WorldWideScience

Sample records for monolingual english children

  1. Language Skills and Reading Comprehension in English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children in Grades 2-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Rebecca D.; Proctor, C. Patrick; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hartranft, Anna M.; Doyle, Brie; Zelinke, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated language skills and reading comprehension with English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children in grades 2-5. Of the 377 children in the sample, 207 were English monolingual and 170 were Spanish-English bilingual. Data were collected within a cohort-sequential design for two academic years in the fall and…

  2. Language Skills and Reading Comprehension in English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children in Grades 2-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Rebecca D.; Proctor, C. Patrick; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hartranft, Anna M.; Doyle, Brie; Zelinke, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated language skills and reading comprehension with English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children in grades 2-5. Of the 377 children in the sample, 207 were English monolingual and 170 were Spanish-English bilingual. Data were collected within a cohort-sequential design for two academic years in the fall and…

  3. Language differences between monolingual English and bilingual English-Spanish young children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valicenti-McDermott, Maria; Tarshis, Nancy; Schouls, Melissa; Galdston, Molly; Hottinger, Kathryn; Seijo, Rosa; Shulman, Lisa; Shinnar, Shlomo

    2013-07-01

    Bilingualism is common worldwide and increasingly prevalent, but there is little information about bilingual children with autism spectrum disorder. The goal of the study was to compare expressive and receptive language skills in monolingual English and bilingual English-Spanish children with autism spectrum disorder. A review of the multidisciplinary evaluations done in toddlers who were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder at a university-affiliated center between 2003 and 2010 was performed. Data included demographics, developmental testing, autistic characteristics, and expressive and receptive language skills, obtained from formal speech and language evaluation. A total of 80 toddlers were identified, 40 classified as bilingual English-Spanish. Compared with monolinguals, bilingual children were more likely to vocalize and utilize gestures, with no other differences in language skills. There were no differences in cognitive functioning and autistic features between the groups. In this study, bilingualism did not negatively affect language development in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

  4. Language Growth in English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children from 2.5 to 5 Years.

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    Hoff, Erika; Ribot, Krystal M

    2017-08-10

    To describe the trajectories of English and Spanish language growth in typically developing children from bilingual homes and compare those with the trajectories of English growth in children from monolingual homes, to assess effects of dual language exposure on language growth in typically developing children. Expressive vocabularies were assessed at 6-month intervals from age 30 to 60 months, in English for monolinguals and English and Spanish for bilinguals. Use of English and Spanish in the home was assessed via parental report. Multilevel modeling, including parent education as a covariate, revealed that children from bilingual homes lagged 6 months to 1 year behind monolingual children in English vocabulary growth. The size of the lag was related to the relative amount of English use in the home, but the relation was not linear. Increments in English use conferred the greatest benefit most among homes with already high levels of English use. These homes also were likely to have 1 parent who was a native English speaker. Bilingual children showed stronger growth in English than in Spanish. Bilingual children can lag 6 months to 1 year behind monolingual children in normal English language development. Such lags may not necessarily signify clinically relevant delay if parents report that children also have skills in the home language. Shorter lags are associated with 2 correlated factors: more English exposure and more exposure from native English speakers. Early exposure to Spanish in the home does not guarantee acquisition of Spanish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Executive Function Differences Between Bilingual Arabic-English and Monolingual Arabic Children.

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    Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than monolinguals, while others showed that monolinguals perform significantly better. Other studies showed no significant differences between both groups, findings which were argued to be due to methodological issues. A total of 50 Arabic monolingual and Arabic-English bilingual children ranging 7-10 years of age participated in the current study. Six executive function tasks, divided into two categories (inhibition of improper response tasks, and behavioral operational control tasks), were administered. Results did not show significant differences for most executive functions.

  6. Executive Function Differences between Bilingual ArabicEnglish and Monolingual Arabic Children

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    Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than…

  7. Executive Function Differences between Bilingual ArabicEnglish and Monolingual Arabic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgafar, Ghada Mohammed; Moawad, Ruba AbdelMatloub

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the differences between Arabic-English bilingual and monolingual Arabic children on a battery of executive functions. Prior research on the influence of bilingualism on cognitive abilities and executive functions has shown mixed results. Some results suggested that bilinguals perform significantly better than…

  8. Importance of Phonological and Orthographic Skills for English Reading and Spelling: A Comparison of English Monolingual and Mandarin-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Fletcher, Janet; Bayliss, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examines the importance of English phonological and orthographic processing skills to English word reading and spelling in 3 groups of younger (8-9 years) and older (11-12 years) children from different language backgrounds: English monolingual, English first language (L1)-Mandarin second language (L2), and Mandarin…

  9. Importance of Phonological and Orthographic Skills for English Reading and Spelling: A Comparison of English Monolingual and Mandarin-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Fletcher, Janet; Bayliss, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examines the importance of English phonological and orthographic processing skills to English word reading and spelling in 3 groups of younger (8-9 years) and older (11-12 years) children from different language backgrounds: English monolingual, English first language (L1)-Mandarin second language (L2), and Mandarin…

  10. Do French-English Bilingual Children Gesture More than Monolingual Children?

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    Nicoladis, Elena; Pika, Simone; Marentette, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that bilingual adults use more gestures than English monolinguals. Because no study has compared the gestures of bilinguals and monolinguals in both languages, the high gesture rate could be due to transfer from a high gesture language or could result from the use of gesture to aid in linguistic access. In this study we…

  11. Bilingual Children's Long-Term Outcomes in English as a Second Language: Language Environment Factors Shape Individual Differences in Catching up with Monolinguals

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    Paradis, Johanne; Jia, Ruiting

    2017-01-01

    Bilingual children experience more variation in their language environment than monolingual children and this impacts their rate of language development with respect to monolinguals. How long it takes for bilingual children learning English as a second language (L2) to display similar abilities to monolingual age-peers has been estimated to be 4-6…

  12. T-complex measures in bilingual Spanish-English and Turkish-German children and monolingual peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Tanja; Shafer, Valerie L.; Kiefer, Markus; Vidal, Nancy; Yu, Yan H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Lateral temporal neural measures (Na and T-complex Ta and Tb) of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) index maturation of auditory/speech processing. These measures are also sensitive to language experience in adults. This paper examined neural responses to a vowel sound at temporal electrodes in four- to five-year-old Spanish-English bilinguals and English monolinguals and in five- to six-year-old Turkish-German bilinguals and German monolinguals. The goal was to determine whether obligatory AEPs at temporal electrode sites were modulated by language experience. Language experience was defined in terms of monolingual versus bilingual status as well as the amount and quality of the bilingual language experience. Method AEPs were recorded at left and right temporal electrode sites to a 250-ms vowel [Ɛ] from 20 monolingual (American)-English and 18 Spanish-English children from New York City, and from 11 Turkish-German and 13 monolingual German children from Ulm, Germany. Language background information and standardized verbal and non-verbal test scores were obtained for the children. Results The results revealed differences in temporal AEPs (Na and Ta of the T-complex) between monolingual and bilingual children. Specifically, bilingual children showed smaller and/or later peak amplitudes than the monolingual groups. Ta-amplitude distinguished monolingual and bilingual children best at right electrode sites for both the German and American groups. Amount of experience and type of experience with the target language (English and German) influenced processing. Conclusions The finding of reduced amplitudes at the Ta latency for bilingual compared to monolingual children indicates that language specific experience, and not simply maturational factors, influences development of the neural processes underlying the Ta AEP, and suggests that lateral temporal cortex has an important role in language-specific speech perception development. PMID:28267801

  13. The Persistence and Functional Impact of English Language Difficulties Experienced by Children Learning English as an Additional Language and Monolingual Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Katie E; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2017-07-12

    This study explored whether a monolingual-normed English language battery could identify children with English as an additional language (EAL) who have persistent English language learning difficulties that affect functional academic attainment. Children with EAL (n = 43) and monolingual English-speaking children (n = 46) completed a comprehensive monolingual-normed English language battery in Year 1 (ages 5-6 years) and Year 3 (ages 7-8 years). Children with EAL and monolingual peers, who either met monolingual criteria for language impairment or typical development on the language battery in Year 1, were compared on language growth between Year 1 and Year 3 and on attainment in national curriculum assessments in Year 2 (ages 6-7 years). Children with EAL and monolingual peers who met monolingual criteria for language impairment in Year 1 continued to display comparably impaired overall language ability 2 years later in Year 3. Moreover, these groups displayed comparably low levels of academic attainment in Year 2, demonstrating comparable functional impact of their language difficulties. Monolingual-normed language batteries in the majority language may have some practical value for identifying bilingual children who need support with language learning, regardless of the origin of their language difficulties.

  14. English as a Foreign Language in Bilingual Language-minority Children, Children with Dyslexia and Monolingual Typical Readers.

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    Bonifacci, Paola; Canducci, Elisa; Gravagna, Giulia; Palladino, Paola

    2017-05-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating literacy skills in English as a foreign language in three different groups of children: monolinguals with dyslexia (n = 19), typically developing bilinguals (language-minority) (n = 19) and a control group of monolinguals (Italian) (n = 76). Bilinguals were not expected to fail in English measures, and their gap with monolinguals would be expected to be limited to the instructional language, owing to underexposure. All participants were enrolled in Italian primary schools (fourth and fifth grades). A non-verbal reasoning task and Italian and English literacy tasks were administered. The Italian battery included word and non-word reading (speed and accuracy), word and non-word writing, and reading comprehension; the English battery included similar tasks, except for the non-word writing. Bilingual children performed similarly to typical readers in English tasks, whereas in Italian tasks, their performance was similar to that of typical readers in reading speed but not in reading accuracy and writing. Children with dyslexia underperformed compared with typically developing children in all English and Italian tasks, except for reading comprehension in Italian. Profile analysis and correlational analyses were further discussed. These results suggest that English as a foreign language might represent a challenge for students with dyslexia but a strength for bilingual language-minority children. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Production and On-Line Comprehension of Definiteness in English and Dutch by Monolingual and Sequential Bilingual Children

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    Chondrogianni, Vasiliki; Vasic, Nada; Marinis, Theodoros; Blom, Elma

    2015-01-01

    The present article examines production and on-line processing of definite articles in Turkish-speaking sequential bilingual children acquiring English and Dutch as second languages (L2) in the UK and in the Netherlands, respectively. Thirty-nine 6-8-year-old L2 children and 48 monolingual (L1) age-matched children participated in two separate…

  16. The Acquisition of Speech Rhythm by Three-Year-Old Bilingual and Monolingual Children: Cantonese and English

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    Mok, Peggy P. K.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the acquisition of speech rhythm by Cantonese-English bilingual children and their age-matched monolingual peers. Languages can be classified in terms of rhythmic characteristics that define English as stress-timed and Cantonese as syllable-timed. Few studies have examined the concurrent acquisition of rhythmically…

  17. Orthographic Context Sensitivity in Vowel Decoding by Portuguese Monolingual and Portuguese-English Bilingual Children

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    Vale, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the pronunciation of the first vowel in decoding disyllabic pseudowords derived from Portuguese words. Participants were 96 Portuguese monolinguals and 52 Portuguese-English bilinguals of equivalent Portuguese reading levels. The results indicate that sensitivity to vowel context emerges early, both in monolinguals and in…

  18. Early literacy and comprehension skills in children learning English as an additional language and monolingual children with language weaknesses.

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    Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Fricke, Silke; Schaefer, Blanca; Lervåg, Arne; Hulme, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Many children learning English as an additional language (EAL) show reading comprehension difficulties despite adequate decoding. However, the relationship between early language and reading comprehension in this group is not fully understood. The language and literacy skills of 80 children learning English from diverse language backgrounds and 80 monolingual English-speaking peers with language weaknesses were assessed at school entry (mean age = 4 years, 7 months) and after 2 years of schooling in the UK (mean age = 6 years, 3 months). The EAL group showed weaker language skills and stronger word reading than the monolingual group but no difference in reading comprehension. Individual differences in reading comprehension were predicted by variations in decoding and language comprehension in both groups to a similar degree.

  19. Temporal features of word-initial /s/+stop clusters in bilingual Mandarin-English children and monolingual English children and adults.

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    Yang, Jing

    2017-05-18

    This study investigated the durational features of English word-initial /s/+stop clusters produced by bilingual Mandarin (L1)-English (L2) children and monolingual English children and adults. The participants included two groups of five- to six-year-old bilingual children: low proficiency in the L2 (Bi-low) and high proficiency in the L2 (Bi-high), one group of age-matched English children, and one group of English adults. Each participant produced a list of English words containing /sp, st, sk/ at the word-initial position followed by /a, i, u/, respectively. The absolute durations of the clusters and cluster elements and the durational proportions of elements to the overall cluster were measured. The results revealed that Bi-high children behaved similarly to the English monolinguals whereas Bi-low children used a different strategy of temporal organization to coordinate the cluster components in comparison to the English monolinguals and Bi-high children. The influence of language experience and continuing development of temporal features in children were discussed.

  20. Comparison of Spanish Morphology in Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment

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    Morgan, Gareth P.; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Auza, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    This study compares Spanish morphosyntax error types and magnitude in monolingual Spanish and Spanish-English bilingual children with typical language development (TD) and language impairment (LI). Performance across groups was compared using cloze tasks that targeted articles, clitics, subjunctives, and derivational morphemes in 57 children.…

  1. The development of comprehension and reading-related skills in children learning English as an additional language and their monolingual, English-speaking peers.

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    Burgoyne, K; Whiteley, H E; Hutchinson, J M

    2011-06-01

    A significant number of pupils in UK schools learn English as an additional language (EAL). Relative differences between the educational attainment of this group and monolingual, English-speaking pupils call for an exploration of the literacy needs of EAL learners. This study explores the developmental progression of reading and listening comprehension skills and a range of reading-related skills in EAL learners, whose first language is of South Asian origin, and their monolingual peers. Participants were 39 children learning EAL and 39 monolingual, English-speaking children who were all in school Year 3 at the start of the study. Children completed standardized measures of comprehension, vocabulary, reading accuracy, and reading fluency in school Year 3 and again in Year 4. The results suggest that, although children learning EAL often demonstrate fast and accurate reading accuracy skills, lower levels of vocabulary knowledge place significant constraints on EAL learners' comprehension of spoken and written texts. Reciprocal relationships between vocabulary and comprehension may lead to increasing gaps in reading comprehension between monolingual and EAL pupils over time. It is proposed that support for the development of vocabulary skills in children learning EAL is needed in early years' classrooms. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Adult Monolingual Policy Becomes Children's Bilingual Practice: Code-Alternation among Children and Staff in an English-Medium Preschool in Sweden

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    Boyd, Sally; Ottesjö, Cajsa

    2016-01-01

    Parents, teachers and institutions often attempt to implement monolingual policies in bilingual settings, believing that they thereby facilitate children's bilingual development. Children, however, often have their own communicative agendas. In this study, we investigate how the twofold language policy of an English-medium preschool in Sweden is…

  3. Bilingual children's long-term outcomes in English as a second language: language environment factors shape individual differences in catching up with monolinguals.

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    Paradis, Johanne; Jia, Ruiting

    2017-01-01

    Bilingual children experience more variation in their language environment than monolingual children and this impacts their rate of language development with respect to monolinguals. How long it takes for bilingual children learning English as a second language (L2) to display similar abilities to monolingual age-peers has been estimated to be 4-6 years, but conflicting findings suggest that even 6 years in school is not enough. Most studies on long-term L2 development have focused on just one linguistic sub-domain, vocabulary, and have not included multiple individual difference factors. For the present study, Chinese first language-English L2 children were given standardized measures of vocabulary, grammar and global comprehension every year from 4 ½ to 6 ½ years of English in school (ages 8½ to 10½); language environment factors were obtained through an extensive parent questionnaire. Children converged on monolingual norms differentially according to the test, with the majority of children reaching monolingual levels of performance on the majority of tests by 5 ½ years of English exposure. Individual differences in outcomes were predicted by length of English exposure, mother's education, mother's English fluency, child's use of English in the home, richness/quality of the English input outside school and age of arrival in Canada. In sum, the timeframe for bilinguals to catch up to monolinguals depends on linguistic sub-domain, task difficulty and on individual children's language environment, making 4-6 years an approximate estimate only. This study also shows that language environment factors shape not only early-stage but also late-stage bilingual development.

  4. Differences between Spanish monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children in their calculation of entailment-based scalar implicatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Syrett

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we extend investigations of the possible effects of cross-linguistic influence at the pragmatics-syntax interface (Hulk & Müller 2000; Müller & Hulk 2001; Serratrice, Sorace & Paoli 2004, by presenting two experiments designed to probe how Spanish monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual preschool-age children approach the ‘some, but not all’ 'scalar implicature '(SI associated with 'algunos '(‘some’. We compare 'algunos 'and 'unos '(also a ‘some’ indefinite, but one that is not context-linked and does not induce an SI, and 'algunos 'and 'todos '(the universal quantifier ‘every/all’. The performance of the children is compared to fluent adult Spanish heritage speakers. Experiment 1 is a variation of Noveck’s (2001 statement evaluation task, also replicated by Guasti et al'. '(2005. Experiment 2 is a forced-choice picture selection task. Results demonstrate that adults were the only group to consistently calculate the SI associated with 'algunos '– a finding that was expected to some extent, given that our tasks were stripped of the contextual support that could benefit children’s pragmatic reasoning. While bilingual and monolingual children displayed comparable performance across tasks, bilinguals in Experiment 2 appeared to experience difficulty with judgments related to 'todos '– a pattern we attribute (in light of independent findings to the cognitive overload in the task, not the lexical entry of this quantifier. We conclude that young monolingual and bilingual children confront the same challenges when called upon to deploy pragmatic skills in a discourse context. This article is part of the special collection:Acquisition of Quantification

  5. Beginning To Read among Monolingual and Bilingual Children.

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    Valadez, Concepcion M.; And Others

    This study examined language and reading ability in English monolinguals, Spanish monolinguals, and two bilingual groups at the beginning of kindergarten and at the beginning of first grade. The study also compared the family background of the children on home literacy, parent education, and the parents' aspirations for their children. In…

  6. Early Literacy and Comprehension Skills in Children Learning English as an Additional Language and Monolingual Children with Language Weaknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Fricke, Silke; Schaefer, Blanca; Lervåg, Arne; Hulme, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Many children learning English as an additional language (EAL) show reading comprehension difficulties despite adequate decoding. However, the relationship between early language and reading comprehension in this group is not fully understood. The language and literacy skills of 80 children learning English from diverse language backgrounds and 80…

  7. The Development of Comprehension and Reading-Related Skills in Children Learning English as an Additional Language and Their Monolingual, English-Speaking Peers

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    Burgoyne, K.; Whiteley, H. E.; Hutchinson, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: A significant number of pupils in UK schools learn English as an additional language (EAL). Relative differences between the educational attainment of this group and monolingual, English-speaking pupils call for an exploration of the literacy needs of EAL learners. Aims: This study explores the developmental progression of reading and…

  8. The Role of Vocabulary Depth in Predicting Reading Comprehension among English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children in Elementary School

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    Proctor, C. Patrick; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Montecillo, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of vocabulary depth in reading comprehension among a diverse sample of monolingual and bilingual children in grades 2-4. Vocabulary depth was defined as including morphological awareness, awareness of semantic relations, and syntactic awareness. Two hundred ninety-four children from 3 schools in a…

  9. Language-experience facilitates discrimination of /d-th/ in monolingual and bilingual acquisition of English.

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    Sundara, Megha; Polka, Linda; Genesee, Fred

    2006-06-01

    To trace how age and language experience shape the discrimination of native and non-native phonetic contrasts, we compared 4-year-olds learning either English or French or both and simultaneous bilingual adults on their ability to discriminate the English /d-th/ contrast. Findings show that the ability to discriminate the native English contrast improved with age. However, in the absence of experience with this contrast, discrimination of French children and adults remained unchanged during development. Furthermore, although simultaneous bilingual and monolingual English adults were comparable, children exposed to both English and French were poorer at discriminating this contrast when compared to monolingual English-learning 4-year-olds. Thus, language experience facilitates perception of the English /d-th/ contrast and this facilitation occurs later in development when English and French are acquired simultaneously. The difference between bilingual and monolingual acquisition has implications for language organization in children with simultaneous exposure.

  10. Bilingual and Monolingual Children Prefer Native-Accented Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre L. eSouza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adults and young children prefer to affiliate with some individuals rather than others. Studies have shown that monolingual children show in-group biases for individuals who speak their native language without a foreign accent (Kinzler, Dupoux, & Spelke, 2007. Some studies have suggested that bilingual children are less influenced than monolinguals by language variety when attributing personality traits to different speakers (Anisfeld & Lambert, 1964, which could indicate that bilinguals have fewer in-group biases and perhaps greater social flexibility. However, no previous studies have compared monolingual and bilingual children’s reactions to speakers with unfamiliar foreign accents. In the present study, we investigated the social preferences of 5-year-old English and French monolinguals and English-French bilinguals. Contrary to our predictions, both monolingual and bilingual preschoolers preferred to be friends with native-accented speakers over speakers who spoke their dominant language with an unfamiliar foreign accent. This result suggests that both monolingual and bilingual children have strong preferences for in-group members who use a familiar language variety, and that bilingualism does not lead to generalized social flexibility.

  11. Predictors of English Spelling in Bilingual and Monolingual Children in Grade 1: The Case of Cantonese and Tagalog

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    Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Hall, Erin K.

    2013-01-01

    In order to examine the effect of the home language on the spelling development in English in children who are learning English as a second language (ESL learners), it is best to directly compare groups of ESL learners from various home language backgrounds. This study compared the oral language, phonological awareness, reading, and spelling…

  12. Developmental trajectories of preschool early literacy skills: a comparison of language-minority and monolingual-English children.

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    Lonigan, Christopher J; Farver, Joann M; Nakamoto, Jonathan; Eppe, Stefanie

    2013-10-01

    This study utilized latent growth-curve analyses to determine if the early literacy skills of children who were Spanish-speaking language-minority (LM) followed a similar quantitative growth profile over a preschool year as that of a group of children from a comparable socioeconomic (SES) background but who were not LM. Participants, who ranged in age from 37 to 60 months (M = 50.73; SD = 5.04), included 540 Spanish-speaking LM and 408 non-LM children (47% girls) who were enrolled in 30 Head Start classrooms. Scores on a measure of oral language and measures of code-related skills (i.e., phonological awareness, print knowledge) were lower for LM children than for non-LM children. LM children experienced significantly faster growth in oral language skills than did non-LM children. Growth for print knowledge and blending was similar for LM and non-LM children, whereas LM children experienced slightly less growth than non-LM children on elision. The inclusion of child (i.e., initial language scores, age, nonverbal cognitive ability) and family (i.e., maternal/paternal education, 2-parent household, father employment) variables eliminated initial differences between LM and non-LM children on the code-related variables, and the effect was due primarily to children's initial oral language skills. These results indicate that the early risk for reading-related problems experienced by Spanish-speaking LM children is due both to low SES and to their LM status, and they highlight the critical need for the development, evaluation, and deployment of early instructional programs for LM children with limited English oral language proficiency.

  13. Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Performance of Monolingual and Bilingual Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

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    Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…

  14. Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary Performance of Monolingual and Bilingual Preschool Children with Hearing Loss

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    Lund, Emily; Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study compared the phonological awareness skills and vocabulary performance of English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children with and without hearing loss. Preschool children with varying degrees of hearing loss (n = 18) and preschool children without hearing loss (n = 19) completed measures of phonological awareness and…

  15. Lexical knowledge of monolingual and bilingual children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhallen, M.; Schoonen, R.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to gain insight into the lexico-semantic knowledge of bilingual children growing up in a second-language immersion environment. The research focus is on aspects of lexical knowledge that are relevant for school success. Data were obtained by asking 40 monolingual

  16. Phonological Whole-Word Measures in 3-Year-Old Bilingual Children and Their Age-Matched Monolingual Peers

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    Bunta, Ferenc; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian; Ingram, David

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated phonological whole-word measures and consonant accuracy in bilingual and monolingual children to investigate how target approximations drive phonological acquisition. The study included eight bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking 3-year-olds and their monolingual peers (eight Spanish and eight American English).…

  17. Monolingual and Bilingual Children's Social Preferences for Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers

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    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Behrend, Douglas A.; Said, Lyakout Mohamed; Girgis, Helana; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Past research has shown that young monolingual children exhibit language-based social biases: they prefer native language to foreign language speakers. The current research investigated how children's language preferences are influenced by their own bilingualism and by a speaker's bilingualism. Monolingual and bilingual 4- to 6-year-olds heard…

  18. Perception of English vowels by bilingual Chinese-English and corresponding monolingual listeners.

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    Yang, Jing; Fox, Robert A

    2014-06-01

    This study compares the underlying perceptual structure of vowel perception in monolingual Chinese, monolingual English and bilingual Chinese-English listeners. Of particular interest is how listeners' spatial organization of vowels is affected either by their L1 or their experience with L2. Thirteen English vowels, /i, I, e, epsilon, ae, u, omega, o, (see symbol), alpha, (see symbol)I, alphaI, alphaomega/, embedded in /hVd/ syllable produced by an Ohio male speaker were presented in pairs to three groups of listeners. Each listener rated 312 vowel pairs on a nine-point dissimilarity scale. The responses from each group were analyzed using a multidimensional scaling program (ALSCAL). Results demonstrated that all three groups of listeners used high/low and front/back distinctions as the two most important dimensions to perceive English vowels. However, the vowels were distributed in clusters in the perceptual space of Chinese monolinguals, while they were appropriately separated and located in that of bilinguals and English monolinguals. Besides the two common perceptual dimensions, each group of listeners utilized a different third dimension to perceive these English vowels. English monolinguals used high-front offset. Bilinguals used a dimension mainly correlated to the distinction of monophthong/diphthong. Chinese monolinguals separated two high vowels, /i/ and /u/, from the rest of vowels in the third dimension. The difference between English monolinguals and Chinese monolinguals evidenced the effect of listeners' native language on the vowel perception. The difference between Chinese monolinguals and bilingual listeners as well as the approximation of bilingual listeners' perceptual space to that of English monolinguals demonstrated the effect of L2 experience on listeners' perception of L2 vowels.

  19. Developmental and communicative factors affecting VOT production in English and Arabic bilingual and monolingual speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ghada

    2001-05-01

    VOT patterns were investigated in the production of three Lebanese-English bilinguals' aged 5, 7, and 10, six aged-matched monolingual controls from the bilinguals' immediate communities, and the parents of bilinguals and monolinguals. The aim was to examine the extent to which children exposed to two languages acquire separate VOT patterns for each language and to determine the factors that affect such acquisition. Results showed that VOT patterns for each bilingual child differed significantly across the two languages. But while the contrast in English resembled a monolingual-like model, that for Arabic exhibited persisting developmental features; explanations were offered in terms of the relationship between input and complexity of voicing lead production. Evidence was used from developmental changes that were noted for two of the bilingual subjects over a period of 18 months. English code-switches produced by the bilinguals during Arabic sessions exhibited different VOT patterns from those produced during English sessions, which underlined the importance of taking the language context into consideration. Finally, results from monolinguals and bilinguals showed that the short lag categories for the two languages were different despite a degree of overlap. Such findings require finer divisions of the three universal VOT categories to account for language-specific patterns.

  20. Word Mapping and Executive Functioning in Young Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Barac, Raluca; Blaye, Agnes; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2010-01-01

    The effect of bilingualism on the cognitive skills of young children was investigated by comparing performance of 162 children who belonged to one of two age groups (approximately 3- and 4.5-year-olds) and one of three language groups on a series of tasks examining executive control and word mapping. The children were monolingual English speakers,…

  1. Finding "le mot juste": Differences between Bilingual and Monolingual Children's Lexical Access in Comprehension and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Stephanie; Nicoladis, Elena

    2009-01-01

    By school age, some bilingual children can score equivalently to monolinguals in receptive vocabulary but still lag in expressive vocabulary. In this study, we test whether bilingual children have greater difficulty with lexical access, as has been reported for adult bilinguals. School-aged French-English bilingual children were given tests of…

  2. The Production of Referring Expressions in Oral Narratives of Chinese-English Bilingual Speakers and Monolingual Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Lei, Jianghua

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the extent to which the production of referring expressions such as noun phrases and pronouns to fulfill various discourse functions in narratives of Chinese-English bilingual children matches that of their monolingual peers in each of the two languages. Spoken narratives in English and Chinese were elicited from 30 9-year-old…

  3. The role of nonverbal working memory in morphosyntactic processing by school-aged monolingual and bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Davidson, Meghan M; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined the relationship between nonverbal working memory and morphosyntactic processing in monolingual native speakers of English and bilingual speakers of English and Spanish. We tested 42 monolingual children and 42 bilingual children between the ages of 8 and 10years matched on age and nonverbal IQ. Children were administered an auditory Grammaticality Judgment task in English to measure morphosyntactic processing and a visual N-Back task and Corsi Blocks task to measure nonverbal working memory capacity. Analyses revealed that monolinguals were more sensitive to English morphosyntactic information than bilinguals, but the groups did not differ in reaction times or response bias. Furthermore, higher nonverbal working memory capacity was associated with greater sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations in bilinguals but not in monolinguals. The findings suggest that nonverbal working memory skills link more tightly to syntactic processing in populations with lower levels of language knowledge.

  4. The role of non-verbal working memory in morphosyntactic processing by school-aged monolingual and bilingual children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Davidson, Meghan M.; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between non-verbal working memory and morphosyntactic processing in monolingual native speakers of English and bilingual speakers of English and Spanish. We tested 42 monolingual children and 42 bilingual children between the ages of 8 and 10, matched on age and non-verbal IQ. Children were administered an auditory Grammaticality Judgment task in English to measure morphosyntatic processing, and a visual N-Back task and a Corsi Blocks task to measure non-verbal working memory capacity. Analyses revealed that monolinguals were more sensitive to English morphosyntactic information than bilinguals, but the groups did not differ in reaction times or response bias. Furthermore, higher non-verbal working memory capacity was associated with greater sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations in bilinguals, but not in monolinguals. The findings suggest that non-verbal working memory skills link more tightly to syntactic processing in populations with lower levels of language knowledge. PMID:26550957

  5. Vowels, consonants, and lexical tones: Sensitivity to phonological variation in monolingual Mandarin and bilingual English-Mandarin toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wewalaarachchi, Thilanga D; Wong, Liang Hui; Singh, Leher

    2017-03-02

    Although bilingual learners represent the linguistic majority, much less is known about their lexical processing in comparison with monolingual learners. In the current study, bilingual and monolingual toddlers were compared on their ability to recognize familiar words. Children were presented with correct pronunciations and mispronunciations, with the latter involving a vowel, consonant, or tone substitution. A robust ability to recognize words when their labels were correctly pronounced was observed in both groups. Both groups also exhibited a robust ability to reject vowel, tone, and consonant mispronunciations as possible labels for familiar words. However, time course analyses revealed processing differences based on language background; relative to Mandarin monolinguals, Mandarin-English bilingual toddlers demonstrated reduced efficiency in recognizing correctly pronounced words. With respect to mispronunciations, Mandarin-English bilingual learners demonstrated reduced sensitivity to tone mispronunciations relative to Mandarin monolingual toddlers. Moreover, the relative cost of mispronunciations differed for monolingual and bilingual toddlers. Monolingual toddlers demonstrated least sensitivity to consonants followed by vowels and tones, whereas bilingual toddlers demonstrated least sensitivity to tone, followed by consonants and then by vowels. Time course analyses revealed that both groups were sensitive to vowel and consonant variation. Results reveal both similarities and differences in monolingual and bilingual learners' processing of familiar words in Mandarin Chinese.

  6. How much exposure to English is necessary for a bilingual toddler to perform like a monolingual peer in language tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Allegra; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Farag, Rafalla; Krott, Andrea; Arreckx, Frédérique; Dennis, Ian; Floccia, Caroline

    2014-11-01

    Bilingual children are under-referred due to an ostensible expectation that they lag behind their monolingual peers in their English acquisition. The recommendations of the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists (RCSLT) state that bilingual children should be assessed in both the languages known by the children. However, despite these recommendations, a majority of speech and language professionals report that they assess bilingual children only in English as bilingual children come from a wide array of language backgrounds and standardized language measures are not available for the majority of these. Moreover, even when such measures do exist, they are not tailored for bilingual children. It was asked whether a cut-off exists in the proportion of exposure to English at which one should expect a bilingual toddler to perform as well as a monolingual on a test standardized for monolingual English-speaking children. Thirty-five bilingual 2;6-year-olds exposed to British English plus an additional language and 36 British monolingual toddlers were assessed on the auditory component of the Preschool Language Scale, British Picture Vocabulary Scale and an object-naming measure. All parents completed the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory (Oxford CDI) and an exposure questionnaire that assessed the proportion of English in the language input. Where the CDI existed in the bilingual's additional language, these data were also collected. Hierarchical regression analyses found the proportion of exposure to English to be the main predictor of the performance of bilingual toddlers. Bilingual toddlers who received 60% exposure to English or more performed like their monolingual peers on all measures. K-means cluster analyses and Levene variance tests confirmed the estimated English exposure cut-off at 60% for all language measures. Finally, for one additional language for which we had multiple participants, additional language CDI production scores were

  7. Spatial role-taking ability among bilingual and monolingual kindergarten children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrell, J

    1987-03-01

    Fifty-seven children enrolled in a bilingual Spanish kindergarten program, assigned to appropriate language and age-related groups, were shown a graduated sequence of increasingly complex arrangements of multicolored blocks and were asked to judge how the original arrangement would look from the opposite and the side perspectives. A series of 2(younger vs. older) X 3(Spanish Monolingual vs. English Monolingual vs. Spanish-English Bilingual) ANOVAs for each of the types of responses (correct, incorrect, egocentric) showed a significant main effect for age on the incorrect answers. No differences associated with egocentrism were obtained. There was no relationship between age and success with simple and complex spatial tasks. As opposed to other studies that suggest certain cognitive advantages for young bilingual children, this study indicates no perceptible differences associated with being monolingual or bilingual at the ages of 5 and 6 for spatial tasks.

  8. Use of Monolingual and Bilingual Dictionaries among Students of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kavalir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of dictionary use in 32 firstyear students of English at the University of Ljubljana in the academic year 2009/2010 shows that students use a variety of dictionaries with a slight preponderance of monolingual dictionaries over bilingual ones. The bilingual dictionaries listed do not include some of the most recent and most comprehensive dictionaries while some of the most frequently used resources are quite modest sized. The students are already predominantly users of electronic and online dictionaries with a lower frequency of printed resources – a trend which is only likely to accelerate with the advent of new bilingual online dictionaries. These results have practical relevance for teachers in all sectors, from primary and secondary schools to universities, as they point towards a need for additional training in the use of bilingual dictionaries. The transition from printed to electronic and online resources can also be expected to induce changes in EFL methodology at all levels.

  9. Profile of phonological awareness in bilingual and monolingual children

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Lourdes Bernadete Rocha de; Leite,Aline Gisele Conceição

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the performance of phonological awareness skills in bilingual and monolingual students of both genders. Methods: This research presents an observational, cross-sectional descriptive study conducted with 17 students from the 3rd grade, aged between seven years and 8 years and 11 months, with similar socioeconomic level, from two private schools, being one a monolingual school, and the other a bilingual one. Children at risk for auditory deprivation of any degree, those...

  10. THE COMPARISON OF THE MONOLINGUAL AND BILINGUAL JAPANESE STUDENTS IN THE ENGLISH ACHIEVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ienneke Indra Dewi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Article is intended to know whether the monolingual or bilingual Japanese students are betterin the English achievement and whether the exposure of English influences the ability. The data weretaken from 60 Japanese students who are supposed to fill in the questionnaires regarding theirlanguage background. The English achievement data were taken from the students’ scores in SeniorHigh School National Examination and the data further were compared to the TOEFL English score.The analysis is carried out using ANOVA analysis. This research indicates that monolinguals arebetter learners in English and exposure is proved to influence the students’ ability in English.

  11. Multilingual Researchers Internationalizing Monolingual English-Only Education through Post-Monolingual Research Methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Singh

    2017-01-01

    The argument advanced in this Special Issue of Education Sciences favors democratizing knowledge production and dissemination across the humanities and social sciences through the mainstreaming of multilingual researchers capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire. An important contribution of the papers in this Special Issue is the promise that post-monolingual research methodology holds for collaborative projects among multilingual and monolingual researchers that ta...

  12. English Speech Sound Development in Preschool-Aged Children from Bilingual English-Spanish Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildersleeve-Neumann, Christina E.; Kester, Ellen S.; Davis, Barbara L.; Pena, Elizabeth D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: English speech acquisition by typically developing 3- to 4-year-old children with monolingual English was compared to English speech acquisition by typically developing 3- to 4-year-old children with bilingual English-Spanish backgrounds. We predicted that exposure to Spanish would not affect the English phonetic inventory but would…

  13. The Effects of Dual-Language Support on the Language Skills of Bilingual Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Listening Devices Relative to Their Monolingual Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunta, Ferenc; Douglas, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of supporting both English and Spanish on language outcomes in bilingual children with hearing loss (HL) who used listening devices (cochlear implants and hearing aids). The English language skills of bilingual children with HL were compared to those of their monolingual English-speaking peers'…

  14. The Effects of Dual-Language Support on the Language Skills of Bilingual Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Listening Devices Relative to Their Monolingual Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunta, Ferenc; Douglas, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of supporting both English and Spanish on language outcomes in bilingual children with hearing loss (HL) who used listening devices (cochlear implants and hearing aids). The English language skills of bilingual children with HL were compared to those of their monolingual English-speaking peers'…

  15. Multilingual Researchers Internationalizing Monolingual English-Only Education through Post-Monolingual Research Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Singh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The argument advanced in this Special Issue of Education Sciences favors democratizing knowledge production and dissemination across the humanities and social sciences through the mainstreaming of multilingual researchers capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire. An important contribution of the papers in this Special Issue is the promise that post-monolingual research methodology holds for collaborative projects among multilingual and monolingual researchers that tap into intercultural divergences across languages. Together these papers give warrant to multilingual researchers, including Higher Degree Researchers develop their capabilities for theorizing using their full linguistic repertoire, an educational innovation that could be of immense benefit to scholars working predominantly monolingual universities. Through their thought provoking papers presented in this Special Issue, these researchers invites those working in the education sciences to seriously consider the potential benefits of multiplying the intellectual resources used for theorizing that is possible through activating, mobilizing and deploying researchers’ multilingual resources in knowledge production and dissemination.

  16. Working Memory Development in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Julia; Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Two studies are reported comparing the performance of monolingual and bilingual children on tasks requiring different levels of working memory. In the first study, 56 5-year-olds performed a Simon-type task that manipulated working memory demands by comparing conditions based on two rules and four rules and manipulated conflict resolution demands…

  17. Coordination of Executive Functions in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Two groups of 8-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual completed a complex classification task in which they made semantic judgments on stimuli that were presented either visually or auditorily. The task requires coordinating a variety of executive control components, specifically working memory, inhibition, and shifting. When each of…

  18. Receptive Vocabulary Differences in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi; Peets, Kathleen F.; Yang, Sujin

    2010-01-01

    Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738…

  19. Discrimination of foreign language speech contrasts by English monolinguals and French/English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie-Sebileau, Pippa; Davis, Chris

    2014-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether late French/English bilinguals are able to utilize knowledge of bilabial stop contrasts that exist in each of their separate languages to discriminate bilabial stop contrasts from a new language (Thai). Secondary aims were to determine associations between bilabial stop consonant production in the L1 and the L2, between language learning factors and production and discrimination, and to compare English bilinguals' and monolinguals' discrimination. Three Thai bilabial stop consonant pairs differentiated by Voice Onset Time (VOT) (combinations of [b], [p], and [p(h)]) were presented to 28 French-English bilinguals, 25 English-French bilinguals, and 43 English monolinguals in an AX discrimination task. It was hypothesized that L2 experience would facilitate discrimination of contrasts that were phonemic in the L2 but not in the L1 for bilinguals. Only limited support for this hypothesis was found. However, results indicate that high production proficiency bilinguals had higher discrimination of the phonemic L2 contrasts (non-phonemic in L1). Discrimination patterns indicate lasting L1 influence, with similarity between unknown foreign language contrasts and L1 contrasts influencing discrimination rates. Production results show evidence for L2 influence in the L1. Results are discussed in the context of current speech perception models.

