WorldWideScience

Sample records for monolayer surface pressures

  1. Collapse of Langmuir monolayer at lower surface pressure: Effect of hydrophobic chain length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Kaushik, E-mail: kaushikdas2089@gmail.com; Kundu, Sarathi [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Vigyan Path, Paschim Boragaon, Garchuk, Guwahati, Assam 781035 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Long chain fatty acid molecules (e.g., stearic and behenic acids) form a monolayer on water surface in the presence of Ba{sup 2+} ions at low subphase pH (≈ 5.5) and remain as a monolayer before collapse generally occurs at higher surface pressure (π{sub c} > 50 mN/m). Monolayer formation is verified from the surface pressure vs. area per molecule (π-A) isotherms and also from the atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of the films deposited by single upstroke of hydrophilic Si (001) substrate through the monolayer covered water surface. At high subphase pH (≈ 9.5), barium stearate molecules form multilayer structure at lower surface pressure which is verified from the π-A isotherms and AFM analysis of the film deposited at 25 mN/m. Such monolayer to multilayer structure formation or monolayer collapse at lower surface pressure is unusual as at this surface pressure generally fatty acid salt molecules form a monolayer on the water surface. Formation of bidentate chelate coordination in the metal containing headgroups is the reason for such monolayer to multilayer transition. However, for longer chain barium behenate molecules only monolayer structure is maintained at that high subphase pH (≈ 9.5) due to the presence of relatively more tail-tail hydrophobic interaction.

  2. DPPC Monolayers Exhibit an Additional Phase Transition at High Surface Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Chen; de la Serna, Jorge B.; Struth, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant forms a monolayer at the air/aqueous interface within the lung. During the breath process, the surface pressure (Π) periodically varies from ~40mN/m up to ~70mN/m. The film is mechanically stable during this rapid and reversible expansion. Pulmonary surfactant consists of ~90......% of lipid with 10% integrated proteins. Among its lipid compounds, di-palmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) dominates (~45wt%). DPPC is the only known lipid that can be compressed to very high surface pressure (~70mN/m) before its monolayer collapses. Most probably, this feature contributes to the mechanical...... stability of the alveoli monolayer. Still, to the best of our knowledge, some details of the compression isotherm presented here and the related structures of the DPPC monolayer were not studied so far. The liquid-expanded/liquid-condensed phase transition of the DPPC monolayer at ~10mN/m is well known...

  3. The dependence of lipid monolayer lipolysis on surface pressure.

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, D G

    1992-01-01

    Brönsted-Bjerrum theory [Brönsted (1922) Z. Phys. Chem. 102, 169-207; (1925) Z. Phys. Chem. 115, 337-364; Bjerrum (1924) Z. Phys. Chem. 108, 82-100] as applied to reactions at interfaces is used to interpret published data on the lipolysis of dinonanoyl phosphatidylcholine monolayers by pancreatic phospholipase A2. Reasonable quantitative agreement between theoretical and experimental results occurs when the reported effects of surface pressure on the amount of adsorbed enzyme are used togeth...

  4. The additional phase transition of DPPC monolayers at high surface pressure confirmed by GIXD study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Chen; Serna, Jorge B. de la; Struth, Bernd

    Pulmonary surfactant forms the alveolar monolayer at the air/aqueous interface within the lung. During the breathing process, the surface pressure periodically varies from ~40mN/m up to ~70mN/m. The film is mechanically stable during this rapid and reversible expansion. The monolayer consists...... of the alveolae monolayer and at the same time allows reduction of the interfacial tension to ~0mN/m....

  5. The surface pressure dynamics and appearance of mixed monolayers of cholesterol and different sized polystyrenes at an air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam; Dennis, Gary R; Millar, Thomas J

    2005-02-15

    Synthetic polymers are increasingly being used in situations where they are designed to interact with biological systems. As a result, it is important to investigate the interactions of the polymers with biochemicals. We have used cholesterol, as an example of an important biological surfactant component, to study its interactions with polystyrene. Mixed monolayers of cholesterol and one of two different molecular weight polystyrenes were formed at an air-water interface to investigate their interactions and to determine whether the size of the polystyrene affected the interaction. The pressure-area (pi-A) isocycles of mixed monolayers of cholesterol and polystyrene MW 2700 or polystyrene MW32700 showed that strongest attractive interactions occur at high surface pressures and in polystyrene rich films. The excess area and excess free energy of mixing were most negative at high surface pressures and at high mole fraction of polystyrene. The most stable mixed monolayers were formed with X(PS2700) = 0.9 and X(PS32700) = 0.09. Microscopic observation of the mixed monolayers of cholesterol and polystyrene showed the formation of stable islands in the cholesterol/polystyrene mixtures. These observations, the nature of the inflection points in the isocycles, and the anomalous changes in free energy lead us to conclude that there is a stable rearrangement of polystyrene into compact islands when it is mixed with cholesterol. Any excess cholesterol is excluded from these islands and remains as a separate film surrounding the islands.

  6. Lateral pressure profiles in lipid monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baoukina, Svetlana; Marrink, Siewert J.; Tieleman, D. Peter

    2010-01-01

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations with coarse-grained and atomistic models to study the lateral pressure profiles in lipid monolayers. We first consider simple oil/air and oil/water interfaces, and then proceed to lipid monolayers at air/water and oil/water interfaces. The results are

  7. Surface-segregated monolayers: a new type of ordered monolayer for surface modification of organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qingshuo; Tajima, Keisuke; Tong, Yujin; Ye, Shen; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

    2009-12-09

    We report a new type of ordered monolayer for the surface modification of organic semiconductors. Fullerene derivatives with fluorocarbon chains ([6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-buryric acid 1H,1H-perfluoro-1-alkyl ester or FC(n)) spontaneously segregated as a monolayer on the surface of a [6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) film during a spin-coating process from the mixture solutions, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) showed the shift of ionization potentials (IPs) depending on the fluorocarbon chain length, indicating the formation of surface dipole moments. Surface-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy, sum frequency generation (SFG) revealed the ordered molecular orientations of the C(60) moiety in the surface FC(n) layers. The intensity of the SFG signals from FC(n) on the surface showed a clear odd-even effect when the length of the fluorocarbon chain was changed. This new concept of the surface-segregated monolayer provides a facile and versatile approach to modifying the surface of organic semiconductors and is applicable to various organic optoelectronic devices.

  8. The effect of surface pressure modification on the speed of vortex rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partridge, Matthew; Davis, Frank; Higson, Seamus P J [Centre of Biomedical Imaging, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); James, Stephen W; Tatam, Ralph P, E-mail: f.davis@cranfield.ac.uk [Engineering Photonics, School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-01

    A series of experiments investigating the relationship between surface pressure, monolayer elasticity and the speed of vortex rings is presented. A drop of water, when touched to the surface of a larger body of water, will coalesce and form a vortex ring that moves perpendicularly to the surface of the water. The speed of the vortex ring movement away from the surface of the water has been seen to be sensitive to the presence of monolayer materials. Here we explore the influence of four monolayer forming materials, stearic acid, tricosanoic acid, 4-tert butyl calix[4]arene and calix[4]resorcarene (C11), on the properties of vortex rings. For each material, the speed of the vortex rings through the water was measured at a range of surface pressures. The speed was found to increase in a linear fashion until surface pressures greater than 30 mN m{sup −1}, where the ring’s speed decreased towards the value measured in the absence of a monolayer. Analysis of the results suggests a future route toward a better understanding of the mechanisms involved.

  9. Reaction of a phospholipid monolayer with gas-phase ozone at the air-water interface: measurement of surface excess and surface pressure in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Katherine C; Rennie, Adrian R; King, Martin D; Hardman, Samantha J O; Lucas, Claire O M; Pfrang, Christian; Hughes, Brian R; Hughes, Arwel V

    2010-11-16

    The reaction between gas-phase ozone and monolayers of the unsaturated lipid 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, POPC, on aqueous solutions has been studied in real time using neutron reflection and surface pressure measurements. The reaction between ozone and lung surfactant, which contains POPC, leads to decreased pulmonary function, but little is known about the changes that occur to the interfacial material as a result of oxidation. The results reveal that the initial reaction of ozone with POPC leads to a rapid increase in surface pressure followed by a slow decrease to very low values. The neutron reflection measurements, performed on an isotopologue of POPC with a selectively deuterated palmitoyl strand, reveal that the reaction leads to loss of this strand from the air-water interface, suggesting either solubilization of the product lipid or degradation of the palmitoyl strand by a reactive species. Reactions of (1)H-POPC on D(2)O reveal that the headgroup region of the lipids in aqueous solution is not dramatically perturbed by the reaction of POPC monolayers with ozone supporting degradation of the palmitoyl strand rather than solubilization. The results are consistent with the reaction of ozone with the oleoyl strand of POPC at the air-water interface leading to the formation of OH radicals. The highly reactive OH radicals produced can then go on to react with the saturated palmitoyl strands leading to the formation of oxidized lipids with shorter alkyl tails.

  10. Pressure-dependent optical and vibrational properties of monolayer molybdenum disulfide

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Avinash P.

    2015-01-14

    Controlling the band gap by tuning the lattice structure through pressure engineering is a relatively new route for tailoring the optoelectronic properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials. Here, we investigate the electronic structure and lattice vibrational dynamics of the distorted monolayer 1T-MoS2 (1T′) and the monolayer 2H-MoS2 via a diamond anvil cell (DAC) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The direct optical band gap of the monolayer 2H-MoS2 increases by 11.7% from 1.85 to 2.08 eV, which is the highest reported for a 2D transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) material. DFT calculations reveal a subsequent decrease in the band gap with eventual metallization of the monolayer 2H-MoS2, an overall complex structure-property relation due to the rich band structure of MoS2. Remarkably, the metastable 1T′-MoS2 metallic state remains invariant with pressure, with the J2, A1g, and E2g modes becoming dominant at high pressures. This substantial reversible tunability of the electronic and vibrational properties of the MoS2 family can be extended to other 2D TMDs. These results present an important advance toward controlling the band structure and optoelectronic properties of monolayer MoS2 via pressure, which has vital implications for enhanced device applications.

  11. Molecular printboards: monolayers of beta-cyclodextrins on silicon oxide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onclin, Steffen; Mulder, Alart; Huskens, Jurriaan; Ravoo, Bart Jan; Reinhoudt, David N

    2004-06-22

    Monolayers of beta-cyclodextrin host molecules have been prepared on SiO2 surfaces. An ordered and stable cyano-terminated monolayer was modified in three consecutive surface reactions. First, the cyanide groups were reduced to their corresponding free amines using Red Al as a reducing agent. Second, 1,4-phenylene diisothiocyanate was used to react with the amine monolayer where it acts as a linking molecule, exposing isothiocyanates that can be derivatized further. Finally, per-6-amino beta-cyclodextrin was reacted with these isothiocyanate functions to yield a monolayer exposing beta-cyclodextrin. All monolayers were characterized by contact angle measurements, ellipsometric thickness measurements, Brewster angle Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, which indicate the formation of a densely packed cyclodextrin surface. It was demonstrated that the beta-cyclodextrin monolayer could bind suitable guest molecules in a reversible manner. A fluorescent molecule (1), equipped with two adamantyl groups for complexation, was adsorbed onto the host monolayer from solution to form a monolayer of guest molecules. Subsequently, the guest molecules were desorbed from the surface by competition with increasing beta-cyclodextrin concentration in solution. The data were fitted using a model. An intrinsic binding constant of 3.3 +/- 1 x 10(5) M(-1) was obtained, which corresponds well to previously obtained results with a divalent guest molecule on beta-cyclodextrin monolayers on gold. In addition, the number of guest molecules bound to the host surface was determined, and a surface coverage of ca. 30% was found.

  12. Electrochemical Properties of Alkanethiol Monolayers Adsorbed on Nanoporous Au Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Yeon Yi; Seo, Bora; Kim, Jong Won

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the electrochemical properties of alkanethiol monolayers adsorbed on NPG surfaces by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and the results are compared to those on flat Au surfaces. The reductive desorption of alkanethiols on NPG surfaces is observed in more negative potential regions than that on flat Au surfaces due the stronger S-Au interaction on NPG surfaces. While the electron transfer through alkanethiol monolayers on flat Au surfaces occurs via a tunneling process through the monolayer films, the redox species can permeate through the monolayers on NPG surfaces to transfer the electrons to the Au surfaces. The results presented here will help to elucidate the intrinsic electrochemical properties of alkanethiol monolayers adsorbed on curved Au surfaces, particularly on the surface of AuNPs. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of thiolate molecules on Au surfaces have been the subject of intensive research for the last few decades due to their unique physical and chemical properties. The well-organized surface structures of thiolate SAMs with various end-group functionalities can be further utilized for many applications in biology and nanotechnology. In addition to the practical applications, SAMs of thiolate molecules on Au surfaces also provide unique opportunities to address fundamental issues in surface chemistry such as self-organized surface structures, electron transfer behaviors, and moleculesubstrate interactions. Although there have been numerous reports on the fundamental physical and chemical properties of thiolate SAMs on Au surfaces, most of them were investigated on flat Au surfaces, typically on well-defined Au(111) surfaces

  13. Atomic Scale Simulation on the Anti-Pressure and Friction Reduction Mechanisms of MoS2 Monolayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available MoS2 nanosheets can be used as solid lubricants or additives of lubricating oils to reduce friction and resist wear. However, the atomic scale mechanism still needs to be illustrated. Herein, molecular simulations on the indentation and scratching process of MoS2 monolayer supported by Pt(111 surface were conducted to study the anti-pressure and friction reduction mechanisms of the MoS2 monolayer. Three deformation stages of Pt-supported MoS2 monolayer were found during the indentation process: elastic deformation, plastic deformation and finally, complete rupture. The MoS2 monolayer showed an excellent friction reduction effect at the first two stages, as a result of enhanced load bearing capacity and reduced deformation degree of the substrate. Unlike graphene, rupture of the Pt-supported MoS2 monolayer was related primarily to out-of-plane compression of the monolayer. These results provide a new insight into the relationship between the mechanical properties and lubrication properties of 2D materials.

  14. Irreversible particle motion in surfactant-laden interfaces due to pressure-dependent surface viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikantan, Harishankar; Squires, Todd M.

    2017-09-01

    The surface shear viscosity of an insoluble surfactant monolayer often depends strongly on its surface pressure. Here, we show that a particle moving within a bounded monolayer breaks the kinematic reversibility of low-Reynolds-number flows. The Lorentz reciprocal theorem allows such irreversibilities to be computed without solving the full nonlinear equations, giving the leading-order contribution of surface pressure-dependent surface viscosity. In particular, we show that a disc translating or rotating near an interfacial boundary experiences a force in the direction perpendicular to that boundary. In unbounded monolayers, coupled modes of motion can also lead to non-intuitive trajectories, which we illustrate using an interfacial analogue of the Magnus effect. This perturbative approach can be extended to more complex geometries, and to two-dimensional suspensions more generally.

  15. Surface chemistry of lipid raft and amyloid Aβ (1-40) Langmuir monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Garima; Pao, Christine; Micic, Miodrag; Johnson, Sheba; Leblanc, Roger M

    2011-10-15

    Lipid rafts being rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids are considered to provide ordered lipid environment in the neuronal membranes, where it is hypothesized that the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) to Aβ (1-40) and Aβ (1-42) takes place. It is highly likely that the interaction of lipid raft components like cholesterol, sphingomylein or GM1 leads to nucleation of Aβ and results in aggregation or accumulation of amyloid plaques. One has investigated surface pressure-area isotherms of the lipid raft and Aβ (1-40) Langmuir monolayer. The compression-decompression cycles and the stability of the lipid raft Langmuir monolayer are crucial parameters for the investigation of interaction of Aβ (1-40) with the lipid raft Langmuir monolayer. It was revealed that GM1 provides instability to the lipid raft Langmuir monolayer. Adsorption of Aβ (1-40) onto the lipid raft Langmuir monolayer containing neutral (POPC) or negatively charged phospholipid (DPPG) was examined. The adsorption isotherms revealed that the concentration of cholesterol was important for adsorption of Aβ (1-40) onto the lipid raft Langmuir monolayer containing POPC whereas for the lipid raft Langmuir monolayer containing DPPG:cholesterol or GM1 did not play any role. In situ UV-vis absorption spectroscopy supported the interpretation of results for the adsorption isotherms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pressure-area isotherm of a lipid monolayer from molecular dynamics simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baoukina, Svetlana; Monticelli, Luca; Marrink, Siewert J.; Tieleman, D. Peter

    2007-01-01

    We calculated the pressure-area isotherm of a dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid monolayer from molecular dynamics simulations using a coarse-grained molecular model. We characterized the monolayer structure, geometry, and phases directly from the simulations and compared the calculated

  17. On the lipid head group hydration of floating surface monolayers bound to self-assembled molecular protein layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lösche, M.; Erdelen, C.; Rump, E.

    1994-01-01

    kept at low surface pressure before protein adsorption. The introduction of dipole moments at the interface by the admixture of phospholipids or the application of lateral pressure on the lipid monolayer before protein adsorption were found to impose an extension of the spacer moieties. The biotin...

  18. Phase transitions in diglyceride monolayers studied by computer simulations, pressure-area isotherms and x-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Toxværd, S.; Larsen, N.B.

    1994-01-01

    1,2-sn-diglyceride monolayers exhibit unique and complex phase transitions as a function of surface pressure. The dynamical response of the layer on expanding the film has been investigated by computer simulations, (π-A) isotherms and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction. Good agreement is found b...

  19. Affinity of serum apolipoproteins for lipid monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibdah, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of lipid composition and packing as well as the structure of the protein on the affinities of apolipoproteins for lipid monolayers have been investigated. The adsorption of 14 C-reductively methylated human apolipoproteins A-I and A-II at saturating subphase concentrations to monolayers prepared with synthetic lipids or lipoprotein surface lipids spread at various initial surface pressures has been studied. The adsorption of apolipoproteins is monitored by following the surface radioactivity using a gas flow counter and Wilhelmy plate, respectively. The physical states of the lipid monolayers are evaluated by measurement of the surface pressure-molecular area isotherms using a Langmuir-Adam surface balance. The probable helical regions in various apolipoproteins have been predicted using a secondary structure analysis computer program. The mean residue hydrophobicity and mean residue hydrophobic moment for the predicted helical segments have been calculated. The surface properties of synthetic peptides which are amphipathic helix analogs have been investigated at the air-water and lipid-water interfaces

  20. The interaction of trace heavy metal with lipid monolayer in the sea surface microlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyang; Du, Lin; Tsona, Narcisse T; Wang, Wenxing

    2018-04-01

    Lipid molecules and trace heavy metals are enriched in sea surface microlayer and can be transferred into the sea spray aerosol. To better understand their impact on marine aerosol generation and evolution, we investigated the interaction of trace heavy metals including Fe 3+ , Pb 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cr 3+ , Cd 2+ , and Co 2+ , with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayers at the air-water interface. Phase behavior of the DPPC monolayer on heavy metal solutions was probed with surface pressure-area (π-A) isotherms. The conformation order and orientation of DPPC alkyl chains were characterized by infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS). The π-A isotherms show that Zn 2+ and Fe 3+ strongly interact with DPPC molecules, and induce condensation of the monolayers in a concentration-dependent manner. IRRAS spectra show that the formation of cation-DPPC complex gives rise to conformational changes and immobilization of the headgroups. The current results suggest that the enrichment of Zn 2+ in sea spray aerosols is due to strong binding to the DPPC film. The interaction of Fe 3+ with DPPC monolayers can significantly influence their surface organizations through the formation of lipid-coated particles. These results suggest that the sea surface microlayer is capable of accumulating much higher amounts of these metals than the subsurface water. The organic and metal pollutants may transfer into the atmosphere by this interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Monolayer collapse regulating process of adsorption-desorption of palladium nanoparticles at fatty acid monolayers at the air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Thiago E; Lopez, Ricardo F; Iost, Rodrigo M; Crespilho, Frank N; Caseli, Luciano

    2011-03-15

    In this paper, we investigate the affinity of palladium nanoparticles, stabilized with glucose oxidase, for fatty acid monolayers at the air-water interface, exploiting the interaction between a planar system and spheroids coming from the aqueous subphase. A decrease of the monolayer collapse pressure in the second cycle of interface compression proved that the presence of the nanoparticles causes destabilization of the monolayer in a mechanism driven by the interpenetration of the enzyme into the bilayer/multilayer structure formed during collapse, which is not immediately reversible after monolayer expansion. Surface pressure and surface potential-area isotherms, as well as infrared spectroscopy [polarization modulation infrared reflection adsorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS)] and deposition onto solid plates as Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, were employed to construct a model in which the nanoparticle has a high affinity for the hydrophobic core of the structure formed after collapse, which provides a slow desorption rate from the interface after monolayer decompression. This may have important consequences on the interaction between the metallic particles and fatty acid monolayers, which implies the regulation of the multifunctional properties of the hybrid material.

  2. Molecular printboards: monolayers of beta-cyclodextrins on silicon oxide surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onclin, S.; Mulder, A.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Ravoo, B.J.; Reinhoudt, David

    2004-01-01

    Monolayers of β-cyclodextrin host molecules have been prepared on SiO2 surfaces. An ordered and stable cyano-terminated monolayer was modified in three consecutive surface reactions. First, the cyanide groups were reduced to their corresponding free amines using Red Al as a reducing agent. Second,

  3. A self-assembled monolayer-assisted surface microfabrication and release technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, B.J.; Liebau, M.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David; Brugger, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a method of thin film and MEMS processing which uses self-assembled monolayers as ultra-thin organic surface coating to enable a simple removal of microfabricated devices off the surface without wet chemical etching. A 1.5-nm thick self-assembled monolayer of

  4. Protonation of octadecylamine Langmuir monolayer by adsorption of halide counterions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Woongmo; Avazbaeva, Zaure; Lee, Jonggwan; Kim, Doseok

    Langmuir monolayer consisting of octadecylamine (C18H37NH2, ODA) was investigated by heterodyne vibrational sum-frequency generation (HD-VSFG) spectroscopy in conjunction with surface pressure-area (π- A) isotherm, and the result was compared with that from cationic-lipid (DPTAP) Langmuir monolayer. In case of ODA monolayer on pure water, both SF intensity of water OH band and the surface pressure were significantly smaller than those of the DPTAP monolayer implying that only small portion of the amine groups (-NH3+ is protonated in the monolayer. In the presence of sodium halides (NaCl and NaI) in the subphase water, it was found that the sign of Imχ (2) of water OH band remained the same as that of the ODA monolayer on pure water, but there was a substantial increase in the SF amplitude. From this, we propose that surface excess of the halide counterions (Cl- and I-) makes the solution condition near the ODA monolayer/water interface more acidic so that ODA molecules in the monolayer are more positively charged, which works to align the water dipoles at the interface.

  5. Characterization of self-assembled monolayers on a ruthenium surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaheen, Amrozia; Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Ricciardi, R.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Lee, Christopher James; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    We have modified and stabilized the ruthenium surface by depositing a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of 1-hexadecanethiol on a polycrystalline ruthenium thin film. The growth mechanism, dynamics, and stability of these monolayers were studied. SAMs, deposited under ambient conditions, on

  6. Surface Charge Transfer Doping of Monolayer Phosphorene via Molecular Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuanyuan; Xia, Feifei; Shao, Zhibin; Zhao, Jianwei; Jie, Jiansheng

    2015-12-03

    Monolayer phosphorene has attracted much attention owing to its extraordinary electronic, optical, and structural properties. Rationally tuning the electrical transport characteristics of monolayer phosphorene is essential to its applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. Herein, we study the electronic transport behaviors of monolayer phosphorene with surface charge transfer doping of electrophilic molecules, including 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ), NO2, and MoO3, using density functional theory combined with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. F4TCNQ shows optimal performance in enhancing the p-type conductance of monolayer phosphorene. Static electronic properties indicate that the enhancement is originated from the charge transfer between adsorbed molecule and phosphorene layer. Dynamic transport behaviors demonstrate that additional channels for hole transport in host monolayer phosphorene were generated upon the adsorption of molecule. Our work unveils the great potential of surface charge transfer doping in tuning the electronic properties of monolayer phosphorene and is of significance to its application in high-performance devices.

  7. Temperature-dependent surface density of alkylthiol monolayers on gold nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuepeng; Lu, Pin; Zhai, Hua; Wu, Yucheng

    2018-03-01

    Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to study the surface density of passivating monolayers of alkylthiol chains on gold nanocrystals at temperatures ranging from 1 to 800 K. The results show that the surface density of alkylthiol monolayer reaches a maximum value at near room temperature (200-300 K), while significantly decreases with increasing temperature in the higher temperature region (> 300 {{K}}), and slightly decreases with decreasing temperature at low temperature (< 200 {{K}}). We find that the temperature dependence of surface ligand density in the higher temperature region is attributed to the substantial ligand desorption induced by the thermal fluctuation, while that at low temperature results from the reduction in entropy caused by the change in the ordering of passivating monolayer. These results are expected helpful to understand the temperature-dependent surface coverage of gold nanocrystals.

  8. Interactions of phospholipid monolayer with single-walled carbon nanotube wrapped by lysophospholipid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Siwool; Kim, Hyungsu, E-mail: hkim@dku.edu

    2012-10-01

    In this study, we prepared single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) wrapped by 1-stearoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1 Prime -rac-glycerol) (LPG), leading to a complex of SWNT-LPG. In an attempt to investigate the interactions of SWNT-LPG with a mimicked cell surface, SWNT-LPG solution was injected into the sub-phase of Langmuir trough to form a mixed monolayer with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG), respectively. In addition to the measurement of typical surface pressure-area isotherms under compression mode, area changes occurring during insertion of SWNT-LPG into the monolayer were recorded at various surface pressures. Changes in surface potential were also measured for evident tracing of the degree of interactions between sub-phase and monolayer. A systematic comparison of relaxation patterns and insertion behavior along with surface potential data provided a rational basis to distinguish the degree of interactions between SWNT-LPG and the designated monolayer. The observed tendencies were found to be in accordance with the surface topography as revealed by the tapping mode atomic force microscopy. It was consistently observed that SWNT-LPG interacted with DPPC to a greater extent than with DPPG, when the sufficient coverage of nanotube surface by LPG molecules was assured. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complex of single-walled carbon nanotubes and lysophospholipid (SWNT-LPG) is formed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composite monolayer is formed by inserting SWNT-LPG into the phospholipid monolayer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We measure area-pressure responses and dipole potentials during the insertion process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Properties of composite monolayer depend on the kind of phospholipid and LPG content.

  9. Effect of lipid composition and packing on the adsorption of apolipoproteins to lipid monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibdah, J.A.; Lund-Katz, S.; Phillips, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    The monolayer system has been used to study the effects of lipoprotein surface lipid composition and packing on the affinities of apolipoproteins for the surfaces of lipoprotein particles. The adsorption of apolipoproteins injected beneath lipid monolayers prepared with pure lipids or lipoprotein surface lipids is evaluated by monitoring the surface pressure of the film and the surface concentration (Gamma) of 14 C-labelled apolipoprotein. At a given initial film pressure (π/sub i/) there is a higher adsorption of human apo A-I to unsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) monolayers compared to saturated PC monolayers (e.g., at π/sub i/ = 10 mN/m, Gamma = 0.35 and 0.06 mg/m 2 for egg PC and distearoyl PC, respectively, with 3 x 10 -4 mg/ml apo A-I in the subphase). In addition, adsorption of apo A-I is less to an egg sphingomyelin monolayer than to an egg PC monolayer. The adsorption of apo A-I to PC monolayers is decreased by addition of cholesterol. Generally, apo A-I adsorption diminishes as the lipid molecular area decreases. Apo A-I adsorbs more to monolayers prepared with HDL 3 surface lipids than with LDL surface lipids. These studies suggest that lipoprotein surface lipid composition and packing are crucial factors influencing the transfer and exchange of apolipoproteins among various lipoprotein classes during metabolism of lipoprotein particles

  10. Interactions between an anticancer drug - edelfosine - and cholesterol in Langmuir monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiecek, Agata; Dynarowicz-Latka, Patrycja; Minones, J.; Conde, Olga; Casas, Matilde

    2008-01-01

    Edelfosine (1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine, abbr. Et-18-OCH 3 ) is a new generation anticancer drug based on a phospholipids-like structure. Since its mechanism of action is believed to be related to the lipids of cellular membrane, we have investigated the interactions between edelfosine and main mammalian sterol: cholesterol, using the Langmuir monolayer technique. The interactions have been analyzed by comparing the experimental curves with theoretical ones, obtained basing on the additivity rule. The observed contraction together with negative deviations from ideality observed on the mean molecular area (A 12 ) vs film composition plots proves the existence of strong attractive forces between edelfosine and cholesterol, which have been quantified with the excess free energy of mixing (ΔG exc ) values, calculated from the surface pressure-area isotherms datapoints. The most negative values of ΔG exc have been found for the mixture of equimolar composition, proving its highest thermodynamic stability and the existence of the strongest interactions between film components. Thus, it has been postulated that at the surface edelfosine and cholesterol form stable complexes of 1:1 stoichiometry. The analysis of the collapse pressure values for the investigated mixed monolayers proves that films of edelfosine mole fraction ≤ 0.5 are miscible within the whole range of surface pressures, while monolayers richer in edelfosine mix in the pressure region below ca. 37.6 mN/m, which corresponds to the collapse of pure edelfosine monolayer. At this very surface pressure, edelfosine is expelled from the mixed monolayer and the remaining film is composed by surface complexes of high stability. The hypothesis of complex formation explains the results performed in vitro on cell cultures, indicating that the increase of cholesterol content significantly reduces the uptake of edelfosine

  11. Study of the interaction of lactoferricin B with phospholipid monolayers and bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseneault, Marjolaine; Bédard, Sarah; Boulet-Audet, Maxime; Pézolet, Michel

    2010-03-02

    Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) is an antimicrobial peptide obtained from the pepsin cleavage of lactoferrin. The activity of LfcinB has been extensively studied on diverse pathogens, but its mechanism of action still has to be elucidated. Because of its nonspecificity, its mode of action is assumed to be related to interactions with membranes. In this study, the interaction of LfcinB with a negatively charged monolayer of dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol has been investigated as a function of the surface pressure of the lipid film using in situ Brewster angle and polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy and on transferred monolayers by atomic force microscopy and polarized attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. The data show clearly that LfcinB forms stable films at the air-water interface. They also reveal that the interaction of LfcinB with the lipid monolayer is modulated by the surface pressure. At low surface pressure, LfcinB inserts within the lipid film with its long molecular axis oriented mainly parallel to the acyl chains, while at high surface pressure, LfcinB is adsorbed under the lipid film, the hairpin being preferentially aligned parallel to the plane of the interface. The threshold for which the behavior changes is 20 mN/m. At this critical surface pressure, LfcinB interacts with the monolayer to form discoidal lipid-peptide assemblies. This structure may actually represent the mechanism of action of this peptide. The results obtained on monolayers are correlated by fluorescent probe release measurements of dye-containing vesicles made of lipids in different phases and support the important role of the lipid fluidity and packing on the activity of LfcinB.

  12. Langmuir monolayer formation of metal complexes from polymerizable amphiphilic ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkman, P.J; Schouten, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    The monolayer behaviour of 4-(10,12-pentacosadiynoicamidomethyl)-pyridine at the air-water interface was studied by measuring the surface pressure-area isotherms. The amphiphile formed stable monolayers with a clear liquid-expanded (LE) to liquid-condensed phase transition at various temperatures.

  13. Calculated electronic structure of chromium surfaces and chromium monolayers on iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victora, R.H.; Falicov, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    A self-consistent calculation of the magnetic and electronic properties of the chromium (100) and (110) surfaces and of a chromium monolayer on the (100) and (110) iron surfaces is presented. It is found that (i) the (100) chromium surface is ferromagnetic with a greatly enhanced spin polarization (3.00 electrons); (ii) a substantial enhancement of the spin imbalance exists several (>5) layers into the bulk; (iii) the (110) chromium surface is antiferromagnetic with a large (2.31) spin imbalance; (iv) the (100) chromium monolayer on ferromagnetic iron is ferromagnetic, with a huge spin imbalance (3.63), and aligned antiferromagnetically with respect to the bulk iron; (v) the (110) chromium monolayer on ferromagnetic iron is also ferromagnetic, with a spin imbalance of 2.25 and antiferromagnetically aligned to the iron. The spin imbalance of chromium on iron (100) is possibly the largest of any transition-metal system

  14. ELECTROCATALYSIS ON SURFACES MODIFIED BY METAL MONOLAYERS DEPOSITED AT UNDERPOTENTIALS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADZIC,R.

    2000-12-01

    The remarkable catalytic properties of electrode surfaces modified by monolayer amounts of metal adatoms obtained by underpotential deposition (UPD) have been the subject of a large number of studies during the last couple of decades. This interest stems from the possibility of implementing strictly surface modifications of electrocatalysts in an elegant, well-controlled way, and these bi-metallic surfaces can serve as models for the design of new catalysts. In addition, some of these systems may have potential for practical applications. The UPD of metals, which in general involves the deposition of up to a monolayer of metal on a foreign substrate at potentials positive to the reversible thermodynamic potential, facilitates this type of surface modification, which can be performed repeatedly by potential control. Recent studies of these surfaces and their catalytic properties by new in situ surface structure sensitive techniques have greatly improved the understanding of these systems.

  15. Nonequilibrium 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid monolayers: effect of electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendrum, Conrad D; Ingham, Bridget; Lin, Binhua; Meron, Mati; Toney, Michael F; McGrath, Kathryn M

    2011-04-19

    2-Hydroxyacids display complex monolayer phase behavior due to the additional hydrogen bonding afforded by the presence of the second hydroxy group. The placement of this group at the position α to the carboxylic acid functionality also introduces the possibility of chelation, a utility important in crystallization including biomineralization. Biomineralization, like many biological processes, is inherently a nonequilibrium process. The nonequilibrium monolayer phase behavior of 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid was investigated on each of pure water, calcium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate crystallizing subphases as a precursor study to a model calcium carbonate biomineralizing system, each at a pH of ∼6. The role of the bicarbonate co-ion in manipulating the monolayer structure was determined by comparison with monolayer phase behavior on a sodium chloride subphase. Monolayer phase behavior was probed using surface pressure/area isotherms, surface potential, Brewster angle microscopy, and synchrotron-based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity. Complex phase behavior was observed for all but the sodium chloride subphase with hydrogen bonding, electrostatic and steric effects defining the symmetry of the monolayer. On a pure water subphase hydrogen bonding dominates with three phases coexisting at low pressures. Introduction of calcium ions into the aqueous subphase ensures strong cation binding to the surfactant head groups through chelation. The monolayer becomes very unstable in the presence of bicarbonate ions within the subphase due to short-range hydrogen bonding interactions between the monolayer and bicarbonate ions facilitated by the sodium cation enhancing surfactant solubility. The combined effects of electrostatics and hydrogen bonding are observed on the calcium carbonate crystallizing subphase. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  16. Electrical passivation of the silicon surface by organic monolayers of 1-octadecene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, I. V.; Soots, R. A.; Seleznev, V. A.; Prints, V. Ya.

    2007-01-01

    The electrical properties of structures consisting of a monolayer of 1-octadecene deposited on the Si surface are investigated depending on the method of passivation of the surface prior to the deposition of the film (hydrogen and ion passivation) and the intensity of illumination which activates the addition reaction of molecules of 1-octadecene to the Si atoms. The monolayer of 1-octadecene on the Si surface is stable and provides the chemical passivation of the surface. Two types of traps are found, namely, traps for holes and electrons, whose density can be varied during deposition of the monolayer by the choice of intensity of illumination and by the method of passivation of the surface. In the case of a low level of illumination and/or the use of the iodine passivation of the surface, the electron traps prevail, and, in the case of high intensity of illumination and/or hydrogen passivation of the surface, the hole traps prevail. It is shown that the use of these films provides conductivity in thin near-surface layers of Si due to providing the mode of flat bands or accumulation of carriers near the surface

  17. Surface interactions, thermodynamics and topography of binary monolayers of Insulin with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine at the air/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, E J; Oliveira, R G; Maggio, B

    2016-02-15

    The molecular packing, thermodynamics and surface topography of binary Langmuir monolayers of Insulin and DPPC (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine) or POCP (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine) at the air/water interface on Zn(2+) containing solutions were studied. Miscibility and interactions were ascertained by the variation of surface pressure-mean molecular area isotherms, surface compressional modulus and surface (dipole) potential with the film composition. Brewster Angle Microscopy was used to visualize the surface topography of the monolayers. Below 20mN/m Insulin forms stable homogenous films with DPPC and POPC at all mole fractions studied (except for films with XINS=0.05 at 10mN/m where domain coexistence was observed). Above 20mN/m, a segregation process between mixed phases occurred in all monolayers without squeezing out of individual components. Under compression the films exhibit formation of a viscoelastic or kinetically trapped organization leading to considerable composition-dependent hysteresis under expansion that occurs with entropic-enthalpic compensation. The spontaneously unfavorable interactions of Insulin with DPPC are driven by favorable enthalpy that is overcome by unfavorable entropic ordering; in films with POPC both the enthalpic and entropic effects are unfavorable. The surface topography reveals domain coexistence at relatively high pressure showing a striped appearance. The interactions of Insulin with two major membrane phospholipids induces composition-dependent and long-range changes of the surface organization that ought to be considered in the context of the information-transducing capabilities of the hormone for cell functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chiral and herringbone symmetry breaking in water-surface monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, I.R.; Kenn, R.M.; Goudot, A.

    1996-01-01

    We report the observation from monolayers of eicosanoic acid in the L(2)' phase of three distinct out-of-plane first-order diffraction peaks, indicating molecular tilt in a nonsymmetry direction and hence the absence of mirror symmetry. At lower pressures the molecules tilt in the direction of th...

  19. Monolayered Bi2WO6 nanosheets mimicking heterojunction interface with open surfaces for photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yangen; Zhang, Yongfan; Lin, Mousheng; Long, Jinlin; Zhang, Zizhong; Lin, Huaxiang; Wu, Jeffrey C.-S.; Wang, Xuxu

    2015-09-01

    Two-dimensional-layered heterojunctions have attracted extensive interest recently due to their exciting behaviours in electronic/optoelectronic devices as well as solar energy conversion systems. However, layered heterojunction materials, especially those made by stacking different monolayers together by strong chemical bonds rather than by weak van der Waal interactions, are still challenging to fabricate. Here the monolayer Bi2WO6 with a sandwich substructure of [BiO]+-[WO4]2--[BiO]+ is reported. This material may be characterized as a layered heterojunction with different monolayer oxides held together by chemical bonds. Coordinatively unsaturated Bi atoms are present as active sites on the surface. On irradiation, holes are generated directly on the active surface layer and electrons in the middle layer, which leads to the outstanding performances of the monolayer material in solar energy conversion. Our work provides a general bottom-up route for designing and preparing novel monolayer materials with ultrafast charge separation and active surface.

  20. Mixed carboranethiol self-assembled monolayers on gold surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Adem; Sohrabnia, Nima; Yilmaz, Ayşen; Danışman, M. Fatih

    2017-08-01

    Carboranethiol self-assembled monolayers on metal surfaces have been shown to be very convenient systems for surface engineering. Here we have studied pure and mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of three different carboranethiol (CT) isomers on gold surfaces. The isomers were chosen with dipole moments pointing parallel to (m-1-carboranethiol, M1), out of (m-9-carboranethiol, M9) and into (o-1-carboranethiol, O1) the surface plane, in order to investigate the effect of dipole moment orientation on the film properties. In addition, influence of the substrate surface morphology on the film properties was also studied by using flame annealed (FA) and template stripped (TS) gold surfaces. Contact angle measurements indicate that in M1/M9 and M1/O1 mixed SAMs, M1 is the dominant species on the surface even for low M1 ratio in the growth solution. Whereas for O1/M9 mixed SAMs no clear evidence could be observed indicating dominance of one of the species over the other one. Though contact angle values were lower and hysteresis values were higher for SAMs grown on TS gold surfaces, the trends in the behavior of the contact angles with changing mixing ratio were identical for SAMs grown on both substrates. Atomic force microscopy images of the SAMs on TS gold surfaces indicate that the films have similar morphological properties regardless of mixing ratio.

  1. Stress relaxation in quasi-two-dimensional self-assembled nanoparticle monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucheron, Leandra S.; Stanley, Jacob T.; Dai, Yeling; You, Siheng Sean; Parzyck, Christopher T.; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec R.; Jiang, Zhang; Meron, Mati; Lin, Binhua; Shpyrko, Oleg G.

    2018-05-01

    We experimentally probed the stress relaxation of a monolayer of iron oxide nanoparticles at the water-air interface. Upon drop-casting onto a water surface, the nanoparticles self-assembled into islands of two-dimensional hexagonally close packed crystalline domains surrounded by large voids. When compressed laterally, the voids gradually disappeared as the surface pressure increased. After the compression was stopped, the surface pressure (as measured by a Wilhelmy plate) evolved as a function of the film aging time with three distinct timescales. These aging dynamics were intrinsic to the stressed state built up during the non-equilibrium compression of the film. Utilizing x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, we measured the characteristic relaxation time (τ ) of in-plane nanoparticle motion as a function of the aging time through both second-order and two-time autocorrelation analysis. Compressed and stretched exponential fitting of the intermediate scattering function yielded exponents (β ) indicating different relaxation mechanisms of the films under different compression stresses. For a monolayer compressed to a lower surface pressure (between 20 mN/m and 30 mN/m), the relaxation time (τ ) decreased continuously as a function of the aging time, as did the fitted exponent, which transitioned from being compressed (>1 ) to stretched (stress release through crystalline domain reorganization. However, for a monolayer compressed to a higher surface pressure (around 40 mN/m), the relaxation time increased continuously and the compressed exponent varied very little from a value of 1.6, suggesting that the system may have been highly stressed and jammed. Despite the interesting stress relaxation signatures seen in these samples, the structural ordering of the monolayer remained the same over the sample lifetime, as revealed by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction.

  2. Atomic force microscopy studies of lateral phase separation in mixed monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and dilauroylphosphatidylcholine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Jacqueline; Badia, Antonella

    2003-09-01

    Atomic force microscopy imaging of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC) monolayers deposited onto alkanethiol modified-gold surfaces by the Langmuir-Schaefer technique was used to investigate domain formation in a binary system where phase separation arises from a difference in the alkyl chain lengths of the lipids. We have established how the condensed domain structure (shape and size) in DPPC/DLPC monolayers depends on the surface pressure and lipid composition. The mixed monolayers exhibit a positive deviation from an ideal mixing behavior at surface pressures of {<=}32 mN/m. Lateral compression to pressures greater than the liquid-expanded-to-liquid-condensed (LE-to-LC) phase transition pressure of the mixed monolayer ({approx}8-16 mN/m) induces extensive separation into condensed DPPC-rich domains and a fluid DLPC matrix. The condensed structures observed at a few milliNeutons per meter above the LE-to-LC transition pressure resemble those reported for pure DPPC monolayers in the LE/LC co-existence region. At a bilayer equivalence pressure of 32 mN/m and 20 deg. C, condensed domains exist between x{sub DPPC} {approx}0.25 and {approx}0.80, analogous to aqueous DPPC/DLPC dispersions. Compression from 32 to 40 mN/m results in either a striking distortion of the DPPC domain shape or a break-up of the microscopic DPPC domains into a network of nanoscopic islands (at higher DPPC mol fractions), possibly reflecting a critical mixing behavior. The results of this study provide a fundamental framework for understanding and controlling the formation of lateral domain structures in mixed phospholipid monolayers.

  3. Experimental evidence for an original two-dimensional phase structure: An antiparallel semifluorinated monolayer at the air-water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Abed, A.; Faure, M-C.; Pouzet, E.; Abillon, O.

    2002-01-01

    We show the spontaneous formation of an antiparallel monolayer of diblock semifluorinated n-alkane molecules spread at the air-water interface. We used simultaneous measurements of surface pressure and surface potential versus molecular area and performed grazing x-ray reflectivity experiments to characterize the studied monolayer, which is obtained at almost zero surface pressure and precedes the formation of a bilayer at higher surface pressure. Its thickness, equal to 2.7 nm, was found to be independent of the molecular area. This behavior may be explained by van der Waals and electrostatic interactions

  4. X-ray studies of the liquid/vapor interface: Water and polymer and fatty acid monolayers on water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlossman, M.L.; Schwartz, D.K.; Kawamoto, E.H.; Kellogg, G.J.; Pershan, P.S.; Ocko, B.M.; Kim, M.W.; Chung, T.C.

