of verb tense in the English of preschool English-Mandarin bilingual children: evidence from language development profiles within subgroups on the Singapore English Action Picture Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brebner, Chris; McCormack, Paul; Liow, Susan Rickard

    2016-01-01

    The phonological and morphosyntactic structures of English and Mandarin contrast maximally and an increasing number of bilinguals speak these two languages. Speech and language therapists need to understand bilingual development for children speaking these languages in order reliably to assess and provide intervention for this population. To examine the marking of verb tense in the English of two groups of bilingual pre-schoolers learning these languages in a multilingual setting where the main educational language is English. The main research question addressed was: are there differences in the rate and pattern of acquisition of verb-tense marking for English-language 1 children compared with Mandarin-language 1 children? Spoken language samples in English from 481 English-Mandarin bilingual children were elicited using a 10-item action picture test and analysed for each child's use of verb tense markers: present progressive '-ing', regular past tense '-ed', third-person singular '-s', and irregular past tense and irregular past-participle forms. For 4-6 year olds the use of inflectional markers by the different language dominance groups was compared statistically using non-parametric tests. This study provides further evidence that bilingual language development is not the same as monolingual language development. The results show that there are very different rates and patterns of verb-tense marking in English for English-language 1 and Mandarin-language 1 children. Furthermore, they show that bilingual language development in English in Singapore is not the same as monolingual language development in English, and that there are differences in development depending on language dominance. Valid and reliable assessment of bilingual children's language skills needs to consider the characteristics of all languages spoken, obtaining accurate information on language use over time and accurately establishing language dominance is essential in order to make a

  12. Nuance Lost in Translation : Interpretations of J. F. Blumenbach's Anthropology in the English Speaking World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, John S

    2017-09-01

    Johann Friedrich Blumenbach has been called 'The Father of Physical Anthropology' because of his pioneering publications describing human racial variation. He proposed a racial typology consisting of five 'major varieties/races' of humanity. Since the 1990s, Londa Schiebinger and other Anglophone scholars have argued that Blumenbach's writings on race show evidence that he was significantly influenced by nineteenth-century race supremacist beliefs which held Europeans/Caucasians to be the highest ranked and most beautiful race. However, these modern authors relied largely on Thomas Bendyshe's 1865 English translations of Blumenbach's Latin and German texts. As documented herein, Bendyshe's publication includes numerous translation errors which form a pattern indicating that he employed two translators. The first translator was consistent with five earlier English translations. The second translator was not consistent with the earlier translators. This second translator also used English terms that denigrated extra-Europeans while adulating Europeans. Furthermore, Bendyshe's1865 translation regularly used the term 'beauty' to translate different Latin words that Blumenbach used to express his nuanced view of aesthetics and structural symmetry. Given the inconsistency and errors in Bendyshe's 1865 translations, they should not be unquestionably accepted as an accurate reflection of Blumenbach's views.

  13. Reliability and acceptability of the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-29 questionnaire in an English-speaking cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Georgina; Nair, Krishnan Padmakumari Sivaraman; Baster, Kathleen; Rosato, Rosalba; Solari, Alessandra

    2018-05-01

    Multiple Sclerosis Quality-of-Life Questionnaire-54 (MSQoL-54) is a disease-specific instrument for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Due to the number of items, the time taken to complete it is long. A shorter 29-item version, Multiple Sclerosis Quality-of-Life Questionnaire-29 (MSQoL-29) is yet to be evaluated in English. To assess reliability and acceptability of English version of MSQoL-29. Among 100 participants with MS who first completed both MSQoL-54 and MSQoL-29, 91 completed MSQoL-29 after 4-8 weeks. We looked for internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), acceptability, reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs)) and agreement (Bland-Altman plots). ICCs were strongly positive between MSQoL-54 and MSQoL-29 (Physical Health Composite (PHC) -ICC = 0.914, confidence interval (CI) = 0.872-0.942; Mental Health Composite (MHC) - ICC = 0.875, CI = 0.814-0.916) and between the two MSQoL-29 (PHC - ICC = 0.970, CI = 0.955-0.980; MHC - ICC = 0.937, CI = 0.904-0.958). On Bland-Altman plots, the MSQoL-29 scores of 95% of participants during two visits were within the limits of agreement (LOAs). Time taken to complete MSQoL-29 was 7.2 ± 2.9 minutes and MSQoL-54 was 19.79 ± 5.4 minutes ( p = 0.0001). MSQoL-29 has good test-retest reliability in English-speaking population and was quicker to complete.

  14. The Disfluent Speech of Bilingual Spanish–English Children: Considerations for Differential Diagnosis of Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Ramos, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The primary purpose of this study was to describe the frequency and types of speech disfluencies that are produced by bilingual Spanish–English (SE) speaking children who do not stutter. The secondary purpose was to determine whether their disfluent speech is mediated by language dominance and/or language produced. Method Spanish and English narratives (a retell and a tell in each language) were elicited and analyzed relative to the frequency and types of speech disfluencies produced. These data were compared with the monolingual English-speaking guidelines for differential diagnosis of stuttering. Results The mean frequency of stuttering-like speech behaviors in the bilingual SE participants ranged from 3% to 22%, exceeding the monolingual English standard of 3 per 100 words. There was no significant frequency difference in stuttering-like or non-stuttering-like speech disfluency produced relative to the child's language dominance. There was a significant difference relative to the language the child was speaking; all children produced significantly more stuttering-like speech disfluencies in Spanish than in English. Conclusion Results demonstrate that the disfluent speech of bilingual SE children should be carefully considered relative to the complex nature of bilingualism. PMID:25215876

  15. The Sources of Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety of Iranian English Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firooz Sadighi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Foreign language learning anxiety is one of the affective factors which influence language learning negatively. It has several sources and different types. The present study aimed at investigating the sources of foreign language speaking anxiety of Iranian EFL learners. To do so, 154 EFL learners participated in the study. They were required to fill out a foreign language anxiety questionnaire which was developed based on the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS by Horwitz, Horwitz, and Cope (1986. The results of the study indicated that “fear of making mistakes”, “fear of negative evaluation”, and “lack of vocabulary knowledge” were the main factors which caused anxiety among students. Some strategies are recommended for the students to use in order to cope with the anxiety-provoking factors.

  16. IMPROVING THE STUDENTS’ABILITY IN SPEAKING BY USING ROLE PLAYING METHOD IN THE DRAMA LESSON OF ENGLISH DEPARTMENT AT 2015/2016 ACADEMIC YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diani Syahputri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the improvement of the students’ achievement in speaking by Role Playing at Drama lesson at English department at Faculty of Teacher Training and Education University of Muhammadiyah Sumatera Utara. The specific aim was how using to apply role play in studying drama and how the role play method can improve the students’ achievement in speaking. This research was used an action research that used two cycles. The subject of the study was 42 students at Academic 2015 – 2016 from English Department. The instrument of research was speaking test, questioners and observation to collect the data. Technique for collecting data was descriptive qualitative and quantitative. Technique for analyzing data was used descriptive which describe the finding of research which used some tables, frequency which was benefit to describe the achievements of the students in speaking from pre-test, and cycle 1 up to cycle 2. The finding of research was the students’ achievement in speaking were good by using Role playing which conducted one semester. Based on the data, the students’ achievements got improvement in every cycle. The students got A was 23.8 %, B/A and B 76, 1 % and there were not students got C/B and D and E. It meant the indicators of this research could achieve by using Role playing at drama lesson when we compared with conventional method. The study by using role playing is more interested than conventional method.

  17. Do bilinguals outperform monolinguals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejdi Sejdiu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between second dialect acquisition and the psychological capacity of the learner is still a divisive topic that generates a lot of debate. A few researchers contend that the acquisition of the second dialect tends to improve the cognitive abilities in various individuals, but at the same time it could hinder the same abilities in other people. Currently, immersion is a common occurrence in some countries. In the recent past, it has significantly increased in its popularity, which has caused parents, professionals, and researchers to question whether second language acquisition has a positive impact on cognitive development, encompassing psychological ability. In rundown, the above might decide to comprehend the effects of using a second language based on the literal aptitudes connected with the native language. The issue of bilingualism was seen as a disadvantage until recently because of two languages being present which would hinder or delay the development of languages. However, recent studies have proven that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in tasks which require more attention.

  18. Effects of Length, Complexity, and Grammatical Correctness on Stuttering in Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jennifer B.; Byrd, Courtney T.; Carlo, Edna J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the effects of utterance length, syntactic complexity, and grammatical correctness on stuttering in the spontaneous speech of young, monolingual Spanish-speaking children. Method: Spontaneous speech samples of 11 monolingual Spanish-speaking children who stuttered, ages 35 to 70 months, were examined. Mean number of syllables,…

  19. [Comment on “Speaking up for science” by Fred Spilhaus] Science in Plain English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Sorena Svea

    I write inspired by Fred Spilhaus's Eos editorial (Speaking Up For Science, 86(24), 14 June 2005, p. 225). I have recently had a front-row seat (at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution) from which to observe the skillful packaging and energetic marketing of a fundamentally religious view of cosmology as science. (Yes, I have seen the film The Privileged Planet.) However, my subject is communication, and what follows is my personal opinion.I confess: I have many times crossed out the word “believe” in a scientific manuscript and noted, “Science is not a belief system.” I hope my victim will become just angry enough with me to remember in the future that a scientist may “conclude” anything the data support but not “believe” it. Why? “Believing” something can mean that one has a firm religious faith in it. This makes the scientist vulnerable to those who wish to define “materialistic science” as a religious belief, and thus aids advocates of alternate “theories” to those of modern evolutionary biology.

  20. Effects of communication skills on stress responses while speaking Japanese and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Kumi; Yagi, Akihiro; Miyata, Yo

    2008-08-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of communication skills on stress responses, such as physiological (blink and heart rate), emotional (state of anxiety and mood), and behavioral responses (smiling and expressing an opinion) in stressful communication situations, specifically answering questions and giving a speech in Japanese and English. Participants were 32 students (16 men and 16 women; Mage = 19.5 yr., SD = 1.3) attending a Japanese university. A high communication skills group was selected from the upper tertile scores of the Social Skills Inventory, and a low communication skills group was selected from the lower tertile scores. Analysis indicated that individuals who had high communication skills performed without heart-rate increase and with more positive attitude during stressful communication tasks. Individuals who had low communication skills displayed higher anxiety prior to the experiment than those who had high communication skills.

  1. Protective and risk factors associated with adolescent sexual and reproductive health in the English-speaking Caribbean: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Nanlesta A; Blum, Robert Wm

    2012-01-01

    To identify risk and protective factors associated with adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) in the English-speaking Caribbean through a structured literature review. Peer-reviewed articles published between January 1998 and December 2009 focused on the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents, aged 10-19 years, were included in this review. Articles were organized according to Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. Research gaps were also identified. A total of 30 studies assessed ASRH. At the individual level, gender, psychosocial well-being, and mental health were key factors associated with ASRH. Within the microsystem, the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship, the presence of violence, substance abuse or mental health problems in the family, and peer relationships were important determinants of ASRH. Within the macrosystem, cultural attitudes had an effect on youth's sexual behavior and generally, safer sex practices appear to be increasing. Within the chronosystem, a history of physical and sexual abuse was associated with several ASRH outcomes. A research agenda that incorporates a multisystem approach and advocates for the inclusion of socially marginalized youth is needed to fully understand and adequately address ASRH in the Caribbean. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Knowledge and attitudes towards mental illness among college students: insights into the wider English-speaking Caribbean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Farid F; Bachew, Raecho; Bodie, Dalecia; Leach, Richanna; Morris, Kevin; Sherma, Glenderia

    2014-02-01

    Mental illness is a significant contributor to global disease burden and this is expected to increase over the coming decades. Traditionally mental illness has not been well understood by the general public, resulting in poor attitudes towards persons with mental illness and stigmatization. Such conditions are common in the Caribbean where less than 5% of the health budget is allocated to mental illness. To assess knowledge and attitudes towards mental illness among college students within the English-speaking Caribbean. A self-report questionnaire was adapted from previous studies designed to measure knowledge and attitudes of mental illness. Students were sampled from the University of the West Indies campuses in Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad & Tobago. Responses were collected from 673 persons with a response rate of 84%. While participants were agreed that particular diseases were mental illnesses, overall knowledge scores were low. Knowledge was higher among those persons who knew someone with a mental illness. Attitude scores were suggestive of stigmatization, with drug abuse and schizophrenia seen in a particularly poor light. These results suggest that widespread educational campaigns need to be implemented across the region, designed to both increase knowledge about mental illness and reduce discrimination towards persons suffering with mental illness.

  3. Monolingual Lexicography and Linguistic Variation in Shona

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    when working on monolingual Shona dictionaries. ... ciplines often refer to the term variation. ... phers of monolingual dictionaries encounter in their work. 2. ..... used or the literal sense first and the rarely used or the metaphorical sense(s).

  4. Effects of traditional teaching vs a multisensory instructional package on the science achievement and attitudes of English language learners middle-school students and English-speaking middle-school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosley, Haver

    This research was designed to determine the relative effectiveness of a Multi-sensory Instructional Package (MIP) (Dunn & Dunn, 1992) versus Traditional Teaching (TT) on the science achievement- and attitude-test scores of middle-school English Language Learner (ELL) and English-speaking sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade middle-school students. The dependent variables were students' science- and attitude-test scores. The independent variables were the two instructional strategies, ELL and English-speaking (Non-ELL) status, and three grade levels. The sample consisted of 282 sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade ELL and Non-ELL middle-school students. Learning Styles: The Clue to You! (LS: CY) (Burke & Dunn, 1998) was administered to determine learning-style preferences. The control groups were taught sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade science lessons traditionally and the experimental groups were instructed on the same units using MIPs. The Semantic Differential Scale (SDS) (Pizzo, 1981) was administered to reveal attitudinal differences. All three groups experienced both traditional and multi-sensory instruction in all three sub-units. The data subjected to statistical analyses supported the use of an MIP rather than a traditional approach for teaching science content to both ELLs and English-speaking middle-school students. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a positive and significant impact on achievement scores. Furthermore, the students indicated significantly more positive attitudes when instructed with an MIP approach.

  5. Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Performance of Monolingual and Bilingual Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…

  6. The OEAD: New Perspectives on English–Arabic Dictionaries for English-Speaking Users and Users' Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radia Benzehra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: The article sheds light on the necessity of finding new techniques to rank the users' preferences for English–Arabic dictionaries. The first section of the article reports the findings of an experimental technique devised for this particular purpose. The reviews for dictionaries on Amazon. com turn out to be a more valuable source of lexicographical information than had been expected. It will also be shown how the reviews can determine the future buyers' choice as to which English–Arabic or Arabic–English dictionary would meet their needs. Based on the Amazon reviews, the article devotes a section to investigate the microstructural features of some lexical entries in the Oxford English–Arabic Dictionary of Current Usage (OEAD. To learn more about the dictionary's microstructure, the next section analyzes a pre-selected list of 113 lexical units in an attempt to test the dictionary for the amount of information it provides for some high-frequency items. The article deals with the OEAD mostly from the point of view of encoding English-speaking users. The Modern Language Association (MLA recently reported that from 1998 to 2002 there was a 92% increase in the number of Arabic programs throughout the United States, hence the pressing need for dictionaries designed with English-speaking users as the target group. The article suggests that an extensive linguistic revision of the OEAD will make it more systematic and userfriendly.

    OPSOMMING: Die OEAD: Nuwe perspektiewe op Engels–Arabiese woordeboeke vir Engelssprekende gebruikers en gebruikersopnames. Hierdie artikel werp lig op die noodsaaklikheid om nuwe tegnieke te kry om gebruikers se voorkeure vir Engels–Arabiese woordeboeke in rangorde te plaas. Die eerste afdeling van die artikel doen verslag van die bevindings van 'n eksperimentele tegniek ontwerp vir hierdie bepaalde doel. Die resensies van woordeboeke op Amazon.com het geblyk 'n meer waardevolle bron van

  7. The Use of Online Quizlet.com Resource Tools to Support Native English Speaking Students of Engineering and Medical Departments in Accelerated RFL Teaching and Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kh.E. Ismailova; K. Gleason; E.A. Provotorova; P.G. Matukhin

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a description of the methodology and some results of the application of tools of the language learning support portal Quizlet.com to improve the effectiveness of the accelerated development of the basic communicative skills in Russian as a foreign language (RFL) for the group of the English-speaking students who arrived to study in Russia engineering, medicine and other areas. The application of the development is the basics of Russian teaching and learning in the classroom...

  8. The Use of Online Quizlet.com Resource Tools to Support Native English Speaking Students of Engineering and Medical Departments in Accelerated RFL Teaching and Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ismailova , Kh ,; Gleason , K ,; Provotorova , P ,; Matukhin , P ,

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The paper presents a description of the methodology and some results of the application of tools of the language learning support portal Quizlet.com to improve the effectiveness of the accelerated development of the basic communicative skills in Russian as a foreign language (RFL) for the group of the English-speaking students who arrived to study in Russia engineering, medicine and other areas. The application of the development is the basics of Russian teaching and l...