  20. Acquisition of German pluralization rules in monolingual and multilingual children

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    Eugen Zaretsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-yearold monolingual German and bi/multilingual immigrant children tested with a modified, validated version of the Marburger Sprachscreening (MSS language test and 476 children tested with the SETK 3-5 language test. Classified correct and wrong answers to MSS and SETK 3-5 plural items were compared. The acquisition patterns of immigrants corresponded to those of younger German children. Both monolingual German and immigrant children demonstrated generally the same universal frequency and phonetically/phonologically based error patterns, irrespective of their linguistic background, but with different tendencies such as overgeneralization of -s by German children only.

  1. Monolingual and bilingual children with and without primary language impairment: core vocabulary comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Manon; Mayer-Crittenden, Chantal; Minor-Corriveau, Michèle; Bélanger, Roxanne

    2014-09-01

    Core vocabulary is an important component of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems for school-aged children who have complex communication needs. One method of identifying core vocabulary for these individuals is to study the vocabulary of speaking children. To date, the use of core vocabulary by speaking bilingual children has not been well documented. The present study compared the core vocabulary used by children who are monolingual (French), and bilingual (French-English; English-French). We also gathered and compared language samples from French-speaking children identified as having primary language impairment (PLI), with the goal of better understanding the language differences demonstrated by children with this disability. Language samples were collected from a total of 57 children within a school setting, in a region where French is a minority language. Contrary to the hypothesis, the analysis of language transcripts revealed that there were no important differences between the core words from the groups studied.

  2. Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children

    OpenAIRE

    Bialystok, Ellen; PEETS, KATHLEEN F.; Yang, Sujin; Luk, Gigi

    2010-01-01

    Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738 children between 3 and 10 years old and demonstrate a consistent difference in receptive vocabulary between the two groups. Two preliminary analyses s...

  3. Expressive Vocabulary Development in Children from Bilingual and Monolingual Homes: A Longitudinal Study from Two to Four Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Burridge, Andrea; Ribot, Krystal M; Welsh, Stephanie N

    2014-10-01

    The early course of language development among children from bilingual homes varies in ways that are not well described and as a result of influences that are not well understood. Here, we describe trajectories of relative change in expressive vocabulary from 22 to 48 months and vocabulary achievement at 48 months in two groups of children from bilingual homes (children with one and children with two native Spanish-speaking parents [ns = 15 and 11]) and in an SES-equivalent group of children from monolingual English homes (n = 31). The two groups from bilingual homes differed in their mean levels of English and Spanish skills, in their developmental trajectories during this period, and in the relation between language use at home and their vocabulary development. Children with two native Spanish-speaking parents showed steepest gains in total vocabulary and were more nearly balanced bilinguals at 48 months. Children with one native Spanish- and one native English-speaking parent showed trajectories of relative decline in Spanish vocabulary. At 48 months, mean levels of English skill among the bilingual children were comparable to monolingual norms, but children with two native Spanish-speaking parents had lower English scores than the SES-equivalent monolingual group. Use of English at home was a significant positive predictor of English vocabulary scores only among children with a native English-speaking parent. These findings argue that efforts to optimize school readiness among children from immigrant families should facilitate their access to native speakers of the community language, and efforts to support heritage language maintenance should include encouraging heritage language use by native speakers in the home.

  4. Expressive Vocabulary Development in Children from Bilingual and Monolingual Homes: A Longitudinal Study from Two to Four Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Burridge, Andrea; Ribot, Krystal M.; Welsh, Stephanie N.

    2014-01-01

    The early course of language development among children from bilingual homes varies in ways that are not well described and as a result of influences that are not well understood. Here, we describe trajectories of relative change in expressive vocabulary from 22 to 48 months and vocabulary achievement at 48 months in two groups of children from bilingual homes (children with one and children with two native Spanish-speaking parents [ns = 15 and 11]) and in an SES-equivalent group of children from monolingual English homes (n = 31). The two groups from bilingual homes differed in their mean levels of English and Spanish skills, in their developmental trajectories during this period, and in the relation between language use at home and their vocabulary development. Children with two native Spanish-speaking parents showed steepest gains in total vocabulary and were more nearly balanced bilinguals at 48 months. Children with one native Spanish- and one native English-speaking parent showed trajectories of relative decline in Spanish vocabulary. At 48 months, mean levels of English skill among the bilingual children were comparable to monolingual norms, but children with two native Spanish-speaking parents had lower English scores than the SES-equivalent monolingual group. Use of English at home was a significant positive predictor of English vocabulary scores only among children with a native English-speaking parent. These findings argue that efforts to optimize school readiness among children from immigrant families should facilitate their access to native speakers of the community language, and efforts to support heritage language maintenance should include encouraging heritage language use by native speakers in the home. PMID:25089074

  5. Compositions in English: Comparing the Works of Monolinguals, Passive Bilinguals, and Active Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Eka Rini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to see whether the subjects’ “monolingualism” and “bilingualism” (monolinguals learning an L2 and bilinguals learning an L3 influence their study on English, especially writing. The term “bilinguals” also means “multilinguals” in this study. Bilinguals in this paper are classified into two; first, passive bilinguals who are only exposed to another local language, besides speaking Bahasa Indonesia at home, and second, active bilinguals who are exposed to and also speak other language(s and Bahasa Indonesia at home. The findings show that the monolingual and the active bilingual are better than the passive one; the active bilingual is better than the monolingual. However, if the passive and the active bilingual are combined, the monolingual is better than the bilinguals.

  6. Mnemonic Value of Orthography for Vocabulary Learning in Monolinguals and Language Minority English-Speaking College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Katharine Pace; Ehri, Linnea C.; Lauterbach, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined whether exposure to spellings of new vocabulary words improved monolinguals' and language minority (LM) students' (n = 25) memory for pronunciations, meanings, and spellings of the words. College students who are native English-speaking monolinguals (n = 12) and LM students who learned English as their second language (n = 13)…

  7. Discriminant accuracy of a semantics measure with Latino English-speaking, Spanish-speaking, and English-Spanish bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Elizabeth D; Bedore, Lisa M; Kester, Ellen S

    2015-01-01

    We explored classification accuracy of English and Spanish versions of an experimental semantic language measure with functional monolingual-bilingual children with and without language impairment. A total of 441 children participated, including 78 balanced bilinguals (15 with language impairment, 63 with typical development); 179 monolingual Spanish (36 with language impairment, 143 with typical development); and 183 monolingual English (49 with language impairment, 134 with typical development) children between 4;0 and 6;11 years. Cut points derived for functionally monolingual children were applied to bilinguals to assess the predictive accuracy of English and Spanish semantics. Correct classification of English monolinguals and Spanish monolinguals was 81%. Discriminant analysis yielded 76% and 90% correct classification for balanced bilingual children in English and Spanish respectively. This semantics-based measure has fair to good classification accuracy for functional monolinguals and for Spanish-English bilingual children when one language is tested. As a result of this study, the reader will describe advantages of lexical-semantic tasks for identification of language impairment. They will be able to describe procedures for conceptual scoring and identify its benefits. Readers will also gain an understanding of similarities and differences in bilingual and monolingual performance on a semantics task in Spanish and English. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparing Bilingual to Monolingual Learners on English Spelling: A Meta-analytic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Quiroz, Blanca; Dixon, L Quentin; Joshi, R Malatesha

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on a meta-analysis to examine how bilingual learners compare with English monolingual learners on two English spelling outcomes: real-word spelling and pseudo-word spelling. Eighteen studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were retrieved. The study-level variables and characteristics (e.g. sample size, study design and research instruments) were coded, and 29 independent effect sizes across the 18 retrieved studies were analysed. We found that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on real-word spelling overall and more so in early grades, but monolinguals outperformed bilinguals on pseudo-word spelling. Further, bilinguals at risk for reading difficulties did better on real-word spelling than monolinguals at risk for reading difficulties. Having investigated systematic sources of variability in effect sizes, we conclude that in comparison with their monolingual peers, bilingual learners, especially those from alphabetic L1 backgrounds, are able to master constrained skills, such as English spelling, in the current instructional context. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Acquisition of German pluralization rules in monolingual and multilingual children

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen Zaretsky; Lange, Benjamin P.; Euler, Harald A.; Katrin Neumann

    2013-01-01

    Existing studies on plural acquisition in German have relied on small samples and thus hardly deliver generalizable and differentiated results. Here, overgeneralizations of certain plural allomorphs and other tendencies in the acquisition of German plural markers are described on the basis of test data from 7,394 3- to 5-year- old monolingual German and bi/multilingual immigrant children tested with a modified, validated version of the Marburger Sprachscreening (MSS) language test and 476 chi...

  10. The Use of Spanish by a Monolingual Kindergarten Teacher to Support English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana C.; Gilmetdinova, Alsu; Pelaez-Morales, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a case study of a kindergarten, monolingual teacher and how she used Spanish, the home language of her Latino/a students who are English language learners (ELLs), in the classroom. The article focuses on how the teacher develops and uses her emerging knowledge of Spanish to scaffold students' learning, specifically when…

  11. The Use of Spanish by a Monolingual Kindergarten Teacher to Support English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana C.; Gilmetdinova, Alsu; Pelaez-Morales, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a case study of a kindergarten, monolingual teacher and how she used Spanish, the home language of her Latino/a students who are English language learners (ELLs), in the classroom. The article focuses on how the teacher develops and uses her emerging knowledge of Spanish to scaffold students' learning, specifically when…

  12. Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi; Peets, Kathleen F.; Yang, Sujin

    2015-01-01

    Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738 children between 3 and 10 years old and demonstrate a consistent difference in receptive vocabulary between the two groups. Two preliminary analyses suggest that this difference does not change with different language pairs and is largely confined to words relevant to a home context rather than a school context. PMID:25750580

  13. Exploring Non-Native English-Speaking Teachers' Beliefs about the Monolingual Approach: Differences between Pre-Service and In-Service Korean Teachers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2016-01-01

    The non-native English-speaking teachers' (NNESTs) beliefs about the monolingual approach have not been sufficiently studied in the teaching of English as a foreign language (EFL). In examining the NNESTs' beliefs about that issue, the present study adapts Guy Cook's recent framework, according to which the monolingual approach is based upon four…

  14. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Differences in Executive Control between Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Raluca; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined executive control in sixty-two 5-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual using behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) measures. All children performed equivalently on simple response inhibition (gift delay), but bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on interference suppression and complex response…

  15. The Role of Language of Instruction and Vocabulary in the English Phonological Awareness of Spanish-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco, Andrea Rolla; Carlo, Maria; August, Diane; Snow, Catherine E.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores influences on bilingual children's phonological awareness (PA) performance in English, examining the role of language of instruction and vocabulary. English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual kindergartners and first graders receiving either English or Spanish literacy instruction were assessed in English PA and in…

  16. Are there differences in selective attention and conflict resolution between monolingual and bilingual children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mondt, K.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Balériaux, D.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Hadzibeganovic, T.; Denolin, V.; Craen, P. van de

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Possible differences in selective attention and conflict resolution between monolingual and bilingual children were tested in an fMRI study. Methods An adopted version of the Stroop task was conducted on 19 monolingual- and bilingual (French/Dutch) children with a mean age of 8.9 years in

  17. Language Proficiency and Executive Control in Proactive Interference: Evidence from Monolingual and Bilingual Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer…

  18. Are there differences in selective attention and conflict resolution between monolingual and bilingual children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mondt, K.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Balériaux, D.; Bosch, M.P.C.; Hadzibeganovic, T.; Denolin, V.; Craen, P. van de

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Possible differences in selective attention and conflict resolution between monolingual and bilingual children were tested in an fMRI study. Methods An adopted version of the Stroop task was conducted on 19 monolingual- and bilingual (French/Dutch) children with a mean age of 8.9 years in

  19. English Language Proficiency and Early School Attainment Among Children Learning English as an Additional Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Katie E; Gooch, Debbie; Norbury, Courtenay F

    2016-09-20

    Children learning English as an additional language (EAL) often experience lower academic attainment than monolingual peers. In this study, teachers provided ratings of English language proficiency and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning for 782 children with EAL and 6,485 monolingual children in reception year (ages 4-5). Academic attainment was assessed in reception and Year 2 (ages 6-7). Relative to monolingual peers with comparable English language proficiency, children with EAL displayed fewer social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties in reception, were equally likely to meet curriculum targets in reception, and were more likely to meet targets in Year 2. Academic attainment and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning in children with EAL are associated with English language proficiency at school entry.

  20. Monolingual and Bilingual Recognition of Regular and Irregular English Verbs: Sensitivity to Form Similarity Varies with First Language Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnight-Brown, Dana M.; Chen, Lang; Hua, Shu; Kostic, Aleksandar; Feldman, Laurie Beth

    2007-01-01

    We used a cross-modal priming procedure to explore the processing of irregular and regular English verb forms in both monolinguals and bilinguals (Serbian-English, Chinese-English). Materials included irregular nested stem (drawn-DRAW), irregular change stem (ran-RUN), and regular past tense-present tense verb pairs that were either low…

  1. Testing Speech Recognition in Spanish-English Bilingual Children with the Computer-Assisted Speech Perception Assessment (CASPA): Initial Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Paula B; Rosado Rogers, Lydia; Nishi, Kanae

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the English version of Computer-Assisted Speech Perception Assessment (E-CASPA) with Spanish-English bilingual children. E-CASPA has been evaluated with monolingual English speakers ages 5 years and older, but it is unknown whether a separate norm is necessary for bilingual children. Eleven Spanish-English bilingual and 12 English monolingual children (6 to 12 years old) with normal hearing participated. Responses were scored by word, phoneme, consonant, and vowel. Regardless of scores, performance across three signal-to-noise ratio conditions was similar between groups, suggesting that the same norm can be used for both bilingual and monolingual children.

  2. Global-Local and Trail-Making Tasks by Monolingual and Bilingual Children: Beyond Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    In 3 experiments, a total of 151 monolingual and bilingual 6-year-old children performed similarly on measures of language and cognitive ability; however, bilinguals solved the global-local and trail-making tasks more rapidly than monolinguals. This bilingual advantage was found not only for the traditionally demanding conditions (incongruent…

  3. Cross-Language Transfer of Spelling Strategies in English and Afrikaans Grade 3 Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Diana; Greenop, Kirston; Fry, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    This study examined strategies for spelling accuracy in Grade 3 children. Thirty bilingual, Afrikaans-English speaking children and 30 monolingual, English-speaking children were assessed on their ability to spell English words and non-words. The bilingual children were also assessed on their Afrikaans word and non-word spelling abilities. In…

  4. Cross-Language Transfer of Spelling Strategies in English and Afrikaans Grade 3 Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Diana; Greenop, Kirston; Fry, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    This study examined strategies for spelling accuracy in Grade 3 children. Thirty bilingual, Afrikaans-English speaking children and 30 monolingual, English-speaking children were assessed on their ability to spell English words and non-words. The bilingual children were also assessed on their Afrikaans word and non-word spelling abilities. In…

  5. Do Young Bilinguals Acquire Past Tense Morphology like Monolinguals, Only Later? Evidence from French-English and Chinese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoladis, Elena; Song, Jianhui; Marentette, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that preschool bilingual children lag behind same-aged monolinguals in their production of correct past tense forms. This lag has been attributed to bilinguals' less frequent exposure to either language. If so, bilingual children acquire the past tense like monolinguals, only later. In this study, we compared the…

  6. Early second language acquisition: a comparison of the linguistic output of a pre-school child acquiring English as a second language with that of a monolingual peer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, C A

    1991-08-01

    Two pre-school children were recorded at regular intervals over a 9-month period while playing freely together. One child was acquiring English as a second language, whilst the other was a monolingual English speaker. The sociolinguistic domain was such that the children were likely to be motivated to communicate with each other in English. A variety of quantitative measures were taken from the transcribed data, including measures of utterance type, length, type-token ratios, use of auxiliaries and morphology. The child for whom English was a second language was found to be well able to interact on equal terms with his partner, despite being somewhat less advanced in some aspects of English language development by the end of the sampling period. Whilst he appeared to be consolidating his language skills during this time, his monolingual partner appeared to be developing rapidly. It is hoped that normative longitudinal data of this kind will be of use in the accurate assessment of children from dual language backgrounds, who may be referred for speech and language therapy.

  7. Designing for Diversity: The Role of Reading Strategies and Interactive Vocabulary in a Digital Reading Environment for Fifth-Grade Monolingual English and Bilingual Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bridget; Proctor, C. Patrick; Uccelli, Paola; Mo, Elaine; Snow, Catherine E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relative contribution of reading comprehension strategies and interactive vocabulary in Improving Comprehension Online (ICON), a universally designed web-based scaffolded text environment designed to improve fifth-grade monolingual English and bilingual students' reading achievement. Seventy-five monolingual English and 31…

  8. Language proficiency and executive control in proactive interference: evidence from monolingual and bilingual children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer intrusions from previous lists even though they recalled the same number of words. For the adults, bilinguals recalled more words than monolinguals when the scores were corrected for differences in vocabulary. In addition, there was a strong effect of vocabulary in which higher vocabulary participants recalled more words irrespective of language group. These results point to the important role of vocabulary in verbal performance and memory. They also suggest that bilinguals may compensate for weaker language proficiency with their greater executive control to achieve the same or better levels of performance as monolinguals.

  9. Brain Bases of Morphological Processing in Chinese-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Ka I; Hsu, Lucy Shih-Ju; Arredondo, Maria M.; Tardif, Twila; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2017-01-01

    Can bilingual exposure impact children's neural circuitry for learning to read? To answer this question, we investigated the brain bases of morphological awareness, one of the key spoken language abilities for learning to read in English and Chinese. Bilingual Chinese-English and monolingual English children (N = 22, ages 7-12) completed…

  10. The acquisition of allophones among bilingual Spanish-English and French-English 3-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrea A N; Fabiano-Smith, Leah

    2015-03-01

    Children are exposed to highly variable input from multiple sources within their speech community. This study examines the acquisition of allophones in Spanish and French by monolingual and bilingual children. We hypothesised that two factors would influence allophone acquisition: (1) the amount of exposure to phonological input, and (2) the degree of variability of the allophonic pattern. Thirty-four typically developing 3-year-old participated in the study. The analyses revealed that regardless of the language, the monolingual children produced similar error rates in the production of the target allophones. In contrast, the bilingual children produced different patterns of acquisition of the allophones: the Spanish-English bilinguals produced higher error rates than the monolinguals, whereas the French-English bilinguals produced lower error rates than the monolinguals. Possibilities for these differences are discussed within the context of structural complexity as well as in light of the effects of between-language interaction on bilingual phonological development.

  11. Bilingual and monolingual children attend to different cues when learning new words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana eColunga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The way in which children learn language can vary depending on their language environment. Previous work suggests that bilingual children may be more sensitive to pragmatic cues from a speaker when learning new words than monolingual children are. On the other hand, monolingual children may rely more heavily on object properties than bilingual children do. In this study we manipulate these two sources of information within the same paradigm, using eye gaze as a pragmatic cue and similarity along different dimensions as an object cue. In the crucial condition, object and pragmatic cues were inconsistent with each other. Our results showed that in this ambiguous condition monolingual children attend more to object property cues whereas bilingual children attend more to pragmatic cues. Control conditions showed that monolingual children were sensitive to eye gaze and bilingual children were sensitive to similarity by shape; it was only when the cues were inconsistent that children’s preference for one or the other cue was apparent. Our results suggest that children learn to weigh different cues depending on their relative informativeness in their environment

  12. Language Proficiency and Sustained Attention in Monolingual and Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Tessel; Leseman, Paul; Wijnen, Frank; Blom, Elma

    2017-01-01

    Background: The language profiles of children with language impairment (LI) and bilingual children can show partial, and possibly temporary, overlap. The current study examined the persistence of this overlap over time. Furthermore, we aimed to better understand why the language profiles of these two groups show resemblance, testing the hypothesis that the language difficulties of children with LI reflect a weakened ability to maintain attention to the stream of linguistic information. Consequent incomplete processing of language input may lead to delays that are similar to those originating from reductions in input frequency. Methods: Monolingual and bilingual children with and without LI (N = 128), aged 5-8 years old, participated in this study. Dutch receptive vocabulary and grammatical morphology were assessed at three waves. In addition, auditory and visual sustained attention were tested at wave 1. Mediation analyses were performed to examine relationships between LI, sustained attention, and language skills. Results: Children with LI and bilingual children were outperformed by their typically developing (TD) and monolingual peers, respectively, on vocabulary and morphology at all three waves. The vocabulary difference between monolinguals and bilinguals decreased over time. In addition, children with LI had weaker auditory and visual sustained attention skills relative to TD children, while no differences between monolinguals and bilinguals emerged. Auditory sustained attention mediated the effect of LI on vocabulary and morphology in both the monolingual and bilingual groups of children. Visual sustained attention only acted as a mediator in the bilingual group. Conclusion: The findings from the present study indicate that the overlap between the language profiles of children with LI and bilingual children is particularly large for vocabulary in early (pre)school years and reduces over time. Results furthermore suggest that the overlap may be explained by

  13. Language Proficiency and Sustained Attention in Monolingual and Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessel Boerma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The language profiles of children with language impairment (LI and bilingual children can show partial, and possibly temporary, overlap. The current study examined the persistence of this overlap over time. Furthermore, we aimed to better understand why the language profiles of these two groups show resemblance, testing the hypothesis that the language difficulties of children with LI reflect a weakened ability to maintain attention to the stream of linguistic information. Consequent incomplete processing of language input may lead to delays that are similar to those originating from reductions in input frequency.Methods: Monolingual and bilingual children with and without LI (N = 128, aged 5–8 years old, participated in this study. Dutch receptive vocabulary and grammatical morphology were assessed at three waves. In addition, auditory and visual sustained attention were tested at wave 1. Mediation analyses were performed to examine relationships between LI, sustained attention, and language skills.Results: Children with LI and bilingual children were outperformed by their typically developing (TD and monolingual peers, respectively, on vocabulary and morphology at all three waves. The vocabulary difference between monolinguals and bilinguals decreased over time. In addition, children with LI had weaker auditory and visual sustained attention skills relative to TD children, while no differences between monolinguals and bilinguals emerged. Auditory sustained attention mediated the effect of LI on vocabulary and morphology in both the monolingual and bilingual groups of children. Visual sustained attention only acted as a mediator in the bilingual group.Conclusion: The findings from the present study indicate that the overlap between the language profiles of children with LI and bilingual children is particularly large for vocabulary in early (preschool years and reduces over time. Results furthermore suggest that the overlap may be

  14. Phoneme awareness, vocabulary and word decoding in monolingual and bilingual Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Leseman, P.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilingually raised children in the Netherlands, who receive literacy instruction in their second language only, show an advantage on Dutch phoneme-awareness tasks compared with monolingual Dutch-speaking children. Language performance of a group of 47

  15. Phoneme awareness, vocabulary and word decoding in monolingual and bilingual Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Leseman, P.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilingually raised children in the Netherlands, who receive literacy instruction in their second language only, show an advantage on Dutch phoneme-awareness tasks compared with monolingual Dutch-speaking children. Language performance of a group of 47

  16. Bilingual Children's Acquisition of English Verb Morphology: Effects of Language Exposure, Structure Complexity, and Task Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether bilingual-monolingual differences would be apparent in school-age children's use and knowledge of English verb morphology and whether differences would be influenced by amount of exposure to English, complexity of the morphological structure, or the type of task given. French-English bilinguals (mean age = 6;10)…

  17. Feature binding and the processing of global-local shapes in bilingual and monolingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottini, Milvia; Pieroni, Laura; Spataro, Pietro; Devescovi, Antonella; Longobardi, Emiddia; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of bilingualism and age on a color-shape binding task (assessing visual working memory) and a global-local task (assessing inhibitory processes) in a sample of 55 bilingual and 49 monolingual children 8 and 10 years old. In the color-shape binding task, corrected recognition scores increased in older children; bilingual children performed better than monolinguals in the shape-only condition, but the two groups were equally accurate in the color-only and combination conditions. In the global-local task, accuracy was higher in bilingual than in monolingual children, particularly on incongruent trials; monolingual children showed a strong global precedence effect (higher accuracy in the global than in the local conditions and greater global-to-local interference), whereas bilingual children exhibited a small, but significant, local precedence effect (higher accuracy in the local than in the global conditions and greater local-to-global interference). These findings confirm and extend previous evidence indicating that the bilingualism advantage is more pronounced in working memory tasks involving inhibitory processes.

  18. Fostering Biliteracy in a Monolingual Milieu: Reflections on Two Counter-Hegemonic English Immersion Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyak, Patrick C.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents data from two yearlong ethnographic studies of the biliteracy instruction and development of young Latina/o children in two counter-hegemonic English immersion classes in the English-only milieu established by California's Proposition 227. The author first describes the struggle that the teachers engaged in as they sought to…

  19. Development and Validation of Extract the Base: An English Derivational Morphology Test for Third through Fifth Grade Monolingual Students and Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Huggins, A. Corinne; Carlo, Maria; Malabonga, Valerie; Kenyon, Dorry; Louguit, Mohammed; August, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of the Extract the Base test (ETB), which assesses derivational morphological awareness. Scores on this test were validated for 580 monolingual students and 373 Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in third through fifth grade. As part of the validation of the internal structure,…

  20. Priming a Perspective in Spanish Monolingual Children: The Use of Syntactic Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez, Perla B.; Shimpi, Priya M.; Waterfall, Heidi R.; Huttenlocher, Janellen

    2009-01-01

    We used a syntactic priming paradigm to show priming effects for active and passive forms in monolingual Spanish-speaking four- and five-year-olds. In a baseline experiment, we examined children's use of the "fue"-passive form and found it was virtually non-existent in their speech, although they produced important elements of the form. Children…

  1. Narrative Development among Language-Minority Children: The Role of Bilingual versus Monolingual Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Shaul, Yehudit

    2013-01-01

    The development of script schema, as a source of narrative knowledge, is an essential stage in this knowledge construction. This study focused on the role of bilingual versus monolingual preschool education in the development of script schema knowledge in Russian (L1) and Hebrew (L2) among Russian/Hebrew-speaking children in Israel. The preschool…

  2. The moderating effect of orthographic consistency on oral vocabulary learning in monolingual and bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubenville, Kathleen; Sénéchal, Monique; Malette, Melissa

    2014-10-01

    Two studies were conducted to assess whether (a) the incidental presence of print facilitates the acquisition of oral vocabulary, (b) the facilitative effect of print is moderated by phoneme-to-grapheme consistency, and (c) the findings obtained with monolingual children generalize to bilingual children. In total, 71 monolingual French-speaking children (M age = 9 years 2 months) in Study 1 and 64 bilingual children (M age = 9 years 3 months) in Study 2 participated in one of three conditions: consistent print, inconsistent print, or no print. Children were to learn novel labels for unfamiliar objects in a paired-associate paradigm. In both studies, print facilitated the acquisition and recall of expressive vocabulary. The effect of print consistency, however, varied across studies. As expected, monolingual children exposed to consistent print learned more novel labels than children exposed to inconsistent print. In contrast, bilingual children exposed to inconsistent print learned and recalled more labels than children exposed to consistent print. These intriguing findings might be due to differences in attention allocation during training.

  3. Sign-Supported English: Is It Effective at Teaching Vocabulary to Young Children with English as an Additional Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Chloë R.; Hobsbaum, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children who are learning English as an Additional Language (EAL) may start school with smaller vocabularies than their monolingual peers. Given the links between vocabulary and academic achievement, it is important to evaluate interventions that are designed to support vocabulary learning in this group of children. Aims: To evaluate…

  4. Sign-Supported English: Is It Effective at Teaching Vocabulary to Young Children with English as an Additional Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Chloë R.; Hobsbaum, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children who are learning English as an Additional Language (EAL) may start school with smaller vocabularies than their monolingual peers. Given the links between vocabulary and academic achievement, it is important to evaluate interventions that are designed to support vocabulary learning in this group of children. Aims: To evaluate…

  5. Transfer Effects in Spelling from Transparent Greek to Opaque English in Seven-to-Ten-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niolaki, Georgia Z.; Masterson, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated single-word spelling performance of 33 English- and 38 Greek-speaking monolingual children, and 46 English- and Greek-speaking bilingual children (age range from 6;7 to 10;1 years). The bilingual children were divided into two groups on the basis of their single-word reading and spelling performance in Greek. In line with…

  6. Cross-Linguistic Influence in French-English Bilingual Children's Possessive Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoladis, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to test the predictions of a speech production model of cross-linguistic influence in French-English bilingual children. A speech production model predicts bidirectional influence (i.e., bilinguals' greater use of periphrastic constructions like the hat of the dog relative to monolinguals in English and reversed…

  7. Cross-Linguistic Influence in French-English Bilingual Children's Possessive Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoladis, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to test the predictions of a speech production model of cross-linguistic influence in French-English bilingual children. A speech production model predicts bidirectional influence (i.e., bilinguals' greater use of periphrastic constructions like the hat of the dog relative to monolinguals in English and reversed…

  8. The Role of Oral Language Skills in Reading and Listening Comprehension of Text: A Comparison of Monolingual (L1) and Bilingual (L2) Speakers of English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, Selma

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the role of oral language skills in reading comprehension and listening comprehension levels of 125 monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) English-speaking learners (M = 121.5 months, SD = 4.65) in England. All testing was conducted in English. The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the measures of oral language and text…

  9. The Role of Oral Language Skills in Reading and Listening Comprehension of Text: A Comparison of Monolingual (L1) and Bilingual (L2) Speakers of English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, Selma

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the role of oral language skills in reading comprehension and listening comprehension levels of 125 monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) English-speaking learners (M = 121.5 months, SD = 4.65) in England. All testing was conducted in English. The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the measures of oral language and text…

  10. Word Segmentation in Monolingual Infants Acquiring Canadian English and Canadian French: Native Language, Cross-Dialect, and Cross-Language Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polka, Linda; Sundara, Megha

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we tested segmentation of word forms from natural speech materials by 8-month-old monolingual infants who are acquiring Canadian French or Canadian English. These two languages belong to different rhythm classes; Canadian French is syllable-timed and Canada English is stress-timed. Findings of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 show that…

  11. Motion Event Similarity Judgments in One or Two Languages: An Exploration of Monolingual Speakers of English and Chinese vs. L2 Learners of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yinglin

    2017-01-01

    Languages differ systematically in how to encode a motion event. English characteristically expresses manner in verb root and path in verb particle; in Chinese, varied aspects of motion, such as manner, path and cause, can be simultaneously encoded in a verb compound. This study investigates whether typological differences, as such, influence how first and second language learners conceptualize motion events, as suggested by behavioral evidences. Specifically, the performance of Chinese learners of English, at three proficiencies, was compared to that of two groups of monolingual speakers in a triads matching task. The first set of analyses regarding categorisation preferences indicates that participants across groups preferred the path-matched (rather than manner-matched) screens. However, the second set of analyses regarding reaction time suggests, firstly, that English monolingual speakers reacted significantly more quickly in selecting the manner-matched scenes compared with monolingual speakers of Chinese, who tended to use an approximately equal amount of time in making manner- and path-matched decisions, a finding that can arguably be mapped onto the typological difference between the two languages. Secondly, the pattern of response latency in low-level L2 learners looked more like that of monolingual speakers of Chinese. Only at intermediate and advanced levels of acquisition did the behavioral pattern of L2 learners become target-like, thus suggesting language-specific constraints from the L1 at an early stage of acquisition. Overall, our results suggest that motion event cognition may be linked to, among other things, the linguistic structure of motion description in particular languages.

  12. Motion Event Similarity Judgments in One or Two Languages: An Exploration of Monolingual Speakers of English and Chinese vs. L2 Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yinglin

    2017-01-01

    Languages differ systematically in how to encode a motion event. English characteristically expresses manner in verb root and path in verb particle; in Chinese, varied aspects of motion, such as manner, path and cause, can be simultaneously encoded in a verb compound. This study investigates whether typological differences, as such, influence how first and second language learners conceptualize motion events, as suggested by behavioral evidences. Specifically, the performance of Chinese learners of English, at three proficiencies, was compared to that of two groups of monolingual speakers in a triads matching task. The first set of analyses regarding categorisation preferences indicates that participants across groups preferred the path-matched (rather than manner-matched) screens. However, the second set of analyses regarding reaction time suggests, firstly, that English monolingual speakers reacted significantly more quickly in selecting the manner-matched scenes compared with monolingual speakers of Chinese, who tended to use an approximately equal amount of time in making manner- and path-matched decisions, a finding that can arguably be mapped onto the typological difference between the two languages. Secondly, the pattern of response latency in low-level L2 learners looked more like that of monolingual speakers of Chinese. Only at intermediate and advanced levels of acquisition did the behavioral pattern of L2 learners become target-like, thus suggesting language-specific constraints from the L1 at an early stage of acquisition. Overall, our results suggest that motion event cognition may be linked to, among other things, the linguistic structure of motion description in particular languages. PMID:28638355

  13. The Answering System to Yes-No Truth-Functional Questions in Korean-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hansook

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an experiment that explores the patterns of answers to yes-no truth-functional questions in English and Korean. The answering patterns are examined from 12 Korean-English bilingual children and 10 Korean-monolingual children. Four types of sentences in relation to given situations (Wason in "Br J Psychol" 52:133-142,…

  14. Influence of Second Language Cherokee Immersion on Children's Development of Past Tense in Their First Language, English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata-Edds, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Metalinguistic skills may develop differently in multilingual and monolingual children. This study investigated effects of immersion in Cherokee as a second language on young children's (4;5-6;1) skills of noticing morphological forms/patterns in English, their first language, by comparing English past tense skills on two nonword and two real-word…

  15. Narrative Development in Monolingual Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Earls, Anny; Petersen, Douglas; Spencer, Trina; Hammer, Krista

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to describe differences in the narratives produced by 3-, 4-, and 5- year old Spanish-speaking (SS) children. Narrative productions of 104 typically developing children were collected using a story-retelling task and coded using the Index of Narrative Complexity. The results of this study indicate…

  16. Predictors of Reading Ability in English for Mandarin-Speaking Bilingual Children in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yah Hui; Poon, Kenneth K.; Rickard Liow, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the reading skills of monolingual children has established a convergent skills model for acquisition involving context-free decoding, language comprehension, and visual and phonological processing. This study sought to identify the predictors of Primary One bilingual children's reading accuracy and reading comprehension in English.…

  17. Predictors of Reading Ability in English for Mandarin-Speaking Bilingual Children in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yah Hui; Poon, Kenneth K.; Rickard Liow, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the reading skills of monolingual children has established a convergent skills model for acquisition involving context-free decoding, language comprehension, and visual and phonological processing. This study sought to identify the predictors of Primary One bilingual children's reading accuracy and reading comprehension in English.…

  18. Factors That Influence Fast Mapping in Children Exposed to Spanish and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Meyers, Christina; Figueroa, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if children exposed to two languages would benefit from the phonotactic probability cues of a single language in the same way as monolingual peers and to determine if cross-linguistic influence would be present in a fast mapping task. Method Two groups of typically-developing children (monolingual English and bilingual Spanish-English) took part in a computer-based fast mapping task which manipulated phonotactic probability. Children were preschool-aged (N = 50) or school-aged (N = 34). Fast mapping was assessed through name identification and naming tasks. Data were analyzed using mixed ANOVAs with post-hoc testing and simple regression. Results Bilingual and monolingual preschoolers showed sensitivity to English phonotactic cues in both tasks, but bilingual preschoolers were less accurate than monolingual peers in the naming task. School-aged bilingual children had nearly identical performance to monolingual peers. Conclusions Knowing that children exposed to two languages can benefit from the statistical cues of a single language can help inform ideas about instruction and assessment for bilingual learners. PMID:23816663

  19. Cognitive profiles in bilingual children born to immigrant parents and Italian monolingual native children with specific learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Anna; Nacinovich, Renata; Bertuletti, Nadia; Montrasi, Valentina; Marchetti, Sara; Neri, Francesca; Bomba, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children(®) - fourth edition IV (WISC IV) intellectual profile of two groups of children with specific learning disorder, a group of bilingual children and a group of monolingual Italian children, in order to identify possible significant differences between them. A group of 48 bilingual children and a group of 48 Italian monolingual children were included in this study. A preliminary comparison showed the homogeneity of the two groups regarding learning disorder typology and sociodemographic characteristics (age at WISC IV assessment, sex and years of education in Italy) with the exception of socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was then used as a covariate in the analysis. Even if the two groups were comparable in specific learning disorder severity and, in particular, in the text comprehension performance, our findings showed that the WISC IV performances of the bilingual group were significantly worse than the Italian group in Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=0.03), in General Ability Index (P=0.03), in Working Memory Index (P=0.009) and in some subtests and clusters requiring advanced linguistic abilities. These results support the hypothesis of a weakness in metalinguistic abilities in bilingual children with specific learning disorders than monolinguals. If confirmed, this result must be considered in the rehabilitation treatment.

  20. Cognitive profiles in bilingual children born to immigrant parents and Italian monolingual native children with specific learning disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Anna; Nacinovich, Renata; Bertuletti, Nadia; Montrasi, Valentina; Marchetti, Sara; Neri, Francesca; Bomba, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to compare the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children® – fourth edition IV (WISC IV) intellectual profile of two groups of children with specific learning disorder, a group of bilingual children and a group of monolingual Italian children, in order to identify possible significant differences between them. Patients and methods A group of 48 bilingual children and a group of 48 Italian monolingual children were included in this study. A preliminary comparison showed the homogeneity of the two groups regarding learning disorder typology and sociodemographic characteristics (age at WISC IV assessment, sex and years of education in Italy) with the exception of socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was then used as a covariate in the analysis. Results Even if the two groups were comparable in specific learning disorder severity and, in particular, in the text comprehension performance, our findings showed that the WISC IV performances of the bilingual group were significantly worse than the Italian group in Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=0.03), in General Ability Index (P=0.03), in Working Memory Index (P=0.009) and in some subtests and clusters requiring advanced linguistic abilities. Conclusion These results support the hypothesis of a weakness in metalinguistic abilities in bilingual children with specific learning disorders than monolinguals. If confirmed, this result must be considered in the rehabilitation treatment. PMID:28115851

  1. Discrimination of English and French orthographic patterns by biliterate children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2013-04-01

    We investigated whether young English-French biliterate children can distinguish between English and French orthographic patterns. Children in French immersion programs were asked to play a dictionary game when they were in Grade 2 and again when they were in Grade 3. They were shown pseudowords that contained either an English spelling pattern or a French spelling pattern, and they were asked to decide whether each pseudoword should go in an English dictionary or a French dictionary if it became a real word. Comparison groups of monolingual English children, monolingual French children, and English-French bilingual university students were also tested on the task. French immersion students in both grades were above chance in discriminating between the two types of pseudowords but were well below adult performance on the task. Measures obtained in kindergarten showed that early print knowledge had some ability to predict later ability to discriminate between the orthographic patterns of the two languages. Further analyses indicated that exposure to print in each language in Grades 1 to 3 was strongly related to discrimination performance. The findings are interpreted as being consistent with the statistical learning hypothesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. White-matter development is different in bilingual and monolingual children: a longitudinal DTI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Rosseel, Yves; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert; Baeken, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous people grow up speaking more than one language, the impact of bilingualism on brain developing neuroanatomy is still poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether the changes in the mean fractional-anisotropy (MFA) of language pathways are different between bilingual and monolingual children. Simultaneous-bilinguals, sequential-bilinguals and monolingual, male and female 10-13 years old children participated in this longitudinal study over a period of two years. We used diffusion tensor tractography to obtain mean fractional-anisotropy values of four language related pathways and one control bundle: 1-left-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus/lIFOF, 2-left-arcuate fasciculus/lAF/lSLF, 3-bundle arising from the anterior part of corpus-callosum and projecting to orbital lobe/AC-OL, 4-fibres emerging from anterior-midbody of corpus-callosum (CC) to motor cortices/AMB-PMC, 5- right-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus rIFOF as the control pathway unrelated to language. These values and their rate of change were compared between 3 groups. FA-values did not change significantly over two years for lAF/lSLF and AC-OL. Sequential-bilinguals had the highest degree of change in the MFA value of lIFOF, and AMB-PMC did not present significant group differences. The comparison of MFA of lIFOF yielded a significantly higher FA-value in simultaneous bilinguals compared to monolinguals. These findings acknowledge the existing difference of the development of the semantic processing specific pathway between children with different semantic processing procedure. These also support the hypothesis that age of second language acquisition affects the maturation and myelination of some language specific white-matter pathways.