    1989-01-01

    X-ray specular reflectivity is used to study the liquid-vapor interface of pure water and of fatty acid and polymer monolayers at that interface. For the pure water surface the reflectivity was measured for three different spectrometer resolutions and simultaneous fits with only one free parameter to all of the data are in excellent agreement with the prediction of capillary wave theory for the RMS surface roughness. Diffuse scattering away from the specular condition, at wavevectors corresponding to those of the capillary waves, yields intensities and line shapes in agreement with theory with no significant adjustable parameters. Reflectivity from separate monolayers of co-poly 1, 2-butadiene/butyl alcohol (50% random substitution) and lignoceric acid (CH 3 (CH 2 ) 22 COOH) at the water/vapor interface are interpreted to obtain profiles of the average electron density ρ(z) as a function of distance z along the surface normal. For the polymer monolayer we find the following: (1) a local maximum in the electron density approximately 10% larger than that of the bulk polymer and (2) the RMS roughness of the vapor/polymer interface agrees with capillary wave theory predictions for the lower surface pressures. For the highest surface pressure the RMS roughness exceeds the value predicted by the capillary wave model. Measurements of reflectivity from a lignoceric acid monolayer, as a function of surface pressure throughout an isotherm (near room temperature), reveal the following behavior: (1) the overall thickness of the monolayer increases with increasing pressure and (2) the head groups occupy a progressively larger region along the surface normal as the pressure increases, indicating that they rearrange normal to the interface. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Pressure-Dependent Light Emission of Charged and Neutral Excitons in Monolayer MoSe 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Xinpeng [State; Li, Fangfei [State; Lin, Jung-Fu [Department; Gong, Yuanbo [State; Huang, Xiaoli [State; Huang, Yanping [State; Han, Bo [State; Zhou, Qiang [State; Cui, Tian [State

    2017-07-19

    Tailoring the excitonic properties in two-dimensional monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) through strain engineering is an effective means to explore their potential applications in optoelectronics and nanoelectronics. Here we report pressure-tuned photon emission of trions and excitons in monolayer MoSe2 via a diamond anvil cell (DAC) through photoluminescence measurements and theoretical calculations. Under quasi-hydrostatic compressive strain, our results show neutral (X0) and charged (X–) exciton emission of monolayer MoSe2 can be effectively tuned by alcohol mixture vs inert argon pressure transmitting media (PTM). During this process, X– emission undergoes a continuous blue shift until reaching saturation, while X0 emission turns up splitting. The pressure-dependent charging effect observed in alcohol mixture PTM results in the increase of the X– exciton component and facilitates the pressure-tuned emission of X– excitons. This substantial tunability of X– and X0 excitons in MoSe2 can be extended to other 2D TMDs, which holds potential for developing strained and optical sensing devices.

  6. Fabrication and surface transformation of FePt nanoparticle monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Ding Baojun; Li Hua; Zhang Xiaoyan; Cai Bingchu; Zhang Yafei

    2007-01-01

    The monolayer of FePt nanoparticles with the mean size of ∼4 nm was fabricated on a glass substrate by the Langmuir--Blodgett (LB) technology. The monolayer of FePt nanoparticles has a smooth surface and a high density structure as shown by the AFM image. The array structure of FePt nanoparticles on the surface of the film is clearly with a cubic symmetry in appropriate condition. Small-angle X-ray diffraction (SXRD) measurement of multilayer structure for the FePt nanoparticles has indicated that the superlattices consist of well-defined smooth layers. The transfer of nanoparticle layers onto a solid substrate surface was quite efficient for the first few layers, exhibiting a proportional increase of optical absorption in the UV-vis range. This results potentially opens up a new approach to the long-range ordered array of FePt nanoparticles capped by organic molecules on substrate and provide a promising thin film, which may exhibit the excellent ultra-high density magnetic recording properties

  7. Antibiotic interaction with phospholipid monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambinossi, F.; Mecheri, B.; Caminati, G.; Nocentini, M.; Puggelli, M.; Gabrielli, G.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the interactions of tetracycline (TC) antibiotic molecules with phospholipid monolayers with the two-fold aim of elucidating the mechanism of action and providing a first step for the realization of bio-mimetic sensors for such drugs by means of the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. We examined spreading monolayers of three phospholipids in the presence of tetracycline in the subphase by means of surface pressure-area and surface potential-area isotherms as a function of bulk pH. We selected phospholipids with hydrophobic chains of the same length but polar head groups differing either in dimensions and protonation equilibria, i.e. dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) and dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid (DPPA). The interaction of tetracycline with the three phospholipids was found to be highly dependent on the electric charge of the antibiotic and on the ionization state of the lipid. Significant interactions are established between the negatively charged form of dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid and the zwitterionic form of tetracycline. The drug was found to migrate at the interface where it is adsorbed underneath or/and among the head groups, depending on the surface pressure of the film, whereas penetration through the hydrophobic layer was excluded for all the three phospholipids

  8. Antibiotic interaction with phospholipid monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambinossi, F.; Mecheri, B.; Caminati, G.; Nocentini, M.; Puggelli, M.; Gabrielli, G

    2002-12-01

    We studied the interactions of tetracycline (TC) antibiotic molecules with phospholipid monolayers with the two-fold aim of elucidating the mechanism of action and providing a first step for the realization of bio-mimetic sensors for such drugs by means of the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. We examined spreading monolayers of three phospholipids in the presence of tetracycline in the subphase by means of surface pressure-area and surface potential-area isotherms as a function of bulk pH. We selected phospholipids with hydrophobic chains of the same length but polar head groups differing either in dimensions and protonation equilibria, i.e. dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) and dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid (DPPA). The interaction of tetracycline with the three phospholipids was found to be highly dependent on the electric charge of the antibiotic and on the ionization state of the lipid. Significant interactions are established between the negatively charged form of dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid and the zwitterionic form of tetracycline. The drug was found to migrate at the interface where it is adsorbed underneath or/and among the head groups, depending on the surface pressure of the film, whereas penetration through the hydrophobic layer was excluded for all the three phospholipids.

  9. Structural and shear characteristics of adsorbed sodium caseinate and monoglyceride mixed monolayers at the air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Patino, Juan M; Cejudo Fernández, Marta; Carrera Sánchez, Cecilio; Rodríguez Niño, Ma Rosario

    2007-09-01

    The structural and shear characteristics of mixed monolayers formed by an adsorbed Na-caseinate film and a spread monoglyceride (monopalmitin or monoolein) on the previously adsorbed protein film have been analyzed. Measurements of the surface pressure (pi)-area (A) isotherm and surface shear viscosity (eta(s)) were obtained at 20 degrees C and at pH 7 in a modified Wilhelmy-type film balance. The structural and shear characteristics of the mixed films depend on the surface pressure and on the composition of the mixed film. At surface pressures lower than the equilibrium surface pressure of Na-caseinate (at picaseinate and monoglyceride coexist at the interface, with a structural polymorphism or a liquid expanded structure due to the presence of monopalmitin or monoolein in the mixture, respectively. At higher surface pressures, collapsed Na-caseinate residues may be displaced from the interface by monoglyceride molecules. For a Na-caseinate-monopalmitin mixed film the eta(s) value varies greatly with the surface pressure (or surface density) of the mixed monolayer at the interface. In general, the greater the surface pressure, the greater are the values of eta(s). However, the values of eta(s) for a Na-caseinate-monoolein mixed monolayer are very low and practically do not depend on the surface pressure. The collapsed Na-caseinate residues displaced from the interface by monoglyceride molecules at pi>pi(e)(CS) have important repercussions on the shear characteristics of the mixed films.

  10. Pd-catalyzed coupling reaction on the organic monolayer: Sonogashira reaction on the silicon (1 1 1) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Mengnan; Zhang Yuan; He Jinmei; Cao Xiaoping; Zhang Junyan

    2008-01-01

    Iodophenyl-terminated organic monolayers were prepared by thermally induced hydrosilylation on hydrogen-terminated silicon (1 1 1) surfaces. The films were characterized by ellipsometry, contact-angle goniometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). To modify the surface chemistry and the structure of the monolayers, the Sonogashira coupling reaction was performed on the as-prepared monolayers. The iodophenyl groups on the film surfaces reacted with 1-ethynyl-4-fluorobenzene or the 1-chloro-4-ethynylbenzene under the standard Sonogashira reaction conditions for attaching conjugated molecules via the formation of C-C bonds. It is expected that this surface coupling reaction will present a new method to modify the surface chemistry and the structure of monolayers

  11. Morphology, defect evolutions and nano-mechanical anisotropy of behenic acid monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guanghong; Jiang Xiaohong; Dai Shuxi; Cheng Gang; Zhang Xingtang; Du Zuliang

    2010-01-01

    Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of behenic acid (BA) were prepared by the vertical deposition method and their morphological evolutions and nano-mechanical anisotropy were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and lateral force microscopy. Results show that there are platforms in the differential surface pressure-area (π-A) isotherm presenting linear relations between the chain tilting angles and surface pressures. The reorganization, appearance and disappearance of defects such as pinholes and holes can strongly affect the profile of π-A isotherm; AFM images reflect evolution rules from pinholes to holes, and from monolayer to bilayers along with compression and relaxation of structures in BA monolayer. Due to higher molecule density and larger real contact area, the tip-monolayer contacts at 15 and 25 mN/m correspond to the Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov (DMT) model showing long-ranged interaction forces. But owing to more easily-deformed conformations, contacts at 5 and 35 mN/m accord with the Johnson-Kendall-Robert and DMT transition cases exhibiting short-ranged interface interactions. A little higher friction is proved in the direction perpendicular to the deposition.

  12. A trough for improved SFG spectroscopy of lipid monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Johannes; van Zadel, Marc-Jan; Weidner, Tobias

    2017-05-01

    Lipid monolayers are indispensable model systems for biological membranes. The main advantage over bilayer model systems is that the surface pressure within the layer can be directly and reliably controlled. The sensitive interplay between surface pressure and temperature determines the molecular order within a model membrane and consequently determines the membrane phase behavior. The lipid phase is of crucial importance for a range of membrane functions such as protein interactions and membrane permeability. A very reliable method to probe the structure of lipid monolayers is sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. Not only is SFG extremely surface sensitive but it can also directly access critical parameters such as lipid order and orientation, and it can provide valuable information about protein interactions along with interfacial hydration. However, recent studies have shown that temperature gradients caused by high power laser beams perturb the lipid layers and potentially obscure the spectroscopic results. Here we demonstrate how the local heating problem can be effectively reduced by spatially distributing the laser pulses on the sample surface using a translating Langmuir trough for SFG experiments at lipid monolayers. The efficiency of the trough is illustrated by the detection of enhanced molecular order due to reduced heat load.

  13. Electrochemical immobilization of biomolecules on gold surface modified with monolayered L-cysteine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Mitsunori, E-mail: honda.mitsunori@jaea.go.jp; Baba, Yuji; Sekiguchi, Tetsuhiro; Shimoyama, Iwao; Hirao, Norie

    2014-04-01

    Immobilization of organic molecules on the top of a metal surface is not easy because of lattice mismatch between organic and metal crystals. Gold atoms bind to thiol groups through strong chemical bonds, and a self-assembled monolayer of sulfur-terminated organic molecules is formed on the gold surface. Herein, we suggested that a monolayer of L-cysteine deposited on a gold surface can act as a buffer layer to immobilize biomolecules on the metal surface. We selected lactic acid as the immobilized biomolecule because it is one of the simplest carboxyl-containing biomolecules. The immobilization of lactic acid on the metal surface was carried out by an electrochemical method in an aqueous environment under the potential range varying from − 0.6 to + 0.8 V. The surface chemical states before and after the electrochemical reaction were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The N 1s and C 1s XPS spectra showed that the L-cysteine-modified gold surface can immobilize lactic acid via peptide bonds. This technique might enable the immobilization of large organic molecules and biomolecules. - Highlights: • Monolayer l-cysteine deposited on Au surface as a buffer layer to immobilize biomolecules. • Lactic acid as the immobilized biomolecule as it is simple carboxyl-containing biomolecule. • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of surface chemical states, before and after. • L-cysteine-modified Au surface can immobilize lactic acid via peptide bonds.

  14. Electrochemical immobilization of biomolecules on gold surface modified with monolayered L-cysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Mitsunori; Baba, Yuji; Sekiguchi, Tetsuhiro; Shimoyama, Iwao; Hirao, Norie

    2014-01-01

    Immobilization of organic molecules on the top of a metal surface is not easy because of lattice mismatch between organic and metal crystals. Gold atoms bind to thiol groups through strong chemical bonds, and a self-assembled monolayer of sulfur-terminated organic molecules is formed on the gold surface. Herein, we suggested that a monolayer of L-cysteine deposited on a gold surface can act as a buffer layer to immobilize biomolecules on the metal surface. We selected lactic acid as the immobilized biomolecule because it is one of the simplest carboxyl-containing biomolecules. The immobilization of lactic acid on the metal surface was carried out by an electrochemical method in an aqueous environment under the potential range varying from − 0.6 to + 0.8 V. The surface chemical states before and after the electrochemical reaction were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The N 1s and C 1s XPS spectra showed that the L-cysteine-modified gold surface can immobilize lactic acid via peptide bonds. This technique might enable the immobilization of large organic molecules and biomolecules. - Highlights: • Monolayer l-cysteine deposited on Au surface as a buffer layer to immobilize biomolecules. • Lactic acid as the immobilized biomolecule as it is simple carboxyl-containing biomolecule. • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of surface chemical states, before and after. • L-cysteine-modified Au surface can immobilize lactic acid via peptide bonds

  15. Miscibility of dl-α-tocopherol β-glucoside in DPPC monolayer at air/water and air/solid interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neunert, G. [Department of Physics and Biophysics, Poznan University of Life Sciences, 60-637 Poznan (Poland); Makowiecki, J.; Piosik, E.; Hertmanowski, R. [Faculty of Technical Physics, Poznan University of Technology, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Polewski, K. [Department of Physics and Biophysics, Poznan University of Life Sciences, 60-637 Poznan (Poland); Martynski, T., E-mail: tomasz.martynski@put.poznan.pl [Faculty of Technical Physics, Poznan University of Technology, 60-965 Poznan (Poland)

    2016-10-01

    The role of newly synthesized tocopherol glycosidic derivative in modifying molecular organization and phase transitions of phospholipid monolayer at the air/water interface has been investigated. Two-component Langmuir films of dl-α-tocopheryl β-D-glucopyranoside (BG) mixed with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) in the whole range of mole fractions were formed at the water surface. An analysis of surface pressure versus mean molecular area (π-A) isotherms and Brewster angle microscope images showed that the presence of BG molecules changes the structure and packing of the DPPC monolayer in a BG concentration dependent manner. BG molecules incorporated into DPPC monolayer inhibit its liquid expanded to liquid condensed phase transition proportionally to the BG concentration. The monolayers were also transferred onto solid substrates and visualized using an atomic force microscope. The results obtained indicate almost complete miscibility of BG and DPPC in the monolayers at surface pressures present in the biological cell membrane (30-35·10{sup -3} N·m{sup -1}) for a BG mole fraction as high as 0.3. This makes the monolayer less packed and more disordered, leading to an increased permeability. The results support our previous molecular dynamics simulation data. - Highlights: • Langmuir films of α-tocopherol derivative with DPPC was studied thermodynamically. • Mixed DPPC/BG films were transferred onto mica substrates for topography imaging by using AFM. • Miscibility of BG/DPPC films at surface pressures present in membranes was observed up to MF = 0.3.

  16. Mixed carboranethiol self-assembled monolayers on gold surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, Adem [Micro and Nanotechnology Department, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Science, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Sohrabnia, Nima [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Yilmaz, Ayşen [Micro and Nanotechnology Department, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Science, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Danışman, M. Fatih, E-mail: danisman@metu.edu.tr [Micro and Nanotechnology Department, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Science, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • M1 binds to the gold surface preferentially when co-deposited with M9 or O1. • Contact angles show similar trends regardless of the gold substrate roughness. • Contact angles were lower, with higher hysteresis, on template stripped gold. • Mixed carboranethiol SAMs have similar morphological properties regardless of mixing ratio. - Abstract: Carboranethiol self-assembled monolayers on metal surfaces have been shown to be very convenient systems for surface engineering. Here we have studied pure and mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of three different carboranethiol (CT) isomers on gold surfaces. The isomers were chosen with dipole moments pointing parallel to (m-1-carboranethiol, M1), out of (m-9-carboranethiol, M9) and into (o-1-carboranethiol, O1) the surface plane, in order to investigate the effect of dipole moment orientation on the film properties. In addition, influence of the substrate surface morphology on the film properties was also studied by using flame annealed (FA) and template stripped (TS) gold surfaces. Contact angle measurements indicate that in M1/M9 and M1/O1 mixed SAMs, M1 is the dominant species on the surface even for low M1 ratio in the growth solution. Whereas for O1/M9 mixed SAMs no clear evidence could be observed indicating dominance of one of the species over the other one. Though contact angle values were lower and hysteresis values were higher for SAMs grown on TS gold surfaces, the trends in the behavior of the contact angles with changing mixing ratio were identical for SAMs grown on both substrates. Atomic force microscopy images of the SAMs on TS gold surfaces indicate that the films have similar morphological properties regardless of mixing ratio.

  17. Structure of adsorbed monolayers. The surface chemical bond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somorjai, G.A.; Bent, B.E.

    1984-06-01

    This paper attempts to provide a summary of what has been learned about the structure of adsorbed monolayers and about the surface chemical bond from molecular surface science. While the surface chemical bond is less well understood than bonding of molecules in the gas phase or in the solid state, our knowledge of its properties is rapidly accumulating. The information obtained also has great impact on many surface science based technologies, including heterogeneous catalysis and electronic devices. It is hoped that much of the information obtained from studies at solid-gas interfaces can be correlated with molecular behavior at solid-liquid interfaces. 31 references, 42 figures, 1 table

  18. Headgroup effects of template monolayers on the adsorption behavior and conformation of glucose oxidase adsorbed at air/liquid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Hsuan; Syu, Mei-Jywan; Chang, Chien-Hsiang; Lee, Yuh-Lang

    2011-06-21

    Stearic acid (SA) and octadecylamine (ODA) monolayers at the air/liquid interface were used as template layers to adsorb glucose oxidase (GOx) from aqueous solution. The effect of the template monolayers on the adsorption behavior of GOx was studied in terms of the variation of surface pressure, the evolution of surface morphology observed by BAM and AFM, and the conformation of adsorbed GOx. The results show that the presence of a template monolayer can enhance the adsorption rate of GOx; furthermore, ODA has a higher ability, compared to SA, to adsorb GOx, which is attributed to the electrostatic attractive interaction between ODA and GOx. For adsorption performed on a bare surface or on an SA monolayer, the surface pressure approaches an equilibrium value (ca. 8 mN/m) after 2 to 3 h of adsorption and remains nearly constant in the following adsorption process. For the adsorption on an ODA monolayer, the surface pressure will increase further 1 to 2 h after approaching the first equilibrium pressure, which is termed the second adsorption stage. The measurement of circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy indicates that the Langmuir-Blodgett films of adsorbed GOx transferred at the first equilibrium state (π = 8 mN/m) have mainly a β-sheet conformation, which is independent of the type of template monolayers. However, the ODA/GOx LB film transferred at the second adsorption stage has mainly an α-helix conformation. It is concluded that the specific interaction between ODA and GOx not only leads to a higher adsorption rate and adsorbed amount of GOx but also induces a conformation change in adsorbed GOx from β-sheet to α-helix. The present results indicate that is possible to control the conformation of adsorbed protein by selecting the appropriate template monolayer. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  19. X-Ray Reflectometry of DMPS Monolayers on a Water Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, A. M.; Asadchikov, V. E.; Volkov, Yu. O.; Roshchin, B. S.; Ermakov, Yu. A.

    2017-12-01

    The molecular structure of dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine (DMPS) monolayers on a water substrate in different phase states has been investigated by X-ray reflectometry with a photon energy of 8 keV. According to the experimental data, the transition from a two-dimensional expanded liquid state to a solid gel state (liquid crystal) accompanied by the ordering of the hydrocarbon tails C14H27 of the DMPS molecule occurs in the monolayer as the surface pressure rises. The monolayer thickness is 20 ± 3 and 28 ± 2 Å in the liquid and solid phases, respectively, with the deflection angle of the molecular tail axis from the normal to the surface in the gel phase being 26° ± 8°. At least a twofold decrease in the degree of hydration of the polar lipid groups also occurs under two-dimensional monolayer compression. The reflectometry data have been analyzed using two approaches: under the assumption about the presence of two layers with different electron densities in the monolayer and without any assumptions about the transverse surface structure. Both approaches demonstrate satisfactory agreement between themselves in describing the experimental results.

  20. Monolayer assembly and striped architecture of Co nanoparticles on organic functionalized Si surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, S.-S.; Lim, D.K.; Park, J.-I.; Kim, S. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry and School of Molecular Science (BK 21), Daejeon (Korea); Cheon, J. [Yonsei University, Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Seoul (Korea); Jeon, I.C. [Chonbuk National University, Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Chonbuk (Korea)

    2005-03-01

    We present a new strategy to fabricate a monolayer assembly of Br-terminated Co nanoparticles on functionalized Si surfaces by using chemical covalent bonding and microcontact printing method. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of the Co nanoparticles formed on the hydroxyl-terminated Si surface exhibit two-dimensional island networks with locally ordered arrays via covalent linkage between nanoparticles and surface. On the other hand, SAMs of the nanoparticles on the aminopropyl-terminated Si surface show an individual and random distribution over an entire surface. Furthermore, we have fabricated striped architectures of Co nanoparticles using a combination of microcontact printing and covalent linkage. Microcontact printing of octadecyltrichlorosilane and selective covalent linkage between nanoparticles and functionalized Si surfaces lead to a hybrid nanostructure with selectively assembled nanoparticles stripes on the patterned functionalized Si surfaces. (orig.)

  1. Direct imaging by atomic force microscopy of surface-localized self-assembled monolayers on a cuprate superconductor and surface X-ray scattering analysis of analogous monolayers on the surface of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schougaard, Steen B.; Reitzel, Niels; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    A self-assembled monolayer of CF3(CF2)(3)(CH2)(11)NH2 atop the (001) surface of the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x was imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM images provide direct 2D-structural evidence for the epitaxial 5.5 angstrom square root 2 x root 2R45 degrees unit...... was studied by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction and specular X-ray reflectivity. Structural differences and similarities between the water-supported and superconductor-localized monolayers are discussed....

  2. Organic surfaces exposed by self-assembled organothiol monolayers: Preparation, characterization, and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Martin; Wöll, Christof

    2009-07-01

    Organic surfaces play a major role in materials science. Most surfaces that we touch in our daily lives are made from organic materials, e.g., vegetables, fruit, skin, wood, and textiles made from natural fibers. In the context of biology, organic surfaces play a prominent role too, proteins docking onto cell surfaces are a good example. To better understand the characteristics of organic surfaces, including physico-chemical properties like wettability or chemical reactivities and physical properties like friction and lubrication, a structurally well-defined model system that can be investigated with numerous analytical techniques is desirable. In the last two decades, one particular system, self-assembled monolayers or SAMs, have demonstrated their suitability for this purpose. In particular, organothiols consisting of an organic molecule with an attached SH-group are well suited to fabricating structurally well-defined adlayers of monolayer thickness on gold substrates using a simple preparation procedure. These ultrathin monolayers expose an organic surface with properties that can be tailored by varying the type of organothiol employed. After a short introduction into the preparation of SAMs, this article provides an overview of the possibilities and limitations of organic surfaces exposed by Au-thiolate SAMs. Applications are as diverse as the metallization of organic surfaces, a fundamental problem in materials science, and the fabrication of surfaces that resist the adsorption of proteins. In addition to a number of different case studies, we will also discuss the most powerful analytical techniques needed to characterize these important model systems.

  3. Synthesis of Graphene Based Membranes: Effect of Substrate Surface Properties on Monolayer Graphene Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafiah, Feras; Khan, Zafarullah; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Atieh, Muataz; Laoui, Tahar

    2017-01-21

    In this work, we report the transfer of graphene onto eight commercial microfiltration substrates having different pore sizes and surface characteristics. Monolayer graphene grown on copper by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process was transferred by the pressing method over the target substrates, followed by wet etching of copper to obtain monolayer graphene/polymer membranes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and contact angle (CA) measurements were carried out to explore the graphene layer transferability. Three factors, namely, the substrate roughness, its pore size, and its surface wetting (degree of hydrophobicity) are found to affect the conformality and coverage of the transferred graphene monolayer on the substrate surface. A good quality graphene transfer is achieved on the substrate with the following characteristics; being hydrophobic (CA > 90°), having small pore size, and low surface roughness, with a CA to RMS (root mean square) ratio higher than 2.7°/nm.

  4. Thermodynamic and structural studies of mixed monolayers: Mutual mixing of DPPC and DPPG with DoTAP at the air-water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, Amiya Kumar; Vasilev, Krasimir; Orgeig, Sandra; Prestidge, Clive A.

    2010-01-01

    Phospholipid monomolecular films at the air-water interface are useful model membranes to understand miscibility among various components. Surface pressure (π)-area (A) isotherms of pure and mixed monolayers of dioleoyltrimethylammonium propane (DoTAP)-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and DoTAP-dipalmitoyphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) were constructed using a surface balance. DPPC and DPPG produced isotherms as expected and reported earlier. DoTAP, an unsaturated lipid, demonstrated a continuous π-A isotherm. Associative interactions were identified in DPPC-DoTAP mixtures compared to the pure components, while DPPG-DoTAP mixtures showed repulsive interaction up to an equimolar ratio. Compression moduli of the monolayers revealed that DPPC-DoTAP mixtures had increasing stability with increasing surface pressure, but addition of DoTAP to DPPG showed instability at low and intermediate concentrations. In both cases increased stability was returned at higher X DoTAP values and surface pressures. Lipid monolayer film thickness values, determined on a gold coated glass substrate by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR), indicated a systematic change in height profile for DPPC-DoTAP mixtures with increasing X DoTAP . However, DPPG-DoTAP mixed monolayer systems demonstrated a biphasic response. The SPR data were in excellent agreement with our interpretation of the structure of solid supported lipid monolayers.

  5. Thermodynamic and structural studies of mixed monolayers: Mutual mixing of DPPC and DPPG with DoTAP at the air-water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, Amiya Kumar, E-mail: akpanda1@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of North Bengal, Darjeeling-734 013, West Bengal (India); Vasilev, Krasimir [Mawson Institute for Advanced Manufacturing, Mawson Lakes, University of South Australia, SA-5095 (Australia); Orgeig, Sandra [Sansom Institute for Health Research and School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); Prestidge, Clive A. [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2010-05-10

    Phospholipid monomolecular films at the air-water interface are useful model membranes to understand miscibility among various components. Surface pressure ({pi})-area (A) isotherms of pure and mixed monolayers of dioleoyltrimethylammonium propane (DoTAP)-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and DoTAP-dipalmitoyphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) were constructed using a surface balance. DPPC and DPPG produced isotherms as expected and reported earlier. DoTAP, an unsaturated lipid, demonstrated a continuous {pi}-A isotherm. Associative interactions were identified in DPPC-DoTAP mixtures compared to the pure components, while DPPG-DoTAP mixtures showed repulsive interaction up to an equimolar ratio. Compression moduli of the monolayers revealed that DPPC-DoTAP mixtures had increasing stability with increasing surface pressure, but addition of DoTAP to DPPG showed instability at low and intermediate concentrations. In both cases increased stability was returned at higher X{sub DoTAP} values and surface pressures. Lipid monolayer film thickness values, determined on a gold coated glass substrate by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR), indicated a systematic change in height profile for DPPC-DoTAP mixtures with increasing X{sub DoTAP}. However, DPPG-DoTAP mixed monolayer systems demonstrated a biphasic response. The SPR data were in excellent agreement with our interpretation of the structure of solid supported lipid monolayers.

  6. The langmuir monolayer: an efficient model for studying interfacial properties of biomembranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirak, J.; Sokolsky, M.; Dobrocka, E.; Weis, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this communication, we describe aspects of monolayer technology by focusing on effects of calcium ions on physical properties of phospholipid monolayers using results of measurements of surface pressure, x-ray reflectivity and AFM. These experiments are motivated by the search for lipid-DNA complexes with high transfection efficiency but without toxicity which might be a promising tool in gene therapy. In each part methodological importance is stressed and its specificity for studying molecular interactions at a lipid monolayer. (authors)

  7. Chemical surface reactions by click chemistry: coumarin dye modification of 11-bromoundecyltrichlorosilane monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensch, Claudia; Hoeppener, Stephanie; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2008-01-01

    The functionalization of surfaces and the ability to tailor their properties with desired physico-chemical functions is an important field of research with a broad spectrum of applications. These applications range from the modification of wetting properties, over the alteration of optical properties, to the fabrication of molecular electronic devices. In each of these fields, it is of specific importance to be able to control the quality of the layers with high precision. The present study demonstrates an approach that utilizes the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of terminal acetylenes to prepare triazole-terminated monolayers on different substrates. The characterization of the precursor monolayers, the optimization of the chemical surface reactions as well as the clicking of a fluorescent dye molecule on such azide-terminated monolayers was carried out. A coumarin 343 derivative was utilized to discuss the aspects of the functionalization approach. Based on this approach, a number of potential surface reactions, facilitated via the acetylene-substituted functional molecules, for a broad range of applications is at hand, thus leading to numerous possibilities where surface modifications are concerned. These modifications can be applied on non-structured surfaces of silicon or glass or can be used on structured surfaces. Various possibilities are discussed

  8. Secondary structure and lipid interactions of the N-terminal segment of pulmonary surfactant SP-C in Langmuir films: IR reflection-absorption spectroscopy and surface pressure studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bi, Xiaohong; Flach, Carol R; Pérez-Gil, Jesus

    2002-01-01

    reversibly with surface pressure (pi), suggestive of the peptide being squeezed out from hydrophobic regions of the monolayer. No such effect was observed for DPPG/peptide monolayers, indicative of stronger, probably electrostatic, interactions. Depalmitoylation produced a weakened interaction with either...... phospholipid as deduced from IRRAS spectra and from pi-area isotherms. S-Palmitoylation may modulate peptide hydration and conformation in the N-terminal region of SP-C and may thus permit the peptide to remain in the film at the high surface pressures present during lung compression. The unique capability...... of IRRAS to detect the surface pressure dependence of protein or peptide structure/interactions in a physiologically relevant model for surfactant is clearly demonstrated. Udgivelsesdato: 2002-Jul-2...

  9. Interfacial and thermal energy driven growth and evolution of Langmuir-Schaefer monolayers of Au-nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Mala; Hazra, S

    2018-01-03

    Structures of Langmuir-Schaefer (LS) monolayers of thiol-coated Au-nanoparticles (DT-AuNPs) deposited on H-terminated and OTS self-assembled Si substrates (of different hydrophobic strength and stability) and their evolution with time under ambient conditions, which plays an important role for their practical use as 2D-nanostructures over large areas, were investigated using the X-ray reflectivity technique. The strong effect of substrate surface energy (γ) on the initial structures and the competitive role of room temperature thermal energy (kT) and the change in interfacial energy (Δγ) at ambient conditions on the evolution and final structures of the DT-AuNP LS monolayers are evident. The strong-hydrophobic OTS-Si substrate, during transfer, seems to induce strong attraction towards hydrophobic DT-AuNPs on hydrophilic (repulsive) water to form vertically compact partially covered (with voids) monolayer structures (of perfect monolayer thickness) at low pressure and nearly covered buckled monolayer structures (of enhanced monolayer thickness) at high pressure. After transfer, the small kT-energy (in absence of repulsive water) probably fluctuates the DT-AuNPs to form vertically expanded monolayer structures, through systematic exponential growth with time. The effect is prominent for the film deposited at low pressure, where the initial film-coverage and film-thickness are low. On the other hand, the weak-hydrophobic H-Si substrate, during transfer, appears to induce optimum attraction towards DT-AuNPs to better mimic the Langmuir monolayer structures on it. After transfer, the change in the substrate surface nature, from weak-hydrophobic to weak-hydrophilic with time (i.e. Δγ-energy, apart from the kT-energy), enhances the size of the voids and weakens the monolayer/bilayer structure to form a similar expanded monolayer structure, the thickness of which is probably optimized by the available thermal energy.

  10. Monolayer Adsorption of Ar and Kr on Graphite: Theoretical Isotherms and Spreading Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulero; Cuadros

    1997-02-01

    The validity of analytical equations for two-dimensional fluids in the prediction of monolayer adsorption isotherms and spreading pressures of rare gases on graphite is analyzed. The statistical mechanical theory of Steele is used to relate the properties of the adsorbed and two-dimensional fluids. In such theory the model of graphite is a perfectly flat surface, which means that only the first order contribution of the fluid-solid interactions are taken into account. Two analytical equations for two-dimensional Lennard-Jones fluids are used: one proposed by Reddy-O'Shea, based in the fit on pressure and potential energy computer simulated results, and other proposed by Cuadros-Mulero, based in the fit of the Helmholtz free energy calculated from computer simulated results of the radial distribution function. The theoretical results are compared with experimental results of Constabaris et al. (J. Chem. Phys. 37, 915 (1962)) for Ar and of Putnam and Fort (J. Phys. Chem. 79, 459 (1975)) for Kr. Good agreement is found using both equations in both cases.

  11. Optical response of a flat metallic surface coated with a monolayer array of latex spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Lei; Liu Xiaohan; Yin Haiwei; Zi Jian

    2010-01-01

    We report on the fabrication, characterization and simulation of a structure consisting of a flat metallic surface coated with a monolayer array of latex spheres. This structure shows interesting optical response: over flat metallic surfaces a series of reflection minima appear in reflection spectra. Numerical simulations revealed that the structure can support two types of surface modes: surface plasmon-polaritons bound at the metallic surface and guided modes confined to the array of latex spheres, or their hybrids. Both experimental and theoretical results indicated that these surface modes show well-defined band structures due to the introduced periodicity by the monolayer array of latex spheres.

  12. Analysis of the induction of the myelin basic protein binding to the plasma membrane phospholipid monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Hao, Changchun; Feng, Ying; Gao, Feng; Lu, Xiaolong; Li, Junhua; Sun, Runguang

    2016-09-01

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) is an essential structure involved in the generation of central nervous system (CNS) myelin. Myelin shape has been described as liquid crystal structure of biological membrane. The interactions of MBP with monolayers of different lipid compositions are responsible for the multi-lamellar structure and stability of myelin. In this paper, we have designed MBP-incorporated model lipid monolayers and studied the phase behavior of MBP adsorbed on the plasma membrane at the air/water interface by thermodynamic method and atomic force microscopy (AFM). By analyzing the pressure-area (π-A) and pressure-time (π-T) isotherms, univariate linear regression equation was obtained. In addition, the elastic modulus, surface pressure increase, maximal insertion pressure, and synergy factor of monolayers were detected. These parameters can be used to modulate the monolayers binding of protein, and the results show that MBP has the strongest affinity for 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphoserine (DPPS) monolayer, followed by DPPC/DPPS mixed and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-choline (DPPC) monolayers via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. AFM images of DPPS and DPPC/DPPS mixed monolayers in the presence of MBP (5 nM) show a phase separation texture at the surface pressure of 20 mN/m and the incorporation of MBP put into the DPPC monolayers has exerted a significant effect on the domain structure. MBP is not an integral membrane protein but, due to its positive charge, interacts with the lipid head groups and stabilizes the membranes. The interaction between MBP and phospholipid membrane to determine the nervous system of the disease has a good biophysical significance and medical value. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21402114 and 11544009), the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China (Grant No. 2016JM2010), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central

  13. Isostructural solid-solid phase transition in monolayers of soft core-shell particles at fluid interfaces: structure and mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Marcel; Fernández-Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Steinacher, Mathias; Scheidegger, Laura; Geisel, Karen; Richtering, Walter; Squires, Todd M; Isa, Lucio

    2016-04-21

    We have studied the complete two-dimensional phase diagram of a core-shell microgel-laden fluid interface by synchronizing its compression with the deposition of the interfacial monolayer. Applying a new protocol, different positions on the substrate correspond to different values of the monolayer surface pressure and specific area. Analyzing the microstructure of the deposited monolayers, we discovered an isostructural solid-solid phase transition between two crystalline phases with the same hexagonal symmetry, but with two different lattice constants. The two phases corresponded to shell-shell and core-core inter-particle contacts, respectively; with increasing surface pressure the former mechanically failed enabling the particle cores to come into contact. In the phase-transition region, clusters of particles in core-core contacts nucleate, melting the surrounding shell-shell crystal, until the whole monolayer moves into the second phase. We furthermore measured the interfacial rheology of the monolayers as a function of the surface pressure using an interfacial microdisk rheometer. The interfaces always showed a strong elastic response, with a dip in the shear elastic modulus in correspondence with the melting of the shell-shell phase, followed by a steep increase upon the formation of a percolating network of the core-core contacts. These results demonstrate that the core-shell nature of the particles leads to a rich mechanical and structural behavior that can be externally tuned by compressing the interface, indicating new routes for applications, e.g. in surface patterning or emulsion stabilization.

  14. "Living" free radical photopolymerization initiated from surface-grafted iniferter monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, B.; Simon, H.K.; Werts, M.P L; van der Vegte, E.W.; Hadziioannou, G

    2000-01-01

    A method for chemically modifying a surface with grafted monolayers of initiator groups, which can be used for a "living" free radical photopolymerization, is described. By using "living" free radical polymerizations, we were able to control the length of the grafted polymer chains and therefore the

  15. Transfer plate radioassay using cell monolayers to detect anti-cell surface antibodies synthesized by lymphocyte hybridomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.D.; Eisenbarth, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    A solid phase [ 125 I] Protein A radioassay for anti-cell surface antibodies is described, which employs target cell monolayers cultured on fenestrated polyvinyl chloride 96-well plates ('transfer plates'). The calibrated aperture in the bottom of each well is small enough to retain fluid contents by surface tension during monolayer growth, but also permits fluid to enter the wells when transfer plate are lowered into receptacles containing washing buffer on test sera. To assay for antibodies directed against target cell surface antigens, transfer plates bearing monolayers are inserted into microculture plates with corresponding 96-well geometry, thereby simultaneously sampling 96 wells. This assay allows rapid screening of hundreds of hybrid cell colonies for production of antibodies with desired tissue specificity. (Auth.)

  16. Behavior of lysozyme adsorbed onto biological liquid crystal lipid monolayer at the air/water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaolong; Shi, Ruixin; Hao, Changchun; Chen, Huan; Zhang, Lei; Li, Junhua; Xu, Guoqing; Sun, Runguang

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between proteins and lipids is one of the basic problems of modern biochemistry and biophysics. The purpose of this study is to compare the penetration degree of lysozyme into 1,2-diapalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethano-lamine (DPPE) by analyzing the data of surface pressure-area (π-A) isotherms and surface pressure-time (π-T) curves. Lysozyme can penetrate into both DPPC and DPPE monolayers because of the increase of surface pressure at an initial pressure of 15 mN/m. However, the changes of DPPE are larger than DPPC, indicating stronger interaction of lysozyme with DPPE than DPPC. The reason may be due to the different head groups and phase state of DPPC and DPPE monolayers at the surface pressure of 15 mN/m. Atomic force microscopy reveals that lysozyme was absorbed by DPPC and DPPE monolayers, which leads to self-aggregation and self-assembly, forming irregular multimers and conical multimeric. Through analysis, we think that the process of polymer formation is similar to the aggregation mechanism of amyloid fibers. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21402114 and 11544009), the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China (Grant No. 2016JM2010), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. GK201603026), and the National University Science and Technology Innovation Project of China (Grant No. 201610718013).

  17. Analysis of the induction of the myelin basic protein binding to the plasma membrane phospholipid monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Hao Changchun; Feng Ying; Gao Feng; Lu Xiaolong; Li Junhua; Sun Runguang

    2016-01-01

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) is an essential structure involved in the generation of central nervous system (CNS) myelin. Myelin shape has been described as liquid crystal structure of biological membrane. The interactions of MBP with monolayers of different lipid compositions are responsible for the multi-lamellar structure and stability of myelin. In this paper, we have designed MBP-incorporated model lipid monolayers and studied the phase behavior of MBP adsorbed on the plasma membrane at the air/water interface by thermodynamic method and atomic force microscopy (AFM). By analyzing the pressure–area ( π – A ) and pressure–time ( π – T ) isotherms, univariate linear regression equation was obtained. In addition, the elastic modulus, surface pressure increase, maximal insertion pressure, and synergy factor of monolayers were detected. These parameters can be used to modulate the monolayers binding of protein, and the results show that MBP has the strongest affinity for 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphoserine (DPPS) monolayer, followed by DPPC/DPPS mixed and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-choline (DPPC) monolayers via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. AFM images of DPPS and DPPC/DPPS mixed monolayers in the presence of MBP (5 nM) show a phase separation texture at the surface pressure of 20 mN/m and the incorporation of MBP put into the DPPC monolayers has exerted a significant effect on the domain structure. MBP is not an integral membrane protein but, due to its positive charge, interacts with the lipid head groups and stabilizes the membranes. The interaction between MBP and phospholipid membrane to determine the nervous system of the disease has a good biophysical significance and medical value. (special topic)

  18. UV-induced reaction kinetics in dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine monolayers with incorporated photosensitizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEJAN MARKOVIC

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Mixed insoluble monolayers (Langmuir films of 1,2-di-O-linoleoyl-3-sn-phosphatidylcholine (1,2-DLPC and incorporated benzophenone-type photosensitizers at an air-water interface were exposed to prolonged UV-irradiation. The irradiation was initiated at a particular fixed molecular packing value. Changes of the surface pressure during the UV-induced photolysis of the sensitizers were plotted against the irradiation time and the results were interpreted in terms of themolecular lipid / sensitizer ratios inside the monolayers.

  19. Chemical films and monolayers on the water surface and their interactions with ultraviolet radiation: a pilot investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schouten, Peter; Lemckert, Charles; Underhill, Ian; Turner, Geoff; Turnbull, David; Parisi, Alfio; Downs, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years numerous types of chemical films and monolayers have been deployed on top of a wide variety of water reserves in an endeavour to reduce evaporation. To date very little knowledge has been assimilated on how these chemical films and monolayers, once applied to a water surface, influence the underwater UV light field and, in turn, the delicate ecosystems that exist in aquatic environments. This manuscript presents underwater UV exposure profiles weighted to the DNA damage action spectrum measured under an octadecanol/hexadecanol/lime chemical film mixture, a silicone-based chemical film and an octadecanol monolayer applied to the water surface. UV transmission and absorption properties were also evaluated for each of these chemical films and monolayers. From this it was found that when chemical films/monolayers are applied to surface water they can reduce the penetration of biologically effective UV into the water column by up to 85% at a depth as small as 1 cm. This could have a positive influence on the aquatic ecosystem, as harmful UV radiation may be prevented from reaching and consequently damaging a variety of life forms or it could have a negative effect by potentially stopping aquatic organisms from adapting to solar ultraviolet radiation over extended application intervals. Additionally, there is currently no readily applicable system or technique available to readily detect or visualize chemical films and monolayers on the water surface. To overcome this problem a new method of monolayer and chemical film visualization, using a UV camera system, is detailed and tested and its applicability for usage in both laboratory-based trials and real-world operations is evaluated

  20. Chemical films and monolayers on the water surface and their interactions with ultraviolet radiation: a pilot investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Peter; Lemckert, Charles; Turnbull, David; Parisi, Alfio; Downs, Nathan; Underhill, Ian; Turner, Geoff

    2011-06-01

    Over the past 50 years numerous types of chemical films and monolayers have been deployed on top of a wide variety of water reserves in an endeavour to reduce evaporation. To date very little knowledge has been assimilated on how these chemical films and monolayers, once applied to a water surface, influence the underwater UV light field and, in turn, the delicate ecosystems that exist in aquatic environments. This manuscript presents underwater UV exposure profiles weighted to the DNA damage action spectrum measured under an octadecanol/hexadecanol/lime chemical film mixture, a silicone-based chemical film and an octadecanol monolayer applied to the water surface. UV transmission and absorption properties were also evaluated for each of these chemical films and monolayers. From this it was found that when chemical films/monolayers are applied to surface water they can reduce the penetration of biologically effective UV into the water column by up to 85% at a depth as small as 1 cm. This could have a positive influence on the aquatic ecosystem, as harmful UV radiation may be prevented from reaching and consequently damaging a variety of life forms or it could have a negative effect by potentially stopping aquatic organisms from adapting to solar ultraviolet radiation over extended application intervals. Additionally, there is currently no readily applicable system or technique available to readily detect or visualize chemical films and monolayers on the water surface. To overcome this problem a new method of monolayer and chemical film visualization, using a UV camera system, is detailed and tested and its applicability for usage in both laboratory-based trials and real-world operations is evaluated.