  9. Word production inconsistency of Singaporean-English-speaking adolescents with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Betty; Brebner, Chris; McCormack, Paul; Butcher, Andy

    2015-01-01

    The nature of speech disorders in individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) remains controversial despite various explanations put forth in the literature to account for the observed speech profiles. A high level of word production inconsistency in children with DS has led researchers to query whether the inconsistency continues into adolescence, and if the inconsistency stems from inconsistent phonological disorder (IPD) or childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Of the studies that have been published, most suggest that the speech profile of individuals with DS is delayed, while a few recent studies suggest a combination of delayed and disordered patterns. However, no studies have explored the nature of word production inconsistency in this population, and the relationship between word production inconsistency, receptive vocabulary and severity of speech disorder. To investigate in a pilot study the extent of word production inconsistency in adolescents with DS and to examine the correlations between word production inconsistency, measures of receptive vocabulary, severity of speech disorder and oromotor skills in adolescents with DS. The participants were 32 native speakers of Singaporean-English adolescents, comprising 16 participants with DS and 16 typically developing (TD) participants. The participants completed a battery of standardized speech and language assessments, including The Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology (DEAP) assessment. Results from each test were correlated to determine relationships. Qualitative analyses were also carried out on all the data collected. In this study, seven out of 16 participants with DS scored above 40% on word production inconsistency, a diagnostic criterion for IPD. In addition, all participants with DS performed poorly on the oromotor assessment of DEAP. The overall speech profile observed did not exactly correspond with the cluster symptoms observed in children with IPD or CAS. Word production inconsistency is a

  10. Perceived language proficiency and pain assessment by registered and student nurses in native English-speaking and EAL children aged 4-7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azize, Pary M; Cattani, Allegra; Endacott, Ruth

    2018-03-01

    To identify the factors that influence decisions made by health professionals when assessing the pain of native English speaking and children whose English is an additional language. Pain assessment in children is often poorly executed following acute injury. Whilst a range of pain assessment tools have been developed, little guidance is provided for assessing pain in children with English as an additional language. Factorial survey design. Twenty minor injuries unit nurses and 20 children's nursing students participated in an electronic survey to make judgements on 12 scenarios describing a child attending a minor injuries unit following an incident, accompanied by a parent. Respondents had to decide the most important form of pain assessment, and whether they would ask a parent or an interpreter to assess the pain of the child. An open-ended question asked about the difficulties found in making a judgement. Observation of the child's behaviour was the most common pain assessment reported. The visual analogue scale was significantly associated with children with proficient English. Respondents were significantly more likely to involve parents in the assessment if they could speak English well compared to parents with poor English skills. Moreover, nursing students were significantly more likely than registered nurses to call for support from an interpreter. Thematic analysis identified three themes related to difficulties with pain assessment: contrasting approaches, differing perceptions of pain and overcoming challenges. The reduced ability to communicate between child, parent and healthcare professional highlights the need to identify forms of assessment based on individual cases. The number of children with English as an additional language has seen a marked rise over the last decade. In situations where communication ability is reduced, assessment of pain should be tailored to meet the needs of the child. This may require timely access to interpreter services

  11. Noun and verb knowledge in monolingual preschool children across 17 languages: Data from Cross-linguistic Lexical Tasks (LITMUS-CLT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haman, Ewa; Łuniewska, Magdalena; Hansen, Pernille; Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Chiat, Shula; Bjekić, Jovana; Blažienė, Agnė; Chyl, Katarzyna; Dabašinskienė, Ineta; Engel de Abreu, Pascale; Gagarina, Natalia; Gavarró, Anna; Håkansson, Gisela; Harel, Efrat; Holm, Elisabeth; Kapalková, Svetlana; Kunnari, Sari; Levorato, Chiara; Lindgren, Josefin; Mieszkowska, Karolina; Montes Salarich, Laia; Potgieter, Anneke; Ribu, Ingeborg; Ringblom, Natalia; Rinker, Tanja; Roch, Maja; Slančová, Daniela; Southwood, Frenette; Tedeschi, Roberta; Tuncer, Aylin Müge; Ünal-Logacev, Özlem; Vuksanović, Jasmina; Armon-Lotem, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the cross-linguistic comparability of the newly developed lexical assessment tool Cross-linguistic Lexical Tasks (LITMUS-CLT). LITMUS-CLT is a part the Language Impairment Testing in Multilingual Settings (LITMUS) battery (Armon-Lotem, de Jong & Meir, 2015). Here we analyse results on receptive and expressive word knowledge tasks for nouns and verbs across 17 languages from eight different language families: Baltic (Lithuanian), Bantu (isiXhosa), Finnic (Finnish), Germanic (Afrikaans, British English, South African English, German, Luxembourgish, Norwegian, Swedish), Romance (Catalan, Italian), Semitic (Hebrew), Slavic (Polish, Serbian, Slovak) and Turkic (Turkish). The participants were 639 monolingual children aged 3;0-6;11 living in 15 different countries. Differences in vocabulary size were small between 16 of the languages; but isiXhosa-speaking children knew significantly fewer words than speakers of the other languages. There was a robust effect of word class: accuracy was higher for nouns than verbs. Furthermore, comprehension was more advanced than production. Results are discussed in the context of cross-linguistic comparisons of lexical development in monolingual and bilingual populations.

  12. The Home Language Environment of Monolingual and Bilingual Children and Their Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheele, Anna F.; Leseman, Paul P. M.; Mayo, Aziza Y.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between home language learning activities and vocabulary in a sample of monolingual native Dutch (n = 58) and bilingual immigrant Moroccan-Dutch (n = 46) and Turkish-Dutch (n = 55) 3-year-olds, speaking Tarifit-Berber, a nonscripted language, and Turkish as their first language (L1), respectively. Despite…

  13. Narrative Development among Language-Minority Children: The Role of Bilingual versus Monolingual Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Shaul, Yehudit

    2013-01-01

    The development of script schema, as a source of narrative knowledge, is an essential stage in this knowledge construction. This study focused on the role of bilingual versus monolingual preschool education in the development of script schema knowledge in Russian (L1) and Hebrew (L2) among Russian/Hebrew-speaking children in Israel. The preschool…

  14. Phoneme Awareness, Vocabulary and Word Decoding in Monolingual and Bilingual Dutch Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Marije; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilingually raised children in the Netherlands, who receive literacy instruction in their second language only, show an advantage on Dutch phoneme-awareness tasks compared with monolingual Dutch-speaking children. Language performance of a group of 47 immigrant first-grade children with various…

  15. Representations and coverage of non-English-speaking immigrants and multicultural issues in three major Australian health care publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background No recent Australian studies or literature, provide evidence of the extent of coverage of multicultural health issues in Australian healthcare research. A series of systematic literature reviews in three major Australian healthcare journals were undertaken to discover the level, content, coverage and overall quality of research on multicultural health. Australian healthcare journals selected for the study were The Medical Journal of Australia (MJA), The Australian Health Review (AHR), and The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health (ANZPH). Reviews were undertaken of the last twelve (12) years (1996-August 2008) of journal articles using six standard search terms: 'non-English-speaking', 'ethnic', 'migrant', 'immigrant', 'refugee' and 'multicultural'. Results In total there were 4,146 articles published in these journals over the 12-year period. A total of 90 or 2.2% of the total articles were articles primarily based on multicultural issues. A further 62 articles contained a major or a moderate level of consideration of multicultural issues, and 107 had a minor mention. Conclusions The quantum and range of multicultural health research and evidence required for equity in policy, services, interventions and implementation is limited and uneven. Most of the original multicultural health research articles focused on newly arrived refugees, asylum seekers, Vietnamese or South East Asian communities. While there is some seminal research in respect of these represented groups, there are other communities and health issues that are essentially invisible or unrepresented in research. The limited coverage and representation of multicultural populations in research studies has implications for evidence-based health and human services policy. PMID:20044938

  16. Representations and coverage of non-English-speaking immigrants and multicultural issues in three major Australian health care publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Pamela W; Dickson, Hugh G; Whelan, Anna Klinken; Whyte, Linda

    2010-01-03

    No recent Australian studies or literature, provide evidence of the extent of coverage of multicultural health issues in Australian healthcare research. A series of systematic literature reviews in three major Australian healthcare journals were undertaken to discover the level, content, coverage and overall quality of research on multicultural health. Australian healthcare journals selected for the study were The Medical Journal of Australia (MJA), The Australian Health Review (AHR), and The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health (ANZPH). Reviews were undertaken of the last twelve (12) years (1996-August 2008) of journal articles using six standard search terms: 'non-English-speaking', 'ethnic', 'migrant', 'immigrant', 'refugee' and 'multicultural'. In total there were 4,146 articles published in these journals over the 12-year period. A total of 90 or 2.2% of the total articles were articles primarily based on multicultural issues. A further 62 articles contained a major or a moderate level of consideration of multicultural issues, and 107 had a minor mention. The quantum and range of multicultural health research and evidence required for equity in policy, services, interventions and implementation is limited and uneven. Most of the original multicultural health research articles focused on newly arrived refugees, asylum seekers, Vietnamese or South East Asian communities. While there is some seminal research in respect of these represented groups, there are other communities and health issues that are essentially invisible or unrepresented in research. The limited coverage and representation of multicultural populations in research studies has implications for evidence-based health and human services policy.

  17. Cultural conflict: the impact of western feminism(s) on nurses caring for women of non-English speaking background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Jeanine; Street, Annette

    2002-09-01

    Much research has been conducted for understanding the health needs of people of different cultural backgrounds and the problems they experience in seeking health care. In Australia, despite such research, it is argued that there remains an exclusionary health care culture that continues to affect equity and access for people of non-English speaking background. There was a need for research in which health professionals examined their own Anglo-Australian culture and its impact on other ethnic communities. Such concerns provided the impetus for a feminist praxis study to engage nurses in understanding and improving care for migrant women. This study was conducted with 26 nurses in a paediatric hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Five collaborative research groups were formed, each consisting of four to six nurses who were co-researchers. Together, the nurses and researchers explored the health care experiences of migrant women, using a variety of quantitative and qualitative data collection strategies. This paper explores a major finding of the study, which was the impact of liberal feminist approaches on the practices of Australian nurses who cared for women of different ethnicity and race. The study found that the efforts of liberal feminist nurses to "treat all people the same" meant that women from different cultural backgrounds did not always receive equity in care. Through the feminist praxis process the nurses were able to explore contradictions in their practice and focus on equity in care to meet the specific gendered and racially constructed needs of women of different cultural backgrounds. A number of strategies were adopted that included regular use of female health interpreters and provision of privacy for migrant women when caring for their children.

  18. Investigating Correlates of Self-Regulation in Early Childhood with a Representative Sample of English-Speaking American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor; Lapierre, Matthew A; Linebarger, Deborah L

    2013-04-01

    Children who possess less self-regulatory skill are at a disadvantage when compared to children who demonstrate greater skill at regulating their emotions, cognitions and behavior. Children with these regulatory deficits have difficulty connecting with peers, generating relationships with teachers, negotiating their social world, and succeeding academically. By understanding the correlates of self-regulatory abilities, interventions can be developed to ensure that children at-risk for poor self-regulation receive the support necessary to enhance their regulatory skills. Using data from a nationally representative survey of English-speaking American parents with children between the ages of two and eight ( n  = 1,141), we evaluated a host of demographic and parenting variables to isolate the correlates of self-regulation. Older children were found to have fewer regulatory problems than younger children while children from low-income homes and male children were found to have greater problems with self-regulation. Minority status, household composition (single vs multi-parent), and parental education were not significant correlates of self-regulation. Findings also illustrate the powerful relationship between parenting style and self-regulation. Parents who rely on nurturing parenting practices that reinforce the child's sense of autonomy while still maintaining a consistent parenting presence (i.e., authoritative parenting) have children who demonstrate stronger self-regulatory skills. Parents who exert an excess of parental control (i.e., authoritarian parents) have children with weaker self-regulatory skills. And lastly, parents who have notable absence of control (i.e., permissive parents) are more likely to have children with considerable regulatory deficits. Results offer implications for both practitioners and scholars.

  19. The Use of a Monolingual Dictionary for Meaning Determination by Advanced Cantonese ESL Learners in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a study which investigated advanced Cantonese English as a Second Language (ESL) learners' use of a monolingual dictionary for determining the meanings of familiar English words used in less familiar contexts. Thirty-two university English majors in Hong Kong participated in a dictionary consultation task,…

  20. A Growth Curve Analysis of Literacy Performance among Second-Grade, Spanish-Speaking, English-Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiierrez, Gabriel; Vanderwood, Mike L.

    2013-01-01

    The literacy growth of 260 second-grade English learners (ELs) with varying degrees of English language proficiency (e.g., Beginning, Early Intermediate, Intermediate, Early Advanced and Advanced English language proficiency) was assessed with English literacy skill assessments. Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills measures were…

  1. Conceptualising English as a lingua franca (ELF) as a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of English Studies, University of Vienna, Spitalgasse 2, Hof 8. 1090 Vienna .... warning tone on the use of English as medium of higher education as regards various concerns ... of monolingual English speakers will surely not work.

  2. Limits on Monolingualism? A comparison of monolingual and bilingual infants’ abilities to integrate lexical tone in novel word learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leher eSingh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To construct their first lexicon, infants must determine the relationship between native phonological variation and the meanings of words. This process is arguably more complex for bilingual learners who are often confronted with phonological conflict: phonological variation that is lexically relevant in one language may be lexically irrelevant in the other. In a series of four experiments, the present study investigated English-Mandarin bilingual infants’ abilities to negotiate phonological conflict introduced by learning both a tone and a non-tone language. In a novel word learning task, bilingual children were tested on their sensitivity to tone variation in English and Mandarin contexts. Their abilities to interpret tone variation in a language-dependent manner were compared to those of monolingual Mandarin learning infants. Results demonstrated that at 12 to 13 months, bilingual infants demonstrated the ability to bind tone to word meanings in Mandarin, but to disregard tone variation when learning new words in English. In contrast, monolingual learners of Mandarin did not show evidence of integrating tones into word meanings in Mandarin at the same age even though they were learning a tone language. However, a tone discrimination paradigm confirmed that monolingual Mandarin learning infants were able to tell these tones apart at 12 to 13 months under a different set of conditions. Later, at 17 to 18 months, monolingual Mandarin learners were able to bind tone variation to word meanings when learning new words. Our findings are discussed in terms of cognitive adaptations associated with bilingualism that may ease the negotiation of phonological conflict and facilitate precocious uptake of certain properties of each language.

  3. Using Songs to Encourage Sixth Graders to Develop English Speaking Skills (Uso de canciones para motivar a los estudiantes de grado sexto a desarrollar habilidades orales en inglés)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Romero, Mónica Duarte; Tinjacá Bernal, Luz Mery; Carrero Olivares, Marilú

    2012-01-01

    This article contains the procedures and findings of an investigation carried out by a team of teachers with the purpose of motivating students to speak English. We observed students' lack confidence to talk and that they had little motivation toward learning English. Thus, we used songs as a main resource in conjunction with different kind of…

  4. Relationship between speaking English as a second language and agitation in people with dementia living in care homes: Results from the MARQUE (Managing Agitation and Raising Quality of life) English national care home survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C; Rapaport, P; Robertson, S; Marston, L; Barber, J; Manela, M; Livingston, G

    2018-03-01

    As not speaking English as a first language may lead to increased difficulties in communication with staff and other residents, we (1) tested our primary hypotheses that care home residents with dementia speaking English as a second language experience more agitation and overall neuropsychiatric symptoms, and (2) explored qualitatively how staff consider that residents' language, ethnicity, and culture might impact on how they manage agitation. We interviewed staff, residents with dementia, and their family carers from 86 care homes (2014-2015) about resident's neuropsychiatric symptoms, agitation, life quality, and dementia severity. We qualitatively interviewed 25 staff. Seventy-one out of 1420 (5%) of care home residents with dementia interviewed spoke English as a second language. After controlling for dementia severity, age, and sex, and accounting for care home and staff proxy clustering, speaking English as a second language compared with as a first language was associated with significantly higher Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (adjusted difference in means 8.3, 95% confidence interval 4.1 to 12.5) and Neuropsychiatric inventory scores (4.1, 0.65 to 7.5). Staff narratives described how linguistic and culturally isolating being in a care home where no residents or staff share your culture or language could be for people with dementia, and how this sometimes caused or worsened agitation. Considering a person with dementia's need to be understood when selecting a care home and developing technology resources to enable dementia-friendly translation services could be important strategies for reducing distress of people with dementia from minority ethnic groups who live in care homes. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A report of the 1995 and 1996 Paternity Testing Workshops of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Haemogenetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, A; Syndercombe-Court, Denise; Lincoln, P

    1997-01-01

    We report the results of the 1995 and 1996 Paternity Testing Workshops of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Haemogenetics. In 1995, 18 laboratories participated and in 1996, 21 laboratories participated. Each year, blood samples from three persons (child...... of the laboratories performed RFLP typing of VNTR loci using very similar methods. The results and the inter-laboratory variations of the measured lengths of the DNA-fragments of the VNTR regions D2S44, D7S21, D7S22, and D12S11 of the trios were analysed. The overall coefficient of variation was 2.15% in 1995 and 1...

  6. The English-Language and Reading Achievement of a Cohort of Deaf Students Speaking and Signing Standard English: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Luetke, Barbara; McLean, Meigan; Stryker, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that English-language proficiency is critical if students who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) are to read as their hearing peers. One explanation for the traditionally reported reading achievement plateau when students are D/HH is the inability to hear insalient English morphology. Signing Exact English can provide visual access to these features. The authors investigated the English morphological and syntactic abilities and reading achievement of elementary and middle school students at a school using simultaneously spoken and signed Standard American English facilitated by intentional listening, speech, and language strategies. A developmental trend (and no plateau) in language and reading achievement was detected; most participants demonstrated average or above-average English. Morphological awareness was prerequisite to high test scores; speech was not significantly correlated with achievement; language proficiency, measured by the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4 (Semel, Wiig, & Secord, 2003), predicted reading achievement.

  7. Maori English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclagan, Margaret; King, Jeanette; Gillon, Gail

    2008-01-01

    The Maori language is the language of the indigenous people of New Zealand. Today, not all Maori speak the Maori language, and many Maori as well as non-Maori speak Maori English, the fastest growing of the main varieties of New Zealand English. This paper provides a background to the linguistic situation of the Maori populace in New Zealand,…

  8. The Evolution of Beliefs and Opinions on Matters related to Marriage and Sexual Behaviour among French-speaking Catholic Quebecers and English-speaking Protestant Ontarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Laplante

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue that the important changes in behaviour related to family and sexual life that were seen in Quebec during the second half of the 20th century are a consequence of a major transformation of the foundation of the normative system shared by the members of Quebec’s main socio-religious group, Frenchspeaking Catholics. Using data from Gallup polls, the authors compare the evolution of the opinions of French-speaking Quebec Catholics and Englishspeaking Ontario Protestants on matters related to sexual and family behaviour from the 1950s to the beginning of the 2000s. The general result is that the evolution of the differences between the two groups is compatible with the hypothesis.

  9. A systematic review of the experiences of undergraduate nursing students choosing to study at an English speaking university outside their homeland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwijn, Ruth; Pearce, Susanne; Rogers-Clark, Catherine

    Increasingly overseas students are attending university nursing programs in English-speaking countries to gain additional tertiary qualifications that may not be available in their homeland and also to fill the international nursing shortfall. For these students, some common issues identified and affirmed in qualitative research papers include loneliness, discriminatory experiences, developing communication, and academic skills. This systematic review will help identify and synthesise current issues through exploring the existing literature, giving an insight into the lives of international nursing students. Given the large and increasing number of these students, it is important to acknowledge and improve learning and other outcomes for them. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the best available evidence in relation to the experiences of undergraduate nursing students choosing to study at an English speaking university outside their homeland. This review sought high quality studies aimed at exploring the experience of undergraduate nursing students studying outside their homeland at an English speaking university. Both qualitative research studies and opinion-based text were considered for this review. An extensive search of the literature was conducted to identify research studies published between January 1990 and April 2011 in English and indexed in 37 major databases. All included articles were assessed independently by two reviewers (RT and SP), using the appropriate critical appraisal tool from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data were extracted from included papers using appropriate standardised data extraction tools developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data from qualitative studies and textual and opinion papers were meta-synthesised separately using standardised instruments. Data synthesis of all included studies involved the pooling of findings and then grouping into categories on a basis of similarity of meaning. The categories

  10. The Use of Online Quizlet.com Resource Tools to Support Native English Speaking Students of Engineering and Medical Departments in Accelerated RFL Teaching and Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh.E. Ismailova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a description of the methodology and some results of the application of tools of the language learning support portal Quizlet.com to improve the effectiveness of the accelerated development of the basic communicative skills in Russian as a foreign language (RFL for the group of the English-speaking students who arrived to study in Russia engineering, medicine and other areas. The application of the development is the basics of Russian teaching and learning in the classroom as well as in the mode of self-education and out-of-classroom events. Special attention is paid to the use of cloud-based tools to organize and conduct extracurricular activities. Particularly in the promising subject connected with the use of 3D printers for the solution of engineering problems of prosthetics of the lost bodies of animals and birds on the example of the Toucan key restoration. Analysis of the results of the use of flash cards, tests, and group games showed the promise of using the sets of Quizlet.com tools for accelerated assimilation of the native English speaking students in the area of General and special RFL vocabulary, as well as students showed that in a short time they can get and develop their basic skills of listening, reading and writing in Russian communication when Quizlet tools being used in different modes.