  3. White-matter development is different in bilingual and monolingual children: a longitudinal DTI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Ghazal Mohades

    Full Text Available Although numerous people grow up speaking more than one language, the impact of bilingualism on brain developing neuroanatomy is still poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether the changes in the mean fractional-anisotropy (MFA of language pathways are different between bilingual and monolingual children. Simultaneous-bilinguals, sequential-bilinguals and monolingual, male and female 10-13 years old children participated in this longitudinal study over a period of two years. We used diffusion tensor tractography to obtain mean fractional-anisotropy values of four language related pathways and one control bundle: 1-left-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus/lIFOF, 2-left-arcuate fasciculus/lAF/lSLF, 3-bundle arising from the anterior part of corpus-callosum and projecting to orbital lobe/AC-OL, 4-fibres emerging from anterior-midbody of corpus-callosum (CC to motor cortices/AMB-PMC, 5- right-inferior-occipitofrontal fasciculus rIFOF as the control pathway unrelated to language. These values and their rate of change were compared between 3 groups. FA-values did not change significantly over two years for lAF/lSLF and AC-OL. Sequential-bilinguals had the highest degree of change in the MFA value of lIFOF, and AMB-PMC did not present significant group differences. The comparison of MFA of lIFOF yielded a significantly higher FA-value in simultaneous bilinguals compared to monolinguals. These findings acknowledge the existing difference of the development of the semantic processing specific pathway between children with different semantic processing procedure. These also support the hypothesis that age of second language acquisition affects the maturation and myelination of some language specific white-matter pathways.

  4. Onset of Word Form Recognition in English, Welsh, and English-Welsh Bilingual Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihman, Marilyn May; Thierry, Guillaume; Lum, Jarrad; Keren-Portnoy, Tamar; Martin, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Children raised in the home as English or Welsh monolinguals or English-Welsh bilinguals were tested on untrained word form recognition using both behavioral and neurophysiological procedures. Behavioral measures confirmed the onset of a familiarity effect at 11 months in English but failed to identify it in monolingual Welsh infants between 9 and…

  5. Subject-Verb Agreement in Specific Language Impairment: A Study of Monolingual and Bilingual German-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothweiler, Monika; Chilla, Solveig; Clahsen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates phenomena that have been claimed to be indicative of Specific Language Impairment (SLI) in German, focusing on subject-verb agreement marking. Longitudinal data from fourteen German-speaking children with SLI, seven monolingual and seven Turkish-German successive bilingual children, were examined. We found similar patterns…

  6. The use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in monolingual and bilingual children with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelman, Marianne; Bol, Gerard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in the spoken Dutch of monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) and bilingual Frisian-Dutch children with SLI. Both SLI groups appeared to be less efficient in their use of subject-verb ag

  7. DTI reveals structural differences in white matter tracts between bilingual and monolingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Struys, Esli; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Mondt, Katrien; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert

    2012-01-30

    The impact of bilingualism on the microstructure of the white matter pathways related to language processing is assessed in elementary school children by magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (MR-DTI). Forty children, 8-11 years old, subdivided into 3 different groups (15 simultaneous bilinguals, 15 sequential bilinguals and 10 monolinguals), were scanned. The hypothesis was that the starting age and the manner of second language acquisition would affect the characteristics of language circuitry. In each subject the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) was obtained for four major white matter pathways: 1 - the left arcuate fasciculus/superior longitudinal fasciculus (lAF/lSLF) that connects Broca's area in the opercular and triangular regions of the left inferior frontal gyrus to the posterior language zone, 2 - the left inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus (lIFOF), connecting anterior regions in the frontal lobe with posterior regions in the temporal occipital lobes, 3 - the bundle arising from the anterior part of the corpus callosum projecting to the orbital lobe (AC-OL) and 4 - the fibers emerging from the anterior midbody (AMB) of the corpus callosum that associate with the premotor and supplementary motor cortices (AMB-PMC). The three groups did not show significant differences in mean FA over the lAF/lSLF or AMB-PMC tracts. In simultaneous bilingual subjects the lIFOF tracts had higher mean FA value compared to monolinguals and also sequential bilinguals, whereas the comparison for the AC-OL fibers yielded a significantly lower mean FA value in simultaneous bilingual subjects compared to monolinguals. In both cases the FA value for sequential bilinguals was intermediate to that of the other two groups. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of bilingualism related adaptation of white matter microstructure in the human brain.

  8. Word Magic Revisited: Monolingual and Bilingual Children's Understanding of the Word-Object Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Tamar; Pinker, Steven A.

    1983-01-01

    Results showed that monolingual and bilingual preschoolers understand equally that objects may be renamed. However, monolinguals were more likely to mention the object's properties when justifying an answer, whereas bilinguals were more likely to mention social context. (Author/MP)

  9. Monolingual and Bilingual Recognition of Regular and Irregular English Verbs: Sensitivity to Form Similarity Varies with First Language Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnight-Brown, Dana M; Chen, Lang; Hua, Shu; Kostić, Aleksandar; Feldman, Laurie Beth

    2007-07-01

    We used a cross-modal priming procedure to explore the processing of irregular and regular English verb forms in both monolinguals and bilinguals (Serbian-English, Chinese-English). Materials included irregular nested stem (drawn-DRAW), irregular change stem (ran-RUN), and regular past tense-present tense verb pairs that were either low (guided-GUIDE) or high (pushed-PUSH) in resonance, a measure of semantic richness. Overall, semantic richness of irregular verbs (nested and irregular change) and of regular verbs (high and low resonance) was matched. Native speakers of English revealed comparable facilitation across regularity and greater facilitation for nested than change stem irregulars. Like native speakers, Serbian, but not Chinese bilinguals matched for proficiency, showed facilitation due to form overlap between irregular past and present tense forms with a nested stem. Unlike native speakers, neither group showed reliable facilitation to stem change irregulars. Results demonstrate the influence of first language on inflectional processing in a second language.

  10. Cognitive profiles in bilingual children born to immigrant parents and Italian monolingual native children with specific learning disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anna Riva, Renata Nacinovich, Nadia Bertuletti, Valentina Montrasi, Sara Marchetti, Francesca Neri, Monica Bomba Child and Adolescent Mental Health Department, University of Milan Bicocca, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children® – fourth edition IV (WISC IV intellectual profile of two groups of children with specific learning disorder, a group of bilingual children and a group of monolingual Italian children, in order to identify possible significant differences between them. Patients and methods: A group of 48 bilingual children and a group of 48 Italian monolingual children were included in this study. A preliminary comparison showed the homogeneity of the two groups regarding learning disorder typology and sociodemographic characteristics (age at WISC IV assessment, sex and years of education in Italy with the exception of socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was then used as a covariate in the analysis. Results: Even if the two groups were comparable in specific learning disorder severity and, in particular, in the text comprehension performance, our findings showed that the WISC IV performances of the bilingual group were significantly worse than the Italian group in Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (P=0.03, in General Ability Index (P=0.03, in Working Memory Index (P=0.009 and in some subtests and clusters requiring advanced linguistic abilities. Conclusion: These results support the hypothesis of a weakness in metalinguistic abilities in bilingual children with specific learning disorders than monolinguals. If confirmed, this result must be considered in the rehabilitation treatment. Keywords: children, bilingualism, WISC IV, SLD

  11. Children Learning Chinese as a Home Language in an English-Dominant Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Sinming

    2015-01-01

    Many Chinese families face many difficulties in maintaining their heritage language for their children in English-dominant societies. This article first looks at the losses from monolingualism and benefits of bilingualism. Then, it explores the common methods used today in teaching Chinese. We conclude that families and community play an…

  12. Pronominal Objects in English-Italian and Spanish-Italian Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serratrice, Ludovica; Sorace, Antonella; Filiaci, Francesca; Baldo, Michela

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of typological relatedness, language of the community, and age, in predicting similarities and differences between English-Italian, Spanish-Italian bilingual children and their monolingual child and adult counterparts in the acceptability of pre- and postverbal object pronouns in [[plus or minus]focus] contexts in…

  13. Syntactic, Semantic and Pragmatic Correlates of the Acquisition of Exhaustivity in "Wh"-Questions: A Study of Polish Monolingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forys-Nogala, Malgorzata; Haman, Ewa; Katsos, Napoleon; Krajewski, Grzegorz; Schulz, Petra

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates relationships between acquisition of exhaustivity in single and multiple "wh"-questions, mastery of semantic and pragmatic aspects of quantifier comprehension, and general skills in receptive grammar. The participants of the study were 25 Polish monolingual typically developing children aged 4;02-6;02, who were…

  14. What's the difference between 'toilet paper' and 'paper toilet'? French-English bilingual children's crosslinguistic transfer in compound nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoladis, Elena

    2002-11-01

    Bilingual acquisition can shed light on the cues children used in acquiring language. The purpose of this paper was to examine whether frequency, ambiguity or language dominance could explain crosslinguistic transfer in compound nouns. Crosslinguistic transfer would appear in the form of compound reversals. 25 monolingual English children between the ages of three and four years and 25 age-matched French-English bilingual children were asked to create and indicate their understanding of novel compound nouns. In production, the bilingual children reversed compounds in English more often than the monolingual children but equally often in French and English. In comprehension, there were no differences between groups. These results cannot be explained by any previous explanation of transfer. Implications for the theory of language acquisition are discussed.

  15. A Case Study of an English-Japanese Bilingual with Monolingual Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wydell, Taeko Nakayama; Butterworth, Brian

    1999-01-01

    Reports the case of a 16-year-old English/Japanese bilingual boy, with reading and writing difficulties confined to English. Presents the hypothesis of granularity and transparency, postulating that any language where orthography-to-phonology mapping is transparent/opaque, or any language whose orthographic unit representing sound is coarse should…

  16. English Education of Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛雨潇

    2014-01-01

    With the further development of China's reform and opening up, our communication with the world more and more frequently, more and more closely. As the primary tool of international communication, English is particularly important. Now, to strengthen foreign language teaching, especially to learn foreign languages at children, has become a global trend. In China, many schools and teachers for many years to carry out a useful attempt of children's English teaching, and accumulated a lot of successful experience, of course, there are many difficulties and setbacks, and even failure. How to exclude the difficulty and the setback, avoid failure? I combined with my own teaching practice, discusses and studies for many years, has received the good ef-fect.

  17. Differences between Monolinguals and Bilinguals/Males and Females in English Reading Comprehension and Reading Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharrad, Mohammad; Sadeghi Benis, Aram Reza

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims at finding the differences between bilingual and monolingual learners across gender in the use of cognitive, metacognitive, and total reading strategies, as well as reading comprehension ability. To this end, 50 Persian-Turkish bilinguals and 36 Persian monolinguals participated in the study. A standard test of reading…

  18. The English Monolingual Dictionary: Its Use among Second Year Students of University Technology of Malaysia, International Campus, Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amerrudin Abd. Manan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to seek information on English Monolingual Dictionary (EMD use among 2nd year students of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, International Campus, Kuala Lumpur (UTMKL. Specifically, the researchers wish to discover, firstly the students’ habit and attitude in EMD use; secondly, to discover their knowledge with regard to the language learning resources available in EMD; thirdly, to discover their skill in using EMD, and finally, to discover whether there were formal instructions in EMD use when they were studying in their former schools and tertiary education. One hundred and ninety-six students took part in the survey by answering a questionnaire. The results of the study reveal that the respondents were poor users of EMD. They rarely consulted the EMD; their knowledge of the language learning resources in the EMD was limited; most perceived their EMD skill as average, and there was no instruction in EMD when they were at tertiary education and previously when they were at school.

  19. Perceptual assimilation of French and German vowels by American English monolinguals: Acoustic similarity does not predict perceptual similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, Winifred; Levy, Erika; Lehnholf, Robert

    2001-05-01

    Previous research in our laboratory has demonstrated that the perceived similarity of vowels across languages is not always predictable from the closeness of their target formant values in F1/F2/F3 space. In this study, perceptual similarity was established using a task in which 11 American English (AE) monolinguals were presented multiple tokens of 9 French vowels and 14 North German vowels (in separate blocks) produced in citation-form /hVb(a)/ (bi)syllables by native speakers. They selected 1 of 11 AE vowel responses to which each non-native vowel token was most similar, and rated its goodness on a 9-point Likert scale. Of special interest was the perceptual assimilation of front rounded French [y, oe] and German [y, Y, o/, oe] vowels. Acoustically, all six French and German vowels are more similar to front unrounded AE vowels. However, all six vowels were perceived to be more similar to back rounded AE vowels (range across vowels = 55% to 100%), although relatively poor exemplars. There were differences across languages in how the same vowel was assimilated (e.g., French /y/ assimilated to front AE vowels 13%, German /y/, 0% French [oe] 3%, German [oe] 45%). There were also large individual differences in listeners assimilation patterns. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  20. Biliteracy in a Monolingual School System? English and Gujarati in South London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, Charmian

    2000-01-01

    Draws on research with 4-7-year-olds in a South London primary school to provide a longitudinal case study of one child's relationship to mother tongue literacy within the classroom. Findings demonstrate how the child, from the age of 4, actively combined Gujarati and English to enhance her literacy learning and to construct text that synthesized…

  1. Teaching English to Migrant Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, E. Hector

    The purpose of this manual is to assist the teacher in improving his teaching of English-as-a-second-language. It is particulary recommended for teachers of children whose mother tongue is Spanish. A preliminary test for teachers on English phonemes and identification of articulatory organs is included. The English sound system is described,…

  2. Dialect Density in Bilingual Puerto Rican Spanish-English Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Shuriff, Rebecca; Barlow, Jessica A.; Goldstein, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    It is still largely unknown how the two phonological systems of bilingual children interact. In this exploratory study, we examine children's use of dialect features to determine how their speech sound systems interact. Six monolingual Puerto Rican Spanish-speaking children and 6 bilingual Puerto Rican Spanish-English speaking children, ages 5-7 years, were included in the current study. Children's single word productions were analyzed for (1) dialect density and (2) frequency of occurrence of dialect features (after Oetting & McDonald, 2002). Nonparametric statistical analyses were used to examine differences within and across language groups. Results indicated that monolinguals and bilinguals exhibited similar dialect density, but differed on the types of dialect features used. Findings are discussed within the theoretical framework of the Dual Systems Model (Paradis, 2001) of language acquisition in bilingual children. PMID:25009677

  3. Surmounting the Tower of Babel: Monolingual and bilingual 2-year-olds' understanding of the nature of foreign language words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Chen, Ke Heng; Xu, Fei

    2014-03-01

    Languages function as independent and distinct conventional systems, and so each language uses different words to label the same objects. This study investigated whether 2-year-old children recognize that speakers of their native language and speakers of a foreign language do not share the same knowledge. Two groups of children unfamiliar with Mandarin were tested: monolingual English-learning children (n=24) and bilingual children learning English and another language (n=24). An English speaker taught children the novel label fep. On English mutual exclusivity trials, the speaker asked for the referent of a novel label (wug) in the presence of the fep and a novel object. Both monolingual and bilingual children disambiguated the reference of the novel word using a mutual exclusivity strategy, choosing the novel object rather than the fep. On similar trials with a Mandarin speaker, children were asked to find the referent of a novel Mandarin label kuò. Monolinguals again chose the novel object rather than the object with the English label fep, even though the Mandarin speaker had no access to conventional English words. Bilinguals did not respond systematically to the Mandarin speaker, suggesting that they had enhanced understanding of the Mandarin speaker's ignorance of English words. The results indicate that monolingual children initially expect words to be conventionally shared across all speakers-native and foreign. Early bilingual experience facilitates children's discovery of the nature of foreign language words.

  4. Cross-Language Transfer of Orthographic Processing Skills: A Study of French Children Who Learn English at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commissaire, Eva; Duncan, Lynne G.; Casalis, Severine

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the nature of orthographic processing skills among French-speaking children in Grades 6 and 8 who are learning English at school as a second language (L2). Two aspects of orthographic processing skills are thought to form a convergent construct in monolingual beginning readers: word-specific knowledge (e.g. "rain-rane") and…

  5. The Role of Home and School Factors in Predicting English Vocabulary among Bilingual Kindergarten Children in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L. Quentin

    2011-01-01

    Research in monolingual populations indicate that vocabulary knowledge is essential to reading achievement, but how vocabulary develops in bilingual children has been understudied. The current study investigated the role of home and school factors in predicting English vocabulary among 284 bilingual kindergartners (168 Chinese, 65 Malay, 51…

  6. Cross-Language Transfer of Orthographic Processing Skills: A Study of French Children Who Learn English at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commissaire, Eva; Duncan, Lynne G.; Casalis, Severine

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the nature of orthographic processing skills among French-speaking children in Grades 6 and 8 who are learning English at school as a second language (L2). Two aspects of orthographic processing skills are thought to form a convergent construct in monolingual beginning readers: word-specific knowledge (e.g. "rain-rane") and…

  7. Effects of primary and secondary morphological family size in monolingual and bilingual word processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, K.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.; Schreuder, R.; Baayen, Harald

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated primary and secondary morphological family size effects in monolingual and bilingual processing, combining experimentation with computational modeling. Family size effects were investigated in an English lexical decision task for Dutch-English bilinguals and English monolingu

  8. Reading skills and the discrimination of English vowel contrasts by bilingual Spanish/English-speaking children: Is there a correlation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, Sandra

    2005-04-01

    This study examined the discrimination of English vowel contrasts in real and novel word-pairs by 21 children: 11 bilingual Spanish/English- and 10 monolingual English-speaking children, 8-12 years of age (M=10; 6; Mdn=10; 4). The goal was to determine if children with poor reading skills had difficulty with discrimination, an essential factor in reading abilities. A categorial discrimination task was used in an ABX discrimination paradigm: A (the first word in the sequence) and B (the second word in the sequence) were different stimuli, and X (the third word in the sequence) was identical to either A or to B. Stimuli were produced by one of three different speakers. Seventy-two monosyllabic words were presented: 36 real English and 36 novel words. Vowels were those absent from the inventory of Spanish vowels. Discrimination accuracy for the English-speaking children with good reading skills was significantly greater than for the bilingual-speaking children with good or poor reading skills. Early age of acquisition and greater percentage of time devoted to communication in English played the greatest role in bilingual children's discrimination and reading skills. The adjacency of vowels in the F1-F2 acoustic space presented the greatest difficulty.

  9. Teachers' Habitus for Teaching English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    In this examination of monolingual and multilingual pedagogies I draw on literature that explores the position of English globally and in the curriculum for English. I amplify the discussion with data from a project exploring how teachers responded to the arrival of Polish children in their English classrooms following Poland's entry to the…

  10. Teachers' Habitus for Teaching English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    In this examination of monolingual and multilingual pedagogies I draw on literature that explores the position of English globally and in the curriculum for English. I amplify the discussion with data from a project exploring how teachers responded to the arrival of Polish children in their English classrooms following Poland's entry to the…

  11. Exploring problem solving strategies on multiple-choice science items: Comparing native Spanish-speaking English Language Learners and mainstream monolinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachchaf, Rachel Rae

    The purpose of this study was to compare how English language learners (ELLs) and monolingual English speakers solved multiple-choice items administered with and without a new form of testing accommodation---vignette illustration (VI). By incorporating theories from second language acquisition, bilingualism, and sociolinguistics, this study was able to gain more accurate and comprehensive input into the ways students interacted with items. This mixed methods study used verbal protocols to elicit the thinking processes of thirty-six native Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs), and 36 native-English speaking non-ELLs when solving multiple-choice science items. Results from both qualitative and quantitative analyses show that ELLs used a wider variety of actions oriented to making sense of the items than non-ELLs. In contrast, non-ELLs used more problem solving strategies than ELLs. There were no statistically significant differences in student performance based on the interaction of presence of illustration and linguistic status or the main effect of presence of illustration. However, there were significant differences based on the main effect of linguistic status. An interaction between the characteristics of the students, the items, and the illustrations indicates considerable heterogeneity in the ways in which students from both linguistic groups think about and respond to science test items. The results of this study speak to the need for more research involving ELLs in the process of test development to create test items that do not require ELLs to carry out significantly more actions to make sense of the item than monolingual students.

  12. Linguistically Directed Attention to the Temporal Aspect of Action Events in Monolingual English Speakers and Chinese-English Bilingual Speakers with Varying English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Su, Jui-Ju; Lee, Chao-Yang; O'Seaghdha, Padraig G.

    2012-01-01

    Chinese and English speakers seem to hold different conceptions of time which may be related to the different codings of time in the two languages. Employing a sentence-picture matching task, we have investigated this linguistic relativity in Chinese-English bilinguals varying in English proficiency and found that those with high proficiency…

  13. Linguistically Directed Attention to the Temporal Aspect of Action Events in Monolingual English Speakers and Chinese-English Bilingual Speakers with Varying English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Su, Jui-Ju; Lee, Chao-Yang; O'Seaghdha, Padraig G.

    2012-01-01

    Chinese and English speakers seem to hold different conceptions of time which may be related to the different codings of time in the two languages. Employing a sentence-picture matching task, we have investigated this linguistic relativity in Chinese-English bilinguals varying in English proficiency and found that those with high proficiency…

  14. The Disfluent Speech of Bilingual Spanish–English Children: Considerations for Differential Diagnosis of Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Ramos, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The primary purpose of this study was to describe the frequency and types of speech disfluencies that are produced by bilingual Spanish–English (SE) speaking children who do not stutter. The secondary purpose was to determine whether their disfluent speech is mediated by language dominance and/or language produced. Method Spanish and English narratives (a retell and a tell in each language) were elicited and analyzed relative to the frequency and types of speech disfluencies produced. These data were compared with the monolingual English-speaking guidelines for differential diagnosis of stuttering. Results The mean frequency of stuttering-like speech behaviors in the bilingual SE participants ranged from 3% to 22%, exceeding the monolingual English standard of 3 per 100 words. There was no significant frequency difference in stuttering-like or non-stuttering-like speech disfluency produced relative to the child's language dominance. There was a significant difference relative to the language the child was speaking; all children produced significantly more stuttering-like speech disfluencies in Spanish than in English. Conclusion Results demonstrate that the disfluent speech of bilingual SE children should be carefully considered relative to the complex nature of bilingualism. PMID:25215876

  15. Initial consonant deletion in bilingual Spanish-English-speaking children with speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Cuzner, Suzanne Lea

    2017-09-13

    The purpose of this study was to utilize a theoretical model of bilingual speech sound production as a framework for analyzing the speech of bilingual children with speech sound disorders. In order to distinguish speech difference from speech disorder, we examined between-language interaction on initial consonant deletion, an error pattern found cross-linguistically in the speech of children with speech sound disorders. Thirteen monolingual English-speaking and bilingual Spanish-and English-speaking preschoolers with speech sound disorders were audio-recorded during a single word picture-naming task and their recordings were phonetically transcribed. Initial consonant deletion errors were examined both quantitatively and qualitatively. An analysis of cross-linguistic effects and an analysis of phonemic complexity were performed. Monolingual English-speaking children exhibited initial consonant deletion at a significantly lower rate than bilingual children in their Spanish productions; however, no other quantitative differences were found across groups or languages. Qualitative differences yielded between-language interaction in the error patterns of bilingual children. Phonemic complexity appeared to play a role in initial consonant deletion. Evidence from the speech of bilingual children with speech sound disorders supports analysing bilingual speech using a cross-linguistic framework. Both theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  16. Young Children's Oral Language Proficiency and Reading Ability in Spanish and English. CLEAR Technical Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Amado M.; And Others

    Seventy-one subjects (22 English monolinguals, 23 Spanish monolinguals, and one bilingual group comprised of 19 Spanish-dominant and 7 English-dominant bilinguals) were assessed by means of the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery and the Woodcock-Johnson Language Proficiency Battery at the beginning of kindergarten and first grade. These…

  17. Native and novel language prosodic sensitivity in English-speaking children with and without dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alida; Lin, Candise Y; Wang, Min

    2013-05-01

    Children with reading disability and normal reading development were compared in their ability to discriminate native (English) and novel language (Mandarin) from nonlinguistic sounds. Children's preference for native versus novel language sounds and for disyllables containing dominant trochaic versus non-dominant iambic stress patterns was also assessed. Participants included second and third grade monolingual native English speakers with reading disability (N = 18) and normal reading development (N = 18). Children selected from pairs of novel, native, and nonlinguistic sounds that was more like language. Both groups discriminated disyllabic linguistic sounds (native and novel) from nonlinguistic sounds. Both groups showed preference for the dominant English trochaic stress pattern over the non-dominant iambic stress pattern. Implications for development of prosodic sensitivity in relation to reading skills and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Children's use of linguistic information when learning in a bilingual context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atagi, Natsuki; Goldenberg, Elizabeth R; Sandhofer, Catherine M

    2016-04-01

    Children prefer to learn from people who are like themselves. However, who is considered "like themselves" is complex for bilingual children. Thus, the current study examined whether children's language experiences affect who they prefer to imitate. A sample of 3- to 5-year-old monolingual English-speaking children (n=16), Japanese-English bilingual children (n=16), and children bilingual in English and a non-Japanese language (n=16) watched videos of a monolingual English speaker and a Japanese-English bilingual speaker playing with novel toys and were asked to play with the same novel toys. Although all children--regardless of language background--imitated the monolingual speaker at similar rates, the two bilingual groups imitated the bilingual speaker more often than did the monolingual children. Such results suggest that experience in speaking two languages affects children's imitation behaviors.

  19. The rise of English as the global lingua franca. Is the world heading towards greater monolingualism or new forms of plurilingualism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wulstan Christiansen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available English has become the most influential language for international discourse (Weber 1997, Graddol 2010 and it is tempting to foresee a largely monolingual future at the international level, where other languages become irrelevant. Such a simplistic view sees the adoption of English as something universal and uniform with little room for variation, local identity, or other lingua francas. Data shows that other lingua francas are not inevitably in decline. Diverse languages – e.g. Chinese, Spanish, Arabic, Hindi, French – continue to be important regionally or in certain discourse contexts (Weber 1997, Ostler 2010, Ronen et al. 2014 and on the internet. In this paper, we look at recent data from a variety of recent sources (Ronen et al. 2014,Olivié et al. 2015, in an attempt to examine the situation regarding languages and their influences in the world today. In particular, we will attempt to take into account the fact that much language distribution is today no longer tied in with territorial dimensions. New media such as the internet, as well as mass migration between countries, have made it less easy to identify specific langugaes with precise geographical areas. Furthermore although the world is increasingly globalised, significant regional divisions still exist in the use of media (especially in the case of China making it difficult at present to make direct comparisons about language use. In this complex scenario, it is also apparent that as English as a Lingua Franca (ELF variations emerge and gain in influence (see Seidlhofer 2011, the identity of English will change and come to become itself a reflection of a plurilingual reality in which speakers typically have at their disposal a repertoire of different languages

  20. The Eye of the Beholder: Is English as a Lingua Franca in Academic Settings a Monolingual or Multilingual Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller-Schwaner, Iris

    2012-01-01

    This paper derives from an ethnographically oriented study of the emergence of English in innovative disciplinary speech events at a French-German bilingual university in Switzerland. From the outside viewed as dissent from the university's brand bilingualism, the use of English as a lingua franca enabled the multilingual "agents of…

  1. Limits on Monolingualism? A comparison of monolingual and bilingual infants’ abilities to integrate lexical tone in novel word learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leher eSingh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To construct their first lexicon, infants must determine the relationship between native phonological variation and the meanings of words. This process is arguably more complex for bilingual learners who are often confronted with phonological conflict: phonological variation that is lexically relevant in one language may be lexically irrelevant in the other. In a series of four experiments, the present study investigated English-Mandarin bilingual infants’ abilities to negotiate phonological conflict introduced by learning both a tone and a non-tone language. In a novel word learning task, bilingual children were tested on their sensitivity to tone variation in English and Mandarin contexts. Their abilities to interpret tone variation in a language-dependent manner were compared to those of monolingual Mandarin learning infants. Results demonstrated that at 12 to 13 months, bilingual infants demonstrated the ability to bind tone to word meanings in Mandarin, but to disregard tone variation when learning new words in English. In contrast, monolingual learners of Mandarin did not show evidence of integrating tones into word meanings in Mandarin at the same age even though they were learning a tone language. However, a tone discrimination paradigm confirmed that monolingual Mandarin learning infants were able to tell these tones apart at 12 to 13 months under a different set of conditions. Later, at 17 to 18 months, monolingual Mandarin learners were able to bind tone variation to word meanings when learning new words. Our findings are discussed in terms of cognitive adaptations associated with bilingualism that may ease the negotiation of phonological conflict and facilitate precocious uptake of certain properties of each language.

  2. Acquisition of stress and pitch accent in English-Spanish bilingual children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sahyang; Andruski, Jean; Nathan, Geoffrey S.; Casielles, Eugenia; Work, Richard

    2005-09-01

    Although understanding of prosodic development is considered crucial for understanding of language acquisition in general, few studies have focused on how children develop native-like prosody in their speech production. This study will examine the acquisition of lexical stress and postlexical pitch accent in two English-Spanish bilingual children. Prosodic characteristics of English and Spanish are different in terms of frequent stress patterns (trochaic versus penultimate), phonetic realization of stress (reduced unstressed vowel versus full unstressed vowel), and frequent pitch accent types (H* versus L*+H), among others. Thus, English-Spanish bilingual children's prosodic development may provide evidence of their awareness of language differences relatively early during language development, and illustrate the influence of markedness or input frequency in prosodic acquisition. For this study, recordings from the children's one-word stage are used. Durations of stressed and unstressed syllables and F0 peak alignment are measured, and pitch accent types in different accentual positions (nuclear versus prenuclear) are transcribed using American English ToBI and Spanish ToBI. Prosodic development is compared across ages within each language and across languages at each age. Furthermore, the bilingual children's productions are compared with monolingual English and Spanish parents' productions.

  3. Using Games in Teaching Children English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智慧

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,people realize primary education has been become the most important part in their whole life,especially English teaching.However,the English teaching in primary school still have many problems needed to be solved.A common phenomenon is that the children lack of interest in English.

  4. Verb inflection in Monolingual Dutch and Sequential Bilingual Turkish-Dutch Children with and without SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Elma; De Jong, Jan; Orgassa, Antje; Baker, Anne; Weerman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Both children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children who acquire a second language (L2) make errors with verb inflection. This overlap between SLI and L2 raises the question if verb inflection can discriminate between L2 children with and without SLI. In this study we addressed this question for Dutch. The secondary goal of the study…

  5. Comparative Language Development in Bilingual and Monolingual Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Emily M.; Kohlmeier, Theresa L.; Durán, Lillian K.

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of both bilingual children and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is growing rapidly, and early childhood educators may be increasingly likely to encounter bilingual children with ASD in their classrooms. Because ASD significantly affects communication, many parents and professionals may have questions or concerns about…

  6. The Acquisition of Past Tense in English/Norwegian Bilingual Children Single versus Dual Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Jensvoll

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In a study of three Norwegian/English bilingual siblings, their strategies for acquiring past tense of verbs in both languages were examined. Elicitation tests were performed in both languages and the children’s performance and error patterns were examined. These results were then compared to data from monolingual English and Norwegian speaking children. The results are discussed within the framework of the Single Mechanism Account Hypothesis, a Connectionist approach, and the Dual Mechanism Account Hypothesis, a Generative Approach. The current study suggests support for the Dual Mechanism Approach Hypothesis. It seems that the children in the current study did in fact create rules for past tense which they could apply by default.

  7. Language proficiency and sustained attention in monolingual and bilingual children with and without language impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Tessel Boerma; Paul Leseman; Frank Wijnen; Elma Blom

    2017-01-01

    Background: The language profiles of children with language impairment (LI) and bilingual children can show partial, and possibly temporary, overlap. The current study examined the persistence of this overlap over time. Furthermore, we aimed to better understand why the language profiles of these two groups show resemblance, testing the hypothesis that the language difficulties of children with LI reflect a weakened ability to maintain attention to the stream of linguistic information. Conseq...

  8. Verb inflection in monolingual Dutch and sequential bilingual Turkish-Dutch children with and without SLI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Elma; de Jong, Jan; Orgassa, Antje; Baker, Anne; Weerman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Both children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children who acquire a second language (L2) make errors with verb inflection. This overlap between SLI and L2 raises the question if verb inflection can discriminate between L2 children with and without SLI. In this study we addressed this question for Dutch. The secondary goal of the study was to investigate variation in error types and error profiles across groups. Data were collected from 6-8-year-old children with SLI who acquire Dutch as their first language (L1), Dutch L1 children with a typical development (TD), Dutch L2 children with SLI, and Dutch L1 TD children who were on average 2 years younger. An experimental elicitation task was employed that tested use of verb inflection; context (3SG, 3PL) was manipulated and word order and verb type were controlled. Accuracy analyses revealed effects of impairment in both L1 and L2 children with SLI. However, individual variation indicated that there is no specific error profile for SLI. Verb inflection use as measured in our study discriminated fairly well in the L1 group but classification was less accurate in the L2 group. Between-group differences emerged furthermore for certain types of errors, but all groups also showed considerable variation in errors and there was not a specific error profile that distinguished SLI from TD.

  9. Language Profiles of Monolingual and Bilingual Finnish Preschool Children at Risk for Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Martin; Korkman, Marit; Mickos, Annika; Byring, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Background: A large proportion of children are exposed to more than one language, yet research on simultaneous bilingualism has been relatively sparse. Traditionally, there has been concern that bilingualism may aggravate language difficulties of children with language impairment. However, recent studies have not found specific language impairment…

  10. Language proficiency and sustained attention in monolingual and bilingual children with and without language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, T.D.; Leseman, P.P.M.; Wijnen, F.N.K.; Blom, W.B.T.

    Background: The language profiles of children with language impairment (LI) and bilingual children can show partial, and possibly temporary, overlap. The current study examined the persistence of this overlap over time. Furthermore, we aimed to better understand why the language profiles of these

  11. The Development of Two Types of Inhibitory Control in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Rhee, Michelle M.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has shown that bilingual children excel in tasks requiring inhibitory control to ignore a misleading perceptual cue. The present series of studies extends this finding by identifying the degree and type of inhibitory control for which bilingual children demonstrate this advantage. Study 1 replicated the earlier research by…

  12. The role of within-language vocabulary size in children's semantic development: evidence from bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Margaux; Nicoladis, Elena

    2013-09-01

    This study tested whether bilingual children show a lag in semantic development (the schematic-categorical shift) relative to monolingual children due to smaller vocabularies within a language. Twenty French-English bilingual and twenty English monolingual children (seven to ten years old) participated in a picture-naming task in English. Their errors were coded for schematic or categorical relations. The bilingual children made more schematic errors than monolinguals, a difference that was accounted for statistically by vocabulary score differences. This result suggests that within-language vocabulary size is one important factor in semantic development and may explain why bilingual children sometimes show a lag relative to monolingual children in one of their languages, perhaps the language in which they have received less formal instruction.

  13. Receptive Vocabulary Differences in Monolingual and Bilingual Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi

    2012-01-01

    English receptive vocabulary scores from 797 monolingual and 808 bilingual participants between the ages of 17 and 89 years old were aggregated from 20 studies to compare standard scores across language groups. The distribution of scores was unimodal for both groups but the mean score was significantly different, with monolinguals obtaining higher…

  14. Differential cerebral speech lateralization in Crow Indian and Anglo children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocate, D R

    1984-01-01

    Sixty pairs of dichotically presented CV syllables were administered to matched samples of bilingual Native American Crow and monolingual Anglo subjects. While sex and grade were not significant factors, a significant variance was found between the performance of the bilingual Native American Crow and the monolingual Anglo subjects. As predicted (1) the bilingual children demonstrated a more symmetrical cerebral representation for language processing than the monolingual children; and (2) the bilingual primary Crow speakers had a greater right hemisphere involvement in receptive language processing than the monolingual English speakers. Possible factors influencing these results are discussed.

  15. Sign-Supported English: is it effective at teaching vocabulary to young children with English as an Additional Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Chloë R; Hobsbaum, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Children who are learning English as an Additional Language (EAL) may start school with smaller vocabularies than their monolingual peers. Given the links between vocabulary and academic achievement, it is important to evaluate interventions that are designed to support vocabulary learning in this group of children. To evaluate an intervention, namely Sign-Supported English (SSE), which uses conventionalized manual gestures alongside spoken words to support the learning of English vocabulary by children with EAL. Specifically, the paper investigates whether SSE has a positive impact on Reception class children's vocabulary development over and above English-only input, as measured over a 6-month period. A total of 104 children aged 4-5 years were recruited from two neighbouring schools in a borough of Outer London. A subset of 66 had EAL. In one school, the teachers used SSE, and in the other school they did not. Pupils in each school were tested at two time points (the beginning of terms 1 and 3) using three different assessments of vocabulary. Classroom-based observations of the teachers' and pupils' manual communication were also carried out. Results of the vocabulary assessments revealed that using SSE had no effect on how well children with EAL learnt English vocabulary: EAL pupils from the SSE school did not learn more words than EAL pupils at the comparison school. SSE was used in almost half of the teachers' observations in the SSE school, while spontaneous gestures were used with similar frequency by teachers in the comparison school. There are alternative explanations for the results. The first is that the use of signs alongside spoken English does not help EAL children of this age to learn words. Alternatively, SSE does have an effect, but we were unable to detect it because (1) teachers in the comparison school used very rich natural gesture and/or (2) teachers in the SSE school did not know enough BSL and this inhibited their use of spontaneous gesture

  16. Immigrant Parents' Choice of a Bilingual versus Monolingual Kindergarten for Second-Generation Children: Motives, Attitudes, and Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Moin, Victor; Leikin, Mark; Breitkopf, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how immigrant parents describe and explain their family language policy concerning their child's preschool bilingual development, and also explored the factors linked to the parents' choice of bilingual or monolingual kindergarten for their child. The study design was based on a comparison of 2 groups of parents: those who…

  17. Immigrant Parents' Choice of a Bilingual versus Monolingual Kindergarten for Second-Generation Children: Motives, Attitudes, and Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Moin, Victor; Leikin, Mark; Breitkopf, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated how immigrant parents describe and explain their family language policy concerning their child's preschool bilingual development, and also explored the factors linked to the parents' choice of bilingual or monolingual kindergarten for their child. The study design was based on a comparison of 2 groups of parents: those who…

  18. The comprehension skills of children learning English as an additional language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoyne, K; Kelly, J M; Whiteley, H E; Spooner, A

    2009-12-01

    Data from national test results suggests that children who are learning English as an additional language (EAL) experience relatively lower levels of educational attainment in comparison to their monolingual, English-speaking peers. The relative underachievement of children who are learning EAL demands that the literacy needs of this group are identified. To this end, this study aimed to explore the reading- and comprehension-related skills of a group of EAL learners. Data are reported from 92 Year 3 pupils, of whom 46 children are learning EAL. Children completed standardized measures of reading accuracy and comprehension, listening comprehension, and receptive and expressive vocabulary. Results indicate that many EAL learners experience difficulties in understanding written and spoken text. These comprehension difficulties are not related to decoding problems but are related to significantly lower levels of vocabulary knowledge experienced by this group. Many EAL learners experience significantly lower levels of English vocabulary knowledge which has a significant impact on their ability to understand written and spoken text. Greater emphasis on language development is therefore needed in the school curriculum to attempt to address the limited language skills of children learning EAL.