  1. Local charge transport properties of hydrazine reduced monolayer graphene oxide sheets prepared under pressure condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryuzaki, Sou; Meyer, Jakob Abild Stengaard; Petersen, Søren Vermehren

    2014-01-01

    Charge transport properties of chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets prepared by treatment with hydrazine were examined using conductive atomic force microscopy. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of monolayer RGO sheets prepared under atmospheric pressure followed an exponentially...

  2. A systematic study of atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition growth of large-area monolayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Chen, Yu; Lin, Yung-Chen; Qu, Yongquan; Bai, Jingwei; Ivanov, Ivan A; Liu, Gang; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2012-01-28

    Graphene has attracted considerable interest as a potential material for future electronics. Although mechanical peel is known to produce high quality graphene flakes, practical applications require continuous graphene layers over a large area. The catalyst-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a promising synthetic method to deliver wafer-sized graphene. Here we present a systematic study on the nucleation and growth of crystallized graphene domains in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process. Parametric studies show that the mean size of the graphene domains increases with increasing growth temperature and CH 4 partial pressure, while the density of domains decreases with increasing growth temperature and is independent of the CH 4 partial pressure. Our studies show that nucleation of graphene domains on copper substrate is highly dependent on the initial annealing temperature. A two-step synthetic process with higher initial annealing temperature but lower growth temperature is developed to reduce domain density and achieve high quality full-surface coverage of monolayer graphene films. Electrical transport measurements demonstrate that the resulting graphene exhibits a high carrier mobility of up to 3000 cm 2 V -1 s -1 at room temperature.

  3. Oxidative coupling polymerization in a Langmuir monolayer of octadecyl 3,5-diaminobenzoate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimkes, P.; Sohling, U.; Oostergetel, G.T.; Schouten, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    In a Langmuir monolayer of the surface active monomer octadecyl 3,5-diaminobenzoate (ODDB), stabilized at a surface pressure of 10 mN/m and a temperature of 23.7 degrees C at the air-water interface, oxidative coupling polymerization occurs when copper(II) chloride was added or already was present

  4. Determining the thickness of aliphatic alcohol monolayers covalently attached to silicon oxide surfaces using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Austin W. H.; Kim, Dongho; Gates, Byron D.

    2018-04-01

    The thickness of alcohol based monolayers on silicon oxide surfaces were investigated using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). Advantages of using alcohols as building blocks for the formation of monolayers include their widespread availability, ease of handling, and stability against side reactions. Recent progress in microwave assisted reactions demonstrated the ease of forming uniform monolayers with alcohol based reagents. The studies shown herein provide a detailed investigation of the thickness of monolayers prepared from a series of aliphatic alcohols of different chain lengths. Monolayers of 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 1-decanol, and 1-dodecanol were each successfully formed through microwave assisted reactions and characterized by ARXPS techniques. The thickness of these monolayers consistently increased by ∼1.0 Å for every additional methylene (CH2) within the hydrocarbon chain of the reagents. Tilt angles of the molecules covalently attached to silicon oxide surfaces were estimated to be ∼35° for each type of reagent. These results were consistent with the observations reported for thiol based or silane based monolayers on either gold or silicon oxide surfaces, respectively. The results of this study also suggest that the alcohol based monolayers are uniform at a molecular level.

  5. Theoretical and experimental study of the vibrational excitations in ethane monolayers adsorbed on graphite (0001) surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Taub, H.

    1987-01-01

    The collective vibrational excitations of two different crystalline monolayer phases of ethane (C2H6) adsorbed on the graphite (0001) surface have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. The monolayer phases studied are the commensurate 7/8 ×4 structure in which the ethane molecules lie...

  6. Preparation of porous monolayer film by immersing the stearic acid Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer on mica in salt solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S. [Institute of Near-Field Optics and Nano Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Street No. 2 Linggong Road, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Y.L.; Zhao, H.L.; Liang, H. [Institute of Photo-Biophysics, School of Physics and Electronic, Henan University, Jinming, Kaifeng 475004, Henan (China); Liu, B., E-mail: boliu@henu.edu.cn [Institute of Photo-Biophysics, School of Physics and Electronic, Henan University, Jinming, Kaifeng 475004, Henan (China); Pan, S., E-mail: span@dlut.edu.cn [Institute of Near-Field Optics and Nano Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Street No. 2 Linggong Road, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Porous film has been prepared by immersing the stearic acid Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer on mica in salt solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism relies on the electrostatic screening effect of the cations in salt solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The factors influencing the size and area of the pores were investigated. - Abstract: Porous materials have drawn attention from scientists in many fields such as life sciences, catalysis and photonics since they can be used to induce some materials growth as expected. Especially, porous Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film is an ideal material with controlled thickness and flat surface. In this paper, stearic acid (SA), which has been extensively explored in LB film technique, is chosen as the template material with known parameters to prepare the LB film, and then the porous SA monolayer film is obtained by means of etching in salt solution. The main etching mechanism is suggested that the cations in the solution block the electrostatic interaction between the polar carboxyl group of SA and the electronegative mica surface. The influencing factors (such as concentration of salt solution, valence of cation and surface pressure) of the porous SA film are systematically studied in this work. The novel method proposed in this paper makes it convenient to prepare porous monolayer film for designed material growth or cell culture.

  7. Sub-monolayer dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, S.A.; Maleev, N.A.; Kuz'menkov, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) based on submonolayer InGaAs quantum-dot active region and doped with AlGaAs/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. 3 μm aperture single-mode VCSELs demonstrate lasing at 980 nm with threshold current of 0.6 mA, maximum output power of 4 mW and external differential efficiency as high as 68%. Ultimately low internal optical losses were measured for these multimode sub-monolayer quantum dot VCSELs [ru

  8. Morphological changes of monolayers of two polymerizable pyridine amphiphiles upon complexation with Cu(II) ions at the air-water interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkman, P.J.; Schouten, A.J.; Noordegraaf, M.A.; Kimkes, P.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    1998-01-01

    The monolayer behavior of two amphiphilic, diacetylenic units containing pyridine Ligands at the air-water interface is studied by measuring the surface pressure-area isotherms and by Brewster angle microscopy(BAM). Both amphiphiles form stable monolayers at the air-water interface. The amphiphile

  9. Infrared beam-steering using acoustically modulated surface plasmons over a graphene monolayer

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Paiyen; Farhat, Mohamed; Askarpour, Amir Nader; Tymchenko, Mykhailo; Alù , Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We model and design a graphene-based infrared beamformer based on the concept of leaky-wave (fast traveling wave) antennas. The excitation of infrared surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) over a 'one-atom-thick' graphene monolayer is typically

  10. Nanoscale Trapping and Squeeze-Out of Confined Alkane Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosvami, N N; O'Shea, S J

    2015-12-01

    We present combined force curve and conduction atomic force microscopy (AFM) data for the linear alkanes CnH2n+2 (n = 10, 12, 14, 16) confined between a gold-coated AFM tip and a graphite surface. Solvation layering is observed in the force curves for all liquids, and conduction AFM is used to study in detail the removal of the confined (mono)layer closest to the graphite surface. The squeeze-out behavior of the monolayer can be very different depending upon the temperature. Below the monolayer melting transition temperatures the molecules are in an ordered state on the graphite surface, and fast and complete removal of the confined molecules is observed. However, above the melting transition temperature the molecules are in a disordered state, and even at large applied pressure a few liquid molecules are trapped within the tip-sample contact zone. These findings are similar to a previous study for branched alkanes [ Gosvami Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008, 100, 076101 ], but the observation for the linear alkane homologue series demonstrates clearly the dependence of the squeeze-out and trapping on the state of the confined material.

  11. Palmitic Acid on Salt Subphases and in Mixed Monolayers of Cerebrosides: Application to Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M. Adams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Palmitic acid (PA has been found to be a major constituent in marine aerosols, and is commonly used to investigate organic containing atmospheric aerosols, and is therefore used here as a proxy system. Surface pressure-area isotherms (π-A, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM, and vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG were used to observe a PA monolayer during film compression on subphases of ultrapure water, CaCl2 and MgCl2 aqueous solutions, and artificial seawater (ASW. π-A isotherms indicate that salt subphases alter the phase behavior of PA, and BAM further reveals that a condensation of the monolayer occurs when compared to pure water. VSFG spectra and BAM images show that Mg2+ and Ca2+ induce ordering of the PA acyl chains, and it was determined that the interaction of Mg2+ with the monolayer is weaker than Ca2+. π-A isotherms and BAM were also used to monitor mixed monolayers of PA and cerebroside, a simple glycolipid. Results reveal that PA also has a condensing effect on the cerebroside monolayer. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that attractive interactions between the two components exist; this may be due to hydrogen bonding of the galactose and carbonyl headgroups. BAM images of the collapse structures show that mixed monolayers of PA and cerebroside are miscible at all surface pressures. These results suggest that the surface morphology of organic-coated aerosols is influenced by the chemical composition of the aqueous core and the organic film itself.

  12. “Living” Free Radical Photopolymerization Initiated from Surface-Grafted Iniferter Monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, B. de; Simon, H.K.; Werts, M.P.L.; Vegte, E.W. van der; Hadziioannou, G.

    2000-01-01

    A method for chemically modifying a surface with grafted monolayers of initiator groups, which can be used for a “living” free radical photopolymerization, is described. By using “living” free radical polymerizations, we were able to control the length of the grafted polymer chains and therefore the

  13. Penetration of Milk-Derived Antimicrobial Peptides into Phospholipid Monolayers as Model Biomembranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Barzyk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three antimicrobial peptides derived from bovine milk proteins were examined with regard to penetration into insoluble monolayers formed with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC or 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-(1-glycerol sodium salt (DPPG. Effects on surface pressure (Π and electric surface potential (ΔV were measured, Π with a platinum Wilhelmy plate and ΔV with a vibrating plate. The penetration measurements were performed under stationary diffusion conditions and upon the compression of the monolayers. The two type measurements showed greatly different effects of the peptide-lipid interactions. Results of the stationary penetration show that the peptide interactions with DPPC monolayer are weak, repulsive, and nonspecific while the interactions with DPPG monolayer are significant, attractive, and specific. These results are in accord with the fact that antimicrobial peptides disrupt bacteria membranes (negative while no significant effect on the host membranes (neutral is observed. No such discrimination was revealed from the compression isotherms. The latter indicate that squeezing the penetrant out of the monolayer upon compression does not allow for establishing the penetration equilibrium, so the monolayer remains supersaturated with the penetrant and shows an under-equilibrium orientation within the entire compression range, practically.

  14. Correlation of Effective Dispersive and Polar Surface Energies in Heterogeneous Self-Assembled Monolayer Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Yanxin; Hansen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    grown oil oxidized (100) silicon Surfaces in a vapor phase process using five different precursors. Experimentally, effective surface energy components of the fluorocarbon self-assembled monolayers were determined from measured contact angles using the Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Kaelble method. We show...

  15. Molecular structure of dipalmitoylphospatidylcholine Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers studied by atomic force microscopy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhai, X.; Kleijn, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) on the air-water interface have been transferred at various surface pressures onto quartz substrates using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The topography of these layers, on a molecular scale, has been examined by atomic force microscopy

  16. The impact of surface coverage on the kinetics of electron transfer through redox monolayers on a silicon electrode surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciampi, Simone; Choudhury, Moinul H.; Ahmad, Shahrul Ainliah Binti Alang; Darwish, Nadim; Brun, Anton Le; Gooding, J.Justin

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The impact of surface coverage on the kinetics of electron transfer through redox monolayers on a silicon electrode surface. ABSTRACT: The impact of the coverage of ferrocene moieties, attached to a silicon electrode modified via hydrosilylation of a dialkyne, on the kinetics of electron transfer between the redox species and the electrode is explored. The coverage of ferrocene is controlled by varying the coupling time between azidomethylferrocene and the distal alkyne of the monolayer via the copper assisted azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. All other variables in the surface preparation are maintained identical. What is observed is that the higher the surface coverage of the ferrocene moieties the faster the apparent rates of electron transfer. This surface coverage-dependent kinetic effect is attributed to electrons hopping between ferrocene moieties across the redox film toward hotspots for the electron transfer event. The origin of these hotspots is tentatively suggested to result from minor amounts of oxide on the underlying silicon surface that reduce the barrier for the electron transfer.

  17. Chemical modification of glass surface with a monolayer of nonchromophoric and chromophoric methacrylate terpolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janik, Ryszard [Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, Wroclaw University of Technology, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Kucharski, Stanislaw, E-mail: stanislaw.kucharski@pwr.wroc.pl [Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, Wroclaw University of Technology, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Sobolewska, Anna [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Barille, Regis [Institut des Sciences et Techniques Moleculaires d' Angers ' Moltech Anjou' , CNRS UMR 6200, 49045 Angers (France)

    2010-11-15

    The methacrylate terpolymers, a nonchromophoric and chromophoric one, containing 2-hydroxyethyl groups were reacted with 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane to obtain reactive polymers able to form covalent bonding with -SiOH groups of the glass surface via triethoxysilane group condensation. Chemical modification of the Corning 2949 glass plates treated in this way resulted in increase of wetting angle from 11{sup o} to ca. 70-73{sup o}. Determination of ellipsometric parameters revealed low value of the substrate refractive index as compared with that of bulk Corning 2949 glass suggesting roughness of the surface. The AFM image of the bare glass surface and that modified with terpolymer monolayer confirmed this phenomenon. Modification of the glass with the terpolymer monolayer made it possible to create the substrate surface well suited for deposition of familiar chromophore film by spin-coating. The chromophore polymer film deposited onto the modified glass surface was found to be resistant to come unstuck in aqueous solution.

  18. Tunable band gap and optical properties of surface functionalized Sc2C monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shun; Du Yu-Lei; Liao Wen-He

    2017-01-01

    Using the density functional theory, we have investigated the electronic and optical properties of two-dimensional Sc 2 C monolayer with OH, F, or O chemical groups. The electronic structures reveal that the functionalized Sc 2 C monolayers are semiconductors with a band gap of 0.44–1.55 eV. The band gap dependent optical parameters, like dielectric function, absorption coefficients, reflectivity, loss function, and refraction index were also calculated for photon energy up to 20 eV. At the low-energy region, each optical parameter shifts to red, and the peak increases obviously with the increase of the energy gap. Consequently, Sc 2 C monolayer with a tunable band gap by changing the type of surface chemical groups is a promising 2D material for optoelectronic devices. (paper)

  19. Well-ordered structure of methylene blue monolayers on Au(111) surface: electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yonghai; Wang, Li

    2009-02-01

    Well-ordered structure of methylene blue (MB) monolayers on Au(111) surface has been successfully obtained by controlling the substrate potential. Electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (ECSTM) examined the monolayers of MB on Au(111) in 0.1 M HClO(4) and showed long-range ordered, interweaved arrays of MB with quadratic symmetry on the substrate in the potential range of double-layer charging. High-resolution ECSTM image further revealed the details of the MB monolayers structure of c(5 x 5 radical 3)rect and the flat-lying orientation of ad-molecules. The dependence of molecular organization on the substrate potential and the formation mechanism of well-ordered structure on Au(111) surface were investigated in detail. The obtained well-ordered structure at the interface between a metal and an aqueous electrolyte might possibly be used as high-density device for signal memory and templates for the advanced nanopatterning of surfaces. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Physicochemical properties of phosphatidylcholine (PC) monolayers with different alkyl chains, at the air/water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hee Jung; Choi, Young Wook; Kim, Nam Jeong; Sohn, Dae Won

    2003-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of a series of PC monolayers with different alkyl chains (C24, C20, C16, and C8), at the air/water interface were investigated. The surface pressure is influenced mainly by the hydrophobicity of the PCs, which is confirmed by the curve shape and the on-set value of π-A isotherms at the air/water interface by increasing the number of alkyl chain. The on-set values of surface pressure were 125 A 2 /molecule for DOPC(C8), 87 A 2 /molecule for DPPC(C16), 75 A 2 /molecule for DAPC(C20), and 55 A 2 /molecule for DLPC(C24), respectively. The orientations of alkyl chains at the air/water interface are closely connected with the rigidity of the monolayers, and it was confirmed by the tendency of monolayer thickness in ellipsometry data. The temperature dependence of a series of PCs shows that the surface pressure decreases by increasing temperature, because the longer the alkyl chain length, the larger the hydrophobic interaction in surface pressure. The temperature effects and the conformational changes of unsaturated and saturated PCs were confirmed by the computer simulation study of the cis-trans transition with POPC and DPPC(C16). The cis-trans conformational energy difference of POPC is 62.06 kcal/mol and that of DPPC(C16) is 6.75 kcal/mol. Due to the high conformational energy barrier of POPC, phase transition of POPC is limited in comparison with DPPC(C16)

  1. Physicochemical properties of phosphatidylcholine (PC) monolayers with different alkyl chains, at the air/water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hee Jung; Choi, Young Wook [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nam Jeong; Sohn, Dae Won [Sahmyook Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    Physicochemical properties of a series of PC monolayers with different alkyl chains (C24, C20, C16, and C8), at the air/water interface were investigated. The surface pressure is influenced mainly by the hydrophobicity of the PCs, which is confirmed by the curve shape and the on-set value of {pi}-A isotherms at the air/water interface by increasing the number of alkyl chain. The on-set values of surface pressure were 125 A{sup 2}/molecule for DOPC(C8), 87 A{sup 2}/molecule for DPPC(C16), 75 A{sup 2}/molecule for DAPC(C20), and 55 A{sup 2}/molecule for DLPC(C24), respectively. The orientations of alkyl chains at the air/water interface are closely connected with the rigidity of the monolayers, and it was confirmed by the tendency of monolayer thickness in ellipsometry data. The temperature dependence of a series of PCs shows that the surface pressure decreases by increasing temperature, because the longer the alkyl chain length, the larger the hydrophobic interaction in surface pressure. The temperature effects and the conformational changes of unsaturated and saturated PCs were confirmed by the computer simulation study of the cis-trans transition with POPC and DPPC(C16). The cis-trans conformational energy difference of POPC is 62.06 kcal/mol and that of DPPC(C16) is 6.75 kcal/mol. Due to the high conformational energy barrier of POPC, phase transition of POPC is limited in comparison with DPPC(C16)

  2. Specific ion effects on the properties of cationic Gemini surfactant monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejo, T.; Merchan, M.D.; Velazquez, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of some anions of the Hofmeister series and different divalent cations of alkaline earth metals on the properties of Langmuir monolayers of the cationic Gemini surfactant ethyl-bis (dimethyl octadecylammonium bromide) have been investigated. Surface pressure and potential isotherms at the air-water interface were obtained on aqueous subphases containing sodium salts with several anions of the Hofmeister series (Cl - , NO 3 - , Br - , I - , ClO 4 - , and SCN - ). The influence of the investigated anions on the monolayer properties can be ordered according to the Hofmeister series with a change in the order between bromide and nitrate anions. On the other hand, for a given anion, the cation of the salt also influences the surface properties of the Langmuir films. The monolayers can be transferred onto mica by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique and then the Langmuir-Blodgett films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM images show that the molecules become more closely packed and nearly vertical to the surface when anions screen the electric charge of the surfactant molecules.

  3. Specific ion effects on the properties of cationic Gemini surfactant monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alejo, T.; Merchan, M.D.; Velazquez, M.M., E-mail: mvsal@usal.es

    2011-06-01

    The effects of some anions of the Hofmeister series and different divalent cations of alkaline earth metals on the properties of Langmuir monolayers of the cationic Gemini surfactant ethyl-bis (dimethyl octadecylammonium bromide) have been investigated. Surface pressure and potential isotherms at the air-water interface were obtained on aqueous subphases containing sodium salts with several anions of the Hofmeister series (Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Br{sup -}, I{sup -}, ClO{sub 4}{sup -}, and SCN{sup -}). The influence of the investigated anions on the monolayer properties can be ordered according to the Hofmeister series with a change in the order between bromide and nitrate anions. On the other hand, for a given anion, the cation of the salt also influences the surface properties of the Langmuir films. The monolayers can be transferred onto mica by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique and then the Langmuir-Blodgett films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM images show that the molecules become more closely packed and nearly vertical to the surface when anions screen the electric charge of the surfactant molecules.

  4. Adsorption behavior of Fe atoms on a naphthalocyanine monolayer on Ag(111) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Linghao; Wu, Rongting; Bao, Deliang; Ren, Junhai; Zhang, Yanfang; Zhang, Haigang; Huang, Li; Wang, Yeliang; Du, Shixuan; Huan, Qing; Gao, Hong-Jun

    2015-05-29

    Adsorption behavior of Fe atoms on a metal-free naphthalocyanine (H2Nc) monolayer on Ag(111) surface at room temperature has been investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy combined with density functional theory (DFT) based calculations. We found that the Fe atoms adsorbed at the centers of H2Nc molecules and formed Fe-H2Nc complexes at low coverage. DFT calculations show that the configuration of Fe at the center of a molecule is the most stable site, in good agreement with the experimental observations. After an Fe-H2Nc complex monolayer was formed, the extra Fe atoms self-assembled to Fe clusters of uniform size and adsorbed dispersively at the interstitial positions of Fe-H2Nc complex monolayer. Furthermore, the H2Nc monolayer grown on Ag(111) could be a good template to grow dispersed magnetic metal atoms and clusters at room temperature for further investigation of their magnetism-related properties.

  5. Crystallization of calcium oxalate monohydrate at dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine monolayers in the presence of chondroitin sulfate A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jian-Ming; Deng, Sui-Ping; Zhong, Jiu-Ping; Tieke, Bernd; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2004-10-01

    The growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals beneath dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayers in the presence of chondroitin sulfate A (C4S) was systematically examined under different surface pressure. The results indicated that the addition of C4S can inhibit the crystal growth and prevent the aggregation of COM crystals. Under a DPPC monolayer, well-defined three-dimensional hexagonal prisms and three-dimensional rhombus prisms with sharply angled tips were obtained. The DPPC monolayer at a surface pressure of 10 mN/m can match the Ca2+ distance of the (1 bar 0 1) face of COM better than at 20 mN/m. The addition of C4S could cooperatively modulate the interaction strength between the monolayer (or itself) with the specific morphology determining faces such as (1 bar 0 1) and (0 2 0), and thus results in remarkable stabilization of the (1 bar 0 1) faces. The dramatic changes in morphological details were due to the strong electrostatic interactions between the Ca2+-rich (1 bar 0 1) crystal faces of COM and the polyanionic polysaccharide C4S together with the negatively charged sites of the zwitterionic DPPC monolayers. The increase of the concentration of C4S can further enhance the stabilization of the (1 bar 0 1) face.

  6. Infrared Absorption Spectroscopic Study on Reaction between Self-Assembled Monolayers and Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Shinohara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma is becoming increasingly adopted in bioapplications such as plasma medicine and agriculture. This study investigates the interaction between plasma and molecules in living tissues, focusing on plasma-protein interactions. To this end, the reaction of air-pressure air plasma with NH2-terminated self-assembled monolayer is investigated by infrared spectroscopy in multiple internal reflection geometry. The atmospheric-pressure plasma decomposed the NH2 components, the characteristic units of proteins. The decomposition is attributed to water clusters generated in the plasma, indicating that protein decomposition by plasma requires humid air.

  7. A monolayer of hierarchical silver hemi-mesoparticles with tunable surface topographies for highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuangmei; Fan, Chunzhen; Mao, Yanchao; Wang, Junqiao; He, Jinna; Liang, Erjun; Chao, Mingju

    2016-02-01

    We proposed a facile green synthesis system to synthesize large-scale Ag hemi-mesoparticles monolayer on Cu foil. Ag hemi-mesoparticles have different surface morphologies on their surfaces, including ridge-like, meatball-like, and fluffy-like shapes. In the reaction, silver nitrate was reduced by copper at room temperature in dimethyl sulfoxide via the galvanic displacement reaction. The different surface morphologies of the Ag hemi-mesoparticles were adjusted by changing the reaction time, and the hemi-mesoparticle surface formed fluffy-spherical nanoprotrusions at longer reaction time. At the same time, we explored the growth mechanism of silver hemi-mesoparticles with different surface morphologies. With 4-mercaptobenzoic acid as Raman probe molecules, the fluffy-like silver hemi-mesoparticles monolayer with the best activity of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), the enhancement factor is up to 7.33 × 107 and the detection limit can reach 10-10M. SERS measurements demonstrate that these Ag hemi-mesoparticles can serve as sensitive SERS substrates. At the same time, using finite element method, the distribution of the localized electromagnetic field near the particle surface was simulated to verify the enhanced mechanism. This study helps us to understand the relationship between morphology Ag hemi-mesoparicles and the properties of SERS.

  8. Pressure-dependent optical and vibrational properties of monolayer molybdenum disulfide

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Avinash P.; Pandey, Tribhuwan; Voiry, Damien; Liu, Jin; Moran, Samuel T.; Sharma, Ankit; Tan, Cheng; Chen, Changhsiao; Li, Lain-Jong; Chhowalla, Manish U.; Lin, Jungfu; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Akinwande, Deji

    2015-01-01

    vibrational dynamics of the distorted monolayer 1T-MoS2 (1T′) and the monolayer 2H-MoS2 via a diamond anvil cell (DAC) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The direct optical band gap of the monolayer 2H-MoS2 increases by 11.7% from 1.85 to 2.08 e

  9. Effect of Perfluoroalkyl Endgroups on the Interactions of Tri-Block Copolymers with Monofluorinated F-DPPC Monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed W. H. Shah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied the interaction of amphiphilic and triphilic polymers with monolayers prepared from F-DPPC (1-palmitoyl-2-(16-fluoropalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, a phospholipid with a single fluorine atom at the terminus of the sn-2 chain, an analogue of dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC. The amphiphilic block copolymers contained a hydrophobic poly(propylene oxide block flanked by hydrophilic poly(glycerol monomethacrylate blocks (GP. F-GP was derived from GP by capping both termini with perfluoro-n-nonyl segments. We first studied the adsorption of GP and F-GP to lipid monolayers of F-DPPC. F-GP was inserted into the monolayer up to a surface pressure Π of 42.4 mN m−1, much higher than GP (32.5 mN m−1. We then studied isotherms of lipid-polymer mixtures co-spread at the air-water interface. With increasing polymer content in the mixture a continuous shift of the onset of the liquid-expanded (LE to liquid-condensed (LC transition towards higher molecular and higher area per lipid molecule was observed. F-GP had a larger effect than GP indicating that it needed more space. At a Π-value of 32 mN m−1, GP was excluded from the mixed monolayer, whereas F-GP stayed in F-DPPC monolayers up to 42 mN m−1. F-GP is thus more stably anchored in the monolayer up to higher surface pressures. Images of mixed monolayers were acquired using different fluorescent probes and showed the presence of perfluorinated segments of F-GP at LE-LC domain boundaries.

  10. Surface-directed molecular assembly of pentacene on monolayer graphene for high-performance organic transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wi Hyoung; Park, Jaesung; Sim, Sung Hyun; Lim, Soojin; Kim, Kwang S; Hong, Byung Hee; Cho, Kilwon

    2011-03-30

    Organic electronic devices that use graphene electrodes have received considerable attention because graphene is regarded as an ideal candidate electrode material. Transfer and lithographic processes during fabrication of patterned graphene electrodes typically leave polymer residues on the graphene surfaces. However, the impact of these residues on the organic semiconductor growth mechanism on graphene surface has not been reported yet. Here, we demonstrate that polymer residues remaining on graphene surfaces induce a stand-up orientation of pentacene, thereby controlling pentacene growth such that the molecular assembly is optimal for charge transport. Thus, pentacene field-effect transistors (FETs) using source/drain monolayer graphene electrodes with polymer residues show a high field-effect mobility of 1.2 cm(2)/V s. In contrast, epitaxial growth of pentacene having molecular assembly of lying-down structure is facilitated by π-π interaction between pentacene and the clean graphene electrode without polymer residues, which adversely affects lateral charge transport at the interface between electrode and channel. Our studies provide that the obtained high field-effect mobility in pentacene FETs using monolayer graphene electrodes arises from the extrinsic effects of polymer residues as well as the intrinsic characteristics of the highly conductive, ultrathin two-dimensional monolayer graphene electrodes.

  11. Supramolecular Langmuir monolayers and multilayered vesicles of self-assembling DNA–lipid surface structures and their further implications in polyelectrolyte-based cell transfections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirsoy, Fatma Funda Kaya [Ankara University, The Central Laboratory of The Institute of Biotechnology (Turkey); Eruygur, Nuraniye [Gazi University, Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy (Turkey); Süleymanoğlu, Erhan, E-mail: erhans@mail.ru [Gazi University, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy (Turkey)

    2015-01-15

    The basic interfacial characteristics of DNA–lipid recognitions have been studied. The complex structures of individual unbound DNA molecules and their binary and ternary complexes with zwitterionic lipids and divalent cations were followed by employing lipid monolayers at the air–liquid interfaces, as well as by performing various microscopic, spectroscopic, and thermodynamic measurements with multilayered vesicles. The pressure-area isotherms depicted that Mg{sup 2+}-ions increase the surface pressure of lipid films and thus give rise to electrostatic and hydrophobic lipid–DNA interactions in terms of DNA adsorption, adhesion, and compaction. These features were further approached by using multilamellar vesicles with a mean diameter of 850 nm, where a metal ion-directed nucleic acid compaction and condensation effects were shown. The data obtained show the effectiveness of Langmuir monolayers and lipid multilayers in studying nucleic acid–lipid recognitions. The data provide with further details and support previous reports on mainly structural features of these recognitions. Biomolecular surface recognition events were presented in direct link with spectral and thermodynamic features of lipid vesicle–polynucleotide complex formations. The results serve to build a theoretical model considering the use of neutral lipids in lipoplex designs as a polyelectrolyte alternatives to the currently employed cytotoxic cationic liposomes. The supramolecular structures formed and their possible roles in interfacial electrostatic and hydrophobic mechanisms of endosomal escape in relevant cell transfection assays are particularly emphasized.

  12. Supramolecular Langmuir monolayers and multilayered vesicles of self-assembling DNA–lipid surface structures and their further implications in polyelectrolyte-based cell transfections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirsoy, Fatma Funda Kaya; Eruygur, Nuraniye; Süleymanoğlu, Erhan

    2015-01-01

    The basic interfacial characteristics of DNA–lipid recognitions have been studied. The complex structures of individual unbound DNA molecules and their binary and ternary complexes with zwitterionic lipids and divalent cations were followed by employing lipid monolayers at the air–liquid interfaces, as well as by performing various microscopic, spectroscopic, and thermodynamic measurements with multilayered vesicles. The pressure-area isotherms depicted that Mg 2+ -ions increase the surface pressure of lipid films and thus give rise to electrostatic and hydrophobic lipid–DNA interactions in terms of DNA adsorption, adhesion, and compaction. These features were further approached by using multilamellar vesicles with a mean diameter of 850 nm, where a metal ion-directed nucleic acid compaction and condensation effects were shown. The data obtained show the effectiveness of Langmuir monolayers and lipid multilayers in studying nucleic acid–lipid recognitions. The data provide with further details and support previous reports on mainly structural features of these recognitions. Biomolecular surface recognition events were presented in direct link with spectral and thermodynamic features of lipid vesicle–polynucleotide complex formations. The results serve to build a theoretical model considering the use of neutral lipids in lipoplex designs as a polyelectrolyte alternatives to the currently employed cytotoxic cationic liposomes. The supramolecular structures formed and their possible roles in interfacial electrostatic and hydrophobic mechanisms of endosomal escape in relevant cell transfection assays are particularly emphasized

  13. Method for selective immobilization of macromolecules on self assembled monolayer surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Julia [Richland, WA; Wang, Peng [Billerica, MA

    2011-11-29

    Disclosed is a method for selective chemical binding and immobilization of macromolecules on solid supports in conjunction with self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces. Immobilization involves selective binding of peptides and other macromolecules to SAM surfaces using reactive landing (RL) of mass-selected, gas phase ions. SAM surfaces provide a simple and convenient platform for tailoring chemical properties of a variety of substrates. The invention finds applications in biochemistry ranging from characterization of molecular recognition events at the amino acid level and identification of biologically active motifs in proteins, to development of novel biosensors and substrates for stimulated protein and cell adhesion.

  14. Surface structures of normal paraffins and cyclohexane monolayers and thin crystals grown on the (111) crystal face of platinum. A low-energy electron diffraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firment, L.E.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    The surfaces of the normal paraffins (C 3 --C 8 ) and cyclohexane have been studied using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). The samples were prepared by vapor deposition on the (111) face of a platinum single crystal in ultrahigh vacuum, and were studied both as thick films and as adsorbed monolayers. These molecules form ordered monolayers on the clean metal surface in the temperature range 100--220 K and at a vapor flux corresponding to 10 -7 Torr. In the adsorbed monolayers of the normal paraffins (C 4 --C 8 ), the molecules lie with their chain axes parallel to the Pt surface and Pt[110]. The paraffin monolayer structures undergo order--disorder transitions as a function of temperature. Multilayers condensed upon the ordered monolayers maintained the same orientation and packing as found in the monolayers. The surface structures of the growing organic crystals do not corresond to planes in their reported bulk crystal structures and are evidence for epitaxial growth of pseudomorphic crystal forms. Multilayers of n-octane and n-heptane condensed upon disordered monolayers have also grown with the (001) plane of the triclinic bulk crystal structures parallel to the surface. n-Butane has three monolayer structures on Pt(111) and one of the three is maintained during growth of the crystal. Cyclohexane forms an ordered monolayer, upon which a multilayer of cyclohexane grows exhibiting the (001) surface orientation of the monoclinic bulk crystal structure. Surface structures of saturated hydrocarbons are found to be very susceptible to electron beam induced damage. Surface charging interferes with LEED only at sample thicknesses greater than 200 A

  15. Conformation, orientation and interaction in molecular monolayers: A surface second harmonic and sum frequency generation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superfine, R.; Huang, J.Y.; Shen, Y.R.

    1988-12-01

    We have used sum frequency generation (SFG) to study the order in a silane monolayer before and after the deposition of a coadsorbed liquid crystal monolayer. We observe an increase in the order of the chain of the silane molecule induced by the interpenetration of the liquid crystal molecules. By using second harmonic generation (SHG) and SFG, we have studied the orientation and conformation of the liquid crystal molecule on clean and silane coated glass surfaces. On both surfaces, the biphenyl group is tilted by 70 degree with the alkyl chain end pointing away from the surface. The shift in the C-H stretch frequencies in the coadsorbed system indicates a significant interaction between molecules. 9 refs., 3 figs

  16. The interaction of insulin, glucose, and insulin-glucose mixtures with a phospholipid monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigenobu, Hayato; McNamee, Cathy E

    2012-12-15

    We determined how glucose or insulin interacts with a phospholipid monolayer at the air/water interface and explained these mechanisms from a physico-chemical point of view. The 1,2-dipalmitoyl-2-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayer at an air/water interface acted as a model membrane, which allowed the effect of the molecular packing density in the monolayer on the interactions to be determined. The interaction of glucose, insulin, and a mixture of glucose and insulin to the DPPC monolayer were investigated via surface pressure-area per molecule Langmuir isotherms and fluorescence microscopy. Glucose adsorbed to the underside of the DPPC monolayer, while insulin was able to penetrate through the monolayer when the phospholipid molecules were not densely packed. The presence of a mixture of insulin and glucose affected the molecular packing in the DPPC monolayer differently than the pure insulin or glucose solutions, and the glucose-insulin mixture was seen to be able to penetrate through the monolayer. These results indicated that glucose and insulin interact with one another, giving a material that may then transported through a pore in the monolayer or through the spaces between the molecules of the monolayer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Using AFM to probe the complexation of DNA with anionic lipids mediated by Ca(2+): the role of surface pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Caballero, Germán; Martín-Molina, Alberto; Sánchez-Treviño, Alda Yadira; Rodríguez-Valverde, Miguel A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, Miguel A; Maldonado-Valderrama, Julia

    2014-04-28

    Complexation of DNA with lipids is currently being developed as an alternative to classical vectors based on viruses. Most of the research to date focuses on cationic lipids owing to their spontaneous complexation with DNA. Nonetheless, recent investigations have revealed that cationic lipids induce a large number of adverse effects on DNA delivery. Precisely, the lower cytotoxicity of anionic lipids accounts for their use as a promising alternative. However, the complexation of DNA with anionic lipids (mediated by cations) is still in early stages and is not yet well understood. In order to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the complexation of anionic lipids and DNA we proposed a combined methodology based on the surface pressure-area isotherms, Gibbs elasticity and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). These techniques allow elucidation of the role of the surface pressure in the complexation and visualization of the interfacial aggregates for the first time. We demonstrate that the DNA complexes with negatively charged model monolayers (DPPC/DPPS 4 : 1) only in the presence of Ca(2+), but is expelled at very high surface pressures. Also, according to the Gibbs elasticity plot, the complexation of lipids and DNA implies a whole fluidisation of the monolayer and a completely different phase transition map in the presence of DNA and Ca(2+). AFM imaging allows identification for the first time of specific morphologies associated with different packing densities. At low surface coverage, a branched net like structure is observed whereas at high surface pressure fibers formed of interfacial aggregates appear. In summary, Ca(2+) mediates the interaction between DNA and negatively charged lipids and also the conformation of the ternary system depends on the surface pressure. Such observations are important new generic features of the interaction between DNA and anionic lipids.

  18. Effect of metal ions on the formation and properties of monolayers and nanosized Langmuir-Blodgett films based on diphilic aminomethylated calix[4]resorcinarenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neveshkin, A.A.; Rusanova, T.Yu.; Rumyantseva, S.S.; Serdobintsev, A.A.; Podkosov, K.V.; Shtykov, S.N.; Klimov, B.N.; Gorin, D.A.; Ryzhkina, I.S.

    2008-01-01

    The behavior of the monolayers of three diphilic aminomethylated calix[4]resorcinarene (CRA) derivatives on the surface of a pure aqueous subphase and subphase containing copper(II), nickel(II), europium(III), terbium(III), and lanthanum(III) ions was investigated. The monolayer transfer to the quartz and single-crystal silicon substrates was accomplished by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The films were studied by ellipsometry and mass-spectrometry. Metal ions were found to exert effect on the limit area per one CRA molecule in the monolayer, on the surface collapse pressure and transfer coefficient of monolayer, and on the thickness and refractive index of the CRA-based LB films [ru

  19. Architecture-dependent surface chemistry for Pt monolayers on carbon-supported Au.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuang; Rettew, Robert E; Sauerbrey, Marc; Alamgir, Faisal M

    2011-10-01

    Pt monolayers were grown by surface-limited redox replacement (SLRR) on two types of Au nanostructures. The Au nanostructures were fabricated electrochemically on carbon fiber paper (CFP) by either potentiostatic deposition (PSD) or potential square wave deposition (PSWD). The morphology of the Au/CFP heterostructures, examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), was found to depend on the type of Au growth method employed. The properties of the Pt deposit, as studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV), were found to depend strongly on the morphology of the support. Specifically, it was found that smaller Au morphologies led to a higher degree of cationicity in the resulting Pt deposit, with Pt(4+) and Pt(2+) species being identified using XPS and XAS. For fuel-cell catalysts, the resistance of ultrathin catalyst deposits to surface area loss through dissolution, poisoning, and agglomeration is critical. This study shows that an equivalent of two monolayers (ML) is the low-loading limit of Pt on Au. At 1 ML or below, the Pt film decreases in activity and durability very rapidly due to presence of cationic Pt. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. Reactions between monolayer Fe and Si(001) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, M; Kobayashi, N; Hayashi, N [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Reactions between 1.5 monolayer(ML) Fe deposited on Si(001)-2x1 and -dihydride surfaces were studied in situ by reflection high-energy electron diffraction and time-of-flight ion scattering spectrometry with the use of 25 keV H ions. The reactions between Fe and Si which were successively deposited on Si(001)-dihydride surface were also studied. After the room temperature deposition Fe reacted with Si(001)-2x1 substrate resulting in the formation of polycrystalline Fe5Si3. By annealing to 560-650degC composite heteroepitaxial layer of both type A and type B {beta}-FeSi2 was formed. On the dihydride surface polycrystalline Fe was observed after 1.5ML Fe deposition at room temperature, and reaction between Fe and Si(001)-dihydride surface is not likely at room temperature. We observed 3D rough surface when we deposited only Fe layer on the dihydride surface and annealed above 700degC. The hydrogen termination of Si(001) surface prevents the deposited Fe from diffusing into the substrate below 500degC, however the annealing above 710degC leads to the diffusion. We obtained 2D ordered surface, which showed 3x3 RHEED pattern as referenced to the primitive unreconstructed Si(001) surface net, when we deposited 2.5ML Fe and 5.8ML Si successively onto Si(001)-dihydride surface and annealed to 470degC. (author)

  1. Thermodynamic and structural study of two-dimensional melting within monolayers or rare gases or methane physically adsorbed upon the surface of layer-like solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessier, Christine

    1983-01-01

    The 2D (two-dimensional) melting of monolayers of rare gases or methane physically adsorbed on the basal face of lamellar solids (graphite, boron nitride and lamellar halides) has been studied. Two different experimental measurements have been made: i) adsorption isotherms; ii) neutron diffraction spectra. The main part of this report deals with the 2D liquid-incommensurate solid transition within monolayers of rare gases or methane adsorbed on the basal face of lamellar halides. This transition is first order. It is observed only if certain conditions of dimensional incompatibility between the substrate and the absorbate are fulfilled. It is little affected by the structure of the underlying substrate. A number of thermodynamic parameters associated with it, are constants once properly scaled. These constants agree well with theoretical estimates for 6-12 Lennard Jones particles adsorbed on a smooth surface. For the monolayer of Xe adsorbed on graphite the temperature of the tricritical point above which melting becomes a continuous transition has been measured. The isotope effect associated with 2D melting has been investigated by comparing the behaviour of monolayers of CH 4 and CD 4 adsorbed on boron nitride. The vapor pressure of Xe has been determined in the temperature range 101-120 K. (author) [fr

  2. Structure and shear response of lipid monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, P.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1990-02-01

    Organic monolayers and multilayers are both scientifically fascinating and technologically promising; they are, however, both complex systems and relatively inaccessible to experimental probes. In this Progress Report, we describe our X-ray diffraction studies, which have given us substantial new information about the structures and phase transitions in monolayers on the surface of water; our use of these monolayers as a unique probe of the dynamics of wetting and spreading; and our studies of monolayer mechanical properties using a simple but effective technique available to anyone using the Wilhelmy method to measure surface tension

  3. Effect of surface charge of immortalized mouse cerebral endothelial cell monolayer on transport of charged solutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Li, Guanglei; Gil, Eun Seok; Lowe, Tao Lu; Fu, Bingmei M

    2010-04-01

    Charge carried by the surface glycocalyx layer (SGL) of the cerebral endothelium has been shown to significantly modulate the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to charged solutes in vivo. The cultured monolayer of bEnd3, an immortalized mouse cerebral endothelial cell line, is becoming a popular in vitro BBB model due to its easy growth and maintenance of many BBB characteristics over repeated passages. To test whether the SGL of bEnd3 monolayer carries similar charge as that in the intact BBB and quantify this charge, which can be characterized by the SGL thickness (L(f)) and charge density (C(mf)), we measured the solute permeability of bEnd3 monolayer to neutral solutes and to solutes with similar size but opposite charges: negatively charged alpha-lactalbumin (-11) and positively charged ribonuclease (+3). Combining the measured permeability data with a transport model across the cell monolayer, we predicted the L(f) and the C(mf) of bEnd3 monolayer, which is approximately 160 nm and approximately 25 mEq/L, respectively. We also investigated whether orosomucoid, a plasma glycoprotein modulating the charge of the intact BBB, alters the charge of bEnd3 monolayer. We found that 1 mg/mL orosomucoid would increase SGL charge density of bEnd3 monolayer to approximately 2-fold of its control value.

  4. Studies of lipid interactions in mixed Langmuir monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gzyl-Malcher, Barbara [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland)], E-mail: gzyl@chemia.uj.edu.pl; Paluch, Maria [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland)

    2008-10-31

    The mixed monolayers of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) with 3-monopalmitoyl glycerol (PG) and palmitic acid 4-methylumbelliferyl ester (4-MU) were compared. Relevant thermodynamic parameters such as excess area ({delta}A{sup E}) and excess free energy of mixing ({delta}G{sub mix}{sup E}) were derived from the surface pressure data obtained from compression measurements performed in a Langmuir trough. Generally, DPPC formed more condensed monolayers with PG and greater negative values of {delta}A{sup E} and {delta}G{sub mix}{sup E} were observed for DPPC/PG system than for DPPC/4-MU one. The positive values of the excess free entropy of mixing ({delta}S{sub mix}{sup E}) were calculated for DPPC/4-MU system at lower temperatures and for DPPC/PG system at higher temperatures.