  11. Bilingualised or Monolingual Dictionaries? Preferences and Practices of Advanced ESL Learners in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a questionnaire and interview survey on Cantonese ESL learners' preference for bilingualised dictionaries or monolingual dictionaries. The questionnaire survey was implemented with about 160 university English majors in Hong Kong and three focus group interviews were conducted with 14 of these participants.…

  12. Comparing the Effect of Using Monolingual versus Bilingual Dictionary on Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners' Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangari, Saeideh; Dogolsara, Shokoufeh Abbasi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of using two types of dictionaries (monolingual and bilingual) on Iranian intermediate EFL learners' vocabulary learning. An OPT (Oxford placement test, 2001) was administered among 90 students 60 of whom were selected as the participants of this study. They were sophomore students studying English as a…

  13. Behavioral Problems and Reading Difficulties among Language Minority and Monolingual Urban Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Margaret E.; Wechsler-Zimring, Adrianna; Noam, Gil; Wolf, Maryanne; Katzir, Tami

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the potentially compounding effect of language minority (LM) status on problem behaviors among urban second and third grade-level poor readers. Univariate analyses showed that a disproportionate percentage of both LM and English monolingual (L1) poor readers already displayed clinically significant levels of anxiety, social…

  14. Using non-scripted role-play to teach speaking skills: A study of English conversation of Thai college students at Yala Rajbhat University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuchanan Naksevee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of the non-scripted role-play activities to improve the oral performance of Thai college students with high and low English proficiency. It attempted to address the following questions: a Do high and low proficiency students perform differently in non-scripted role-play based on scores obtained from pre- and post-tests? If so, how? ; and b Can non-scripted role-play enhance the students’ speaking skills? Which group of students performs better in the non-scripted role-play? The data examined were obtained from tape recorded role-play of 16 non-English-major students (8 each proficiency level during their pre- and post-tests at Yala Rajabhat University in Southern Thailand. The role- play conversations were transcribed and analyzed following the Conversation Analysis (CA framework. The study found that the post test scores of both groups were significantly higher than their pre-test scores at the level of 0.00. The t-test result also revealed that the low proficiency students showed a significant degree of speaking improvement in terms of manner of expression and ability to interact at the level of 0.04 and 0.02 respectively. On the other hand, while improving on the same aspects, the high proficiency students also showed significant improvement in terms of fluency (sig = 0.02. The findings indicated that non- scripted role-play activities helped improve the students’ speaking skills and develop their ability to use the language naturally. Close single-case analyses additionally revealed that despite being traditionally taught conversation lessons with more focus on form and meaning, the participants trained with role-play noticeably improved on the language functions of genuine conversation. It was recommended that role-play activities be used in company with function-focused conversation lessons for the learners’ greater benefits.

  15. Refusal Strategies in L1 and L2: A Study of Persian-Speaking Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babai Shishavan, Homa; Sharifian, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore pragmalinguistic strategies employed by a group of Iranian English language learners when making refusals to invitations, requests, offers and suggestions in their first (Persian) and second (English) languages. Data were collected from 86 participants through a Discourse Completion Test (DCT). The social…

  16. Monolingual Lexicography and Linguistic Variation in Shona

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    Abstract: This article focuses on the problems lexicographers of monolingual dictionaries face when dealing with a language characterised by differences associated with geographical variation. The article specifically seeks to explore problems with which Shona lexicographers are confronted when working on monolingual ...

  17. DIMENSIONS OF THE ABILITY TO SPEAK IN ENGLISH FOR THE MEDICAL PROFESSIONAL / DIMENSIONES DE LA HABILIDAD HABLAR EN INGLÉS PARA EL PROFESIONAL MÉDICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvia Amalia Rondón Palmero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation left of the social necessity of favoring the development of the ability to speak in English from the teaching-learning process in the students of the career of Medicine. The antecedents and foundations are presented that sustain the investigation and that they embrace the pedagogic categories, sociolinguistic, didactic, psychological and dramaturgical, as a result of the systematizing of the knowledge referred to the development of the ability to speak in English. The didactic strategy grants to the student the main character in the activities of oral communication that are carried out in English's class and in other contexts, it also integrates in its actions the dimensions sociolinguistic, expressive non-verbal and axiological-professional, by means of the collaborative work, the interactive methods and the use of psychophysical performance procedures. RESUMEN La presente investigación partió de la necesidad social de favorecer el desarrollo de la habilidad hablar en inglés desde el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en los estudiantes de la carrera de Medicina. Se presentan los antecedentes y fundamentos que sustentan la investigación y que abarcan las categorías pedagógicas, sociolingüísticas, didácticas, psicológicas y dramatúrgica, como resultado de la sistematización de los conocimientos referidos al desarrollo de la habilidad hablar en inglés. La estrategia didáctica le concede al estudiante protagonismo en las actividades de comunicación oral que se realizan en la clase de inglés y en contextos no áulicos, además integra en sus acciones las dimensiones sociolingüística, expresiva no verbal y axiológica profesional, mediante el trabajo grupal, los métodos interactivos y el uso de procedimientos psicofísicos de actuación.

  18. USING THINK-PAIR-SHARE TO IMPROVE SPEAKING ACHIEVEMENT OF THE SECOND SEMESTER ENGLISH STUDY PROGRAM OF TRIDINANTI UNIVERSITY PALEMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Elvinna Manurung

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at improving the speaking achievement of the second semester students of Tridinanti Palembang by using Think-Pair-Share strategy (TPR. This study was an action research study. The steps in conducting the study were planning, actions and observation of action and reflections. The population of the study was all of the second semester students of Tridinanti University in the academic year 2016/2017. The sample used one class (10students. The data collections used by the researcher were tests and observation. The learning improvement indicators included in two things; (1 learning achievement, (2 teaching and learning process. In the study, the implementation was conducted into two cycles. The results showed that the average score of students’ speaking achievement was 66 in cycle I and the observation result was 62.82. The result had not been reached the target yet that was >70. At least more than 85% students could achieve the score above 70. Thus, cycle II was necessary to be implemented. In cycle II, the average score of speaking test was 81and the observation result was 81.06. The students had reached the target and the cycle was stopped. In conclusion, the implementation of TPR had brought significant improvement to the students’ speaking achievement.

  19. Multilingualism in the English-Language Classroom: Pedagogical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of whether TESOL should clearly articulate a set of pedagogical principles that challenge the assumption that English language teaching (ELT) should be conducted monolingually through English. This "monolingual principle" emphasizes instructional use of the target language (TL) to the exclusion of students' home…

  20. Influences on preschool children's oral health-related quality of life as reported by English and Spanish-speaking parents and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Catherine D; Divaris, Kimon; Zeldin, Leslie P; Rozier, R Gary

    2016-09-01

    This study examined young, preschool children's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among a community-based cohort of English and Spanish-speaking parent-child dyads in North Carolina, and sought to quantify the association of parent/caregiver characteristics, including spoken language, with OHRQoL impacts. Data from structured interviews with 1,111 parents of children aged 6-23 months enrolled in the Zero-Out Early Childhood Caries study in 2010-2012 were used. OHRQoL was measured using the overall score (range: 0-52) of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). We examined associations with parents' sociodemographic characteristics, spoken language, self-reported oral and general health, oral health knowledge, children's dental attendance, and dental care needs. Analyses included descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate methods based upon zero-inflated negative binomial regression. To determine differences between English and Spanish speakers, language-stratified model estimates were contrasted using homogeneity χ 2 tests. The mean overall ECOHIS score was 3.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.6-4.2]; 4.7 among English-speakers and 1.5 among Spanish speakers. In multivariate analyses, caregivers' education showed a positive association with OHRQoL impacts among Spanish speakers [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.12 (95% CI = 1.03-1.22), for every added year of schooling], whereas caregivers' fair/poor oral health showed a positive association among English speakers (PR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.02-1.41). The overall severity of ECOHIS impacts was low among this population-based sample of young, preschool children, and substantially lower among Spanish versus English speakers. Further studies are warranted to identify sources of these differences in - actual or reported - OHRQoL impacts. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  1. Constraints on Tone Sensitivity in Novel Word Learning by Monolingual and Bilingual Infants: Tone Properties Are More Influential than Tone Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Denis; Singh, Leher; Mattock, Karen; Woo, Pei J.; Kalashnikova, Marina

    2018-01-01

    This study compared tone sensitivity in monolingual and bilingual infants in a novel word learning task. Tone language learning infants (Experiment 1, Mandarin monolingual; Experiment 2, Mandarin-English bilingual) were tested with Mandarin (native) or Thai (non-native) lexical tone pairs which contrasted static vs. dynamic (high vs. rising) tones or dynamic vs. dynamic (rising vs. falling) tones. Non-tone language, English-learning infants (Experiment 3) were tested on English intonational contrasts or the Mandarin or Thai tone contrasts. Monolingual Mandarin language infants were able to bind tones to novel words for the Mandarin High-Rising contrast, but not for the Mandarin Rising-Falling contrast; and they were insensitive to both the High-Rising and the Rising-Falling tone contrasts in Thai. Bilingual English-Mandarin infants were similar to the Mandarin monolinguals in that they were sensitive to the Mandarin High-Rising contrast and not to the Mandarin Rising-Falling contrast. However, unlike the Mandarin monolinguals, they were also sensitive to the High Rising contrast in Thai. Monolingual English learning infants were insensitive to all three types of contrasts (Mandarin, Thai, English), although they did respond differentially to tone-bearing vs. intonation-marked words. Findings suggest that infants' sensitivity to tones in word learning contexts depends heavily on tone properties, and that this influence is, in some cases, stronger than effects of language familiarity. Moreover, bilingual infants demonstrated greater phonological flexibility in tone interpretation. PMID:29354077

  2. Surmounting the Tower of Babel: Monolingual and bilingual 2-year-olds' understanding of the nature of foreign language words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Chen, Ke Heng; Xu, Fei

    2014-03-01

    Languages function as independent and distinct conventional systems, and so each language uses different words to label the same objects. This study investigated whether 2-year-old children recognize that speakers of their native language and speakers of a foreign language do not share the same knowledge. Two groups of children unfamiliar with Mandarin were tested: monolingual English-learning children (n=24) and bilingual children learning English and another language (n=24). An English speaker taught children the novel label fep. On English mutual exclusivity trials, the speaker asked for the referent of a novel label (wug) in the presence of the fep and a novel object. Both monolingual and bilingual children disambiguated the reference of the novel word using a mutual exclusivity strategy, choosing the novel object rather than the fep. On similar trials with a Mandarin speaker, children were asked to find the referent of a novel Mandarin label kuò. Monolinguals again chose the novel object rather than the object with the English label fep, even though the Mandarin speaker had no access to conventional English words. Bilinguals did not respond systematically to the Mandarin speaker, suggesting that they had enhanced understanding of the Mandarin speaker's ignorance of English words. The results indicate that monolingual children initially expect words to be conventionally shared across all speakers-native and foreign. Early bilingual experience facilitates children's discovery of the nature of foreign language words. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. English Textbooks in Japan and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Katsura

    2010-01-01

    English education in Japan and Korea are similar in some respects. Although both countries are not completely but mostly monolingual societies, where citizens do not need English in their daily life, they have begun to realize the importance of English as a tool for international communication, and as a result their English education is becoming…

  4. A Comparative Study of Listening Comprehension Measures in English as an Additional Language and Native English-Speaking Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendry, Mairead Grainne; Murphy, Victoria A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of different measures of listening comprehension for Years 2, 3 and 4 children with English as an additional language (EAL). Non-standardised uses of reading comprehension measures are often employed as proxy measures of listening comprehension, i.e. for purposes for which they were not…

  5. 'You find yourself.' Perceptions of nursing students from non-English speaking backgrounds of the effect of an intensive language support program on their oral clinical communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Fran; San Miguel, Caroline; Brown, Di; Kilstoff, Kathleen

    2006-10-01

    Nurses of ethnically diverse backgrounds are essential in providing multicultural populations in western societies with culturally and linguistically competent health care. However, many nurses from non-English speaking backgrounds (NESB) are at high risk of failure in university programs particularly during clinical placements. Few studies investigate the clinical experiences of students from NESB and strategies to support their learning. This study describes perceptions of fifteen undergraduate nursing students from NESB about their first clinical placement in an Australian university program and the effect of a language support program on their oral clinical communication skills. Three categories arose: *Wanting to belong but feeling excluded; *Wanting to learn how to...; and *You find yourself. While many students find clinical placement challenging, it appeared difficult for students in this study as language and cultural adjustments required some modification of their usual ways of thinking and communicating, often without coping strategies available to other students.

  6. Exploring the lived experience and chronic low back pain beliefs of English-speaking Punjabi and white British people: a qualitative study within the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Newton, Christopher; O'Sullivan, Kieran; Soundy, Andrew; Heneghan, Nicola R

    2018-02-11

    Disabling chronic low back pain (CLBP) is associated with negative beliefs and behaviours, which are influenced by culture, religion and interactions with healthcare practitioners (HCPs). In the UK, HCPs encounter people from different cultures and ethnic backgrounds, with South Asian Indians (including Punjabis) forming the largest ethnic minority group. Better understanding of the beliefs and experiences of ethnic minorities with CLBP might inform effective management. To explore the CLBP beliefs and experiences of English-speaking Punjabi and white British people living with CLBP, explore how beliefs may influence the lived experience of CLBP and conduct cross-cultural comparisons between the two groups. Qualitative study using semistructured interviews set within an interpretive description framework and thematic analysis. A National Health Service hospital physiotherapy department, Leicester, UK. 10 CLBP participants (5 English-speaking Punjabi and 5 white British) purposively recruited from physiotherapy waiting lists. Participants from both groups held negative biomedical CLBP beliefs such as the 'spine is weak', experienced unfulfilling interactions with HCPs commonly due to a perceived lack of support and negative psychosocial dimensions of CLBP with most participants catastrophising about their CLBP. Specific findings to Punjabi participants included (1) disruption to cultural-religious well-being, as well as (2) a perceived lack of understanding and empathy regarding their CLBP from the Punjabi community. In contrast to their white British counterparts, Punjabi participants reported initially using passive coping strategies; however, all participants reported a transition towards active coping strategies. CLBP beliefs and experiences, irrespective of ethnicity, were primarily biomedically orientated. However, cross-cultural differences included cultural-religious well-being, the community response to CLBP experienced by Punjabi participants and coping

  7. Exploring the lived experience and chronic low back pain beliefs of English-speaking Punjabi and white British people: a qualitative study within the NHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Newton, Christopher; O’Sullivan, Kieran

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Disabling chronic low back pain (CLBP) is associated with negative beliefs and behaviours, which are influenced by culture, religion and interactions with healthcare practitioners (HCPs). In the UK, HCPs encounter people from different cultures and ethnic backgrounds, with South Asian Indians (including Punjabis) forming the largest ethnic minority group. Better understanding of the beliefs and experiences of ethnic minorities with CLBP might inform effective management. Objectives To explore the CLBP beliefs and experiences of English-speaking Punjabi and white British people living with CLBP, explore how beliefs may influence the lived experience of CLBP and conduct cross-cultural comparisons between the two groups. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews set within an interpretive description framework and thematic analysis. Setting A National Health Service hospital physiotherapy department, Leicester, UK. Participants 10 CLBP participants (5 English-speaking Punjabi and 5 white British) purposively recruited from physiotherapy waiting lists. Results Participants from both groups held negative biomedical CLBP beliefs such as the ‘spine is weak’, experienced unfulfilling interactions with HCPs commonly due to a perceived lack of support and negative psychosocial dimensions of CLBP with most participants catastrophising about their CLBP. Specific findings to Punjabi participants included (1) disruption to cultural-religious well-being, as well as (2) a perceived lack of understanding and empathy regarding their CLBP from the Punjabi community. In contrast to their white British counterparts, Punjabi participants reported initially using passive coping strategies; however, all participants reported a transition towards active coping strategies. Conclusion CLBP beliefs and experiences, irrespective of ethnicity, were primarily biomedically orientated. However, cross-cultural differences included cultural-religious well-being, the

  8. The System of Creative Tasks for Activization of French and English Speaking of Future Teachers (Experience of Universities of Odessa Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kniazian Marianna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In today's multi-ethnic world, one of the most important problems is the development of future teachers’ communicative competence, cultural pluralism, plurilingualism and tolerance. It is important to enrich individual person’s experience of language in its cultural contexts. This issue is related to such an important task as the activization of students’ speaking in foreign language classes. There is interesting experience of teaching speaking in French and English at universities in Odessa region. We offer the students the following system of creative tasks: representative (involve retelling the course of events, description of the characters; analytical (direct students to analyze the actions and behaviour of heroes of short stories, to compare the characters; hypothetical (guide students how to express their viewpoints on the factors that have influenced the nature of the character, his or her deeds. In addition to creative tasks the linguistic exercises are offered to the future teachers. These tasks have been developed in the process of studying the stories of Guy de Maupassant («La Parure», «Deux amis», «Le Papa de Simon», «Sur l’eau», « Clair de lune », O. Henry (« The Last Leaf», « The Gift of the Magi », John Galsworthy ( « Acme », « The First and the Last ».

  9. Using Moos To Help Learn English; Video Jigsaw; Practicing Speaking with Follow-Up Interviews and Student-Read Dictations; "Ask the Expert": Oral Presentations that Work; The Medium Is the Message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James; Reynolds, Judith; Noble, P. C.; Altschuler, Lee; Schauber, Holli

    2001-01-01

    Four short articles provide teaching tips for the English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language classroom, including the use of Moos, a video jigsaw, practicing oral language skills with interviews and student-read dictations, an ask the expert activity which builds learner confidence in speaking in front of groups of people. (Author/VWL)

  10. The Role of SES in Chinese (L1) and English (L2) Word Reading in Chinese-Speaking Kindergarteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duo; Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and word reading in both Chinese (L1) and English (L2), with children's cognitive/linguistic skills considered as mediators and/or moderators. One hundred ninety-nine Chinese kindergarteners in Hong Kong with diverse SES backgrounds participated in this study. SES…

  11. Cross-cultural validation of the parent-patient activation measure in low income Spanish- and English-speaking parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCamp, Lisa Ross; Leifheit, Kathryn; Shah, Harita; Valenzuela-Araujo, Doris; Sloand, Elizabeth; Polk, Sarah; Cheng, Tina L

    2016-12-01

    (1) To measure healthcare activation among low-income parents by language (English/Spanish); and (2) to assess the psychometrics of the Parent-Patient Activation Measure (P-PAM) in the study population. We surveyed parents/guardians of publicly-insured children who were established patients at a pediatrics clinic for ≥6months. Surveys included the Parent-Patient Activation Measure (P-PAM), a 13-item measure adapted from the well-validated Patient Activation Measure (PAM). Of 316 surveys, 68% were completed in Spanish. Mean activation score in the English-language survey group was 79.1 (SD 16.2); mean score in the Spanish-language group was 70.7 (SD 17.9) (pSpanish α=0.93). The P-PAM had acceptable test-retest reliability, but no previously reported PAM factor structure fit the study data adequately for either language. Healthcare activation among low-income parents was greater for parents surveyed in English compared with those surveyed in Spanish. The P-PAM has acceptable reliability and validity in English and Spanish, but a different factor structure than the PAM. Activation as measured by the P-PAM may not have the same associations with or impact on health/healthcare outcomes in pediatrics compared with adults owing to possible measure differences between the P-PAM and PAM. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Can a Microwave Heat up Coffee? How English- and Japanese-Speaking Children Choose Subjects in Lexical Causative Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanero, Junko; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2016-01-01

    Languages differ greatly in how they express causal events. In languages like Japanese, the subjects of causative sentences, or "causers," are generally animate and intentional, whereas in other languages like English, causers range widely from animate beings to inanimate objects (e.g. Wolff, Jeon & Li, 2009). This paper explores…

  13. The timing and magnitude of Stroop interference and facilitation in monolinguals and bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Emily L; VAN Heuven, Walter J B; Conklin, Kathy

    2013-04-01

    Executive control abilities and lexical access speed in Stroop performance were investigated in English monolinguals and two groups of bilinguals (English-Chinese and Chinese-English) in their first (L1) and second (L2) languages. Predictions were based on a bilingual cognitive advantage hypothesis, implicating cognitive control ability as the critical factor determining Stroop interference; and two bilingual lexical disadvantage hypotheses, focusing on lexical access speed. Importantly, each hypothesis predicts different response patterns in a Stroop task manipulating stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). There was evidence for a bilingual cognitive advantage, although this effect was sensitive to a number of variables including proficiency, language immersion, and script. In lexical access speed, no differences occurred between monolinguals and bilinguals in their native languages, but there was evidence for a delay in L2 processing speed relative to the L1. Overall, the data highlight the multitude of factors affecting executive control and lexical access speed in bilinguals.