  19. Asymmetries in phonological development: the case of word-final cluster acquisition in Welsh-English bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Robert; Howells, Gwennan; Lewis, Rhonwen

    2015-01-01

    This study provides the first systematic account of word-final cluster acquisition in bilingual children. To this end, forty Welsh-English bilingual children differing in language dominance and age (2;6 to 5;0) participated in a picture-naming task in English and Welsh. The results revealed significant age and dominance effects on cluster acquisition, with greater overall accuracy on the English clusters. Interestingly, although the Welsh-dominant children outperformed the English-dominant ones on the Welsh clusters, they did not exhibit a concomitant lag on the English clusters. It is argued that this asymmetry is a direct reflection of the sociolinguistic situation in Wales with English as the majority language and Welsh the minority language. The study also revealed accelerated rates of acquisition for English clusters compared with age-matched monolinguals reported elsewhere (Templin, 1957), thereby supporting claims that bilingual contexts may have a facilitative effect on phonological acquisition (Goldstein & Bunta, 2012; Grech & Dodd, 2008).

  20. Bilingual children's acquisition of the past tense: a usage-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Nicoladis, Elena; Crago, Martha; Genesee, Fred

    2011-06-01

    Bilingual and monolingual children's (mean age=4;10) elicited production of the past tense in both English and French was examined in order to test predictions from Usage-Based theory regarding the sensitivity of children's acquisition rates to input factors such as variation in exposure time and the type/token frequency of morphosyntactic structures. Both bilingual and monolingual children were less accurate with irregular than regular past tense forms in both languages. Bilingual children, as a group, were less accurate than monolinguals with the English regular and irregular past tense, and with the French irregular past tense, but not with the French regular past tense. However, bilingual children were as accurate as monolinguals with the past tense in their language of greater exposure, except for English irregular verbs. It is argued that these results support the view that children's acquisition rates are sensitive to input factors, but with some qualifications.

  1. Effects of Speech Practice on Fast Mapping in Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Pui Fong; Sadagopan, Neeraja; Janich, Lauren; Andrade, Marixa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the effects of the levels of speech practice on fast mapping in monolingual and bilingual speakers. Method: Participants were 30 English-speaking monolingual and 30 Spanish-English bilingual young adults. Each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 3 practice conditions prior to the fast-mapping task: (a) intensive…

  2. Discriminating Disorder from Difference Using Dynamic Assessment with Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Natalie; Camilleri, Bernard; Jones, Caroline; Smith, Jodie; Dodd, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The DAPPLE (Dynamic Assessment of Preschoolers' Proficiency in Learning English) is currently being developed in response to a clinical need. Children exposed to English as an additional language may be referred to speech and language therapy because their proficiency in English is not the same as their monolingual peers. Some, but not all, of…

  3. Discriminating Disorder from Difference Using Dynamic Assessment with Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Natalie; Camilleri, Bernard; Jones, Caroline; Smith, Jodie; Dodd, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The DAPPLE (Dynamic Assessment of Preschoolers' Proficiency in Learning English) is currently being developed in response to a clinical need. Children exposed to English as an additional language may be referred to speech and language therapy because their proficiency in English is not the same as their monolingual peers. Some, but not all, of…

  4. The Relative Importance of English versus Spanish Language Skills for Low-Income Latino English Language Learners' Early Language and Literacy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, Susan; Metzger, Shari R.; Dowling, Rebecca; Baker, Linda

    2017-01-01

    The association between monolingual children's early language abilities and their later reading performance is well established. However, for English language learners, the pattern of associations between early language skills and later literacy is much less well understood for English language learners. This study examined language predictors of…

  5. Dynamic Assessment of Word Learning Skills: Identifying Language Impairment in Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapantzoglou, Maria; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Thompson, Marilyn S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Bilingual children are often diagnosed with language impairment, although they may simply have fewer opportunities to learn English than English-speaking monolingual children. This study examined whether dynamic assessment (DA) of word learning skills is an effective method for identifying bilingual children with primary language…

  6. English Speech Acquisition in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children Learning Russian and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildersleeve-Neumann, Christina E.; Wright, Kira L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: English speech acquisition in Russian-English (RE) bilingual children was investigated, exploring the effects of Russian phonetic and phonological properties on English single-word productions. Russian has more complex consonants and clusters and a smaller vowel inventory than English. Method: One hundred thirty-seven single-word samples…

  7. Children's Sociolinguistic Evaluations of Nice Foreigners and Mean Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzler, Katherine D.; DeJesus, Jasmine M.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments investigated 5- to 6-year-old monolingual English-speaking American children's sociolinguistic evaluations of others based on their accent (native, foreign) and social actions (nice, mean, neutral). In Experiment 1, children expressed social preferences for native-accented English speakers over foreign-accented speakers, and they…

  8. Poland: Children's Fiction in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povsic, Frances F.

    1980-01-01

    Lists and annotates children's books that present Polish folklore and legends, biographies of famous Polish people, personal accounts of life in Poland, and stories about Polish Americans and people living in Poland. (ET)

  9. The Influence of Classroom Layout on Children's English Learning Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琬媚

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, more and more Children English Training organization developed, all the parents and teachers also want to improve the children's English. So the parents will find the organization where the teachers are better in teaching. They will motive a lot of imagine and acquire many information which you can not know. If we can care more about this point from the children, may be it also can help children to learn English well. This essay aims at how does classroom Layout influence the children to learn English well and let the children love this environment.

  10. Vowel Category Formation in Korean-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sue Ann S.; Iverson, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A previous investigation (Lee & Iverson, 2012) found that English and Korean stop categories were fully distinguished by Korean-English bilingual children at 10 years of age but not at 5 years of age. The present study examined vowels produced by Korean-English bilingual children of these same ages to determine whether and when bilinguals…

  11. Discrimination of English and French Orthographic Patterns by Biliterate Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether young English-French biliterate children can distinguish between English and French orthographic patterns. Children in French immersion programs were asked to play a dictionary game when they were in Grade 2 and again when they were in Grade 3. They were shown pseudowords that contained either an English spelling pattern or…

  12. Novel word retention in bilingual and monolingual speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui Fong eKan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to examine word retention in bilinguals and monolinguals. Long-term word retention is an essential part of vocabulary learning. Previous studies have documented that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in terms of retrieving newly-exposed words. Yet, little is known about whether or to what extent bilinguals are different from monolinguals in word retention. Participants were 30 English-speaking monolingual adults and 30 bilingual adults who speak Spanish as a home language and learned English as a second language during childhood. In a previous study (Kan, Sadagopan, Janich, & Andrade, 2014, the participants were exposed to the target novel words in English, Spanish, and Cantonese. In this current study, word retention was measured a week after the fast mapping task. No exposures were given during the one-week interval. Results showed that bilinguals and monolinguals retain a similar number of words. However, participants produced more words in English than in either Spanish or Cantonese. Correlation analyses revealed that language knowledge plays a role in the relationships between fast mapping and word retention. Specifically, within- and across-language relationships between bilinguals’ fast mapping and word retention were found in Spanish and English, by contrast, within-language relationships between monolinguals’ fast mapping and word retention were found in English and across-language relationships between their fast mapping and word retention performance in English and Cantonese. Similarly, bilinguals differed from monolinguals in the relationships among the word retention scores in three languages. Significant correlations were found among bilinguals’ retention scores. However, no such correlations were found among monolinguals’ retention scores. The overall findings suggest that bilinguals’ language experience and language knowledge most likely contribute to how they learn and retain new words.

  13. PARENTS’ INVOLVEMENT IN SUPPORTING THEIR CHILDREN LEARN ENGLISH

    OpenAIRE

    Isna Indriati

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the way of parents involving themselves in supporting their children learn English. In order to encourage children to learn better as English language learners, some parents send their children to have a continual program in non-formal institutions after schooling time. A common reason is that parents have the low capability in training their children to speak English or at least utter some meaningful words or phrases. Small scale survey by using open and closed-ended qu...

  14. Language-Based Social Preferences among Children in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzler, Katherine D.; Shutts, Kristin; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Monolingual English-speaking children in the United States express social preferences for speakers of their native language with a native accent. Here we explore the nature of children's language-based social preferences through research with children in South Africa, a multilingual nation. Like children in the United States, Xhosa South African…

  15. Language-Based Social Preferences among Children in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzler, Katherine D.; Shutts, Kristin; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Monolingual English-speaking children in the United States express social preferences for speakers of their native language with a native accent. Here we explore the nature of children's language-based social preferences through research with children in South Africa, a multilingual nation. Like children in the United States, Xhosa South African…

  16. Cochlear-implanted children from homes where English is an additional language: findings from a recent audit in one London centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, M; Vickers, D; McCarthy, K; Barker, R; Merritt, R; Szagun, G; Mann, W; Rajput, K

    2011-05-01

    A 5-year retrospective audit of demographic, audiological, and other records of 147 children implanted at one London centre was conducted. The aim was to detail the number of children implanted, with a specific focus on children from families with English as an additional language (EAL), and to compare these children with children from monolingual English-speaking families on a variety of characteristics known to affect paediatric cochlear implant outcomes. In all, 28% of children were from families where English is an additional language, with 15 different languages recorded. There were no differences between EAL and English-speaking children with respect to age of implantation; bilateral versus unilateral implants or hearing levels in better ear. There were differences between these groups in aetiology, in the occurrence of additional needs, and in educational placements. Information about speech and language outcomes was difficult to gather. Conclusions indicate the need for more detailed record-keeping especially about children's home languages for purposes of planning intervention and for the inclusion of children with EAL in future studies.

  17. Total and Conceptual Vocabulary in Spanish-English Bilinguals from 22 to 30 Months: Implications for Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, Cynthia; Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Senor, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Vocabulary assessment holds promise as a way to identify young bilingual children at risk for language delay. This study compares 2 measures of vocabulary in a group of young Spanish-English bilingual children to a single-language measure used with monolingual children. Method: Total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were used to…

  18. Total and Conceptual Vocabulary in Spanish-English Bilinguals from 22 to 30 Months: Implications for Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, Cynthia; Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Senor, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Vocabulary assessment holds promise as a way to identify young bilingual children at risk for language delay. This study compares 2 measures of vocabulary in a group of young Spanish-English bilingual children to a single-language measure used with monolingual children. Method: Total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were used to…

  19. How Does L1 and L2 Exposure Impact L1 Performance in Bilingual Children? Evidence from Polish-English Migrants to the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haman, Ewa; Wodniecka, Zofia; Marecka, Marta; Szewczyk, Jakub; Białecka-Pikul, Marta; Otwinowska, Agnieszka; Mieszkowska, Karolina; Łuniewska, Magdalena; Kołak, Joanna; Miękisz, Aneta; Kacprzak, Agnieszka; Banasik, Natalia; Foryś-Nogala, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Most studies on bilingual language development focus on children's second language (L2). Here, we investigated first language (L1) development of Polish-English early migrant bilinguals in four domains: vocabulary, grammar, phonological processing, and discourse. We first compared Polish language skills between bilinguals and their Polish non-migrant monolingual peers, and then investigated the influence of the cumulative exposure to L1 and L2 on bilinguals' performance. We then examined whether high exposure to L1 could possibly minimize the gap between monolinguals and bilinguals. We analyzed data from 233 typically developing children (88 bilingual and 145 monolingual) aged 4;0 to 7;5 (years;months) on six language measures in Polish: receptive vocabulary, productive vocabulary, receptive grammar, productive grammar (sentence repetition), phonological processing (non-word repetition), and discourse abilities (narration). Information about language exposure was obtained via parental questionnaires. For each language task, we analyzed the data from the subsample of bilinguals who had completed all the tasks in question and from monolinguals matched one-on-one to the bilingual group on age, SES (measured by years of mother's education), gender, non-verbal IQ, and short-term memory. The bilingual children scored lower than monolinguals in all language domains, except discourse. The group differences were more pronounced on the productive tasks (vocabulary, grammar, and phonological processing) and moderate on the receptive tasks (vocabulary and grammar). L1 exposure correlated positively with the vocabulary size and phonological processing. Grammar scores were not related to the levels of L1 exposure, but were predicted by general cognitive abilities. L2 exposure negatively influenced productive grammar in L1, suggesting possible L2 transfer effects on L1 grammatical performance. Children's narrative skills benefitted from exposure to two languages: both L1 and L2

  20. General Auditory Processing, Chinese Tone Processing, English Phonemic Processing and English Reading Skill: A Comparison between Chinese-English and Korean-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Anderson, Alida; Cheng, Chenxi; Park, Yoonjung; Thomson, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship between general auditory processing, Chinese tone processing, English phonemic processing and English reading skill in a group of Chinese-English bilingual children with a tonal L1 and Korean-English counterparts with a non-tonal L1. We found that general auditory processing contributed to…

  1. Examining Differential Effects of a Family Literacy Program on Language and Literacy Growth of English Language Learners with Varying Vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Lisa M.; Paratore, Jeanne R.; Leighton, Christine M.; Cassano, Christina M.; Krol-Sinclair, Barbara; Green, Jennifer Greif

    2014-01-01

    Many English language learners (ELLs) and children living in poverty begin school with substantially less English vocabulary knowledge than their monolingual, economically advantaged peers. Without effective intervention, these vocabulary gaps are likely to contribute to long-term reading failure. This quasi-experimental study examined the extent…

  2. Total and Conceptual Vocabulary in Spanish–English Bilinguals From 22 to 30 Months: Implications for Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, Cynthia; Hoff, Erika; Rumiche, Rosario; Señor, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Vocabulary assessment holds promise as a way to identify young bilingual children at risk for language delay. This study compares 2 measures of vocabulary in a group of young Spanish–English bilingual children to a single-language measure used with monolingual children. Method Total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were used to measure mean vocabulary size and growth in 47 Spanish–English bilingually developing children from 22 to 30 months of age based on results from the MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI; Fenson et al., 1993) and the Inventario del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas (Jackson-Maldonado et al., 2003). Bilingual children’s scores of total vocabulary and conceptual vocabulary were compared with CDI scores for a control group of 56 monolingual children. Results The total vocabulary measure resulted in mean vocabulary scores and average rate of growth similar to monolingual growth, whereas conceptual vocabulary scores were significantly smaller and grew at a slower rate than total vocabulary scores. Total vocabulary identified the same proportion of bilingual children below the 25th percentile on monolingual norms as the CDI did for monolingual children. Conclusion These results support the use of total vocabulary as a means of assessing early language development in young bilingual Spanish–English speaking children. PMID:24023382

  3. Phonological Acquisition in Bilingual Spanish-English Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine how between-language interaction contributes to phonological acquisition in bilingual Spanish-English speaking children. Method: A total of 24 typically developing children, ages 3;0 (years;months) to 4;0, were included in this study: 8 bilingual Spanish-English speaking children, 8…

  4. Early Childhood Education for Limited-English-Proficient Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegl, Juergen

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the benefits of early childhood education (ECE) for children whose proficiency in English is limited. Specifically, the paper (1) defines the basic characteristics of limited English proficient (LEP) children; (2) discusses educational risk factors and preschool enrollments of LEP children; (3) presents the…

  5. Exaggeration of Language-Specific Rhythms in English and French Children's Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Erin E; Lévêque, Yohana; Nave, Karli M; Trehub, Sandra E

    2016-01-01

    The available evidence indicates that the music of a culture reflects the speech rhythm of the prevailing language. The normalized pairwise variability index (nPVI) is a measure of durational contrast between successive events that can be applied to vowels in speech and to notes in music. Music-language parallels may have implications for the acquisition of language and music, but it is unclear whether native-language rhythms are reflected in children's songs. In general, children's songs exhibit greater rhythmic regularity than adults' songs, in line with their caregiving goals and frequent coordination with rhythmic movement. Accordingly, one might expect lower nPVI values (i.e., lower variability) for such songs regardless of culture. In addition to their caregiving goals, children's songs may serve an intuitive didactic function by modeling culturally relevant content and structure for music and language. One might therefore expect pronounced rhythmic parallels between children's songs and language of origin. To evaluate these predictions, we analyzed a corpus of 269 English and French songs from folk and children's music anthologies. As in prior work, nPVI values were significantly higher for English than for French children's songs. For folk songs (i.e., songs not for children), the difference in nPVI for English and French songs was small and in the expected direction but non-significant. We subsequently collected ratings from American and French monolingual and bilingual adults, who rated their familiarity with each song, how much they liked it, and whether or not they thought it was a children's song. Listeners gave higher familiarity and liking ratings to songs from their own culture, and they gave higher familiarity and preference ratings to children's songs than to other songs. Although higher child-directedness ratings were given to children's than to folk songs, French listeners drove this effect, and their ratings were uniquely predicted by n

  6. Ideas for Teachers of Non-English-Speaking Children. A Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    A series of lesson ideas for school teachers with both monolingual English-speaking and bilingual students in the same class includes 18 cultural and cross-cultural topics. They include: the island of Cuba, the flag of Cuba, the flag of Mexico, the development of Mexican music, Benito Juarez, the flag of Puerto Rico, the seal of Puerto Rico, a…

  7. The Development of Reading Comprehension Skills in Children Learning English as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Orly; Siegel, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    Reading comprehension is a multi-dimensional process that includes the reader, the text, and factors associated with the activity of reading. Most research and theories of comprehension are based primarily on research conducted with monolingual English speakers (L1). The present study was designed to investigate the cognitive and linguistic…

  8. Ideas for Teachers of Non-English-Speaking Children. A Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    A series of lesson ideas for school teachers with both monolingual English-speaking and bilingual students in the same class includes 18 cultural and cross-cultural topics. They include: the island of Cuba, the flag of Cuba, the flag of Mexico, the development of Mexican music, Benito Juarez, the flag of Puerto Rico, the seal of Puerto Rico, a…

  9. PARENTS’ INVOLVEMENT IN SUPPORTING THEIR CHILDREN LEARN ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isna Indriati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the way of parents involving themselves in supporting their children learn English. In order to encourage children to learn better as English language learners, some parents send their children to have a continual program in non-formal institutions after schooling time. A common reason is that parents have the low capability in training their children to speak English or at least utter some meaningful words or phrases. Small scale survey by using open and closed-ended questionnaire was conducted among respondents from two elementary schools in Palangka Raya, Indonesia. They were, first, parents whose children learn English formally in SDIT Al-Furqan Palangka Raya and MIN Langkai Palangka Raya and take English course privately at home or courses center, and, second, the children as students. The questionnaires are focused on the students’ attitude and motivation towards learning English and parents’ opinions and involvement in learning the process, mainly practicing English at home. The result offers teachers some important points to consider in the teaching of English, especially the way to work with children and to build a positive relationship with parents in the regard of better learning.Keywords: children, parents, English language learning

  10. How age of bilingual exposure can change the neural systems for language in the developing brain: a functional near infrared spectroscopy investigation of syntactic processing in monolingual and bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinska, K K; Petitto, L A

    2013-10-01

    Is the developing bilingual brain fundamentally similar to the monolingual brain (e.g., neural resources supporting language and cognition)? Or, does early-life bilingual language experience change the brain? If so, how does age of first bilingual exposure impact neural activation for language? We compared how typically-developing bilingual and monolingual children (ages 7-10) and adults recruit brain areas during sentence processing using functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) brain imaging. Bilingual participants included early-exposed (bilingual exposure from birth) and later-exposed individuals (bilingual exposure between ages 4-6). Both bilingual children and adults showed greater neural activation in left-hemisphere classic language areas, and additionally, right-hemisphere homologues (Right Superior Temporal Gyrus, Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus). However, important differences were observed between early-exposed and later-exposed bilinguals in their earliest-exposed language. Early bilingual exposure imparts fundamental changes to classic language areas instead of alterations to brain regions governing higher cognitive executive functions. However, age of first bilingual exposure does matter. Later-exposed bilinguals showed greater recruitment of the prefrontal cortex relative to early-exposed bilinguals and monolinguals. The findings provide fascinating insight into the neural resources that facilitate bilingual language use and are discussed in terms of how early-life language experiences can modify the neural systems underlying human language processing.

  11. How Does L1 and L2 Exposure Impact L1 Performance in Bilingual Children? Evidence from Polish-English Migrants to the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Haman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on bilingual language development focus on children’s second language (L2. Here, we investigated first language (L1 development of Polish-English early migrant bilinguals in four domains: vocabulary, grammar, phonological processing, and discourse. We first compared Polish language skills between bilinguals and their Polish non-migrant monolingual peers, and then investigated the influence of the cumulative exposure to L1 and L2 on bilinguals’ performance. We then examined whether high exposure to L1 could possibly minimize the gap between monolinguals and bilinguals. We analyzed data from 233 typically developing children (88 bilingual and 145 monolingual aged 4;0 to 7;5 (years;months on six language measures in Polish: receptive vocabulary, productive vocabulary, receptive grammar, productive grammar (sentence repetition, phonological processing (non-word repetition, and discourse abilities (narration. Information about language exposure was obtained via parental questionnaires. For each language task, we analyzed the data from the subsample of bilinguals who had completed all the tasks in question and from monolinguals matched one-on-one to the bilingual group on age, SES (measured by years of mother’s education, gender, non-verbal IQ, and short-term memory. The bilingual children scored lower than monolinguals in all language domains, except discourse. The group differences were more pronounced on the productive tasks (vocabulary, grammar, and phonological processing and moderate on the receptive tasks (vocabulary and grammar. L1 exposure correlated positively with the vocabulary size and phonological processing. Grammar scores were not related to the levels of L1 exposure, but were predicted by general cognitive abilities. L2 exposure negatively influenced productive grammar in L1, suggesting possible L2 transfer effects on L1 grammatical performance. Children’s narrative skills benefitted from exposure to two languages

  12. How Does L1 and L2 Exposure Impact L1 Performance in Bilingual Children? Evidence from Polish-English Migrants to the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haman, Ewa; Wodniecka, Zofia; Marecka, Marta; Szewczyk, Jakub; Białecka-Pikul, Marta; Otwinowska, Agnieszka; Mieszkowska, Karolina; Łuniewska, Magdalena; Kołak, Joanna; Miękisz, Aneta; Kacprzak, Agnieszka; Banasik, Natalia; Foryś-Nogala, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Most studies on bilingual language development focus on children’s second language (L2). Here, we investigated first language (L1) development of Polish-English early migrant bilinguals in four domains: vocabulary, grammar, phonological processing, and discourse. We first compared Polish language skills between bilinguals and their Polish non-migrant monolingual peers, and then investigated the influence of the cumulative exposure to L1 and L2 on bilinguals’ performance. We then examined whether high exposure to L1 could possibly minimize the gap between monolinguals and bilinguals. We analyzed data from 233 typically developing children (88 bilingual and 145 monolingual) aged 4;0 to 7;5 (years;months) on six language measures in Polish: receptive vocabulary, productive vocabulary, receptive grammar, productive grammar (sentence repetition), phonological processing (non-word repetition), and discourse abilities (narration). Information about language exposure was obtained via parental questionnaires. For each language task, we analyzed the data from the subsample of bilinguals who had completed all the tasks in question and from monolinguals matched one-on-one to the bilingual group on age, SES (measured by years of mother’s education), gender, non-verbal IQ, and short-term memory. The bilingual children scored lower than monolinguals in all language domains, except discourse. The group differences were more pronounced on the productive tasks (vocabulary, grammar, and phonological processing) and moderate on the receptive tasks (vocabulary and grammar). L1 exposure correlated positively with the vocabulary size and phonological processing. Grammar scores were not related to the levels of L1 exposure, but were predicted by general cognitive abilities. L2 exposure negatively influenced productive grammar in L1, suggesting possible L2 transfer effects on L1 grammatical performance. Children’s narrative skills benefitted from exposure to two languages: both L1

  13. Effectiveness of Bilingual Education in Cambodia: A Longitudinal Comparative Case Study of Ethnic Minority Children in Bilingual and Monolingual Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott; Watt, Ron; Frawley, Jack

    2015-01-01

    There is little research in the developing countries of South East Asia on the effectiveness of bilingual education programmes that use first language instruction for ethnic minority children. This study investigated the effectiveness of a bilingual education programme involving ethnic minority children in Cambodia by comparing their performance…

  14. Lexical Development in Mandarin-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Li; Lu, Ying; Kan, Pui Fong

    2011-01-01

    Two groups of Mandarin-English bilingual children (3-5-year-olds, 6-8-year-olds) participated in a picture identification task and a picture naming task in both languages. Results revealed age-related growth in English, but not Mandarin vocabulary. Composite vocabulary was larger than either single-language vocabulary in the younger children but…

  15. Turkish- and English-speaking children display sensitivity to perceptual context in the referring expressions they produce in speech and gesture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Özlem Ece; So, Wing-Chee; Özyürek, Asli; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Speakers choose a particular expression based on many factors, including availability of the referent in the perceptual context. We examined whether, when expressing referents, monolingual English- and Turkish-speaking children: (1) are sensitive to perceptual context, (2) express this sensitivity in language-specific ways, and (3) use co-speech gestures to specify referents that are underspecified. We also explored the mechanisms underlying children’s sensitivity to perceptual context. Children described short vignettes to an experimenter under two conditions: The characters in the vignettes were present in the perceptual context (perceptual context); the characters were absent (no perceptual context). Children routinely used nouns in the no perceptual context condition, but shifted to pronouns (English-speaking children) or omitted arguments (Turkish-speaking children) in the perceptual context condition. Turkish-speaking children used underspecified referents more frequently than English-speaking children in the perceptual context condition; however, they compensated for the difference by using gesture to specify the forms. Gesture thus gives children learning structurally different languages a way to achieve comparable levels of specification while at the same time adhering to the referential expressions dictated by their language. PMID:22904588

  16. Troubling Literacy: Monolingual Assumptions, Multilingual Contexts, and Language Teacher Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Russell

    2011-01-01

    The current educational context in many English speaking countries is one where literacy is understood to be essentially monolingual in orientation; that is, an understanding of literacy around a single common language, with the emphasis on identifying universal, normative "standards" and "benchmarks", such as the…

  17. Dublin City University at CLEF 2004: experiments in monolingual, bilingual and multilingual retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Gareth J.F.; Burke, Michael; Judge, John; Khasin, Anna; Lam-Adesina, Adenike M.; Wagner, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    The Dublin City University group participated in the monolingual, bilingual and multilingual retrieval tasks this year. The main focus of our investigation this year was extending our retrieval system to document languages other than English, and completing the multilingual task comprising four languages: English, French, Russian and Finnish. Results from our French monolingual experiments indicate that working in French is more effective for retrieval than adopting document and topic translat...

  18. Monolingual accounting dictionaries for EFL text production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Nielsen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Monolingual accounting dictionaries are important for producing financial reporting texts in English in an international setting, because of the lack of specialised bilingual dictionaries. As the intended user groups have different factual and linguistic competences, they require specific types of information. By identifying and analysing the users' factual and linguistic competences, user needs, use-situations and the stages involved in producing accounting texts in English as a foreign language, lexicographers will have a sound basis for designing the optimal English accounting dictionary for EFL text production. The monolingual accounting dictionary needs to include information about UK, US and international accounting terms, their grammatical properties, their potential for being combined with other words in collocations, phrases and sentences in order to meet user requirements. Data items that deal with these aspects are necessary for the international user group as they produce subject-field specific and register-specific texts in a foreign language, and the data items are relevant for the various stages in text production: draft writing, copyediting, stylistic editing and proofreading.

  19. The relationship between mathematics and language: academic implications for children with specific language impairment and English language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Arizmendi, Genesis D; Beal, Carole R

    2014-07-01

    The present study examined the relationship between mathematics and language to better understand the nature of the deficit and the academic implications associated with specific language impairment (SLI) and academic implications for English language learners (ELLs). School-age children (N = 61; 20 SLI, 20 ELL, 21 native monolingual English [NE]) were assessed using a norm-referenced mathematics instrument and 3 experimental computer-based mathematics games that varied in language demands. Group means were compared with analyses of variance. The ELL group was less accurate than the NE group only when tasks were language heavy. In contrast, the group with SLI was less accurate than the groups with NE and ELLs on language-heavy tasks and some language-light tasks. Specifically, the group with SLI was less accurate on tasks that involved comparing numerical symbols and using visual working memory for patterns. However, there were no group differences between children with SLI and peers without SLI on language-light mathematics tasks that involved visual working memory for numerical symbols. Mathematical difficulties of children who are ELLs appear to be related to the language demands of mathematics tasks. In contrast, children with SLI appear to have difficulty with mathematics tasks because of linguistic as well as nonlinguistic processing constraints.

  20. L2 vs. L3 Initial State: A Comparative Study of the Acquisition of French DPs by Vietnamese Monolinguals and Cantonese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Yan-Kit Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares the initial state of second language acquisition (L2A) and third language acquisition (L3A) from the generative linguistics perspective. We examine the acquisition of the Determiner Phrase (DP) by two groups of beginning French learners: an L2 group (native speakers of Vietnamese who do not speak any English) and an L3 group…

  1. L2 vs. L3 Initial State: A Comparative Study of the Acquisition of French DPs by Vietnamese Monolinguals and Cantonese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Yan-Kit Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares the initial state of second language acquisition (L2A) and third language acquisition (L3A) from the generative linguistics perspective. We examine the acquisition of the Determiner Phrase (DP) by two groups of beginning French learners: an L2 group (native speakers of Vietnamese who do not speak any English) and an L3 group…

  2. Academic language in early childhood interactions : a longitudinal study of 3- to 6-year-old Dutch monolingual children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, L.F.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines academic language in early childhood. It covers children’s exposure to academic language in early childhood, children’s early production of academic language, the development of academic language proficiency and the co-construction of academic language by children and adults.The

  3. The Influence of Emotional Arousal on Affective Priming in Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarriba, Jeanette; Canary, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    The activation of arousal components for emotion-laden words in English (e.g. kiss, death) was examined in two groups of participants: English monolinguals and Spanish-English bilinguals. In Experiment 1, emotion-laden words were rated on valence and perceived arousal. These norms were used to construct prime-target word pairs that were used in…

  4. Teaching English Language to Children with Special Educational Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Nicoleta Padurean

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to determine the most appropriate methods and techniques used for Teaching English to children with special educational needs and to determine whether they should take the courses in foreign languages in mainstream education or with a supporting teacher. The study is based on a questionnaire applied to teachers of English and on questionnaires answered by children with special educational needs and children without learning difficulties. The theoretical part covers suggestions for teaching English to children with special educational needs and the practical part is a comparison between the answers provided by the interviewed teachers and students. The findings conclude that teachers are able to teach regular children simultaneously with mainstream children, though these are reluctant regarding the education of children with special educational needs in mainstream education.

  5. Children's Use of Semantic Context in Perception of Foreign-Accented Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Rachael Frush; Bent, Tessa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate children's use of semantic context to facilitate foreign-accented word recognition in noise. Method: Monolingual American English speaking 5- to 7-year-olds (n = 168) repeated either Mandarin- or American English-accented sentences in babble, half of which contained final words that were highly…

  6. Children's Use of Semantic Context in Perception of Foreign-Accented Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Rachael Frush; Bent, Tessa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate children's use of semantic context to facilitate foreign-accented word recognition in noise. Method: Monolingual American English speaking 5- to 7-year-olds (n = 168) repeated either Mandarin- or American English-accented sentences in babble, half of which contained final words that were highly…

  7. The relationship between vocabulary and short-term memory measures in monolingual and bilingual speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that bilingualism may influence the efficiency of lexical access in adults. The goals of this research were (1) to compare bilingual and monolingual adults on their native-language vocabulary performance, and (2) to examine the relationship between short-term memory skills and vocabulary performance in monolinguals and bilinguals. In Experiment 1, English-speaking monolingual adults and simultaneous English–Spanish bilingual adults were administered measures of receptive English vocabulary and of phonological short-term memory. In Experiment 2, monolingual adults were compared to sequential English–Spanish bilinguals, and were administered the same measures as in Experiment 1, as well as a measure of expressive English vocabulary. Analyses revealed comparable levels of performance on the vocabulary and the short-term memory measures in the monolingual and the bilingual groups across both experiments. There was a stronger effect of digit-span in the bilingual group than in the monolingual group, with high-span bilinguals outperforming low-span bilinguals on vocabulary measures. Findings indicate that bilingual speakers may rely on short-term memory resources to support word retrieval in their native language more than monolingual speakers. PMID:22518091

  8. A monolingual mind can have two time lines: Exploring space-time mappings in Mandarin monolinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenxing; Sun, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Can a mind accommodate two time lines? Miles, Tan, Noble, Lumsden and Macrae (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 18, 598-604, 2011) shows that Mandarin-English bilinguals have both a horizontal space-time mapping consistent with linguistic conventions within English and a vertical representation of time commensurate with Mandarin. However, the present study, via two experiments, demonstrates that Mandarin monolinguals possess two mental time lines, i.e., one horizontal and one vertical line. This study concludes that a Mandarin speaker has two mental time lines not because he/she has acquired L2 English, but because there are both horizontal and vertical expressions in Mandarin spatiotemporal metaphors. Specifically, this study highlights the fact that a horizontal time line does exist in a Mandarin speaker's cognition, even if he/she is a Mandarin monolingual instead of a ME bilingual. Taken together, the evidence in hand is far from sufficient to support Miles et al.'s (2011) conclusion that ME bilinguals' horizontal concept of time is manipulated by English. Implications for theoretical issues concerning the language-thought relationship in general and the effect of bilingualism on cognition in particular are discussed.

  9. English- and Chinese-Learning Infants Map Novel Labels to Objects and Actions Differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cheri C. Y.; Tardif, Twila; Chen, Jie; Pulverman, Rachel B.; Zhu, Liqi; Meng, Xiangzhi

    2011-01-01

    Research based on naturalistic and checklist methods has revealed differences between English and Chinese monolingual children in their trajectories of learning nouns and verbs. However, studies based on controlled laboratory designs (e.g., Imai et al., 2008) have yielded a more mixed picture. Guided by a multidimensional view of word learning (in…

  10. "Ich Brauche Mix-Cough": Cross-Linguistic Influence Involving German, English and Farsi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazzazi, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with cross-linguistic influence (CLI) in early trilingualism involving the languages German, English and Farsi. The data come from the case study of the author's two children growing up in a trilingual family within a monolingual German-speaking environment. Specific types of CLI from the non-dominant language Farsi on German and…

  11. Vowel Representations in the Invented Spellings of Spanish-English Bilingual Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynolds, Laura B.; Uhry, Joanna K.; Brunner, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The study compared the invented spelling of vowels in kindergarten native Spanish speaking children with that of English monolinguals. It examined whether, after receiving phonics instruction for short vowels, the spelling of native Spanish-speaking kindergartners would contain phonological errors that were influenced by their first language.…

  12. Psychometric Properties of the Working Memory Rating Scale for Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Grimm, Ryan; Gerber, Michael; Orosco, Michael; Swanson, H. Lee; Lussier, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    The Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS) was designed as a behavioral rating tool to assist teachers in identifying students at risk of working memory difficulties. The instrument was originally normed on 417 monolingual English-speaking children from the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the WMRS…

  13. Literacy Development of Linguistically Diverse First Graders in a Mainstream English Classroom: Connecting Speaking and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    Children who speak different home languages and dialects in a monolingual classroom often carry the challenge of having to develop literacy in a different language. This article presents a qualitative study of five first graders who speak different home languages in an inner city mainstream English classroom. Through interviews, classroom writing,…

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Working Memory Rating Scale for Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Grimm, Ryan; Gerber, Michael; Orosco, Michael; Swanson, H. Lee; Lussier, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    The Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS) was designed as a behavioral rating tool to assist teachers in identifying students at risk of working memory difficulties. The instrument was originally normed on 417 monolingual English-speaking children from the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the WMRS…

  15. "Ich Brauche Mix-Cough": Cross-Linguistic Influence Involving German, English and Farsi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazzazi, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with cross-linguistic influence (CLI) in early trilingualism involving the languages German, English and Farsi. The data come from the case study of the author's two children growing up in a trilingual family within a monolingual German-speaking environment. Specific types of CLI from the non-dominant language Farsi on German and…

  16. Video Games Promote Saudi Children's English Vocabulary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShaiji, Ohoud Abdullatif

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Video Games and their role on promoting Saudi Kids' English vocabulary retention. The study attempted to answer whether there was a statistically significant difference (a = 0.05) between the Saudi children's subjects' mean score on the English vocabulary test due to using Video Games…

  17. Rechtschreibfehler englischer Kinder (Spelling Errors of English Children)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Richard

    1975-01-01

    Analyzes the sources of spelling errors made by English children. These are found to be not only linguistic but also psychological and social in nature. English ideas of teaching spelling are discussed. Parallels to the German school situation are drawn, and possibilities for solution are suggested. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  18. Predicting Spanish-English bilingual children's language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Komaroff, Eugene; Rodriguez, Barbara L; Lopez, Lisa M; Scarpino, Shelley E; Goldstein, Brian

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the authors investigated factors that affect bilingual children's vocabulary and story recall abilities in their 2 languages. Participants included 191 Latino families and their children, who averaged 59 months of age. Data on parental characteristics and children's exposure to and usage of Spanish and English were collected. The authors assessed children's Spanish and English vocabulary and story recall abilities using subtests of the Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey-Revised ( Woodcock, Muñoz-Sandoval, Ruef, & Alvarado, 2005). Sizeable percentages of variation in children's English (R2 = .61) and Spanish (R2 = .55) vocabulary scores were explained by children's exposure to, and usage of, each language and maternal characteristics. Similarly, variations in children's story recall scores in English (R2 = .38) and Spanish (R2 = .19) were also explained by the factors considered in this investigation. However, the authors found that different sets of factors in each category affected children's vocabulary and story recall abilities in each language. Children's exposure to and usage of their two languages as well as maternal characteristics play significant roles in bilingual individuals' language development. The results highlight the importance of gathering detailed sociolinguistic information about bilingual children when these children are involved in research and when they enter the educational system.

  19. Effects of semantic richness on lexical processing in monolinguals and bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Taler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of number of senses (NoS, a measure of semantic richness, was examined in monolingual English speakers (n=17 and bilingual speakers of English and French (n=18. Participants completed lexical decision tasks while EEG was recorded: monolinguals completed the task in English only, and bilinguals completed two lexical decision tasks, one in English and one in French. Effects of NoS were observed in both participant groups, with shorter response times and reduced N400 amplitudes to high relative to low NoS items. These effects were stronger in monolinguals than in bilinguals. Moreover, we found dissociations across languages in bilinguals, with stronger behavioral NoS effects in English and stronger event-related potential (ERP NoS effects in French. This finding suggests that different aspects of linguistic performance may be stronger in each of a bilingual’s two languages.