  5. ATR-IR spectroscopy for the detection of induced-phase transition in Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widayati, Suci

    1996-01-01

    The rate at which a solid substrate is transferred through the Air/Water interface in the Langmuir-Blodgett process of preparing monomolecular films influences the final structure of the transferred film. This phenomenon has been observed from the attenuated total reflectance infra-red (ATR-IR) spectra of fatty acid monolayer transferred onto germanium substrate. This transfer-induced effect is most evidence when the monolayer is transferred from an expanded region of the surface-pressure-molecular area isotherm, but has limited influence on the hydrocarbon chain conformation of film molecules transferred in the condensed phases at high surface pressure. Such a conformational ordering may due to a kinetically limited phase transition taking place in the meniscus formed between the solid substrate and aqueous sub phase. In addition, these results suggest that the structure of the amphiphilic molecules may modulate the extent and nature of the dipping-speed-induced structural changes taking place in the monomolecular L-B film. In order to use monomolecular L-B films to accurately characterize the structure, orientation and phase properties of monolayers at the Air/Water interface, the L-B transfer must be performed at transfer speeds that minimize this structural phase transition

  6. Structure and dynamics of lipid monolayers: Implications for enzyme catalysed lipolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Toxværd, S.; Larsen, N.B.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the role of the substrate on the interfacial activation of Upases by an interdisciplinary study of the structure and dynamics of 1,2-sn dipalmitoylglycerol monolayers at distinct surface pressures. The diglyceride Langmuir film undergoes two phase transitions occurring at 38......, the alkyl chains pack in an hexagonal structure relaxing to a distorted-hexagonal lattice in the lowest pressure phase with the alkyl chains tilted by approx 14° in a direction close to a nearest neighbour direction....

  7. Ternary Surface Monolayers for Ultrasensitive (Zeptomole) Amperometric Detection of Nucleic-Acid Hybridization without Signal Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Campuzano, Susana; Halford, Colin; Haake, David A.; Wang, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A ternary surface monolayer, consisting of co-assembled thiolated capture probe (SHCP) mercaptohexanol (MCH) and dithiothreitol (DTT), is shown to offer dramatic improvements in the signal-to-noise characteristics of electrochemical DNA hybridization biosensors based on common self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Remarkably low detection limits down to 40 zmole (in 4 μL samples) as well as only 1 CFU E. coli per sensor are thus obtained without any additional amplification step in connection to the commonly used horseradish peroxidase/3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (HRP/TMB) system. Such dramatic improvements in the detection limits (compared to common binary alkanethiol interfaces and to most electrochemical DNA sensing strategies without target or signal amplification) are attributed primarily to the remarkably higher resistance to non-specific adsorption. This reflects the highly compact layer (with lower pinhole density) produced by the coupling of the cyclic- and linear-configuration ‘backfillers’ that leads to a remarkably low background noise even in the presence of complex sample matrices. A wide range of surface compositions have been investigated and the ternary mixed monolayer has been systematically optimized. Detailed impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies shed useful insights into the surface coverage. The impressive sensitivity and high specificity of the simple developed methodology indicate great promise for a wide range of nucleic acid testing, including clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, food safety and forensic analysis. PMID:20883023

  8. Ternary surface monolayers for ultrasensitive (zeptomole) amperometric detection of nucleic acid hybridization without signal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Campuzano, Susana; Halford, Colin; Haake, David A; Wang, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    A ternary surface monolayer, consisting of coassembled thiolated capture probe, mercaptohexanol and dithiothreitol, is shown to offer dramatic improvements in the signal-to-noise characteristics of electrochemical DNA hybridization biosensors based on common self-assembled monolayers. Remarkably low detection limits down to 40 zmol (in 4 μL samples) as well as only 1 CFU Escherichia coli per sensor are thus obtained without any additional amplification step in connection to the commonly used horseradish peroxidase/3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine system. Such dramatic improvements in the detection limits (compared to those of common binary alkanethiol interfaces and to those of most electrochemical DNA sensing strategies without target or signal amplification) are attributed primarily to the remarkably higher resistance to nonspecific adsorption. This reflects the highly compact layer (with lower pinhole density) produced by the coupling of the cyclic- and linear-configuration "backfillers" that leads to a remarkably low background noise even in the presence of complex sample matrixes. A wide range of surface compositions have been investigated, and the ternary mixed monolayer has been systematically optimized. Detailed impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies shed useful insights into the surface coverage. The impressive sensitivity and high specificity of the simple developed methodology indicate great promise for a wide range of nucleic acid testing, including clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, food safety, and forensic analysis.

  9. Nanostructure analysis of polymer assembly on water surface by X-ray reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, H.; Matsuoka, H.; Kago, K.; Yoshitome, R.; Mouri, E.

    2000-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity (XR) is an extremely powerful technique to study the fine structure of surface and interface in the order of angstrom. In this study, we have performed systematic XR measurements for monolayers on water surface. The nanostructures of various monolayers were precisely determined, and their changes by surface pressure and photoisomerization were clearly detected. The structure of lipid monolayer and DNA complex at air-water interface was also evaluated. (author)

  10. Bovine insulin-phosphatidylcholine mixed Langmuir monolayers: behavior at the air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, S; Blanco-Vila, N M; Vila-Romeu, N

    2011-08-04

    The behavior of the binary mixed Langmuir monolayers of bovine insulin (INS) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) spread at the air-water interface was investigated under various subphase conditions. Pure and mixed monolayers were spread on water, on NaOH and phosphate-buffered solutions of pH 7.4, and on Zn(2+)-containing solutions. Miscibility and interactions between the components were studied on the basis of the analysis of the surface pressure (π)-mean molecular area (A) isotherms, surface compression modulus (C(s)(-1))-π curves, and plots of A versus mole fraction of INS (X(INS)). Our results indicate that intermolecular interactions between INS and PC depend on both the monolayer state and the structural characteristics of INS at the interface, which are strongly influenced by the subphase pH and salt content. Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) was applied to investigate the peptide aggregation pattern at the air-water interface in the presence of the studied lipid under any experimental condition investigated. The influence of the lipid on the INS behavior at the interface strongly depends on the subphase conditions.

  11. Mixed monolayers of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and ethyl palmitate at the air/water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gzyl, Barbara [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: gzyl@chemia.uj.edu.pl; Paluch, Maria [Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Cracow (Poland)

    2005-06-30

    The behaviour of monolayers containing dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and ethyl palmitate and their mixtures at different molar fraction, using surface pressure-molecular area results, was investigated. The negative deviation from additivity of the mean molecular areas as a function of the mixture composition indicates the miscibility. The miscibility was confirmed by applying the two-dimensional phase rule, since the collapse pressure values vary with the composition of the mixtures. Also the free energy of mixing {delta}G{sub mix} and the excess free energy of mixing {delta}G{sub mix}{sup E} were determined. The negative values of {delta}G{sub mix} and {delta}G{sub mix}{sup E} indicate that the mixed monolayers are thermodynamically more stable compared to the pure ones and that the compounds in the two dimensional state experience mainly attractive interactions.

  12. Characterization of iron surface modified by 2-mercaptobenzothiazole self-assembled monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Yuanyuan [Department of Chemistry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Chen Shenhao [Department of Chemistry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China) and State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Shenyang 110016 (China)]. E-mail: shchen@sdu.edu.cn; Zhang Honglin [Department of Chemistry, Qufu Normal University, Qufu 273165 (China); Li Ping [Department of Chemistry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wu Ling [Department of Chemistry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Guo Wenjuan [Department of Chemistry, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2006-12-30

    A self-assembled monolayer of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) adsorbed on the iron surface was prepared. The films were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Besides, the microcalorimetry method was utilized to study the self-assembled process on iron surface and the adsorption mechanism was discussed from the power-time curve. The results indicated that MBT was able to form a film spontaneously on iron surface and the presence of it could protect iron from corrosion effectively. However, the assembling time and the concentration influence the protection efficiency. Quantum chemical calculations, according to which adsorption mechanism was discussed, could explain the experimental results to some extent.

  13. Cholesterol Depletion from a Ceramide/Cholesterol Mixed Monolayer: A Brewster Angle Microscope Study

    KAUST Repository

    Mandal, Pritam

    2016-06-01

    Cholesterol is crucial to the mechanical properties of cell membranes that are important to cells’ behavior. Its depletion from the cell membranes could be dramatic. Among cyclodextrins (CDs), methyl beta cyclodextrin (MβCD) is the most efficient to deplete cholesterol (Chol) from biomembranes. Here, we focus on the depletion of cholesterol from a C16 ceramide/cholesterol (C16-Cer/Chol) mixed monolayer using MβCD. While the removal of cholesterol by MβCD depends on the cholesterol concentration in most mixed lipid monolayers, it does not depend very much on the concentration of cholesterol in C16-Cer/Chol monolayers. The surface pressure decay during depletion were described by a stretched exponential that suggested that the cholesterol molecules are unable to diffuse laterally and behave like static traps for the MβCD molecules. Cholesterol depletion causes morphology changes of domains but these disrupted monolayers domains seem to reform even when cholesterol level was low.

  14. Specific Ion Effects in Cholesterol Monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Del Castillo-Santaella

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of ions with interfaces and, in particular, the high specificity of these interactions to the particular ions considered, are central questions in the field of surface forces. Here we study the effect of different salts (NaI, NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 on monolayers made of cholesterol molecules, both experimentally (surface area vs. lateral pressure isotherms measured by a Langmuir Film Balance and theoretically (molecular dynamics (MD all-atomic simulations. We found that surface isotherms depend, both quantitatively and qualitatively, on the nature of the ions by altering the shape and features of the isotherm. In line with the experiments, MD simulations show clear evidences of specific ionic effects and also provide molecular level details on ion specific interactions with cholesterol. More importantly, MD simulations show that the interaction of a particular ion with the surface depends strongly on its counterion, a feature ignored so far in most theories of specific ionic effects in surface forces.

  15. Visualizing monolayers with a water-soluble fluorophore to quantify adsorption, desorption, and the double layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Ian C; Zasadzinski, Joseph A

    2015-02-24

    Contrast in confocal microscopy of phase-separated monolayers at the air-water interface can be generated by the selective adsorption of water-soluble fluorescent dyes to disordered monolayer phases. Optical sectioning minimizes the fluorescence signal from the subphase, whereas convolution of the measured point spread function with a simple box model of the interface provides quantitative assessment of the excess dye concentration associated with the monolayer. Coexisting liquid-expanded, liquid-condensed, and gas phases could be visualized due to differential dye adsorption in the liquid-expanded and gas phases. Dye preferentially adsorbed to the liquid-disordered phase during immiscible liquid-liquid phase coexistence, and the contrast persisted through the critical point as shown by characteristic circle-to-stripe shape transitions. The measured dye concentration in the disordered phase depended on the phase composition and surface pressure, and the dye was expelled from the film at the end of coexistence. The excess concentration of a cationic dye within the double layer adjacent to an anionic phospholipid monolayer was quantified as a function of subphase ionic strength, and the changes in measured excess agreed with those predicted by the mean-field Gouy-Chapman equations. This provided a rapid and noninvasive optical method of measuring the fractional dissociation of lipid headgroups and the monolayer surface potential.

  16. Advanced chemistry of monolayers at interfaces trends in methodology and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Imae, Toyoko

    2007-01-01

    Advanced Chemistry of Monolayers at Interfaces describes the advanced chemistry of monolayers at interfaces. Focusing on the recent trends of methodology and technology, which are indispensable in monolayer science. They are applied to monolayers of surfactants, amphiphiles, polymers, dendrimers, enzymes, and proteins, which serve many uses.Introduces the methodologies of scanning probe microscopy, surface force instrumentation, surface spectroscopy, surface plasmon optics, reflectometry, and near-field scanning optical microscopy. Modern interface reaction method, lithographic tech

  17. Simulations of molecular self-assembled monolayers on surfaces: packing structures, formation processes and functions tuned by intermolecular and interfacial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jin; Li, Wei; Chen, Shuang; Ma, Jing

    2016-08-17

    Surfaces modified with a functional molecular monolayer are essential for the fabrication of nano-scale electronics or machines with novel physical, chemical, and/or biological properties. Theoretical simulation based on advanced quantum chemical and classical models is at present a necessary tool in the development, design, and understanding of the interfacial nanostructure. The nanoscale surface morphology, growth processes, and functions are controlled by not only the electronic structures (molecular energy levels, dipole moments, polarizabilities, and optical properties) of building units but also the subtle balance between intermolecular and interfacial interactions. The switchable surfaces are also constructed by introducing stimuli-responsive units like azobenzene derivatives. To bridge the gap between experiments and theoretical models, opportunities and challenges for future development of modelling of ferroelectricity, entropy, and chemical reactions of surface-supported monolayers are also addressed. Theoretical simulations will allow us to obtain important and detailed information about the structure and dynamics of monolayer modified interfaces, which will guide the rational design and optimization of dynamic interfaces to meet challenges of controlling optical, electrical, and biological functions.

  18. Characterisation of phase transition in adsorbed monolayers at the air/water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollhardt, D; Fainerman, V B

    2010-02-26

    Recent work has provided experimental and theoretical evidence that a first order fluid/condensed (LE/LC) phase transition can occur in adsorbed monolayers of amphiphiles and surfactants which are dissolved in aqueous solution. Similar to Langmuir monolayers, also in the case of adsorbed monolayers, the existence of a G/LE phase transition, as assumed by several authors, is a matter of question. Representative studies, at first performed with a tailored amphiphile and later with numerous other amphiphiles, also with n-dodecanol, provide insight into the main characteristics of the adsorbed monolayer during the adsorption kinetics. The general conditions necessary for the formation of a two-phase coexistence in adsorbed monolayers can be optimally studied using dynamic surface pressure measurements, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction at grazing incidence (GIXD). A characteristic break point in the time dependence of the adsorption kinetics curves indicates the phase transition which is largely affected by the concentration of the amphiphile in the aqueous solution and on the temperature. Formation and growth of condensed phase domains after the phase transition point are visualised by BAM. As demonstrated by a tailored amphiphile, various types of morphological textures of the condensed phase can occur in different temperature regions. Lattice structure and tilt angle of the alkyl chains in the condensed phase of the adsorbed monolayer are determined using GIXD. The main growth directions of the condensed phase textures are correlated with the two-dimensional lattice structure. The results, obtained for the characteristics of the condensed phase after a first order main transition, are supported by experimental bridging to the Langmuir monolayers. Phase transition of adsorbing trace impurities in model surfactants can strongly affect the characteristics of the main component. Dodecanol present as minor component in aqueous sodium

  19. NOx Binding and Dissociation: Enhanced Ferroelectric Surface Chemistry by Catalytic Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakekhani, Arvin; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    2013-03-01

    NOx molecules are regulated air pollutants produced during automotive combustion. As part of an effort to design viable catalysts for NOx decomposition operating at higher temperatures that would allow for improved fuel efficiency, we examine NOx chemistry on ferroelectric perovskite surfaces. Changing the direction of ferroelectric polarization can modify surface electronic properties and may lead to switchable surface chemistry. Here, we describe our recent work on potentially enhanced surface chemistry using catalytic RuO2 monolayers on perovskite ferroelectric substrates. In addition to thermodynamic stabilization of the RuO2 layer, we present results on the polarization-dependent binding of NO, O2, N2, and atomic O and N. We present results showing that one key problem with current catalysts, involving the difficulty of releasing dissociation products (especially oxygen), can be ameliorated by this method. Primary support from Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing, North America, Inc.

  20. Better Organic Ternary Memory Performance through Self-Assembled Alkyltrichlorosilane Monolayers on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiang; Cheng, Xue-Feng; Zhou, Jin; He, Jing-Hui; Xu, Qing-Feng; Li, Hua; Li, Na-Jun; Chen, Dong-Yun; Lu, Jian-Mei

    2017-11-16

    Recently, surface engineering of the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode of sandwich-like organic electric memory devices was found to effectively improve their memory performances. However, there are few methods to modify the ITO substrates. In this paper, we have successfully prepared alkyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on ITO substrates, and resistive random access memory devices are fabricated on these surfaces. Compared to the unmodified ITO substrates, organic molecules (i.e., 2-((4-butylphenyl)amino)-4-((4-butylphenyl)iminio)-3-oxocyclobut-1-en-1-olate, SA-Bu) grown on these SAM-modified ITO substrates have rougher surface morphologies but a smaller mosaicity. The organic layer on the SAM-modified ITO further aged to eliminate the crystalline phase diversity. In consequence, the ternary memory yields are effectively improved to approximately 40-47 %. Our results suggest that the insertion of alkyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayers could be an efficient method to improve the performance of organic memory devices. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Low temperature carrier transport study of monolayer MoS{sub 2} field effect transistors prepared by chemical vapor deposition under an atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xinke, E-mail: xkliu@szu.edu.cn, E-mail: wujing026@gmail.com; He, Jiazhu; Tang, Dan; Lu, Youming; Zhu, Deliang; Liu, Wenjun; Cao, Peijiang; Han, Sun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Technology of Ceramics, Nanshan District Key Lab for Biopolymer and Safety Evaluation, Shenzhen University, 3688 Nanhai Ave, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Liu, Qiang; Wen, Jiao; Yu, Wenjie [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, CAS, 865 Chang Ning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Liu, Wenjun [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Department of Microelectronics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu, Jing, E-mail: xkliu@szu.edu.cn, E-mail: wujing026@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 21 Lower Kent Ridge Road, 117576 Singapore (Singapore); He, Zhubing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, South University of Science and Technology of China, 1088 Xueyuan Road, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Ang, Kah-Wee [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, 117583 Singapore (Singapore)

    2015-09-28

    Large size monolayer Molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub 2}) was successfully grown by chemical vapor deposition method under an atmospheric pressure. The electrical transport properties of the fabricated back-gate monolayer MoS{sub 2} field effect transistors (FETs) were investigated under low temperatures; a peak field effect mobility of 59 cm{sup 2}V{sup −1}s{sup −1} was achieved. With the assist of Raman measurement under low temperature, this work identified the mobility limiting factor for the monolayer MoS{sub 2} FETs: homopolar phonon scattering under low temperature and electron-polar optical phonon scattering at room temperature.

  2. Linear and Star Poly(ionic liquid) Assemblies: Surface Monolayers and Multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Andrew J; Xu, Weinan; He, Hongkun; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2017-04-04

    The surface morphology and organization of poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs), poly[1-(4-vinylbenzyl)-3-butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide] are explored in conjunction with their molecular architecture, adsorption conditions, and postassembly treatments. The formation of stable PIL Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayers at the air-water and air-solid interfaces is demonstrated. The hydrophobic bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf 2 N - ) is shown to be a critical agent governing the assembly morphology, as observed in the reversible condensation of LB monolayers into dense nanodroplets. The PIL is then incorporated as an unconventional polyelectrolyte component in the layer-by-layer (LbL) films of hydrophobic character. We demonstrate that the interplay of capillary forces, macromolecular mobility, and structural relaxation of the polymer chains influence the dewetting mechanisms in the PIL multilayers, thereby enabling access to a diverse set of highly textured, porous, and interconnected network morphologies for PIL LbL films that would otherwise be absent in conventional LbL films. Their compartmentalized internal structure is relevant to molecular separation membranes, ultrathin hydrophobic coatings, targeted cargo delivery, and highly conductive films.

  3. Novel determination of cadmium ions using an enzyme self-assembled monolayer with surface plasmon resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May May, Lee; Russell, David A.

    2003-01-01

    The activity of the enzyme urease is known to be inhibited by the heavy metal cadmium. The binding of cadmium to urease and the consequent changes of the enzyme structure are the basis of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensing system reported herein. To facilitate the formation of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of the urease on gold-coated glass SPR sensor disks, the enzyme has been modified with N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithiol) propionate (SPDP). The urease monolayer was exposed to trace levels of cadmium ions and monitored by SPR. From circular dichroism (CD) data, it is believed that the conformation of the active nickel site of the urease changes upon binding of the cadmium ions. It is this change of the enzyme monolayer, measured by SPR, which has been related to the cadmium ion concentration in the range of 0-10 mg l -1 . These data are the first report of a SPR biosensor capable of detecting metal ions

  4. One-pot reaction for the preparation of biofunctionalized self-assembled monolayers on gold surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raigoza, Annette F.; Fies, Whitney; Lim, Amber; Onyirioha, Kristeen; Webb, Lauren J., E-mail: lwebb@cm.utexas.edu

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • One-pot synthesis of α-helical-terminated self-assembled monolayers on Au(111). • Synthesis of high density, structured, and covalently bound α-helices on Au(111). • Characterization by surface-averaged and single molecule techniques. • Peptide-terminated surfaces for fabrication of biomaterials and sensors. - Abstract: The Huisgen cycloaddition reaction (“click” chemistry) has been used extensively to functionalize surfaces with macromolecules in a straightforward manner. We have previously developed a procedure using the copper(I)-catalyzed click reaction to tether synthetic α-helical peptides carrying two alkyne groups to a well-ordered azide-terminated alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on a Au(111) surface. While convenient, click-based strategies potentially pose significant problems from reagents, solvents, and reaction temperatures that may irreversibly damage some molecules or substrates. Tuning click chemistry conditions would allow individual optimization of reaction conditions for a wide variety of biomolecules and substrate materials. Here, we explore the utility of simultaneous SAM formation and peptide-attachment chemistry in a one-pot reaction. We demonstrate that a formerly multistep reaction can be successfully carried out concurrently by mixing azide-terminated alkanethiols, CuCl, and a propargylglycine-containing peptide over a bare gold surface in ethanol and reacting at 70 °C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), surface infrared spectroscopy, surface circular dichroic (CD) spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) were used to determine that this one-pot reaction strategy resulted in a high density of surface-bound α-helices without aggregation. This work demonstrates the simplicity and versatility of a SAM-plus-click chemistry strategy for functionalizing Au surfaces with structured biomolecules.

  5. Surface cleaning and adsorbate layer formation: Dual role of alkylamines in the formation of self-assembled monolayers on cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.E.; Murray, W.R.; Kershan, K.; Diaz, V.; Tran, L.; McDevitt, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    The development of monolayer adsorption chemistry for superconductor surfaces is particularly important for a number of practical and fundamental reasons. As high-T c superconductors begin to approach the marketplace in areas of communications, power industries, medical applications, and scientific instrumentation, the development of new soft chemistry approaches for the surface modification of these technologically relevant electronic materials becomes increasingly important. Monolayer adsorption chemistry has been developed extensively for electronic materials such as metals, semiconductors, and insulators. These methodologies have been expanded recently to include a variety of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs). The authors describe a series of new X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), four-point conductivity, critical current, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), grazing angle infrared spectroscopy, and GE--MS experiments, which lead the suggestion that an entirely different mechanism is involved in the formation of HTSC-localized monolayers. According to the new model, the amine reagents serve two chemically distinct roles. In the initial phase, the degraded superconductor exteriors is etched away with the help of the amine compounds. The etching process proceeds to the point where fresh YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 is exposed, and only at this point do the amines adsorb and remain at the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 surface. As the adsorption process continues, there is an accumulation of an organized monolayer at the surface, which prevents further etching of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 material

  6. Removal of dangling bonds and surface states on silicon (001) with a monolayer of selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Meng; Udeshi, Darshak; Basit, Nasir; Maldonado, Eduardo; Kirk, Wiley P.

    2003-01-01

    Dangling bonds and surface states are inherent to semiconductor surfaces. By passivating dangling bonds on the silicon (001) surface with a monolayer of selenium, surface states are removed from the band gap. Magnesium contacts on selenium-passivated silicon (001) behave ohmically, as expected from the work function of magnesium and the electron affinity of silicon. After rapid thermal annealing and hot-plate annealing, magnesium contacts on selenium-passivated silicon (001) show better thermal stability than on hydrogen-passivated silicon (001), which is attributed to the suppression of silicide formation by selenium passivation

  7. Conformations and orientations of a signal peptide interacting with phospholipid monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornell, D.G.; Dluhy, R.A.; Briggs, M.S.; McKnight, C.J.; Gierasch, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    The interaction of a chemically synthesized 25-residue signal peptide of LamB protein from Escherichia coli with phospholipids has been studied with a film balance technique. The conformation, orientation, and concentration of the peptides in lipid monolayers have been determined from polarized infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, and assay of 14 C-labeled peptide in transferred films. When the LamB signal peptide in injected into the subphase under a phosphatidylethanolamine-phosphatidylglycerol monolayer at low initial pressure, insertion of a portion of the peptide into the lipid film is evidenced by a rapid rise in film pressure. Spectroscopic results obtained on films transferred to quartz plates and Ge crystals show that the peptide is a mixture of α-helix and β-conformation where the long axis of the α-helix penetrates the monolayer plane and the β-structure which is coplanar with the film. By contrast, when peptide is injected under lipid at high initial pressure, no pressure rise is observed, and the spectroscopic results show the presence of only β-structure which is coplanar with the monolayer. The spectroscopic and radioassay results are all consistent with the picture of a peptide anchored to the monolayer through electrostatic binding with a helical portion inserted into the lipid region of the monolayer and a β-structure portion resident in the aqueous phase. The negative charges on the lipid molecules are roughly neutralized by the positive charges of the peptide

  8. Comparative study of normal and branched alkane monolayer films adsorbed on a solid surface. I. Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Ann Dorrit; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Diama, A.

    2007-01-01

    their backbone and squalane has, in addition, six methyl side groups. Upon adsorption, there are significant differences as well as similarities in the behavior of these molecular films. Both molecules form ordered structures at low temperatures; however, while the melting point of the two-dimensional (2D......The structure of a monolayer film of the branched alkane squalane (C30H62) adsorbed on graphite has been studied by neutron diffraction and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and compared with a similar study of the n-alkane tetracosane (n-C24H52). Both molecules have 24 carbon atoms along...... temperature. The neutron diffraction data show that the translational order in the squalane monolayer is significantly less than in the tetracosane monolayer. The authors' MD simulations suggest that this is caused by a distortion of the squalane molecules upon adsorption on the graphite surface. When...

  9. Monolayer alignment on azobenzene surfaces during UV light irradiation: Analysis of optical polarized absorption measurement results and theoretical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, A.V.; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the charge separation during the trans-cis conformational change on the surface of azobenzene 6Az10PVA monolayer on the polar liquid-crystal monolayer film, such as 4-n-pentyl-4 ' -cyanobiphenyl(5CB), is investigated. The effective anchoring energy (in the Rapini-Papolar form) is phenomenologically described in the framework of the molecular model, which takes into account the interaction between the surface polarization and surface electric field, for number of conformational states of the boundary surface. It is shown, using the experimental data for the voltage across the 6Az10PVA+5CB film, provided by the surface-potential technique, that the charge separation during the conformational changing, caused by the UV irradiation, may lead to changing of the surface alignment of liquid-crystalline molecules. The influence of the photoisomerization process on the orientational order parameter S 2 (t) using the optical polarized absorption measurement is also investigated

  10. Microchannel-flowed-plasma modification of octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled-monolayers for liquid crystal alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, W.; Chiang, C.-Y.; Underwood, I.

    2013-01-01

    We report that a chemical patterning technique based on local plasma modification of self-assembled monolayers has been utilized to fabricate surfaces for domain liquid crystal alignment. Highly hydrophobic octadecyltrichlorosilane monolayers deposited on glass substrates coated with Indium-Tin-Oxide were brought into contact with elastomeric stamps comprising trenches on a micro scale, and then exposed to an oxygen plasma. In the regions exposed to the plasma the monolayer was etched away leaving a patterned surface that exhibited surface energy differences between surface domains. The surfaces that bear the micropatterns have been shown to be capable of producing patterned alignment of nematic liquid crystal. - Highlights: • Chemical surface-patterning is used to fabricate liquid crystal alignment surface. • Highly hydrophobic octadecyltrichlorosilane monolayer is deposited on substrate. • O 2 plasma flow is used to etch the monolayer to form patterned surface. • The patterned surface exhibits surface energy differences between surface domains. • The surface borne the micropatterns is capable of domain liquid crystal alignment

  11. Network structure control of binary mixed langmuir monolayers of homo-PS and PS-b-P2VP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Gangyao

    2010-03-25

    Our recent work showed there existed a composition window for mixed Langmuir monolayers of homopolystyrene (h-PS) and a symmetric diblock copolymer polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) to form necklace-network structures at the air/water interface. In order to study further the possible mechanism and control the network structure (i.e., surface coverage and nanoaggregate diameter), effects of spreading solution concentration and volume, subphase temperature, and transfer pressure on the network structure were studied by the Langmuir monolayer technique and tapping mode atomic force microscopy. With the increase of transfer pressure, there existed a novel nonlinear behavior for the nanoaggregate diameter first to increase, then to decrease, and finally to increase again, while the surface coverage tended to increase step by step. Moreover, with the elevation of temperature, chain motion between the adjoining nanoaggregates tended to be improved and thus the nanoaggregate diameter tended to be more uniform.

  12. Correlation of surface pressure and hue of planarizable push–pull chromophores at the air/water interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Neuhaus

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is currently not possible to directly measure the lateral pressure of a biomembrane. Mechanoresponsive fluorescent probes are an elegant solution to this problem but it requires first the establishment of a direct correlation between the membrane surface pressure and the induced color change of the probe. Here, we analyze planarizable dithienothiophene push–pull probes in a monolayer at the air/water interface using fluorescence microscopy, grazing-incidence angle X-ray diffraction, and infrared reflection–absorption spectroscopy. An increase of the lateral membrane pressure leads to a well-packed layer of the ‘flipper’ mechanophores and a clear change in hue above 18 mN/m. The fluorescent probes had no influence on the measured isotherm of the natural phospholipid DPPC suggesting that the flippers probe the lateral membrane pressure without physically changing it. This makes the flipper probes a truly useful addition to the membrane probe toolbox.

  13. Hydrostatic pressure incubation affects barrier properties of mammary epithelial cell monolayers, in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mießler, Katharina S; Markov, Alexander G; Amasheh, Salah

    2018-01-01

    During lactation, accumulation of milk in mammary glands (MG) causes hydrostatic pressure (HP) and concentration of bioactive compounds. Previously, a changed expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins was observed in mice MGs by accumulation of milk, in vivo. The TJ primarily determines the integrity of the MG epithelium. The present study questioned whether HP alone can affect the TJ in a mammary epithelial cell model, in vitro. Therefore, monolayers of HC11, a mammary epithelial cell line, were mounted into modified Ussing chambers and incubated with 10 kPa bilateral HP for 4 h. Short circuit current and transepithelial resistance were recorded and compared to controls, and TJ proteins were analyzed by Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. In our first approach HC11 cells could withstand the pressure incubation and a downregulation of occludin was observed. In a second approach, using prolactin- and dexamethasone-induced cells, a decrease of short circuit current was observed, beginning after 2 h of incubation. With the addition of 1 mM barium chloride to the bathing solution the decrease could be blocked temporarily. On molecular level an upregulation of ZO-1 could be observed in hormone-induced cells, which was downregulated after the incubation with barium chloride. In conclusion, bilateral HP incubation affects mammary epithelial monolayers, in vitro. Both, the reduction of short circuit current and the change in TJ proteins may be interpreted as physiological requirements for lactation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of Functionalized Self-Assembled Monolayers and Surface-Attached Interlocking Molecules Using Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willey, T; Willey, T

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative knowledge of the fundamental structure and substrate binding, as well as the direct measurement of conformational changes, are essential to the development of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and surface-attached interlocking molecules, catenanes and rotaxanes. These monolayers are vital to development of nano-mechanical, molecular electronic, and biological/chemical sensor applications. This dissertation investigates properties of functionalized SAMs in sulfur-gold based adsorbed molecular monolayers using quantitative spectroscopic techniques including near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The stability of the gold-thiolate interface is addressed. A simple model SAM consisting of dodecanethiol adsorbed on Au(111) degrades significantly in less than 24 hours under ambient laboratory air. S 2p and O 1s XPS show the gold-bound thiolates oxidize to sulfinates and sulfonates. A reduction of organic material on the surface and a decrease in order are observed as the layer degrades. The effect of the carboxyl vs. carboxylate functionalization on SAM structure is investigated. Carboxyl-terminated layers consisting of long alkyl-chain thiols vs. thioctic acid with short, sterically separated, alkyl groups are compared and contrasted. NEXAFS shows a conformational change, or chemical switchability, with carboxyl groups tilted over and carboxylate endgroups more upright. Surface-attached loops and simple surface-attached rotaxanes are quantitatively characterized, and preparation conditions that lead to desired films are outlined. A dithiol is often insufficient to form a molecular species bound at each end to the substrate, while a structurally related disulfide-containing polymer yields surface-attached loops. Similarly, spectroscopic techniques show the successful production of a simple, surface-attached rotaxane that requires a ''molecular riveting'' step to hold the mechanically attached

  15. Interfacial Interactions and Nano structure Changes in DPPG/HD Monolayer at the Air/Water Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, H.; Zhang, P.; Sun, R.; Hao, Ch.; Wang, J.; Zhu, H.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, P.; Li, Sh.

    2015-01-01

    Lung surfactant (LS) plays a crucial role in regulating surface tension during normal respiration cycles by decreasing the work associated with lung expansion and therefore decreases the metabolic energy consumed. Monolayer surfactant films composed of a mixture of phospholipids and spreading additives are of optional utility for applications in lung surfactant-based therapies. A simple, minimal model of such a lung surfactant system, composed of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phosphor-rac-(1-glycerol)] (DPPG) and hexadecanol (HD), was prepared, and the surface pressure-area π-A) isotherms and nano structure characteristics of the binary mixture were investigated at the air/water interface using a combination of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Based on the regular solution theory, the miscibility and stability of the two components in the monolayer were analyzed in terms of compression modulusC_s"-1) , excess Gibbs free energy (δG"π_exc) , activity coefficients (γ), and interaction parameterζ. The results of this paper provide valuable insight into basic thermodynamics and nano structure of mixed DPPG/HD monolayers; it is helpful to understand the thermodynamic behavior of HD as spreading additive in LS monolayer with a view toward characterizing potential improvements to LS performance brought about by addition of HD to lung phospholipids

  16. Structural properties of oligonucleotide monolayers on gold surfaces probed by fluorescence investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rant, Ulrich; Arinaga, Kenji; Fujita, Shozo; Yokoyama, Naoki; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Tornow, Marc

    2004-11-09

    We present optical investigations on the conformation of oligonucleotide layers on Au surfaces. Our studies concentrate on the effect of varying surface coverage densities on the structural properties of layers of 12- and 24mer single-stranded DNA, tethered to the Au surface at one end while being labeled with a fluorescent marker at the opposing end. The distance-dependent energy transfer from the marker dye to the metal surface, which causes quenching of the observed fluorescence, is used to provide information on the orientation of the DNA strands relative to the surface. Variations in the oligonucleotide coverage density, as determined from electrochemical quantification, over 2 orders of magnitude are achieved by employing different preparation conditions. The observed enhancement in fluorescence intensity with increasing DNA coverage can be related to a model involving mutual steric interactions of oligonucleotides on the surface, as well as fluorescence quenching theory. Finally, the applicability of the presented concepts for investigations of heterogeneous monolayers is demonstrated by means of studying the coadsorption of mercaptohexanol onto DNA-modified Au surfaces.

  17. Photopatterning of self assembled monolayers on oxide surfaces for the selective attachment of biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Pompi; Behrendt, Jonathan M; Petersson, Linn; Wingren, Christer; Turner, Michael L

    2014-03-15

    The immobilization of functional biomolecules to surfaces is a critical process for the development of biosensors for disease diagnostics. In this work we report the patterned attachment of single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies to the surface of metal oxides by the photodeprotection of self-assembled monolayers, using near-UV light. The photodeprotection step alters the functionality at the surface; revealing amino groups that are utilized to bind biomolecules in the exposed regions of the substrate only. The patterned antibodies are used for the detection of specific disease biomarker proteins in buffer and in complex samples such as human serum. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nonlinear optical studies of organic monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y.R.

    1988-02-01

    Second-order nonlinear optical effects are forbidden in a medium with inversion symmetry, but are necessarily allowed at a surface where the inversion summary is broken. They are often sufficiently strong so that a submonolayer perturbation of the surface can be readily detected. They can therefore be used as effective tools to study monolayers adsorbed at various interfaces. We discuss here a number of recent experiments in which optical second harmonic generation (SHG) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) are employed to probe and characterize organic monolayers. 15 refs., 5 figs

  19. Formation of self-assembled monolayer of curcuminoid molecules on gold surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlanga, Isadora; Etcheverry-Berríos, Álvaro; Mella, Andy; Jullian, Domingo; Gómez, Victoria Alejandra; Aliaga-Alcalde, Núria; Fuenzalida, Victor; Flores, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thiophene curcuminoid molecules deposited on a gold surface by immersion. • Molecular dynamic studies of the molecular arrangement approaching the surface. • XPS and STM studies showing different arrangement of the molecules on the surface. • Molecular Interaction with surface depends on the sulfur position in thiophene rings. • Temporal evolution of the molecular arrangement on the surface. - Abstract: We investigated the formation of self-assembled monolayers of two thiophene curcuminoid molecules, 2-thphCCM (1) and 3-thphCCM (2), on polycrystalline gold substrates prepared by immersion of the surfaces in a solution of the molecules during 24 h. The functionalized surfaces were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Despite the fact that both molecules have the same composition and almost the same structure, these molecules exhibit different behavior on the gold surface, which can be explained by the different positions of the sulfur atoms in the terminal aromatic rings. In the case of molecule 1, the complete formation of a SAM can be observed after 24 h of immersion. In the case of molecule 2, the transition from flat-lying to upright configuration on the surface is still in process after 24 h of immersion. This is attributed to the fact that molecule 2 have the sulfur atoms more exposed than molecule 1.

  20. Formation of self-assembled monolayer of curcuminoid molecules on gold surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlanga, Isadora [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); Etcheverry-Berríos, Álvaro; Mella, Andy; Jullian, Domingo [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Beaucheff 851, Santiago (Chile); Gómez, Victoria Alejandra [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); Aliaga-Alcalde, Núria [ICREA (Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats), Passeig Lluís Companys, 23, 08018, Barcelona (Spain); CSIC-ICMAB (Institut de Ciència dels Materials de Barcelona), Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Fuenzalida, Victor [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); Flores, Marcos, E-mail: mflorescarra@ing.uchile.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Av. Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); and others

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Thiophene curcuminoid molecules deposited on a gold surface by immersion. • Molecular dynamic studies of the molecular arrangement approaching the surface. • XPS and STM studies showing different arrangement of the molecules on the surface. • Molecular Interaction with surface depends on the sulfur position in thiophene rings. • Temporal evolution of the molecular arrangement on the surface. - Abstract: We investigated the formation of self-assembled monolayers of two thiophene curcuminoid molecules, 2-thphCCM (1) and 3-thphCCM (2), on polycrystalline gold substrates prepared by immersion of the surfaces in a solution of the molecules during 24 h. The functionalized surfaces were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Despite the fact that both molecules have the same composition and almost the same structure, these molecules exhibit different behavior on the gold surface, which can be explained by the different positions of the sulfur atoms in the terminal aromatic rings. In the case of molecule 1, the complete formation of a SAM can be observed after 24 h of immersion. In the case of molecule 2, the transition from flat-lying to upright configuration on the surface is still in process after 24 h of immersion. This is attributed to the fact that molecule 2 have the sulfur atoms more exposed than molecule 1.

  1. Self assembled monolayers of octadecyltrichlorosilane for dielectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vijay, E-mail: cirivijaypilani@gmail.com [Centre for Nanoscience and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science-Bangalore (India); Mechanical Engineering Department, Birla Institute of Technology and Science-Pilani (India); Puri, Paridhi; Nain, Shivani [Mechanical Engineering Department, Birla Institute of Technology and Science-Pilani (India); Bhat, K. N. [Centre for Nanoscience and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science-Bangalore (India); Sharma, N. N. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Birla Institute of Technology and Science-Pilani (India); School of Automobile, Mechanical & Mechatronics, Manipal University-Jaipur (India)

    2016-04-13

    Treatment of surfaces to change the interaction of fluids with them is a critical step in constructing useful microfluidics devices, especially those used in biological applications. Selective modification of inorganic materials such as Si, SiO{sub 2} and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} is of great interest in research and technology. We evaluated the chemical formation of OTS self-assembled monolayers on silicon substrates with different dielectric materials. Our investigations were focused on surface modification of formerly used common dielectric materials SiO{sub 2}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and a-poly. The improvement of wetting behaviour and quality of monolayer films were characterized using Atomic force microscope, Scanning electron microscope, Contact angle goniometer, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) monolayer deposited oxide surface.

  2. Evaluation of monolayers and mixed monolayers formed from mercaptobenzothiazole and decanethiol as sensing platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary Vergheese, T.; Berchmans, Sheela

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, the characterisation of monolayer and mixed monolayers formed from mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) and decanethiol (DT) has been carried out with cyclic voltammetry. The SAMs have been tested for their stability and electron transfer blocking properties. The redox probes used in the present study are [Fe(China) 6 ] 4- , [Ru(NH 3 ) 6 ] 2+ and Cu underpotential deposition (upd). The electron transfer kinetics is investigated in acid and neutral pH range. Electron transfer kinetics is altered by the nature of charge on the redox probe and the charge on the monolayer. Electron transfer kinetics of negatively charged redox probes like ferrocyanide ions is blocked when the surface pK a medium and at pK a >pH medium reversible features is observed for negatively charged probes. An exactly reverse effect is observed in the case of positively charged redox species like [Ru(NH 3 ) 6 ] 2+/3+ . Cu under potential deposition studies reflects the structural integrity and compactness of the SAM layer. The utility of these monolayers and mixed monolayer for selective sensing of dopamine is discussed based on their ability to discriminate between positively and negatively charged redox species at different pH

  3. Infrared beam-steering using acoustically modulated surface plasmons over a graphene monolayer

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Paiyen

    2014-09-01

    We model and design a graphene-based infrared beamformer based on the concept of leaky-wave (fast traveling wave) antennas. The excitation of infrared surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) over a \\'one-atom-thick\\' graphene monolayer is typically associated with intrinsically \\'slow light\\'. By modulating the graphene with elastic vibrations based on flexural waves, a dynamic diffraction grating can be formed on the graphene surface, converting propagating SPPs into fast surface waves, able to radiate directive infrared beams into the background medium. This scheme allows fast on-off switching of infrared emission and dynamic tuning of its radiation pattern, beam angle and frequency of operation, by simply varying the acoustic frequency that controls the effective grating period. We envision that this graphene beamformer may be integrated into reconfigurable transmitter/receiver modules, switches and detectors for THz and infrared wireless communication, sensing, imaging and actuation systems.

  4. Biomimetic mineralization of CaCO3 on a phospholipid monolayer: from an amorphous calcium carbonate precursor to calcite via vaterite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Junwu; Wang, Zhining; Tang, Yecang; Yang, Shihe

    2010-04-06

    A phospholipid monolayer, approximately half the bilayer structure of a biological membrane, can be regarded as an ideal model for investigating biomineralization on biological membranes. In this work on the biomimetic mineralization of CaCO(3) under a phospholipid monolayer, we show the initial heterogeneous nucleation of amorphous calcium carbonate precursor (ACC) nanoparticles at the air-water interface, their subsequent transformation into the metastable vaterite phase instead of the most thermodynamically stable calcite phase, and the ultimate phase transformation to calcite. Furthermore, the spontaneity of the transformation from vaterite to calcite was found to be closely related to the surface tension; high surface pressure could inhibit the process, highlighting the determinant of surface energy. To understand better the mechanisms for ACC formation and the transformation from ACC to vaterite and to calcite, in situ Brewster angle microscopy (BAM), ex situ scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis were employed. This work has clarified the crystallization process of calcium carbonate under phospholipid monolayers and therefore may further our understanding of the biomineralization processes induced by cellular membranes.