  14. Developmental aspects of English argument structure constructions for Korean-speaking second language learners: Usage-based constructional approaches to language development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu-Ho Shin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates developmental aspects of English Argument Structure Constructions (ASCs for Korean-speaking second language (L2 learners, providing evidence of how they manifest human domain-general cognitive systems during language acquisition via usage-based constructional approaches to language development. Participants were instructed on six English ASC types with their representative verbs for three months. The data from grammaticality preference tasks, writing tests, and free-writing tasks were analysed. Comprehension data from the grammaticality preference tasks showed significant improvement in understanding ASCs after instruction, supporting sentence-level generalisations for language comprehension independent of individual verbs. The production data from the writing tests demonstrated more frequent use of two-argument constructions than three-argument ones, which indicates the internal complexity between ASC types. The results of the writing tests also displayed skewed exploitation of verbs representative of the target ASCs, implying a frequency-sensitive nature of language acquisition. All production data further revealed active use of prefabricated chunks and incorporation of new and old language items. Taken all together, these observations suggest language learners’ merging narrowly stabilised L2 routines with other (non-linguistic resources as necessary, sustaining efficiency in a sentence-building process, under the superintendence of cognitive factors when satisfying communicative intents.

  15. Making out in English (English phrasebook)

    CERN Document Server

    Crownover, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Making Out in English is a fun, accessible and thorough English phrase book and guide to the English language as it's really spoken. If you are a student, businessman or tourist traveling to the English speaking world and would like to have an authentic and meaningful experience, the key is being able to speak like a local. This friendly and easy-to-use English phrasebook makes this possible. Making Out in English has been revised and redesigned to act as a guide to modern colloquial English for use in everyday informal interactions—giving access to the sort of catchy English expressions that

  16. Assessment of satisfaction with care and decision-making among English and Spanish-speaking family members of neuroscience ICU patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, Thomas A; Velázquez, Ángela; Schmidt, J Michael; Falo, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Patients' and family members' experiences of hospital care are important indicators of quality. "Black, Asian, and Hispanic patients are more at risk than White patients for decreased satisfaction with care." In addition, of any of these groups, Hispanic patients were most likely to report a lack of patient-centered care. In the intensive care setting, (ICU) previous research has indicated that the needs and satisfaction of family members of neurological ICU patients are different from those of family members of other types of ICU patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if there were any differences between English-speaking and Spanish-speaking family members of patients in a neurological ICU. This study was a single center prospective study conducted over a 10-month period from April 2013 to February 2014 in the 18-bed neuroscience ICU of a large, urban, academic medical center. The Family Satisfaction with ICU (FS-ICU) questionnaire was used; it provides an overall score and has two factors: satisfaction with care and satisfaction with decision-making. There was no statistical significance between the two groups in overall satisfaction or in satisfaction with care, however Spanish-speakers (n=22) were significantly less satisfied (p=.04) than English-speakers (n=50) with decision-making. There were three other discreet variables in which Spanish-speakers were also less satisfied: (a) management of patients' pain (OR 3.16, 95% CI [1.12, 8.9]) (b) management of patients' breathlessness (OR 3.5, 95% CI [1.23, 9.96]) as well as (c) ease of getting information (OR 3.25, 95% CI [1.09, 9.64]). Using a standardized survey it was found that Spanish-speakers were statistically less satisfied with decision-making than English-speakers. Additionally, Spanish-speakers were statistically less satisfied with management of patients' pain and breathlessness and ease of getting information. Based on these findings, increased vigilance is recommended regarding decision

  17. Action video games improve reading abilities and visual-to-auditory attentional shifting in English-speaking children with dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Franceschini, Sandro; Trevisan, Piergiorgio; Ronconi, Luca; Bertoni, Sara; Colmar, Susan; Double, Kit; Facoetti, Andrea; Gori, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties in learning to read and there is some evidence that action video games (AVG), without any direct phonological or orthographic stimulation, improve reading efficiency in Italian children with dyslexia. However, the cognitive mechanism underlying this improvement and the extent to which the benefits of AVG training would generalize to deep English orthography, remain two critical questions. During reading acquisition, children have to integrate written ...

  18. Radiological English

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribes, R. [Hospital Reina Sofia, Cordoba (Spain). Servicio de Radiologia; Ros, P.R. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Div. of Radiology

    2007-07-01

    The book is an introductory book to radiological English on the basis that there are a lot of radiologists, radiology residents, radiology nurses, radiology students, and radiographers worldwide whose English level is indeterminate because their reading skills are much higher than their fluency. It is intended to help those health care professionals who need English for their work but do not speak English on a day-to-day basis. (orig.)

  19. Radiological English

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribes, R.; Ros, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    The book is an introductory book to radiological English on the basis that there are a lot of radiologists, radiology residents, radiology nurses, radiology students, and radiographers worldwide whose English level is indeterminate because their reading skills are much higher than their fluency. It is intended to help those health care professionals who need English for their work but do not speak English on a day-to-day basis. (orig.)

  20. Monolingual and Bilingual Learners' Dictionaries*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufus H. Gouws

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: When deciding on the best learners' dictionary for a specific user and a specificsituation of usage one often has to make a choice between a monolingual and a bilingual learners'dictionary. This article discusses some aspects of the user-driven approach so prevalent in moderndaylexicographic thought, focuses broadly on dictionary typology and takes a closer look at monolingualand bilingual learners' dictionaries. Some problems users experience when learning a newlanguage, e.g. language distortion and problems related to the phenomenon of false friends, especiallyin closely related languages, are mentioned. It is indicated that a typological hybrid dictionarycould assist certain users. The importance of an unambiguous identification of the relevantlexicographic functions is emphasised and the notions of function condensation and function mergingare introduced. It is shown that the typological choice should be determined by a function-basedapproach to dictionary usage.

    Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, FALSE FRIENDS, FUNCTION CONDENSATION,FUNCTION MERGING, GENUINE PURPOSE, LEARNERS' DICTIONARY, LEXICOGRAPHICFUNCTIONS, MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARY, TEXT PRODUCTION, TEXT RECEPTION,TYPOLOGICAL HYBRID, TYPOLOGY.

    Opsomming: Eentalige en tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboeke. Wanneerbesluit moet word oor die beste aanleerderwoordeboek vir 'n spesifieke gebruiker en 'n spesifiekegebruiksituasie moet daar dikwels gekies word tussen 'n eentalige en 'n tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboek.Hierdie artikel bespreek bepaalde aspekte van die gebruikersgedrewe benaderingwat kenmerkend is van die moderne leksikografiese denke, fokus breedweg op woordeboektipologieen gee in meer besonderhede aandag aan sekere aspekte van eentalige en tweetalige aanleerderwoordeboeke.Bepaalde probleme wat gebruikers ervaar by die aanleer van 'n vreemde taal,bv. taalversteuring en probleme verwant aan die verskynsel van valse vriende, veral in nou verwantetale, kry aandag

  1. Novel Morpheme Learning in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Megan; Sheena, Enanna; Roman, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to examine the utility of a novel morpheme learning task for indexing typical language abilities in children characterized by diverse language backgrounds. Method Three groups of 5- to 6-year-old children were tested: monolingual speakers of English, native speakers of Spanish who also spoke English (Spanish-L1 bilinguals), and native speakers of English who also spoke Spanish (English-L1 bilinguals). All children were taught a new derivational morpheme /ku/ marking part–whole distinction in conjunction with English nouns. Retention was measured via a receptive task, and sensitivity and reaction time (RT) data were collected. Results All three groups of children learned the novel morpheme successfully and were able to generalize its use to untaught nouns. Furthermore, language characteristics (degree of exposure and levels of performance on standardized measures) did not contribute to bilingual children's learning outcomes. Conclusion Together, the findings indicate that this particular version of the novel morpheme learning task may be resistant to influences associated with language background and suggest potential usefulness of the task to clinical practice. PMID:28399578

  2. Vowel reduction in word-final position by early and late Spanish-English bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Vowel reduction is a prominent feature of American English, as well as other stress-timed languages. As a phonological process, vowel reduction neutralizes multiple vowel quality contrasts in unstressed syllables. For bilinguals whose native language is not characterized by large spectral and durational differences between tonic and atonic vowels, systematically reducing unstressed vowels to the central vowel space can be problematic. Failure to maintain this pattern of stressed-unstressed syllables in American English is one key element that contributes to a “foreign accent” in second language speakers. Reduced vowels, or “schwas,” have also been identified as particularly vulnerable to the co-articulatory effects of adjacent consonants. The current study examined the effects of adjacent sounds on the spectral and temporal qualities of schwa in word-final position. Three groups of English-speaking adults were tested: Miami-based monolingual English speakers, early Spanish-English bilinguals, and late Spanish-English bilinguals. Subjects performed a reading task to examine their schwa productions in fluent speech when schwas were preceded by consonants from various points of articulation. Results indicated that monolingual English and late Spanish-English bilingual groups produced targeted vowel qualities for schwa, whereas early Spanish-English bilinguals lacked homogeneity in their vowel productions. This extends prior claims that schwa is targetless for F2 position for native speakers to highly-proficient bilingual speakers. Though spectral qualities lacked homogeneity for early Spanish-English bilinguals, early bilinguals produced schwas with near native-like vowel duration. In contrast, late bilinguals produced schwas with significantly longer durations than English monolinguals or early Spanish-English bilinguals. Our results suggest that the temporal properties of a language are better integrated into second language phonologies than spectral

  3. Vowel reduction in word-final position by early and late Spanish-English bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Byers

    Full Text Available Vowel reduction is a prominent feature of American English, as well as other stress-timed languages. As a phonological process, vowel reduction neutralizes multiple vowel quality contrasts in unstressed syllables. For bilinguals whose native language is not characterized by large spectral and durational differences between tonic and atonic vowels, systematically reducing unstressed vowels to the central vowel space can be problematic. Failure to maintain this pattern of stressed-unstressed syllables in American English is one key element that contributes to a "foreign accent" in second language speakers. Reduced vowels, or "schwas," have also been identified as particularly vulnerable to the co-articulatory effects of adjacent consonants. The current study examined the effects of adjacent sounds on the spectral and temporal qualities of schwa in word-final position. Three groups of English-speaking adults were tested: Miami-based monolingual English speakers, early Spanish-English bilinguals, and late Spanish-English bilinguals. Subjects performed a reading task to examine their schwa productions in fluent speech when schwas were preceded by consonants from various points of articulation. Results indicated that monolingual English and late Spanish-English bilingual groups produced targeted vowel qualities for schwa, whereas early Spanish-English bilinguals lacked homogeneity in their vowel productions. This extends prior claims that schwa is targetless for F2 position for native speakers to highly-proficient bilingual speakers. Though spectral qualities lacked homogeneity for early Spanish-English bilinguals, early bilinguals produced schwas with near native-like vowel duration. In contrast, late bilinguals produced schwas with significantly longer durations than English monolinguals or early Spanish-English bilinguals. Our results suggest that the temporal properties of a language are better integrated into second language phonologies than

  4. English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The article exemplifies and presents the characteristics of linguistic imperialism, linguistic capital accumulation following the same pattern as capitalist economic dominance. The text summarizes the way English was established in the colonial period. Many of the mechanisms of linguistic hierarchy...... have been maintained and intensified since then, as African and Indian scholarship demonstrates. Language plays a key role in education, the World Bank taking over where colonial regimes left off. Anglo-American efforts to maintain global English dominance have intensified since 1945 and are central...... to the present-day world ‘order’, as the postcolonial is subsumed under global empire, assisted by English linguistic neoimperialism. Some scholars who deny the existence of linguistic imperialism are reported on, and the complexity of language policy in European integration is demonstrated. The article...

  5. Teaching Speaking Through Debate Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Suranto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : Teaching Speaking Through Debate Technique. Speaking is one of the basic competence from the other fourth basic competence (listening, speaking, reading and writing. Speaking ability should be mastered by every students, in order to achieve that competence students should be given the right technique to study sepaking. The successfull of the students speaking can be seen from their ability to express idea, thought and feeling through speaking. The objective of this Action Research is to improve students’s oral communication skill through the debate technique. This study was conducted at MA Ma’arif Nu 5 Sekampung Lampung Timur from March to April 2014. The research data were taken from students in the eleventh class, with 28 students and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The research findings indicate that there are improvements in students’ english speaking skill through the debate technique. By analyzing data qualitatively and quantitatively from the end of the first cycle to the second cycle and it was found that the students’ English speaking skill increased 20,9% over the standard that has been determined by the researcher that is 65%. The researcher concludes that the students’ english speaking skill can be improve through the debate technique in learning process.   Key words : action research, debate technique, english speaking skill

  6. Comparing Narrative Microstructure between Bilingual Balochi-Persian and Monolingual Persian Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Arabpour

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, with rapid increase of bilingual children, more attention about different patterns of the bilingual children narratives is needed. The aim of this study was to compare microstructure level of narratives generated by typical developing kindergarten children who were bilingual in Persian and Balochi with monolingual Persian speakers. Method: Thirty Persian-speaking monolingual and thirteen available bilingual children (aged 48 months old participated in this study. Children’s story telling was audio-recorded and analyzed using the Persian-NAP (Narrative Assessment Protocol guidelines. Results: All of the NAP indicators include of group structure, phrase structure, modifiers, noun and verbs didn’t show significant difference between monolingual and bilingual children (0.06≤p≤0.5. Conclusion: We didn’t find different performance in the five NAP indicators between bilingual and monolingual children. It may be suggested that the different patterns of creating phrases and sentences in two languages don’t affect the grammatical use of them in second language.

  7. Bilinguals Have Different Hemispheric Lateralization in Visual Word Processing from Monolinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze-Man Lam

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous bilingual studies showed reduced hemispheric asymmetry in visual tasks such as face perception in bilinguals compared with monolinguals, suggesting experience in reading one or two languages could be a modulating factor. Here we examined whether difference in hemispheric asymmetry in visual tasks can also be observed in bilinguals who have different language backgrounds. We compared the behavior of three language groups in a tachistoscopic English word sequential matching task: English monolinguals (or alphabetic monolinguals, A-Ms, bilinguals with an alphabetic-L1 and English-L2 (alphabetic-alphabetic bilinguals, AA-Bs, and bilinguals with Chinese-L1 and English-L2 (logographic-alphabetic bilinguals, LA-Bs. The results showed that AA-Bs had a stronger right visual field/ left hemispheric (LH advantage than A-Ms and LA-Bs, suggesting that different language learning experiences can influence how visual words are processed in the brain. In addition, we showed that this effect could be accounted for by a computational model that implements a theory of hemispheric asymmetry in perception (i.e., the Double Filtering by Frequency theory; Ivry & Robertson, 1998; the modeling data suggested that this difference may be due to both the difference in participants' vocabulary size and the difference in word-to-sound mapping between alphabetic and logographic languages.

  8. How African American English-Speaking First Graders Segment and Rhyme Words and Nonwords With Final Consonant Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shollenbarger, Amy J; Robinson, Gregory C; Taran, Valentina; Choi, Seo-Eun

    2017-10-05

    This study explored how typically developing 1st grade African American English (AAE) speakers differ from mainstream American English (MAE) speakers in the completion of 2 common phonological awareness tasks (rhyming and phoneme segmentation) when the stimulus items were consonant-vowel-consonant-consonant (CVCC) words and nonwords. Forty-nine 1st graders met criteria for 2 dialect groups: AAE and MAE. Three conditions were tested in each rhyme and segmentation task: Real Words No Model, Real Words With a Model, and Nonwords With a Model. The AAE group had significantly more responses that rhymed CVCC words with consonant-vowel-consonant words and segmented CVCC words as consonant-vowel-consonant than the MAE group across all experimental conditions. In the rhyming task, the presence of a model in the real word condition elicited more reduced final cluster responses for both groups. In the segmentation task, the MAE group was at ceiling, so only the AAE group changed across the different stimulus presentations and reduced the final cluster less often when given a model. Rhyming and phoneme segmentation performance can be influenced by a child's dialect when CVCC words are used.

  9. Smoking-Cessation Treatment: Use Trends Among Non-Hispanic White and English-Speaking Hispanic/Latino Smokers, Colorado 2001-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedjo, Rebecca L; Li, Yaqiang; Levinson, Arnold H

    2016-08-01

    Most smokers who try to quit do not use an evidence-based treatment (EBT), and in 2001, Hispanic/Latino quit-attempters were about half as likely as non-Hispanic white (NHW) quit-attempters to use one. This study analyzed the patterns of EBT use in Colorado across a recent decade, 2001-2012. Data were from The Attitudes and Behaviors Survey, a random cross-sectional population-level telephone survey. Data included NHW and English-speaking Hispanic/Latino respondents from 2001 (n=11,872), 2005 (n=10,952), 2008 (n=12,323), and 2012 (n=13,265). Statistical analyses were conducted in 2014-2015. EBT measures included nicotine-replacement therapy, prescription cessation medication, telephone quit-line coaching, and other counseling. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses evaluated associations across years between EBT use and ethnicity, adjusting for covariates. Any EBT use increased with each successive survey year, and the relative increase from 2001 to 2012 was greater among Hispanic/Latino than NHW quit-attempters (75.7% vs 38.7%). However, adjusted for covariates, Hispanic/Latino quit-attempters in 2012 were still 54% less likely to use any EBT (AOR=0.46, 95% CI=0.34, 0.63), 45% less likely to use nicotine-replacement therapy (AOR=0.55, 95% CI=0.39, 0.77), and 50% less likely to use a prescription cessation medication (AOR=0.50, 95% CI=0.30, 0.85). Ethnicity was unrelated to use of a quit-line or other counseling service. EBT use for smoking cessation has increased over the past decade, with more rapid increase among English-speaking Hispanics/Latinos compared with NHWs, but a large use gap remains. Healthcare and public health efforts are needed to clarify and overcome factors contributing to this ongoing disparity. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rates of auxiliary is and are in African American English speaking children with specific language impairment following language treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shana; Bellon-Harn, Monica L

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine rates of auxiliary is and are across dialect patterns produced by African American English with specific language impairment (AAE-SLI) children following language treatment. The following research question is asked: Do AAE-SLI children exhibit rates of auxiliary is and are across dialect patterns consistent with previous reports of typically developing children and adult AAE speakers? A pre-/post-test design was used to identify patterns in which auxiliary is and are were produced at significant levels. Individual performance was included to examine variable rates of use across patterns. Group and individual results suggest children used auxiliary is and are in dialect patterns at rates consistent with typically developing child and adult AAE speakers. We conclude that rates of use may contribute to evidence-based guidelines for morphological intervention with AAE-SLI children.