  20. Effects of Semantic Richness on Lexical Processing in Monolinguals and Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taler, Vanessa; López Zunini, Rocío; Kousaie, Shanna

    2016-01-01

    The effect of number of senses (NoS), a measure of semantic richness, was examined in monolingual English speakers (n = 17) and bilingual speakers of English and French (n = 18). Participants completed lexical decision tasks while EEG was recorded: monolinguals completed the task in English only, and bilinguals completed two lexical decision tasks, one in English and one in French. Effects of NoS were observed in both participant groups, with shorter response times and reduced N400 amplitudes to high relative to low NoS items. These effects were stronger in monolinguals than in bilinguals. Moreover, we found dissociations across languages in bilinguals, with stronger behavioral NoS effects in English and stronger event-related potential (ERP) NoS effects in French. This finding suggests that different aspects of linguistic performance may be stronger in each of a bilingual’s two languages. PMID:27524963

  1. Acquisition of the stop-spirant alternation in bilingual Mexican Spanish-English speaking children: theoretical and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Oglivie, Trianna; Maiefski, Olivia; Schertz, Jessamyn

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics of typical acquisition of the Mexican Spanish stop-spirant alternation in bilingual Spanish-English speaking children and to shed light on the theoretical debate over which sound is the underlying form in the stop-spirant allophonic relationship. We predicted that bilingual children would acquire knowledge of this allophonic relationship by the time they reach age 5;0 (years;months) and would demonstrate higher accuracy on the spirants, indicating their role as the underlying phoneme. This quasi-longitudinal study examined children's single word samples in Spanish from ages 2;4-8;2. Samples were phonetically transcribed and analyzed for accuracy, substitution errors and acoustically for intensity ratios. Bilingual children demonstrated overall higher accuracy on the voiced stops as compared to the spirants. Differences in substitution errors across ages were found and acoustic analyses corroborated perceptual findings. The clinical implication of this research is that bilingual children may be in danger of overdiagnosis of speech sound disorders because acquisition of this allophonic rule in bilinguals appears to differ from what has been found in previous studies examining monolingual Spanish speakers.

  2. Cross-linguistic generalization in the treatment of two sequential Spanish-English bilingual children with speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildersleeve-Neumann, Christina; Goldstein, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    The effect of bilingual service delivery on treatment of speech sound disorders (SSDs) in bilingual children is largely unknown. Bilingual children with SSDs are typically provided intervention in only one language, although research suggests dual-language instruction for language disorders is best practice for bilinguals. This study examined cross-linguistic generalization of bilingual intervention in treatment of two 5-year-old sequential bilingual boys with SSDs (one with Childhood Apraxia of Speech), hypothesizing that selecting and treating targets in both languages would result in significant overall change in their English and Spanish speech systems. A multiple baseline across behaviours design was used to measure treatment effectiveness for two targets per child. Children received treatment 2-3 times per week for 8 weeks and in Spanish for at least 2 of every 3 days. Ongoing treatment performance was measured in probes in both languages; overall speech skills were compared pre- and post-treatment. Both children's speech improved in both languages with similar magnitude; there was improvement in some non-treated errors. Treating both languages had an overall positive effect on these bilingual children's speech. Future bilingual intervention research should explore alternating treatments designs, efficiency of monolingual vs bilingual treatment, different language and bilingual backgrounds, and between-group comparisons.

  3. A Randomized Control Trial Evaluating the Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction in Numeracy on Math Outcomes for Monolingual English Speaking Kindergartners from Title 1 Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, M. E.; Anthony, J. L.; Clements, D. H.; Sarama, J.; Williams, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Children from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds have demonstrated substantially lower levels of math achievement than their middle class majority peers for decades. The present study addressed two research questions: (1) when used as a supplement to typical classroom instruction and in isolation from the larger curriculum, does Building…

  4. Mother Brand English as an Effective Approach to Teach English for Young Children as a Foreign Language in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seung-Yoeun, Yoo; SookHee, Lee

    2006-01-01

    Parents must be the first teachers and the best English teachers for children in their whole life. Now in Korea, some brave and challenging mothers are innovating new English approaches in their homes with their young kids. They have goals that their children come to possess the ability to use the English language as a vehicle to think and solve…

  5. GAMES TEACHING FOR CHILDREN'S ENGLISH%游戏中的儿童英语教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐欢

    2010-01-01

    @@ English education is an important means of developing children's intelligence. The investigation of various factors such as the requirement of social development and the characteristics of children's physical and mental development demonstrates that in the children's early English education, the game teaching approach is both necessary and feasible. In such teaching process, teachers should be clear about the basic features and functions of children English game teaching, besides, they should abide by children English teaching principles and master the basic structure of children English teaching so as to obtain ideal. Children English teaching effects.

  6. Online English-English Learner Dictionaries Boost Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmukhamedov, Ulugbek

    2012-01-01

    Learners of English might be familiar with several online monolingual dictionaries that are not necessarily the best choices for the English as Second/Foreign Language (ESL/EFL) context. Although these monolingual online dictionaries contain definitions, pronunciation guides, and other elements normally found in general-use dictionaries, they are…

  7. Do bilinguals outperform monolinguals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejdi Sejdiu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between second dialect acquisition and the psychological capacity of the learner is still a divisive topic that generates a lot of debate. A few researchers contend that the acquisition of the second dialect tends to improve the cognitive abilities in various individuals, but at the same time it could hinder the same abilities in other people. Currently, immersion is a common occurrence in some countries. In the recent past, it has significantly increased in its popularity, which has caused parents, professionals, and researchers to question whether second language acquisition has a positive impact on cognitive development, encompassing psychological ability. In rundown, the above might decide to comprehend the effects of using a second language based on the literal aptitudes connected with the native language. The issue of bilingualism was seen as a disadvantage until recently because of two languages being present which would hinder or delay the development of languages. However, recent studies have proven that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in tasks which require more attention.

  8. Differential Language Functioning of Monolinguals and Bilinguals on Positive-Negative Emotional Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirzadeh, Shiela; Hajiabed, Mohammadreza

    2016-02-01

    The present interdisciplinary research investigates the differential emotional expression between Persian monolinguals and Persian-English bilinguals. In other words, the article was an attempt to answer the questions whether bilinguals and monolinguals differ in the expression of positive and negative emotions elicited through sad and happy autobiographies and measured through UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist. The result of this pioneering work indicated no significant difference between Persian monolinguals and Persian-English bilinguals in expressing happy memories while differences were observed on sad memories. Bilinguals expressed more negative emotions in their L2 than L1. This outcome support the dominant claim that second language is the preferred language for the expression of sad emotions since it is the language of emotional detachment and distance. Further analysis on the number of words bilinguals and monolinguals used to express both sad and happy autobiographies indicated that bilinguals used more words in expressing both sad and happy autobiographies.

  9. Acquisition of the stop-spirant alternation in bilingual Mexican Spanish–English speaking children: Theoretical and clinical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Oglivie, Trianna; Maiefski, Olivia; Schertz, Jessamyn

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics of typical acquisition of the Mexican Spanish stop-spirant alternation in bilingual Spanish–English speaking children and to shed light on the theoretical debate over which sound is the underlying form in the stop-spirant allophonic relationship. We predicted that bilingual children would acquire knowledge of this allophonic relationship by the time they reach age 5;0 (years;months) and would demonstrate higher accuracy on the spirants, indicating their role as the underlying phoneme. This quasi-longitudinal study examined children’s single word samples in Spanish from ages 2;4–8;2. Samples were phonetically transcribed and analyzed for accuracy, substitution errors and acoustically for intensity ratios. Bilingual children demonstrated overall higher accuracy on the voiced stops as compared to the spirants. Differences in substitution errors across ages were found and acoustic analyses corroborated perceptual findings. The clinical implication of this research is that bilingual children may be in danger of overdiagnosis of speech sound disorders because acquisition of this allophonic rule in bilinguals appears to differ from what has been found in previous studies examining monolingual Spanish speakers. PMID:25118791

  10. Chinese Character and English Word processing in children's ventral occipitotemporal cortex: fMRI evidence for script invariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafnick, Anthony J; Tan, Li-Hai; Flowers, D Lynn; Luetje, Megan M; Napoliello, Eileen M; Siok, Wai-Ting; Perfetti, Charles; Eden, Guinevere F

    2016-06-01

    Learning to read is thought to involve the recruitment of left hemisphere ventral occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) by a process of "neuronal recycling", whereby object processing mechanisms are co-opted for reading. Under the same theoretical framework, it has been proposed that the visual word form area (VWFA) within OTC processes orthographic stimuli independent of culture and writing systems, suggesting that it is universally involved in written language. However, this "script invariance" has yet to be demonstrated in monolingual readers of two different writing systems studied under the same experimental conditions. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined activity in response to English Words and Chinese Characters in 1st graders in the United States and China, respectively. We examined each group separately and found the readers of English as well as the readers of Chinese to activate the left ventral OTC for their respective native writing systems (using both a whole-brain and a bilateral OTC-restricted analysis). Critically, a conjunction analysis of the two groups revealed significant overlap between them for native writing system processing, located in the VWFA and therefore supporting the hypothesis of script invariance. In the second part of the study, we further examined the left OTC region responsive to each group's native writing system and found that it responded equally to Object stimuli (line drawings) in the Chinese-reading children. In English-reading children, the OTC responded much more to Objects than to English Words. Together, these results support the script invariant role of the VWFA and also support the idea that the areas recruited for character or word processing are rooted in object processing mechanisms of the left OTC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Exeter at CLEF 2003: Experiments with machine translation for monolingual, bilingual and multilingual retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Lam-Adesina, Adenike M.; Jones, Gareth J.F.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Exeter group participated in the monolingual, bilingual and multilingual-4 retrieval tasks this year. The main focus of our investigation this year was the small multilingual task comprising four languages, French, German, Spanish and English. We adopted a document translation strategy and tested four merging techniques to combine results from the separate document collections, as well as a merged collection strategy. For both the monolingual and bilingual tasks we explored ...

  12. Socializing English-Speaking Navajo Children to Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Christine B.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how young children are socialized to the process and products of storytelling as part of everyday family life is important for language and literacy instruction. A language socialization framework was used to understand storytelling practices on the Navajo Nation. This study examined how three young English-speaking Navajo children,…

  13. Stop Consonant Productions of Korean-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sue Ann S.; Iverson, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an acoustic examination of the obstruent stops produced by Korean-English bilingual children in connection with the question of whether bilinguals establish distinct categories of speech sounds across languages. Stop productions were obtained from ninety children in two age ranges, five and ten years:…

  14. Children's Acquisition of English Onset and Coda /l/: Articulatory Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Susan; Demuth, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to better understand how and when onset /l/ ("leap") and coda /l/ ("peel") are acquired by children by examining both the articulations involved and adults' perceptions of the produced segments. Method: Twenty-five typically developing Australian English-speaking children aged 3;0…

  15. Reading Comprehension Difficulties in Chinese-English Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuhong; McBride, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2017-09-13

    The co-occurrence of reading comprehension difficulties for first language (L1) Chinese and second language (L2) English and associated longitudinal cognitive-linguistic correlates in each language were investigated. Sixteen poor comprehenders in English and 16 poor comprehenders in Chinese, 18 poor readers in both, and 18 children with normal performance in both were identified at age 10. The prevalence rate for being poor in both was 52.94%, suggesting that approximately half of children who are at risk for Chinese reading comprehension difficulty are also at risk for English reading comprehension difficulty. Chinese word reading, phonological, and morphological awareness were longitudinal correlates of poor comprehension in Chinese. English word reading and vocabulary were longitudinal correlates of poor comprehension in English. Chinese phonological awareness was an additional correlate of poor comprehension in English. Moreover, poor comprehenders in both Chinese and English showed slower rapid automatized naming scores than the other groups. Findings highlight some factors that might be critical for reading comprehension in L1 Chinese and L2 English; fluency is likely to be a critical part of reading comprehension across languages. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Revisiting Assumptions about the Relationship of Fluent Reading to Comprehension: Spanish-Speakers' Text-Reading Fluency in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosson, Amy C.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the growing body of research investigating the nature of text-reading fluency and its relationship to comprehension among monolingual children, very little is known about text-reading fluency for language minority (LM) learners reading in English. The present study investigated the nature of text-reading fluency--its relationship to…

  17. Bilingual Children's Acquisition of the Past Tense: A Usage-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Nicoladis, Elena; Crago, Martha; Genesee, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Bilingual and monolingual children's (mean age = 4;10) elicited production of the past tense in both English and French was examined in order to test predictions from Usage-Based theory regarding the sensitivity of children's acquisition rates to input factors such as variation in exposure time and the type/token frequency of morphosyntactic…

  18. Assessment of Working Memory Capacity in Preschool Children Using the Missing Scan Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Adrienne S.; Pisoni, David B.; Kronenberger, William G.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and validity of a modified version of Buschke's missing scan methodology, the Missing Scan Task (MST), to assess working memory capacity (WMC) and cognitive control processes in preschool children 3-6?years in age. Forty typically developing monolingual English-speaking children between…

  19. Tone matters for Cantonese-English bilingual children's English word reading development: A unified model of phonological transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; He, Xinjie; Deacon, S Hélène

    2017-02-01

    Languages differ considerably in how they use prosodic features, or variations in pitch, duration, and intensity, to distinguish one word from another. Prosodic features include lexical tone in Chinese and lexical stress in English. Recent cross-sectional studies show a surprising result that Mandarin Chinese tone sensitivity is related to Mandarin-English bilingual children's English word reading. This study explores the mechanism underlying this relation by testing two explanations of these effects: the prosodic hypothesis and segmental phonological awareness transfer. We administered multiple measures of Cantonese tone sensitivity, English stress sensitivity, segmental phonological awareness in Cantonese and English, nonverbal ability, and English word reading to 123 Cantonese-English bilingual children ages 7 and 8 years. Structural equation modeling revealed a longitudinal prediction of Cantonese tone sensitivity to English word reading between 8 and 9 years of age. This relation was realized through two parallel routes. In one, Cantonese tone sensitivity predicted English stress sensitivity, and English stress sensitivity, in turn, significantly predicted English word reading, as postulated by the prosodic hypothesis. In the second, Cantonese tone sensitivity predicted English word reading through the transfer of segmental phonological awareness between Cantonese and English, as predicted by segmental phonological transfer. These results support a unified model of phonological transfer, emphasizing the role of tone in English word reading for Cantonese-English bilingual children.

  20. Voluntary language switching in English-Spanish bilingual children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Although bilingual children frequently switch between languages, the psycholinguistic mechanisms underlying the emerging ability to control language choice are unknown. We examined the mechanisms of voluntary language switching in English-Spanish bilingual children during a picture-naming task under two conditions: 1) single-language naming in English and in Spanish; 2) either-language naming, when the children could use whichever language they wanted. The mechanism of inhibitory control was examined by analyzing local switching costs and global mixing costs. The mechanism of lexical accessibility was examined by analyzing the properties of the items children chose to name in their non-dominant language. The children exhibited significant switching costs across both languages and asymmetrical mixing costs; they also switched into their non-dominant language most frequently on highly accessible items. These findings suggest that both lexical accessibility and inhibition contribute to language choice during voluntary language switching in children. PMID:26889376

  1. Impacts of a Literacy-Focused Preschool Curriculum on the Early Literacy Skills of Language-Minority Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J; Farver, Jo Ann M

    Spanish-speaking language-minority (LM) children are at an elevated risk of struggling academically and display signs of that risk during early childhood. Therefore, high-quality research is needed to identify instructional techniques that promote the school readiness of Spanish-speaking LM children. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that utilized an experimental curriculum and two professional development models for the development of English and Spanish early literacy skills among LM children. We also evaluated whether LM children's proficiency in one language moderated the effect of the intervention on early literacy skills in the other language, as well as whether the intervention was differentially effective for LM and monolingual English-speaking children. Five hundred twenty-six Spanish-speaking LM children and 447 monolingual English-speaking children enrolled in 26 preschool centers in Los Angeles, CA participated in this study. Results indicated that the intervention was effective for improving LM children's code-related but not language-related English early literacy skills. There were no effects of the intervention on children's Spanish early literacy skills. Proficiency in Spanish did not moderate the effect of the intervention for any English early literacy outcomes; however, proficiency in English significantly moderated the effect of the intervention for Spanish oral language skills, such that the effect of the intervention was stronger for children with higher proficiency in English than it was for children with lower proficiency in English. In general, there were not differential effects of the intervention for LM and monolingual children. Taken together, these findings indicate that high-quality, evidence-based instruction can improve the early literacy skills of LM children and that the same instructional techniques are effective for enhancing the early literacy skills of LM and monolingual

  2. Home Language Will Not Take Care of Itself: Vocabulary Knowledge in Trilingual Children in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieszkowska, Karolina; Łuniewska, Magdalena; Kołak, Joanna; Kacprzak, Agnieszka; Wodniecka, Zofia; Haman, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Language input is crucial for language acquisition and especially for children's vocabulary size. Bilingual children receive reduced input in each of their languages, compared to monolinguals, and are reported to have smaller vocabularies, at least in one of their languages. Vocabulary acquisition in trilingual children has been largely understudied; only a few case studies have been published so far. Moreover, trilingual language acquisition in children has been rarely contrasted with language outcomes of bilingual and monolingual peers. We present a comparison of trilingual, bilingual, and monolingual children (total of 56 participants, aged 4;5-6;7, matched one-to-one for age, gender, and non-verbal IQ) in regard to their receptive and expressive vocabulary (measured by standardized tests), and relative frequency of input in each language (measured by parental report). The monolingual children were speakers of Polish or English, while the bilinguals and trilinguals were migrant children living in the United Kingdom, speaking English as a majority language and Polish as a home language. The trilinguals had another (third) language at home. For the majority language, English, no differences were found across the three groups, either in the receptive or productive vocabulary. The groups differed, however, in their performance in Polish, the home language. The trilinguals had lower receptive vocabulary than the monolinguals, and lower productive vocabulary compared to the monolinguals. The trilinguals showed similar lexical knowledge to the bilinguals. The bilinguals demonstrated lower scores than the monolinguals, but only in productive vocabulary. The data on reported language input show that input in English in bilingual and trilingual groups is similar, but the bilinguals outscore the trilinguals in relative frequency of Polish input. Overall, the results suggest that in the majority language, multilingual children may develop lexical skills similar to those of

  3. A time sharing cross-sectional study of monolinguals and bilinguals at different levels of second language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A

    1986-10-01

    Several methodological factors associated with the concurrent activities (finger-tapping) paradigm were considered in a cross-sectional study investigating cerebral patterns of asymmetry in three groups of English-speaking non-Hispanic dextral males at three levels of second language (Spanish) acquisition and one control group of monolinguals. Results revealed the fluent bilinguals to be bilateral and significantly different from other groups for native language tasks in English. Moreover, a priori contrasts indicate that greater right- than left-hand disruption in concurrent tapping may be typical of monolinguals, but can be influenced by other factors. Monolingual reliability test-retest correlations were .77 and .47.

  4. Stress Judgment and Production in English Derivation, and Word Reading in Adult Mandarin-Speaking English Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wei-Lun; Jarmulowicz, Linda

    2017-02-09

    For monolingual English-speaking children, judgment and production of stress in derived words, including words with phonologically neutral (e.g., -ness) and non-neutral suffixes (e.g., -ity), is important to both academic vocabulary growth and to word reading. For Mandarin-speaking adult English learners (AELs) the challenge of learning the English stress system might be complicated by cross-linguistic differences in prosodic function and features. As Mandarin-speakers become more proficient in English, patterns similar to those seen in monolingual children could emerge in which awareness and use of stress and suffix cues benefit word reading. A correlational design was used to examine the contributions of English stress in derivation with neutral and non-neutral suffixes to English word and nonword reading. Stress judgment in non-neutral derivation predicted word reading after controlling for working memory and English vocabulary; whereas stress production in neutral derivation contributed to word reading and pseudoword decoding, independent of working memory and English vocabulary. Although AELs could use stress and suffix cues for word reading, AELs were different from native English speakers in awareness of non-neutral suffix cues conditioning lexical stress placement. AELs may need to rely on lexical storage of primary stress in derivations with non-neutral suffixes.

  5. Home Language Will Not Take Care of Itself: Vocabulary Knowledge in Trilingual Children in the United Kingdom

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    Karolina Mieszkowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Language input is crucial for language acquisition and especially for children’s vocabulary size. Bilingual children receive reduced input in each of their languages, compared to monolinguals, and are reported to have smaller vocabularies, at least in one of their languages. Vocabulary acquisition in trilingual children has been largely understudied; only a few case studies have been published so far. Moreover, trilingual language acquisition in children has been rarely contrasted with language outcomes of bilingual and monolingual peers. We present a comparison of trilingual, bilingual, and monolingual children (total of 56 participants, aged 4;5–6;7, matched one-to-one for age, gender, and non-verbal IQ in regard to their receptive and expressive vocabulary (measured by standardized tests, and relative frequency of input in each language (measured by parental report. The monolingual children were speakers of Polish or English, while the bilinguals and trilinguals were migrant children living in the United Kingdom, speaking English as a majority language and Polish as a home language. The trilinguals had another (third language at home. For the majority language, English, no differences were found across the three groups, either in the receptive or productive vocabulary. The groups differed, however, in their performance in Polish, the home language. The trilinguals had lower receptive vocabulary than the monolinguals, and lower productive vocabulary compared to the monolinguals. The trilinguals showed similar lexical knowledge to the bilinguals. The bilinguals demonstrated lower scores than the monolinguals, but only in productive vocabulary. The data on reported language input show that input in English in bilingual and trilingual groups is similar, but the bilinguals outscore the trilinguals in relative frequency of Polish input. Overall, the results suggest that in the majority language, multilingual children may develop lexical skills

  6. Independent Contributions of Mothers' and Fathers' Language and Literacy Practices: Associations with Children's Kindergarten Skills across Linguistically Diverse Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Jacqueline; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Home language and literacy inputs have been consistently linked with enhanced language and literacy skills among children. Most studies have focused on maternal inputs among monolingual populations. Though the proportion of American children growing up in primarily non-English-speaking homes is growing and the role of fathers in…

  7. The Use of a Monolingual Dictionary for Meaning Determination by Advanced Cantonese ESL Learners in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a study which investigated advanced Cantonese English as a Second Language (ESL) learners' use of a monolingual dictionary for determining the meanings of familiar English words used in less familiar contexts. Thirty-two university English majors in Hong Kong participated in a dictionary consultation task,…

  8. Disscussion on professional requirement of English teaching for children%Disscussion on professional requirement of English teaching for children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜一璐

    2011-01-01

    It has been analyzed and illustrated for this article, which discussing on professional English education for children in current so- cial situation through plenty of practical experiences and referenced books. The topic has expounded that how to eope with the career for children's English teaching under the current educational system from four aspects: the pedagogic theory, ability and quality, the creation of educational recourses, and teaching methods. It also demonstrates the children ls English teacher who is engaged in the teaching activities should think highly of their daily training on the ability, the quality, and the technique methods in the educational implementation process. After finding out several adverse factors for children~ ~dl - round devel- opment in the traditional teaching, these summarie,~ could be more practical, more headleable, and more adaptive to adapt to this career requirement so that the educational workers would read it for reference and communication.

  9. Influence of Current Input-Output and Age of First Exposure on Phonological Acquisition in Early Bilingual Spanish-English-Speaking Kindergarteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Felter, Roxanna; Cooperson, Solaman J.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Peña, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although some investigations of phonological development have found that segmental accuracy is comparable in monolingual children and their bilingual peers, there is evidence that language use affects segmental accuracy in both languages. Aims: To investigate the influence of age of first exposure to English and the amount of current…

  10. Influence of Current Input-Output and Age of First Exposure on Phonological Acquisition in Early Bilingual Spanish-English-Speaking Kindergarteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Felter, Roxanna; Cooperson, Solaman J.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Peña, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although some investigations of phonological development have found that segmental accuracy is comparable in monolingual children and their bilingual peers, there is evidence that language use affects segmental accuracy in both languages. Aims: To investigate the influence of age of first exposure to English and the amount of current…

  11. English Education for Young Children in South Korea: Not Just a Collective Neurosis of English Fever!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahng, Kyung Eun

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to rethink English education for young children in South Korea through exploring a great variety of complex, interrelated terrains in terms of its emergence and popularity in an era of globalisation. I critically examine the relevance of discursive and non-discursive conditions derived from social, political, economic,…

  12. Ventajas de la metafonología y semi-inversión lingüística en niños monolingües aprendientes de EFL / Advantages of the metaphonology and linguistic semi-immersion in monolingual children learning EFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Rueda López

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este estudio piloto de nueve meses de duración presenta un análisis empírico que refleja la evolución de los fonemas oclusivos sordos ingleses /ph/, /th/, /kh/ en dos grupos (control y experimental de niños monolingües españoles con edades comprendidas entre los 6,3 (6 años y 3 meses y 7,8. El seguimiento se llevó a cabo para determinar si los niños del grupo experimental producían aspiración en las realizaciones físicas de /ph,th,kh/ en mayor medida que los niños del grupo control. La hipótesis inicial se basaba en la idea de que a lo largo de un curso académico los sujetos del grupo experimental desarrollarían un VOT (Voice Onset Time superior al grupo control. Summary: This nine month duration pilot study presents an empirical analysis that shows the evolution of the voiceless plosive English phonemes /ph/, /th/, /kh/ in two groups (control and experimental of Spanish monolingual children aged 6.3 (6 years and 3 months to 7.8 years old. The monitoring aimed to discover whether the experimental group would produce a more natural realization of the English phonemes mentioned above than the control group. The hypothesis predicted that the experimental group would develop a longer VOT than the control group by the end of the academic year.

  13. Intergenerational Learning between Children and Grandparents in East London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, Charmian; Ruby, Mahera; Jessel, John; Gregory, Eve; Arju, Tahera

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the learning exchange between three- to six-year-old children and their grandparents, in Sylheti/Bengali-speaking families of Bangladeshi origin and monolingual English-speaking families living in east London. The following concepts from sociocultural theory are applied to this new area of intergenerational learning:…

  14. LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RUSSIAN AND ENGLISH CHILDREN'S SONGS

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    Ms. Valeria A. Buryakovskaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic and cultural specificity of children's songs is determined by the extralinguistic and linguistic characteristics that most clearly are seen in the light of comparative analysis. For a long historical period there was a stream of cultural phenomena from Western Europe to Russia including the UK, which is reflected in the language including children's songs. The purpose of the study is to identify the similarities and differences of children's songs in Russian and English folklore cultures. It is established that the main differences of the Russian song culture from the European one are determined by historical, religious, regional, ethnic, musical, poetic and other traditions. The similarities are observed in the structural, phonetic and genre-themed events. At the same time, Russian and English children's songs differ from each other in their lexical-grammatical and stylistic peculiarities, the set of concepts and characters.

  15. Bilingualism accentuates children's conversational understanding.

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    Michael Siegal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3-6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be relevant, and be polite. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, with increasing age, children showed greater sensitivity to maxim violations. Children in Italy who were bilingual in German and Italian (with German as the dominant language L1 significantly outperformed Italian monolinguals. In Experiment 2, children in England who were bilingual in English and Japanese (with English as L1 significantly outperformed Japanese monolinguals in Japan with vocabulary age partialled out. CONCLUSIONS: As the monolingual and bilingual groups had a similar family SES background (Experiment 1 and similar family cultural identity (Experiment 2, these results point to a specific role for early bilingualism in accentuating children's developing ability to appreciate effective communicative responses.

  16. Bilingualism Accentuates Children's Conversational Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Surian, Luca; Matsuo, Ayumi; Geraci, Alessandra; Iozzi, Laura; Okumura, Yuko; Itakura, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    Background Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3–6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be relevant, and be polite). Principal Findings In Experiment 1, with increasing age, children showed greater sensitivity to maxim violations. Children in Italy who were bilingual in German and Italian (with German as the dominant language L1) significantly outperformed Italian monolinguals. In Experiment 2, children in England who were bilingual in English and Japanese (with English as L1) significantly outperformed Japanese monolinguals in Japan with vocabulary age partialled out. Conclusions As the monolingual and bilingual groups had a similar family SES background (Experiment 1) and similar family cultural identity (Experiment 2), these results point to a specific role for early bilingualism in accentuating children's developing ability to appreciate effective communicative responses. PMID:20140246

  17. Predicting Bilingual Spanish-English Children's Phonological Awareness Abilities from Their Preschool English and Spanish Oral Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpino, Shelley E.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Davison, Megan D.; Hammer, Carol S.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the relationship between oral language abilities and phonological awareness in 85 typically developing, Spanish-English preschool children (average age in preschool was 3 years, 9 months). Receptive language skills in Spanish and English were assessed in the autumn and spring during the children's 2 years in…

  18. Predicting Bilingual Spanish-English Children's Phonological Awareness Abilities from Their Preschool English and Spanish Oral Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpino, Shelley E.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Davison, Megan D.; Hammer, Carol S.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the relationship between oral language abilities and phonological awareness in 85 typically developing, Spanish-English preschool children (average age in preschool was 3 years, 9 months). Receptive language skills in Spanish and English were assessed in the autumn and spring during the children's 2 years in…

  19. Learning English Using Children's Stories in Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavus, Nadire; Ibrahim, Dogan

    2017-01-01

    The topic of this paper is to describe the development of an interactive application that can be used in teaching English as a second language using children's stories in mobile devices. The aim of this experimental study has been to find out the potential of using the developed interactive mobile application in improving the learning skills such…

  20. Learning English Using Children's Stories in Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavus, Nadire; Ibrahim, Dogan

    2017-01-01

    The topic of this paper is to describe the development of an interactive application that can be used in teaching English as a second language using children's stories in mobile devices. The aim of this experimental study has been to find out the potential of using the developed interactive mobile application in improving the learning skills such…

  1. Translation and "Myth": Norwegian Children's Literature in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudvin, Mette

    1994-01-01

    Argues that books from minor language communities/cultures are selected not only according to merit but also according to whether the literature in question conforms with the myths about these smaller nations in the dominant culture. Illustrates this point by examining translations of Norwegian children's literature into English, noting in…

  2. Clitic Placement in Spanish-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Leroux, Ana Teresa; Cuza, Alejandro; Thomas, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Can transfer occur in child bilingual syntax when surface overlap does not involve the syntax-pragmatics interface? Twenty-three Spanish/English bilingual children participated in an elicited imitation study of clitic placement in Spanish restructuring contexts, where variable word order is not associated with pragmatic or semantic factors.…

  3. A Tale of Two Features: Perception of Cantonese Lexical Tone and English Lexical Stress in Cantonese-English Bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Tong

    Full Text Available This study investigated the similarities and differences in perception of Cantonese tones and English stress patterns by Cantonese-English bilingual children, adults, and English monolingual adults. All three groups were asked to discriminate pairs of syllables that minimally differed in either Cantonese tone or in English stress. Bilingual children's performance on tone perception was comparable to their performance on stress perception. By contrast, bilingual adults' performance on tone perception was lower than their performance on stress perception, and there was a similar pattern in English monolingual adults. Bilingual adults tended to perform better than English monolingual adults on both the tone and stress perception tests. A significant correlation between tone perception and stress perception performance was found in bilingual children but not in bilingual adults. All three groups showed lower accuracy in the high rising-low rising contrast than any of the other 14 Cantonese tone contrasts. The acoustic analyses revealed that average F0, F0 onset, and F0 major slope were the critical acoustic correlates of Cantonese tones, whereas multiple acoustic correlates were salient in English stress, including average F0, spectral balance, duration and intensity. We argue that participants' difficulty in perceiving high rising-low rising contrasts originated from the contrasts' similarities in F0 onset and average F0; indeed the difference between their major slopes was the only cue with which to distinguish them. Acoustic-perceptual correlation analyses showed that although the average F0 and F0 onset were associated with tone perception performance in all three groups, F0 major slope was only associated with tone perception in the bilingual adult group. These results support a dynamic interactive account of suprasegmental speech perception by emphasizing the positive prosodic transfer between Cantonese tone and English stress, and the role

  4. A Tale of Two Features: Perception of Cantonese Lexical Tone and English Lexical Stress in Cantonese-English Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Lee, Stephen Man Kit; Lee, Meg Mei Ling; Burnham, Denis

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the similarities and differences in perception of Cantonese tones and English stress patterns by Cantonese-English bilingual children, adults, and English monolingual adults. All three groups were asked to discriminate pairs of syllables that minimally differed in either Cantonese tone or in English stress. Bilingual children's performance on tone perception was comparable to their performance on stress perception. By contrast, bilingual adults' performance on tone perception was lower than their performance on stress perception, and there was a similar pattern in English monolingual adults. Bilingual adults tended to perform better than English monolingual adults on both the tone and stress perception tests. A significant correlation between tone perception and stress perception performance was found in bilingual children but not in bilingual adults. All three groups showed lower accuracy in the high rising-low rising contrast than any of the other 14 Cantonese tone contrasts. The acoustic analyses revealed that average F0, F0 onset, and F0 major slope were the critical acoustic correlates of Cantonese tones, whereas multiple acoustic correlates were salient in English stress, including average F0, spectral balance, duration and intensity. We argue that participants' difficulty in perceiving high rising-low rising contrasts originated from the contrasts' similarities in F0 onset and average F0; indeed the difference between their major slopes was the only cue with which to distinguish them. Acoustic-perceptual correlation analyses showed that although the average F0 and F0 onset were associated with tone perception performance in all three groups, F0 major slope was only associated with tone perception in the bilingual adult group. These results support a dynamic interactive account of suprasegmental speech perception by emphasizing the positive prosodic transfer between Cantonese tone and English stress, and the role that level of

  5. The Readability of Malaysian English Children Books: A Multilevel Analysis

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    Adlina Ismail

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available These days, there are more English books for children published by local publishers in Malaysia. It is a positive development because the books will be more accessible to the children. However, the books have never been studied and evaluated in depth yet. One important factor in assessing reading materials is readability. Readability determines whether a text is easy or difficult to understand and a balanced mix of both can promote learning and language development. Various researchers mentioned a multilevel framework of discourse that any language assessment on a text should take into account. The levels that were proposed were word, syntax, textbase, situation model and genre and rhetorical structures. Traditional readability measures such as Flesh Reading Ease Formula, Gunning Readability Index, Fog Count, and Fry Grade Level are not able to address the multilevel because they are based on shallow variables. In contrast, Coh-metrix TERA provided five indices that are correlated to grade level and aligned to the multilevel framework. This study analyzed ten Malaysian English chapter books for children using this Coh-metrix TERA. The result revealed that the Malaysian English children books were easy in shallow level but there was a possible difficulty in textbase and situation model level because of the lack of cohesion. In conclusion, more attention should be given on deeper level of text rather than just word and syntax level. Keywords: Readability, assessment of reading materials, children books, Coh-Metrix

  6. The iPad as a Research Tool for the Understanding of English Plurals by English, Chinese, and Other L1 Speaking 3- and 4-Year-Olds.

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    Xu Rattanasone, Nan; Davies, Benjamin; Schembri, Tamara; Andronos, Fabia; Demuth, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Learning about what young children with limited spoken language know about the grammar of their language is extremely challenging. Researchers have traditionally used looking behavior as a measure of language processing and to infer what overt choices children might make. However, these methods are expensive to setup, require specialized training, are time intensive for data analysis and can have considerable dropout rates. For these reasons, we have developed a forced choice task delivered on an iPad based on our eye-tracking studies with English monolinguals (Davies et al., 2016, under review). Using the iPad we investigated 3- and 4-year-olds' understanding of the English plural in preschool centers. The primary aim of the study was to provide evidence for the usefulness of the iPad as a language research tool. We evaluated the usefulness of the iPad with second language (L2) learning children who have limited L2 language skills. Studies with school aged Chinese-speaking children show below native performance on English inflectional morphology despite 5-6 years of immersion (Jia, 2003; Jia and Fuse, 2007; Paradis et al., 2016). However, it is unclear whether this is specific only to children who speak Chinese as their first language (L1) or if younger preschoolers will also show similar challenges. We tested three groups of preschoolers with different L1s (English, Chinese, and other languages). L1 Chinese children's performance was below both English monolinguals and children speaking Other L1 languages, providing evidence that English inflections are specifically challenging for Chinese-speaking children. The results provide further evidence to support previous eye-tracking findings with monolinguals and studies with older bilinguals. The study provides evidence for the usefulness of iPads as research tool for studying language acquisition. Implications for future application of the iPad as a teaching and intervention tool, and limitations for the method, are

  7. Evaluating the Grammars of Children Who Speak Nonmainstream Dialects of English

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    Oetting, Janna B.; Lee, Ryan; Porter, Karmen L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we review three responses to the study and evaluation of grammar in children who speak nonmainstream dialects of English. Then we introduce a fourth, system-based response that views nonmainstream dialects of English, such as African American English (AAE) and Southern White English (SWE) as made up of "dialect-specific"…

  8. Chinese L1 Children's English L2 Verb Morphology over Time: Individual Variation in Longterm Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Joanne; Tulpar, Yasemin; Arppe, Antti

    2016-01-01

    This study examined accuracy in production and grammaticality judgements of verb morphology by eighteen Chinese-speaking children learning English as a second language (L2) followed longitudinally from four to six years of exposure to English, and who began to learn English at age 4;2. Children's growth in accuracy with verb morphology reached a…

  9. The Relation between Language Experience and Receptive-Expressive Semantic Gaps in Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Todd A.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore the influence of language experience on the presence of the receptive-expressive gap. Each of 778 Spanish-English bilingual children screened pre-kindergarten in Utah and Texas were assigned to one of five language experience groups, ranging from functionally monolingual to balanced bilingual.…

  10. The Use of Reported Speech in Children's Narratives: A Priming Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serratrice, Ludovica; Hesketh, Anne; Ashworth, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of structural priming on children's use of indirect speech clauses in a narrative context. Forty-two monolingual English-speaking 5-year-olds in two primary classrooms took part in a story-retelling task including reported speech. Testing took place in three individual sessions (pre-test, post-test 1,…

  11. Different Spaces: Learning and Literacy with Children and Their Grandparents in East London Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessel, John; Kenner, Charmian; Gregory, Eve; Ruby, Mahera; Arju, Tahera

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates informal learning, literacy and language development occurring in the home through exchanges between children of three to six years of age and their grandparents in Sylheti/Bengali-speaking families of Bangladeshi origin and monolingual English-speaking families of mixed ethnicity living in east London. A survey identifying…

  12. The Use of Reported Speech in Children's Narratives: A Priming Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serratrice, Ludovica; Hesketh, Anne; Ashworth, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of structural priming on children's use of indirect speech clauses in a narrative context. Forty-two monolingual English-speaking 5-year-olds in two primary classrooms took part in a story-retelling task including reported speech. Testing took place in three individual sessions (pre-test, post-test 1,…

  13. Teaching English Critically to Mexican Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gopar, Mario E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present one significant part of a large-scale critical-ethnographic-action-research project (CEAR Project) carried out in Oaxaca, Mexico. The overall CEAR Project has been conducted since 2007 in different Oaxacan elementary schools serving indigenous and mestizo (mixed-race) children. In the CEAR Project, teacher…

  14. Teaching English Critically to Mexican Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gopar, Mario E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present one significant part of a large-scale critical-ethnographic-action-research project (CEAR Project) carried out in Oaxaca, Mexico. The overall CEAR Project has been conducted since 2007 in different Oaxacan elementary schools serving indigenous and mestizo (mixed-race) children. In the CEAR Project, teacher…

  15. Lexical Selection Differences between Monolingual and Bilingual Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Deanna C.; Chung-Fat-Yim, Ashley; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Three studies are reported investigating how monolinguals and bilinguals resolve within-language competition when listening to isolated words. Participants saw two pictures that were semantically-related, phonologically-related, or unrelated and heard a word naming one of them while event-related potentials were recorded. In Studies 1 and 2, the pictures and auditory cue were presented simultaneously and the related conditions produced interference for both groups. Monolinguals showed reduced N400s to the semantically-related pairs but there was no modulation in this component by bilinguals. Study 3 inserted an interval between picture and word onset. For picture onset, both groups exhibited reduced N400s to semantically-related pictures; for word onset, both groups showed larger N400s to phonologically-related pictures. Overall, bilinguals showed less integration of related items in simultaneous (but not sequential) presentation, presumably because of interference from the activated non-English language. Thus, simple lexical selection for bilinguals includes more conflict than it does for monolinguals. PMID:26684415

  16. Bilingualism Alters Children's Frontal Lobe Functioning for Attentional Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Maria M.; Hu, Xiao-Su; Satterfield, Teresa; Kovelman, Ioulia

    2017-01-01

    Bilingualism is a typical linguistic experience, yet relatively little is known about its impact on children's cognitive and brain development. Theories of bilingualism suggest early dual-language acquisition can improve children's cognitive abilities, specifically those relying on frontal lobe functioning. While behavioral findings present much conflicting evidence, little is known about its effects on children's frontal lobe development. Using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), the findings suggest that Spanish-English bilingual children (n=13, ages 7-13) had greater activation in left prefrontal cortex during a non-verbal attentional control task relative to age-matched English monolinguals. In contrast, monolinguals (n=14) showed greater right prefrontal activation than bilinguals. The present findings suggest early bilingualism yields significant changes to the functional organization of children's prefrontal cortex for attentional control and carry implications for understanding how early life experiences impact cognition and brain development. PMID:26743118

  17. Differential Influences of Parental Home Literacy Practices and Anxiety in English as a Foreign Language on Chinese Children's English Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; Chui, Barbie Hiu-Tung; Lai, Michael Wei-Chun; Kwok, Sylvia Y. C. L.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the differential influences of maternal and paternal factors on Chinese children's English as a foreign language development. It took into account both behavioral (i.e. parental home literacy practices, HLP; and children's vocabulary knowledge) and emotional (i.e. parental and children's foreign language reading anxiety,…

  18. Do Chinese dyslexic children have difficulties learning English as a second language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Fong, Kin-Man

    2005-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether Chinese dyslexic children had difficulties learning English as a second language given the distinctive characteristics of the two scripts. Twenty-five Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia and 25 normally achieving children were tested on a number of English vocabulary, reading, and phonological processing tasks. It was found that the Dyslexia group performed significantly worse than the Control group in nearly all the English measures. The findings suggest that Chinese dyslexic children also encounter difficulties in learning English as a second language, and they are generally weak in phonological processing both in Chinese and English. However, phonological skills were found to correlate significantly with English reading but not with Chinese reading in the dyslexic children. It is evident that there are both common and specific causes to reading difficulties in Chinese and English.