  5. Morphology and magnetism of Fe monolayers and small Fen clusters (n 2-19) supported on the Ni(111) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, R C; MartInez, E; Dieguez, O; Vega, A; Gallego, L J

    2007-01-01

    Using the modified embedded atom model in conjunction with a self-consistent tight-binding method, we investigated the lowest-energy structures of Fe monolayers and isolated Fe n clusters (n = 2-19) supported on the Ni(111) surface. In keeping with experimental findings, our calculations predict that the atoms of the monolayer occupy face-centred cubic (fcc) rather than hexagonal close-packed (hcp) sites. Likewise in agreement with experiment we found that Fe layers stack with a pseudomorphic fcc structure up to two monolayers, beyond which they stack as bcc(110). The structures of supported Fe clusters are predicted to be two-dimensional islands maximizing the number of nearest-neighbour bonds among the adsorbed Fe atoms, and their average magnetic moments per atom decrease towards that of the supported Fe monolayer almost monotonically as n increases. Finally, a pair of Fe 3 clusters on Ni(111) were found to exhibit virtually no interaction with each other even when separated by only one atomic row, i.e. so long as they do not coalesce they retain their individual magnetic properties

  6. Examination of fluorination effect on physical properties of saturated long-chain alcohols by DSC and Langmuir monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Hiromichi; Nakamura, Shohei; Okahashi, Yoshinori; Kitaguchi, Daisuke; Kawabata, Noritake; Sakamoto, Seiichi; Shibata, Osamu

    2013-02-01

    Partially fluorinated long-chain alcohols have been newly synthesized from a radical reaction, which is followed by a reductive reaction. The fluorinated alcohols have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and compression isotherms in a Langmuir monolayer state. Their melting points increase with an increase in chain length due to elongation of methylene groups. However, the melting points for the alcohols containing shorter fluorinated moieties are lower than those for the typical hydrogenated fatty alcohols. Using the Langmuir monolayer technique, surface pressure (π)-molecular area (A) and surface potential (ΔV)-A isotherms of monolayers of the fluorinated alcohols have been measured in the temperature range from 281.2 to 303.2K. In addition, a compressibility modulus (Cs(-1)) is calculated from the π-A isotherms. Four kinds of the alcohol monolayers show a phase transition (π(eq)) from a disordered to an ordered state upon lateral compression. The π(eq) values increase linearly with increasing temperatures. A slope of π(eq) against temperature for the alcohols with shorter fluorocarbons is unexpectedly larger than that for the corresponding fatty alcohols. Generally, fluorinated amphiphiles have a greater thermal stability (or resistance), which is a characteristic of highly fluorinated or perfluorinated compounds. Herein, however, the alcohols containing perfluorobutylated and perfluorohexylated chains show the irregular thermal behavior in both the solid and monolayer states. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of the bonding of alkyl monolayers to the Si(111) surface using chemical-shift, scanned-energy photoelectron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, J.; Linford, M.R.; Wigren, C.; Cao, R.; Pianetta, P.; Chidsey, C.E. [Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The bonding of alkyl monolayers to Si(111) surfaces has been studied by conventional x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and chemical-shift, scanned-energy photoelectron diffraction (PED) using synchrotron radiation. Two very different wet-chemical methods have been used to prepare the alkyl monolayers: (i) olefin insertion into the H{endash}Si bond on the H{endash}Si(111) surface, and (ii) replacement of Cl on the Cl{endash}Si(111) surface by an alkyl group from an alkyllithium reagent. In both cases, XPS has revealed a C 1s signal chemically shifted to lower binding energy, which we have assigned to carbon bonded to silicon. PED has shown that both preparative methods result in carbon bonded in an atop site with the expected C{endash}Si bond length of 1.85{plus_minus}0.05{Angstrom}. Chemical-shift, scanned-energy photoelectron diffraction is a particularly valuable probe of local structure at surfaces that contain the same element in multiple, chemically distinct environments. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Determination of the bonding of alkyl monolayers to the Si(111) surface using chemical-shift, scanned-energy photoelectron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, J.; Linford, M.R.; Wigren, C.; Cao, R.; Pianetta, P.; Chidsey, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    The bonding of alkyl monolayers to Si(111) surfaces has been studied by conventional x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and chemical-shift, scanned-energy photoelectron diffraction (PED) using synchrotron radiation. Two very different wet-chemical methods have been used to prepare the alkyl monolayers: (i) olefin insertion into the H endash Si bond on the H endash Si(111) surface, and (ii) replacement of Cl on the Cl endash Si(111) surface by an alkyl group from an alkyllithium reagent. In both cases, XPS has revealed a C 1s signal chemically shifted to lower binding energy, which we have assigned to carbon bonded to silicon. PED has shown that both preparative methods result in carbon bonded in an atop site with the expected C endash Si bond length of 1.85±0.05 Angstrom. Chemical-shift, scanned-energy photoelectron diffraction is a particularly valuable probe of local structure at surfaces that contain the same element in multiple, chemically distinct environments. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  9. Influence of palmitic acid and hexadecanol on the phase transition temperature and molecular packing of dipalmitoylphosphatidyl-choline monolayers at the air-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ka Yee C.; Gopal, Ajaykumar; von Nahmen, Anja; Zasadzinski, Joseph A.; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Smith, Gregory S.; Howes, Paul B.; Kjaer, Kristian

    2002-01-01

    Palmitic acid (PA) and 1-hexadecanol (HD) strongly affect the phase transition temperature and molecular packing of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayers at the air-water interface. The phase behavior and morphology of mixed DPPC/PA as well as DPPC/HD monolayers were determined by pressure-area-isotherms and fluorescence microscopy. The molecular organization was probed by synchrotron grazing incidence x-ray diffraction using a liquid surface diffractometer. Addition of PA or HD to DPPC monolayers increases the temperature of the liquid-expanded to condensed phase transition. X-ray diffraction shows that DPPC forms mixed crystals both with PA and HD over a wide range of mixing ratios. At a surface pressure (π) of 40 mN/m, increasing the amount of the single chain surfactant leads to a reduction in tilt angle of the aliphatic chains from nearly 30° for pure DPPC to almost 0° in a 1:1 molar ratio of DPPC and PA or HD. At this composition we also find closest packing of the aliphatic chains. Further increase of the amount of PA or HD does not change the lattice or the tilt.

  10. Self-assembled monolayer of ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on copper detected using electrochemical methods, surface enhanced Raman scattering and quantum chemistry calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Q.-Q., E-mail: liaoqq1971@yahoo.com.cn [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy-Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Yue, Z.-W.; Yang, D. [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy-Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Wang, Z.-H. [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Li, Z.-H. [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ge, H.-H. [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy-Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Li, Y.-J. [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2011-07-29

    Ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDTC) monolayer was self-assembled on fresh copper surface obtained after oxidation-reduction cycle treatment in 0.1 mol L{sup -1} potassium chloride solution at ambient temperature. The APDTC self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on copper surface was investigated by surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy and the results show that APDTC SAM is chemisorbed on copper surface by its sulfur atoms with perpendicular orientation. The optimum immersing period for SAM formation is 4 h at 0.01 mol L{sup -1} concentration of APDTC. The impedance results indicate that APDTC SAM has good corrosion inhibition effects for copper in 0.5 mol L{sup -1} hydrochloric acid solution and its maximum inhibition efficiency could reach 95%. Quantum chemical calculations show that APDTC has relatively small {Delta}E between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and large negative charge in its two sulfur atoms, which facilitate formation of an insulating Cu/APDTC film on copper surface.

  11. Surface characterization of sulfur and alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers on Au(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vericat, C; Vela, M E; Benitez, G A; Gago, J A Martin; Torrelles, X; Salvarezza, R C

    2006-01-01

    In the last two decades surface science techniques have decisively contributed to our present knowledge of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on solid surfaces. These organic layers have been a challenge for surface scientists, in particular because of the soft nature of the organic material (which can be easily damaged by irradiation), the large number of atoms present in the molecules, and the complex physical chemistry involved in the self-assembly process. This challenge has been motivated by the appealing technological applications of SAMs that cover many fields of the emerging area of nanotechnology. Sulfur (S) is closely related to alkanethiols and can be used to understand basic aspects of the surface structure of SAMs. In this review we focus on the atomic/molecular structures of S-containing SAMs on Au(111). Particular emphasis is given to the substrate, adsorption sites, chemical state of the S-metal bond and also to the experimental and theoretical tools used to study these structures at the atomic or molecular levels. (topical review)

  12. Surface characterization of sulfur and alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers on Au(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vericat, C [Instituto de Investigaciones FisicoquImicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Universidad Nacional de La Plata-CONICET, Sucursal 4 Casilla de Correo 16 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Vela, M E [Instituto de Investigaciones FisicoquImicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Universidad Nacional de La Plata-CONICET, Sucursal 4 Casilla de Correo 16 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Benitez, G A [Instituto de Investigaciones FisicoquImicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Universidad Nacional de La Plata-CONICET, Sucursal 4 Casilla de Correo 16 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Gago, J A Martin [Centro de AstrobiologIa (CSIC-INTA), 28850 Torrejon de Ardoz Madrid (Spain); Torrelles, X [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Barcelona (ICMAB), Barcelona (Spain); Salvarezza, R C [Instituto de Investigaciones FisicoquImicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Universidad Nacional de La Plata-CONICET, Sucursal 4 Casilla de Correo 16 (1900) La Plata (Argentina)

    2006-12-06

    In the last two decades surface science techniques have decisively contributed to our present knowledge of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on solid surfaces. These organic layers have been a challenge for surface scientists, in particular because of the soft nature of the organic material (which can be easily damaged by irradiation), the large number of atoms present in the molecules, and the complex physical chemistry involved in the self-assembly process. This challenge has been motivated by the appealing technological applications of SAMs that cover many fields of the emerging area of nanotechnology. Sulfur (S) is closely related to alkanethiols and can be used to understand basic aspects of the surface structure of SAMs. In this review we focus on the atomic/molecular structures of S-containing SAMs on Au(111). Particular emphasis is given to the substrate, adsorption sites, chemical state of the S-metal bond and also to the experimental and theoretical tools used to study these structures at the atomic or molecular levels. (topical review)

  13. Evaluation of monolayers and mixed monolayers formed from mercaptobenzothiazole and decanethiol as sensing platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mary Vergheese, T.; Berchmans, Sheela

    2004-02-15

    In this investigation, the characterisation of monolayer and mixed monolayers formed from mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) and decanethiol (DT) has been carried out with cyclic voltammetry. The SAMs have been tested for their stability and electron transfer blocking properties. The redox probes used in the present study are [Fe(China){sub 6}]{sup 4-}, [Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}]{sup 2+} and Cu underpotential deposition (upd). The electron transfer kinetics is investigated in acid and neutral pH range. Electron transfer kinetics is altered by the nature of charge on the redox probe and the charge on the monolayer. Electron transfer kinetics of negatively charged redox probes like ferrocyanide ions is blocked when the surface pK{sub a}pH{sub medium} reversible features is observed for negatively charged probes. An exactly reverse effect is observed in the case of positively charged redox species like [Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}]{sup 2+/3+}. Cu under potential deposition studies reflects the structural integrity and compactness of the SAM layer. The utility of these monolayers and mixed monolayer for selective sensing of dopamine is discussed based on their ability to discriminate between positively and negatively charged redox species at different pH.

  14. Surface chemistry and electrocatalytic behaviour of tetra-carboxy substituted iron, cobalt and manganese phthalocyanine monolayers on gold electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashazi, Philani N.; Westbroek, Philippe; Ozoemena, Kenneth I.; Nyokong, Tebello

    2007-01-01

    Surface chemistry and electrocatalytic properties of self-assembled monolayers of metal tetra-carboxylic acid phthalocyanine complexes with cobalt (Co), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) as central metal ions have been studied. These phthalocyanine molecules are immobilized on gold electrode via the coupling reaction between the ring substituents and pre-formed mercaptoethanol self-assembled monolayer (Au-ME SAM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy confirmed chemisorption of mercaptoethanol via sulfur group on gold electrode and also coupling reaction between phthalocyanines and Au-ME SAM. Electrochemical parameters of the immobilized molecules show that these molecules are densely packed with a perpendicular orientation. The potential applications of the gold modified electrodes were investigated towards L-cysteine detection and the analysis at phthalocyanine SAMs. Cobalt and iron tetra-carboxylic acid phthalocyanine monolayers showed good oxidation peak for L-cysteine at potentials where metal oxidation (M III /M II ) takes place and this metal oxidation mediates the catalytic oxidation of L-cysteine. Manganese tetra-carboxylic acid phthalocyanine monolayer also exhibited a good catalytic oxidation peak towards L-cysteine at potentials where Mn IV /Mn III redox peak occurs and this redox peak mediates L-cysteine oxidation. The analysis of cysteine at phthalocyanine monolayers displayed good analytical parameters with good detection limits of the orders of 10 -7 mol L -1 and good linearity for a studied concentration range up to 60 μmol L -1

  15. Surface structure and stereochemical properties of self-assembled monolayer materials. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoles, Giacinto

    2006-01-01

    This document reports the progress the authors have made in support of their proposal to generate well-characterized, well-ordered organic surfaces and to impinge upon the array of oriented organic molecules a well-collimated beam of radical atoms at a well-defined angle of incidence. Using the intensity of helium atom diffraction from the organic surface as a measure of the number of unreacted molecules at the surface, the authors will measure the rate of the reaction. They will then vary the angle of incidence of the reactive atom beam and repeat the measurement. In this manner they plan to map out the reactivity of the molecules on the surface as a function of the angle of incidence of the reactive moiety. To carry out this experiment requires that two fields of research be brought together: (1) molecular beam technology and (2) the science/art of growing well-ordered organic surfaces. The first half of this report describes recent helium diffraction results from molecular beam deposited organic monolayers (structural layer characterization work). The second half reports progress in constructing and characterizing the reactive atom (oxygen) beam source.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in model bacterial membranes - Langmuir monolayer studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniatowski, Marcin; Binczycka, Martyna; Wójcik, Aneta; Flasiński, Michał; Wydro, Paweł

    2017-12-01

    High molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) are persistent organic pollutants which due to their limited biodegradability accumulate in soils where their increased presence can lead to the impoverishment of the decomposer organisms. As very hydrophobic PAHs easily penetrate cellular membranes of soil bacteria and can be incorporated therein, changing the membrane fluidity and other functions which in consequence can lead to the death of the organism. The structure and size of PAH molecule can be crucial for its membrane activity; however the correlation between PAH structure and its interaction with phospholipids have not been investigated so far. In our studies we applied phospholipid Langmuir monolayers as model bacterial membranes and investigated how the incorporation of six structurally different PAH molecules change the membrane texture and physical properties. In our studies we registered surface pressure and surface potential isotherms upon the monolayer compression, visualized the monolayer texture with the application of Brewster angle microscopy and searched the ordering of the film-forming molecules with molecular resolution with the application of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) method. It turned out that the phospholipid-PAH interactions are strictly structure dependent. Four and five-ring PAHs of the angular or cluster geometry can be incorporated into the model membranes changing profoundly their textures and fluidity; whereas linear or large cluster PAHs cannot be incorporated and separate from the lipid matrix. The observed phenomena were explained based on structural similarities of the applied PAHs with membrane steroids and hopanoids. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The titration of carboxyl-terminated monolayers revisited: in situ calibrated fourier transform infrared study of well-defined monolayers on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureau, D; Ozanam, F; Allongue, P; Chazalviel, J-N

    2008-09-02

    The acid-base equilibrium at the surface of well-defined mixed carboxyl-terminated/methyl-terminated monolayers grafted on silicon (111) has been investigated using in situ calibrated infrared spectroscopy (attenuated total reflectance (ATR)) in the range of 900-4000 cm (-1). Spectra of surfaces in contact with electrolytes of various pH provide a direct observation of the COOH COO (-) conversion process. Quantitative analysis of the spectra shows that ionization of the carboxyl groups starts around pH 6 and extends over more than 6 pH units: approximately 85% ionization is measured at pH 11 (at higher pH, the layers become damaged). Observations are consistently accounted for by a single acid-base equilibrium and discussed in terms of change in ion solvation at the surface and electrostatic interactions between surface charges. The latter effect, which appears to be the main limitation, is qualitatively accounted for by a simple model taking into account the change in the Helmholtz potential associated with the surface charge. Furthermore, comparison of calculated curves with experimental titration curves of mixed monolayers suggests that acid and alkyl chains are segregated in the monolayer.

  18. Reaction kinetics of metal deposition via surface limited red-ox replacement of underpotentially deposited metal monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcen, Dincer; Bae, Sang-Eun; Brankovic, Stanko R.

    2011-01-01

    The study of the kinetics of metal deposition via surface limited red-ox replacement of underpotentially deposited metal monolayers is presented. The model system was Pt submonolayer deposition on Au(1 1 1) via red-ox replacement of Pb and Cu UPD monolayers on Au(1 1 1). The kinetics of a single replacement reaction was studied using the formalism of the comprehensive analytical model developed to fit the open circuit potential transients from deposition experiments. The practical reaction kinetics parameters like reaction half life, reaction order and reaction rate constant are determined and discussed with their relevance to design and control of deposition experiments. The effects of transport limitation and the role of the anions/electrolyte on deposition kinetics are investigated and their significance to design of effective deposition process is discussed.

  19. Nanostructure of polymer monolayer and polyelectrolyte brush at air/water interface by X-ray and neutron reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Hideki; Mouri, Emiko; Matsumoto, Kozo [Kyoto Univ., Dept. of Polymer Chemistry, Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The nanostructure of amphiphilic diblock copolymer monolayer on water was directly investigated by in situ X-ray and neutron reflectivity techniques. The diblock copolymer consists of polysilacyclobutane, which is very flexible, as a hydrophobic block and polymethacrylic acid, an anionic polymer, as a hydrophilic block. The polymers with shorter hydrophilic segment formed a very smooth and uniform monolayer with hydrophobic layer on water and dense hydrophilic layer under the water. But the longer hydrophilic segment polymer formed three-layered monolayer with polyelectrolyte brush in addition to hydrophobic and dense hydrophilic layers. The dense hydrophilic layer is thought to be formed to avoid a contact between hydrophobic polymer layer and water. Its role is something like a 'carpet'. An additional interesting information is that the thickness of the 'carpet layer' is almost 15A, independent the surface pressure and hydrophilic polymer length. Highly quantitative information was obtained about the nanostructure of polymer brush under water by neutron reflectometry with the aid of contrast variation technique. X-ray and neutron reflectivity is a very powerful technique to investigate the nanostructure of surface and interfaces, which is important not only for surface nanotechnology but also industrial and medical applications. (author)

  20. Studies of the structure and properties of organic monolayers, multilayers and superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, P.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Organic monolayers and multilayers are both scientifically fascinating and technologically promising; they are, however, both complex systems and relatively inaccessible to experimental probes. In this progress report, we describe our x-ray diffraction studies, which have given us substantial new information about the structures and phase transitions in monolayers on the surface of water; our use of these monolayers as a unique probe of the dynamics of wetting and spreading; and our studies of monolayer mechanical properties using a simple but effective technique available to anyone using the Wilhelmy method to measure surface tension. 20 refs., 11 figs

  1. Thermodynamics of interaction of ionic liquids with lipid monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, G; Mitra, S; Mandal, P; Dutta, S; Giri, R P; Ghosh, S K

    2018-06-01

    Understanding the interaction of ionic liquids with cellular membrane becomes utterly important to comprehend the activities of these liquids in living organisms. Lipid monolayer formed at the air-water interface is employed as a model system to follow this interaction by investigating important thermodynamic parameters. The penetration kinetics of the imidazolium-based ionic liquid 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([DMIM][BF4]) into the zwitterionic 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) lipid layer is found to follow the Boltzmann-like equation that reveals the characteristic time constant which is observed to be the function of initial surface pressure. The enthalpy and entropy calculated from temperature-dependent pressure-area isotherms of the monolayer show that the added ionic liquids bring about a disordering effect in the lipid film. The change in Gibbs free energy indicates that an ionic liquid with longer chain has a far greater disordering effect compared to an ionic liquid with shorter chain. The differential scanning calorimetric measurement on a multilamellar vesicle system shows the main phase transition temperature to shift to a lower value, which, again, indicates the disordering effect of the ionic liquid on lipid membrane. All these studies fundamentally point out that, when ionic liquids interact with lipid molecules, the self-assembled structure of a cellular membrane gets perturbed, which may be the mechanism of these molecules having adverse effects on living organisms.

  2. Conformation, orientation and interaction in molecular monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superfine, R.; Huang, J.Y.; Shen, Y.R.

    1989-01-01

    Knowledge of the conformation and ordering of molecular monolayers is essential for a detailed understanding of a wide variety of surface and interfacial phenomena. Over the past several years, surface second harmonic generation (SHG) has proven to be a valuable and versatile probe of monolayer systems. Our group has recently extended the technique to infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG) which has unique capabilities for surface vibrational spectroscopy. Like second harmonic generation, SFG is highly surface specific with submonolayer sensitivity at all interfaces accessible by light. The orientation of individual groups within an adsorbate molecule can be deduced by a polarization analysis of the SFG signal from the vibrational modes of the groups. The authors have used SHG and SFG to study orientations and conformations of surfactant and liquid crystal (LC) monolayers and their interaction on a substrate. The interfacial properties of LC are of great interest to many researchers for both basic science understanding and practical application to LC devices. It is well known that the bulk alignment of a liquid crystal in a cell is strongly affected by the surface treatment of the cell walls. The reason behind it is not yet clear. The theoretical background and experimental arrangement of SHG and SFG have been described elsewhere. In the setup, a 30 psec. Nd:YAG mode-locked laser system together with nonlinear accessories generates a visible beam at .532μm and an infrared beam tunable about 3.4μm. Both beams are focused to a common spot of 300μm dia. The typical signal off the surface from a compact ordered alkyl chain monolayer is ∼500 photons per pulse, easily detected with a photomultiplier tube

  3. Molecular dynamics of contact behavior of self-assembled monolayers on gold using nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Te-Hua [Institute of Mechanical and Electromechanical Engineering National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China); Chang, Win-Jin, E-mail: changwj@mail.ksu.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering Kun Shan University, Tainan 710, Taiwan (China); Fan, Yu-Cheng [Institute of Mechanical and Electromechanical Engineering National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China); Weng, Cheng-I [Department of Mechanical Engineering National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 710, Taiwan (China)

    2009-08-15

    Molecular dynamics simulation is used to study nanoindentation of the self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on an Au surface. The interaction of SAM atoms is described by a general universal force field (UFF), the tight-binding second-moment approximation (TB-SMA) is used for Au substrate, and the Lennard-Jones potential function is employed to describe interaction among the indenter, the SAMs, and the Au substrate atoms. The model consists of a planar Au substrate with n-hexadecanethiol SAM chemisorbed to the substrate. The simulation results show that the contact pressure increases as the SAMs temperature increases. In addition, the contact pressure also increases as the depth and velocity of indentation increase.

  4. Molecular dynamics of contact behavior of self-assembled monolayers on gold using nanoindentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Te-Hua; Chang, Win-Jin; Fan, Yu-Cheng; Weng, Cheng-I

    2009-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation is used to study nanoindentation of the self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on an Au surface. The interaction of SAM atoms is described by a general universal force field (UFF), the tight-binding second-moment approximation (TB-SMA) is used for Au substrate, and the Lennard-Jones potential function is employed to describe interaction among the indenter, the SAMs, and the Au substrate atoms. The model consists of a planar Au substrate with n-hexadecanethiol SAM chemisorbed to the substrate. The simulation results show that the contact pressure increases as the SAMs temperature increases. In addition, the contact pressure also increases as the depth and velocity of indentation increase.

  5. Nanostructure of polymer monolayer and polyelectrolyte brush at air/water interface by X-ray and neutron reflectometry

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuoka, H; Matsumoto, K

    2003-01-01

    The nanostructure of amphiphilic diblock copolymer monolayer on water was directly investigated by in situ X-ray and neutron reflectivity techniques. The diblock copolymer consists of polysilacyclobutane, which is very flexible, as a hydrophobic block and polymethacrylic acid, an anionic polymer, as a hydrophilic block. The polymers with shorter hydrophilic segment formed a very smooth and uniform monolayer with hydrophobic layer on water and dense hydrophilic layer under the water. But the longer hydrophilic segment polymer formed three-layered monolayer with polyelectrolyte brush in addition to hydrophobic and dense hydrophilic layers. The dense hydrophilic layer is thought to be formed to avoid a contact between hydrophobic polymer layer and water. Its role is something like a 'carpet'. An additional interesting information is that the thickness of the 'carpet layer' is almost 15A, independent the surface pressure and hydrophilic polymer length. Highly quantitative information was obtained about the nanost...

  6. Detecting order and lateral pressure at biomimetic interfaces using a mechanosensitive second-harmonic-generation probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licari, Giuseppe; Beckwith, Joseph S; Soleimanpour, Saeideh; Matile, Stefan; Vauthey, Eric

    2018-04-04

    A planarizable push-pull molecular probe with mechanosensitive properties was investigated at several biomimetic interfaces, consisting of different phospholipid monolayers located between dodecane and an aqueous buffer solution, using the interface-specific surface-second-harmonic-generation (SSHG) technique. Whereas the SSHG spectra recorded at liquid-disordered interfaces were similar to the absorption spectra in bulk solutions, those measured at liquid-ordered phases exhibited a remarkable shift towards lower energies to an extent depending on the surface pressure of the phospholipid monolayer. On the basis of quantum-chemical calculations, this effect was accounted for by the planarization of the mechanosensitive probe. Polarization-resolved SSHG measurements revealed that the average orientation of the probe at the interface is an even more sensitive reporter of lateral pressure and order than the spectral shape. Additionally, time-resolved SSHG measurements pointed to slower dynamics upon intercalation inside the phospholipid monolayer, most likely due to the more constrained environment. This study demonstrates that the concept of mechanosensitive optical probes can be further exploited when combined with a surface-selective nonlinear optical technique.

  7. Indirect photopatterning of functionalized organic monolayers via copper-catalyzed "click chemistry"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mackenzie G.; Teplyakov, Andrew V.

    2018-07-01

    Solution-based lithographic surface modification of an organic monolayer on a solid substrate is attained based on selective area photo-reduction of copper (II) to copper (I) to catalyze the azide-alkyne dipolar cycloaddition "click" reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to confirm patterning, and spectroscopic results are analyzed and supplemented with computational models to confirm the surface chemistry. It is determined that this surface modification approach requires irradiation of the solid substrate with all necessary components present in solution. This method requires only minutes of irradiation to result in spatial and temporal control of the covalent surface functionalization of a monolayer and offers the potential for wavelength tunability that may be desirable in many applications utilizing organic monolayers.

  8. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy applied to the characterization of surfaces at pressures of up to 0.1 mbar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    The thesis describes the design principles, operation and an X-Ray Photoelectron Spectrometer capable of analyzing surfaces under in situ conditions in the pressure range of 10 -11 to 1 mbar. Measurements at pressures exceeding 10 -5 mbar are carried out by placing a differentially pumped aperture system between sample surface and the hemispherical electron energy analyzer. The reduction of signal intensity due to the aperture is, depending on the operating mode and resolution of the analyzer, between a factor of 5-12. Measurements at pressures as high as 6 x 10 -1 mbar show that the sensitivity of the apparatus is sufficient to detect coverages as low as ∼.1 monolayers. The experimental work described in this thesis relates to the interaction of sulfur dioxide with metallic copper and CuO and Cu 2 O surfaces. Adsorption and reaction of SO 2 with these surfaces comprise one of the elemental steps in the flue gas cleanup process from a duct stream using copper oxide particles. The adsorption and reaction of SO 2 with copper and copper oxide surfaces was studied by in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy between 173 K-473 K and pressures ranging from UHV to 10 -1 mbar. It was found that a Cu 2 SO 3 species acts as an intermediate in the formation of CuSO 4 at T 300 K, in the formation of copper sulfide. The presence of gas phase oxygen was found to accelerate the surface reaction between SO 2 and the substrates. Contrary to previous suggestions, the author finds that a copper sulfate is found only under conditions which are far removed form the conditions in a duct-pipe. Under temperature and partial pressure conditions resembling the industrial process, a copper sulfide is formed

  9. Influence of calcium on ceramide-1-phosphate monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana S. L. Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P plays an important role in several biological processes, being identified as a key regulator of many protein functions. For instance, it acts as a mediator of inflammatory responses. The mediation of the inflammation process happens due to the interaction of C1P with the C2 domain of cPLA2α, an effector protein that needs the presence of submicromolar concentrations of calcium ions. The aim of this study was to determine the phase behaviour and structural properties of C1P in the presence and absence of millimolar quantities of calcium in a well-defined pH environment. For that purpose, we used monomolecular films of C1P at the soft air/liquid interface with calcium ions in the subphase. The pH was varied to change the protonation degree of the C1P head group. We used surface pressure versus molecular area isotherms coupled with other monolayer techniques as Brewster angle microscopy (BAM, infrared reflection–absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD. The isotherms indicate that C1P monolayers are in a condensed state in the presence of calcium ions, regardless of the pH. At higher pH without calcium ions, the monolayer is in a liquid-expanded state due to repulsion between the negatively charged phosphate groups of the C1P molecules. When divalent calcium ions are added, they are able to bridge the highly charged phosphate groups, enhancing the regular arrangement of the head groups. Similar solidification of the monolayer structure can be seen in the presence of a 150 times larger concentration of monovalent sodium ions. Therefore, calcium ions have clearly a strong affinity for the phosphomonoester of C1P.

  10. Tracing the 4000 year history of organic thin films: From monolayers on liquids to multilayers on solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, J. E. [University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping (Sweden); National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-15

    The recorded history of organic monolayer and multilayer thin films spans approximately 4000 years. Fatty-acid-based monolayers were deposited on water by the ancients for applications ranging from fortune telling in King Hammurabi's time (∼1800 BC, Mesopotamia) to stilling choppy waters for sailors and divers as reported by the Roman philosopher Pliny the Elder in ∼78 AD, and then much later (1774) by the peripatetic American statesman and natural philosopher Benjamin Franklin, to Japanese “floating-ink” art (suminagashi) developed ∼1000 years ago. The modern science of organic monolayers began in the late-1800s/early-1900s with experiments by Lord Rayleigh and the important development by Agnes Pockels, followed two decades later by Irving Langmuir, of the tools and technology to measure the surface tension of liquids, the surface pressure of organic monolayers deposited on water, interfacial properties, molecular conformation of the organic layers, and phase transitions which occur upon compressing the monolayers. In 1935, Katherine Blodgett published a landmark paper showing that multilayers can be synthesized on solid substrates, with controlled thickness and composition, using an apparatus now known as the Langmuir-Blodgett (L-B) trough. A disadvantage of LB films for some applications is that they form weak physisorbed bonds to the substrate. In 1946, Bigelow, Pickett, and Zisman demonstrated, in another seminal paper, the growth of organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) via spontaneous adsorption from solution, rather than from the water/air interface, onto SiO{sub 2} and metal substrates. SAMs are close-packed two-dimensional organic crystals which exhibit strong covalent bonding to the substrate. The first multicomponent adsorbed monolayers and multilayer SAMs were produced in the early 1980s. Langmuir monolayers, L-B multilayers, and self-assembled mono- and multilayers have found an extraordinarily broad range of applications including

  11. Tracing the 4000 year history of organic thin films: From monolayers on liquids to multilayers on solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    The recorded history of organic monolayer and multilayer thin films spans approximately 4000 years. Fatty-acid-based monolayers were deposited on water by the ancients for applications ranging from fortune telling in King Hammurabi's time (∼1800 BC, Mesopotamia) to stilling choppy waters for sailors and divers as reported by the Roman philosopher Pliny the Elder in ∼78 AD, and then much later (1774) by the peripatetic American statesman and natural philosopher Benjamin Franklin, to Japanese “floating-ink” art (suminagashi) developed ∼1000 years ago. The modern science of organic monolayers began in the late-1800s/early-1900s with experiments by Lord Rayleigh and the important development by Agnes Pockels, followed two decades later by Irving Langmuir, of the tools and technology to measure the surface tension of liquids, the surface pressure of organic monolayers deposited on water, interfacial properties, molecular conformation of the organic layers, and phase transitions which occur upon compressing the monolayers. In 1935, Katherine Blodgett published a landmark paper showing that multilayers can be synthesized on solid substrates, with controlled thickness and composition, using an apparatus now known as the Langmuir-Blodgett (L-B) trough. A disadvantage of LB films for some applications is that they form weak physisorbed bonds to the substrate. In 1946, Bigelow, Pickett, and Zisman demonstrated, in another seminal paper, the growth of organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) via spontaneous adsorption from solution, rather than from the water/air interface, onto SiO 2 and metal substrates. SAMs are close-packed two-dimensional organic crystals which exhibit strong covalent bonding to the substrate. The first multicomponent adsorbed monolayers and multilayer SAMs were produced in the early 1980s. Langmuir monolayers, L-B multilayers, and self-assembled mono- and multilayers have found an extraordinarily broad range of applications including

  12. Influence of indium-tin oxide surface structure on the ordering and coverage of carboxylic acid and thiol monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerruti, Marta; Rhodes, Crissy; Losego, Mark; Efremenko, Alina; Maria, Jon-Paul; Fischer, Daniel; Franzen, Stefan; Genzer, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the variability of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formation on ITO depending on the substrate surface features. In particular, we report on the formation of carboxylic acid- and thiol-based SAMs on two lots of commercially prepared indium-tin oxide (ITO) thin films. Contact angle measurements, electrochemical experiments, and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy showed that the quality of monolayers formed differed substantially between the two ITO batches. Only one of the two ITO substrates was capable of forming well-organized thiol- and carboxylic acid-based SAMs. In order to rationalize these observations, atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses were carried out, and SAMs were prepared on ITO substrates fabricated by sputtering in our laboratories. An attempt was made to influence the film microstructure and surface morphology by varying substrate temperatures during ITO deposition. Good-quality thiol and carboxylic acid SAMs were obtained on one of the ITO substrates prepared in-house. While our characterization could not single out conclusively one specific parameter in ITO surface structure that could be responsible for good SAMs formation, we could point out homogeneous surface morphology as a relevant factor for the quality of the SAMs. Evidence was also found for ITO crystallographic orientation to be a parameter influencing SAMs organization

  13. Growth and Functionality of Cells Cultured on Conducting and Semi-Conducting Surfaces Modified with Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra K. Aithal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioengineering of dermal and epidermal cells on surface modified substrates is an active area of research. The cytotoxicity, maintenance of cell phenotype and long-term functionality of human dermal fibroblast (HDF cells on conducting indium tin oxide (ITO and semi-conducting, silicon (Si and gallium arsenide (GaAs, surfaces modified with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs containing amino (–NH2 and methyl (–CH3 end groups have been investigated. Contact angle measurements and infrared spectroscopic studies show that the monolayers are conformal and preserve their functional end groups. Morphological analyses indicate that HDFs grow well on all substrates except GaAs, exhibiting their normal spindle-shaped morphology and exhibit no visible signs of stress or cytoplasmic vacuolation. Cell viability analyses indicate little cell death after one week in culture on all substrates except GaAs, where cells died within 6 h. Cells on all surfaces proliferate except on GaAs and GaAs-ODT. Cell growth is observed to be greater on SAM modified ITO and Si-substrates. Preservation of cellular phenotype assessed through type I collagen immunostaining and positive staining of HDF cells were observed on all modified surfaces except that on GaAs. These results suggest that conducting and semi-conducting SAM-modified surfaces support HDF growth and functionality and represent a promising area of bioengineering research.

  14. Large-area and bright pulsed electroluminescence in monolayer semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Lien, Der-Hsien; Amani, Matin; Desai, Sujay B.; Ahn, Geun Ho; Han, Kevin; He, Jr-Hau; Ager, Joel W.; Wu, Ming C.; Javey, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayers have naturally terminated surfaces and can exhibit a near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield in the presence of suitable defect passivation. To date, steady-state monolayer light-emitting devices suffer from Schottky contacts or require complex heterostructures. We demonstrate a transient-mode electroluminescent device based on transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayers (MoS, WS, MoSe, and WSe) to overcome these problems. Electroluminescence from this dopant-free two-terminal device is obtained by applying an AC voltage between the gate and the semiconductor. Notably, the electroluminescence intensity is weakly dependent on the Schottky barrier height or polarity of the contact. We fabricate a monolayer seven-segment display and achieve the first transparent and bright millimeter-scale light-emitting monolayer semiconductor device.

  15. Large-area and bright pulsed electroluminescence in monolayer semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Lien, Der-Hsien

    2018-04-04

    Transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayers have naturally terminated surfaces and can exhibit a near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield in the presence of suitable defect passivation. To date, steady-state monolayer light-emitting devices suffer from Schottky contacts or require complex heterostructures. We demonstrate a transient-mode electroluminescent device based on transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayers (MoS, WS, MoSe, and WSe) to overcome these problems. Electroluminescence from this dopant-free two-terminal device is obtained by applying an AC voltage between the gate and the semiconductor. Notably, the electroluminescence intensity is weakly dependent on the Schottky barrier height or polarity of the contact. We fabricate a monolayer seven-segment display and achieve the first transparent and bright millimeter-scale light-emitting monolayer semiconductor device.

  16. Computational studies at the density functional theory (DFT) level about the surface functionalization of hexagonal monolayers by chitosan monomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Javad; Ahangari, Morteza Ghorbanzadeh; Jahanshahi, Mohsen

    2018-05-01

    Theoretical investigations based on density functional theory have been carried out to understand the underlying interactions between the chitosan monomer and several types of hexagonal monolayers consisting of pristine and defected graphene and boron-nitride nanosheets. Based on the obtained results, it was found that the type of the interaction for all the systems is of non-covalent nature and the chitosan monomer physically interacts with the surface of mentioned nanostructures. The interaction strength was evaluated by calculating the adsorption energies for the considered systems and it was found that the adsorption of chitosan monomer accompanies by the release of about -0.67 and -0.66 eV energy for pristine graphene and h-BN monolayer, respectively. The role of structural defect has also been considered by embedding a Stone-Wales defect within the structure of mentioned monolayers and it was found that the introduced defect enhances the interactions between the chitosan monomer and nanostructures. The role of dispersion interactions has also been taken into account and it was found that these long-range interactions play the dominating role in the attachment of chitosan monomer onto the graphene sheet, while having strong contribution together with the electrostatic interactions for the stabilization of chitosan onto the surface of h-BN monolayer. For all the cases, the adsorption of chitosan monomer did not change the inherent electronic properties of the nanostructures based on the results of charge transfer analysis and energy gap calculations. The findings of the present work would be very useful in future investigations to explore the potential applications of these hybrid materials in materials science and bio-related fields.

  17. Quantifying cell behaviors in negative-pressure induced monolayer cell movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Er Chow

    2016-02-01

    Conclusion: A quick membrane ruffling formation, an early cell–substratum separation, and an ensuing decrease in the cellular interaction occur in cells at NP. These specific monolayer cell behaviors at NP have been quantified and possibly accelerate wound healing.

  18. Adsorption of egg phosphatidylcholine to an air/water and triolein/water bubble interface: use of the 2-dimensional phase rule to estimate the surface composition of a phospholipid/triolein/water surface as a function of surface pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsche, Matthew A; Wang, Libo; Small, Donald M

    2010-03-11

    Phospholipid monolayers play a critical role in the structure and stabilization of biological interfaces, including all membranes, the alveoli of the lungs, fat droplets in adipose tissue, and lipoproteins. The behavior of phospholipids in bilayers and at an air-water interface is well understood. However, the study of phospholipids at oil-water interfaces is limited due to technical challenges. In this study, egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) was deposited from small unilamellar vesicles onto a bubble of either air or triolein (TO) formed in a low-salt buffer. The surface tension (gamma) was measured using a drop tensiometer. We observed that EPC binds irreversibly to both interfaces and at equilibrium exerts approximately 12 and 15 mN/m of pressure (Pi) at an air and TO interface, respectively. After EPC was bound to the interface, the unbound EPC was washed out of the cuvette, and the surface was compressed to study the Pi/area relationship. To determine the surface concentration (Gamma), which cannot be measured directly, compression isotherms from a Langmuir trough and drop tensiometer were compared. The air-water interfaces had identical characteristics using both techniques; thus, Gamma on the bubble can be determined by overlaying the two isotherms. Both TO and EPC are surface-active, so in a mixed TO/EPC monolayer, both molecules will be exposed to water. Since TO is less surface-active than EPC, as Pi increases, the TO is progressively ejected. To understand the Pi/area isotherm of EPC on a TO bubble, a variety of TO-EPC mixtures were spread at the air-water interface. The isotherms show an abrupt break in the curve caused by the ejection of TO from the monolayer into a new bulk phase. By overlaying the compression isotherm above the ejection point with a TO bubble compression isotherm, Gamma can be estimated. This allows determination of Gamma of EPC on a TO bubble as a function of Pi.

  19. Effect of fluorocarbon self-assembled monolayer films on sidewall adhesion and friction of surface micromachines with impacting and sliding contact interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, H.; Komvopoulos, K.

    2013-01-01

    A self-assembled monolayer film consisting of fluoro-octyltrichlorosilane (FOTS) was vapor-phase deposited on Si(100) substrates and polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) surface micromachines. The hydrophobic behavior and structural composition of the FOTS film deposited on Si(100) were investigated by goniometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The effects of contact pressure, relative humidity, temperature, and impact/sliding cycles on the adhesive and friction behavior of uncoated and FOTS-coated polysilicon micromachines (referred to as the Si and FOTS/Si micromachines, respectively) were investigated under controlled loading and environmental conditions. FOTS/Si micromachines demonstrated much lower and stable adhesion than Si micromachines due to the highly hydrophobic and conformal FOTS film. Contrary to Si micromachines, sidewall adhesion of FOTS/Si micromachines demonstrated a weak dependence on relative humidity, temperature, and impact cycles. In addition, FOTS/Si micromachines showed low and stable adhesion and low static friction for significantly more sliding cycles than Si micromachines. The adhesive and static friction characteristics of Si and FOTS/Si micromachines are interpreted in the context of physicochemical surface changes, resulting in the increase of the real area of contact and a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic transition of the surface chemical characteristics caused by nanoscale surface smoothening and the removal of the organic residue (Si micromachines) or the FOTS film (FOTS/Si micromachines) during repetitive impact and oscillatory sliding of the sidewall surfaces.

  20. Potential-induced structural transitions of DL-homocysteine monolayers on Au(111) electrode surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Demetriou, Anna; Welinder, Anne Christina

    2005-01-01

    Monolayers of homocysteine on Au(111)-surfaces have been investigated by voltammetry, in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and subtractively normalised interfacial Fourier transform spectroscopy (SNIFTIRS). A pair of sharp voltammetric peaks build up in the potential range 0 to -0.1 V (vs...... potentials at pH 7.7. The molecules pack into highly ordered domains around the peak potential. High-resolution in situ STM reveals a (root 3 x 5) R30 degrees lattice with three homocysteine molecules in each unit cell. The adlayer changes into disordered structures on either side of the peak potential...

  1. Step-height standards based on the rapid formation of monolayer steps on the surface of layered crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komonov, A.I. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISP SBRAS), pr. Lavrentieva 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Prinz, V.Ya., E-mail: prinz@isp.nsc.ru [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISP SBRAS), pr. Lavrentieva 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Seleznev, V.A. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISP SBRAS), pr. Lavrentieva 13, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kokh, K.A. [Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IGM SB RAS), pr. Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Shlegel, V.N. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (NIIC SB RAS), pr. Lavrentieva 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Easily reproducible step-height standard for SPM calibrations was proposed. • Step-height standard is monolayer steps on the surface of layered single crystal. • Long-term change in surface morphology of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and ZnWO{sub 4} was investigated. • Conducting surface of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystals appropriate for calibrating STM. • Ability of robust SPM calibrations under ambient conditions were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metrology is essential for nanotechnology, especially for structures and devices with feature sizes going down to nm. Scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) permits measurement of nanometer- and subnanometer-scale objects. Accuracy of size measurements performed using SPMs is largely defined by the accuracy of used calibration measures. In the present publication, we demonstrate that height standards of monolayer step (∼1 and ∼0.6 nm) can be easily prepared by cleaving Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} and ZnWO{sub 4} layered single crystals. It was shown that the conducting surface of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystals offers height standard appropriate for calibrating STMs and for testing conductive SPM probes. Our AFM study of the morphology of freshly cleaved (0001) Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} surfaces proved that such surfaces remained atomically smooth during a period of at least half a year. The (010) surfaces of ZnWO{sub 4} crystals remained atomically smooth during one day, but already two days later an additional nanorelief of amplitude ∼0.3 nm appeared on those surfaces. This relief, however, did not further grow in height, and it did not hamper the calibration. Simplicity and the possibility of rapid fabrication of the step-height standards, as well as their high stability, make these standards available for a great, permanently growing number of users involved in 3D printing activities.

  2. Two step formation of metal aggregates by surface X-ray radiolysis under Langmuir monolayers: 2D followed by 3D growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Mukherjee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to form a nanostructured metallic layer below a Langmuir monolayer, radiolysis synthesis was carried out in an adapted geometry that we call surface X-ray radiolysis. In this procedure, an X-ray beam produced by a synchrotron beamline intercepts the surface of an aqueous metal-ion solution covered by a Langmuir monolayer at an angle of incidence below the critical angle for total internal reflection. Underneath the organic layer, the X-ray beam induces the radiolytic synthesis of a nanostructured metal–organic layer whose ultrathin thickness is defined by the vertical X-ray penetration depth. We have shown that increasing the X-ray flux on the surface, which considerably enhances the kinetics of the silver layer formation, results in a second growth regime of silver nanocrystals. Here the formation of the oriented thin layer is followed by the appearance of a 3D powder of silver clusters.