  11. Assessing the Effectiveness of Monolingual, Bilingual, and "Bilingualised" Dictionaries in the Comprehension and Production of New Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Batia; Hadar, Linor

    1997-01-01

    Examines the differences in effectiveness of three types of dictionaries--monolingual, bilingual, and "bilingualised" in the comprehension and production of new words by learners of English as a foreign language. The study tested participants on the comprehension of target words and on their ability to use these words in their own sentences. (16…

  12. Facilitating access to English for Xhosa-speaking pupils in black township primary schools around Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesel Hibbert

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper results from a research project completed by the author in 1994 on the quality of language-learning environments in the Cape Town area . . Xhosa is now constitutionally enshrined as one of the eleven official languages of South Africa, and is the dominant language in Western Cape black townships. This paper questions the fruitfUlness of primary schools in black townships attempting to use English as the sole medium of instruction. The paper shows that in actual classroom situations the Ll (Xhosa is used as an aid to L2 (English medium instruction in the schools of Khayelitsha and Lagunya townships around Cape Town. The paper argues for the recognition and forther extension of such bilingual practices in primary schools to work towards more successfUl use of the L2 as the medium of instruction. It assesses the implications of such bilingual policy for classroom interaction and materials development. Hierdie artikel spruit voort uit 'n navorsingsprojek wat in 1994 deur die skrywer onderneem is in groter Kaapstad oor die kwaliteit van die omgewings waarbinne taal aange/eer word. Xhosa is volgens die konstitusie een van die elf amptelike tale in Suid-Afrika en is die oorheersende taal in die swart woonbuurte van die Wes-Kaap. In hierdie artikel word die waarde bevraagteken van die poging wat in die primere skole in die swart woonbuurte aangewend word om Engels as enigste medium van onderrig te gebruik. In die artikel word ook daarop gewys dat skole in Khayelitsha en Lagunya, twee swart woonbuurte naby Kaapstad, Xhosa (Tl gebruik as hulpmiddel by die onderrig deur medium van Engels (T2. Daar word aangevoer dat hierdie gebruik van tweetalige onderrig in primere skole erkenning behoort te kry en verder uitgebrei behoort te word sodat daar gestrewe kan word na 'n meer suksesvol/e gebruik van die tweede taal as onderrigmedium. 'n Waardebepaling van die implikasies van so 'ntweetalige beleid vir k/askamerinteraksie en die ontwikkeling van

  13. Identifying consumer's needs of health information technology through an innovative participatory design approach among English- and Spanish-speaking urban older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, R; Sheehan, B; Yen, P; Velez, O; Nobile-Hernandez, D; Tiase, V

    2014-01-01

    We describe an innovative community-centered participatory design approach, Consumer-centered Participatory Design (C2PD), and the results of applying C2PD to design and develop a web-based fall prevention system. We conducted focus groups and design sessions with English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling older adults. Focus group data were summarized and used to inform the context of the design sessions. Descriptive content analysis methods were used to develop categorical descriptions of design session informant's needs related to information technology. The C2PD approach enabled the assessment and identification of informant's needs of health information technology (HIT) that informed the development of a falls prevention system. We learned that our informants needed a system that provides variation in functions/content; differentiates between actionable/non-actionable information/structures; and contains sensory cues that support wide-ranging and complex tasks in a varied, simple, and clear interface to facilitate self-management. The C2PD approach provides community-based organizations, academic researchers, and commercial entities with a systematic theoretically informed approach to develop HIT innovations. Our community-centered participatory design approach focuses on consumer's technology needs while taking into account core public health functions.

  14. The role of developmental levels in examining the effect of subject types on the production of auxiliary is in young english-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling-Yu; Owen Van Horne, Amanda J; Tomblin, J Bruce

    2011-12-01

    Prior work (Guo, Owen, & Tomblin, 2010) has shown that at the group level, auxiliary is production by young English-speaking children was symmetrical across lexical noun and pronominal subjects. Individual data did not uniformly reflect these patterns. On the basis of the framework of the gradual morphosyntactic learning (GML) hypothesis, the authors tested whether the addition of a theoretically motivated developmental measure, tense productivity (TP), could assist in explaining these individual differences. Using archival data from 20 children between age 2;8 and 3;4 (years;months), the authors tested the ability of 3 developmental measures (TP; finite verb morphology composite, FVMC; mean length of utterance, MLU) to predict use of auxiliary is with different subject types. TP, but not MLU or FVMC, significantly improved model fit. Children with low TP scores produced auxiliary is more accurately with pronominal subjects than with lexical subjects. The facilitative effect of pronominal subjects on the production of auxiliary is, however, was not found in children with high TP scores. The finding that the effect of subject types on the production accuracy of auxiliary is changed with children's TP is consistent with the GML hypothesis.

  15. Structural brain differences between monolingual and multilingual patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease: Evidence for cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Hilary D; Nikelski, Jim; Pilon, Randi; Steffener, Jason; Chertkow, Howard; Phillips, Natalie A

    2018-01-31

    Two independent lines of research provide evidence that speaking more than one language may 1) contribute to increased grey matter in healthy younger and older adults and 2) delay cognitive symptoms in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer disease (AD). We examined cortical thickness and tissue density in monolingual and multilingual MCI and AD patients matched (within Diagnosis Groups) on demographic and cognitive variables. In medial temporal disease-related (DR) areas, we found higher tissue density in multilingual MCIs versus monolingual MCIs, but similar or lower tissue density in multilingual AD versus monolingual AD, a pattern consistent with cognitive reserve in AD. In areas related to language and cognitive control (LCC), both multilingual MCI and AD patients had thicker cortex than the monolinguals. Results were largely replicated in our native-born Canadian MCI participants, ruling out immigration as a potential confound. Finally, multilingual patients showed a correlation between cortical thickness in LCC regions and performance on episodic memory tasks. Given that multilinguals and monolinguals were matched on memory functioning, this suggests that increased gray matter in these regions may provide support to memory functioning. Our results suggest that being multilingual may contribute to increased gray matter in LCC areas and may also delay the cognitive effects of disease-related atrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vowel reduction patterns of early Spanish- English bilinguals receiving continuous L1 and L2 input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byers Emily

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the production of three morphophonetic variations of schwa in American English: the plural allomorph {-s} as in watches, the possessive allomorph {-s} as in Sasha’s, and word-finally as in Russia. The production of these three allomorphs were examined in Miami’s English monolingual and early Spanish-English bilingual populations. Our purpose was to determine how native-like early Spanish-English bilinguals′ spectral qualities and reduced vowel durations were compared to Miami English monolinguals during a reading task. Results indicate that early bilinguals′ reduced vowels followed the same overall pattern as monolinguals, but had different acoustic properties.

  17. Post-Monolingual Research Methodology: Multilingual Researchers Democratizing Theorizing and Doctoral Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Singh

    2017-02-01

    dissemination of theoretical knowledge and the capabilities for theorizing. Often, from an English-only monolingual mindset, difference and divergence are seen as a recipe for deficits and dissonance. However, this paper challenges such mistaken beliefs by showing that multilingual HDRs can deepen and extend their capabilities for theorizing by using their own linguistic repertoires. Post-monolingual research methodology is to be of enormous benefit to multilingual researchers and scholars engaged in intellectual labor in predominantly English-only monolingual universities.

  18. Speaking of Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmer, John; Mergendoller, John R.

    2013-01-01

    From the early elementary grades through high school, the Common Core State Standards ask students to organize and explain their ideas in oral presentations, use visual aids, and speak appropriately for various contexts and tasks. Although teachers could give assignments that teach some of these skills in isolation, the authors have found that…

  19. Monolingual Dictionary Use in an EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Holi Ibrahim Holi

    2012-01-01

    Caledonian College of Engineering, Oman, has been encouraging its students to use monolingual dictionaries rather than bilingual or bilingualized ones in classroom and during the exams. This policy with has been received with mixed feelings and attitudes. Therefore, this study strives to explore teachers' and students' attitudes about the use of…

  20. Translanguaging in Higher Education: Beyond Monolingual Ideologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazak, Catherine M., Ed.; Carroll, Kevin S., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This book examines translanguaging in higher education and provides clear examples of what translanguaging looks like in practice in particular contexts around the world. While higher education has historically been seen as a monolingual space, the case studies from the international contexts included in this collection show us that institutions…

  1. The global online sexuality survey (GOSS): The United States of America in 2011 Chapter III--Premature ejaculation among English-speaking male Internet users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeer, Osama

    2013-07-01

    The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS) is a worldwide epidemiologic study of sexuality and sexual disorders. In 2010, the first report of GOSS came from the Middle East. This report studies the prevalence rate of premature ejaculation (PE) in the U.S. as of 2011-2012 and evaluates risk factors for PE. GOSS was randomly deployed to English-speaking male web surfers in the USA via paid advertising on Facebook®, comprising 146 questions. Prevalence of PE as per the International Society of Sexual Medicine's (ISSM) definition. With a mean age of 52.38 years ± 14.5, 1,133 participants reported on sexual function. As per the ISSM definition of PE, the prevalence rate of PE in the USA as of 2011 was 6.3%. This is in contrast to 49.6% as per the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), 77.6% as per unfiltered subjective reports, and 14.4% as per subjective reporting on more consistent basis. 56.3% of the latter reported lifelong PE. 63.2% could be classified as having natural variable PE. Erectile dysfunction is a possible predisposing factor for acquired PE, while genital size concerns may predispose to lifelong PE. Age, irregular coitus, circumcision, and the practice of masturbation did not pose a risk for PE, among other risk factors. Oral treatment for PE was more frequently used and reported to be more effective than local anesthetics, particularly in those with lifelong PE. Applying the ISSM definition, prevalence of PE is far less than diagnosed by other methods, 6.3% among Internet users in USA as of the year 2011. PEDT measures both lifelong and acquired PE, in addition to 35% men with premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction, making it inaccurate for isolating lifelong and acquired PE cases. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. Domains of health-related quality of life important and relevant to multiethnic English-speaking Asian systemic lupus erythematosus patients: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ow, Yen Ling Mandy; Thumboo, Julian; Cella, David; Cheung, Yin Bun; Yong Fong, Kok; Wee, Hwee Lin

    2011-06-01

    To identify health-related quality of life (HRQOL) domains of importance to multiethnic Asian systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, to identify content gaps in existing SLE-specific HRQOL measures, and to determine whether the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) item banks could serve as a core set of questions for HRQOL assessment among SLE patients. English-speaking patients with physician-diagnosed SLE from a specialist clinic in a tertiary care hospital in Singapore and a patient support group were recruited. Thematic analysis was performed to distill themes from transcripts through open coding by 2 independent coders and axial coding for refinement of categories. Items from 3 existing SLE-specific measures and PROMIS Version 1.0 Item Banks were compared with identified subthemes. Twenty-seven female and 2 male participants (21 Chinese, 4 Malay, 3 Indian, 1 other) ages 23-62 years participated in 6 focus groups and 2 individual interviews, respectively. Twenty-one domains and 92 subthemes were identified. Domains of family, relationships, stigma and discrimination, and freedom were unaddressed by existing SLE-specific measures. Forty subthemes from 14 domains were addressed by the PROMIS Version 1.0 Item Banks (Physical Function, Pain, Fatigue, Sleep Disturbance, Sleep-Related Impairment, Anger, Anxiety, and Depression banks). Family and stigma and discrimination (identified as content gaps) may be accentuated in the Asian sociocultural context. PROMIS item banks have tremendous potential to serve as a core set of items for HRQOL assessment in SLE patients. Additional items may be written to fill the gaps in existing PROMIS item banks. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Contracted versus Alphabetical English Braille and Attitudes of English as a Foreign Language Learners: A Case Study of a Farsi-Speaking Visually Impaired Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobaraki, Mohsen; Nazarloo, Saber Atash; Toosheh, Elaheh

    2017-01-01

    In the educational system of Iran, in which English is a foreign language, the duration of primary school is six years. After that, these English as a foreign language students enter high school and start to learn English during an additional six-year period. In years seven and eight, English textbooks are embossed in alphabetic English braille;…

  4. A Cultural Perspective on Sexual Health: HIV Positive and Negative Monolingual Hispanic Women in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Loubet, Olga M; Vamos, Szonja; Jones, Deborah L; Lopez, Eliot; Weiss, Stephen M

    2011-06-01

    This study explored feelings and attitudes with regard to HIV and sexual health among 82 monolingual Spanish-speaking, HIV-positive ( n = 30) and at-risk women ( n = 52), participating in the NOW en Español Project-a cognitive behavioral sexual risk-reduction intervention in Miami, Florida. Hispanic cultural values and beliefs, such as machismo, marianismo, and sexual silence, emerged throughout the intervention as important determinants of sexual behavior. Recommendations for integrating these culture-specific issues in sexual health interventions for Hispanic women are provided.

  5. Micro and Macro Content Analysis of English Textbook Entitled "Mosaic One Listening and Speaking (Student's Book)" in the Light of Communicative Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mashaqba, Nisreen Juma'a Hamed

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which the listening and speaking lessons which are presented in textbook entitled "Mosaic One Listening and speaking (Student's Book)" are characterized with appropriateness and meaningfulness in light of communicative competence and meet the Principles and features of…

  6. The moderating effect of orthographic consistency on oral vocabulary learning in monolingual and bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubenville, Kathleen; Sénéchal, Monique; Malette, Melissa

    2014-10-01

    Two studies were conducted to assess whether (a) the incidental presence of print facilitates the acquisition of oral vocabulary, (b) the facilitative effect of print is moderated by phoneme-to-grapheme consistency, and (c) the findings obtained with monolingual children generalize to bilingual children. In total, 71 monolingual French-speaking children (M age = 9 years 2 months) in Study 1 and 64 bilingual children (M age = 9 years 3 months) in Study 2 participated in one of three conditions: consistent print, inconsistent print, or no print. Children were to learn novel labels for unfamiliar objects in a paired-associate paradigm. In both studies, print facilitated the acquisition and recall of expressive vocabulary. The effect of print consistency, however, varied across studies. As expected, monolingual children exposed to consistent print learned more novel labels than children exposed to inconsistent print. In contrast, bilingual children exposed to inconsistent print learned and recalled more labels than children exposed to consistent print. These intriguing findings might be due to differences in attention allocation during training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. PILOTING A VOCATIONAL E-COURSE AT A UK COLLEGE: Developing strategies to support non-native English speaking learners to complete the essay-type questions of their assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula BIBILA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of practice that was conducted during the piloting of a vocational (health care e-course at the Distance Learning department of a College of Further and Higher Education in England. The purpose of the study was to establish a course of action aiming to support non-native English speaking learners to successfully complete the essay-type questions of the e-course assignments. The exploratory nature of the study means that in effect the study comprises of two distinct, yet interrelated parts, with the first one looking into how two (2 non-native English speaking learners (participants used different e-course resources to help them compose their answers. Based on the findings, the second part examines the role of writing frameworks (in the form of email communication between the tutor and the participants in helping the latter to compose answers that met the assessment criteria in terms of a content (subject accuracy, b length and c originality. Discussion of the findings includes implications for providing additional English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL support to distance learners, suggestions for further improvements to the e-course and recommendations for further research.

  8. Monolingual or bilingual intervention for primary language impairment? A randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thordardottir, Elin; Cloutier, Geneviève; Ménard, Suzanne; Pelland-Blais, Elaine; Rvachew, Susan

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the clinical effectiveness of monolingual versus bilingual language intervention, the latter involving speech-language pathologist-parent collaboration. The study focuses on methods that are currently being recommended and that are feasible within current clinical contexts. Bilingual children with primary language impairment who speak a minority language as their home language and French as their second (n=29, mean age=5 years) were randomly assigned to monolingual treatment, bilingual treatment, and no-treatment (delayed-treatment) conditions. Sixteen sessions of individual language intervention were offered, targeting vocabulary and syntactic skills in French only or bilingually, through parent collaboration during the clinical sessions. Language evaluations were conducted before and after treatment by blinded examiners; these evaluations targeted French as well as the home languages. An additional evaluation was conducted 2 months after completion of treatment to assess maintenance of gains. Both monolingual and bilingual treatment followed a focused stimulation approach. Results in French showed a significant treatment effect for vocabulary but no difference between treatment conditions. Gains were made in syntax, but these gains could not be attributed to treatment given that treatment groups did not improve more than the control group. Home language probes did not suggest that the therapy had resulted in gains in the home language. The intervention used in this study is in line with current recommendations of major speech-language pathology organizations. However, the findings indicate that the bilingual treatment created through collaboration with parents was not effective in creating a sufficiently intense bilingual context to make it significantly different from the monolingual treatment. Further studies are needed to assess the gains associated with clinical modifications made for bilingual children and to search for effective ways

  9. Adolescent mental and physical health in the English-speaking Caribbean Salud mental y física de los adolescentes en el Caribe de habla inglesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanlesta A. Pilgrim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory, a multisystem framework, was used to identify risk and protective factors associated with adolescent mental and physical health (AMPH in the English-speaking Caribbean. METHODS: A structured literature review, using the online databases of Medline, PsychInfo, and Scopus, was conducted to identify peer-reviewed studies published between January 1998 and July 2011 focused on adolescents ages 10-19 years. RESULTS: Sixty-eight articles were examined: 40 on adolescent mental health (AMH, 27 on adolescent physical health (APH, and 1 on both topics. Key individual factors included gender and age. Religiosity and engagement in other risk behaviors were associated with AMH, while the presence of other chronic illnesses affected APH. Significant determinants of AMH in the microsystem included family and school connectedness, family structure, and socioeconomic status. Maternal obesity, parental education, and school environment influenced APH. Studies that investigated macrosystem factors reported few consistent findings related to AMPH. A history of family mental health problems and physical and sexual abuse was significantly associated with AMH in the chronosystem, while a family history of diabetes and low birth weight were associated with APH. Studies did not examine the exosystem or the mesosystem. CONCLUSIONS: AMPH in the English-speaking Caribbean is affected by a variety factors in developing adolescents and their surroundings. Gender, family, and early exposure to negative environments are salient factors influencing AMPH and present potential avenues for prevention and intervention. A fuller understanding of AMPH in this region, however, requires scientifically rigorous studies that incorporate a multisystem approach.OBJETIVO: Se empleó la teoría de sistemas ecológicos de Bronfenbrenner, un marco conceptual multisistémico, para identificar los factores de riesgo y de protecci

  10. Afrikaans, American and British models for South African English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the treatment of racial labels in monolingual English dictionaries of South Africa. Considering past controversies regarding racist language in Afrikaans dictionaries and considering the changing role of English in democratic South Africa, we can expect that English dictionaries will be more carefully ...

  11. Estructura de la competencia comunicativa del enfermero colaborador en países anglófonos Structure of the communicative competence of nurses who cooperate in English-speaking countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Gloria Barbón Pérez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El progreso de la competencia comunicativa del enfermero colaborador que brinda servicios de salud a pacientes foráneos requiere de la definición de la estructura teórica, dada su significación a la hora de tener en cuenta las necesidades del contexto. En este trabajo se expone la estructura teórica de la competencia comunicativa en la enseñanza del inglés al enfermero que cooperará en países anglófonos.The communicative competence progress of nurses who assist foreign patients requires a definition of its theoretical structure, given the significance of the context. This paper presents the theoretical structure of this communicative competence within the teaching of English to nurses intended to cooperate in English-speaking countries.