  19. Increase in Speech Recognition Due to Linguistic Mismatch between Target and Masker Speech: Monolingual and Simultaneous Bilingual Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandruccio, Lauren; Zhou, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether improved speech recognition during linguistically mismatched target-masker experiments is due to linguistic unfamiliarity of the masker speech or linguistic dissimilarity between the target and masker speech. Method: Monolingual English speakers (n = 20) and English-Greek simultaneous bilinguals (n = 20) listened to…

  20. Crosslinguistic Influence on Phonological Awareness for Korean-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk

    2009-01-01

    This study examined (1) the potential influence of oral language characteristics of two languages that bilingual children acquire on their PA and (2) the relationship of PA in L1 with PA and literacy skills in L2, using data from Korean-English bilingual children. Thirty three Korean-English bilingual children, composed of two subsamples from two…

  1. The Utility of Chinese Tone Processing Skill in Detecting Children with English Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alida; Wang, Min

    2012-01-01

    The utility of Chinese tone processing skill in detecting children with English reading difficulties was examined through differences in a Chinese tone experimental task between a group of native English-speaking children with reading disabilities (RD) and a comparison group of children with normal reading development (NRD). General auditory…

  2. Do Chinese Dyslexic Children Have Difficulties Learning English as a Second Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Fong, Kin-Man

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether Chinese dyslexic children had difficulties learning English as a second language given the distinctive characteristics of the two scripts. Twenty-five Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia and 25 normally achieving children were tested on a number of English vocabulary,…

  3. A Cross-Cultural Study of Personality: Iranian and English Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenck, Sybil B. G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was completed by 1,076 Iranian early adolescents, and their scores were compared to scores obtained previously for English children. Iranian boys scored higher than girls on the psychoticism and lower on the neuroticism and social desirability scales. Iranian children scored higher than English children on…

  4. Children's Agency in Creating and Maintaining Language Policy in Practice in Two "Language Profile" Preschools in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Sally; Huss, Leena; Ottesjö, Cajsa

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results from an ethnographic study of language policy as it is enacted in everyday interaction in two language profile preschools in Sweden with explicit monolingual language policies: English and Finnish, respectively. However, in both preschools, children are free to choose language or code alternate. The study shows how…

  5. The Analysis on How to Teach Children to Read in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗羡华

    2014-01-01

    More and more parents pay much more attention to improving children’s reading ability with the development of the society and the education.Children are expected to own the English reading ability besides Chinese reading ability.How to teach children to read in English? It is not so easy for parents and teachers.The issues about how to teach children to read in English will be discussed in this paper.

  6. Analysis on the Advantages and Disadvantages of Children in learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董懿

    2010-01-01

    Chinese parents pay a lot of attention to children's English-learning nowadays. Some parents even believe English is much more important than mother tongue. Is it a rational phenomenon? This argumentation not only aims at analyzing the relationship between English and mother tongue, but also indicating that learning English has both its advantages and disadvantages, especially for small kids. Therefore, parents should adopt a positive attitude towards learning English. They should deal with the relationship between mother tongue and English correctly, which is critical to English-learning of their children in the future. They should not exclude the mother tongue or over-depend on the mother tongue as well. So, this argumentation explains the role of the mother tongue, the external environment and internal elements which have an impact on children, and the advantages and disadvantages of learning English at such an earlier age.

  7. Differential Allocation of Attention During Speech Perception in Monolingual and Bilingual Listeners

    OpenAIRE

    Astheimer, Lori B.; Berkes, Matthias; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Attention is required during speech perception to focus processing resources on critical information. Previous research has shown that bilingualism modifies attentional processing in nonverbal domains. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to determine whether bilingualism also modifies auditory attention during speech perception. We measured attention to word onsets in spoken English for monolinguals and Chinese-English bilinguals. Auditory probes were inserted at four times...

  8. The relationship between linguistic and non-linguistic cognitive control skills in bilingual children from low socio-economic backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijana eBuac

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined whether linguistic cognitive control skills were related to non-linguistic cognitive control skills in monolingual children (Study 1 and in bilingual children from low socio-economic status (SES backgrounds (Study 2. Linguistic inhibitory control was measured using a grammaticality judgment (GJ task in which children judged the grammaticality of sentences while ignoring their meaning. Non-linguistic inhibitory control was measured using a flanker task. Study 1, in which we tested monolingual English-speaking children, revealed that better inhibitory control skills, as indexed by the performance on the flanker task, were associated with improved performance on the GJ task. Study 2, in which we tested bilingual English-Spanish speaking children from low SES backgrounds, revealed that better non-linguistic inhibitory control skills did not yield better performance on the GJ task. Together, these findings point to a role of domain-general attention mechanisms in language performance in typically developing monolingual children, but not in bilingual children from low SES. Present results suggest that the relationship between linguistic and domain-general cognitive-control abilities is instantiated differently in bilingual vs. monolingual children, and that language-EF interactions are sensitive to language status and SES.

  9. A Comparative Study of Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies among Monolingual and Bilingual Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Keshavarz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some researchers argue that linguistic knowledge of one’s native language facilitates the acquisition of additional languages (see, for example, Cenoz & Valencia, 1994; Grenfell & Harris, 2006; Hakuta, 1990; Keshavarz & Astaneh, 2004. To contribute to this line of research, the present study investigated the probability of significant differences among monolingual and bilingual EFL learners in their awareness and perceived use of metacognitive reading strategies and in the subscales of these strategies (i.e., global, supportive, and problem-solving strategies. To achieve this goal, 100 Persian monolingual and 100 Azeri Turkish-Persian bilingual male and female second-year university students, majoring in English Literature, ELT, and Translation with the age range of 20-28 participated in the study.  Both groups took the Nelson Test of English language proficiency and completed the Metacognitive Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI questionnaire. Participants’ reading strategy use was determined by asking them to rate their self-perceived reading ability in English on a 5-point Likert scale. The results of data analyses revealed significant differences between monolingual and bilingual learners in the use of overall and global metacognitive reading strategies with bilingual learners having greater awareness of these two strategies. However, no significant difference was found between monolingual and bilingual participants in the use of problem-solving and supportive metacognitive strategies.

  10. Effect of Simultaneous Bilingualism on Speech Intelligibility across Different Masker Types, Modalities, and Signal-to-Noise Ratios in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reetzke, Rachel; Lam, Boji Pak-Wing; Xie, Zilong; Sheng, Li; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing speech in adverse listening conditions is a significant cognitive, perceptual, and linguistic challenge, especially for children. Prior studies have yielded mixed results on the impact of bilingualism on speech perception in noise. Methodological variations across studies make it difficult to converge on a conclusion regarding the effect of bilingualism on speech-in-noise performance. Moreover, there is a dearth of speech-in-noise evidence for bilingual children who learn two languages simultaneously. The aim of the present study was to examine the extent to which various adverse listening conditions modulate differences in speech-in-noise performance between monolingual and simultaneous bilingual children. To that end, sentence recognition was assessed in twenty-four school-aged children (12 monolinguals; 12 simultaneous bilinguals, age of English acquisition ≤ 3 yrs.). We implemented a comprehensive speech-in-noise battery to examine recognition of English sentences across different modalities (audio-only, audiovisual), masker types (steady-state pink noise, two-talker babble), and a range of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs; 0 to -16 dB). Results revealed no difference in performance between monolingual and simultaneous bilingual children across each combination of modality, masker, and SNR. Our findings suggest that when English age of acquisition and socioeconomic status is similar between groups, monolingual and bilingual children exhibit comparable speech-in-noise performance across a range of conditions analogous to everyday listening environments. PMID:27936212

  11. Bilingual children's social preferences hinge on accent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJesus, Jasmine M; Hwang, Hyesung G; Dautel, Jocelyn B; Kinzler, Katherine D

    2017-12-01

    Past research finds that monolingual and bilingual children prefer native speakers to individuals who speak in unfamiliar foreign languages or accents. Do children in bilingual contexts socially distinguish among familiar languages and accents and, if so, how do their social preferences based on language and accent compare? The current experiments tested whether 5- to 7-year-olds in two bilingual contexts in the United States demonstrate social preferences among the languages and accents that are present in their social environments. We compared children's preferences based on language (i.e., English vs. their other native language) and their preferences based on accent (i.e., English with a native accent vs. English with a non-native [yet familiar] accent). In Experiment 1, children attending a French immersion school demonstrated no preference between English and French speakers but preferred American-accented English to French-accented English. In Experiment 2, bilingual Korean American children demonstrated no preference between English and Korean speakers but preferred American-accented English to Korean-accented English. Across studies, bilingual children's preferences based on accent (i.e., American-accented English over French- or Korean-accented English) were not related to their own language dominance. These results suggest that children from diverse linguistic backgrounds demonstrate social preferences for native-accented speakers. Implications for understanding the potential relation between social reasoning and language acquisition are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Use of Audio Prompting to Assist Mothers with Limited English Proficiency in Tutoring Their Pre-Kindergarten Children on English Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Nancy L.; Mackiewicz, Sara Moore; Wood, Charles L.; Helf, Shawnna

    2009-01-01

    Parents with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) may find it difficult to become involved in their children's education due to their lack of English proficiency. The present study examined the effects of using audio prompting to assist mothers with LEP in teaching their preschool children English vocabulary. Mothers were trained to tutor their…

  13. The Use of Audio Prompting to Assist Mothers with Limited English Proficiency in Tutoring Their Pre-Kindergarten Children on English Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Nancy L.; Mackiewicz, Sara Moore; Wood, Charles L.; Helf, Shawnna

    2009-01-01

    Parents with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) may find it difficult to become involved in their children's education due to their lack of English proficiency. The present study examined the effects of using audio prompting to assist mothers with LEP in teaching their preschool children English vocabulary. Mothers were trained to tutor their…

  14. Beginning English Literacy Development and Achievement among Spanish-Speaking Children in Arizona's English-Only Classrooms: A Four-Year Two-Cohort Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Castellanos, Oscar; Blanchard, Jay; Atwill, Kim; Jiménez-Silva, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    This study examined beginning English literacy-skill development and achievement among Spanish-speaking children enrolled in state-mandated English-only classrooms. The children possessed Spanish skill at or above age-appropriate level, yet minimal English skill, and came from a Spanish-speaking community adjacent to the U.S.-Mexico border. Under…

  15. The Acquisition of the Rhotic Consonants by Welsh-English Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Martin J.; Muller, Nicole; Munro, Sian

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a study into the acquisition of Welsh and English phonology in Welsh-English bilingual children. Concentrates on the acquisition of the rhotic consonants--the trilled -r of Welsh and the approximant -r of English. (Author/VWL)

  16. Early Indicators of Later English Reading Comprehension Outcomes among Children from Spanish-Speaking Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2017-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between primary grade (K-2) Spanish and English language- and word-based skills and later English reading comprehension (RC) outcomes (Grades 5 and 8) among children (n = 148) from immigrant, Spanish-speaking, low-income homes in English instructional contexts since kindergarten entry. As…

  17. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Teaching English as a Foreign Language to Children: A Multinational Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroom, Sara J.; Seaman, Alan A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most significant trends in contemporary English language teaching is the dramatic increase in English as a foreign language (EFL) programs for younger children (ages 3-12) in school systems throughout the world. These programs have created special challenges for teachers who are nonnative English speakers (NNES). To document the…

  18. The Relationship between Vocabulary and Word Reading among Head Start Spanish-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Dixon, L. Quentin; Quiroz, Blanca; Chen, Si

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between vocabulary and word reading across Spanish and English. One hundred and seventeen 4- to 5-year-old Spanish-English bilingual children attending Head Start programs in the United States were tested for their Spanish and English word reading twice, 5 months apart.…

  19. The Relationship between Vocabulary and Word Reading among Head Start Spanish-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Dixon, L. Quentin; Quiroz, Blanca; Chen, Si

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between vocabulary and word reading across Spanish and English. One hundred and seventeen 4- to 5-year-old Spanish-English bilingual children attending Head Start programs in the United States were tested for their Spanish and English word reading twice, 5 months apart.…

  20. A Study of English Vocabulary Comparing Eskimo and Caucasian Children. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orvik, James M.

    The purpose of this study is to assess the English vocabulary of Eskimo pupils entering a bilingual education program by establishing a normative criterion based on the vocabulary levels of children whose first language is English. The tests used, "Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices" and "English Receptive Vocabulary," bear out the anticipated…

  1. From Bengali to English: Sequential Bilingualism of a Second-Generation British Bangladeshi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azami, Salman

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses sequential language acquisition of the researcher's daughter Safa who transformed from a monolingual Bengali speaker to an almost monolingual English speaker in a few months after moving to the UK. Safa was born in Bangladesh and was a monolingual Bengali speaker until she was three years and nine months when the family moved…

  2. Monolingual and Bilingual Preschoolers' Use of Gestures to Interpret Ambiguous Pronouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow, W. Quin

    2015-01-01

    Young children typically do not use order-of-mention to resolve ambiguous pronouns, but may do so if given additional cues, such as gestures. Additionally, this ability to utilize gestures may be enhanced in bilingual children, who may be more sensitive to such cues due to their unique language experience. We asked monolingual and bilingual…

  3. Methods and Techniques for Teaching English to Children(5)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Using role-plays/dramaTask 1What are the advantages of using role plays/drama in language teaching?Have you ever triedthem?What have you found about them?Dis-cuss with another teacher.Our commentsRole-plays/drama can provide children withthe opportunity to use English in a quite naturaland meaningful context.The outcome of suchactivities is usually more than just the practice ofthe language.These activities require the learnersto participate both physically and emotionally.Al-mond (2002) regards this kind of approach as a

  4. TEACHING ENGLISH TO CHINESE CHILDREN BY READING STORYBOOKS: A CASE STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuangYanhong

    2004-01-01

    Reading storybooks has been proved to be an effective way to start learning English for a Chinese child in the United States.Based on the analysis of the child's English learning content,processes, and context, this paper re-evaluates Krashen's five hypotheses in second language acquisition. Storybooks have provided children with an interesting and comprehensible content. By integrating various foreign language instructional approaches into reading storybooks, children are motivated to learn a real and natural foreign language, their cultural appreciation is cultivated, and English performance improves.Storybook reading is a programme that Chinese English teachers can use to enhance the ever-booming English programme in China.

  5. A Preliminary Report on the English Phonology of Typically Developing English-Mandarin Bilingual Preschool Singaporean Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    En, Lydea Gn Wei; Brebner, Chris; McCormack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are no published data on typical phonological development for Singaporean children. There is therefore the risk that children's speech in Singapore may be misdiagnosed or that clinicians may set goals erroneously. Aims: This paper reports a preliminary study on the English phonology of typically developing 4;0-4;5-year-old…

  6. A Preliminary Report on the English Phonology of Typically Developing English-Mandarin Bilingual Preschool Singaporean Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    En, Lydea Gn Wei; Brebner, Chris; McCormack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are no published data on typical phonological development for Singaporean children. There is therefore the risk that children's speech in Singapore may be misdiagnosed or that clinicians may set goals erroneously. Aims: This paper reports a preliminary study on the English phonology of typically developing 4;0-4;5-year-old…

  7. Multilingualism in the English-Language Classroom: Pedagogical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of whether TESOL should clearly articulate a set of pedagogical principles that challenge the assumption that English language teaching (ELT) should be conducted monolingually through English. This "monolingual principle" emphasizes instructional use of the target language (TL) to the exclusion of students' home…

  8. Differential Allocation of Attention During Speech Perception in Monolingual and Bilingual Listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Lori B; Berkes, Matthias; Bialystok, Ellen

    Attention is required during speech perception to focus processing resources on critical information. Previous research has shown that bilingualism modifies attentional processing in nonverbal domains. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to determine whether bilingualism also modifies auditory attention during speech perception. We measured attention to word onsets in spoken English for monolinguals and Chinese-English bilinguals. Auditory probes were inserted at four times in a continuous narrative: concurrent with word onset, 100 ms before or after onset, and at random control times. Greater attention was indexed by an increase in the amplitude of the early negativity (N1). Among monolinguals, probes presented after word onsets elicited a larger N1 than control probes, replicating previous studies. For bilinguals, there was no N1 difference for probes at different times around word onsets, indicating less specificity in allocation of attention. These results suggest that bilingualism shapes attentional strategies during English speech comprehension.

  9. Differential Allocation of Attention During Speech Perception in Monolingual and Bilingual Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astheimer, Lori B.; Berkes, Matthias; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Attention is required during speech perception to focus processing resources on critical information. Previous research has shown that bilingualism modifies attentional processing in nonverbal domains. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to determine whether bilingualism also modifies auditory attention during speech perception. We measured attention to word onsets in spoken English for monolinguals and Chinese-English bilinguals. Auditory probes were inserted at four times in a continuous narrative: concurrent with word onset, 100 ms before or after onset, and at random control times. Greater attention was indexed by an increase in the amplitude of the early negativity (N1). Among monolinguals, probes presented after word onsets elicited a larger N1 than control probes, replicating previous studies. For bilinguals, there was no N1 difference for probes at different times around word onsets, indicating less specificity in allocation of attention. These results suggest that bilingualism shapes attentional strategies during English speech comprehension. PMID:27110579

  10. English Second-Language Learners in Preschool: Profile Effects in Their English Abilities and the Role of Home Language Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Kirova, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) Determine the English proficiency of English second-language learners (ELLs) at the end of preschool as referenced to monolingual norms, and in particular, to determine if they showed an asynchronous profile, that is, approached monolingual norms more closely for some linguistic sub-skills than…

  11. Prosodic Abilities in Spanish and English Children with Williams Syndrome: A Cross-Linguistic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Castilla, Pastora; Stojanovik, Vesna; Setter, Jane; Sotillo, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prosodic profiles of English- and Spanish-speaking children with Williams syndrome (WS), examining cross-linguistic differences. Two groups of children with WS, English and Spanish, of similar chronological and nonverbal mental age, were compared on performance in expressive and receptive prosodic tasks…

  12. The Complex Relationship between Bilingual Home Language Input and Kindergarten Children's Spanish and English Oral Proficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kijoo; Goldenberg, Claude

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how emergent bilingual children's English and Spanish proficiencies moderated the relationships between Spanish and English input at home (bilingual home language input [BHLI]) and children's oral language skills in each language. The sample comprised over 1,400 Spanish-dominant kindergartners in California and Texas. BHLI was…

  13. Kan Yu Ret an Rayt en Ingles: Children Become Literate in English as a Second Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudelson, Sarah

    1984-01-01

    Research on second language reading and writing development in children suggests (1) children who speak little English are reading some of the print in their environment, (2) they can read English before they have complete oral control of it, (3) their comprehension is influenced by their knowledge and culture, and (4) their second language…

  14. Kan Yu Ret an Rayt en Ingles: Children Become Literate in English as a Second Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudelson, Sarah

    1984-01-01

    Research on second language reading and writing development in children suggests (1) children who speak little English are reading some of the print in their environment, (2) they can read English before they have complete oral control of it, (3) their comprehension is influenced by their knowledge and culture, and (4) their second language…

  15. The Pathway to English Word Reading in Chinese ESL Children: The Role of Spelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dan; Liu, Yingyi; Sun, Huilin; Wong, Richard Kwok; Yeung, Susanna Siu-sze

    2017-01-01

    The present longitudinal study investigated the role of spelling as a bridge between various reading-related predictors and English word reading in Chinese children learning English as a Second Language (ESL). One hundred and forty-one 5-year-old kindergarten children from Hong Kong, whose first language (L1) was Cantonese and second language (L2)…

  16. Chinese Translation Errors in English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the Chinese translation errors in 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. While bilingual children's books make definite contributions to language acquisition, few studies have examined the quality of these books, and even fewer have specifically focused on English/Chinese bilingual books.…

  17. Spanish-English Speech Perception in Children and Adults: Developmental Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Alejandro E.; Gorman, Brenda K.; Leung, Cynthia B.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the developmental trends and phonetic category formation in bilingual children and adults. Participants included 30 fluent Spanish-English bilingual children, aged 8-11, and bilingual adults, aged 18-40. All completed gating tasks that incorporated code-mixed Spanish-English stimuli. There were significant differences in…

  18. The Complex Relationship between Bilingual Home Language Input and Kindergarten Children's Spanish and English Oral Proficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kijoo; Goldenberg, Claude

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how emergent bilingual children's English and Spanish proficiencies moderated the relationships between Spanish and English input at home (bilingual home language input [BHLI]) and children's oral language skills in each language. The sample comprised over 1,400 Spanish-dominant kindergartners in California and Texas. BHLI was…

  19. Spanish-English Speech Perception in Children and Adults: Developmental Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Alejandro E.; Gorman, Brenda K.; Leung, Cynthia B.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the developmental trends and phonetic category formation in bilingual children and adults. Participants included 30 fluent Spanish-English bilingual children, aged 8-11, and bilingual adults, aged 18-40. All completed gating tasks that incorporated code-mixed Spanish-English stimuli. There were significant differences in…

  20. Pathways to Bilingualism: Young Children's Home Experiences Learning English and Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M. Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, more and more young children in the United States have the experience of speaking a language other than English at home, and many parents choose to educate their children bilingually. This study explored the home-language experiences, in English and Spanish, of three young Latino girls ages 15 months, 16 months, and 30 months,…

  1. Chinese Translation Errors in English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the Chinese translation errors in 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. While bilingual children's books make definite contributions to language acquisition, few studies have examined the quality of these books, and even fewer have specifically focused on English/Chinese bilingual books.…

  2. Bilinguals Have Different Hemispheric Lateralization in Visual Word Processing from Monolinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze-Man Lam

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous bilingual studies showed reduced hemispheric asymmetry in visual tasks such as face perception in bilinguals compared with monolinguals, suggesting experience in reading one or two languages could be a modulating factor. Here we examined whether difference in hemispheric asymmetry in visual tasks can also be observed in bilinguals who have different language backgrounds. We compared the behavior of three language groups in a tachistoscopic English word sequential matching task: English monolinguals (or alphabetic monolinguals, A-Ms, bilinguals with an alphabetic-L1 and English-L2 (alphabetic-alphabetic bilinguals, AA-Bs, and bilinguals with Chinese-L1 and English-L2 (logographic-alphabetic bilinguals, LA-Bs. The results showed that AA-Bs had a stronger right visual field/ left hemispheric (LH advantage than A-Ms and LA-Bs, suggesting that different language learning experiences can influence how visual words are processed in the brain. In addition, we showed that this effect could be accounted for by a computational model that implements a theory of hemispheric asymmetry in perception (i.e., the Double Filtering by Frequency theory; Ivry & Robertson, 1998; the modeling data suggested that this difference may be due to both the difference in participants' vocabulary size and the difference in word-to-sound mapping between alphabetic and logographic languages.

  3. "The dog see the queen": Investigating Optional Infinitives in Multilingual Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tulloh, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Children acquiring English as a first language go through a stage of optionally producing non-finite verb forms in ungrammatical contexts. This is often referred to as the optional infinitive stage of language development. This study investigates whether multilingual children aged between 3 and 5 years old produce more optional infinitives than their monolingual peers, in line with a constructivist account of first language acquisition (e.g. Gathercole, 2007; Paradis, 2010). The results showe...

  4. Spanish-Speaking Children's Spelling Errors with English Vowel Sounds that Are Represented by Different Graphemes in English and Spanish Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun-Alperin, M. Kendra; Wang, Min

    2008-01-01

    Vowels in Spanish have direct one-to-one letter-sound correspondences, whereas vowels in English usually have multiple spellings. For native Spanish-speaking children learning to spell in English, this transition from a shallow to a deep orthography could potentially cause difficulties. We examined whether the spelling of English vowel sounds was…

  5. Spoken english language development among native signing children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Kathryn; Lillo-Martin, Diane; Chen Pichler, Deborah

    2014-04-01

    Bilingualism is common throughout the world, and bilingual children regularly develop into fluently bilingual adults. In contrast, children with cochlear implants (CIs) are frequently encouraged to focus on a spoken language to the exclusion of sign language. Here, we investigate the spoken English language skills of 5 children with CIs who also have deaf signing parents, and so receive exposure to a full natural sign language (American Sign Language, ASL) from birth, in addition to spoken English after implantation. We compare their language skills with hearing ASL/English bilingual children of deaf parents. Our results show comparable English scores for the CI and hearing groups on a variety of standardized language measures, exceeding previously reported scores for children with CIs with the same age of implantation and years of CI use. We conclude that natural sign language input does no harm and may mitigate negative effects of early auditory deprivation for spoken language development.

  6. The relationship of phonological skills to language skills in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperson, Solaman J; Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D

    2013-05-01

    These two studies investigate the relationship between phonological production skills and performance in other domains of language in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children. We examine the relationship between scores on a single-word phonology test and language measures selected from formal testing and narrative samples in Spanish and English. The first study explores the language and phonology scores of 186 children (mean age = 5 years, 9 months) who represent a range of language ability levels. Phonology scores in both languages were most strongly correlated with performance on the Spanish morphosyntax subtest of the bilingual English-Spanish assessment and grammaticality of utterances in English narratives. The second study focuses on 12 children with low or high phonology skills selected from those who participated in the first study. Children with higher phonological production accuracy in both languages produced grammatical structures of low-phonetic salience with greater accuracy than children with lower phonological skills.

  7. English Speakers Attend More Strongly than Spanish Speakers to Manner of Motion when Classifying Novel Objects and Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Alan W.; Meissner, Christian A.; Lechuga, Julia; Schwartz, Bennett L.; Albrechtsen, Justin S.; Iglesias, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments provide evidence that the conceptualization of moving objects and events is influenced by one's native language, consistent with linguistic relativity theory. Monolingual English speakers and bilingual Spanish/English speakers tested in an English-speaking context performed better than monolingual Spanish speakers and bilingual…

  8. Home and Community Language Proficiency in Spanish-English Early Bilingual University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Jens

    2017-09-14

    This study assessed home and community language proficiency in Spanish-English bilingual university students to investigate whether the vocabulary gap reported in studies of bilingual children persists into adulthood. Sixty-five early bilinguals (mean age = 21 years) were assessed in English and Spanish vocabulary and verbal reasoning ability using subtests of the Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey-Revised (Schrank & Woodcock, 2009). Their English scores were compared to 74 monolinguals matched in age and level of education. Participants also completed a background questionnaire. Bilinguals scored below the monolingual control group on both subtests, and the difference was larger for vocabulary compared to verbal reasoning. However, bilinguals were close to the population mean for verbal reasoning. Spanish scores were on average lower than English scores, but participants differed widely in their degree of balance. Participants with an earlier age of acquisition of English and more current exposure to English tended to be more dominant in English. Vocabulary tests in the home or community language may underestimate bilingual university students' true verbal ability and should be interpreted with caution in high-stakes situations. Verbal reasoning ability may be more indicative of a bilingual's verbal ability.

  9. The Best Ways of Teaching English to Children: Using Children's Operas in Teaching to 5- to 6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achkasova, Natalya

    2013-01-01

    This article invites teachers to consider how to strengthen links between English, music, arts, and acting, maximizing the potential for children to become successful language learners at a young age. It will show how children's opera can act as a catalyst for learning and using the language. The findings demonstrate that teaching English with a…

  10. The impact of bilingual language learning on whole-word complexity and segmental accuracy among children aged 18 and 36 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrea A N; Laukys, Kathryn; Rvachew, Susan

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates the phonological acquisition of 19 monolingual English children and 21 English?French bilingual children at 18 and 36 months. It contributes to the understanding of age-related changes to phonological complexity and to differences due to bilingual language development. In addition, preliminary normative data is presented for English children and English?French bilingual children. Five measures were targeted to represent a range of indices of phonological development: the phonological mean length of utterance (pMLU) of the adult target, the pMLU produced by the child, the proportion of whole-word proximity (PWP), proportion of consonants correct (PCC), and proportion of whole words correct (PWC). The measures of children's productions showed improvements from 18 to 36 months; however, the rate of change varied across the measures, with PWP improving faster, then PCC, and finally PWC. The results indicated that bilingual children can keep pace with their monolingual peers at both 18 months and 36 months of age, at least in their dominant language. Based on these findings, discrepancies with monolingual phonological development that one might observe in a bilingual child's non-dominant language could be explained by reduced exposure to the language rather than a general slower acquisition of phonology.

  11. Phonological Awareness Skills in the Two Languages of Mandarin-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Zhao, Jing; Bernhardt, May

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that bilingual children have an advantage when performing on phonological awareness tasks, particularly in their stronger language. Little research has been done to date, examining the effects of bilingualism on both languages of bilingual children. In this study Mandarin-English bilingual children's performance on…

  12. Phonological Awareness Skills in the Two Languages of Mandarin-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Zhao, Jing; Bernhardt, May

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that bilingual children have an advantage when performing on phonological awareness tasks, particularly in their stronger language. Little research has been done to date, examining the effects of bilingualism on both languages of bilingual children. In this study Mandarin-English bilingual children's performance on…

  13. Comprehension of Ironic Utterances by Bilingual Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banasik Natalia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates verbal irony comprehension by 6-year old bilingual children speaking Polish and English and living in the USA. Researchers have predominantly focused on monolingual populations when examining non-literal language in young children. This is the first exploratory study of how irony is comprehended by children growing up in a bilingual setting. Results suggest that 6-year olds from this population score high in decoding the intended meaning behind an ironic utterance and that there is a relation between this ability and the development of their theory of mind (ToM. Interestingly, the data suggests that in the tested sample, no difference could be observed between comprehension of sarcastic irony (i.e., irony containing the element of blame directed towards the addressee and non-sarcastic irony (irony without criticism towards the interlocutor. The results may be a basis for assuming that irony comprehension may be different in bilingual, compared to monolingual, samples.

  14. English Language Learners' Nonword Repetition Performance: The Influence of Age, L2 Vocabulary Size, Length of L2 Exposure, and L1 Phonology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne

    2016-02-01

    This study examined individual differences in English language learners' (ELLs) nonword repetition (NWR) accuracy, focusing on the effects of age, English vocabulary size, length of exposure to English, and first-language (L1) phonology. Participants were 75 typically developing ELLs (mean age 5;8 [years;months]) whose exposure to English began on average at age 4;4. Children spoke either a Chinese language or South Asian language as an L1 and were given English standardized tests for NWR and receptive vocabulary. Although the majority of ELLs scored within or above the monolingual normal range (71%), 29% scored below. Mixed logistic regression modeling revealed that a larger English vocabulary, longer English exposure, South Asian L1, and older age all had significant and positive effects on ELLs' NWR accuracy. Error analyses revealed the following L1 effect: onset consonants were produced more accurately than codas overall, but this effect was stronger for the Chinese group whose L1s have a more limited coda inventory compared with English. ELLs' NWR performance is influenced by a number of factors. Consideration of these factors is important in deciding whether monolingual norm referencing is appropriate for ELL children.

  15. Marking of Verb Tense in the English of Preschool English-Mandarin Bilingual Children: Evidence from Language Development Profiles within Subgroups on the Singapore English Action Picture Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brebner, Chris; McCormack, Paul; Rickard Liow, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The phonological and morphosyntactic structures of English and Mandarin contrast maximally and an increasing number of bilinguals speak these two languages. Speech and language therapists need to understand bilingual development for children speaking these languages in order reliably to assess and provide intervention for this…

  16. An Exploratory Case Study of Young Children's Interactive Play Behaviours with a Non-English Speaking Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohi; Md-Yunus, Sham'ah; Son, Won In; Meadows, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This study is an examination of preschool-age English speaking children's interactive play behaviours with a non-English speaking child (NEC). The play types of a NEC were reported using the Parten's categories of solitary, parallel and interactive play. In addition, English-speaking children's interactive play with a NEC were reported in this…

  17. Discriminating children with language impairment among English-language learners from diverse first-language backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Schneider, Phyllis; Duncan, Tamara Sorenson

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the authors sought to determine whether a combination of English-language measures and a parent questionnaire on first-language development could adequately discriminate between English-language learners (ELLs) with and without language impairment (LI) when children had diverse first-language backgrounds. Participants were 152 typically developing (TD) children and 26 children with LI; groups were matched for age (M = 5;10 [years;months]) and exposure to English (M = 21 months). Children were given English standardized tests of nonword repetition, tense morphology, narrative story grammar, and receptive vocabulary. Parents were given a questionnaire on children's first-language development. ELLs with LI had significantly lower scores than the TD ELLs on the first-language questionnaire and all the English-language measures except for vocabulary. Linear discriminant function analyses showed that good discrimination between the TD and LI groups could be achieved with all measures, except vocabulary, combined. The strongest discriminator was the questionnaire, followed by nonword repetition and tense morphology. Discrimination of children with LI among a diverse group of ELLs might be possible when using a combination of measures. Children with LI exhibit deficits in similar linguistic/cognitive domains regardless of whether English is their first or second language.

  18. The Discriminant Accuracy of a Grammatical Measure with Latino English-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Clellen, Vera F.; Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the discriminant accuracy of a grammatical measure for the identification of language impairment (LI) in Latino English-speaking children. Specifically, the study examined the diagnostic accuracy of the Test of English Morphosyntax (E-MST; Pena, Gutierrez-Clellen, Iglesias, Goldstein, & Bedore (n.d.) to determine (a) whether…

  19. Syntactic Development in the L1 of Spanish-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jennifer; Blume, Maria; Sanchez, Liliana

    2013-01-01

    In this exploratory study of subtractive bilingualism in Spanish-English bilingual children, we present evidence that crosslinguistic influence has a selective effect on heritage first language loss. Differences in feature strength between English and Spanish in interrogative and negative polarity item (NPI) sentences seem to affect the…

  20. Placeholders in the English Interlanguage of Bilingual (Basque/Spanish) Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Maria del Pilar Garcia; Ibarrola, Amparo Lazaro; Liceras, Juana M.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we provide an explanation for 2 syntactic phenomena whose systematic production has been observed in the English nonnative grammar of 3 different age groups of 58 bilingual (Basque/Spanish) children after 4 years of exposure to English in a formal setting: (a) insertion of "is" before a lexical verb and (b) insertion of a subject…

  1. Auditory Processing, Linguistic Prosody Awareness, and Word Reading in Mandarin-Speaking Children Learning English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wei-Lun; Jarmulowicz, Linda; Bidelman, Gavin M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined language-specific links among auditory processing, linguistic prosody awareness, and Mandarin (L1) and English (L2) word reading in 61 Mandarin-speaking, English-learning children. Three auditory discrimination abilities were measured: pitch contour, pitch interval, and rise time (rate of intensity change at tone onset).…

  2. Children's Relative Clause Markers in Two Non-Mainstream Dialects of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetting, Janna B.; Newkirk, Brandi L.

    2011-01-01

    We examined children's productions of mainstream and non-mainstream relative clause markers (e.g. "that", "who", "which", "what", "where", [image omitted]) in African American English (AAE) and Southern White English (SWE) as a function of three linguistic variables (syntactic role of the marker,…

  3. Parental Numeric Language Input to Mandarin Chinese and English Speaking Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alicia; Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Adelchanow, Lauren; Rottman, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the number-specific parental language input to Mandarin- and English-speaking preschool-aged children. Mandarin and English transcripts from the CHILDES database were examined for amount of numeric speech, specific types of numeric speech and syntactic frames in which numeric speech appeared. The results showed that…

  4. Acquiring Orthographic Processing through Word Reading: Evidence from Children Learning to Read French and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Deacon, Helene; Chen, Becky X.; Commissaire, Eva; Au-Yeung, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the within-language and cross-language relationships between orthographic processing and word reading in French and English across Grades 1 and 2. Seventy-three children in French Immersion completed measures of orthographic processing and word reading in French and English in Grade 1 and Grade 2, as well as a series of control…

  5. "Listen, Do, Repeat, Understand and Remember": Teaching English to Very Young Children in Aceh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Qismullah; Asyik, Abdul Gani; Yusuf, Yunisrina Qismullah; Rusdi, Lathifatuddini

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the methods used in teaching English vocabulary to very young children (i.e. toddlers) at a bilingual school in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. Not much research has been published on teaching English to toddlers in the EFL context; therefore, this research is important as the results can become additional input to L2…

  6. English

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    "English: An Essential Grammar" is a concise and user-friendly guide to the grammar of modern English, written specifically for native speakers and based on genuine samples of contemporary spoken and written English. In four chapters, the book covers the essentials of English grammar, beginning with the basics and going on to deal with phrase, clause and sentence structure. A fifth chapter deals with English word formation and spelling, including problem spellings and British and American spelling variants. Features of this title include: discussion of points that often cause problem

  7. Post-Monolingual Research Methodology: Multilingual Researchers Democratizing Theorizing and Doctoral Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Singh

    2017-02-01

    dissemination of theoretical knowledge and the capabilities for theorizing. Often, from an English-only monolingual mindset, difference and divergence are seen as a recipe for deficits and dissonance. However, this paper challenges such mistaken beliefs by showing that multilingual HDRs can deepen and extend their capabilities for theorizing by using their own linguistic repertoires. Post-monolingual research methodology is to be of enormous benefit to multilingual researchers and scholars engaged in intellectual labor in predominantly English-only monolingual universities.

  8. Reading and Reading Instruction for Children from Low-Income and Non-English-Speaking Households

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nonie K. Lesaux

    2012-01-01

    ...? To answer this question, Nonie Lesaux describes what is known about reading development and instruction, homing in on research conducted with children from low-income and non-English-speaking homes...

  9. Children's interpretation of disjunction in the scope of 'before': a comparison of English and Mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notley, Anna; Zhou, Peng; Jensen, Britta; Crain, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates three- to five-year-old children's interpretation of disjunction in sentences like 'The dog reached the finish line before the turtle or the bunny'. English disjunction has a conjunctive interpretation in such sentences ('The dog reached the finish line before the turtle and before the bunny'). This interpretation conforms with classical logic. Mandarin disjunction ('huozhe') can take scope over 'before' ('zai … zhiqian'), so the same sentence can mean 'The dog reached the finish line before the turtle or before the bunny (I don't know which)'. If children are guided by adult input in the acquisition of sentence meanings, English- and Mandarin-speaking children should assign different interpretations to such sentences. If children are guided by logical principles, then children acquiring either language should initially assign the conjunctive interpretation of disjunction. A truth-value judgment task was used to test this prediction and English- and Mandarin-speaking children were found to behave similarly.