  3. Growth of cells superinoculated onto irradiated and nonirradiated confluent monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, H.; Ueo, H.; Sugimachi, K.

    1990-01-01

    We prepared confluent monolayers of normal BALB/c 3T3 cells and compared differences in the growth of four types of cells superinoculated onto these nonirradiated and irradiated monolayers. The test cells were normal BALB/c 3T3 A31 cells, a squamous cell carcinoma from a human esophageal cancer (KSE-1), human fetal fibroblasts, and V-79 cells from Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts. Cell growth was checked by counting the cell number, determining [3H]thymidine incorporation and assessing colony formation. We found that on nonirradiated monolayers, colony formation of human fetal fibroblasts and normal BALB/c 3T3 cells was completely inhibited. On irradiated cells, test cells did exhibit some growth. KSE-1 cells, which had a low clonogenic efficiency on plastic surfaces, formed colonies on both irradiated and nonirradiated cells. On these monolayers, the clonogenic efficiency of V-79 cells was also higher than that on plastic surfaces. We conclude that the nonirradiated monolayer of BALB/c 3T3 cells completely inhibits the growth of superinoculated normal BALB/c 3T3 and human fetal fibroblasts, while on the other hand, they facilitate the growth of neoplastic KSE-1 and V-79 cells by providing a surface for cell adherence and growth, without affecting the presence of normal cells in co-cultures

  4. Transport of surface engineered polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers across IPEC-J2 cell monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisal, Dipak S; Yellepeddi, Venkata K; Kumar, Ajay; Palakurthi, Srinath

    2008-11-01

    The aim of our study was to prepare arginine-and ornithine-conjugated Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers and study their permeability across IPEC-J2 cell monolayers, a new intestinal cell line model for drug absorption studies. Arginine and ornithine were conjugated to the amine terminals of the PAMAM(G4) dendrimers by Fmoc synthesis. The apical-to-basolateral (AB) and basolateral-to-apical (BA) apparent permeability coefficients (P(app)) for the PAMAM dendrimers increased by conjugating the dendrimers with both of these polyamines. The enhancement in permeability was dependent on the dendrimer concentration and duration of incubation. Correlation between monolayer permeability and the decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) with the PAMAM dendrimers and the polyamine-conjugated dendrimers suggests that paracellular transport is one of the mechanisms of transport across the epithelial cells. Cytotoxicity of these surface-modified dendrimers was evaluated in IPEC-J2 cells by MTT (methylthiazoletetrazolium) assay. Arginine-conjugated dendrimers were insignificantly more toxic than PAMAM dendrimer as well as ornithine-conjugated dendrimers. Though investigations on the possible involvement of other transport mechanisms are in progress, results of the present study suggest the potential of dendrimer-polyamine conjugates as the carriers for antigen/drug delivery through the oral mucosa.

  5. Imidazolide monolayers for versatile reactive microcontact printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, S.H.; Reinhoudt, David; Huskens, Jurriaan; Velders, Aldrik

    2008-01-01

    Imidazolide monolayers prepared from the reaction of amino SAMs with N,N-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) are used as a versatile platform for surface patterning with amino-, carboxyl- and alcohol-containing compounds through reactive microcontact printing (µCP). To demonstrate the surface reactivity of

  6. Cation effects on phosphatidic acid monolayers at various pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Cathcart, Matthew G; Vidalis, Andrew S; Allen, Heather C

    2016-10-01

    The impact of pH and cations on phase behavior, stability, and surface morphology for dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid (DPPA) monolayers was investigated. At pHCations are found to expand and stabilize the monolayer in the following order of increasing magnitude at pH 5.6: Na + >K + ∼Mg 2+ >Ca 2+ . Additionally, cation complexation is tied to the pH and protonation state of DPPA, which are the primary factors controlling the monolayer surface behavior. The binding affinity of cations to the headgroup and thus deprotonation capability of the cation, ranked in the order of Ca 2+ >Mg 2+ >Na + >K + , is found to be well explained by the law of matching water affinities. Nucleation of surface 3D lipid structures is observed from Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , and Na + , but not from K + , consistent with the lowest binding affinity of K + . Unraveling cation and pH effects on DPPA monolayers is useful in further understanding the surface properties of complex systems such as organic-coated marine aerosols where organic films are directly influenced by the pH and ionic composition of the underlying aqueous phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of nitric oxide binding to different pure and mixed protoporphyrin IX monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoben, W.; Crego-Calama, M.; Brongersma, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    The nitric oxide (NO) binding properties of monolayers of four different protoporphyrins IX adsorbed on aluminum oxide surfaces have been investigated. XPS and AFM results are consistent with the presence of a monolayer of porphyrins, bound to the surface by their carboxylic acid groups and with the

  8. Monolayers and thin films of dextran hydrophobically modified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiva, Angel; Munoz, Natalia; Gargallo, Ligia; Radic, Deodato; Urzua, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    A series of biodegradable graft copolymers were synthesized by grafting e-caprolactone over dextran of different molecular weights. The obtained copolymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR, proton nuclear magnetic resonance 1H NMR, thermogravimetry and elemental analysis. Stable monolayers at the air-water interface and spin coated thin films were prepared and characterized by the Langmuir technique and by contact angle measurements respectively. The compressibility and static surface elasticity of the monolayers and the surface energy of copolymer thin films show dependence with the e-caprolactone content. >From these results it can be concluded that the surface properties of grafted copolymers can be modulated by their composition. Additionally, according to the obtained results, e-caprolactone grafted-dextrans show potential for being used in different applications where surface properties are important. (author)

  9. Fabrication of P3HT/gold nanoparticle LB films by P3HT templating Langmuir monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liang-Huei; Hsu, Wen-Ping; Chan, Han-Wen; Lee, Yuh-Lang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Addition of ODA into the P3HT monolayer can significantly improve the dispersion ability of P3HT molecules. • The adsorption ability of the P3HT monolayer to the dispersed AuNPs can also be enhanced by the presence of ODA. - Abstract: Regioregular poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (rr-P3HT) and mixed P3HT/octadecyl amine (ODA) were used as template monolayers to adsorb the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) dispersed in subphase. The behaviors of P3HT and P3HT/ODA monolayers were investigated by surface pressure area per molecule (π–A) isotherms, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The experimental results show that P3HT does not form a homogeneous film and tends to aggregate at the air/water interface. Meanwhile, the amount of AuNPs adsorbed by the P3HT monolayers is low, attributable to the weak interaction between AuNPs and P3HT. By introduction of ODA molecules into the P3HT monolayer, the spreading of P3HT molecules at the air/water interface is improved and the aggregation of P3HT is significantly inhibited. A nearly uniform and homogeneously mixed P3HT/ODA monolayer can be obtained when 50% of ODA is introduced. It is also found that the introduction of ODA can significantly increase the adsorption of AuNPs. For the mixed monolayer with low ratio of ODA (P3HT/ODA = 1/0.2), a higher concentration of adsorbed AuNPs was observed on the corresponding monolayer. However, when the ODA/P3HT ratio increases to 1/1, the AuNPs tend to form three-dimensional (3D) aggregates and the AuNPs cannot distribute well as a homogeneous monolayer. This result is ascribed to the increasing hydrophobicity of the adsorbed AuNPs because of capping of more ODA molecules

  10. Packing stress reduction in polymer-lipid monolayers at the air-water interface: An X-ray grazing-incidence diffraction and reflectivity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, T.L.; Majewski, J.; Howes, P.B.; Kjaer, K.; Nahmen, A. von; Lee, K.Y.C.; Ocko, B.; Israelachvili, J.N.; Smith, G.S.

    1999-08-25

    Using synchrotron grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and reflectivity (XR), the authors have determined the in-plane and out-of-plane structure of phospholipid monolayers at the air-water interface as a function of hydrophilic lipid headgroup size. Di-stearoyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (DSPE) lipid monolayers were systematically modified by chemically grafting hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains of MW = 90 g/mol (2 ethylene oxide, EO, units), MW = 350 g/mol (8 EO units), and MW = 750 g/mol (17 EO units) to the lipid headgroups. The monolayers were studied in the solid phase at a surface pressure of 42 mN/m. At these high lipid packing densities, the PEG chains are submerged in the water subphase. The increased packing stresses from these bulky polymer headgroups distort the unit cell and the in-plane packing modes of the monolayers, leading to large out-of-plane alterations and staggering of the lipid molecules. Surprisingly, a change in the molecular packing of the monolayer toward higher packing densities (lower area per molecule) was observed on increasing the PEG MW to 750 g/mol (17 EO units). This rearrangement of the monolayer structure may be due to a conformational change in the PEG chains.

  11. The Rheological Properties of Lipid Monolayers Modulate the Incorporation of l-Ascorbic Acid Alkyl Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Yenisleidy de Las Mercedes Zulueta; Mottola, Milagro; Vico, Raquel V; Wilke, Natalia; Fanani, María Laura

    2016-01-19

    In this work, we tested the hypothesis that the incorporation of amphiphilic drugs into lipid membranes may be regulated by their rheological properties. For this purpose, two members of the l-ascorbic acid alkyl esters family (ASCn) were selected, ASC16 and ASC14, which have different rheological properties when organized at the air/water interface. They are lipophilic forms of vitamin C used in topical pharmacological preparations. The effect of the phase state of the host lipid membranes on ASCn incorporation was explored using Langmuir monolayers. Films of pure lipids with known phase states have been selected, showing liquid-expanded, liquid-condensed, and solid phases as well as pure cholesterol films in liquid-ordered state. We also tested ternary and quaternary mixed films that mimic the properties of cholesterol containing membranes and of the stratum corneum. The compressibility and shear properties of those monolayers were assessed in order to define its phase character. We found that the length of the acyl chain of the ASCn compounds induces differential changes in the rheological properties of the host membrane and subtly regulates the kinetics and extent of the penetration process. The capacity for ASCn uptake was found to depend on the phase state of the host film. The increase in surface pressure resultant after amphiphile incorporation appears to be a function of the capacity of the host membrane to incorporate such amphiphile as well as the rheological response of the film. Hence, monolayers that show a solid phase state responded with a larger surface pressure increase to the incorporation of a comparable amount of amphiphile than liquid-expanded ones. The cholesterol-containing films, including the mixture that mimics stratum corneum, allowed a very scarce ASCn uptake independently of the membrane diffusional properties. This suggests an important contribution of Cho on the maintenance of the barrier function of stratum corneum.

  12. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Elizabeth; Jammali-Blasi, Asmara; Bell-Syer, Sally E M; Dumville, Jo C; Middleton, Victoria; Cullum, Nicky

    2015-09-03

    Pressure ulcers (i.e. bedsores, pressure sores, pressure injuries, decubitus ulcers) are areas of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue. They are common in the elderly and immobile, and costly in financial and human terms. Pressure-relieving support surfaces (i.e. beds, mattresses, seat cushions etc) are used to help prevent ulcer development. This systematic review seeks to establish:(1) the extent to which pressure-relieving support surfaces reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers compared with standard support surfaces, and,(2) their comparative effectiveness in ulcer prevention. In April 2015, for this fourth update we searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 15 April 2015) which includes the results of regular searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 3). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials, published or unpublished, that assessed the effects of any support surface for prevention of pressure ulcers, in any patient group or setting which measured pressure ulcer incidence. Trials reporting only proxy outcomes (e.g. interface pressure) were excluded. Two review authors independently selected trials. Data were extracted by one review author and checked by another. Where appropriate, estimates from similar trials were pooled for meta-analysis. For this fourth update six new trials were included, bringing the total of included trials to 59.Foam alternatives to standard hospital foam mattresses reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in people at risk (RR 0.40 95% CI 0.21 to 0.74). The relative merits of alternating- and constant low-pressure devices are unclear. One high-quality trial suggested that alternating-pressure mattresses may be more cost effective than alternating-pressure overlays in a UK context.Pressure-relieving overlays on the operating table reduce postoperative pressure ulcer incidence

  13. The influence of the surface composition of mixed monolayer films on the evaporation coefficient of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Rachael E H; Davies, James F; Reid, Jonathan P

    2016-07-20

    We explore the dependence of the evaporation coefficient of water from aqueous droplets on the composition of a surface film, considering in particular the influence of monolayer mixed component films on the evaporative mass flux. Measurements with binary component films formed from long chain alcohols, specifically tridecanol (C13H27OH) and pentadecanol (C15H31OH), and tetradecanol (C14H29OH) and hexadecanol (C16H33OH), show that the evaporation coefficient is dependent on the mole fractions of the two components forming the monolayer film. Immediately at the point of film formation and commensurate reduction in droplet evaporation rate, the evaporation coefficient is equal to a mole fraction weighted average of the evaporation coefficients through the equivalent single component films. As a droplet continues to diminish in surface area with continued loss of water, the more-soluble, shorter alkyl chain component preferentially partitions into the droplet bulk with the evaporation coefficient tending towards that through a single component film formed simply from the less-soluble, longer chain alcohol. We also show that the addition of a long chain alcohol to an aqueous-sucrose droplet can facilitate control over the degree of dehydration achieved during evaporation. After undergoing rapid gas-phase diffusion limited water evaporation, binary aqueous-sucrose droplets show a continued slow evaporative flux that is limited by slow diffusional mass transport within the particle bulk due to the rapidly increasing particle viscosity and strong concentration gradients that are established. The addition of a long chain alcohol to the droplet is shown to slow the initial rate of water loss, leading to a droplet composition that remains more homogeneous for a longer period of time. When the sucrose concentration has achieved a sufficiently high value, and the diffusion constant of water has decreased accordingly so that bulk phase diffusion arrest occurs in the monolayer

  14. Unprecedented Self-Organized Monolayer of a Ru(II) Complex by Diazonium Electroreduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Quynh; Sun, Xiaonan; Lafolet, Frédéric; Audibert, Jean-Frédéric; Miomandre, Fabien; Lemercier, Gilles; Loiseau, Frédérique; Lacroix, Jean-Christophe

    2016-08-03

    A new heteroleptic polypyridyle Ru(II) complex was synthesized and deposited on surface by the diazonium electroreduction process. It yields to the covalent grafting of a monolayer. The functionalized surface was characterized by XPS, electrochemistry, AFM, and STM. A precise organization of the molecules within the monolayer is observed with parallel linear stripes separated by a distance of 3.8 nm corresponding to the lateral size of the molecule. Such organization suggests a strong cooperative process in the deposition process. This strategy is an original way to obtain well-controlled and stable functionalized surfaces for potential applications related to the photophysical properties of the grafted chromophore. As an exciting result, it is the first example of a self-organized monolayer (SOM) obtained using diazonium electroreduction.

  15. Fluorinated alkyne-derived monolayers on oxide-free silicon nanowires via one-step hydrosilylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Minh, Quyen; Pujari, Sidharam P.; Wang, Bin; Wang, Zhanhua; Haick, Hossam; Zuilhof, Han; Rijn, Cees J.M. van

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxide-free H-terminated silicon nanowires undergo efficient surface modification by reaction with fluorinated 1-alkynes (HC≡C−(CH 2 ) 6 C 8 H 17−x F x ; x = 0–17). • These surface-modified Si NWs are chemically stable under range of conditions (including acid, base). • The surface coating yields efficient electrical passivation as demonstrated by a near-zero electrochemical activity of the surface. - Abstract: Passivation of oxide-free silicon nanowires (Si NWs) by the formation of high-quality fluorinated 1-hexadecyne-derived monolayers with varying fluorine content has been investigated. Alkyl chain monolayers (C 16 H 30−x F x ) with a varying number of fluorine substituents (x = 0, 1, 3, 9, 17) were attached onto hydrogen-terminated silicon (Si−H) surfaces with an effective one-step hydrosilylation. This surface chemistry gives well-defined monolayers on nanowires that have a cylindrical core–shell structure, as characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and static contact angle (SCA) analysis. The monolayers were stable under acidic and basic conditions, as well as under extreme conditions (such as UV exposure), and provide excellent surface passivation, which opens up applications in the fields of field effect transistors, optoelectronics and especially for disease diagnosis.

  16. Supramolecular domains in mixed peptide self-assembled monolayers on gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Laurence; Wells, Geoff; Fernig, David G; Harris, Sarah A; Lévy, Raphaël

    2008-09-01

    Self-organization in mixed self-assembled monolayers of small molecules provides a route towards nanoparticles with complex molecular structures. Inspired by structural biology, a strategy based on chemical cross-linking is introduced to probe proximity between functional peptides embedded in a mixed self-assembled monolayer at the surface of a nanoparticle. The physical basis of the proximity measurement is a transition from intramolecular to intermolecular cross-linking as the functional peptides get closer. Experimental investigations of a binary peptide self-assembled monolayer show that this transition happens at an extremely low molar ratio of the functional versus matrix peptide. Molecular dynamics simulations of the peptide self-assembled monolayer are used to calculate the volume explored by the reactive groups. Comparison of the experimental results with a probabilistic model demonstrates that the peptides are not randomly distributed at the surface of the nanoparticle, but rather self-organize into supramolecular domains.

  17. Monolayer arrangement of fatty hydroxystearic acids on graphite: Influence of hydroxyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, S. [Laboratorio de Rayos-X, Centro de Investigación Tecnología e Innovación, de la Universidad de Sevilla (CITIUS), Universidad de Sevilla, Avenida Reina Mercedes, 4B. 41012, Sevilla (Spain); Benítez, J.J.; Castro, M.A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad de Sevilla, Avenida Américo Vespucio, 49. 41092, Sevilla (Spain); Cerrillos, C. [Servicio de Microscopía, Centro de Investigación Tecnología e Innovación, de la Universidad de Sevilla (CITIUS), Universidad de Sevilla, Avenida Reina Mercedes, 4B. 41012, Sevilla (Spain); Millán, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad de Sevilla, Avenida Américo Vespucio, 49. 41092, Sevilla (Spain); Alba, M.D., E-mail: alba@icmse.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad de Sevilla, Avenida Américo Vespucio, 49. 41092, Sevilla (Spain)

    2013-07-31

    Previous studies have indicated that long-chain linear carboxylic acids form commensurate packed crystalline monolayers on graphite even at temperatures above their melting point. This study examines the effect on the monolayer formation and structure of adding one or more secondary hydroxyl, functional groups to the stearic acid skeleton (namely, 12-hydroxystearic and 9,10-dihydroxystearic acid). Moreover, a comparative study of the monolayer formation on recompressed and monocrystalline graphite has been performed through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM), respectively. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and XRD data were used to confirm the formation of solid monolayers and XRD data have provided a detailed structural analysis of the monolayers in good correspondence with obtained STM images. DSC and XRD have demonstrated that, in stearic acid and 12-hydroxystearic acid adsorbed onto graphite, the monolayer melted at a higher temperature than the bulk form of the carboxylic acid. However, no difference was observed between the melting point of the monolayer and the bulk form for 9,10-dihydroxystearic acid adsorbed onto graphite. STM results indicated that all acids on the surface have a rectangular p2 monolayer structure, whose lattice parameters were uniaxially commensurate on the a-axis. This structure does not correlate with the initial structure of the pure compounds after dissolving, but it is conditioned to favor a) hydrogen bond formation between the carboxylic groups and b) formation of hydrogen bonds between secondary hydroxyl groups, if spatially permissible. Therefore, the presence of hydroxyl functional groups affects the secondary structure and behavior of stearic acid in the monolayer. - Highlights: • Hydroxyl functional groups affect structure and behavior of acids in the monolayer. • Acids on the surface have a rectangular p2 monolayer structure. • Lattice parameters of acids are uniaxially

  18. Triazolobithiophene Light Absorbing Self-Assembled Monolayers: Synthesis and Mass Spectrometry Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Séraphin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of five light absorbing triazolobithiophenic thiols, which were utilized for producing self-assembled monolayers (SAMs on gold surfaces, is presented. The monolayer formation was monitored by cyclic voltammetry, indicating excellent surface coverage. The new triazolobithiophenic compounds exhibited an absorption maximum around 340 nm, which is close to the emission wavelength of a standard nitrogen laser. Consequently these compounds could be used to aid ionization in laser desorption mass spectrometry (MS.

  19. Self-assembled monolayers of perfluoroalkylsilane on plasma-hydroxylated silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Lin; Cai, Lu; Liu, Anqi; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Yanhua [College of Textile, Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021 (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Suzhou 215123 (China); Li, Zhanxiong, E-mail: lizhanxiong@suda.edu.cn [College of Textile, Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021 (China); State Key Laboratory of Disaster Prevention & Mitigation of Explosion & Impact, Nanjing 210007 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A novel kind of fluoroalkylsilane monomers with different fluoroalkyl chain length was synthesized. • The fluoroalkyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on silanol-terminated silicon substrates were chemically fabricated using the liquid phase deposition method. • Fluoroalkylsilanes were used for the self-assembly rather than the silane coupling agents and fluorochemicals to fabricate controllable, ordered SAMs. • The angle-dependent XPS study was conducted to investigate the changes of surface structures as well as elemental compositions of the SAMs. • The results indicated that fluoroalkyl groups would migrate from the inner part of the monolayers to the outermost interface after heat treatment, resulting into the microphase separation of the SAMs surface. - Abstract: In this study, a novel kind of fluoroalkylsilane monomers with different fluoroalkyl chain lengths was synthesized via three steps method and characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, {sup 1}H and {sup 19}F nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 19}F NMR), and mass spectra (MS). Fluoroalkyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on silanol-terminated silicon substrates (O{sub 2} plasma treatment) were chemically fabricated via –Si–O– covalent bonds using the liquid phase deposition method (LPD). The wetabilities of the SAMs were characterized by water contact angles (CA), surface free energies and adhesive force (AF) measurements. 3-(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyloxycarbonyl) -propionamidepropyl-triethoxysilane (PFOPT) assembled monolayer was chosen for in-depth investigation as its CA was higher than the others. Attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to validate the attachment of PFOPT on the silicon substrate, together with the chemical composition and structure of the SAMs. The surface morphologies and roughness of the monolayers were obtained and

  20. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Carbon Nanomembranes from Aromatic Self-Assembled Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianghui; Mainka, Marcel; Paneff, Florian; Hachmeister, Henning; Beyer, André; Gölzhäuser, Armin; Huser, Thomas

    2018-02-27

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy (SERS) was employed to investigate the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of biphenylthiol, 4'-nitro-1,1'-biphenyl-4-thiol, and p-terphenylthiol on Au surfaces and their structural transformations into carbon nanomembranes (CNMs) induced by electron irradiation. The high sensitivity of SERS allows us to identify two types of Raman scattering in electron-irradiated SAMs: (1) Raman-active sites exhibit similar bands as those of pristine SAMs in the fingerprint spectral region, but with indications of an amorphization process and (2) Raman-inactive sites show almost no Raman-scattering signals, except a very weak and broad D band, indicating a lack of structural order but for the presence of graphitic domains. Statistical analysis showed that the ratio of the number of Raman-active sites to the total number of measurement sites decreases exponentially with increasing the electron irradiation dose. The maximum degree of cross-linking ranged from 97 to 99% for the three SAMs. Proof-of-concept experiments were conducted to demonstrate potential applications of Raman-inactive CNMs as a supporting membrane for Raman analysis.

  1. The effect of plutonium dioxide water surface coverage on the generation of hydrogen and oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crowder, Mark L. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2012-06-20

    The conditions for the production of oxygen during radiolysis of water adsorbed onto plutonium dioxide powder are discussed. Studies in the literature investigating the radiolysis of water show that both oxygen and hydrogen can be generated from water adsorbed on high-purity plutonium dioxide powder. These studies indicate that there is a threshold in the amount of water below which oxygen is not generated. The threshold is associated with the number of monolayers of adsorbed water and is shown to occur at approximately two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water. Material in equilibrium with 50% relative humidity (RH) will be at the threshold for oxygen generation. Using two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water as the threshold for oxygen production, the total pressure under various conditions is calculated assuming stoichiometric production of hydrogen and oxygen. The specific surface area of the oxide has a strong effect on the final partial pressure. The specific surface areas resulting in the highest pressures within a 3013 container are evaluated. The potential for oxygen generation is mitigated by reduced relative humidity, and hence moisture adsorption, at the oxide surface which occurs if the oxide is warmer than the ambient air. The potential for oxygen generation approaches zero as the temperature difference between the ambient air and the material approaches 6 C.

  2. Peierls instability as the insulating origin of the Na/Si(111)-(3 × 1) surface with a Na coverage of 2/3 monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myung Ho; Kwon, Se Gab; Jung, Sung Chul

    2018-03-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to investigate the insulating origin of the Na/Si(111)-(3 × 1) surface with a Na coverage of 2/3 monolayers. In the coverage definition, one monolayer refers to one Na atom per surface Si atom, so this surface contains an odd number of electrons (i.e., three Si dangling-bond electrons plus two Na electrons) per 3 × 1 unit cell. Interestingly, this odd-electron surface has been ascribed to a Mott-Hubbard insulator to account for the measured insulating band structure with a gap of about 0.8 eV. Here, we instead propose a Peierls instability as the origin of the experimental band gap. The concept of Peierls instability is fundamental in one-dimensional metal systems but has not been taken into account in previous studies of this surface. Our DFT calculations demonstrate that the linear chain structure of Si dangling bonds in this surface is energetically unstable with respect to a × 2 buckling modulation, and the buckling-induced band gap of 0.79 eV explains well the measured insulating nature.

  3. Molecular Monolayers for Electrical Passivation and Functionalization of Silicon-Based Solar Energy Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerbeek, Janneke; Firet, Nienke J; Vijselaar, Wouter; Elbersen, Rick; Gardeniers, Han; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2017-01-11

    Silicon-based solar fuel devices require passivation for optimal performance yet at the same time need functionalization with (photo)catalysts for efficient solar fuel production. Here, we use molecular monolayers to enable electrical passivation and simultaneous functionalization of silicon-based solar cells. Organic monolayers were coupled to silicon surfaces by hydrosilylation in order to avoid an insulating silicon oxide layer at the surface. Monolayers of 1-tetradecyne were shown to passivate silicon micropillar-based solar cells with radial junctions, by which the efficiency increased from 8.7% to 9.9% for n + /p junctions and from 7.8% to 8.8% for p + /n junctions. This electrical passivation of the surface, most likely by removal of dangling bonds, is reflected in a higher shunt resistance in the J-V measurements. Monolayers of 1,8-nonadiyne were still reactive for click chemistry with a model catalyst, thus enabling simultaneous passivation and future catalyst coupling.

  4. Measurement of the Surface Dilatational Viscosity of an Insoluble Surfactant Monolayer at the Air/Water Interface Using a Pendant Drop Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Jose; Couzis, Alex; Maldarelli, Charles; Singh, Bhim S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    When a fluid interface with surfactants is at rest, the interfacial stress is isotropic (as given by the equilibrium interfacial tension), and is described by the equation of state which relates the surface tension to the surfactant surface concentration. When surfactants are subjected to shear and dilatational flows, flow induced interaction of the surfactants; can create interfacial stresses apart from the equilibrium surface tension. The simplest relationship between surface strain rate and surface stress is the Boussinesq-Scriven constitutive equation completely characterized by three coefficients: equilibrium interfacial tension, surface shear viscosity, and surface dilatational viscosity Equilibrium interfacial tension and surface shear viscosity measurements are very well established. On the other hand, surface dilatational viscosity measurements are difficult because a flow which change the surface area also changes the surfactant surface concentration creating changes in the equilibrium interfacial tension that must be also taken into account. Surface dilatational viscosity measurements of existing techniques differ by five orders of magnitude and use spatially damped surface waves and rapidly expanding bubbles. In this presentation we introduce a new technique for measuring the surface dilatational viscosity by contracting an aqueous pendant drop attached to a needle tip and having and insoluble surfactant monolayer at the air-water interface. The isotropic total tension on the surface consists of the equilibrium surface tension and the tension due to the dilation. Compression rates are undertaken slow enough so that bulk hydrodynamic stresses are small compared to the surface tension force. Under these conditions we show that the total tension is uniform along the surface and that the Young-Laplace equation governs the drop shape with the equilibrium surface tension replaced by the constant surface isotropic stress. We illustrate this technique using

  5. A simple method to tune graphene growth between monolayer and bilayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhi Xu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Selective growth of either monolayer or bilayer graphene is of great importance. We developed a method to readily tune large area graphene growth from complete monolayer to complete bilayer. In an ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition process, we used the sample temperature at which to start the H2 flow as the control parameter and realized the change from monolayer to bilayer growth of graphene on Cu foil. When the H2 starting temperature was above 700°C, continuous monolayer graphene films were obtained. When the H2 starting temperature was below 350°C, continuous bilayer films were obtained. Detailed characterization of the samples treated under various conditions revealed that heating without the H2 flow caused Cu oxidation. The more the Cu substrate oxidized, the less graphene bilayer could form.

  6. Fluorinated alkyne-derived monolayers on oxide-free silicon nanowires via one-step hydrosilylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Minh, Quyen [Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Wageningen University, Stippeneng 4, 6708 WE Wageningen (Netherlands); Nanosens, IJsselkade 7, 7201 HB Zutphen (Netherlands); Pujari, Sidharam P. [Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Wageningen University, Stippeneng 4, 6708 WE Wageningen (Netherlands); Wang, Bin [The Department of Chemical Engineering and Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 3200003 (Israel); Wang, Zhanhua [Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Wageningen University, Stippeneng 4, 6708 WE Wageningen (Netherlands); Haick, Hossam [The Department of Chemical Engineering and Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 3200003 (Israel); Zuilhof, Han [Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Wageningen University, Stippeneng 4, 6708 WE Wageningen (Netherlands); Rijn, Cees J.M. van, E-mail: cees.vanrijn@wur.nl [Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Wageningen University, Stippeneng 4, 6708 WE Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Oxide-free H-terminated silicon nanowires undergo efficient surface modification by reaction with fluorinated 1-alkynes (HC≡C−(CH{sub 2}){sub 6}C{sub 8}H{sub 17−x}F{sub x}; x = 0–17). • These surface-modified Si NWs are chemically stable under range of conditions (including acid, base). • The surface coating yields efficient electrical passivation as demonstrated by a near-zero electrochemical activity of the surface. - Abstract: Passivation of oxide-free silicon nanowires (Si NWs) by the formation of high-quality fluorinated 1-hexadecyne-derived monolayers with varying fluorine content has been investigated. Alkyl chain monolayers (C{sub 16}H{sub 30−x}F{sub x}) with a varying number of fluorine substituents (x = 0, 1, 3, 9, 17) were attached onto hydrogen-terminated silicon (Si−H) surfaces with an effective one-step hydrosilylation. This surface chemistry gives well-defined monolayers on nanowires that have a cylindrical core–shell structure, as characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and static contact angle (SCA) analysis. The monolayers were stable under acidic and basic conditions, as well as under extreme conditions (such as UV exposure), and provide excellent surface passivation, which opens up applications in the fields of field effect transistors, optoelectronics and especially for disease diagnosis.

  7. Self-assembled monolayer structures of hexadecylamine on Cu surfaces: density-functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Hsien; Balankura, Tonnam; Fichthorn, Kristen A

    2016-12-07

    We used dispersion-corrected density-functional theory to probe possible structures for adsorbed layers of hexadecylamine (HDA) on Cu(100) and Cu(111). HDA forms self-assembled layers on these surfaces, analogous to alkanethiols on various metal surfaces, and it binds by donating electrons in the amine group to the Cu surface atoms, consistent with experiment. van der Waals interactions between the alkyl tails of HDA molecules are stronger than the interaction between the amine group and the Cu surfaces. Strong HDA-tail interactions lead to coverage-dependent tilting of the HDA layers, such that the tilt angle is larger for lower coverages. At full monolayer coverage, the energetically preferred binding configuration for HDA on Cu(100) is a (5 × 3) pattern - although we cannot rule out incommensurate structures - while the pattern is preferred on Cu(111). A major motivation for this study is to understand the experimentally observed capability of HDA as a capping agent for producing {100}-faceted Cu nanocrystals. Consistent with experiment, we find that HDA binds more strongly to Cu(100) than to Cu(111). This strong binding stems from the capability of HDA to form more densely packed layers on Cu(100), which leads to stronger HDA-tail interactions, as well as the stronger binding of the amine group to Cu(100). We estimate the surface energies of HDA-covered Cu(100) and Cu(111) surfaces and find that these surfaces are nearly isoenergetic. By drawing analogies to previous theoretical work, it seems likely that HDA-covered Cu nanocrystals could have kinetic shapes that primarily express {100} facets, as is seen experimentally.

  8. Voltammetry and In Situ Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy of De Novo Designed Heme Protein Monolayers on Au(111)-Electrode Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, Tim; Li, Wu; Haehnel, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    to the tunnelling current, apparently due to slow electron transfer kinetics. As a consequence, STM images of heme-containing and heme-free MOP-C did not reveal any notable differences in apparent height or physical extension. The apparent height of heme-containing MOP-C did not show any dependence on the substrate...... potential being varied around the redox potential of the protein. The mere presence of an accessible molecular energy level is not sufficient to result in detectable tunnelling current modulation. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......In the present work, we report the electrochemical characterization and in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) studies of monolayers of an artificial de novo designed heme protein MOP-C, covalently immobilized on modified Au(111) surfaces. The protein forms closely packed monolayers, which...

  9. Liquid-Phase Exfoliation into Monolayered BiOBr Nanosheets for Photocatalytic Oxidation and Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hongjian [Beijing; Huang, Hongwei [Beijing; Xu, Kang [Center; Hao, Weichang [Center; Guo, Yuxi [Beijing; Wang, Shuobo [Beijing; Shen, Xiulin [Beijing; Pan, Shaofeng [Beijing; Zhang, Yihe [Beijing

    2017-09-26

    Monolayered photocatalytic materials have attracted huge research interests in terms of their large specific surface area and ample active sites. Sillén-structured layered BiOX (X = Cl, Br, I) casts great prospects owing to their strong photo-oxidation ability and high stability. Fabrication of monolayered BiOX by a facile, low-cost, and scalable approach is highly challenging and anticipated. Herein, we describe the large-scale preparation of monolayered BiOBr nanosheets with a thickness of ~0.85 nm via a readily achievable liquid-phase exfoliation strategy with assistance of formamide at ambient conditions. The as-obtained monolayered BiOBr nanosheets are allowed diverse superiorities, such as enhanced specific surface area, promoted band structure, and strengthened charge separation. Profiting from these benefits, the advanced BiOBr monolayers not only show excellent adsorption and photodegradation performance for treating contaminants, but also demonstrate a greatly promoted photocatalytic activity for CO2 reduction into CO and CH4. Additionally, monolayered BiOI nanosheets have also been obtained by the same synthetic approach. Our work offers a mild and general approach for preparation of monolayered BiOX, and may have huge potential to be extended to the synthesis of other single-layer two-dimensional materials.

  10. Influence of Poly(ethylenimine) on the Monolayer of Oleic Acid at the Air/Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwan Ha, Tai; Kyu Kim, Dai; Choi, Myung-Un; Kim, Kwan

    2000-06-01

    The effect of poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) dissolved in water on the surface pressure-area isotherm of oleic acid (OA) at the air/water interface was investigated. On a concentrated PEI solution, the isotherm of the OA monolayers exhibited a noticeable difference as a function of subphase pH. PEI caused the collapse pressure of the OA monolayer to increase up to 45 mN/m, due to a stronger acid-base-type interaction occurring between the amine group of the PEI and the carboxyl group of OA; on a pure water subphase, the collapse pressure was;28 mN/m. On the other hand, owing to a stronger OA-PEI interaction, the OA monolayers favored a liquid-expanded state more on the PEI-containing water subphase than on the pure water. From the QCM measurement, each OA molecule appeared to interact, on average, with 4.3-5.8 ethylenimine repeating units at basic pHs. We also found that OA multilayers could be assembled on a hydrophilic substrate by a Z-type Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) deposition in a PEI-containing subphase at basic pHs. The ATR-IR spectral data revealed that, in a Z-type LB film, the headgroup of OA was mostly present as carboxylate, interacting in an ionic state with the protonated amine groups of PEI. In acidic conditions, neither a Y-type nor a Z-type deposition was really accomplished. Nonetheless, the ATR-IR spectral data suggested that OA molecules should exist in a monomeric state in a LB film assembled at acidic pHs without PEI while they would form intermolecular hydrogen bridges and/or dimers in the presence of PEI. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  11. Controlled synthesis of high-quality crystals of monolayer MoS2 for nanoelectronic device application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaonian; Li, Qiang; Hu, Guofeng

    2016-01-01

    . Monolayer MoS2 so far can be obtained by mechanical exfoliation or chemical vapor deposition (CVD). However, controllable synthesis of large area monolayer MoS2 with high quality needs to be improved and their growth mechanism requires more studies. Here we report a systematical study on controlled...... synthesis of high-quality monolayer MoS2 single crystals using low pressure CVD. Large-size monolayer MoS2 triangles with an edge length up to 405 mu m were successfully synthesized. The Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy studies indicate high homogenous optical characteristic of the synthesized...... monolayer MoS2 triangles. The transmission electron microscopy results demonstrate that monolayer MoS2 triangles are single crystals. The back-gated field effect transistors (FETs) fabricated using the as-grown monolayer MoS2 show typical n-type semiconductor behaviors with carrier mobility up to 21.8 cm(2...

  12. Studying the influence of substrate conductivity on the optoelectronic properties of quantum dots langmuir monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alwani, Ammar J.; Chumakov, A. S.; Begletsova, N. N.; Shinkarenko, O. A.; Markin, A. V.; Gorbachev, I. A.; Bratashov, D. N.; Gavrikov, M. V.; Venig, S. B.; Glukhovskoy, E. G.

    2018-04-01

    The formation of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) monolayers was studied by Langmuir Blodgett method. The fluorescence (PL) spectra of QD monolayers were investigated at different substrate type (glass, silicon and ITO glass) and the influence of graphene sheets layer (as a conductive surface) on the QDs properties has also been studied. The optoelectronic properties of QDs can be tuned by deposition of insulating nano-size layers of the liquid crystal between QDs and conductive substrate. The monolayer of QDs transferred on conductive surface (glass with ITO) has lowest intensity of PL spectra due to quenching effect. The PL intensity of QDs could be tuned by using various type of substrates or/and by transformed high conductive layer. Also the photooxidation processes of CdSe QDs monolayer on the solid surface can be controlled by selection of suitable substrate. The current-voltage (I–V) characteristics of QDs thin film on ITO surface was studied using scanning tunneling microscope (STM).

  13. Epitaxially Grown Ultra-Flat Self-Assembling Monolayers with Dendrimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takane Imaoka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mono-molecular films formed by physical adsorption and dendrimer self-assembly were prepared on various substrate surfaces. It was demonstrated that a uniform dendrimer-based monolayer on the subnanometer scale can be easily constructed via simple dip coating. Furthermore, it was shown that an epitaxially grown monolayer film reflecting the crystal structure of the substrate (highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG can also be formed by aligning specific conditions.

  14. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopic study of UV-addressable phenylalanine sensing based on a self-assembled spirooxazine derivative monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Shinae; Suh, Hee-Jung; Gun An, Won; Kim, Jae-Ho; Jin, Sung-Ho; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Gal, Yeong-Soon; Koh, Kwangnak

    2004-01-01

    Light-addressable compounds are very interesting due to the possibilities of their practical use such as optical switches and memories or variable transmission materials. For example, transportation of phenylalanine across liposomal bilayers mediated by a photoresponsive carrier like spirooxazine through electrostatic interaction between phenylalanine and spirooxazine derivative. Thus, the spirooxazine is expected to form a UV-addressable phenylalanine sensing interface. In this study, we prepared phenylalanine sensing interface of a spirooxazine derivative by self-assembly technique and evaluated interaction between a spirooxazine moiety and phenylalanine with a surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The refractive index change of monolayer caused by interaction between a spirooxazine derivative and phenylalanine led to the SPR angle shifts upon UV irradiation. The SPR angle shift increased with increasing the concentration of phenylalanine solution. These results indicated that the spirooxazine derivative self-assembled monolayer (SAM) has an application potential for UV-addressable phenylalanine sensing

  15. Effect of dispersion on surface interactions of cobalt(II) octaethylporphyrin monolayer on Au(111) and HOPG(0001) substrates: a comparative first principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilukuri, Bhaskar; Mazur, Ursula; Hipps, K W

    2014-07-21

    A density functional theory study of a cobalt(II) octaethylporphyrin (CoOEP) monolayer on Au(111) and HOPG(0001) surfaces was performed under periodic boundary conditions. Calculations with and without dispersion corrections are performed and the effect of van der Waals forces on the interface properties is analyzed. Calculations have determined that the CoOEP molecule tends to bind at the 3-fold and the 6-fold center sites on Au(111) and HOPG(0001), respectively. Geometric optimizations at the center binding sites have indicated that the porphyrin molecules (in the monolayer) lie flat on both substrates. Calculations also reveal that the CoOEP monolayer binds slightly more strongly to Au(111) than to HOPG(0001). Charge density difference plots disclose that charge is redistributed mostly around the porphyrin plane and the first layer of the substrates. Dispersion interactions cause a larger substrate to molecule charge pushback on Au(111) than on HOPG. CoOEP adsorption tends to lower the work functions of either substrate, qualitatively agreeing with the experimental photoelectron spectroscopic data. Comparison of the density of states (DOS) of the isolated CoOEP molecule with that on gold and HOPG substrates showed significant band shifts around the Fermi energy due to intermolecular orbital hybridization. Simulated STM images were plotted with the Tersoff-Hamann approach using the local density of states, which also agree with the experimental results. This study elucidates the role of dispersion for better describing porphyrin-substrate interactions. A DFT based overview of geometric, adsorption and electronic properties of a porphyrin monolayer on conductive surfaces is presented.

  16. Chiral hierarchical self-assembly in Langmuir monolayers of diacetylenic lipids

    KAUST Repository

    Basnet, Prem B.; Mandal, Pritam; Malcolm, Dominic W.; Mann, Elizabeth; Chaieb, Saharoui

    2013-01-01

    When compressed in the intermediate temperature range below the chain-melting transition yet in the low-pressure liquid phase, Langmuir monolayers made of chiral lipid molecules form hierarchical structures. Using Brewster angle microscopy to reveal

  17. Vertical uniformity of cells and nuclei in epithelial monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelam, Srujana; Hayes, Peter Robert; Zhang, Qiao; Dickinson, Richard B; Lele, Tanmay P

    2016-01-22

    Morphological variability in cytoskeletal organization, organelle position and cell boundaries is a common feature of cultured cells. Remarkable uniformity and reproducibility in structure can be accomplished by providing cells with defined geometric cues. Cells in tissues can also self-organize in the absence of directing extracellular cues; however the mechanical principles for such self-organization are not understood. We report that unlike horizontal shapes, the vertical shapes of the cell and nucleus in the z-dimension are uniform in cells in cultured monolayers compared to isolated cells. Apical surfaces of cells and their nuclei in monolayers were flat and heights were uniform. In contrast, isolated cells, or cells with disrupted cell-cell adhesions had nuclei with curved apical surfaces and variable heights. Isolated cells cultured within micron-sized square wells displayed flat cell and nuclear shapes similar to cells in monolayers. Local disruption of nuclear-cytoskeletal linkages resulted in spatial variation in vertical uniformity. These results suggest that competition between cell-cell pulling forces that expand and shorten the vertical cell cross-section, thereby widening and flattening the nucleus, and the resistance of the nucleus to further flattening results in uniform cell and nuclear cross-sections. Our results reveal the mechanical principles of self-organized vertical uniformity in cell monolayers.

  18. Surface reconstitution of glucose oxidase onto a norbornylogous bridge self-assembled monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingquan; Paddon-Row, Michael N.; Gooding, J. Justin

    2006-01-01

    An electrode construct was fabricated in which a self-assembled monolayer containing a novel norbornylogous bridge was covalently attached to flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), the redox active centre of several oxidase enzymes. The electrochemistry of the construct was investigated before and after the reconstitution of glucose oxidase around the surface bound FAD. Rapid rates of electron transfer were observed both before and after the reconstitution of biocatalytically active enzyme. However, no biocatalytic activity was observed under anaerobic conditions suggesting the a lack of enzyme turnover through direct electron transfer. It is proposed that a decrease in the electronic coupling between the redox active FAD and the electrode following reconstitution of the glucose oxidase - a probable consequence of the FAD being immersed in a protein environment - was responsible for the inability of the enzyme to be turned over under anaerobic conditions

  19. Strongly luminescent monolayered MoS2 prepared by effective ultrasound exfoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří

    2013-04-21

    Intense ultrasound in a pressurized batch reactor was used for preparation of monolayered MoS2 nanosheets from natural mineral molybdenite. Exfoliation of bulk MoS2 using ultrasound is an attractive route to large-scale preparation of monolayered crystals. To evaluate the quality of delamination, methods like X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and microscopic techniques (TEM and AFM) were employed. From single- or few-layered products obtained from intense sonication, MoS2 quantum dots (MoSQDs) were prepared by a one-pot reaction by refluxing exfoliated nanosheets of MoS2 in ethylene glycol under atmospheric pressure. The synthesised MoSQDs were characterised by photoluminescence spectroscopy and laser-scattering particle size analysis. Our easy preparation leads to very strongly green luminescing quantum dots.