  12. English Language Proficiency and Early School Attainment Among Children Learning English as an Additional Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Katie E; Gooch, Debbie; Norbury, Courtenay F

    2017-05-01

    Children learning English as an additional language (EAL) often experience lower academic attainment than monolingual peers. In this study, teachers provided ratings of English language proficiency and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning for 782 children with EAL and 6,485 monolingual children in reception year (ages 4-5). Academic attainment was assessed in reception and Year 2 (ages 6-7). Relative to monolingual peers with comparable English language proficiency, children with EAL displayed fewer social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties in reception, were equally likely to meet curriculum targets in reception, and were more likely to meet targets in Year 2. Academic attainment and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning in children with EAL are associated with English language proficiency at school entry. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Research in Child Development.

  13. Influence of English-Language Proficiency on the Cognitive Processing of Survey Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoo; Sha, M. Mandy; Willis, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    When recruiting respondents for cognitive interviews testing translated survey questionnaires, researchers often recommend interviewing monolingual non-English speakers because they are the likely users of the translations. However, these individuals are hard to recruit, and there is no standard definition of monolingual. Using cognitive interview…

  14. Multilingual Effects on EFL Learning: A Comparison of Foreign Language Anxiety Experienced by Monolingual and Bilingual Tertiary Students in the Lao PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongsa, Manivone; Mohamed Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik; Low, Hui Min

    2018-01-01

    Foreign language anxiety is common among adult learners, especially those who lack exposure to the language that they are learning. In this study, we compared the foreign language anxiety experienced by monolingual and bilingual tertiary students in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) who were learning English as a Foreign Language. The…

  15. Development and Use of English Evaluative Expressions in Narratives of Chinese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Yan, Ruixia

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the development and use of evaluative expressions in the English narratives elicited from 80 Chinese-English bilinguals and 80 American monolingual peers at four ages--five, eight, ten, and young adults--using the wordless picture book "Frog, where are you?" (Mayer, 1969). Results revealed both similarities and differences…

  16. Speaking Strategies Employed by Second Year Students at Mettu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communicative language teaching should not just aim to teach learners the ... the speaking strategies employed by second year English major students at Mettu ... activities and strategy training in teaching learning process of speaking skills.

  17. Swahili learners' views on the need for a monolingual Swahili ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Swahili is a second language to many East and Central Africans, and a foreign language to its learners from Europe, America, Asia and other parts of Africa as well. Yet it lacks a monolingual Swahili learners' dictionary specifically designed for them. The paper discusses the need for a monolingual Swahili pedagogical ...

  18. Swahili Learners' Views on the Need for a Monolingual Swahili ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    monolingual Swahili learners' dictionary specifically designed for them. The paper discusses the need for a monolingual Swahili pedagogical dictionary which helps the foreigner learn the language. A pedagogical dictionary is oriented towards encoding Swahili, hence it is logical that some Swahili grammatical aspects are ...

  19. Teaching the Dutch how to pronounce English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frans Hermans; Peter Sloep

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch overestimate their English speaking skills. Their pronunciation is not always convincing and certain pronunciation mistakes are easily recognised as being typical for Dutch speakers of English. Although intelligibility cannot exist without adequate pronunciation, teaching English

  20. Teaching the Dutch how to pronounce English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Frans; Sloep, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The Dutch overestimate their English speaking skills. Their pronunciation is not always convincing, and certain pronunciation mistakes are easily recognised as being typical for Dutch speakers of English. Although intelligibility cannot exist without adequate pronunciation, teaching English

  1. Young Learners' Response Processes When Taking Computerized Tasks for Speaking Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shinhye; Winke, Paula

    2018-01-01

    We investigated how young language learners process their responses on and perceive a computer-mediated, timed speaking test. Twenty 8-, 9-, and 10-year-old non-native English-speaking children (NNSs) and eight same-aged, native English-speaking children (NSs) completed seven computerized sample TOEFL® Primary™ speaking test tasks. We investigated…

  2. Compiling a Monolingual Dictionary for Native Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hanks

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This article gives a survey of the main issues confronting the compilers of monolingual dictionaries in the age of the Internet. Among others, it discusses the relationship between a lexical database and a monolingual dictionary, the role of corpus evidence, historical principles in lexicography vs. synchronic principles, the instability of word meaning, the need for full vocabulary coverage, principles of definition writing, the role of dictionaries in society, and the need for dictionaries to give guidance on matters of disputed word usage. It concludes with some questions about the future of dictionary publishing.

    OPSOMMING: Die samestelling van 'n eentalige woordeboek vir moedertaalsprekers. Hierdie artikel gee 'n oorsig van die hoofkwessies waarmee die samestellers van eentalige woordeboeke in die eeu van die Internet te kampe het. Dit bespreek onder andere die verhouding tussen 'n leksikale databasis en 'n eentalige woordeboek, die rol van korpusgetuienis, historiese beginsels vs sinchroniese beginsels in die leksikografie, die onstabiliteit van woordbetekenis, die noodsaak van 'n volledige woordeskatdekking, beginsels van die skryf van definisies, die rol van woordeboeke in die maatskappy, en die noodsaak vir woordeboeke om leiding te gee oor sake van betwiste woordgebruik. Dit sluit af met 'n aantal vrae oor die toekoms van die publikasie van woordeboeke.

    Sleutelwoorde: EENTALIGE WOORDEBOEKE, LEKSIKALE DATABASIS, WOORDEBOEKSTRUKTUUR, WOORDBETEKENIS, BETEKENISVERANDERING, GEBRUIK, GEBRUIKSAANTEKENINGE, HISTORIESE BEGINSELS VAN DIE LEKSIKOGRAFIE, SINCHRONIESE BEGINSELS VAN DIE LEKSIKOGRAFIE, REGISTER, SLANG, STANDAARDENGELS, WOORDESKATDEKKING, KONSEKWENSIE VAN VERSAMELINGS, FRASEOLOGIE, SINTAGMATIESE PATRONE, PROBLEME VAN KOMPOSISIONALITEIT, LINGUISTIESE PRESKRIPTIVISME, LEKSIKALE GETUIENIS

  3. Teaching English through English: Proficiency, Pedagogy and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jack C.

    2017-01-01

    Most of the world's English language teachers speak English as a second or third language rather than as their first language. For many, their level of proficiency in English may not reach benchmarks established by their employers, raising the issue that is the focus of this article, namely, what kind of proficiency in English is necessary to be…

  4. New Speak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2008-01-01

      En ny form for samfundsvidenskabeligt set uklart sprogbrug anvendes stadig oftere i organisation og politik. Ord som "sammenhængskraft", "myndighedsbetjening" og "kvalitetsløft" kritiseres ofte og kaldes varm luft eller new speak. Jeg vil hævde, at ordene i new speak rummer et dobbelt perspektiv......, uddannelse, militær etc.). Derfor er der gået varm luft og new speak i politisk og organisatorisk sprogbrug. Hvor funktionssystemer internt betjener sig af binært kodet kommunikation, må meddelelser mellem funktionssystemer nemlig afstå fra den klare veldefinerede tale.  ...

  5. Differences in the Association between Segment and Language: Early Bilinguals Pattern with Monolinguals and Are Less Accurate than Late Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Cynthia P.; Bannard, Colin; Smiljanic, Rajka

    2016-01-01

    Early bilinguals often show as much sensitivity to L2-specific contrasts as monolingual speakers of the L2, but most work on cross-language speech perception has focused on isolated segments, and typically only on neighboring vowels or stop contrasts. In tasks that include sounds in context, listeners’ success is more variable, so segment discrimination in isolation may not adequately represent the phonetic detail in stored representations. The current study explores the relationship between language experience and sensitivity to segmental cues in context by comparing the categorization patterns of monolingual English listeners and early and late Spanish–English bilinguals. Participants categorized nonce words containing different classes of English- and Spanish-specific sounds as being more English-like or more Spanish-like; target segments included phonemic cues, cues for which there is no analogous sound in the other language, or phonetic cues, cues for which English and Spanish share the category but for which each language varies in its phonetic implementation. Listeners’ language categorization accuracy and reaction times were analyzed. Our results reveal a largely uniform categorization pattern across listener groups: Spanish cues were categorized more accurately than English cues, and phonemic cues were easier for listeners to categorize than phonetic cues. There were no differences in the sensitivity of monolinguals and early bilinguals to language-specific cues, suggesting that the early bilinguals’ exposure to Spanish did not fundamentally change their representations of English phonology. However, neither did the early bilinguals show more sensitivity than the monolinguals to Spanish sounds. The late bilinguals however, were significantly more accurate than either of the other groups. These findings indicate that listeners with varying exposure to English and Spanish are able to use language-specific cues in a nonce-word language categorization

  6. English in Economy World: an Overview of English Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Setyaningsih, Ani; Kurniasih, Siwi Karmadi

    2007-01-01

    English is not a language for the English-speaking countries anymore. English has spread worldwide to the countries in the five continents. One of the reasons is economy. People need to acquire English since it is one way to cope with the communication in economy trend. English is needed to process information, analyze, evaluate, experiment, negotiate and collaborate in economy. The awareness of English importance in the globalization era has made people learn this universal language consciou...

  7. TEACHING SPEAKING BY ROLE-PLAY ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadilah Fadilah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The students often find some problems in practising English speaking. The problem frequently found is that their native language causes them difficult to use the foreign language. Other reason is because of motivation lack to practice the second language in daily conversation. They are also too shy and afraid to take part in the conversation. Many factors can cause the problem of the students’ speaking skills namely the students’ interest, the material, and the media among others including the technique in teaching English. There are many ways that can be done by the students to develop their ability in speaking English. The appropriate technique used by the English teacher also supports their interested in practising their speaking. One of the techniques that can be applied is role play.

  8. The Rwandan teachers' and learners' perceived speaking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    The innovation of Spolsky's (1989) model of second language learning is that it was presented in the form of a mathematic ... perceived proficiency in speaking Kinyarwanda and English. Methods .... is very effective for the learners' learning.

  9. Excitatory and inhibitory priming by attended and ignored non-recycled words with monolinguals and bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Ewald; Nkrumah, Ivy K; Chen, Zhe

    2018-03-03

    Experiments examining identity priming from attended and ignored novel words (words that are used only once except when repetition is required due to experimental manipulation) in a lexical decision task are reported. Experiment 1 tested English monolinguals whereas Experiment 2 tested Twi (a native language of Ghana, Africa)-English bilinguals. Participants were presented with sequential pairs of stimuli composed of a prime followed by a probe, with each containing two items. The participants were required to name the target word in the prime display, and to make a lexical decision to the target item in the probe display. On attended repetition (AR) trials the probe target item was identical to the target word on the preceding attentional display. On ignored repetition (IR) trials the probe target item was the same as the distractor word in the preceding attentional display. The experiments produced facilitated (positive) priming in the AR trials and delayed (negative) priming in the IR trials. Significantly, the positive and negative priming effects also replicated across both monolingual and bilingual groups of participants, despite the fact that the bilinguals were responding to the task in their non-dominant language.

  10. White-matter development is different in bilingual and monolingual children: a longitudinal DTI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Ghazal Mohades

    Full Text Available Although numerous people grow up speaking more than one language, the impact of bilingualism on brain developing neuroanatomy is still poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether the changes in the mean fractional-anisotropy (MFA of language pathways are different between bilingual and monolingual children. Simultaneous-bilinguals, sequential-bilinguals and monolingual, male and female 10-13 years old children participated in this longitudinal study over a period of two years. We used diffusion tensor tractography to obtain mean fractional-anisotropy values of four language related pathways and one control bundle: 1-left-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus/lIFOF, 2-left-arcuate fasciculus/lAF/lSLF, 3-bundle arising from the anterior part of corpus-callosum and projecting to orbital lobe/AC-OL, 4-fibres emerging from anterior-midbody of corpus-callosum (CC to motor cortices/AMB-PMC, 5- right-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus rIFOF as the control pathway unrelated to language. These values and their rate of change were compared between 3 groups. FA-values did not change significantly over two years for lAF/lSLF and AC-OL. Sequential-bilinguals had the highest degree of change in the MFA value of lIFOF, and AMB-PMC did not present significant group differences. The comparison of MFA of lIFOF yielded a significantly higher FA-value in simultaneous bilinguals compared to monolinguals. These findings acknowledge the existing difference of the development of the semantic processing specific pathway between children with different semantic processing procedure. These also support the hypothesis that age of second language acquisition affects the maturation and myelination of some language specific white-matter pathways.

  11. English-Chinese Cross-Language IR Using Bilingual Dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    specialized dictionaries together contain about two million entries [6]. 4 Monolingual Experiment The Chinese documents and the Chinese translations of... monolingual performance. The main performance-limiting factor is the limited coverage of the dictionary used in query translation. Some of the key con...English-Chinese Cross-Language IR using Bilingual Dictionaries Aitao Chen , Hailing Jiang , and Fredric Gey School of Information Management

  12. Cochlear-implanted children from homes where English is an additional language: findings from a recent audit in one London centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, M; Vickers, D; McCarthy, K; Barker, R; Merritt, R; Szagun, G; Mann, W; Rajput, K

    2011-05-01

    A 5-year retrospective audit of demographic, audiological, and other records of 147 children implanted at one London centre was conducted. The aim was to detail the number of children implanted, with a specific focus on children from families with English as an additional language (EAL), and to compare these children with children from monolingual English-speaking families on a variety of characteristics known to affect paediatric cochlear implant outcomes. In all, 28% of children were from families where English is an additional language, with 15 different languages recorded. There were no differences between EAL and English-speaking children with respect to age of implantation; bilateral versus unilateral implants or hearing levels in better ear. There were differences between these groups in aetiology, in the occurrence of additional needs, and in educational placements. Information about speech and language outcomes was difficult to gather. Conclusions indicate the need for more detailed record-keeping especially about children's home languages for purposes of planning intervention and for the inclusion of children with EAL in future studies.

  13. Pragmatic Activities for the Speaking Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Being able to speak naturally and appropriately with others in a variety of situations is an important goal for many English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. Because the skill of speaking invariably involves interaction with people and using language to reach objectives (e.g., ordering food, making friends, asking for favors), it is crucial…

  14. Cognitive Reserve in Parkinson's Disease: The Effects of Welsh-English Bilingualism on Executive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Hindle, John V.; Martin-Forbes, Pamela A.; Bastable, Alexandra J. M.; Pye, Kirstie L.; Martyr, Anthony; Whitaker, Christopher J.; Craik, Fergus I. M.; Bialystok, Ellen; Thomas, Enlli M.; Mueller Gathercole, Virginia C.; Clare, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Bilingualism has been shown to benefit executive function (EF) and delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease. This study aims at examining whether a bilingual advantage applies to EF in Parkinson's disease (PD). Method. In a cross-sectional outpatient cohort of monolingual English (n = 57) and bilingual Welsh/English (n = 46) speakers with PD we evaluated the effects of bilingualism compared with monolingualism on performance on EF tasks. In bilinguals we also assessed the effects of ...

  15. English and Persian Cognates/Pseudo Cognates-A Cross-Linguistic Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Marzban

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Different world languages have a lot of contact with each other and have had different influences on one another. Cognates, words which are similar across two or more languages in some aspects, especially with regard to pronunciation, portray an interesting and relevant aspect of foreign/second language translation and research. This study intended to identify a type of cognate words called false cognates in Persian and English, words which have the same form in two languages but represent different meanings, and tried to study and determine the historical relations between English and Persian words. It also aimed to trace their route back from Proto Indo-European languages to the modern languages. To this end, the related literature was gone through and a sufficient corpus of information has been revealed. Afterwards, authentic monolingual dictionaries in both Farsi and English languages were consulted to provide definitions for the cognates and allow for their cross-linguistic comparison. The findings revealed that most of such problematic cognates with different meanings in Farsi and English as found through this study are likely to be confusing and deceptive for Farsi-speaking EFL learners. The findings also pointed to the need for this line of research to receive more scholarly attention. The study of true and false cognates has some implications for contrastive analysts, error analysts, translators, translation theorists, foreign language teachers, curriculum designers, as well as lexicographers and lexicologists.

  16. Caregivers' experience of the decision-making process for placing a person with dementia into a nursing home: comparing caregivers from Chinese ethnic minority with those from English-speaking backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Lauren; Low, Lee-Fay; Brodaty, Henry

    2014-03-01

    The experience of care transitions for people with dementia from ethnic minority groups has been poorly researched. Few studies have examined the decision to put someone on a waiting list for a nursing home and then actually accept a place. Many nursing homes have long waiting lists, but sometimes offers of a place are declined. Our aims were to investigate the decision-making process for placing a person with dementia on a waiting list for a nursing home, why offers of a place are accepted or declined, and the influence of cultural factors, comparing caregivers from Chinese and English-speaking backgrounds. Semi-structured interviews with 27 caregivers of people with dementia on waiting lists or living in nursing homes (20 Chinese background and seven English-speaking background) were conducted, with thematic analysis of factors affecting caregivers' decision-making. Caregivers were at different stages of decision-making when they applied for a waiting list - some were ready for placement, others applied "just in case," and for some there was no waiting time because of an urgent need for placement. Caregivers' decisions were influenced by their emotions and expectations of nursing homes. The decision-making process was similar for both cultural groups, but Chinese caregivers spoke more about their sense of duty, the need for a Chinese specific facility, and declining a place because of family disagreement. Understanding cultural issues, including stereotypes and concerns about nursing homes, and providing better information about admission processes may help caregivers by allaying their anxiety about nursing home placement.

  17. 7 CFR 247.13 - Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers... § 247.13 Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers. (a) What must State and local agencies do to ensure that non-English or limited-English speaking persons are aware of their rights and...

  18. Exploring Knowledge of English Speaking Strategies in 8th and 12th Graders (Exploración del conocimiento de las estrategias de expresión oral en inglés en estudiantes de los grados octavo y doceavo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Larenas, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a research study that analyses eighth and twelfth graders' knowledge of speaking strategies to communicate in English. The Oral Communication Strategy Inventory, developed by Nakatani in 2006, was applied to 108 students belonging to the public, semi-public and private educational sectors in Chile. The findings show that 8th…

  19. CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TO THE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of English in Indonesia has developed quickly in all of the fields. It is affected by many things in many ways. The need of English has also increased quickly in many parts of Indonesian life. To face it, teaching English at young ages or studentseems like the solution. Speaking is one of the skills that should be tough to the student. To get effective learning, it's useful to know what are factors contributing to the student speaking development. This research showed that there are some contributing factors to the students’ speaking development. Those factors are Teacher, Daily Practice, Listening to English Music, Family Support, Watching English Video and Movie, Motivation to Learn, Classroom Environment, Learning Material. Such as a good teacher would provide good learning. Support of the family would also give an effective outcome for the student's development. So, the factors should be known to get a better outcome for the students

  20. Unsupervised Word Mapping Using Structural Similarities in Monolingual Embeddings

    OpenAIRE

    Aldarmaki, Hanan; Mohan, Mahesh; Diab, Mona

    2017-01-01

    Most existing methods for automatic bilingual dictionary induction rely on prior alignments between the source and target languages, such as parallel corpora or seed dictionaries. For many language pairs, such supervised alignments are not readily available. We propose an unsupervised approach for learning a bilingual dictionary for a pair of languages given their independently-learned monolingual word embeddings. The proposed method exploits local and global structures in monolingual vector ...