  10. English Language Classroom Practices: Bangladeshi Primary School Children's Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prithvi Narayan

    2013-01-01

    English language teaching (ELT) has been investigated from various angles including how English language teachers perceive what happens in an ELT classroom. How primary school English language learners perceive their experiences of ELT is rarely reported in the published literature, particularly from developing countries such as Bangladesh. This…

  11. English Language Classroom Practices: Bangladeshi Primary School Children's Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prithvi Narayan

    2013-01-01

    English language teaching (ELT) has been investigated from various angles including how English language teachers perceive what happens in an ELT classroom. How primary school English language learners perceive their experiences of ELT is rarely reported in the published literature, particularly from developing countries such as Bangladesh. This…

  12. Italian children with dyslexia are also poor in reading English words, but accurate in reading English pseudowords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Paola; Bellagamba, Isabella; Ferrari, Marcella; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2013-08-01

    It has been argued that children with dyslexia (DC) are poor at learning a foreign language (L2) and, in particular, reading foreign words. This assumption is so general that an Italian law (law 170, October, 2010) has established that DC may be completely exempted from foreign language learning and, in any case, should not be engaged in tuition via written material. However, evidence of L2 difficulties of DC is scarce and, in particular, absent for Italian children learning English. This absence of data is problematic, as it precludes information on the pattern of weaknesses and strengths, which could be found in DC. The present paper assessed these issues by administering an English word and pseudoword reading test to 23 DC and to 23 control children, matched for age, gender, schooling and IQ. The patterns of difficulties were examined individually for accuracy and speed, and the role of measures of native (L1) competence in L2 difficulties was also taken into account. Results confirmed that Italian DC are also poor in reading English words. However, they are accurate in reading pseudowords, suggesting that they have assimilated English pronunciation rules. Difficulties in L2 were, to some extent, but not completely, explained by difficulties in reading in L1.

  13. Assessing successive bilinguals in two languages: A longitudinal look at English-speaking children in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidnes, Maureen; Tuller, Laurice

    2016-10-04

    This study examines longitudinal standardized test scores in both languages of a group of successive bilinguals with L1 English acquiring L2 French. Participants included 22 native English-speaking children living in France. French was evaluated using a standardized receptive vocabulary test, as well as tests of phonology and morphosyntax. English was evaluated using the Core Language Score subtests from the CELF-4-UK. The children varied in age (6;9-12;7) and length of exposure (0;11-3;9) to French and were tested twice at 12-month intervals. At T1, 7 children scored below norms in both languages, while only 3 did so at T2. Two out of these 3 were arguably not typically developing children. Length of exposure to French emerged as an important factor only at T1, when a number of children were in early stages of acquisition (≤18months of exposure). English scores varied by age and weekly use of English. In successive bilingual children, language performance on L2 standardized tests can be expected to be (well) below norms during the first 18 months of exposure. English scores revealed that weak L1 performance is part of typical development in this bilingual context, but that L1 retention is also a possibility.

  14. Exposing young children to english as a foreign language: the emerging role of world english A exposição de crianças ao inglês como língua estrangeira: o papel emergente do world english

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanavillil Rajagopalan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on language acquisition by young children in contexts of societal multilingualism and what lessons can be learned from it for language learning in general. It is argued that research in this area is hampered by the fact that it is almost exclusively based on a monolingual's experience of acquiring the only language they have at their disposal. By implication, then, a multilingual person's linguistic repertoire is seen as a special case of, or a departure from, the monolingual's. The case for taking a fresh look at societal multilingualism is made by considering the phenomenon of 'World English' which, it is argued, can only be understood by approaching it as a language in the making that draws its sustenance from situations where different languages are in constant contact, influencing one another.O foco deste artigo recai na aquisição da linguagem por crianças em contextos sociais multilíngues e em suas implicações para a aprendizagem de línguas de um modo geral. Toma-se aqui como pressuposto que a pesquisa na área em questão sofre restrições pelo fato de embasar-se, quase em sua totalidade, em experiências de falantes monolíngües frente à aquisição da única língua que lhes é colocada à sua disposição. Por conseqüência, o repertório lingüístico de um falante multilíngüe é então visto como um caso especial ou um desvio frente ao repertório do falante monolíngüe. Aponta-se aqui para a necessidade de que se o multilinguismo seja abordado sob outra perspectiva levando-se em conta o fenômeno do "World English". Acredita-se que este, por sua vez, possa somente ser compreendido a partir de sua concepção como uma língua em constante transformação, que se nutre do contato contínuo e da influência recíproca entre línguas diferentes.

  15. Cross-Cultural Transfer in Gesture Frequency in Chinese-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Wing Chee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine cross-cultural differences in gesture frequency and the extent to which exposure to two cultures would affect the gesture frequency of bilinguals when speaking in both languages. The Chinese-speaking monolinguals from China, English-speaking monolinguals from America, and Chinese-English bilinguals from…

  16. Monolingual Dictionary Use in an EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Holi Ibrahim Holi

    2012-01-01

    Caledonian College of Engineering, Oman, has been encouraging its students to use monolingual dictionaries rather than bilingual or bilingualized ones in classroom and during the exams. This policy with has been received with mixed feelings and attitudes. Therefore, this study strives to explore teachers' and students' attitudes about the use of…

  17. Vowel reduction patterns of early Spanish- English bilinguals receiving continuous L1 and L2 input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byers Emily

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the production of three morphophonetic variations of schwa in American English: the plural allomorph {-s} as in watches, the possessive allomorph {-s} as in Sasha’s, and word-finally as in Russia. The production of these three allomorphs were examined in Miami’s English monolingual and early Spanish-English bilingual populations. Our purpose was to determine how native-like early Spanish-English bilinguals′ spectral qualities and reduced vowel durations were compared to Miami English monolinguals during a reading task. Results indicate that early bilinguals′ reduced vowels followed the same overall pattern as monolinguals, but had different acoustic properties.

  18. Crosslinguistic influence in bilingual acquisition: subject omission in learners of Inuktitut and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwanziger, Elizabeth E; Allen, Shanley E M; Genesee, Fred

    2005-11-01

    This study investigates subject omission in six English-Inuktitut simultaneous bilingual children, aged 1;8-3;9, to examine whether there are cross-language influences in their language development. Previous research with other language pairs has shown that the morphosyntax of one language can influence the development of morphosyntax in the other language. Most of this research has focused on Romance-Germanic language combinations using case studies. In this study, we examined a language pair (English-Inuktitut) with radically different morphosyntactic structures. Analysis of the English-only and Inuktitut-only utterances of the children revealed monolingual-like acquisition patterns and subject omission rates. The data indicate that these bilingual children possessed knowledge of the target languages that was language-specific and that previously identified triggers for crosslinguistic influence do not operate universally.

  19. Effects of bilingualism and biliteracy on children's emerging concepts of print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, E

    1997-05-01

    Three groups of 4- and 5-year-old children were examined for their concepts of how print refers to language. All of the children could identify printed letters and their sounds but not read alone. The groups studied were monolingual speakers of English, bilingual speakers of French and English, and bilingual speakers of Chinese (Mandarin) and English. Bilingual children were equally proficient in both languages and were familiar with print and storybooks in both languages. The tasks assessed children's understanding of the general correspondence between print and language in which the printed form represents a word and the specific correspondence between a constituent of print and one of language that determines representation in a given writing system. The general correspondence relation applies to all writing systems, but the specific correspondence relation changes for different kinds of writing systems. Bilingual children understood better than monolingual children the general symbolic representation of print. The older Chinese-English bilingual children also showed advanced understanding of the specific correspondence relations in English print.

  20. A one-year longitudinal study of English and Japanese vowel production by Japanese adults and children in an English-speaking setting

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The effect of age of acquisition on first- and second-language vowel production was investigated. Eight English vowels were produced by Native Japanese (NJ) adults and children as well as by age-matched Native English (NE) adults and children. Productions were recorded shortly after the NJ participants’ arrival in the USA and then one year later. In agreement with previous investigations [Aoyama, et al., J. Phon. 32, 233–250 (2004)], children were able to learn more, leading to higher accurac...

  1. Development of Early English Language and Literacy Skills among Spanish-Speaking Children: Does Preschool Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Myae; Silva, Luisa; Vukelich, Carol; Buell, Martha; Hou, Likun

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the early English language and literacy skill development of 179 children from 11 Head Start classrooms who participated in an added focus on language and literacy skill-building supported by Early Reading First programme. Of this sample, 118 children were Spanish-speaking English Language Learners (ELL). All children were…

  2. Vowel reduction patterns of early Spanish- English bilinguals receiving continuous L1 and L2 input

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emily Byers

    2017-01-01

    .... Our purpose was to determine how native-like early Spanish-English bilinguals′ spectral qualities and reduced vowel durations were compared to Miami English monolinguals during a reading task...

  3. Using monolingual neuropsychological test norms with bilingual Hispanic americans: application of an individual comparison standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard; Gonzalez, Cassandra Dayanira

    2012-05-01

    Conventional neuropsychological norms developed for monolinguals likely overestimate normal performance in bilinguals on language but not visual-perceptual format tests. This was studied by comparing neuropsychological false-positive rates using the 50th percentile of conventional norms and individual comparison standards (Picture Vocabulary or Matrix Reasoning scores) as estimates of preexisting neuropsychological skill level against the number expected from the normal distribution for a consecutive sample of 56 neurologically intact, bilingual, Hispanic Americans. Participants were tested in separate sessions in Spanish and English in the counterbalanced order on La Bateria Neuropsicologica and the original English language tests on which this battery was based. For language format measures, repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance showed that individual estimates of preexisting skill level in English generated the mean number of false positives most approximate to that expected from the normal distribution, whereas the 50th percentile of conventional English language norms did the same for visual-perceptual format measures. When using conventional Spanish or English monolingual norms for language format neuropsychological measures with bilingual Hispanic Americans, individual estimates of preexisting skill level are recommended over the 50th percentile.

  4. Characteristics of Korean phonology: review, tutorial, and case studies of Korean children speaking English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seunghee; Johnson, Cynthia J; Kuehn, David P

    2009-01-01

    A significant number of bilinguals in English-speaking countries speak Korean as their first language. One such country is the United States (U.S.). As the U.S. becomes increasingly diverse, providing more effective services for culturally and linguistically diverse children is a critical issue and growing challenge for speech-language pathologists. The U.S. Census Bureau reports that the number of Korean immigrants in the U.S. has steadily increased over the past decade. As a result, a greater number of children who speak Korean as a first or second language may need speech, language, and hearing services. This paper provides a review of the literature on (1) phonological characteristics of the Korean language and (2) speech sound acquisition and developmental patterns for phonological processes in Korean children. We illustrate how language knowledge of Korean might impact the learning of English based on case studies of three Korean children speaking English in the U.S. We describe considerations for more appropriate evaluation and treatment of speech sound disorders in Korean-English-speaking children. Readers will be able to: (1) understand phonological characteristics of the Korean language and speech sound acquisition and developmental patterns for phonological process in Korean children, (2) describe characteristics of English speech sound acquisition in successive bilingual English-Korean learners and interference patterns that result from the influence of two independent phonological and phonetic systems, and (3) describe considerations and clinical implications for the more appropriate evaluation and treatment of speech sound disorders in Korean-English speaking children.

  5. Semantic Deficits in Spanish-English Bilingual Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Li; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Fiestas, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the nature and extent of semantic deficits in bilingual children with language impairment (LI). Method: Thirty-seven Spanish-English bilingual children with LI (ranging from age 7;0 [years;months] to 9;10) and 37 typically developing (TD) age-matched peers generated 3 associations to 12 pairs of translation equivalents in…

  6. Pre-Service English Teachers' Perceptions of Newly Arrived Children from Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing Chan, Yu; Gao, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    The research reported here investigated pre-service English language teachers' perceptions of newly arrived immigrant children from Mainland China in Hong Kong. Seventeen participants, who had at least 10 weeks of experience working with these immigrant children during teaching practicum, participated in focus group discussions and shared…

  7. Can Maori Children Really Be Positioned as "Deficient" Learners for Reading English?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Fleur

    2009-01-01

    Maori are the indigenous people of New Zealand. Since British colonial settlement in the early 1800s, Maori children have been predominantly educated in an English-speaking system dominated by colonial governance. In this institution, Maori children have been constructed as deficient learners, primarily in relation to a colonial curriculum taught…

  8. Examining the Text Quality of English/Chinese Bilingual Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiaoya; Chen, Xiaoning

    2016-01-01

    As a branch of multicultural literature, bilingual children's picture books present a special opportunity for readers to expand their horizons and knowledge of other cultures. The researchers took a closer look at the text quality of 31 English/Chinese bilingual children's picture books. These bilingual books were examined on the aspects of the…

  9. Pre-Service English Teachers' Perceptions of Newly Arrived Children from Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing Chan, Yu; Gao, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    The research reported here investigated pre-service English language teachers' perceptions of newly arrived immigrant children from Mainland China in Hong Kong. Seventeen participants, who had at least 10 weeks of experience working with these immigrant children during teaching practicum, participated in focus group discussions and shared their…

  10. Impact of Immersion Teaching on English Sociopragmatic Awareness of Chinese Kindergarten Children: A Polite Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Yan, Rong

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the impacts of an early partial immersion program as compared to a non-immersion program on English sociopragmatic awareness among Chinese kindergarten children six years of age. Of the 128 children who participated in the experiment involving the use of politeness perception tasks, half received three years…

  11. Impact of Immersion Teaching on English Sociopragmatic Awareness of Chinese Kindergarten Children: A Polite Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Yan, Rong

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the impacts of an early partial immersion program as compared to a non-immersion program on English sociopragmatic awareness among Chinese kindergarten children six years of age. Of the 128 children who participated in the experiment involving the use of politeness perception tasks, half received three years…

  12. Pre-Service English Teachers' Perceptions of Newly Arrived Children from Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing Chan, Yu; Gao, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    The research reported here investigated pre-service English language teachers' perceptions of newly arrived immigrant children from Mainland China in Hong Kong. Seventeen participants, who had at least 10 weeks of experience working with these immigrant children during teaching practicum, participated in focus group discussions and shared their…

  13. A Robot-Partner for Preschool Children Learning English Using Socio-Cognitive Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Elvis; Benvenuti, Martina

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study in which a humanoid robot (MecWilly) acted as a partner to preschool children, helping them to learn English words. In order to use the Socio-Cognitive Conflict paradigm to induce the knowledge acquisition process, we designed a playful activity in which children worked in pairs with another child or with…

  14. A Robot-Partner for Preschool Children Learning English Using Socio-Cognitive Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Elvis; Benvenuti, Martina

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study in which a humanoid robot (MecWilly) acted as a partner to preschool children, helping them to learn English words. In order to use the Socio-Cognitive Conflict paradigm to induce the knowledge acquisition process, we designed a playful activity in which children worked in pairs with another child or with…

  15. Index of Productive Syntax for Children Who Speak African American English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetting, Janna B.; Newkirk, Brandi L.; Hartfield, Lekeitha R.; Wynn, Christy G.; Pruitt, Sonja L.; Garrity, April W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The validity of the Index of Productive Syntax (IPSyn; Scarborough, 1990) for children who speak African American English (AAE) was evaluated by conducting an item analysis and a comparison of the children's scores as a function of their maternal education level, nonmainstream dialect density, age, and clinical status. Method: The data…

  16. The Early Identification of Dyslexia: Children with English as an Additional Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Jane M.; Whiteley, Helen E.; Smith, Chris D.; Connors, Liz

    2004-01-01

    It is generally accepted that dyslexia should be identified early for interventions to have maximum effect. However, when children speak English as an additional language (EAL), diagnosis is more complex and there is concern that these children tend to be under-identified. This paper reports a longitudinal study following the development of…

  17. Language Choice & Language Power: Children's Use of Korean & English in a Two-Way Immersion Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soyong

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the phenomenon of children's language choice and language use in a Korean-English two-way immersion (TWI) program. She does so by drawing on situations in which the children spoke of the principles guiding their choice of languages, and instances in which they voluntarily adopted Korean as the means of…

  18. Planning of Hiatus-Breaking Inserted /?/ in the Speech of Australian English-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Ivan; Cox, Felicity; Demuth, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Non-rhotic varieties of English often use /?/ insertion as a connected speech process to separate heterosyllabic V1.V2 hiatus contexts. However, there has been little research on children's development of this strategy. This study investigated whether children use /?/ insertion and, if so, whether hiatus-breaking /?/ can be considered…

  19. Development of phonological awareness in English-Mandarin bilinguals: a comparison of English-L1 and Mandarin-L1 kindergarten children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Stephanie H M; Rickard Liow, Susan J

    2012-06-01

    Phoneme awareness is critical for literacy acquisition in English, but relatively little is known about the early development of phonological awareness in ESL (English as a second language) bilinguals when their two languages have different phonological structures. Using parallel tasks in English and Mandarin, we tracked the development of L1 (first language) and L2 (second language) syllable and phoneme awareness longitudinally in English-L1 and Mandarin-L1 prereaders (n=70, 4- and 5-year-olds) across three 6-month intervals. In English, the English-L1 children's performance was better in phoneme awareness at all three time points, but the Mandarin-L1 children's syllable awareness was equivalent to the English-L1 children's syllable awareness by Time 3. In Mandarin, the English-L1 children's phoneme awareness, but not their syllable awareness, was also significantly better than that of the Mandarin-L1 children at all three time points. Cross-lagged correlations revealed that only the English-L1 children applied their L1 syllable and phoneme awareness to their L2 (Mandarin) processing by Time 2 and that the Mandarin-L1 children seemed to require exposure to English (L2) before they developed phoneme awareness in either language. The data provide further evidence that phonological awareness is a language-general ability but that cross-language application depends on the similarity between the phonological structures of a child's L1 and L2. Implications for classroom teaching are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Parental Strategies in Supporting Chinese Children's Learning of English Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuesong

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on parental involvement as experienced by a group of elite secondary school pupils in learning English vocabulary on the Chinese mainland. It highlights the variety of strategies that Chinese parents adopted to support, sustain and enhance these pupils' efforts to learn English vocabulary. They functioned as critical agents…

  1. Effects of Language Context on Ratings of Shy and Unsociable Behaviors in English Language Learning Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Andrea C.; Rice, Mabel L.; Redmond, Sean M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The primary goal of this study was to explore the effect of the language context on the socially withdrawn behaviors of school aged-children who are English Language Learners (ELLs) from middle to high SES backgrounds. This is one of the first studies to address the frequently confused concepts of shyness and unsociability as independent constructs within the ELL population. This study also investigated the feasibility of an experimental parent and child questionnaire that examines shyness and unsociability across native and English speaking contexts. Method Children and parents (34 ELL and 37 native English speaking) were administered an experimental questionnaire examining shy and unsociable behavior in native language and English-speaking contexts. Results Parents and children from the ELL group reported significantly higher ratings of shy behavior in English versus native language contexts, whereas unsociable ratings did not differ across language contexts. Conclusions Shyness and unsociability are distinguishable behaviors in ELL children and these constructs should be considered when examining withdrawal. Additionally, examining ELL children’s behavior across language contexts provides a valuable method for investigating language influenced behavioral problems. This study demonstrates the need for service providers to evaluate behavior across subtype and language context before pathologizing withdrawal in ELL children. PMID:24687767

  2. The Importance of SES, Home and School Language and Literacy Practices, and Oral Vocabulary in Bilingual Children's English Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Elizabeth R.; Páez, Mariela M.; August, Diane L.; Barr, Christopher D.; Kenyon, Dorry; Malabonga, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the role that socioeconomic status (SES), home and school language and literacy practices, and oral vocabulary play in the development of English reading skills in Latino English language learners (ELLs) and how these factors contribute differentially to English reading outcomes for children of different ages and in different…

  3. The Importance of SES, Home and School Language and Literacy Practices, and Oral Vocabulary in Bilingual Children's English Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Elizabeth R.; Páez, Mariela M.; August, Diane L.; Barr, Christopher D.; Kenyon, Dorry; Malabonga, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the role that socioeconomic status (SES), home and school language and literacy practices, and oral vocabulary play in the development of English reading skills in Latino English language learners (ELLs) and how these factors contribute differentially to English reading outcomes for children of different ages and in different…

  4. The Benefits of the Use of Children's Literature in English Language and Global Citizenship Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaga, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    This study discusses how children's literature can play an important role in achieving two goals: developing Japanese students' English proficiency levels and cultivating them to be global citizens. English as a foreign language (EFL) learners in Japan should be provided with more opportunities to engage with the English language outside the…

  5. Using Spanish-English Cognates in Children's Choices Picture Books to Develop Latino English Learners' Linguistic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Anita C.; Montelongo, José A.; Herter, Roberta J.

    2016-01-01

    Educators can take advantage of Latino English learners' linguistic backgrounds by teaching Spanish-English cognate vocabulary using the Children's Choices picture books. Cognates are words that have identical or nearly identical spellings and meanings in two languages because of their Latin and Greek origins. Students can learn to recognize…

  6. Using Spanish-English Cognates in Children's Choices Picture Books to Develop Latino English Learners' Linguistic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Anita C.; Montelongo, José A.; Herter, Roberta J.

    2016-01-01

    Educators can take advantage of Latino English learners' linguistic backgrounds by teaching Spanish-English cognate vocabulary using the Children's Choices picture books. Cognates are words that have identical or nearly identical spellings and meanings in two languages because of their Latin and Greek origins. Students can learn to recognize…

  7. The iPad as a Research Tool for the Understanding of English Plurals by English, Chinese and Other L1 Speaking 3- and 4-year-olds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Xu Rattanasone

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Learning about what young children with limited spoken language know about the grammar of their language is extremely challenging. Researchers have traditionally used looking behavior as a measure of language processing and to infer what overt choices children might make. However, these methods are expensive to setup, require specialized training, are time intensive for data analysis and can have considerable dropout rates. For these reasons, we have developed a forced choice task delivered on an iPad based on our eye-tracking studies with English monolinguals (Davies et al., accepted; Davies et al., under review. Using the iPad we investigated 3- and 4-year-olds’ understanding of the English plural in preschool centers. The primary aim of the study was to provide evidence for the usefulness of the iPad as a language research tool. We evaluated the usefulness of the iPad with second language (L2 learning children who have limited L2 language skills. Studies with school aged Chinese-speaking children show below native performance on English inflectional morphology despite 5-6 years of immersion (Jia, 2003; Jia & Fuse, 2007; Paradis et al., 2016. However, it is unclear whether this is specific only to children who speak Chinese as their first language (L1 or if younger preschoolers will also show similar challenges. We tested three groups of preschoolers with different L1s (English, Chinese, and Other languages. L1 Chinese children’s performance was below both English monolinguals and children speaking Other L1 languages, providing evidence that English inflections are specifically challenging for Chinese-speaking children. The results provide further evidence to support previous eye-tracking findings with monolinguals and studies with older bilinguals. The study provides evidence for the usefulness of iPads as research tool for studying language acquisition. Implications for future application of the iPad as a teaching and intervention tool

  8. Chinese L1 children's English L2 verb morphology over time: individual variation in long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Tulpar, Yasemin; Arppe, Antti

    2016-05-01

    This study examined accuracy in production and grammaticality judgements of verb morphology by eighteen Chinese-speaking children learning English as a second language (L2) followed longitudinally from four to six years of exposure to English, and who began to learn English at age 4;2. Children's growth in accuracy with verb morphology reached a plateau by six years, where 11/18 children did not display native-speaker levels of accuracy for one or more morphemes. Variation in children's accuracy with verb morphology was predicted by their English vocabulary size and verbal short-term memories primarily, and quality and quantity of English input at home secondarily. This study shows that even very young L2 learners might not all catch up to native speakers in this time frame and that non-age factors play a role in determining individual variation in child L2 learners' long-term outcomes with English morphology.

  9. The development of reading in children who speak English as a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaux, Nonie K; Siegel, Linda S

    2003-11-01

    Patterns of reading development were examined in native English-speaking (L1) children and children who spoke English as a second language (ESL). Participants were 978 (790 L1 speakers and 188 ESL speakers) Grade 2 children involved in a longitudinal study that began in kindergarten. In kindergarten and Grade 2, participants completed standardized and experimental measures including reading, spelling, phonological processing, and memory. All children received phonological awareness instruction in kindergarten and phonics instruction in Grade 1. By the end of Grade 2, the ESL speakers' reading skills were comparable to those of L1 speakers, and ESL speakers even outperformed L1 speakers on several measures. The findings demonstrate that a model of early identification and intervention for children at risk is beneficial for ESL speakers and also suggest that the effects of bilingualism on the acquisition of early reading skills are not negative and may be positive.

  10. Asymmetries in Phonological Development: The Case of Word-Final Cluster Acquisition in Welsh-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Robert; Howells, Gwennan; Lewis, Rhonwen

    2015-01-01

    This study provides the first systematic account of word-final cluster acquisition in bilingual children. To this end, forty Welsh-English bilingual children differing in language dominance and age (2;6 to 5;0) participated in a picture-naming task in English and Welsh. The results revealed significant age and dominance effects on cluster…

  11. The Effectiveness of Using Vocal Music as the Content Area of English Immersion Classes for Japanese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Steven Gene

    2012-01-01

    This study set out to determine if English can be taught effectively to Japanese children through a content-based instruction program that uses vocal music as the content area. A total of 240 children participated in the study. The treatment group at a private elementary school in Tokyo received weekly vocal music lessons taught in English for one…

  12. Changing Standards Revisited: Children's Awareness and Knowledge of Features of Written Standard English at Ages 10-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a small-scale research project which investigated the levels of awareness and knowledge of written standard English of 10 and 11-year-old children in two English primary schools. The project involved repeating in 2010 a written questionnaire previously used with children in the same schools in three separate…

  13. English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2011-01-01

    have been maintained and intensified since then, as African and Indian scholarship demonstrates. Language plays a key role in education, the World Bank taking over where colonial regimes left off. Anglo-American efforts to maintain global English dominance have intensified since 1945 and are central...... concludes by setting out how the deceptive term ‘lingua franca’ needs to be challenged, and lists ways of exploring English as project, process, and product, setting out key research questions. The constraints of a short article only permit glimpses of a rapidly evolving scene, the visible tip...

  14. Korean- and English-speaking children use cross-situational information to learn novel predicate terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Jane B; Paik, Jae H

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines children's attention to cross-situational information during word learning. Korean-speaking children in Korea and English-speaking children in the US were taught four nonce words that referred to novel actions. For each word, children saw four related events: half were shown events that were very similar (Close comparisons), half were shown events that were not as similar (Far comparisons). The prediction was that children would compare events to each other and thus be influenced by the events shown. In addition, children in these language groups could be influenced differently as their verb systems differ. Although some differences were found across language, children in both languages were influenced by the type of events shown, suggesting that they are using a comparison process. Thus, this study provides evidence for comparison, a new mechanism to describe how children learn new action words, and demonstrates that this process could apply across languages.

  15. Spanish and English Early Literacy Profiles of Preschool Latino English Language Learner Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jorge; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn; Saenz, Laura; Soares, Denise; Davis, Heather; Resendez, Nora; Zhu, Leina

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine within-group individual differences in the code-related and oral language abilities of an economically stressed Spanish-speaking English language learner (ELL) preschool sample and to evaluate the predictive relationship of these differences to later listening comprehension. Latent class…

  16. Spanish and English Early Literacy Profiles of Preschool Latino English Language Learner Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jorge; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn; Saenz, Laura; Soares, Denise; Davis, Heather; Resendez, Nora; Zhu, Leina

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine within-group individual differences in the code-related and oral language abilities of an economically stressed Spanish-speaking English language learner (ELL) preschool sample and to evaluate the predictive relationship of these differences to later listening comprehension. Latent class…

  17. Production of Mandarin tones by 3-year-old children acquiring L1 (Mandarin) in an L2 (English) environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Puisan; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2004-05-01

    Thirteen monolingual Mandarin-speaking children residing in the U.S. were recruited to examine their production of the four Mandarin lexical tones in monosyllabic words. A picture-naming task was used to elicit the children's productions of lexical tones in isolated words and in sentence final position. Four mothers were asked to say the same set of words to their children in a picture reading activity. The children's and the mothers' productions were recorded and low-pass filtered at 500 and 400 Hz, respectively, to eliminate phonemic and semantic information. Ten Mandarin-speaking judges were recruited to identify the children's and adults' tone productions from the filtered stimuli. Contrary to the findings of L1 research conducted in countries where Mandarin is the language of the environment, the present results revealed that the lexical tones produced by 3-year-old children acquiring Mandarin as their first language in the U.S. were not yet adultlike. Children's tone productions were more difficult to categorize than the mothers' productions. The judges had significantly more difficulty identifying children's dipping tones than the children's level tones, rising tones, or falling tones, suggesting that the dipping tone posed the most difficulties for the children.

  18. Production of Mandarin tones by 3-year-old children acquiring L1 (Mandarin) in an L2 (English) environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Puisan; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2001-05-01

    Thirteen monolingual Mandarin-speaking children residing in the U.S. were recruited to examine their production of the four Mandarin lexical tones in monosyllabic words. A picture-naming task was used to elicit the children's productions of lexical tones in isolated words and in sentence final position. Four mothers were asked to say the same set of words to their children in a picture reading activity. The children's and the mothers' productions were recorded and low-pass filtered at 500 and 400 Hz, respectively, to eliminate phonemic and semantic information. Ten Mandarin-speaking judges were recruited to identify the children's and adults' tone productions from the filtered stimuli. Contrary to the findings of L1 research conducted in countries where Mandarin is the language of the environment, the present results revealed that the lexical tones produced by 3-year-old children acquiring Mandarin as their first language in the U.S. were not yet adultlike. Children's tone productions were more difficult to categorize than the mothers' productions. The judges had significantly more difficulty identifying children's dipping tones than the children's level tones, rising tones, or falling tones, suggesting that the dipping tone posed the most difficulties for the children.

  19. Breaking the Icon: The First Real Children in English Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, C. John

    1981-01-01

    Discusses literary developments in seventeenth century England which caused certain authors, for ideological reasons, to focus a new attention on children. During this period, the emphasis was on presenting children in a more realistic fashion. Literary selections are included. (DB)

  20. Reading books with young deaf children: strategies for mediating between American Sign Language and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Research on shared reading has shown positive results on children's literacy development in general and for deaf children specifically; however, reading techniques might differ between these two populations. Families with deaf children, especially those with deaf parents, often capitalize on their children's visual attributes rather than primarily auditory cues. These techniques are believed to provide a foundation for their deaf children's literacy skills. This study examined 10 deaf mother/deaf child dyads with children between 3 and 5 years of age. Dyads were videotaped in their homes on at least two occasions reading books that were provided by the researcher. Descriptive analysis showed specifically how deaf mothers mediate between the two languages, American Sign Language (ASL) and English, while reading. These techniques can be replicated and taught to all parents of deaf children so that they can engage in more effective shared reading activities. Research has shown that shared reading, or the interaction of a parent and child with a book, is an effective way to promote language and literacy, vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, and metalinguistic awareness (Snow, 1983), making it critical for educators to promote shared reading activities at home between parent and child. Not all parents read to their children in the same way. For example, parents of deaf children may present the information in the book differently due to the fact that signed languages are visual rather than spoken. In this vein, we can learn more about what specific connections deaf parents make to the English print. Exploring strategies deaf mothers may use to link the English print through the use of ASL will provide educators with additional tools when working with all parents of deaf children. This article will include a review of the literature on the benefits of shared reading activities for all children, the relationship between ASL and English skill development, and the techniques

  1. Is Storytelling Effective in Improving the English Vocabulary Learning among Iranian Children in Kindergartens?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasumeh Abasi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of storytelling in improving English vocabulary learning among children in kindergarten. Twenty Iranian children (9 boys and 11 girls in a private kindergarten in Kerman, Iran, were the participants of the study. All of the children were five years old and were taught English with the same teacher in a class in a kindergarten. The design of the study was one group pre-test post-test quasi experimental design. Both pre and post-tests included 20 vocabulary picture items taken from a story book teaching in the kindergarten. The statistical analysis revealed that storytelling was effective in increasing vocabulary learning among kindergarten children.

  2. When cues collide: children's sensitivity to letter- and meaning-patterns in spelling words in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, S H; Leblanc, D; Sabourin, C

    2011-09-01

    In many learning situations, we need to determine to which cues to attend, particularly in cases when these cues conflict. These conflicts appear often in English orthography. In two experiments, we asked children to spell two-syllable words that varied on two dimensions: morphological and orthographic structure. In one set of these words, the two sources of information conflicted. Results of Experiment 1 suggest that seven- to nine-year-old children are sensitive to both orthographic and morphological dimensions of words, and that this dual sensitivity sometimes leads to correct spelling and sometimes to incorrect spelling. Results of Experiment 2 suggest that orthographic information dominates young (six-year-old) children's spelling, at least in a case when there is a strong orthographic regularity. Taken together, these experiments suggest that children are sensitive to the multiple dimensions of regularity in English orthography and that this sensitivity can lead to mistakes.

  3. Novel noun and verb learning in Chinese-, English-, and Japanese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Mutsumi; Li, Lianjing; Haryu, Etsuko; Okada, Hiroyuki; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Shigematsu, Jun

    2008-01-01

    When can children speaking Japanese, English, or Chinese map and extend novel nouns and verbs? Across 6 studies, 3- and 5-year-old children in all 3 languages map and extend novel nouns more readily than novel verbs. This finding prevails even in languages like Chinese and Japanese that are assumed to be verb-friendly languages (e.g., T. Tardif, 1996). The results also suggest that the input language uniquely shapes verb learning such that English-speaking children require grammatical support to learn verbs, whereas Chinese children require pragmatic as well as grammatical support. This research bears on how universally shared cognitive factors and language-specific linguistic factors interact in lexical development.

  4. Beginning English Literacy Development and Achievement among Spanish-Speaking Children in Arizona's English-Only Classrooms: A Four-Year Two-Cohort Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Castellanos, Oscar; Blanchard, Jay; Atwill, Kim; Jiménez-Silva, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    This study examined beginning English literacy-skill development and achievement among Spanish-speaking children enrolled in state-mandated English-only classrooms. The children possessed Spanish skill at or above age-appropriate level, yet minimal English skill, and came from a Spanish-speaking community adjacent to the U.S.-Mexico border. Under…

  5. Acquisition of English by Korean Children: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Joo

    1998-01-01

    Longitudinally investigated the development of interlanguage by two Korean speakers of English to better understand the second-language acquisition process. In particular it tested the aspect hypothesis that asserts that verb inflections in early interlanguage systems function primarily as markers of lexical aspect. (Author/VWL)

  6. Language Development in Children With Cleft Palate With or Without Cleft Lip Adopted From Non-English-Speaking Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Amy R; Bellucci, Claudia Crilly; Coppersmith, Jody; Linde, Sebastian B; Curtis, Arthur; Albert, Meredith; O'Gara, Mary M; Kapp-Simon, Kathleen

    2017-05-17

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether language skills differed between children with cleft palate or cleft lip and palate (CP±CL) who were adopted into an English-speaking home from a non-English-speaking country (late English exposure [LE]) and children with CP±CL raised from birth in an English-speaking home (early English exposure [EE]). Children (51 LE, 67 EE), ages 3;0 (years;months) to 9;0, completed the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF), Preschool Second Edition or Fourth Edition. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the impact of age of adoption and time in an English-speaking home on language skills, as measured by the CELF-P2 and CELF-4. Children with CP±CL who were adopted scored less well on all language indices, with mean adjusted differences between LE and EE children ranging from 0.4 to 0.7 SD on the CELF index scales. Only 53% of the EE children and 57% of the LE children obtained scores above 90 on all indices. For LE children, younger age at adoption was associated with better language skills. CP±CL increases risk for language delay, with the highest risk for LE children. LE children with CP±CL should receive language services soon after adoption.

  7. What Is a TOT? Cognate and Translation Effects on Tip-of-the-Tongue States in Spanish-English and Tagalog-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Acenas, Lori-Ann R.

    2004-01-01

    The authors induced tip-of-the-tongue states (TOTs) for English words in monolinguals and bilinguals using picture stimuli with cognate (e.g., vampire, which is vampiro in Spanish) and noncognate (e.g., funnel, which is embudo in Spanish) names. Bilinguals had more TOTs than did monolinguals unless the target pictures had translatable cognate…

  8. Language Learning from Inconsistent Input: Bilingual and Monolingual Toddlers Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bree, Elise; Verhagen, Josje; Kerkhoff, Annemarie; Doedens, Willemijn; Unsworth, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    This study examines novel language learning from inconsistent input in monolingual and bilingual toddlers. We predicted an advantage for the bilingual toddlers on the basis of the structural sensitivity hypothesis. Monolingual and bilingual 24-month-olds performed two novel language learning experiments. The first contained consistent input, and…

  9. The Relationship of Phonological Skills to Language Skills in Spanish-English-Speaking Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperson, Solaman J.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.

    2013-01-01

    These two studies investigate the relationship between phonological production skills and performance in other domains of language in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children. We examine the relationship between scores on a single-word phonology test and language measures selected from formal testing and narrative samples in Spanish and…

  10. Acquisition of compound words in Chinese-English bilingual children: Decomposition and cross-language activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, C.; Wang, M.; Perfetti, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated compound processing and cross-language activation in a group of Chinese–English bilingual children, and they were divided into four groups based on the language proficiency levels in their two languages. A lexical decision task was designed using compound words in both langua

  11. Acquisition of Compound Words in Chinese-English Bilingual Children: Decomposition and Cross-Language Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chenxi; Wang, Min; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated compound processing and cross-language activation in a group of Chinese-English bilingual children, and they were divided into four groups based on the language proficiency levels in their two languages. A lexical decision task was designed using compound words in both languages. The compound words in one language contained…

  12. Genetic and Environmental Overlap between Chinese and English Reading-Related Skills in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Simpson W. L.; Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Waye, Mary M. Y.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2014-01-01

    This twin study examined the relative contributions of genes and environment on 2nd language reading acquisition of Chinese-speaking children learning English. We examined whether specific skills-visual word recognition, receptive vocabulary, phonological awareness, phonological memory, and speech discrimination-in the 1st and 2nd languages have…

  13. Learning English Incidentally: A Study of Bilingual Children. Bulletin 1937, No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriam, J. L.

    This classic study is one of a series of reports of investigations carried out during 1936 and 1937 under the "Project in Research in Universities" of the Office of Education. The report describes work done during a 6-year period (1930-36) in a school for Spanish-speaking children where English (language, spelling, writing, reading) was…

  14. Genetic and Environmental Overlap between Chinese and English Reading-Related Skills in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Simpson W. L.; Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Waye, Mary M. Y.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2014-01-01

    This twin study examined the relative contributions of genes and environment on 2nd language reading acquisition of Chinese-speaking children learning English. We examined whether specific skills-visual word recognition, receptive vocabulary, phonological awareness, phonological memory, and speech discrimination-in the 1st and 2nd languages have…

  15. Linguistic, reading, and transcription influences on kindergarten writing in children with English as a second language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina L. Harrison, Keira C. Ogle & Megan Keilty

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of linguistic, reading, and transcription processes to writing in kindergarten English as a second language (ESL children and their native-English speaking peers (EL1 were examined. ESL and EL1 performed similarly on one of the two measures of phonological awareness (PA and on measures of early reading, spelling, and writing. EL1 outperformed ESL on a pseudoword repetition task and on the English vocabulary and syntactic knowledge tasks. ESL outperformed EL1 on a writing fluency measure. Correlation and hierarchical regression results varied as a function of the writing tasks (procedural or generative and language status. Across language groups, writing tasks that captured children's developing graphophonemic knowledge were associated with a breadth of cognitive, linguistic, and early literacy skills. PA, reading, and transcription skills, but not oral vocabulary and syntactic knowledge contributed the most variance to writing irrespective of language status. The results suggest that parallel component skills and processes underlie ESL and EL1 children's early writing when formal literacy instruction begins in kindergarten even though ESL children are developing English oral and literacy proficiency simultaneously.