  20. Chiral hierarchical self-assembly in Langmuir monolayers of diacetylenic lipids

    KAUST Repository

    Basnet, Prem B.

    2013-01-01

    When compressed in the intermediate temperature range below the chain-melting transition yet in the low-pressure liquid phase, Langmuir monolayers made of chiral lipid molecules form hierarchical structures. Using Brewster angle microscopy to reveal this structure, we found that as the liquid monolayer is compressed, an optically anisotropic condensed phase nucleates in the form of long, thin claws. These claws pack closely to form stripes. This appears to be a new mechanism for forming stripes in Langmuir monolayers. In the lower temperature range, these stripes arrange into spirals within overall circular domains, while near the chain-melting transition, the stripes arrange into target patterns. We attributed this transition to a change in boundary conditions at the core of the largest-scale circular domains. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Reactions of BBr(n)(+) (n = 0--2) at fluorinated and hydrocarbon self-assembled monolayer surfaces: observations of chemical selectivity in ion--surface scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, N; Shen, J; Koskinen, J; Cooks, R G

    2001-07-01

    Ion-surface reactions involving BBr(n)(+) (n = 0--2) with a fluorinated self-assembled monolayer (F-SAM) surface were investigated using a multi-sector scattering mass spectrometer. Collisions of the B(+) ion yield BF(2)(+) at threshold energy with the simpler product ion BF(+)* appearing at higher collision energies and remaining of lower abundance than BF(2)(+) at all energies examined. In addition, the reactively sputtered ion CF(+) accompanies the formation of BF(2)(+) at low collision energies. These results stand in contrast with previous data on the ion-surface reactions of atomic ions with the F-SAM surface in that the threshold and most abundant reaction products in those cases involved the abstraction of a single fluorine atom. Gas-phase enthalpy data are consistent with BF(2)(+) being the thermodynamically favored product. The fact that the abundance of BF(2)(+) is relatively low and relatively insensitive to changes in collision energy suggests that this reaction proceeds through an entropically demanding intermediate at the vacuum--surface interface, one which involves interaction of the B(+) ion simultaneously with two fluorine atoms. By contrast with the reaction of B(+), the odd-electron species BBr(+)* reacts with the F-SAM surface to yield an abundant single-fluorine abstraction product, BBrF(+). Corresponding gas-phase ion--molecule experiments involving B(+) and BBr(+)* with C(6)F(14) also yield the products BF(+)* and BF(2)(+), but only in extremely low abundances and with no preference for double fluorine abstraction. Ion--surface reactions were also investigated for BBr(n)(+) (n = 0-2) with a hydrocarbon self-assembled monolayer (H-SAM) surface. Reaction of the B(+) ion and dissociative reactions of BBr(+)* result in the formation of BH(2)(+), while the thermodynamically less favorable product BH(+)* is not observed. Collisions of BBr(2)(+) with the H-SAM surface yield the dissociative ion-surface reaction products, BBrH(+) and BBrCH(3

  2. 11-Hydroxyundecyl octadecyl disulfide self-assembled monolayers on Au(1 1 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albayrak, Erol [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Ahi Evran University, Kırşehir 40000 (Turkey); Karabuga, Semistan [Department of Chemistry, Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Kahramanmaraş 46030 (Turkey); Bracco, Gianangelo [CNR-IMEM and Department of Physics, University of Genoa, via Dodecaneso 33, Genoa 16146 (Italy); Danışman, M. Fatih, E-mail: danisman@metu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • 11-Hydroxyundecyl octadecyl disulfide self-assembled monolayers on Au(1 1 1) surface were grown by supersonic molecular beam deposition. • Two different lying down monolayer phases were observed depending on the substrate temperature. • High temperature monolayer phase has a diffraction pattern similar to that of mercaptoundecanol SAMs. • Desorption from several different chemisorbed and physisorbed states were observed. - Abstract: Here, we report a helium atom diffraction study of 11-hydroxyundecyl octadecyl disulfide (CH{sub 3}-(CH{sub 2}){sub 17}-S-S-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-OH, HOD) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) produced by supersonic molecular beam deposition (SMBD). Two different lying down monolayer phases were observed depending on the substrate temperature. At low temperatures a poorly ordered phase was observed, while the diffraction patterns of the film grown at high temperatures were similar to that of mercaptoundecanol (MUD) SAMs reported previously in the literature. The transition from the low temperature phase to the high temperature phase is due to S-S bond cleavage at the surface. Desorption from several different chemisorbed and physisorbed states were observed with energies in the same range as observed for MUD and octadecanelthiol (ODT) SAMs.

  3. Mirror-finished superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces modified by anodic alumina nanofibers and self-assembled monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Daiki; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate mirror-finished superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces fabricated via the formation of anodic alumina nanofibers and subsequent modification with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). High-density anodic alumina nanofibers were formed on the aluminum surface via anodizing in a pyrophosphoric acid solution. The alumina nanofibers became tangled and bundled by further anodizing at low temperature because of their own weight, and the aluminum surface was completely covered by the long falling nanofibers. The nanofiber-covered aluminum surface exhibited superhydrophilic behavior, with a contact angle measuring less than 10°. As the nanofiber-covered aluminum surface was modified with n-alkylphosphonic acid SAMs, the water contact angle drastically shifted to superhydrophobicity, measuring more than 150°. The contact angle increased with the applied voltage during pyrophosphoric acid anodizing, the anodizing time, and the number of carbon atoms contained in the SAM molecules modified on the alumina nanofibers. By optimizing the anodizing and SAM-modification conditions, superhydrophobic behavior could be achieved with only a brief pyrophosphoric acid anodizing period of 3 min and subsequent simple immersion in SAM solutions. The superhydrophobic aluminum surface exhibited a high reflectance, measuring approximately 99% across most of the visible spectrum, similar to that of an electropolished aluminum surface. Therefore, our mirror-finished superhydrophobic aluminum surface based on anodic alumina nanofibers and SAMs can be used as a reflective mirror in various optical applications such as concentrated solar power systems.

  4. Polystyrene sphere monolayer assisted electrochemical deposition of ZnO nanorods with controlable surface density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, D., E-mail: daniel.ramirez@ucv.c [Laboratorio de Electroquimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Gomez, H. [Laboratorio de Electroquimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Lincot, D. [Institute de Recherche et Developpement sur l' Energie Photovoltaique-IRDEP, 6 Quai Watier 78401, Chatou Cedex (France)

    2010-02-15

    In this paper we report the zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) growth by electrochemical deposition onto polycrystalline gold electrodes modified with assemblies of polystyrene sphere monolayers (PSSMs). Growth occurs through the interstitial spaces between the hexagonally close packed spheres. ZnO NRs nucleate in the region where three adjacent spheres leave a space, being able to grow and projected over the PSSMs. The nanorod surface density (N{sub NR}) shows a linear dependence with respect to a PS sphere diameter selected. XRD analysis shows these ZnO NRs are highly oriented along the (0 0 2) plane (c-axis). This open the possibility to have electronic devices with mechanically supported nanometric materials.

  5. Monolayer-functionalized microfluidics devices for optical sensing of acidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mela, P.; Onclin, S.; Goedbloed, M.H.; Levi, S.; Garcia Parajo, M.F.; van Hulst, N.F.; Ravoo, B.J.; Reinhoudt, David; van den Berg, Albert

    This paper describes the integration of opto-chemosensors in microfluidics networks. Our technique exploits the internal surface of the network as a platform to build a sensing system by coating the surface with a self-assembled monolayer and subsequently binding a fluorescent sensing molecule to

  6. Thermal stability of thiol and silane monolayers: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandekar, Amol; Sengupta, Sandip K.; Whitten, James E.

    2010-01-01

    The stability of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) at elevated temperatures is of considerable technological importance. The thermal stability of 1-octadecanethiol (ODT), 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA) and 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanethiol (PFDT) SAMs on gold surfaces, and of 4-aminobutyltriethoxysilane (ABTES) and 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (PFDS) assembled on hydroxylated silicon surfaces, was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The samples were heated in ultrahigh vacuum to temperatures in excess of that required for SAM degradation. ODT monolayers were stable to ca. 110 deg. C, while MHDA and PFDT SAMs were stable to ca. 145 deg. C. ABTES SAMs were found to be indefinitely stable to 250 deg. C, while PFDS SAMs were stable to 350 deg. C. These studies demonstrate the advantages of using silane monolayers for moderate to high temperature applications and illustrate differences that arise due to the nature of the tail group. To demonstrate the feasibility of silanes for template-directed patterning, a hydroxylated silicon oxide surface containing microcontact-printed PFDS patterns was spin-coated with a mainly hydrophilic block copolymer. Annealing the surface at 90 deg. C for 2 h caused the block copolymer to dewet the hydrophobic PFDS-patterned regions and adsorb exclusively on the unpatterned regions of the surface.

  7. Heterointerface Screening Effects between Organic Monolayers and Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yu Jie; Huang, Yu Li; Chen, Yifeng; Zhao, Weijie; Eda, Goki; Spataru, Catalin D.; Zhang, Wenjing; Chang, Yung-Huang; Li, Lain-Jong; Chi, Dongzhi; Quek, Su Ying; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 American Chemical Society. The nature and extent of electronic screening at heterointerfaces and their consequences on energy level alignment are of profound importance in numerous applications, such as solar cells, electronics etc. The increasing availability of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) brings additional opportunities for them to be used as interlayers in "van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures" and organic/inorganic flexible devices. These innovations raise the question of the extent to which the 2D TMDs participate actively in dielectric screening at the interface. Here we study perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) monolayers adsorbed on single-layer tungsten diselenide (WSe2), bare graphite, and Au(111) surfaces, revealing a strong dependence of the PTCDA HOMO-LUMO gap on the electronic screening effects from the substrate. The monolayer WSe2 interlayer provides substantial, but not complete, screening at the organic/inorganic interface. Our results lay a foundation for the exploitation of the complex interfacial properties of hybrid systems based on TMD materials.

  8. Heterointerface Screening Effects between Organic Monolayers and Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yu Jie

    2016-01-21

    © 2016 American Chemical Society. The nature and extent of electronic screening at heterointerfaces and their consequences on energy level alignment are of profound importance in numerous applications, such as solar cells, electronics etc. The increasing availability of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) brings additional opportunities for them to be used as interlayers in "van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures" and organic/inorganic flexible devices. These innovations raise the question of the extent to which the 2D TMDs participate actively in dielectric screening at the interface. Here we study perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) monolayers adsorbed on single-layer tungsten diselenide (WSe2), bare graphite, and Au(111) surfaces, revealing a strong dependence of the PTCDA HOMO-LUMO gap on the electronic screening effects from the substrate. The monolayer WSe2 interlayer provides substantial, but not complete, screening at the organic/inorganic interface. Our results lay a foundation for the exploitation of the complex interfacial properties of hybrid systems based on TMD materials.

  9. Molecular dynamics studies of the melting of butane and hexane monolayers adsorbed on the basal-plane surface of graphite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Newton, J. C.; Taub, H.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of molecular steric properties on the melting of quasi-two-dimensional solids is investigated by comparing results of molecular dynamics simulations of the melting of butane and hexane monolayers adsorbed on the basal-plane surface of graphite. These molecules differ only in their length......, being members of the n-alkane series [CH3(CH2)n−2CH3] where n=4 for butane and n=6 for hexane. The simulations employ a skeletal model, which does not include the hydrogen atoms explicitly, to represent the intermolecular and molecule–substrate interactions. Nearest-neighbor intramolecular bonds...... are fixed in length, but the molecular flexibility is preserved by allowing the bend and dihedral torsion angles to vary. The simulations show a qualitatively different melting behavior for the butane and hexane monolayers consistent with neutron and x-ray scattering experiments. The melting of the low...

  10. MgO monolayer epitaxy on Ni (100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpi, B.; Putero, M.; Hemeryck, A.; Vizzini, S.

    2017-11-01

    The growth of two-dimensional oxide films with accurate control of their structural and electronic properties is considered challenging for engineering nanotechnological applications. We address here the particular case of MgO ultrathin films grown on Ni (100), a system for which neither crystallization nor extended surface ordering has been established previously in the monolayer range. Using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Auger Electron Spectroscopy, we report on experiments showing MgO monolayer (ML) epitaxy on a ferromagnetic nickel surface, down to the limit of atomic thickness. Alternate steps of Mg ML deposition, O2 gas exposure, and ultrahigh vacuum thermal treatment enable the production of a textured film of ordered MgO nano-domains. This study could open interesting prospects for controlled epitaxy of ultrathin oxide films with a high magneto-resistance ratio on ferromagnetic substrates, enabling improvement in high-efficiency spintronics and magnetic tunnel junction devices.

  11. Infrared spectroscopy of self-assembled monolayer films on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, N. L.; Tay, Lilin; Boukherroub, R.; Lockwood, D. J.

    2007-07-01

    Infrared vibrational spectroscopy in an attenuated total reflection (ATR) geometry has been employed to investigate the presence of organic thin layers on Si-wafer surfaces. The phenomena have been simulated to show there can be a field enhancement with the presented single-reflection ATR (SR-ATR) approach which is substantially larger than for conventional ATR or specular reflection. In SR-ATR, a discontinuity of the field normal to the film contributes a field enhancement in the lower index thin film causing a two order of magnitude increase in sensitivity. SR-ATR was employed to characterize a single monolayer of undecylenic acid self-assembled on Si(1 1 1) and to investigate a two monolayer system obtained by adding a monolayer of bovine serum albumin protein.

  12. Triptycene-terminated thiolate and selenolate monolayers on Au(111

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxuan Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To study the implications of highly space-demanding organic moieties on the properties of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs, triptycyl thiolates and selenolates with and without methylene spacers on Au(111 surfaces were comprehensively studied using ultra-high vacuum infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and thermal desorption spectroscopy. Due to packing effects, the molecules in all monolayers are substantially tilted. In the presence of a methylene spacer the tilt is slightly less pronounced. The selenolate monolayers exhibit smaller defect densities and therefore are more densely packed than their thiolate analogues. The Se–Au binding energy in the investigated SAMs was found to be higher than the S–Au binding energy.

  13. Flight testing of a luminescent surface pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclachlan, B. G.; Bell, J. H.; Espina, J.; Gallery, J.; Gouterman, M.; Demandante, C. G. N.; Bjarke, L.

    1992-01-01

    NASA ARC has conducted flight tests of a new type of aerodynamic pressure sensor based on a luminescent surface coating. Flights were conducted at the NASA ARC-Dryden Flight Research Facility. The luminescent pressure sensor is based on a surface coating which, when illuminated with ultraviolet light, emits visible light with an intensity dependent on the local air pressure on the surface. This technique makes it possible to obtain pressure data over the entire surface of an aircraft, as opposed to conventional instrumentation, which can only make measurements at pre-selected points. The objective of the flight tests was to evaluate the effectiveness and practicality of a luminescent pressure sensor in the actual flight environment. A luminescent pressure sensor was installed on a fin, the Flight Test Fixture (FTF), that is attached to the underside of an F-104 aircraft. The response of one particular surface coating was evaluated at low supersonic Mach numbers (M = 1.0-1.6) in order to provide an initial estimate of the sensor's capabilities. This memo describes the test approach, the techniques used, and the pressure sensor's behavior under flight conditions. A direct comparison between data provided by the luminescent pressure sensor and that produced by conventional pressure instrumentation shows that the luminescent sensor can provide quantitative data under flight conditions. However, the test results also show that the sensor has a number of limitations which must be addressed if this technique is to prove useful in the flight environment.

  14. Effects of self-assembled monolayer structural order, surface homogeneity and surface energy on pentacene morphology and thin film transistor device performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Daniel Orrin; Weidner, Tobias; Baio, Joe; Polishak, Brent; Acton, Orb; Cernetic, Nathan; Ma, Hong; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2013-01-04

    A systematic study of six phosphonic acid (PA) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with tailored molecular structures is performed to evaluate their effectiveness as dielectric modifying layers in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and determine the relationship between SAM structural order, surface homogeneity, and surface energy in dictating device performance. SAM structures and surface properties are examined by near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, contact angle goniometry, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Top-contact pentacene OFET devices are fabricated on SAM modified Si with a thermally grown oxide layer as a dielectric. For less ordered methyl- and phenyl-terminated alkyl ~(CH 2 ) 12 PA SAMs of varying surface energies, pentacene OFETs show high charge carrier mobilities up to 4.1 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . It is hypothesized that for these SAMs, mitigation of molecular scale roughness and subsequent control of surface homogeneity allow for large pentacene grain growth leading to high performance pentacene OFET devices. PA SAMs that contain bulky terminal groups or are highly crystalline in nature do not allow for a homogenous surface at a molecular level and result in charge carrier mobilities of 1.3 cm 2 V -1 s -1 or less. For all molecules used in this study, no causal relationship between SAM surface energy and charge carrier mobility in pentacene FET devices is observed.

  15. Potential-induced structural transitions of DL-homocysteine monolayers on Au(111) electrode surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingdong; Demetriou, Anna; Welinder, Anne Christina; Albrecht, Tim; Nichols, Richard J.; Ulstrup, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Monolayers of homocysteine on Au(111)-surfaces have been investigated by voltammetry, in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and subtractively normalised interfacial Fourier transform spectroscopy (SNIFTIRS). A pair of sharp voltammetric peaks build up in the potential range 0 to -0.1V (vs. SCE) in phosphate buffer pH 7.7. The peak half-widths are about 25mV at a scan rate of 10mVs -1 . This is much smaller than for a one-electron Faradaic process (90.6mV) under similar conditions. The coverage of homocysteine is 6.1 (+/-0.2)x10 -10 molcm -2 , or 5.9x10 -5 Ccm -2 , from Au-S reductive desorption at -0.8V (SCE) in 0.1M NaOH, while the charge is only about 8x10 -6 Ccm -2 (pH 7.7) for the 0 to -0.1V peak. This suggests a capacitive origin. The peak potential and shape depend on pH. At pH 7.7 both cathodic and anodic peak currents reach a maximum, but drop at both higher and lower pH. The midpoint potential shows biphasic behaviour, decreasing linearly with increasing pH until pH 10.4 towards a constant value at higher pH. The cathodic and anodic peak charges decay at pH both higher and lower than 7.7. The homocysteine monolayer was investigated by in situ STM at different potentials at pH 7.7. The molecules pack into highly ordered domains around the peak potential. High-resolution in situ STM reveals a (√3x5) R30 deg. lattice with three homocysteine molecules in each unit cell. The adlayer changes into disordered structures on either side of the peak potential. This process is reversible. We propose that the voltammetric peaks are capacitive. The ordered domains are formed only around the potential of zero charge (pzc) and dissipate at potentials on either side of the peak, inducing mirror charge flow in the metallic electrode as the charged -COO - and -NH 3 + groups approach the surface. No bands for carboxylate coordinated to the surface were observed in SNIFTIRS implying more subtle orientation changes of the charged groups on transcending the voltammetric

  16. Adsorption energies of poly(ethylene oxide)-based surfactants and nanoparticles on an air-water surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Zachary A; Isa, Lucio; Ilg, Patrick; Leal, L Gary; Squires, Todd M

    2014-01-14

    The self-assembly of polymer-based surfactants and nanoparticles on fluid-fluid interfaces is central to many applications, including dispersion stabilization, creation of novel 2D materials, and surface patterning. Very often these processes involve compressing interfacial monolayers of particles or polymers to obtain a desired material microstructure. At high surface pressures, however, even highly interfacially active objects can desorb from the interface. Methods of directly measuring the energy which keeps the polymer or particles bound to the interface (adsorption/desorption energies) are therefore of high interest for these processes. Moreover, though a geometric description linking adsorption energy and wetting properties through the definition of a contact angle can be established for rigid nano- or microparticles, such a description breaks down for deformable or aggregating objects. Here, we demonstrate a technique to quantify desorption energies directly, by comparing surface pressure-density compression measurements using a Wilhelmy plate and a custom-microfabricated deflection tensiometer. We focus on poly(ethylene oxide)-based polymers and nanoparticles. For PEO-based homo- and copolymers, the adsorption energy of PEO chains scales linearly with molecular weight and can be tuned by changing the subphase composition. Moreover, the desorption surface pressure of PEO-stabilized nanoparticles corresponds to the saturation surface pressure for spontaneously adsorbed monolayers, yielding trapping energies of ∼10(3) k(B)T.

  17. Phosphatidylcholine-fatty Alcohols Equilibria in Monolayers at the Air/Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Agnieszka; Figaszewski, Zbigniew Artur; Petelska, Aneta Dorota

    2015-08-01

    Monolayers of phosphatidylcholine (PC), tetradecanol (TD), hexadecanol (HD), octadecanol (OD) and eicosanol (E) and their binary mixtures were investigated at the air/water interface. The surface tension values of pure and mixed monolayers were used to calculate π-A isotherms. The surface tension measurements were carried out at 22 °C using a Teflon trough and a Nima 9000 tensiometer. The interactions between phosphatidylcholine and fatty alcohols (tetradecanol, hexadecanol, octadecanol, eicosanol) result in significant deviations from the additivity rule. An equilibrium theory to describe the behavior of monolayer components at the air/water interface was developed in order to obtain the stability constants, Gibbs free energy values and areas occupied by one molecules of PC-TD, PC-HD, PC-OD and PC-E complexes. We considered the equilibrium between the individual components and the complex and established that phosphatidylcholine and fatty alcohols formed highly stable 1:1 complexes.

  18. Transport properties in monolayer-bilayer-monolayer graphene planar junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai-Long Chu; Zi-Bo Wang; Jiao-Jiao Zhou; Hua Jiang

    2017-01-01

    The transport study of graphene based junctions has become one of the focuses in graphene research.There are two stacking configurations for monolayer-bilayer-monolayer graphene planar junctions.One is the two monolayer graphene contacting the same side of the bilayer graphene,and the other is the two-monolayer graphene contacting the different layers of the bilayer graphene.In this paper,according to the Landauer-Büttiker formula,we study the transport properties of these two configurations.The influences of the local gate potential in each part,the bias potential in bilayer graphene,the disorder and external magnetic field on conductance are obtained.We find the conductances of the two configurations can be manipulated by all of these effects.Especially,one can distinguish the two stacking configurations by introducing the bias potential into the bilayer graphene.The strong disorder and the external magnetic field will make the two stacking configurations indistinguishable in the transport experiment.

  19. UV/Vis and NIR Light-Responsive Spiropyran Self-Assembled Monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivashenko, Oleksii; Herpt, Jochem T. van; Feringa, Ben L.; Rudolf, Petra; Browne, Wesley R.

    2013-01-01

    Self-assembled monolayers of a 6-nitro BIPS spiropyran (SP) modified with a disulfide-terminated aliphatic chain were prepared on polycrystalline gold surfaces and characterized by UV/vis absorption, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SEAS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS). The SAMs

  20. Direct measurement of Cu surface self-diffusion on a checked surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousty, Jacques; Peix, Roger; Perraillon, Bernard.

    1976-01-01

    A radiotracer technique ( 64 Cu) was developed to measure surface diffusion on copper surfaces of total impurity concentration not exceeding some 10 -3 monolayers. The apparatus used consists of a slow electron diffraction device, an Auger analysis spectrometer (CMA), an ion gun and an evaporation device assembled in an ultra-vacuum chamber holding a residual pressure below 10 -10 Torr. A sample handler enables the surface studied to be positioned in front of each of these instruments. During the diffusion treatment the chemical composition of the surface is checked intermittently, and afterwards the spread of the deposit is measured outside the ultravacuum chamber. Slices several microns thick are removed and dissolved separately in dishes containing HNO 3 . The activity is then measured with a flow counter [fr

  1. Structure and stability of triglyceride monolayers on water and mica surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zdravkova, A.N.; van der Eerden, J.P.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The structure and the stability of tripalmitin (PPP), tristearin (SSS), and triarachidin (AAA) monolayers at the air-water interface are investigated with the Langmuir method. The Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) layers obtained by deposition on mica were investigated with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our

  2. Biological Activation of Inert Ceramics: Recent Advances Using Tailored Self-Assembled Monolayers on Implant Ceramic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böke, Frederik; Schickle, Karolina; Fischer, Horst

    2014-01-01

    High-strength ceramics as materials for medical implants have a long, research-intensive history. Yet, especially on applications where the ceramic components are in direct contact with the surrounding tissue, an unresolved issue is its inherent property of biological inertness. To combat this, several strategies have been investigated over the last couple of years. One promising approach investigates the technique of Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAM) and subsequent chemical functionalization to create a biologically active tissue-facing surface layer. Implementation of this would have a beneficial impact on several fields in modern implant medicine such as hip and knee arthroplasty, dental applications and related fields. This review aims to give a summarizing overview of the latest advances in this recently emerging field, along with thorough introductions of the underlying mechanism of SAMs and surface cell attachment mechanics on the cell side. PMID:28788687

  3. Topography and instability of monolayers near domain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamant, H.; Witten, T. A.; Ege, C.; Gopal, A.; Lee, K. Y. C.

    2001-01-01

    We theoretically study the topography of a biphasic surfactant monolayer in the vicinity of domain boundaries. The differing elastic properties of the two phases generally lead to a nonflat topography of 'mesas,' where domains of one phase are elevated with respect to the other phase. The mesas are steep but low, having heights of up to 10 nm. As the monolayer is laterally compressed, the mesas develop overhangs and eventually become unstable at a surface tension of about K(δc 0 ) 2 (δc 0 being the difference in spontaneous curvature and K a bending modulus). In addition, the boundary is found to undergo a topography-induced rippling instability upon compression, if its line tension is smaller than about Kδc 0 . The effect of diffuse boundaries on these features and the topographic behavior near a critical point are also examined. We discuss the relevance of our findings to several experimental observations related to surfactant monolayers: (i) small topographic features recently found near domain boundaries; (ii) folding behavior observed in mixed phospholipid monolayers and model lung surfactants; (iii) roughening of domain boundaries seen under lateral compression; (iv) the absence of biphasic structures in tensionless surfactant films

  4. Investigating Alkylsilane Monolayer Tribology at a Single-Asperity Contact with Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Andrew Z; Iacovella, Christopher R; Cummings, Peter T; McCabe, Clare

    2017-10-24

    Chemisorbed monolayer films are known to possess favorable characteristics for nanoscale lubrication of micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS). Prior studies have shown that the friction observed for monolayer-coated surfaces features a strong dependence on the geometry of contact. Specifically, tip-like geometries have been shown to penetrate into monolayer films, inducing defects in the monolayer chains and leading to plowing mechanisms during shear, which result in higher coefficients of friction (COF) than those observed for planar geometries. In this work, we use molecular dynamics simulations to examine the tribology of model silica single-asperity contacts under shear with monolayer-coated substrates featuring various film densities. It is observed that lower monolayer densities lead to reduced COFs, in contrast to results for planar systems where COF is found to be nearly independent of monolayer density. This is attributed to a liquid-like response to shear, whereby fewer defects are imparted in monolayer chains from the asperity, and chains are easily displaced by the tip as a result of the higher free volume. This transition in the mechanism of molecular plowing suggests that liquid-like films should provide favorable lubrication at single-asperity contacts.

  5. Subcellular topological effect of particle monolayers on cell shapes and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Manabu; Fujimoto, Keiji

    2006-12-01

    We studied topological effects of subcellular roughness displayed by a closely packed particle monolayer on adhesion and growth of endothelial cells. Poly(styrene-co-acrylamide) (SA) particles were prepared by soap-free emulsion copolymerization. Particle monolayers were prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett deposition using particles, which were 527 (SA053) and 1270 nm (SA127) in diameter. After 24-h incubation, cells tightly adhered on a tissue culture polystyrene dish and randomly spread. On the other hand, cells attached on particle monolayers were stretched into a narrow stalk-like shape. Lamellipodia spread from the leading edge of cells attached on SA053 monolayer to the top of the particles and gradually gathered to form clusters. This shows that cell-cell adhesion became stronger than cell-substrate interaction. Cells attached to SA127 monolayer extended to the reverse side of a particle monolayer and engulfed particles. They remained immobile without migration 24h after incubation. This shows that the inhibition of extensions on SA127 monolayer could inhibit cell migration and cell proliferation. Cell growth on the particle monolayers was suppressed compared with a flat TCPS dish. The number of cells on SA053 gradually increased, whereas that on SA127 decreased with time. When the cell seeding density was increased to 200,000 cells cm(-2), some adherent cells gradually became into contact with adjacent cells. F-actin condensations were formed at the frame of adherent cells and the thin filaments grew from the edges to connect each other with time. For the cell culture on SA053 monolayer, elongated cells showed a little alignment. Cells showed not arrangement of actin stress fibers but F-actin condensation at the contact regions with neighboring cells. Interestingly, the formed cell monolayer could be readily peeled from the particle monolayer. These results indicate that endothelial cells could recognize the surface roughness displayed by particle monolayers and

  6. Ordered Fe(II)Ti(IV)O3 Mixed Monolayer Oxide on Rutile TiO2(011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpegamage, Sandamali; Ding, Pan; Gong, Xue-Qing; Batzill, Matthias

    2015-08-25

    Oxide monolayers supported or intermixed with an oxide support are potential nanocatalysts whose properties are determined by the interplay with the support. For fundamental studies of monolayer oxides on metal oxide supports, well-defined systems are needed, but so far, the synthesis of monolayer oxides with long-range order on single-crystal oxide surfaces is rare. Here, we show by a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy, photoemission spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT)-based computational analysis that the rutile TiO2(011) surface supports the formation of an ordered mixed FeTiO3 monolayer. Deposition of iron in a slightly oxidizing atmosphere (10(-8) Torr O2) and annealing to 300 °C results in a well-ordered surface structure with Fe in a 2+ charge state and Ti in a 4+ charge states. Low-energy ion scattering suggests that the cation surface composition is close to half Fe and half Ti. This surface is stable in ultrahigh vacuum to annealing temperatures of 300 °C before the iron is reduced. DFT simulations confirm that a surface structure with coverage of 50% FeO units is stable and forms an ordered structure. Although distinct from known bulk phases of the iron-titanium oxide systems, the FeTiO3 monolayer exhibits some resemblance to the ilmenite structure, which may suggest that a variety of different mixed oxide phases (of systems that exist in a bulk ilmenite phase) may be synthesized in this way on the rutile TiO2(011) substrate.

  7. Diamondoid monolayers as electron emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanli [El Cerrito, CA; Fabbri, Jason D [San Francisco, CA; Melosh, Nicholas A [Menlo Park, CA; Hussain, Zahid [Orinda, CA; Shen, Zhi-Xun [Stanford, CA

    2012-04-10

    Provided are electron emitters based upon diamondoid monolayers, preferably self-assembled higher diamondoid monolayers. High intensity electron emission has been demonstrated employing such diamondoid monolayers, particularly when the monolayers are comprised of higher diamondoids. The application of such diamondoid monolayers can alter the band structure of substrates, as well as emit monochromatic electrons, and the high intensity electron emissions can also greatly improve the efficiency of field-effect electron emitters as applied to industrial and commercial applications.

  8. Pressure relieving support surfaces (PRESSURE) trial: cost effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Cynthia; Nixon, Jane; Cranny, Gillian; Nelson, E Andrea; Hawkins, Kim; Phillips, Angela; Torgerson, David; Mason, Su; Cullum, Nicky

    2006-06-17

    To assess the cost effectiveness of alternating pressure mattresses compared with alternating pressure overlays for the prevention of pressure ulcers in patients admitted to hospital. Cost effectiveness analysis carried out alongside the pressure relieving support surfaces (PRESSURE) trial; a multicentre UK based pragmatic randomised controlled trial. 11 hospitals in six UK NHS trusts. Intention to treat population comprising 1971 participants. Kaplan Meier estimates of restricted mean time to development of pressure ulcers and total costs for treatment in hospital. Alternating pressure mattresses were associated with lower overall costs (283.6 pounds sterling per patient on average, 95% confidence interval--377.59 pounds sterling to 976.79 pounds sterling) mainly due to reduced length of stay in hospital, and greater benefits (a delay in time to ulceration of 10.64 days on average,--24.40 to 3.09). The differences in health benefits and total costs for hospital stay between alternating pressure mattresses and alternating pressure overlays were not statistically significant; however, a cost effectiveness acceptability curve indicated that on average alternating pressure mattresses compared with alternating pressure overlays were associated with an 80% probability of being cost saving. Alternating pressure mattresses for the prevention of pressure ulcers are more likely to be cost effective and are more acceptable to patients than alternating pressure overlays.

  9. Formation and Characterization of Self-Assembled Phenylboronic Acid Derivative Monolayers toward Developing Monosaccaride Sensing-Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangnak Koh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We designed and synthesized phenylboronic acid as a molecular recognitionmodel system for saccharide detection. The phenylboronic acid derivatives that haveboronic acid moiety are well known to interact with saccharides in aqueous solution; thus,they can be applied to a functional interface of saccharide sensing through the formation ofself-assembled monolayer (SAM. In this study, self-assembled phenylboronic acidderivative monolayers were formed on Au surface and carefully characterized by atomicforce microscopy (AFM, Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy(FTIR-RAS, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS, and surface electrochemicalmeasurements. The saccharide sensing application was investigated using surface plasmonresonance (SPR spectroscopy. The phenylboronic acid monolayers showed goodsensitivity of monosaccharide sensing even at the low concentration range (1.0 × 10-12 M.The SPR angle shift derived from interaction between phenylboronic acid andmonosaccharide was increased with increasing the alkyl spacer length of synthesizedphenylboronic acid derivatives.

  10. Gold cleaning methods for preparation of cell culture surfaces for self-assembled monolayers of zwitterionic oligopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Junko; Kageyama, Tatsuto; Myasnikova, Dina; Onishi, Kisaki; Kobayashi, Yuka; Taruno, Yoko; Kanai, Takahiro; Fukuda, Junji

    2018-05-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have been used to elucidate interactions between cells and material surface chemistry. Gold surfaces modified with oligopeptide SAMs exhibit several unique characteristics, such as cell-repulsive surfaces, micropatterns of cell adhesion and non-adhesion regions for control over cell microenvironments, and dynamic release of cells upon external stimuli under culture conditions. However, basic procedures for the preparation of oligopeptide SAMs, including appropriate cleaning methods of the gold surface before modification, have not been fully established. Because gold surfaces are readily contaminated with organic compounds in the air, cleaning methods may be critical for SAM formation. In this study, we examined the effects of four gold cleaning methods: dilute aqua regia, an ozone water, atmospheric plasma, and UV irradiation. Among the methods, UV irradiation most significantly improved the formation of oligopeptide SAMs in terms of repulsion of cells on the surfaces. We fabricated an apparatus with a UV light source, a rotation table, and HEPA filter, to treat a number of gold substrates simultaneously. Furthermore, UV-cleaned gold substrates were capable of detaching cell sheets without serious cell injury. This may potentially provide a stable and robust approach to oligopeptide SAM-based experiments for biomedical studies. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Reactive Landing of Dendrimer Ions onto Activated Self-assembled Monolayer Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qichi; Laskin, Julia

    2014-02-06

    The reactivity of gaseous, amine-terminated polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer ions with activated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces terminated with N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester groups (NHS-SAM) is examined using mass-selected ion deposition combined with in situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS). The reaction extent is determined from depletion of the infrared band at 1753 cm-1, corresponding to the stretching vibration of the NHS carbonyl groups following ion deposition. For reaction yields below 10%, NHS band depletion follows a linear dependence on the ion dose. By comparing the kinetics plots obtained for 1,12-dodecanediamine and different generations of dendrimer ions (G0–G3) containing 4, 8, 16, and 32 terminal amino group, we demonstrate that the relative reaction efficiency increases linearly with the number of NH2 groups in the molecule. This finding is rationalized assuming the formation of multiple amide bonds upon collision of higher-generation dendrimers with NHS-SAM. Furthermore, by comparing the NHS band depletion following deposition of [M+4H]4+ ions of the G2 dendrimer at 30, 80, and 120 eV, we demonstrate that the ion’s kinetic energy has no measurable effect on reaction efficiency. Similarly, the ion’s charge state only has a minor effect on the reactive landing efficiency of dendrimer ions. Our results indicate that reactive landing is an efficient approach for highly selective covalent immobilization of complex multifunctional molecules onto organic surfaces terminated with labile functional groups.

  12. Monolayers of a De Novo Designed 4-Alpha-Helix Bundle Carboprotein and Partial Structures on Au(111)-Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Jesper; Wackerbarth, Hainer; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    on a galactopyranoside derivative with a thiol anchor aglycon suitable for surface immobilization on gold. The galactopyranoside with thiol anchor and the thiol anchor alone were prepared for comparison. Voltammetry of the three molecules on Au(111) showed reductive desorption peaks caused by monolayer adsorption via...... thiolate-Au bonding. In situ STM of the thiol anchor disclosed an ordered adlayer with clear domains and molecular features. This holds promise, broadly for single-molecule voltammetry and the SPM and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) of natural and synthetic proteins....

  13. Large valley splitting in monolayer WS2 by proximity coupling to an insulating antiferromagnetic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Yang, Ming; Shen, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Zhu, Tao; Feng, Yuan Ping

    2018-01-01

    Lifting the valley degeneracy is an efficient way to achieve valley polarization for further valleytronics operations. In this Rapid Communication, we demonstrate that a large valley splitting can be obtained in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides by magnetic proximity coupling to an insulating antiferromagnetic substrate. As an example, we perform first-principles calculations to investigate the electronic structures of monolayer WS2 on the MnO(111) surface. Our calculation results suggest that a large valley splitting of 214 meV, which corresponds to a Zeeman magnetic field of 1516 T, is induced in the valence band of monolayer WS2. The magnitude of valley splitting relies on the strength of interfacial orbital hybridization and can be tuned continually by applying an external out-of-plane pressure and in-plane strain. More interestingly, we find that both spin and valley index will flip when the magnetic ordering of MnO is reversed. Besides, owing to the sizable Berry curvature and time-reversal symmetry breaking in the WS2/MnO heterostructure, a spin- and valley-polarized anomalous Hall current can be generated in the presence of an in-plane electric field, which allows one to detect valleys by the electrical approach. Our results shed light on the realization of valleytronic devices using the antiferromagnetic insulator as the substrate.

  14. Photophysical behavior in spread monolayers. Dansyl fluorescence as a probe for polarity at the air-water interface. [N-(5-(dimethylamino)naphthalene-1-sulfonyl)dihexadecylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieser, F.; Thistlethwaite, P.; Urquhart, R.; Patterson, L.K.

    1987-09-24

    The emission spectrum of N-(5-(dimethylamino)naphthalene-1-sulfonyl)dihexadecylamine (dansyldihexadecylamine) in monolayers at the air-water interface has been studied. In some cases sudden shifts in the dansyl emission can be correlated with particular features of the surface pressure-area isotherms. These spectral shifts can be explained in terms of a change in the conformation of the head group on the surface and with aggregation of the dansyldihexadecylamine. In other cases the dansyl emission shows a blue shift with increasing compression that can be associated with reduced head-group hydration.

  15. Ultrasound enhanced plasma surface modification at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Norrman, Kion

    and the material surface, and thus many reactive species generated in the plasma can reach the surface before inactivated, and be efficiently utilized for surface modification. In the present work polyester plates are treated using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and a gliding arc at atmospheric pressure......Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can be highly enhanced by simultaneous high-power ultrasonic irradiation onto the treating surface. It is because ultrasonic waves with a sound pressure level (SPL) above approximately 140 dB can reduce the thickness of a boundary gas layer between the plasma...... irradiation, the water contact angle dropped markedly, and tended to decrease furthermore at higher power. The ultrasonic irradiation during the plasma treatment consistently improved the wettability. Oxygen containing polar functional groups were introduced at the surface by the plasma treatment...

  16. Study of structural order in porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers by electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' yakova, Yu. A.; Suvorova, E. I.; Orekhov, Andrei S.; Orekhov, Anton S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Alekseev, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Gainutdinov, R. V.; Klechkovskaya, V. V., E-mail: klechvv@ns.crys.ras.ru; Tereschenko, E. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Tkachenko, N. V.; Lemmetyinen, H. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland); Feigin, L. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    The structure of porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers formed on the surface of aqueous subphase in a Langmuir trough and transferred onto solid substrates has been studied. The data obtained are interpreted using simulation of the structure of isolated molecules and their packing in monolayer and modeling of diffraction patterns from molecular aggregates having different sizes and degrees of order. Experiments on the formation of condensed ZnDHD6ee monolayers are described. The structure of these monolayers on a water surface is analyzed using {pi}-A isotherms. The structure of the monolayers transferred onto solid substrates is investigated by electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The unit-cell parameters of two-dimensional domains, which are characteristic of molecular packing in monolayers and deposited films, are determined. Domains are found to be organized into a texture (the molecular axes are oriented by the [001] direction perpendicular to the substrate). The monolayers contain a limited number of small 3D domains.

  17. Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Anodic Oxidation of Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Liu, Ping; Adzic, Radoslav R

    2012-12-06

    The slow, incomplete oxidation of methanol and ethanol on platinum-based anodes as well as the high price and limited reserves of Pt has hampered the practical application of direct alcohol fuel cells. We describe the electrocatalysts consisting of one Pt monolayer (one atom thick layer) placed on extended or nanoparticle surfaces having the activity and selectivity for the oxidation of alcohol molecules that can be controlled with platinum-support interaction. The suitably expanded Pt monolayer (i.e., Pt/Au(111)) exhibits a factor of 7 activity increase in catalyzing methanol electrooxidation relative to Pt(111). Sizable enhancement is also observed for ethanol electrooxidation. Furthermore, a correlation between substrate-induced lateral strain in a Pt monolayer and its activity/selectivity is established and rationalized by experimental and theoretical studies. The knowledge we gained with single-crystal model catalysts was successfully applied in designing real nanocatalysts. These findings for alcohols are likely to be applicable for the oxidation of other classes of organic molecules.

  18. Vapor pressure of plutonium carbide adsorbed on graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallent, O.K.; Wichner, R.P.; Towns, R.L.; Godsey, T.T.

    1984-09-01

    An investigation was conducted to obtain data needed to make realistic estimates of plutonium contamination in the primary coolant system in High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs). The vapor pressure of plutonium over plutonium sesquicarbide (Pu 2 C 3 ) adsorbed on the surface of H-451 graphite was found to be defined by adsorption isotherms at test temperatures of 1000, 1200, and 1400 0 C. The vapor pressures at low concentrations of Pu 2 C 3 on the surface of the graphite were up to three orders of magnitude below that of pure Pu 2 C 3 at a given temperature. The heat of adsorption increases with decreasing Pu 2 C 3 surface coverage with the measured value at 0.05 μmol Pu 2 C 3 /m 2 being 107.9 kcal/mol. The Pu 2 C 3 concentration required for monolayer surface coverage on the graphite was found to be 3.27 μmol/m 2

  19. Self-assembled monolayers of semi-fluorinated thiols and disulfides with a potentially antibacterial terminal fragment on gold surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thebault, P.; Taffin de Givenchy, E.; Guittard, F.; Guimon, C.; Geribaldi, S.

    2008-01-01

    Attempts to elaborate the best organized cationic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with sulfur derivatives containing potentially bactericidal quaternary ammonium salt moieties have been performed on gold with the final aim to obtain contact-active antibacterial surfaces. Four molecules bearing two hydrocarbon spacers with different lengths between the sulfur atom and the quaternized nitrogen atom, and two different terminal semi-fluorinated alkyl chains have been synthesised and used in view to evaluate their capacity for leading to the highest densities and the highest organization of potentially active molecules on the metal surface. The formation and quality of SAMs characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Internal Reflexion Infra Red Imaging, contact angle and blocking factor measurements depend on the lengths of both the hydrocarbon spacer and terminal perfluorinated chain

  20. Lateral electron transport in monolayers of short chains at interfaces: A Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Christopher B.; Szleifer, Igal; Ratner, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Electron hopping between electroactive sites in a monolayer composed of redox-active and redox-passive molecules. - Abstract: Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study lateral electronic diffusion in dense monolayers composed of a mixture of redox-active and redox-passive chains tethered to a surface. Two charge transport mechanisms are considered: the physical diffusion of electroactive chains and electron hopping between redox-active sites. Results indicate that by varying the monolayer density, the mole fraction of electroactive chains, and the electron hopping range, the dominant charge transport mechanism can be changed. For high density monolayers in a semi-crystalline phase, electron diffusion proceeds via electron hopping almost exclusively, leading to static percolation behavior. In fluid monolayers, the diffusion of chains may contribute more to the overall electronic diffusion, reducing the observed static percolation effects.