  1. Investigating the Impact of Personality Factors on Perceived Communication Mobility of Non-Native English Speaking Thai Professionals in International Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Olga A.; Rajprasit, Krich

    2014-01-01

    Communication mobility has been suggested as an element of the complex construct of professional communicative competence, with a shared core of English in the oral mode, for professional international communication. This study aims (1) to investigate the possible correlation between the perceived level of communication mobility, and the influence…

  2. But Do They Speak French? A Comparison of French Immersion Programs in Immersion Only and English/Immersion Settings. Research Report 79-01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Michael

    Students' use of French in unsupervised classroom situations and outside the classroom was investigated in immersion center schools (all students are involved in French immersion programs) and dual track schools (French immersion programs co-exist with regular English language programs). A total of 414 students in grades 3 and 4 were observed…

  3. The Short Health Scale: a valid and reliable measure of health related quality of life in English speaking inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Edel

    2013-09-01

    Health related quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease is influenced both by disease activity as well as by the psychosocial characteristics of the individual patient. The Short Health Scale (SHS) is a four-part visual analogue scale questionnaire using open-ended questions that are designed to assess the impact of inflammatory bowel disease on a health related quality of life. The four dimensions include bowel symptoms, activities of daily life, worry and general wellbeing. It has previously been validated in Swedish and Norwegian speaking patients.

  4. English training

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    You have a good level of English BUT... You still need to improve your speaking or You have problems writing professional documents Would you like to work in a small group on either of these areas? Then, the following courses are for you! Writing Professional Documents in English The aim of the course is for students to improve their professional writing. Participants will work on technical, scientific or administrative documents depending on the needs of the group. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Oral Expression The emphasis will be on oral expression with necessary feed-back. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957 / Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern.ch.

  5. English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    You have a good level of English BUT... You still need to improve your speaking or You have problems writing professional documents Would you like to work in a small group on either of these areas? Then, the following courses are for you! Writing Professional Documents in English The aim of the course is for students to improve their professional writing. Participants will work on technical, scientific or administrative documents depending on the needs of the group. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) Oral Expression The emphasis will be on oral expression with necessary feed-back. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957 / Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern.ch.

  6. Exploratory factor analysis of borderline personality disorder criteria in monolingual Hispanic outpatients with substance use disorders†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel F.; Añez, Luis Miguel; Paris, Manuel; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD) in Hispanic patients. Subjects were 130 monolingual Hispanic adults who had been admitted to a specialty outpatient clinic that provides psychiatric and substance abuse services to Spanish-speaking individuals. All were reliably assessed with the Spanish-Language Version of the Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders. After evaluating internal consistency of the BPD criterion set, an exploratory factor analysis was performed using principal axis factoring. Results suggested a unidimensional structure, and were consistent with similar studies of the DSM-IV criteria for BPD in non-Hispanic samples. These findings have implications for understanding borderline psychopathology in this population, and for the overall validity of the DSM-IV BPD construct. PMID:20472296

  7. SYNONYMS IN GERMAN ONLINE MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Sánchez Hernández

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study includes both theoretical and qualitative research and falls within the framework of semantics and lexicography. It is based on work conducted as a part of the COMBIDIGILEX research project: MINECO-FEDER FFI2015-64476-P. The lexicographical description proposed in the COMBIDIGILEX project is based on the foundations of bilingual lexicography from an onomasiological perspective, including paradigmatic information and syntagmatic analysis, which is useful to users creating texts for students at an advanced level. The project analyses verbal lexemes in German and Spanish based on a paradigmatic, syntagmatic, orthographic and morphological perspective (among others. Subsequently, a contrastive analysis was conducted between both languages. In this contribution, we first analyse what paradigmatic information is, including its relevance to a dictionary. Paradigmatic information includes not only synonyms and antonyms but also hyperonyms and hyponyms, which often complete the lexicographical article in a general dictionary. Paradigmatic relations can be observed in light of semantic definitions or may independently become part of the lexical entry. Forming the paradigmatic information of an entry in an independent manner is known as “intentionelle Paradigmatik”, and it constitutes a series of advantages in the dictionary (Hausmann 1991b: 2794. This type of information aids the processes of production and expands vocabulary. Next, we examine the appearance of synonyms in three German online monolingual dictionaries – DWDS, WORTSCHATZLEXIKON and DUDEN ONLINE – from the semantic perspective of cognition verbs. The primary objective of the study is to demonstrate the relevance of this type of information as well as the needs it covers from a user’s perspective. Offering the user a series of lexical elements along with information on semantic relations of a paradigmatic nature thus addresses the issue of users having an array of

  8. Adaptation and Assessment of a Public Speaking Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberri-Shea, Gina

    2017-01-01

    Prominent spoken language assessments such as the Oral Proficiency Interview and the Test of Spoken English have been primarily concerned with speaking ability as it relates to conversation. This paper looks at an additional aspect of spoken language ability, namely public speaking. This study used an adapted form of a public speaking rating scale…

  9. Examining the Relationship among Reading Curriculum-Based Measures, Level of Language Proficiency, and State Accountability Test Scores with Middle School Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Nicole Osterman

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the predictive ability of oral reading fluency (R-CBM) on a sixth grade high-stakes assessment with ELL and non-ELL students, as well as determine the average rate of growth on R-CBM and how that relates to level of English Proficiency. The participants in the current study included 350 sixth grade…

  10. “NOT ALWAYS THE LANGUAGE I SPEAK IS THE ONE THEY UNDERSTAND” – BELIEFS ABOUT ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING WITH PUBLIC SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Silvério de LIMA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze an English teacher’s beliefs in her first year of teaching adolescent students in a public school. The data were generated through a recorded interview which was transcribed for qualitative analysis. Based on studies within Applied Linguistics, Psychology and Education, the beliefs were inferred regarding the teaching experiences with adolescents and teaching in the public school context. The data reveal a distance between the teacher and her students, characterized by two types of mismatches, the constraint to understand and be understood by adolescents and the constraint she felt while having to integrate the theoretical knowledge she acquired from her English teacher education course and her classroom practice. About the public school, she believes it is not possible to teach English in an effective way, here understood as oral modality, due to several contextual and internal factors such as the students’ demotivation, excessive number of students per class and gaps in her initial teacher education process.

  11. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...

  12. Speak Up! Public Speaking for Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Felkar, Sarah; Mallette, Michelle; Meunier, Shanna

    2010-01-01

    Learn about public speaking for libraries in a session that is fun, friendly and not intimidating (as public speaking often can be). The speakers will discuss how public speaking is often an important part of working in a library.

  13. Non-Native & Native English Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Tosuncuoglu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In many countries the primary (mother tongue language is not English but there is a great demand for English language teachers all over the world. The demand in this field is try to be filled largely by non-native English speaking teachers who have learned English in the country or abroad, or from another non native English peaking teachers. In some countries, particularly those where English speaking is a a sign of status, the students prefer to learn English from a native English speaker. The perception is that a non-native English speaking teacher is a less authentic teacher than a native English speaker and their instruction is not satifactory in some ways. This paper will try to examine the literature to explore whether there is a difference in instructional effectiveness between NNESTs and native English teachers.

  14. Inclusion Strategies for Multi-word Units in Monolingual Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Louw

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: This article focuses on inclusion strategies for different types of multi-word units, beit as part of the macrostructure or embedded as treatment units in the microstructure of a specificdictionary. The types of multi-word units discussed range from multi-word lexical items to collocationsand multi-word compound lexical items. The general principles set out in this article areapplied specifically to monolingual school dictionaries that target learners of English in the juniorsecondary phase.In order to discuss inclusion strategies adequately it is, however, necessary to make a cursorydistinction between idioms and collocations, on the one hand, and between collocations and multiwordcompound lexical items, on the other. It is shown that current monolingual dictionaries oftenfail to distinguish between these types and therefore apply potentially confusing inclusion strategies.In the discussion of inclusion strategies for multi-word lexical items that follows, it is shownthat, whereas loan groups and group prepositions require lemmatisation as full multilexical lemmas,the strategy for idioms is not as simple. The problems with a full lemmatisation of idioms arepointed out and an alternative system, whereby idioms are consistently included as sublemmaswith full microstructural treatment, is proposed.Next it is shown that collocations do not have lexical item status and can therefore not betreated in the same way as multi-word lexical items. However, provision must be made that somecollocations may need additional microstructural treatment addressed to them.Lastly, inclusion strategies for multi-word compound lexical items, which frequently occur inEnglish, are discussed. The practice of sublemmatising so-called "transparent" compound lexicalitems and giving them no or little microstructural treatment, is shown to be inappropriate forschool dictionaries.Hopefully the guidelines provided in this article can be of some help in clearing up

  15. English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 03 March to 28 June 2003 (2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel.73127 or Mr. Liptow: tel.72957. Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, rol...

  16. English Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 03 March to 28 June 2003 (2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: tel.73127 or Mr. Liptow: tel.72957. Writing Professional Documents in English This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken English. Duration: 20 hours (2 hours a week) Price: 440 CHF (for 8 students) For registration and further information, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Tessa Osborne: Tessa.Osborne@cern. Oral Expression This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to practise and maintain their speaking skills while extending their vocabulary. There will be approximately 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-p...

  17. Validation of the Spanish SIRS with monolingual Hispanic outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Amor A; Rogers, Richard; Hoersting, Raquel

    2010-09-01

    Psychologists are faced with formidable challenges in making their assessment methods relevant to growing numbers of Hispanic clients for whom English is not the primary or preferred language. Among other clinical issues, the determination of malingering has profound consequences for clients. In this investigation, we evaluated a Spanish translation of the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1992) with 80 Spanish-speaking Hispanic American outpatients. Using a between-subjects simulation design, the Spanish SIRS was found to produce reliable results with small standard errors of measurement. Regarding validity, very large effect sizes (mean Cohen's d= 2.00) were observed between feigners and honest responders for the SIRS primary scales. We consider the potential role of the Spanish SIRS with reference to Spanish translations for other assessment instruments.

  18. Cross-cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Exercise-Induced Leg Pain Questionnaire for English- and Greek-Speaking Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korakakis, Vasileios; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Baliotis, Konstantinos; Papadopoulou, Sofia; Padhiar, Nat; Nauck, Tanja; Lohrer, Heinz

    2015-06-01

    Clinical measurement. To translate the German version of the Exercise-Induced Leg Pain Questionnaire (EILP-G) to Greek and English and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Greek version. The EILP-G was developed to evaluate the severity of symptoms and sports ability in individuals with exercise-induced leg pain (EILP). Translation of the questionnaire to other languages will provide a standard outcome measure across populations. The EILP-G questionnaire was cross-culturally adapted to Greek and English, according to established guidelines. The validity and reliability of the Greek version were assessed in 40 patients with EILP, 40 patients with other lower extremity injuries, 40 track-and-field athletes with no history of EILP, and 40 young adults without pathology. Participants completed the questionnaire at baseline and again after 7 to 10 days. The expert committee and the participants considered the questionnaire to have good face and content validity. Concurrent validity as assessed using the Schepsis score was almost perfect (rho = 0.947, PGreek version exhibited excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.995 for the EILP group) and internal consistency (Cronbach α = .942 for the EILP group). Finally, no ceiling or floor effects were found, as none of the individuals with EILP scored the maximum or minimum possible values on the questionnaire. The Greek version, adapted from the original EILP-G, is a valid and reliable questionnaire, and its psychometric properties are comparable with the original version.

  19. The auditory attention status in Iranian bilingual and monolingual people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayiere Mansoori

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Bilingualism, as one of the discussing issues of psychology and linguistics, can influence the speech processing. Of several tests for assessing auditory processing, dichotic digit test has been designed to study divided auditory attention. Our study was performed to compare the auditory attention between Iranian bilingual and monolingual young adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 students including 30 Turkish-Persian bilinguals and 30 Persian monolinguals aged between 18 to 30 years in both genders. Dichotic digit test was performed on young individuals with normal peripheral hearing and right hand preference. Results: No significant correlation was found between the results of dichotic digit test of monolinguals and bilinguals (p=0.195, and also between the results of right and left ears in monolingual (p=0.460 and bilingual (p=0.054 groups. The mean score of women was significantly more than men (p=0.031. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between bilinguals and monolinguals in divided auditory attention; and it seems that acquisition of second language in lower ages has no noticeable effect on this type of auditory attention.

  20. Compiling the First Monolingual Lusoga Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minah Nabirye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In this research article a study is made of the approach followed to compile the first-ever monolingual dictionary for Lusoga. Lusoga is a Bantu language spoken in Uganda by slightly over two mil-lion people. Being an under-resourced language, the Lusoga orthography had to be designed, a grammar written, and a corpus built, before embarking on the compilation of the dictionary. This compilation was aimed at attaining an academic degree, hence requiring a rigorous research methodology. Firstly, the prevail-ing methods for compiling dictionaries were mainly practical and insufficient in explaining the theoretical linguistic basis for dictionary compilation. Since dictionaries are based on meaning, the theory of meaning was used to account for all linguistic data considered in dictionaries. However, meaning is considered at a very abstract level, far removed from the process of compiling dictionaries. Another theory, the theory of modularity, was used to bridge the gap between the theory of meaning and the compilation process. The modular theory explains how the different modules of a language contribute information to the different parts of the dictionary article or dictionary information in general. Secondly, the research also had to contend with the different approaches for analysing Bantu languages for Bantu and European audiences. A descrip-tion of the Bantu- and European-centred approaches to Bantu studies was undertaken in respect of (a the classification of Lusoga words, and (b the specification of their citations. As a result, Lusoga lexicography deviates from the prevailing Bantu classification and citation of nouns, adjectives and verbs in particular. The dictionary was tested on two separate occasions and all the feedback was considered in the compilation pro-cess. This article, then, gives an overall summary of all the steps involved in the compilation of the Eiwanika ly'Olusoga, i.e. the Monolingual Lusoga Dictionary

  1. The comprehension skills of children learning English as an additional language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, K; Kelly, J M; Whiteley, H E; Spooner, A

    2009-12-01

    Data from national test results suggests that children who are learning English as an additional language (EAL) experience relatively lower levels of educational attainment in comparison to their monolingual, English-speaking peers. The relative underachievement of children who are learning EAL demands that the literacy needs of this group are identified. To this end, this study aimed to explore the reading- and comprehension-related skills of a group of EAL learners. Data are reported from 92 Year 3 pupils, of whom 46 children are learning EAL. Children completed standardized measures of reading accuracy and comprehension, listening comprehension, and receptive and expressive vocabulary. Results indicate that many EAL learners experience difficulties in understanding written and spoken text. These comprehension difficulties are not related to decoding problems but are related to significantly lower levels of vocabulary knowledge experienced by this group. Many EAL learners experience significantly lower levels of English vocabulary knowledge which has a significant impact on their ability to understand written and spoken text. Greater emphasis on language development is therefore needed in the school curriculum to attempt to address the limited language skills of children learning EAL.

  2. INTERNATIONAL ENGLISH MANUAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AMADOR, MABLE; KELLER, YVONNE KELLER

    2002-02-22

    This document presents a set of guidelines for authors who wish to express themselves more clearly to foreign readers, or readers whose first language is not American English. Topics include idioms, technical terms, jargon, word meaning, acronyms, and international conventions of measurement. The guidelines will help writers of technical documents present their ideas more effectively to audiences that may include individuals whose first language is not American English, including audiences with individuals from other English-speaking countries.

  3. Utilizing evidence-based assessment instruments to detect well-being and distress in English- and Spanish-speaking caregivers of individuals affected by dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Shanna L; Burgess, Aaron; Cadet, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the most effective and available English and Spanish language caregiver assessments for providers and caregivers. Methods Assessments were included if they screened for caregiving-related concerns, including stress, depression, and caregiving burden and could be administered directly to caregivers in person or online. Results Eighteen assessments are designed to assess caregiver burden, distress, depression, and grief. Six did not have psychometric data to support efficacy but are widely used in clinical and research settings. Six were validated in Spanish, and one other is available in Spanish but not validated. Conclusion As many as 80% of care recipients are cared for in the home by family members who act as informal caregivers. Caregivers of persons with dementia may experience depression symptoms, high caregiver burden, and feelings of being constrained. Due to the lack of psychometric evidence available, the validity of some assessments is questionable.

  4. Language profiles of monolingual and bilingual Finnish preschool children at risk for language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Martin; Korkman, Marit; Mickos, Annika; Byring, Roger

    2008-01-01

    A large proportion of children are exposed to more than one language, yet research on simultaneous bilingualism has been relatively sparse. Traditionally, there has been concern that bilingualism may aggravate language difficulties of children with language impairment. However, recent studies have not found specific language impairment (SLI) or language-related problems to be increased by bilingualism. The topic of bilingualism and its effects has high actuality in Finland, where increasing numbers of children in the country's 6% Swedish-speaking minority grow up in bilingual families, where one parent's primary language is Swedish and the other's Finnish. The present study aimed at exploring the influence of such bilingualism on the language profiles of children from this population at risk for language impairment (LI). Participants were recruited from a language screening of 339 children from kindergartens with instruction only in Swedish, from the Swedish-speaking parts of Finland. Of these children, 33 (9.7%) were defined as a Risk Group for LI, whereas 48 non-risk children were randomly selected to form a control group. When subdividing the children according to home language, 35 were found to be monolingual, Swedish-speaking, and 46 were Swedish-Finnish bilingual. The children underwent neuropsychological assessment during their preschool year. Assessment methods included subtests from the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scale of Intelligence - Revised and the NEPSY Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment. A repeated-measures multiple analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) showed a significant effect of risk of LI on the NEPSY language scores. The effect of home language was not significant and there was no interaction between home language and risk for LI. Non-verbal IQ was controlled for. Across groups, bilingual children scored lower than monolingual children only on measures of vocabulary and sentence repetition. Although a slight general cost of

  5. Validation of interpersonal support evaluation list-12 (ISEL-12) scores among English- and Spanish-speaking Hispanics/Latinos from the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Erin L; Roesch, Scott C; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Penedo, Frank J; Llabre, Maria M; Weitzman, Orit B; Navas-Nacher, Elena L; Perreira, Krista M; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Ponguta, Liliana A; Johnson, Timothy P; Gallo, Linda C

    2014-06-01

    The Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12 (ISEL-12; Cohen, Mermelstein, Kamarck, & Hoberman, 1985) is broadly employed as a short-form measure of the traditional ISEL, which measures functional (i.e., perceived) social support. The ISEL-12 can be scored by summing the items to create an overall social support score; three subscale scores representing appraisal, belonging, and tangible social support have also been proposed. Despite extensive use, studies of the psychometric properties of ISEL-12 scores have been limited, particularly among Hispanics/Latinos, the largest and fastest growing ethnic group in the United States. The current study investigated the reliability and structural and convergent validity of ISEL-12 scores using data from 5,313 Hispanics/Latinos who participated in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study. Participants completed measures in English or Spanish and identified their ancestry as Dominican, Central American, Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, or South American. Cronbach's alphas suggested adequate internal consistency for the total score for all languages and ancestry groups; coefficients for the subscale scores were not acceptable. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the one-factor and three-factor models fit the data equally well. Results from multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported a similar one-factor structure with equivalent response patterns and variances between language groups and ancestry groups. Convergent validity analyses suggested that the total social support score related to scores of social network integration, life engagement, perceived stress, and negative affect (depression, anxiety) in the expected directions.

  6. English course

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    General and Professional English Courses The next sessions will take place: From 3rd October 2011 to beginning of February 2012 (break at Christmas). These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister, tel. 70896. Oral Expression The next sessions will take place from 3rd October 2011 to beginning of February 2012 (break at Christmas). This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be on average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Kerstin Fuhrmeister, tel. 70896. Writing Professional Documents in English - Administrative Wr...