  16. Infinitives or Bare Stems? Are English-Speaking Children Defaulting to the Highest-Frequency Form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Sanna H. M.; Ambridge, Ben; Pine, Julian M.

    2014-01-01

    Young English-speaking children often produce utterances with missing 3sg -s (e.g., *He play). Since the mid 1990s, such errors have tended to be treated as Optional Infinitive (OI) errors, in which the verb is a non-finite form (e.g., Wexler, 1998; Legate & Yang, 2007). The present article reports the results of a cross-sectional…

  17. Conceptual Distance and Word Learning: Patterns of Acquisition in Samoan-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsley, Gayle; Holm, Alison; Dodd, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated cross-linguistic influence in acquisition of a second lexicon, evaluating Samoan-English sequentially bilingual children (initial mean age 4 ; 9) during their first 18 months of school. Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary tasks evaluated acquisition of four word types: cognates, matched nouns, phrasal nouns and holonyms.…

  18. Teaching Spelling to Singaporean Chinese Children with Dysorthographia in English Language: Lexical versus Lexical Phonological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Noel Kok Hwee

    2009-01-01

    Singaporean Chinese children diagnosed with dysorthographia in English language undergo an intensive spelling intervention program that teaches them to use either of the two spelling methods: lexical and/or phonological spelling strategies. Nevertheless, many of them continue to perform poorly in their spelling. A pretest-posttest experimental…

  19. The Disfluent Speech of Bilingual Spanish-English Children: Considerations for Differential Diagnosis of Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Courtney T.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Ramos, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to describe the frequency and types of speech disfluencies that are produced by bilingual Spanish-English (SE) speaking children who do not stutter. The secondary purpose was to determine whether their disfluent speech is mediated by language dominance and/or language produced. Method: Spanish and…

  20. Integrating Corpus-Based CALL Programs in Teaching English through Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Tim F.; Hsingchin, Lee; Lixun, Wang

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents particular pedagogical applications of a number of corpus-based CALL (computer assisted language learning) programs such as "CONTEXTS" and "CLOZE," "MATCHUP" and "BILINGUAL SENTENCE SHUFFLER," in the teaching of English through children's literature. An elective course in Taiwan for…

  1. Predictors of Reading among Herero-English Bilingual Namibian School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veii, Kazuvire; Everatt, John

    2005-01-01

    Predictions derived from the central processing and script dependent hypotheses were assessed by measuring the reading ability of 116 Grade 2-5 Herero-English bilingual children in Namibia ranging in age from 7 to 12 and investigating possible predictors of word reading among measures of cognitive/linguistic processes. Tasks included measures of…

  2. The Relationship of Phonological Skills to Language Skills in Spanish-English-Speaking Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperson, Solaman J.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.

    2013-01-01

    These two studies investigate the relationship between phonological production skills and performance in other domains of language in Spanish-English-speaking bilingual children. We examine the relationship between scores on a single-word phonology test and language measures selected from formal testing and narrative samples in Spanish and…

  3. The Disfluent Speech of Bilingual Spanish-English Children: Considerations for Differential Diagnosis of Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Courtney T.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Ramos, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to describe the frequency and types of speech disfluencies that are produced by bilingual Spanish-English (SE) speaking children who do not stutter. The secondary purpose was to determine whether their disfluent speech is mediated by language dominance and/or language produced. Method: Spanish and…

  4. Integrating Corpus-Based CALL Programs in Teaching English through Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Tim F.; Hsingchin, Lee; Lixun, Wang

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents particular pedagogical applications of a number of corpus-based CALL (computer assisted language learning) programs such as "CONTEXTS" and "CLOZE," "MATCHUP" and "BILINGUAL SENTENCE SHUFFLER," in the teaching of English through children's literature. An elective course in Taiwan for…

  5. Characteristics of Korean Phonology: Review, Tutorial, and Case Studies of Korean Children Speaking English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seunghee; Johnson, Cynthia J.; Kuehn, David P.

    2009-01-01

    A significant number of bilinguals in English-speaking countries speak Korean as their first language. One such country is the United States (U.S.). As the U.S. becomes increasingly diverse, providing more effective services for culturally and linguistically diverse children is a critical issue and growing challenge for speech-language…

  6. Children's Recency Tendency: A Cross-Linguistic Study of Persian, Kurdish and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrani, Mehdi B.; Peterson, Carole

    2017-01-01

    In the present cross-linguistic study two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of age and linguistic background on response tendencies of preschoolers toward forced-choice questions. A total of 163 2- to 5-year-old children, including 63 Persian speakers, 57 Kurdish speakers and 43 English speakers, were asked a set of…

  7. Estimation of the Number of Children with Limited English Proficiency: A Review of Analytic Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Samuel S.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Two major analytic procedures for estimating the number of children with limited English proficiency (discriminant analysis and probabilistic procedures) are described and strengths and weaknesses discussed. Synthetic cohort analysis (an expanded version of the probabilistic approach) is described and recommended as an alternate procedure for…

  8. Children's Interpretation of Disjunction in the Scope of "before": A Comparison of English and Mandarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notley, Anna; Zhou, Peng; Jensen, Britta; Crain, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates three- to five-year-old children's interpretation of disjunction in sentences like "The dog reached the finish line before the turtle or the bunny". English disjunction has a conjunctive interpretation in such sentences ("The dog reached the finish line before the turtle and before the bunny"). This interpretation conforms…

  9. You Can Help Your Country: English Children's Work during the Second World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayall, Berry; Morrow, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    Using a rich collection of archives, school histories, photographs and memoirs, this book charts and discusses the contributions English children made to the war effort during World War II. As men and women were increasingly called up for war work, as the country needed to grow as much food as possible, and as the war effort required ever…

  10. Characteristics of Korean Phonology: Review, Tutorial, and Case Studies of Korean Children Speaking English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seunghee; Johnson, Cynthia J.; Kuehn, David P.

    2009-01-01

    A significant number of bilinguals in English-speaking countries speak Korean as their first language. One such country is the United States (U.S.). As the U.S. becomes increasingly diverse, providing more effective services for culturally and linguistically diverse children is a critical issue and growing challenge for speech-language…

  11. Parent Reports of Young Spanish-English Bilingual Children's Productive Vocabulary: A Development and Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Gámez, Perla B.; Vagh, Shaher Banu; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This 2-phase study aims to extend research on parent report measures of children's productive vocabulary by investigating the development (n = 38) of the Spanish Vocabulary Extension and validity (n = 194) of the 100-item Spanish and English MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Toddler Short Forms and Upward Extension…

  12. Conceptual Distance and Word Learning: Patterns of Acquisition in Samoan-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsley, Gayle; Holm, Alison; Dodd, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated cross-linguistic influence in acquisition of a second lexicon, evaluating Samoan-English sequentially bilingual children (initial mean age 4 ; 9) during their first 18 months of school. Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary tasks evaluated acquisition of four word types: cognates, matched nouns, phrasal nouns and holonyms.…

  13. Relating Input Factors and Dual Language Proficiency in French-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    The input factors that may cause variation in bilingual proficiency were investigated in 38 French-English bilinguals aged six to eight, of middle-to-high socio-economic status, attending an international state school in France. Data on children's current and cumulative language exposure and family background were collected through questionnaires…

  14. Beyond Phonics: The Case for Teaching Children the Logic of the English Spelling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Bowers, Peter N.

    2017-01-01

    A large body of research supports the conclusion that early reading instruction in English should emphasize phonics, that is, the teaching of grapheme-phoneme correspondences. By contrast, we argue that instruction should be designed to make sense of spellings by teaching children that spellings are organized around the interrelation of…

  15. Motivational styles in English and mathematics among children identified as having special educational needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, D; Leo, E L; Rogers, C; Armstrong, D

    1995-12-01

    This study is concerned with the identification, development and prevalence of three different motivational styles: learned helplessness, self-worth motivation and mastery orientation in two National Curriculum core subjects: English and mathematics. These three motivational styles are concerned with the ways in which children respond in the face of difficult and challenging educational tasks. Using Craske's (1988) procedures, a total of 437 children in their first year of secondary school (aged 11-12) were categorised into one of the three motivational styles. Children with special educational needs were identified using a battery of cognitive ability tests (Thorndike, Hagen & France, 1986). This study compares the prevalence of each motivational style in English and mathematics in children of different abilities and presents empirical support for the view that learned helplessness and self-worth motivation are more prevalent among children identified as having special educational needs. Further analyses indicate that: overall, learned helplessness and self-worth motivation are more prevalent in English than mathematics; learned helplessness is more prevalent among girls and self-worth motivation among boys in mathematics. Implications for teachers in developing teaching strategies which foster mastery orientation in their children are discussed.

  16. Visual perceptual abilities of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports an investigation of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children's general visual perceptual abilities. The Developmental Test of Visual Perception was administered to 41 native Chinese-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 4 mo. in Hong Kong and 35 English-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 2 mo. in Melbourne. Of interest were the two interrelated components of visual perceptual abilities, namely, motor-reduced visual perceptual and visual-motor integration perceptual abilities, which require either verbal or motoric responses in completing visual tasks. Chinese-speaking children significantly outperformed the English-speaking children on general visual perceptual abilities. When comparing the results of each of the two different components, the Chinese-speaking students' performance on visual-motor integration was far better than that of their counterparts (ES = 2.70), while the two groups of students performed similarly on motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities. Cultural factors such as written language format may be contributing to the enhanced performance of Chinese-speaking children's visual-motor integration abilities, but there may be validity questions in the Chinese version.

  17. Planning of Hiatus-Breaking Inserted /ɹ/ in the Speech of Australian English-Speaking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Ivan; Cox, Felicity; Demuth, Katherine

    2017-04-14

    Non-rhotic varieties of English often use /ɹ/ insertion as a connected speech process to separate heterosyllabic V1.V2 hiatus contexts. However, there has been little research on children's development of this strategy. This study investigated whether children use /ɹ/ insertion and, if so, whether hiatus-breaking /ɹ/ can be considered planned, as evidenced by F3 lowering on V1. Thirteen Australian English-speaking children (7 girls, 6 boys; mean age 6;1 [years;months]) participated in an elicited production task. The stimuli included carrier sentences containing 4 test words (linking /ɹ/ context: door, floor; intrusive /ɹ/ context: paw, claw) followed by of (e.g., "This is the paw of the cat"). After familiarization containing auditory and picture prompts, children produced test sentences upon presentation of picture prompts alone. Eight children produced /ɹ/ insertion; the others used (some) glottalization. The incidence of /ɹ/ did not vary across linking or intrusive contexts, and inserted /ɹ/ was associated with F3 lowering at V1 onset relative to control items without /ɹ/. Six-year-old Australian English-speaking children who use /ɹ/ insertion show evidence of planning ahead and inserting /ɹ/ as a segment. The implications for the development of speech-planning processes and phonological and lexical representations are discussed.

  18. Variables associated with Grade R English Additional Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reviewer 1

    learning English as an additional language may start school with smaller vocabularies than their monolingual ... English listening and speaking skills in Grade R learners, than a play-based approach. Apart from the ...... of educational linguistics in pre-serving training at ... Learning difficulties or learning English difficulties?

  19. Speaking Japanese in Japan: Issues for English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    Due to the global momentum of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF), Anglophones may perceive that there is less urgency for them to learn other languages than for speakers of other languages to learn English. The monolingual expectations of English speakers are evidenced not only in Anglophone countries but also abroad. This study reports on the…

  20. Phonological Patterns in Mandarin-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lu-Chun; Johnson, Cynthia J.

    2010-01-01

    Adele Miccio recognized the paucity of information on the phonological development of children from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds, and emphasized the need to apply advances in bilingual phonological research toward an appropriate phonological measure for bilingual children. In the spirit of her pioneering work, the present study…

  1. “Listen, do, repeat, understand and remember”: Teaching English to very young children in Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qismullah Yusuf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study investigated the methods used in teaching English vocabulary to very young children (i.e. toddlers at a bilingual school in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. Not much research has been published on teaching English to toddlers in the EFL context; therefore, this research is important as the results can become additional input to L2 teachers who teach very young children because by understanding their conditions of learners, teachers can help them reach their full potential as language learners. An observation sheet and a set of interview questions were used to collect data from an English teacher. There was only one teacher who became the participant because the school under study is thus far the only school that provides an English learning environment for children as young as toddlers in the city of Banda Aceh. The class was observed for three class meetings. The results showed that of the four teaching methods observed, the most commonly employed method was Total Physical Response (TPR, followed by Natural Approach (NA, Communicative Language Teaching (CLT and Suggestopedia (SG as the least. Furthermore, based on the interview with the teacher, it was indicated that TPR and NA were more appropriate for teaching the toddlers English vocabulary. Through TPR, the very young children demonstrated their understanding of commands by responding with simple answers or gestures. In NA, they were situated in a natural environment and not prompted to speak until they felt ready to do so. Additionally, the teacher used no specific textbooks because music, pictures, and authentic materials procured an immense role in supporting the activities in the classroom.

  2. The Moderating Role of English Proficiency in the Association Between Immigrant Chinese Mothers' Authoritative Parenting and Children's Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Cheah, Charissa S L; Sun, Shuyan

    2015-01-01

    The authors' objective was to investigate the association between Chinese immigrant mothers' authoritative parenting and their children's socioemotional and behavioral difficulties. Participants were 136 first-generation Chinese immigrant mothers with 3-5-year-old children residing in the United States. Authoritative parenting was associated with lower socioemotional and behavioral difficulties in children as reported by preschool teachers. Further moderation analyses revealed that immigrant mothers' English proficiency moderated the association between authoritative parenting and children's difficulties. Specifically, authoritative parenting was significantly associated with fewer total difficulties only for children with mothers who reported higher English proficiency.

  3. Designing Classroom Activities for Teaching English to Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Malia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses some ideas on activities teachers of young learners make young learners do by way of materials. The paper also gives a number of suggested analyses of selecting or designing an activity to use with young learners. The suggested analyses of the activity deal with goals, input, procedures, outcome, teacher role, learner role and organization. The idea is not only to help young learners understand the language they hear but also to encourage young learners, who developmentally have shorter attention span composed to adults, to learn English naturally.

  4. Motivation of pre-school children for learning English

    OpenAIRE

    Bregar, Dunja

    2011-01-01

    Interests in early learning of foreign languages have been increasing in our country recently. Some kindergartens have already included it in the programme. The methods and forms of teaching vary as well as the interest of children to learn. In my diploma work I have addressed the children's motivation. Motivation is a complex concept, which is also recognized by various experts in the fields of psychology, pedagogy and andragogy, which I present in the theoretical part of the diploma pap...

  5. Differences in the Association between Segment and Language: Early Bilinguals Pattern with Monolinguals and Are Less Accurate than Late Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Cynthia P.; Bannard, Colin; Smiljanic, Rajka

    2016-01-01

    Early bilinguals often show as much sensitivity to L2-specific contrasts as monolingual speakers of the L2, but most work on cross-language speech perception has focused on isolated segments, and typically only on neighboring vowels or stop contrasts. In tasks that include sounds in context, listeners’ success is more variable, so segment discrimination in isolation may not adequately represent the phonetic detail in stored representations. The current study explores the relationship between language experience and sensitivity to segmental cues in context by comparing the categorization patterns of monolingual English listeners and early and late Spanish–English bilinguals. Participants categorized nonce words containing different classes of English- and Spanish-specific sounds as being more English-like or more Spanish-like; target segments included phonemic cues, cues for which there is no analogous sound in the other language, or phonetic cues, cues for which English and Spanish share the category but for which each language varies in its phonetic implementation. Listeners’ language categorization accuracy and reaction times were analyzed. Our results reveal a largely uniform categorization pattern across listener groups: Spanish cues were categorized more accurately than English cues, and phonemic cues were easier for listeners to categorize than phonetic cues. There were no differences in the sensitivity of monolinguals and early bilinguals to language-specific cues, suggesting that the early bilinguals’ exposure to Spanish did not fundamentally change their representations of English phonology. However, neither did the early bilinguals show more sensitivity than the monolinguals to Spanish sounds. The late bilinguals however, were significantly more accurate than either of the other groups. These findings indicate that listeners with varying exposure to English and Spanish are able to use language-specific cues in a nonce-word language categorization

  6. Executive functions and inhibitory control in multilingual children: evidence from second-language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-12-01

    In two experiments, we examined inhibitory control processes in three groups of bilinguals and trilinguals that differed in nonnative language proficiency and language learning background. German 5- to 8-year-old second-language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals performed the Simon task and the Attentional Networks Task (ANT). Language proficiencies and socioeconomic status were controlled. We found that the Simon effect advantage, reported in earlier research for bilingual children and adults over monolinguals, differed across groups, with bilinguals and trilinguals showing enhanced conflict resolution over monolinguals and marginally so over second-language learners. In the ANT, bilinguals and trilinguals displayed enhanced conflict resolution over second-language learners. This extends earlier research to child second-language learners and trilinguals, who were in the process of becoming proficient in an additional language, while corroborating earlier findings demonstrating enhanced executive control in bilinguals assumed to be caused by continuous inhibitory control processes necessary in competition resolution between two (or possibly more) languages. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children, both for early second-language learners and for early bilinguals and trilinguals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. SALT 2010 Bilingual S/E Version: A Tool for Assessing the Language Production of Bilingual (Spanish/English) Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jon F.; Iglesias, Aquiles; Rojas, Raul

    2010-01-01

    Assessing the language development of bilingual children can be a challenge--too often, children in the complex process of learning both Spanish and English are under- or over-diagnosed with language disorders. SLPs can change that with "SALT 2010 Bilingual S/E Version" for grades K-3, the first tool to comprehensively assess children's language…

  8. SALT 2010 Bilingual S/E Version: A Tool for Assessing the Language Production of Bilingual (Spanish/English) Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jon F.; Iglesias, Aquiles; Rojas, Raul

    2010-01-01

    Assessing the language development of bilingual children can be a challenge--too often, children in the complex process of learning both Spanish and English are under- or over-diagnosed with language disorders. SLPs can change that with "SALT 2010 Bilingual S/E Version" for grades K-3, the first tool to comprehensively assess children's language…

  9. Perspectives on Official English. The Campaign for English as the Official Language of the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen L., Ed.; Brink, Daniel T., Ed.

    Essays on the campaign to establish English as the United States' official language include: "Official Languages and Language Planning" (Richard Ruiz); "Una lingua, una patria?: Is Monolingualism Beneficial or Harmful to a Nation's Unity?" (David F. Marshall and Roseann D. Gonzalez); "Canadian Perspectives on Official English" (Joseph E. Magnet);…

  10. The Correlation of Parenting and Socioeconomic Status Towards English Learning Readiness of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Ummul Khair

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research is about the correlation of Parenting and Socioeconomic Status (SES towards English Learning Readiness (ELR of children. This study was aimed to find out the correlation of parenting quality and socioeconomic status towards English learning readiness of children. This research applied quantitative research, the case conducts in correlational research which describes an existing condition. The population of this research was students from all elementary school in Kecamatan Tamalate Makassar where English is tought at second grade. The representation of the population in this research is the 2nd year students of six elementary schools in Kecamatan Tamalate academic year of 2012/2013 who have collected the two questionnaires which is distributed to them and filled out by their parents. Total number of the sample is 105 students chosen from the questionnaires which is collected and has filled properly by parents. The data were obtained by using two kinds of instruments, those are questionnaires of parenting and socioeconomic status which have tested the validity in a number of students and data of the ELR of children got from student’s English achievement in school. Those data were analyzed by using path analysis of Amos 20.0. The researcher concludes that (1 the correlation of parenting with ELR indicates the higher quality of parenting they have the higher children gain ELR, on the contrary the less quality of parenting they have the less children gain ELR, (2 SES has almost none indication to have correlation with ELR, (3 The higher SES the better parenting do and the lower SES the worst parenting do.

  11. Rethinking monolingual instructional strategies in multilingual classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Cummins

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three inter-related assumptions regarding best practice in second/foreign language teaching and bilingual/immersion education continue to dominate classroom instruction. These assumptions are that: (a the target language (TL should be used exclusively for instructional purposes without recourse to students’ first language (L1; (b translation between L1 and TL has no place in the language classroom; and (c within immersion and bilingual programs, the two languages should be kept rigidly separate. Research evidence provides minimal support for these assumptions and they are also inconsistent with the instructional implications of current theory in the areas of cognitive psychology and applied linguistics. Based on current research and theory, a set of bilingual instructional strategies are proposed and concrete examples are provided to illustrate how these strategies can be used together with monolingual strategies in a balanced and complementary way.

  12. Disjunction between Language Policy and Children's Sociocultural Ecology--An Analysis of English-Medium Education Policy in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manan, Syed Abdul; David, Maya Khemlani; Dumanig, Francisco Perlas

    2015-01-01

    Sociocultural theory and constructionists propose that language learning is a socially and culturally mediated process, and they emphasize on social interaction. This study examines the amount of students' exposure to the school language to account for the link between English-medium policies in low-fee English-medium schools and children's…

  13. The Possible Cultural Consequences for Children as They Learn to Read in English at Primary Three in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sally Ann

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an observation study of reading lessons in English at Primary Three in Singapore. The aims of the study were first to establish whether a common pedagogy to teach reading in English exists at this transition year of children's schooling, and second what the cultural effects of this pedagogy might be for…

  14. Impact of early English language teaching on L1 and L2 development in children in Dutch schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goorhuis-Brouwer, Sieneke; de Bot, Kees

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of a project aimed at the evaluation of early English language teaching (EELT) in Dutch primary education, starting at age 4. Between 2003 and 2008 four cohorts of first- and second-grade children receiving one to three hours of English language teaching per week

  15. Impact of early English language teaching on L1 and L2 development in children in Dutch schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goorhuis-Brouwer, Sieneke; de Bot, Kees

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of a project aimed at the evaluation of early English language teaching (EELT) in Dutch primary education, starting at age 4. Between 2003 and 2008 four cohorts of first- and second-grade children receiving one to three hours of English language teaching per week

  16. Native-language recognition abilities in 4-month-old infants from monolingual and bilingual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, L; Sebastián-Gallés, N

    1997-12-01

    This study examined the capacity of 4-month-old infants to identify their maternal language when phonologically similar languages are contrasted, using a visual orientation procedure with a reaction time measure. Infants from monolingual and bilingual environments were compared in order to analyze whether differences in linguistic background affect this behavioral response. In experiment 1 the validity of the procedure was assessed with a pair of phonologically dissimilar languages (Catalan or Spanish vs. English). In experiment 2, 20 infants from monolingual environments tested in a similar language contrast (Catalan vs. Spanish) indicated that discrimination is already possible at that age. Results from experiment 3, using low-pass filtered utterances, suggested that infants can rely on information about supra-segmental features to make this distinction. For the infants growing up in bilingual environments no preference for either of the familiar languages was found. Moreover, when their maternal language was contrasted either with English or with Italian, in both cases the bilingual group showed a similar pattern, consisting of significantly longer latencies for the familiar language. Possible interpretations of this unexpected pattern of results are discussed and its implications for bilingual language acquisition are considered.

  17. Te Reo Māori: indigenous language acquisition in the context of New Zealand English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Elaine; Keegan, Peter; McNaughton, Stuart; Kingi, Te Kani; Carr, Polly Atatoa; Schmidt, Johanna; Mohal, Jatender; Grant, Cameron; Morton, Susan

    2017-07-06

    This study assessed the status of te reo Māori, the indigenous language of New Zealand, in the context of New Zealand English. From a broadly representative sample of 6327 two-year-olds (Growing Up in New Zealand), 6090 mothers (96%) reported their children understood English, and 763 mothers (12%) reported their children understood Māori. Parents completed the new MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory short forms for te reo Māori (NZM: CDI sf) and New Zealand English (NZE: CDI sf). Mothers with higher education levels had children with larger vocabularies in both te reo Māori and NZ English. For English speakers, vocabulary advantages also existed for girls, first-borns, monolinguals, those living in areas of lower deprivation, and those whose mothers had no concerns about their speech and language. Because more than 99% of Māori speakers were bilingual, te reo Māori acquisition appears to be occurring in the context of the acquisition of New Zealand English.

  18. Narrative skills in deaf children who use spoken English: Dissociations between macro and microstructural devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A C; Toscano, E; Botting, N; Marshall, C R; Atkinson, J R; Denmark, T; Herman, R; Morgan, G

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has highlighted that deaf children acquiring spoken English have difficulties in narrative development relative to their hearing peers both in terms of macro-structure and with micro-structural devices. The majority of previous research focused on narrative tasks designed for hearing children that depend on good receptive language skills. The current study compared narratives of 6 to 11-year-old deaf children who use spoken English (N=59) with matched for age and non-verbal intelligence hearing peers. To examine the role of general language abilities, single word vocabulary was also assessed. Narratives were elicited by the retelling of a story presented non-verbally in video format. Results showed that deaf and hearing children had equivalent macro-structure skills, but the deaf group showed poorer performance on micro-structural components. Furthermore, the deaf group gave less detailed responses to inferencing probe questions indicating poorer understanding of the story's underlying message. For deaf children, micro-level devices most strongly correlated with the vocabulary measure. These findings suggest that deaf children, despite spoken language delays, are able to convey the main elements of content and structure in narrative but have greater difficulty in using grammatical devices more dependent on finer linguistic and pragmatic skills.

  19. Performance of Spanish/English bilingual children on a spanish-language neuropsychological battery: preliminary normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, Mónica; Ardila, Alfredo; Navarrete, M Gina; Matute, Esmeralda

    2010-05-01

    Despite a population of close to 40 million Hispanics/Latinos in the USA who have at least some level of Spanish/English bilingualism, there are few neuropsychological tests and norms available for this group, especially when assessing Spanish/English bilingual children. The purpose of the present research was to provide preliminary normative data for a bilingual population on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery developed for Spanish-speaking children (Evaluación Neuropsicológica Infantil). Norms by age are presented on the performance of 108 Spanish/English bilingual children (ages 5-14 years) and are expected to be useful when testing other Spanish/English bilingual children in the USA.

  20. PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS’ BELIEFS ABOUT TEACHING ENGLISH TO PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti K. Karekatti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a part of an ongoing doctoral research on ‘Teacher Talk in ESL Classrooms’. The idea for this was gained through the hypothesis that teachers’ beliefs about English teaching may also mould their talk. The researcher intends here to analyse and comment on teachers’ English teaching beliefs. It is generally accepted that teaching is greatly affected by the belief systems of its practitioners-teachers. Teachers’ beliefs influence their consciousness, teaching attitude, teaching methods and teaching policies, and finally, learners’ development. Horwitz (1987 also states rightly that the formation of teachers’ educational beliefs in language teaching/ learning process will influence, though indirectly, on forming effective teaching methods and will bring about the improvement of learners’ language learning abilities. In Indian context, there is dearth of research evaluating teachers’ beliefs about English teaching. This study explores teachers’ beliefs regarding teaching English to children and tries to explore whether medium of instruction makes any difference in their beliefs. It also intends to determine what similar and different beliefs might be held by in-service teachers from two different mediums. A total of 100 pre-service teachers are the subjects of this study. In order to recognize these teachers’ specific beliefs in a more systematic way, a research instrument, The Questionnaire of Primary School Pre-service English Teachers’ Teaching Beliefs was developed. Almost all of these pre-service teachers expected to have training regarding how to make their talk effective and relevant in classrooms.

  1. Methods and Techniques for Teaching English to Children(6)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Hangman for spelling practice The teacher thinks of a familiar word.On the blackboard,she puts a dash for each letter of the word,e.g._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _(elephant).Let children suggest letters which they think might be in the word.

  2. German-English-Speaking Children's Mixed NPs with "Correct" Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorschick, Liane; Quick, Antje Endesfelder; Glasser, Dana; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has reported that bilingual children sometimes produce mixed noun phrases with "correct" gender agreement--as in "der dog" ("der" being a masculine determiner in German and the German word for "dog", "hund", being masculine as well). However, these could obviously be due to chance or to the indiscriminate use of a default…

  3. The Prosodic (Re)organization of Children's Early English Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Katherine; McCullough, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have long been puzzled by children's variable omission of grammatical morphemes, often attributing this to a lack of semantic or syntactic competence. Recent studies suggest that some of this variability may be due to phonological constraints. This paper explored this issue further by conducting a longitudinal study of five…

  4. Methods and Techniques for Teaching English to Children(8)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Speaking Activities Speaking activities do not need to be always reading aloud,reciting dialogues or repeating what the teacher said.When we speak,we speak with a purpose and we speak with interest as well.Therefore,we need to create interesting topics and genuine purposes for children to speak the language.

  5. Methods and Techniques for Teaching English to Children(8)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Speaking Activities Speaking activities do not need to be al-ways reading aloud,reciting dialogues or repeat-ing what the teacher said.When we speak,we speak with a purpose and we speak with interestas well.Therefore,we need to create interesting topics and genuine purposes for children to speak

  6. Advantages of Bilinguals over Monolinguals in Learning a Third Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Salim; Sanitsky, Ekaterina

    2010-01-01

    The present study is an examination of the contribution of bilingualism to trilingualism, namely the influence of learning two different orthographies on learning a third. The participants were two groups of sixth graders from Israeli schools who were studying English as a foreign (second or third) language: Russian Israeli children for whom…

  7. Early lexical development in English- and Korean-speaking children: language-general and language-specific patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M; McGregor, K K; Thompson, C K

    2000-06-01

    The present study examined the composition of the early productive vocabulary of eight Korean- and eight English-learning children and the morpho-syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic characteristics of their caregivers' input in order to determine parallels between caregiver input and early lexical development. Vocabulary acquisition was followed using maternal diary and checklists for the Korean-learning children (from a mean age of 1;6 to 1;9) and for the English-learning children (from a mean age of 1;4 to 1;8). Results showed that both Korean-learning and English-learning children acquired significantly more nouns than verbs at the 50-word mark. However, Korean children learned significantly more verbs than did English-learning children. The relative ease with which Korean learners, as compared to English learners, acquired verbs parallels several differences in the linguistic and socio-pragmatic characteristics of the input addressed to them. Korean-speaking caregivers presented more activity-oriented utterances, more verbs, and more salient cues to verbs than did English-speaking caregivers. These data suggest that both general and language-specific factors shape the early lexicon.

  8. The oral core vocabulary of typically developing English-speaking school-aged children: implications for AAC practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenisch, Jens; Soto, Gloria

    2015-03-01

    This study analyzes the core vocabulary used by typically developing school-aged English-speaking children in the United States while participating in a variety of school activities. The language of typically developing children, some of whom spoke English as a second language was recorded, transcribed and analyzed to identify the most frequently used words across samples. An inventory of oral core vocabulary of typically developing school-aged children resulted from this analysis. This inventory can be used as a source list for vocabulary selection for school-aged children with AAC needs. Implications for vocabulary selection are discussed.

  9. Methods and Techniques for Teaching English to Children(3)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Teaching vocabulary There are different ways we can use to teach vocabulary to children.For example,we can use real objects when teaching school things,such as"book","pen","pencil","ruler",etc.Can we use real objects to teach"car","train",and"plane"? Also how can we teach words such as"happy","excited","sad","tired",etc.?Look at the following groups of words and discuss what types of words they are and ways of teaching them.

  10. Methods and Techniques for Teaching English to Children(7)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Developing oral comrnunication skillsTask 1Work in pairs and think about as manylistening and speaking activities as possible thatyou can use in the classroom.Make a list andthen discuss them with another pair.Our commentsOral communication skills here refer tolistening and speaking skills.They are very im-portant skills for beginners.Children learningtheir native language begin by understanding

  11. Acquiring English as a second language via print: the task for deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeister, Robert J; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L

    2014-08-01

    Only a minority of profoundly deaf children read at age-level. We contend this reflects cognitive and linguistic impediments from lack of exposure to a natural language in early childhood, as well as the inherent difficulty of learning English only through the written modality. Yet some deaf children do acquire English via print. The current paper describes a theoretical model of how children could, in principle, acquire a language via reading and writing. The model describes stages of learning which represent successive, conceptual insights necessary for second/foreign language learning via print. Our model highlights the logical difficulties present when one cannot practice a language outside of reading/writing, such as the necessity of translating to a first language, the need for explicit instruction, and difficulty that many deaf children experience in understanding figurative language. Our model explains why learning to read is often a protracted process for deaf children and why many fail to make progress after some initial success. Because language acquisition is thought to require social interaction, with meaning cued by extralinguistic context, the ability of some deaf individuals to acquire language through print represents an overlooked human achievement worthy of greater attention by cognitive scientists.

  12. No Habla Ingles: Exploring a Bilingual Child's Literacy Learning Opportunities in a Predominantly English-Speaking Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Cindy; McVee, Mary Birgit; Shojgreen-Downer, Angela M.; Duenas, Leila Flores

    1998-01-01

    A monolingual English-speaking teacher and bilingual researchers analyzed the discursive practices in a third-grade classroom that affected the literacy learning opportunities available to a monolingual Spanish-speaking migrant student. Literacy learning opportunities were shaped and influenced by the specific contexts in which the student acted…

  13. No Habla Ingles: Exploring a Bilingual Child's Literacy Learning Opportunities in a Predominantly English-Speaking Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Cindy; McVee, Mary Birgit; Shojgreen-Downer, Angela M.; Duenas, Leila Flores

    1998-01-01

    A monolingual English-speaking teacher and bilingual researchers analyzed the discursive practices in a third-grade classroom that affected the literacy learning opportunities available to a monolingual Spanish-speaking migrant student. Literacy learning opportunities were shaped and influenced by the specific contexts in which the student acted…

  14. Methods and Techniques for Teaching English to Children(3)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Teaching vocabulary There are different ways we can use to teach vocabulary to children.For example,wecan use real objects when teaching school things,such as "book","pen","pencil","ruler",etc.Can we use real objects to teach "car","train",and "plane"?Also how can we teach words such as "happy","excited","sad","tired",etc.?Look at the following groups of words and dis-cuss what types of words they are and ways of teaching them.

  15. Methods and Techniques for Teaching English to Children(6)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Hangman for spelling practiceThe teacher thinks of a familiar word.Onthe blackboard,she puts a dash for each letter ofthe word,e.g._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (elephant).Letchildren suggest letters which they think mightbe in the word.If their suggestion is in theword,the teacher writes it in the appropriatespace.E.g.e_e_ _ _ _ _.If the letter is notin the word,the teacher lists it at the side ofthe blackboard under the heading"used letters".Also,the teacher draws one part of a hangmanfor each letter not in the word.If children guess

  16. Effects of a phonological awareness program on English reading and spelling among Hong Kong Chinese ESL children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Susanna S S; Siegel, Linda S; Chan, Carol K K

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of a 12-week language-enriched phonological awareness instruction on 76 Hong Kong young children who were learning English as a second language. The children were assigned randomly to receive the instruction on phonological awareness skills embedded in vocabulary learning activities or comparison instruction which consisted of vocabulary learning and writing tasks but no direct instruction in phonological awareness skills. They were tested on receptive and expressive vocabulary, phonological awareness at the syllable, rhyme and phoneme levels, reading, and spelling in English before and after the program implementation. The results indicated that children who received the phonological awareness instruction performed significantly better than the comparison group on English word reading, spelling, phonological awareness at all levels and expressive vocabulary on the posttest when age, general intelligence and the pretest scores were controlled statistically. The findings suggest that phonological awareness instruction embedded in vocabulary learning activities might be beneficial to kindergarteners learning English as a second language.

  17. SYNONYMS IN GERMAN ONLINE MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Sánchez Hernández

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study includes both theoretical and qualitative research and falls within the framework of semantics and lexicography. It is based on work conducted as a part of the COMBIDIGILEX research project: MINECO-FEDER FFI2015-64476-P. The lexicographical description proposed in the COMBIDIGILEX project is based on the foundations of bilingual lexicography from an onomasiological perspective, including paradigmatic information and syntagmatic analysis, which is useful to users creating texts for students at an advanced level. The project analyses verbal lexemes in German and Spanish based on a paradigmatic, syntagmatic, orthographic and morphological perspective (among others. Subsequently, a contrastive analysis was conducted between both languages. In this contribution, we first analyse what paradigmatic information is, including its relevance to a dictionary. Paradigmatic information includes not only synonyms and antonyms but also hyperonyms and hyponyms, which often complete the lexicographical article in a general dictionary. Paradigmatic relations can be observed in light of semantic definitions or may independently become part of the lexical entry. Forming the paradigmatic information of an entry in an independent manner is known as “intentionelle Paradigmatik”, and it constitutes a series of advantages in the dictionary (Hausmann 1991b: 2794. This type of information aids the processes of production and expands vocabulary. Next, we examine the appearance of synonyms in three German online monolingual dictionaries – DWDS, WORTSCHATZLEXIKON and DUDEN ONLINE – from the semantic perspective of cognition verbs. The primary objective of the study is to demonstrate the relevance of this type of information as well as the needs it covers from a user’s perspective. Offering the user a series of lexical elements along with information on semantic relations of a paradigmatic nature thus addresses the issue of users having an array of

  18. Does Deafness Spell Disaster? An Analysis of the Written English Levels of Deaf Children in the Nelson Mandela Metropole, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Carolyn; Aylif, Diana

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an empirical comparative study in the Nelson Mandela Metropole investigating the difference between the written English of deaf children and the written English of hearing children and makes recommendations on how to improve the writing of deaf children. The psycholinguistic approach was used for the…

  19. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-03-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and adult German-English bilinguals, respectively, named pictures in German and in English; in Experiment 4, 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals named pictures in German. In both language conditions, cognate status was manipulated. We found that the bidirectional cognate facilitation effect was significant in all groups except the German monolinguals (Experiment 4) and, critically, the child second language learners (Experiment 1) in whom only native language (L1) German had an effect on second language (L2) English. The findings demonstrate how the integration of languages into a child's system follows a developmental path that, at lower levels of proficiency, allows only limited cross-language activation. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children both for early second language learners and for early bi- and trilinguals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Receptive and expressive English language assessments used for young children: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Laureen J; Hellsten, Laurie-Ann M; Bidonde, Julia; Boden, Catherine; Doi, Carolyn

    2017-04-04

    The majority of a child's language development occurs in the first 5 years of life when brain development is most rapid. There are significant long-term benefits to supporting all children's language and literacy development such as maximizing their developmental potential (i.e., cognitive, linguistic, social-emotional), when children are experiencing a critical period of development (i.e., early childhood to 9 years of age). A variety of people play a significant role in supporting children's language development, including parents, guardians, family members, educators, and/or speech-language pathologists. Speech-language pathologists and educators are the professionals who predominantly support children's language development in order for them to become effective communicators and lay the foundation for later developing literacy skills (i.e., reading and writing skills). Therefore, these professionals need formal and informal assessments that provide them information on a child's understanding and/or use of the increasingly complex aspects of language in order to identify and support the receptive and expressive language learning needs of diverse children during their early learning experiences (i.e., aged 1.5 to 9 years). However, evidence on what methods and tools are being used is lacking. The authors will carry out a scoping review of the literature to identify studies and map the receptive and expressive English language assessment methods and tools that have been published and used since 1980. Arksey and O'Malley's (2005) six-stage approach to conducting a scoping review was drawn upon to design the protocol for this investigation: (1) identifying the research question; (2) identifying relevant studies; (3) study selection; (4) charting the data; (5) collating, summarizing, and reporting the results; and (6) consultation. This information will help these professionals identify and select appropriate assessment methods or tools that can be used to support