  7. English courses

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Cours d'anglais général et professionnel La prochaine session se déroulera du 4 mars jusqu’au 21 juin 2013. Ces cours s'adressent à toute personne travaillant au CERN ainsi qu'à leur conjoint. Pour le détail des cours proposés, consultez nos pages web. Oral Expression The next sessions will take place from 4 March to 21 June 2013. This course is intended for people with a good knowledge of English who want to enhance their speaking skills. There will be on average of 8 participants in a class. Speaking activities will include discussions, meeting simulations, role-plays etc. depending on the needs of the students. More information here. Writing Professional Documents in English - Administrative Writing Professional Documents in English - Technical The next sessions will take place from 4 March to 21 June 2013. These courses are designed for people with a goo...

  8. Language as a barrier to care for Xhosa-speaking patients at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    incompatibility between patients and health care providers and socioeconomic ... problem, 15% saying that it was a barrier that nurses and doctors did not speak ... The majority of doctors are first-language English speaking, followed by ...

  9. What Dictionary to Use? A Closer Look at the "Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary," the "Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English" and the "Longman Lexicon of Contempory English."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    Three dictionaries are compared for their usefulness to teachers of English as a foreign language, teachers in training, students, and other users of English as a foreign language. The issue of monolingual versus bilingual dictionary format is discussed, and a previous analysis of the two bilingual dictionaries is summarized. Pronunciation…

  10. Compiling the First Monolingual Lusoga Dictionary | Nabirye | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Another theory, the theory of modularity, was used to bridge the gap between the theory of meaning and the compilation process. The modular ... This article, then, gives an overall summary of all the steps involved in the compilation of the Eiwanika ly'Olusoga, i.e. the Monolingual Lusoga Dictionary. Keywords: lexicography ...

  11. Evaluating Bilingual and Monolingual Dictionaries for L2 Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Alan

    1997-01-01

    A discussion of dictionaries and their use for second language (L2) learning suggests that lack of computerized modern language corpora can adversely affect bilingual dictionaries, commonly used by L2 learners, and shows how use of such corpora has benefitted two contemporary monolingual L2 learner dictionaries (1995 editions of the Longman…

  12. The Monolingual Lusoga Dictionary Faced with Demands from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Monolingual Lusoga Dictionary Faced with Demands from a New User Category. ... Although the information in the WSG may fit the purpose at hand, that information is mainly presented as a summary, with statements of conclusions only. Explanations to ease its access to the new user are thus missing. Findings from a ...

  13. School Leadership along the Trajectory from Monolingual to Multilingual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenzi-Moreno, Laura; Hesson, Sarah; Menken, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the critical role of school leaders in language policy change, and specifically in shifting their language education policies and practices from monolingual to multilingual. We examine the process of language policy change in three schools that were involved in a project aimed at increasing the knowledge base of school…

  14. English Language Learners: Development and Intervention--An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCardle, Peggy; Leung, Christy Y.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Nearly one in five Americans speaks a language other than English at home; among Americans speaking languages other than English, the largest single language group is Spanish speaking (U.S. Department of Commerce, 2004). The increase in the total group of language minority individuals has been dramatic, with their proportion in the U.S. population…

  15. Multilingual students' acquisition of English as their L3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samal Jalal, Rawand

    with regard to English proficiency. The current study conducted in Denmark investigated multilingual students’ English proficiency compared to their monolingual peers’, and examined which learning strategies proficient L3 learners utilize. The sample was comprised of 9-graders who are monolinguals (N = 82......) and multilinguals with Turkish L1 (N = 134). The participants provided basic demographic information, and were tested in their general English proficiency. Out of the 70 multilinguals with Turkish L1, 12 participants were selected for further testing; i.e., the four participants who scored the lowest, four...... participants with intermediate scores, and the four who scored the highest, on a test of English proficiency. These participants were tested in their L1 (Turkish) and their L2 (Danish) in order to examine whether their proficiency in their L1 and L2 was associated with English proficiency. Furthermore, the 12...

  16. Students’ Learning Strategies for Developing Speaking Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan A. Gani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to study the learning strategies used by both low and high performance speaking students in developing their speaking skills as well as the differences between the learning strategies used by both groups of learners. The reason for conducting this research was the fact that the competency of many students in speaking English was still considered unsatisfactory in Banda Aceh. We postulated that one aspect involved in the process of developing speaking skills was the learning strategies used by the learners. In this study, the data was collected through field research by means of documents, questionnaires, and interviews. The result of this study indicated that high performance speaking students had better balance in using all kinds of learning strategies (memory, cognitive, compensatory, metacognitive, affective, and social for enhancing their speaking skills; the same could not be found with low performance speaking students. Besides, the high performance students employed more learning strategies consciously and appropriately compared to the low performance students. Based on the research results, it is suggested that students should be trained to be more aware of their own speaking learning strategies. They should use appropriate language learning strategies more consciously, purposefully, and frequently to be more successful in developing their speaking skills.

  17. USING VISUAL MEDIA IN TEACHING SPEAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Baidawi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Speaking is considered the most important skill of language especially English because having ability to speak is one of the evidence that someone has good proficiency of the language itself. Therefore, it is very urgent to teach speaking to the students in order that they master it well. To teach speaking, the teacher must design learning activities as well as possible and it also must be supported by various teaching media especially visual media such as pictures, realia, television etc. in order that learning activities is more various, interesting and motivates students to participate actively. The presence of visual media presents different learning experience which can stimulate students to think creatively so that they always get new idea to express when they want to speak. Therefore, the more various the teacher uses the media, the better learning objectives students achieve

  18. Bilingualism does not alter cognitive decline or dementia risk among Spanish-speaking immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahodne, Laura B; Schofield, Peter W; Farrell, Meagan T; Stern, Yaakov; Manly, Jennifer J

    2014-03-01

    Clinic-based studies suggest that dementia is diagnosed at older ages in bilinguals compared with monolinguals. The current study sought to test this hypothesis in a large, prospective, community-based study of initially nondemented Hispanic immigrants living in a Spanish-speaking enclave of northern Manhattan. Participants included 1,067 participants in the Washington/Hamilton Heights Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP) who were tested in Spanish and followed at 18-24 month intervals for up to 23 years. Spanish-English bilingualism was estimated via both self-report and an objective measure of English reading level. Multilevel models for change estimated the independent effects of bilingualism on cognitive decline in 4 domains: episodic memory, language, executive function, and speed. Over the course of the study, 282 participants developed dementia. Cox regression was used to estimate the independent effect of bilingualism on dementia conversion. Covariates included country of origin, gender, education, time spent in the United States, recruitment cohort, and age at enrollment. Independent of the covariates, bilingualism was associated with better memory and executive function at baseline. However, bilingualism was not independently associated with rates of cognitive decline or dementia conversion. Results were similar whether bilingualism was measured via self-report or an objective test of reading level. This study does not support a protective effect of bilingualism on age-related cognitive decline or the development of dementia. In this sample of Hispanic immigrants, bilingualism is related to higher initial scores on cognitive tests and higher educational attainment and may not represent a unique source of cognitive reserve. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Vocabulary Use by Low, Moderate, and High ASL-Proficient Writers Compared to Hearing ESL and Monolingual Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Jenny L; Morgan, Dianne; DiGello, Elizabeth; Wiles, Jill; Rivers, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    The written English vocabulary of 72 deaf elementary school students of various proficiency levels in American Sign Language (ASL) was compared with the performance of 60 hearing English-as-a-second-language (ESL) speakers and 61 hearing monolingual speakers of English, all of similar age. Students were asked to retell "The Tortoise and the Hare" story (previously viewed on video) in a writing activity. Writing samples were later scored for total number of words, use of words known to be highly frequent in children's writing, redundancy in writing, and use of English function words. All deaf writers showed significantly lower use of function words as compared to their hearing peers. Low-ASL-proficient students demonstrated a highly formulaic writing style, drawing mostly on high-frequency words and repetitive use of a limited range of function words. The moderate- and high-ASL-proficient deaf students' writing was not formulaic and incorporated novel, low-frequency vocabulary to communicate their thoughts. The moderate- and high-ASL students' performance revealed a departure from findings one might expect based on previous studies with deaf writers and their vocabulary use. The writing of the deaf writers also differed from the writing of hearing ESL speakers. Implications for deaf education and literacy instruction are discussed, with special attention to the fact that ASL-proficient, deaf second-language learners of English may be approaching English vocabulary acquisition in ways that are different from hearing ESL learners.

  20. Are Danish doctors comfortable teaching in English?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilas, Lisbeth; Løkkegaard, Ellen Christine Leth; Laursen, Jacob Brink

    2016-01-01

    English skills was perceived low. Conclusion Teaching in English was rated as 30 % more difficult than in Danish, and a significant subgroup of doctors had difficulties in all forms of communication in English, resulting in challenges when introducing international students in non-native English speaking...... medical departments. Keywords International students Clinical teaching Teaching in foreign language Doctors’ English skills Self-assessment......Background From 2012–2015, the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and of Pediatrics at the University of Copenhagen conducted a project, “Internationalization at Home ”, offering clinical teaching in English. The project allowed international students to work with Danish speaking students...

  1. Overcoming Fear of Speaking in English through Meaningful Activities: A Study with Teenagers* Superación del temor a hablar en inglés a través de actividades significativas: un estudio con adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Ayala Contreras

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a study implemented in a public school to explore some learning strategies to overcome speaking fears and anxiety. After a preliminary inquiry to find out the possible causes of the problem, we proposed an artistic and academic space called Cultural Moment, adapted from the Spanish class. It is a task-based cooperative learning environment. The students have the possibility to try their aesthetic abilities and interact in English within an unstressful and enjoyable atmosphere. To gather information we used interviews, field notes, and audio and video recordings. This study suggests some possible strategies to reduce language anxiety and promote oral interaction in the classroom.Este artículo da cuenta de un estudio que se realizó en un colegio oficial para explorar algunas estrategias de aprendizaje con el propósito de superar el miedo y la angustia al hablar. A partir de una indagación respecto a las posibles causas del problema se abre un espacio artístico y académico denominado Momento Cultural, inspirado en la clase de español. Las actividades de clase se desarrollan en un ambiente de aprendizaje cooperativo basado en tareas. Los estudiantes tienen la posibilidad de mostrar sus habilidades estéticas e interactuar en inglés en una atmósfera de confianza y alegría. La recolección de información se hizo a través de entrevistas, grabaciones de video y audio y notas de campo. El estudio sugiere algunas posibles estrategias para reducir la ansiedad y promover la interacción oral.

  2. The Effect of a Simplified English Language Dictionary on a Reading Test. LEP Projects Report 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albus, Deb; Bielinski, John; Thurlow, Martha; Liu, Kristin

    This study was conducted to examine whether using a monolingual, simplified English dictionary as an accommodation on a reading test with limited-English-proficient (LEP) Hmong students improved test performance. Hmong students were chosen because they are often not literate in their first language. For these students, bilingual dictionaries are…

  3. Cross-Linguistic Influence in French-English Bilingual Children's Possessive Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoladis, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to test the predictions of a speech production model of cross-linguistic influence in French-English bilingual children. A speech production model predicts bidirectional influence (i.e., bilinguals' greater use of periphrastic constructions like the hat of the dog relative to monolinguals in English and reversed…

  4. Research on demand-oriented Business English learning method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Business English is integrated with visual-audio-oral English, which focuses on the application for English listening and speaking skills in common business occasions, and acquire business knowledge and improve skills through English. This paper analyzes the Business English Visual-audio-oral Course, and learning situation of higher vocational students’ learning objectives, interests, vocabulary, listening and speaking, and focuses on the research of effective methods to guide the higher voca...

  5. Bridging the language gap: Exploring science teachers' dual role as teachers of content and English literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Suzanne C.

    Responsibility for educating English language learners is increasingly falling on the shoulders of content specialists at the secondary level, as students are mainstreamed into classes. Therefore, providing these students an opportunity to achieve academic success depends largely on the quality of mainstream instruction (Cornell, 1995). Most teachers receive little or no preparation in how to work with English language learners. In my study, I address the instructional issues confronting three white, monolingual English-speaking middle school science teachers who must meet the demands of an increasing English language learner population. Specifically, this study explores teacher beliefs and enactment of reform-oriented science and sheltered instructional approaches to develop English language learners scientific and English literacy skills. I also explore the relationships that exist between these two dynamics in an effort to determine the extent to which teachers take on a dual role as teachers promoting English language and science proficiency. Using a participant observation case study method and my adaptation of Schwab's commonplaces heuristic, I analyzed the relationship between teacher beliefs, milieu, subject matter, and enactment in bridging the language gap in the science classroom for English language learners. The most noteworthy finding of this study was the significant role of milieu in enacting lessons that bridge the language gap and foster the development of English language learners science and English literacy skills. The findings suggest that greater attention be given to helping teachers establish a relationship-driven classroom milieu. You can provide all kinds of courses or professional learning experiences to improve teachers' instructional practices, but they must also recognize the importance of establishing relationships with their students; the coursework they take will not supplant the need to foster a warm and safe environment for all

  6. Restrictive Language Policy in Practice: English Learners in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineke, Amy J.

    2016-01-01

    As the most restrictive language policy context in the United States, Arizona's monolingual and prescriptive approach to teaching English learners continues to capture international attention. More than five school years after initial implementation, this study uses qualitative data from the individuals doing the policy work to provide a holistic…

  7. Taiwan-Educated Teachers of English: Their Linguistic Capital, Agency, and Perspectives on Their Identities as Legitimate English Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei Chia

    2017-01-01

    NNESTs have diverse educational backgrounds. For example, a number of non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) have obtained their degrees abroad in English-speaking countries and have returned to their countries in English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) contexts, working alongside NNESTs who have been educated domestically. Yet, little is known…

  8. Acquisition of German pluralization rules in monolingual and multilingual children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaretsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-yearold monolingual German and bi/multilingual immigrant children tested with a modified, validated version of the Marburger Sprachscreening (MSS language test and 476 children tested with the SETK 3-5 language test. Classified correct and wrong answers to MSS and SETK 3-5 plural items were compared. The acquisition patterns of immigrants corresponded to those of younger German children. Both monolingual German and immigrant children demonstrated generally the same universal frequency and phonetically/phonologically based error patterns, irrespective of their linguistic background, but with different tendencies such as overgeneralization of -s by German children only.

  9. Effective Look-up Techniques to Approach a Monolingual Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauman Al Amin Ali El Sayed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A dictionary is (a learning tool that can help the language learner in acquiring great knowledge of and about a foreign language. Almost all language learners buy or at least possess, at one time, a monolingual or bilingual dictionary, to which the learner may refer to look up the meaning of words. Unfortunately, using dictionary to look up the meaning of words seems to be the most important service, which a dictionary is expected to provide to language learners. In fact, a dictionary provides much data about language to its readers such as telling them about: the word spelling, phonology, phonetics, etymology, stylistics and definitions among other aspects. This paper sheds light on how the dictionary can teach its readers with special focus on monolingual dictionary. Hence, the discussion of this paper will centre on how dictionaries can teach students rather than on how students can learn from them.

  10. THE MOTHER TONGUE IN MONOLINGUAL AND MULTILINGUAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyuchukov, H.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a small research project on Russian monolingual children in Moscow, and Turkish bilingual children living in Berlin, Germany. The children were examined with using the Test of Early Language Development (3rd ed., and despite the limitations of the study, the findings point up interesting tendencies. In the comprehension section of the test, the Russian monolinguals did much better than the Turkish bilinguals; however, in the section testing production, both groups of children had the same results. All children had difficulties in acquisition of abstract terms, certain prepositions, complex sentences and retelling or creating a story narrative from pictures. Bilingualism is not an obstacle for mother tongue development, but it seems there are universal factors which influence the process of language acquisition.

  11. Criteria for Selecting a Monolingual Dictionary for Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Colin, Rogers

    2003-01-01

    There are a bewildering number of monolingual dictionaries on the market in Japan, including new learner dictionaries which give students a great deal of potentially useful information about how to use words. However it is essential to carefully evaluate dictionaries to ensure that they meet the needs of the learners who will use them. This article sets out some criteria to help make such decisions.

  12. CLASSROOM INTERACTION ANALYSIS IN INDONESIAN EFL SPEAKING CLASS

    OpenAIRE

    Sinta Hoerun Nisa

    2014-01-01

    This study entitles “Classroom Interaction Analysis in the EFL Speaking Class” aimed at analyzing the categories of teacher talk, student talk and classroom interaction types used during EFL speaking class. The research employed a qualitative design and applied a case study. Subjects of the research were an English teacher and 25 students at the second semester of English Education Department of the University of Kuningan. The data were gained through naturalistic observation and document ana...

  13. Predictive Validity of Curriculum-Based Measures for English Learners at Varying English Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jennifer Sun; Vanderwood, Michael L.; Lee, Catherine Y.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of curriculum-based measures in reading for Spanish-speaking English learners (ELs) at various levels of English proficiency. Third-grade Spanish-speaking EL students were screened during the fall using DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (DORF) and Daze. Predictive validity was examined in relation to spring…

  14. Expression of schizophrenia in black Xhosa-speaking and white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To inv:estigate whether schizophrenia manifests itself differently in Xhosa-speaking South Africans, compared with English-speaking white South Africans. Design. A comparative study ·of the presentation of schizophrenia in two groups of patients. Settings and subjects. A sample of 63 patients (43 Xhosaspeaking ...

  15. Something to "Speak" about: Addressing Sensitive Issues through Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackett, Mark

    2007-01-01

    "Speak," by Laurie Halse Anderson, is one of the most powerful young adult novels to come along in the past decade. It has won numerous awards, including the "School Library Journal" award for "Best Book of the Year," and was a National Book Award Finalist. Despite this acclaim, many English teachers are uncomfortable teaching "Speak" in their…

  16. Research on demand-oriented Business English learning method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Business English is integrated with visual-audio-oral English, which focuses on the application for English listening and speaking skills in common business occasions, and acquire business knowledge and improve skills through English. This paper analyzes the Business English Visual-audio-oral Course, and learning situation of higher vocational students’ learning objectives, interests, vocabulary, listening and speaking, and focuses on the research of effective methods to guide the higher vocational students to learn Business English Visual-audio-oral Course, master Business English knowledge, and improve communicative competence of Business English.

  17. Evaluating Workplace English Language Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkens, Kristin; Winke, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Companies across the United States provide workplace English classes to non-native-English-speaking employees to increase productivity, retention, and on-the-job safety. Institutions that financially support the programs often require evidence of learning through standardized tests as a prerequisite for continued funding. However, the tests…

  18. EFL Students' and Teachers' Attitudes toward Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety: A Look at NESTs and Non-NESTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Turgay; Tanriöver, Ahmet Serkan; Sahan, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    Native English Speaking Teachers (NESTs) have been employed in various English language teaching (ELT) positions and departments at private and state universities in Turkey, particularly over the last three decades. However, undergraduate EFL students' attitudes toward NESTs and Non-Native English Speaking Teachers (Non-NESTs) remain seriously…

  19. Attitudes towards English in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Dako

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers official and individual attitudes towards bilingualism in English and a Ghanaian language. We ask whether bilingualism in English and Ghanaian languages is a social handicap, without merit, or an important indicator of ethnic identity. Ghana has about 50 non-mutually intelligible languages, yet there are no statistics on who speaks what language(s where in the country. We consider attitudes to English against the current Ghanaian language policy in education as practised in the school system. Our data reveal that parents believe early exposure to English enhances academic performance; English is therefore becoming the language of the home.

  20. Asian Varieties of English: Attitudes towards Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokumoto, Mina; Shibata, Miki

    2011-01-01

    According to previous studies, Japanese EFL learners who wish to acquire American or British English pronunciation are reluctant to speak their L1-accented English. In view of this tendency, the present study examined the attitudes of Asian learners toward their L1-accented English. University students from Japan, South Korea, and Malaysia…