  1. Intramolecular and Lattice Melting in n-Alkane Monolayers: An Analog of Melting in Lipid Bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Herwig, K.W.; Matthies, B.

    1999-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and neutron diffraction experiments have been performed on n-dotriacontane (n-C32D66) monolayers adsorbed on a graphite basal-plane surface. The diffraction experiments show little change in the crystalline monolayer structure up to a temperature of similar to ...

  2. Dynamical simulation of electron transfer processes in self-assembled monolayers at metal surfaces using a density matrix approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prucker, V; Bockstedte, M; Thoss, M; Coto, P B

    2018-03-28

    A single-particle density matrix approach is introduced to simulate the dynamics of heterogeneous electron transfer (ET) processes at interfaces. The characterization of the systems is based on a model Hamiltonian parametrized by electronic structure calculations and a partitioning method. The method is applied to investigate ET in a series of nitrile-substituted (poly)(p-phenylene)thiolate self-assembled monolayers adsorbed at the Au(111) surface. The results show a significant dependence of the ET on the orbital symmetry of the donor state and on the molecular and electronic structure of the spacer.

  3. Dynamical simulation of electron transfer processes in self-assembled monolayers at metal surfaces using a density matrix approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prucker, V.; Bockstedte, M.; Thoss, M.; Coto, P. B.

    2018-03-01

    A single-particle density matrix approach is introduced to simulate the dynamics of heterogeneous electron transfer (ET) processes at interfaces. The characterization of the systems is based on a model Hamiltonian parametrized by electronic structure calculations and a partitioning method. The method is applied to investigate ET in a series of nitrile-substituted (poly)(p-phenylene)thiolate self-assembled monolayers adsorbed at the Au(111) surface. The results show a significant dependence of the ET on the orbital symmetry of the donor state and on the molecular and electronic structure of the spacer.

  4. Functionalizable self-assembled trichlorosilyl-based monolayer for application in biosensor technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De La Franier, Brian; Jankowski, Alexander; Thompson, Michael, E-mail: mikethom@chem.utoronto.ca

    2017-08-31

    This paper describes the design and synthesis of 3-(3-(trichlorosilyl)propoxy)propanoyl chloride (MEG-Cl), a compound capable of forming functionalizable monolayers on hydroxylated surfaces. The compound was synthesized in high purity, as suggested by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, and in moderate overall yield. Contact angle measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm the binding of MEG-Cl to an amorphous glass substrate and the further modification of the monolayer with a nickel (II)-binding ligand for the purpose of binding polyhistidine-tagged proteins. The compound will be useful in biosensing applications due to its ability to be easily modified with any number of nucleophilic functional groups subsequent to substrate monolayer formation.

  5. Investigating effects of hypertonic saline solutions on lipid monolayers at the air-water interface

    KAUST Repository

    Nava Ocampo, Maria F.

    2017-05-01

    More than 70,000 people worldwide suffer from cystic fibrosis, a genetic disease characterized by chronic accumulation of mucus in patients’ lungs provoking bacterial infections, and leading to respiratory failure. An employed age-old treatment to prevent the symptoms of the disease is inhalation of hypertonic saline solution, NaCl at concentrations higher than in the human body (~150 mM). This procedure clears the mucus in the lungs, bringing relief to the patient. However, the biophysical mechanisms underlying this process are not entirely clear. We undertook a new experimental approach to understand the effects of sprayed saline solutions on model lung surfactants towards understanding the mechanisms of the treatment. The surface of lungs contains mainly 1,2-Dipalmitol-sn-glycero-3-phosphocoline (DPPC). As previously assumed by others, we considered that monolayer of DPPC at the air-water interface serves as model system for the lungs surface; we employed a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) trough and PM-IRRAS to measure surface-specific infrared spectra of the surfactant monolayers and effects on the interfacial tensions. We investigated spraying hyper-saline solutions onto surfactant monolayers at the airwater interface in two parts: (i) validation of our methodology and techniques with stearic acid and (ii) experiments with DPPC monolayers at the air-water interface. Remarkably, when micro-droplets of NaCl were sprayed to the monolayer of stearic acid, we observed enhanced organization of the surfactant, interpreted from the intensities of the CH2 peaks in the surface-specific IR spectra. However, our results with DPPC monolayers didn’t show an effect with the salt added as aerosol, possibly indicating that the experimental methodology proposed is not adequate for the phenomena studied. In parallel, we mimicked respiratory mucous by preparing salt solutions containing 1% (wt%) agar and measured effects on their viscosities. Interestingly, we found that NaCl was much

  6. Adsorption of GST-PI3Kγ at the Air-Buffer Interface and at Substrate and Nonsubstrate Phospholipid Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermelink, Antje; Kirsch, Cornelia; Klinger, Reinhard; Reiter, Gerald; Brezesinski, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    The recruitment of phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) to the cell membrane is a crucial requirement for the initiation of inflammation cascades by second-messenger production. In addition to identifying other regulation pathways, it has been found that PI3Kγ is able to bind phospholipids directly. In this study, the adsorption behavior of glutathione S-transferase (GST)-PI3Kγ to nonsubstrate model phospholipids, as well as to commercially available substrate inositol phospholipids (phosphoinositides), was investigated by use of infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS). The nonsubstrate phospholipid monolayers also yielded important information about structural requirements for protein adsorption. The enzyme did not interact with condensed zwitterionic or anionic monolayers; however, it could penetrate into uncompressed fluid monolayers. Compression to values above its equilibrium pressure led to a squeezing out and desorption of the protein. Protein affinity for the monolayer surface increased considerably when the lipid had an anionic headgroup and contained an arachidonoyl fatty acyl chain in sn-2 position. Similar results on a much higher level were observed with substrate phosphoinositides. No structural response of GST-PI3Kγ to lipid interaction was detected by IRRAS. On the other hand, protein adsorption caused a condensing effect in phosphoinositide monolayers. In addition, the protein reduced the charge density at the interface probably by shifting the pK values of the phosphate groups attached to the inositol headgroups. Because of their strongly polar headgroups, an interaction of the inositides with the water molecules of the subphase can be expected. This interaction is disturbed by protein adsorption, causing the ionization state of the phosphates to change. PMID:19186139

  7. Adsorption of GST-PI3Kgamma at the air-buffer interface and at substrate and nonsubstrate phospholipid monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermelink, Antje; Kirsch, Cornelia; Klinger, Reinhard; Reiter, Gerald; Brezesinski, Gerald

    2009-02-01

    The recruitment of phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3Kgamma) to the cell membrane is a crucial requirement for the initiation of inflammation cascades by second-messenger production. In addition to identifying other regulation pathways, it has been found that PI3Kgamma is able to bind phospholipids directly. In this study, the adsorption behavior of glutathione S-transferase (GST)-PI3Kgamma to nonsubstrate model phospholipids, as well as to commercially available substrate inositol phospholipids (phosphoinositides), was investigated by use of infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS). The nonsubstrate phospholipid monolayers also yielded important information about structural requirements for protein adsorption. The enzyme did not interact with condensed zwitterionic or anionic monolayers; however, it could penetrate into uncompressed fluid monolayers. Compression to values above its equilibrium pressure led to a squeezing out and desorption of the protein. Protein affinity for the monolayer surface increased considerably when the lipid had an anionic headgroup and contained an arachidonoyl fatty acyl chain in sn-2 position. Similar results on a much higher level were observed with substrate phosphoinositides. No structural response of GST-PI3Kgamma to lipid interaction was detected by IRRAS. On the other hand, protein adsorption caused a condensing effect in phosphoinositide monolayers. In addition, the protein reduced the charge density at the interface probably by shifting the pK values of the phosphate groups attached to the inositol headgroups. Because of their strongly polar headgroups, an interaction of the inositides with the water molecules of the subphase can be expected. This interaction is disturbed by protein adsorption, causing the ionization state of the phosphates to change.

  8. Surface Pressure Dependencies in the GEOS-Chem-Adjoint System and the Impact of the GEOS-5 Surface Pressure on CO2 Model Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meemong; Weidner, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In the GEOS-Chem Adjoint (GCA) system, the total (wet) surface pressure of the GEOS meteorology is employed as dry surface pressure, ignoring the presence of water vapor. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) research team has been evaluating the impact of the above discrepancy on the CO2 model forecast and the CO2 flux inversion. The JPL CMS research utilizes a multi-mission assimilation framework developed by the Multi-Mission Observation Operator (M2O2) research team at JPL extending the GCA system. The GCA-M2O2 framework facilitates mission-generic 3D and 4D-variational assimilations streamlining the interfaces to the satellite data products and prior emission inventories. The GCA-M2O2 framework currently integrates the GCA system version 35h and provides a dry surface pressure setup to allow the CO2 model forecast to be performed with the GEOS-5 surface pressure directly or after converting it to dry surface pressure.

  9. Controllable Growth of Monolayer MoS2 and MoSe2 Crystals Using Three-temperature-zone Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Binjie; Chen, Yuanfu

    2017-12-01

    Monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) have attracted a great attention for their exceptional electronic and optoelectronic properties among the two dimensional family. However, controllable synthesis of monolayer crystals with high quality needs to be improved urgently. Here we demonstrate a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of monolayer MoS2 and MoSe2 crystals using three-temperature-zone furnace. Systematical study of the effects of growth pressure, temperature and time on the thickness, morphology and grain size of crystals shows the good controllability. The photoluminescence (PL) characterizations indicate that the as-grown monolayer MoS2 and MoSe2 crystals possess excellent optical qualities with very small full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of 96 me V and 57 me V, respectively. It is comparable to that of exfoliated monolayers and reveals their high crystal quality. It is promising that our strategy should be applicable for the growth of other transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) monolayer crystals.

  10. Chemically Transformable Configurations of Mercaptohexadecanoic Acid Self-Assembled Monolayers Adsorbed on Au(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Buuren, T; Bostedt, C; Nelson, A J; Terminello, L J; Vance, A L; Fadley, C S; Willey, T M

    2003-01-01

    Carboxyl terminated Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs) are commonly used in a variety of applications, with the assumption that the molecules form well ordered monolayers. In this work, NEXAFS verifies well ordered monolayers can be formed using acetic acid in the solvent. Disordered monolayers with unbound molecules present in the result using only ethanol. A stark reorientation occurs upon deprotonation of the endgroup by rinsing in a KOH solution. This reorientation of the endgroup is reversible with tilted over, hydrogen bound carboxyl groups while carboxylate-ion endgroups are upright. C1s photoemission shows that SAMs formed and rinsed with acetic acid in ethanol, the endgroups are protonated, while without, a large fraction of the molecules on the surface are carboxylate terminated

  11. Surface activity, lipid profiles and their implications in cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The profiles of lipids in normal and cancerous tissues may differ revealing information about cancer development and progression. Lipids being surface active, changes in lipid profiles can manifest as altered surface activity profiles. Langmuir monolayers offer a convenient model for evaluating surface activity of biological membranes. Aims: The aims of this study were to quantify phospholipids and their effects on surface activity of normal and cancerous human cervical tissues as well as to evaluate the role of phosphatidylcholine (PC and sphingomyelin (SM in cervical cancer using Langmuir monolayers. Methods and Materials: Lipid quantification was done using thin layer chromatography and phosphorus assay. Surface activity was evaluated using Langmuir monolayers. Monolayers were formed on the surface of deionized water by spreading tissue organic phase corresponding to 1 mg of tissue and studying their surface pressure-area isotherms at body temperature. The PC and SM contents of cancerous human cervical tissues were higher than those of the normal human cervical tissues. Role of PC and SM were evaluated by adding varying amounts of these lipids to normal cervical pooled organic phase. Statistical analysis: Student′s t-test (p < 0.05 and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used. Results: Our results reveals that the phosphatidylglycerol level in cancerous cervical tissue was nearly five folds higher than that in normal cervical tissue. Also PC and sphingomyelin SM were found to be the major phospholipid components in cancerous and normal cervical tissues respectively. The addition of either 1.5 µg DPPC or 0.5 µg SM /mg of tissue to the normal organic phase changed its surface activity profile to that of the cancerous tissues. Statistically significant surface activity parameters showed that PC and SM have remarkable roles in shifting the normal cervical lipophilic surface activity towards that of cancerous lipophilic

  12. Monolayer-by-monolayer growth of platinum films on complex carbon fiber paper structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Liuqing; Zhang, Yunxia [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, National Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Advanced Energy Devices, Shaanxi Engineering Lab for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119 (China); Liu, Shengzhong, E-mail: szliu@dicp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, National Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Advanced Energy Devices, Shaanxi Engineering Lab for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119 (China); Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, iChEM, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Graphical abstract: A controlled monolayer-by-monolayer deposition process has been developed to fabricate Pt coating on carbon fiber paper with complex network structures using a dual buffer strategy. This development may pave a way to fabricate superior Pt catalysts with the minimal Pt usage. In fact, the present Pt group metal loading is 25 times lower than the U.S. DOE 2017 target value. - Highlights: • Developed a controlled monolayer-by-monolayer Pt deposition using a dual buffer strategy. • The present Pt group metal loading is 25 times lower than the U.S. DOE 2017 target value. • This development may pave a way to fabricate superior Pt catalysts with the minimal Pt usage. - Abstract: A controlled monolayer-by-monolayer deposition process has been developed to fabricate Pt coating on carbon fiber paper with complex network structures using a dual buffer (Au/Ni) strategy. The X-ray diffraction, electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance, current density analyses, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results conclude that the monolayer deposition process accomplishes full coverage on the substrate and that the thickness of the deposition layer can be controlled on a single atom scale. This development may pave a way to fabricate superior Pt catalysts with the minimal Pt usage. In fact, the present Pt group metal loading is 25 times lower than the U.S. DOE 2017 target value.

  13. 1-Dodecanethiol based highly stable self-assembled monolayers for germanium passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Qi; Xu, Baojian; Ye, Lin; Di, Zengfeng; Huang, Shanluo; Du, Xiaowei; Zhang, Jishen; Jin, Qinghui; Zhao, Jianlong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple and effective approach for higly stable germanium passivation. • 1-Dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayers for germanium oxidation resistance. • The influence factors of germanium passivation were systematically studied. • The stability of the passivated Ge was more than 10 days even in water conditions. - Abstract: As a typical semiconductor material, germanium has the potential to replace silicon for future-generation microelectronics, due to its better electrical properties. However, the lack of stable surface state has limited its extensive use for several decades. In this work, we demonstrated highly stable self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Ge surface to prevent oxidization for further applications. After the pretreatment in hydrochloric acid, the oxide-free and Cl-terminated Ge could be further coated with 1-dodecanethiol (NDM) SAMs. The influence factors including reaction time, solvent component and reaction temperature were optimized to obtain stable passivated monolayer for oxidation resistance. Contact angle analysis, atomic force microscopy, ellipsometer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were performed to characterize the functionalized Ge surface respectively. Meanwhile, the reaction mechanism and stability of thiols SAMs on Ge (1 1 1) surface were investigated. Finally, highly stable passivated NDM SAMs on Ge surface could be formed through immersing oxide-free Ge in mixture solvent (water/ethanol, v/v = 1:1) at appropriately elevated temperature (∼80 °C) for 24 h. And the corresponding optimized passivated Ge surface was stable for more than 10 days even in water condition, which was much longer than the data reported and paved the way for the future practical applications of Ge.

  14. 1-Dodecanethiol based highly stable self-assembled monolayers for germanium passivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Qi [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 865, Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A, Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Baojian, E-mail: xbj@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 865, Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shanghai Internet of Things Co., LTD, No. 1455, Pingcheng Road, Shanghai 201899 (China); Ye, Lin [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 865, Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A, Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Di, Zengfeng [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 865, Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Huang, Shanluo; Du, Xiaowei [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 865, Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A, Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Jishen; Jin, Qinghui [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 865, Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhao, Jianlong, E-mail: jlzhao@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 865, Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • A simple and effective approach for higly stable germanium passivation. • 1-Dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayers for germanium oxidation resistance. • The influence factors of germanium passivation were systematically studied. • The stability of the passivated Ge was more than 10 days even in water conditions. - Abstract: As a typical semiconductor material, germanium has the potential to replace silicon for future-generation microelectronics, due to its better electrical properties. However, the lack of stable surface state has limited its extensive use for several decades. In this work, we demonstrated highly stable self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Ge surface to prevent oxidization for further applications. After the pretreatment in hydrochloric acid, the oxide-free and Cl-terminated Ge could be further coated with 1-dodecanethiol (NDM) SAMs. The influence factors including reaction time, solvent component and reaction temperature were optimized to obtain stable passivated monolayer for oxidation resistance. Contact angle analysis, atomic force microscopy, ellipsometer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were performed to characterize the functionalized Ge surface respectively. Meanwhile, the reaction mechanism and stability of thiols SAMs on Ge (1 1 1) surface were investigated. Finally, highly stable passivated NDM SAMs on Ge surface could be formed through immersing oxide-free Ge in mixture solvent (water/ethanol, v/v = 1:1) at appropriately elevated temperature (∼80 °C) for 24 h. And the corresponding optimized passivated Ge surface was stable for more than 10 days even in water condition, which was much longer than the data reported and paved the way for the future practical applications of Ge.

  15. Conformal and highly luminescent monolayers of Alq3 prepared by gas-phase molecular layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räupke, André; Albrecht, Fabian; Maibach, Julia; Behrendt, Andreas; Polywka, Andreas; Heiderhoff, Ralf; Helzel, Jonatan; Rabe, Torsten; Johannes, Hans-Hermann; Kowalsky, Wolfgang; Mankel, Eric; Mayer, Thomas; Görrn, Patrick; Riedl, Thomas

    2014-01-22

    The gas-phase molecular layer deposition (MLD) of conformal and highly luminescent monolayers of tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum (Alq3) is reported. The controlled formation of Alq3 monolayers is achieved for the first time by functionalization of the substrate with amino groups, which serve as initial docking sites for trimethyl aluminum (TMA) molecules binding datively to the amine. Thereby, upon exposure to 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ), the self-limiting formation of highly luminescent Alq3 monolayers is afforded. The growth process and monolayer formation were studied and verified by in situ quartz crystal monitoring, optical emission and absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The nature of the MLD process provides an avenue to coat arbitrarily shaped 3D surfaces and porous structures with high surface areas, as demonstrated in this work for silica aerogels. The concept presented here paves the way to highly sensitive luminescent sensors and dye-sensitized metal oxides for future applications (e.g., in photocatalysis and solar cells).

  16. Studies of the surface structures of molecular crystals and of adsorbed molecular monolayers on the (111) crystal faces of platinum and silver by low-energy electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firment, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    The structures of molecular crystal surfaces were investigated for the first time by the use of low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). The experimental results from a variety of molecular crystals were examined and compared as a first step towards understanding the properties of these surfaces on a microscopic level. The method of sample preparation employed, vapor deposition onto metal single-crystal substrates at low temperatures in ultrahigh vacuum, allowed concurrent study of the structures of adsorbed monolayers on metal surfaces and of the growth processes of molecular films on metal substrates. The systems investigated were ice, ammonia, naphthalene, benzene, the n-paraffins (C 3 to C 8 ), cyclohexane, trioxane, acetic acid, propionic acid, methanol, and methylamine adsorbed and condensed on both Pt(111) and Ag(111) surfaces. Electron-beam-induced damage of the molecular surfaces was observed after electron exposures of 10 -4 A sec cm -2 at 20 eV. Aromatic molecular crystal samples were more resistant to damage than samples of saturated molecules. The quality and orientation of the grown molecular crystal films were influenced by substrate preparation and growth conditions. Forty ordered monolayer structures were observed. 110 figures, 22 tables, 162 references

  17. The effect of surface distortions on the pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riveros, O.J.; Claro, F.H.

    1985-08-01

    We show that the pressure in a solid can be expressed as a sum of two contributions: a bulk pressure Psub(int) and a surface term Psub(sur). The first is a translationally invariant virial of the forces acting on each atom and the second arises from deformations at the surface. This splitting allows a direct comparison of a term that may be computed accurately, Psub(int), with a term that depends strongly on surface detail and is therefore a test on models of the surface. (author)

  18. Density functional study of CaN monolayer on Si(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saati asr, Maryam; Zahedifar, Maedeh; Hashemifar, S. Javad; Akbarzadeh, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the first-principles computations are performed to study the structural and magnetic properties of CaN/Si(001) interface. Bulk CaN in the zinc-blende (ZB) structure is argued to be an ionic magnetic compound with a total spin moment of 1 μ{sub B} per formula unit, originated from the p electrons of N ions. Various interface configurations of a ZB CaN monolayer on Si (001) surface are investigated and the lowest energy and the highest spin polarized interfaces are extracted. Then the minimum energy path between the lowest energy and the highest spin polarized interfaces are calculated by using the nudged elastic band method and it is argued that both these systems are unstable toward a nonmagnetic interface with a rock–salt arrangement of Ca and N atoms. - Highlights: • Ab-initio studies are done on various structures of CaN monolayer on Si (001). • The lowest energy system was found to be the N-top configuration interface, while the highest spin polarization was observed in the Ca-hollow termination. • Both Ca-hollow and N-top are unstable toward a nonmagnetic rock–salt CaN monolayer on silicon surface. • Realization of a magnetic CaN/Si (001) interface likely requires some buffer layer on silicon surface, prior to the thin film deposition.

  19. Density functional study of CaN monolayer on Si(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saati asr, Maryam; Zahedifar, Maedeh; Hashemifar, S. Javad; Akbarzadeh, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the first-principles computations are performed to study the structural and magnetic properties of CaN/Si(001) interface. Bulk CaN in the zinc-blende (ZB) structure is argued to be an ionic magnetic compound with a total spin moment of 1 μ_B per formula unit, originated from the p electrons of N ions. Various interface configurations of a ZB CaN monolayer on Si (001) surface are investigated and the lowest energy and the highest spin polarized interfaces are extracted. Then the minimum energy path between the lowest energy and the highest spin polarized interfaces are calculated by using the nudged elastic band method and it is argued that both these systems are unstable toward a nonmagnetic interface with a rock–salt arrangement of Ca and N atoms. - Highlights: • Ab-initio studies are done on various structures of CaN monolayer on Si (001). • The lowest energy system was found to be the N-top configuration interface, while the highest spin polarization was observed in the Ca-hollow termination. • Both Ca-hollow and N-top are unstable toward a nonmagnetic rock–salt CaN monolayer on silicon surface. • Realization of a magnetic CaN/Si (001) interface likely requires some buffer layer on silicon surface, prior to the thin film deposition.

  20. Surface Properties of Titanium dioxide and its Structural Modifications by Reactions with Transition Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpegamage, Sandamali

    Surfaces of metal oxides play a vital role in many technologically important applications. The surfaces of titanium dioxide, in particular, show quite promising properties that can be utilized in solid-state gas sensing and photocatalysis applications. In the first part of this dissertation we investigate these properties of TiO2 surfaces through a vigorous surface scientific approach. In the second part, we investigate the possibilities of modifying the TiO2 surfaces by depositing multi-component transition metal oxide monolayers so that the properties of bare TiO2 surface can be influenced in a beneficial way. For instance, via formation of new surface sites or cations that have different valance states, the chemisorption and catalytic properties can be modified. We use sophisticated experimental surface science techniques that are compatible with ultra-high vacuum technology for surface characterization. All the experimental results, except for the photocatalysis experiments, were compared to and verified by supporting DFT-based theoretical results produced by our theory collaborators. TiO2 based solid-state gas sensors have been used before for detecting trace amounts of explosives such as 2,4-dinitrololuene (DNT), a toxic decomposition product of the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) that have very low vapor pressure. However, the adsorption, desorption and reaction mechanism were not well- understood. Here, we investigate 2,4-DNT adsorption on rutile-TiO2(110) surface in order to gain insight about these mechanisms in an atomistic level and we propose an efficient way of desorbing DNT from the surface through UV-light induced photoreactions. TiO2 exists in different polymorphs and the photocatalytic activity differs from one polymorph to another. Rutile and anatase are the most famous forms of TiO2 in photocatalysis and anatase is known to show higher activity than rutile. The photoactivity also varies depending on the surface orientation for the same

  1. Surface Plasmon Polariton-Assisted Long-Range Exciton Transport in Monolayer Semiconductor Lateral Heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinwei; Lin, Meng-Hsien; Chen, Yi-Tong; Estakhri, Nasim Mohammadi; Tseng, Guo-Wei; Wang, Yanrong; Chen, Hung-Ying; Chen, Chun-An; Shih, Chih-Kang; Alã¹, Andrea; Li, Xiaoqin; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Gwo, Shangjr

    Recently, two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor heterostructures, i.e., atomically thin lateral heterostructures (LHSs) based on transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been demonstrated. In an optically excited LHS, exciton transport is typically limited to a rather short spatial range ( 1 micron). Furthermore, additional losses may occur at the lateral interfacial regions. Here, to overcome these challenges, we experimentally implement a planar metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure by placing a monolayer of WS2/MoS2 LHS on top of an Al2O3 capped Ag single-crystalline plate. We found that the exciton transport range can be extended to tens of microns. The process of long-range exciton transport in the MOS structure is confirmed to be mediated by an exciton-surface plasmon polariton-exciton conversion mechanism, which allows a cascaded energy transfer process. Thus, the planar MOS structure provides a platform seamlessly combining 2D light-emitting materials with plasmonic planar waveguides, offering great potential for developing integrated photonic/plasmonic functionalities.

  2. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention: A network meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumville, Jo C.; Cullum, Nicky

    2018-01-01

    Background Pressure ulcers are a prevalent and global issue and support surfaces are widely used for preventing ulceration. However, the diversity of available support surfaces and the lack of direct comparisons in RCTs make decision-making difficult. Objectives To determine, using network meta-analysis, the relative effects of different support surfaces in reducing pressure ulcer incidence and comfort and to rank these support surfaces in order of their effectiveness. Methods We conducted a systematic review, using a literature search up to November 2016, to identify randomised trials comparing support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention. Two reviewers independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We grouped the support surfaces according to their characteristics and formed evidence networks using these groups. We used network meta-analysis to estimate the relative effects and effectiveness ranking of the groups for the outcomes of pressure ulcer incidence and participant comfort. GRADE was used to assess the certainty of evidence. Main results We included 65 studies in the review. The network for assessing pressure ulcer incidence comprised evidence of low or very low certainty for most network contrasts. There was moderate-certainty evidence that powered active air surfaces and powered hybrid air surfaces probably reduce pressure ulcer incidence compared with standard hospital surfaces (risk ratios (RR) 0.42, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.29 to 0.63; 0.22, 0.07 to 0.66, respectively). The network for comfort suggested that powered active air-surfaces are probably slightly less comfortable than standard hospital mattresses (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.94; moderate-certainty evidence). Conclusions This is the first network meta-analysis of the effects of support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention. Powered active air-surfaces probably reduce pressure ulcer incidence, but are probably less comfortable than standard

  3. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention: A network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chunhu; Dumville, Jo C; Cullum, Nicky

    2018-01-01

    Pressure ulcers are a prevalent and global issue and support surfaces are widely used for preventing ulceration. However, the diversity of available support surfaces and the lack of direct comparisons in RCTs make decision-making difficult. To determine, using network meta-analysis, the relative effects of different support surfaces in reducing pressure ulcer incidence and comfort and to rank these support surfaces in order of their effectiveness. We conducted a systematic review, using a literature search up to November 2016, to identify randomised trials comparing support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention. Two reviewers independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We grouped the support surfaces according to their characteristics and formed evidence networks using these groups. We used network meta-analysis to estimate the relative effects and effectiveness ranking of the groups for the outcomes of pressure ulcer incidence and participant comfort. GRADE was used to assess the certainty of evidence. We included 65 studies in the review. The network for assessing pressure ulcer incidence comprised evidence of low or very low certainty for most network contrasts. There was moderate-certainty evidence that powered active air surfaces and powered hybrid air surfaces probably reduce pressure ulcer incidence compared with standard hospital surfaces (risk ratios (RR) 0.42, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.29 to 0.63; 0.22, 0.07 to 0.66, respectively). The network for comfort suggested that powered active air-surfaces are probably slightly less comfortable than standard hospital mattresses (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.94; moderate-certainty evidence). This is the first network meta-analysis of the effects of support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention. Powered active air-surfaces probably reduce pressure ulcer incidence, but are probably less comfortable than standard hospital surfaces. Most prevention evidence was of low or

  4. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention: A network meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhu Shi

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcers are a prevalent and global issue and support surfaces are widely used for preventing ulceration. However, the diversity of available support surfaces and the lack of direct comparisons in RCTs make decision-making difficult.To determine, using network meta-analysis, the relative effects of different support surfaces in reducing pressure ulcer incidence and comfort and to rank these support surfaces in order of their effectiveness.We conducted a systematic review, using a literature search up to November 2016, to identify randomised trials comparing support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention. Two reviewers independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We grouped the support surfaces according to their characteristics and formed evidence networks using these groups. We used network meta-analysis to estimate the relative effects and effectiveness ranking of the groups for the outcomes of pressure ulcer incidence and participant comfort. GRADE was used to assess the certainty of evidence.We included 65 studies in the review. The network for assessing pressure ulcer incidence comprised evidence of low or very low certainty for most network contrasts. There was moderate-certainty evidence that powered active air surfaces and powered hybrid air surfaces probably reduce pressure ulcer incidence compared with standard hospital surfaces (risk ratios (RR 0.42, 95% confidence intervals (CI 0.29 to 0.63; 0.22, 0.07 to 0.66, respectively. The network for comfort suggested that powered active air-surfaces are probably slightly less comfortable than standard hospital mattresses (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.94; moderate-certainty evidence.This is the first network meta-analysis of the effects of support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention. Powered active air-surfaces probably reduce pressure ulcer incidence, but are probably less comfortable than standard hospital surfaces. Most prevention evidence was

  5. Tribology and stability of organic monolayers on CrN: a comparison among silane, phosphonate, alkene, and alkyne chemistries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Sidharam P; Li, Yan; Regeling, Remco; Zuilhof, Han

    2013-08-20

    The fabrication of chemically and mechanically stable monolayers on the surfaces of various inorganic hard materials is crucial to the development of biomedical/electronic devices. In this Article, monolayers based on the reactivity of silane, phosphonate, 1-alkene, and 1-alkyne moieties were obtained on the hydroxyl-terminated chromium nitride surface. Their chemical stability and tribology were systematically investigated. The chemical stability of the modified CrN surfaces was tested in aqueous media at 60 °C at pH 3, 7, and 11 and monitored by static water contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ellipsometry, and Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FT-IRRAS). The tribological properties of the resulting organic monolayers with different end groups (fluorinated or nonfluorinated) were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that the fluorinated monolayers exhibit a dramatic reduction of adhesion and friction force as well as excellent wear resistance compared to those of nonfluorinated coatings and bare CrN substrates. The combination of remarkable chemical stability and superior tribological properties makes these fluorinated monolayers promising candidates for the development of robust high-performance devices.

  6. Efficient surface enhanced Raman scattering on confeito-like gold nanoparticle-adsorbed self-assembled monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Chi; Imae, Toyoko; Chen, Liang-Yih; Ujihara, Masaki

    2015-12-28

    Confeito-like gold nanoparticles (AuNPs; average diameter = 80 nm) exhibiting a plasmon absorption band at 590 nm were adsorbed through immersion-adsorption on two self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES-SAM) and polystyrene spheres coated with amine-terminated poly(amido amine) dendrimers (DEN/PS-SAM). The surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect on the SAM substrates was examined using the molecules of a probe dye, rhodamine 6G (R6G). The Raman scattering was strongly intensified on both substrates, but the enhancement factor (>10,000) of the AuNP/DEN/PS-SAM hierarchy substrate was 5-10 times higher than that of the AuNP/APTES-SAM substrate. This strong enhancement is attributed to the large surface area of the substrate and the presence of hot spots. Furthermore, analyzing the R6G concentration dependence of SERS suggested that the enhancement mechanism effectively excited the R6G molecules in the first layer on the hot spots and invoked the strong SERS effect. These results indicate that the SERS activity of confeito-like AuNPs on SAM substrates has high potential in molecular electronic devices and ultrasensitive analyses.

  7. Melting mechanism in monolayers of flexible rod-shaped molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Taub, H.

    1992-01-01

    The melting of butane and hexane monolayers adsorbed on a graphite basal-plane surface has been studied by molecular-dynamics simulations and experimentally by neutron diffraction. The simulation results are qualitatively consistent with the observed diffraction patterns and suggest a general...

  8. Lanthanide-based NMR: a tool to investigate component distribution in mixed-monolayer-protected nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Gaetano; Rastrelli, Federico; Scrimin, Paolo; Mancin, Fabrizio

    2012-05-02

    Gd(3+) ions, once bound to the monolayer of organic molecules coating the surface of gold nanoparticles, produce a paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) that broadens and eventually cancels the signals of the nuclear spins located nearby (within 1.6 nm distance). In the case of nanoparticles coated with mixed monolayers, the signals arising from the different coating molecules experience different PRE, depending on their distance from the binding site. As a consequence, observation of the signal broadening patterns provides direct information on the monolayer organization. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  9. Monolayer structures of alkyl aldehydes: Odd-membered homologues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, T.K.; Clarke, S.M.; Bhinde, T.; Castro, M.A.; Millan, C.; Medina, S.

    2011-01-01

    Crystalline monolayers of three aldehydes with an odd number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain (C 7 , C 9 and C 11 ) at low coverages are observed by a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction. Analysis of the diffraction data is discussed and possible monolayer crystal structures are proposed; although unique structures could not be ascertained for all molecules. We conclude that the structures are flat on the surface, with the molecules lying in the plane of the layer. The C 11 homologue is determined to have a plane group of either p2, pgb or pgg, and for the C 7 homologue the p2 plane group is preferred.

  10. Applications of self-assembled monolayers in materials chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Physical and Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory,. Pune 411 008, India e-mail: viji@ems.ncl.res.in. Abstract. Self-assembly provides a simple route to organise suitable organic molecules on noble metal and selected nanocluster surfaces by using monolayers of long chain organic molecules with ...

  11. Surface Structures and Thermal Desorption Behaviors of Cyclopentanethiol Self-Assembled Monolayers on Au(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hun Gu; Kim, You Young; Park, Tae Sun; Noh, Jae Geun; Park, Joon B.; Ito, Eisuke; Hara, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    The surface structures, adsorption conditions, and thermal desorption behaviors of cyclopentanethiol (CPT) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au(111) were investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). STM imaging revealed that although the adsorption of CPT on Au(111) at room temperature generates disordered SAMs, CPT molecules at 50 .deg. C formed well-ordered SAMs with a (2√3 x √5)R41".deg. packing structure. XPS measurements showed that CPT SAMs at room temperature were formed via chemical reactions between the sulfur atoms and gold surfaces. TDS measurements showed two dominant TD peaks for the decomposed fragments (C_5H_9 "+, m/e = 69) generated via C-S bond cleavage and the parent molecular species (C_5H_9SH"+, m/e = 102) derived from a recombination of the chemisorbed thiolates and hydrogen atoms near 440 K. Interestingly, dimerization of sulfur atoms in n-alkanethiol SAMs usually occurs during thermal desorption and the same reaction did not happen for CPT SAMs, which may be due to the steric hindrance of cyclic rings of the CPT molecules. In this study, we demonstrated that the alicyclic ring of organic thiols strongly affected the surface structure and thermal desorption behavior of SAMs, thus providing a good method for controlling chemical and physical properties of organic thiol SAMs

  12. Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of amphiphilic hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene: New phase transitions and electronic properties controlled by pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzel, N.; Hassenkam, T.; Balashev, K.

    2001-01-01

    from a solution at the air-water interface. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and X-ray reflectivity studies of the Langmuir monolayer reveal two crystallographic phases at room temperature which depend on the surface pressure applied to the film. Scattering from very well-ordered (xi = 200...

  13. Self-assembling monolayers of helical oligopeptides with applications in molecular electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this project was to develop a generic method of preparing a 'molecular architecture' containing functional groups on a surface at predetermined relative positions several nm apart. This would be of great utility in molecular electronics, chemical sensors and other fields. It was proposed that such an architecture could be prepared on gold using linked, helical oligopeptides that contained the components of interest and sulphur functions able to form monolayers on gold by the self-assembly technique. Towards this ultimate aim Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMs) of monomeric oligopeptides (13-17 residues) were prepared and characterised. Peptides containing three Met residues spaced in the sequence so that their side-chains lay on the same side of the helix were shown by circular dichroism (CD) to be strongly helical in organic solvents. Their self-assembled films on gold were characterised by Reflection-Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy (RAIRS) which showed the peptides adsorbed with the helix axes parallel to the surface, the orientation expected for self-assembly. However the surface coverage measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV) of the peptides' ferrocenyl derivatives on gold electrodes were less than expected for monolayers. Comparison of the films of ferrocenyl derivatives of Met and Cys showed that the thiolate bound more strongly than the thioether. Accordingly an oligopeptide containing two Cys residues at i, i+3, designed to be 3 10 -helical, was prepared. Transformation of the two (Trt)Cys residues of the resin-bound peptide to the intramolecular disulphide by iodine was achieved in acetonitrile but not in DMF. CD suggested that the conformation of this peptide was a mixture of helix and random coil. Films of the peptide-disulphide and the peptide-dithiol adsorbed from protic solvents were characterised as multilayers by ellipsometry. However CV and ellipsometry showed that a monolayer was successfully prepared from acetonitrile. Future targets for

  14. Molecular dynamics and energy landscape of decanethiolates in self-assembled monolayers on Au(111) by STM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotthewes, Kai; Wu, Hairong; Kumar, Avijit; Vancso, Gyula J.; Schön, Peter Manfred; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2013-01-01

    The energetics and dynamics of the various phases of decanethiolate self-assembled monolayers on Au(111) surfaces were studied with scanning tunneling microscopy. We have observed five different phases of the decanethiolate monolayer on Au(111): four ordered phases (β, δ, χ*, and ) and one

  15. A KINETIC MODEL FOR MONO-LAYER GLOBULAR PROTEIN ADSORPTION ON SOLID/LIQUID INTERFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal I. M. Al-Malah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A kinetic model was derived for globular protein adsorption. The model takes into account the three possible scenarios of a protein molecule in solution, being exposed to an interface: adsorption step from the solution to the interface; the possible desorption back into the solution; and the surface-induced unfolding or spreading of the protein unto the substrate surface. A globular protein molecule is visualized as a sphere with radius D. In addition to the general case of protein adsorption, which portrays either the surface coverage (Theta or surface concentration (� as a function of the adsorption time, special cases, like equilibrium condition, lowsurface coverage, irreversible, and Langmuirian were also presented and treated in light of the derived model. The general model was simplified for each of the subset cases. The irreversibility versus reversibility of protein adsorption was discussed. The substrate surface energetics or effects are accounted for via the proposition of the percent relative change in D/V ratio for the adsorbing protein, called (D/VPRC parameter. (D/VPRC is calculated with respect to the monolayer surface concentration of protein, where the latter is given by D/Vratio. This can be used as a landmark to protein adsorption isotherms or even kinetics. This is visualized as an indicator for solid substrate effects on the adsorbing proteins. (D/VPRC can be zero (fresh monolayer, negative (aged monolayer, or positive (multi-layer. The reference surface concentration is reported for some selected proteins.

  16. Self-assembly Ag nanoparticle monolayer film as SERS Substrate for pesticide detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li, E-mail: zhlisuzh@163.com [School of Chemistry and Life Science, Anhui Key Laboratory of Spin Electron and Nanomaterials (Cultivating Base), Suzhou University, SuZhou 234000 (China)

    2013-04-01

    A self-assembled protocol is introduced to provide effective platforms for the fabrication of ordered Ag nanosized monolayer film. The assembled Ag nanosized monolayer film was characterized using scanning electronic microscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The results show that the assembled SERS substrate own excellent Raman enhancement and reproducibility. The synthesized SERS-active substrate was further used to detect methyl-parathion, and the limitation of detection can reach 10{sup −7} M.

  17. Atmospheric-pressure plasma activation and surface characterization on polyethylene membrane separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Chien; Li, Hsiao-Ling; Huang, Chun

    2017-01-01

    The surface hydrophilic activation of a polyethylene membrane separator was achieved using an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. The surface of the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated membrane separator was found to be highly hydrophilic realized by adjusting the plasma power input. The variations in membrane separator chemical structure were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Chemical analysis showed newly formed carbonyl-containing groups and high surface concentrations of oxygen-containing species on the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated polymeric separator surface. It also showed that surface hydrophilicity primarily increased from the polar component after atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment. The surface and pore structures of the polyethylene membrane separator were examined by scanning electron microscopy, revealing a slight alteration in the pore structure. As a result of the incorporation of polar functionalities by atmospheric-pressure plasma activation, the electrolyte uptake and electrochemical impedance of the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated membrane separator improved. The investigational results show that the separator surface can be controlled by atmospheric-pressure plasma surface treatment to tailor the hydrophilicity and enhance the electrochemical performance of lithium ion batteries.

  18. Structures of sub-monolayered silicon carbide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Shimoyama, I.; Nath, Krishna G.

    2004-01-01

    The electronic and geometrical structures of silicon carbide thin films are presented. The films were deposited on graphite by ion-beam deposition using tetramethylsilane (TMS) as an ion source. In the Si K-edge near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra for sub-monolayered film, sharp peaks due to the resonance from Si 1s to π*-like orbitals were observed, suggesting the existence of Si=C double bonds. On the basis of the polarization dependencies of the Si 1s → π* peak intensities, it is elucidated that the direction of the π*-like orbitals is just perpendicular to the surface. We conclude that the sub-monolayered SiC x film has a flat-lying hexagonal structure of which configuration is analogous to the single sheet of graphite

  19. Molecular tilt on monolayer-protected nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Giomi, L.

    2012-02-01

    The structure of the tilted phase of monolayer-protected nanoparticles is investigated by means of a simple Ginzburg-Landau model. The theory contains two dimensionless parameters representing the preferential tilt angle and the ratio ε between the energy cost due to spatial variations in the tilt of the coating molecules and that of the van der Waals interactions which favors the preferential tilt. We analyze the model for both spherical and octahedral particles. On spherical particles, we find a transition from a tilted phase, at small ε, to a phase where the molecules spontaneously align along the surface normal and tilt disappears. Octahedral particles have an additional phase at small ε characterized by the presence of six topological defects. These defective configurations provide preferred sites for the chemical functionalization of monolayer-protected nanoparticles via place-exchange reactions and their consequent linking to form molecules and bulk materials. Copyright © EPLA, 2012.

  20. Molecular tilt on monolayer-protected nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Giomi, L.; Bowick, M. J.; Ma, X.; Majumdar, A.

    2012-01-01

    The structure of the tilted phase of monolayer-protected nanoparticles is investigated by means of a simple Ginzburg-Landau model. The theory contains two dimensionless parameters representing the preferential tilt angle and the ratio ε between the energy cost due to spatial variations in the tilt of the coating molecules and that of the van der Waals interactions which favors the preferential tilt. We analyze the model for both spherical and octahedral particles. On spherical particles, we find a transition from a tilted phase, at small ε, to a phase where the molecules spontaneously align along the surface normal and tilt disappears. Octahedral particles have an additional phase at small ε characterized by the presence of six topological defects. These defective configurations provide preferred sites for the chemical functionalization of monolayer-protected nanoparticles via place-exchange reactions and their consequent linking to form molecules and bulk materials. Copyright © EPLA, 2012.

  1. Packing of ganglioside-phospholipid monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majewski, J.; Kuhl, T.L.; Kjær, K.

    2001-01-01

    Using synchrotron grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD) and reflectivity, the in-plane and out-of-plane structure of mixed ganglioside-phospholipid monolayers was investigated at the air-water interface. Mixed monolayers of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 100 mol% ganglioside GM, and the phospholipid...... monolayers did not affect hydrocarbon tail packing (fluidization or condensation of the hydrocarbon region). This is in contrast to previous investigations of lipopolymer-lipid mixtures, where the packing structure of phospholipid monolayers was greatly altered by the inclusion of lipids bearing hydrophilic...

  2. Actinide Sequestration Using Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryxell, Glen E.; Lin, Yuehe; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Wu, Hong; Kemner, K. M.; Kelly, Shelley

    2005-01-01

    Surfactant templated synthesis of mesoporous ceramics provides a versatile foundation upon which to create high efficiency environmental sorbents. These nanoporous ceramic oxides condense a huge amount of surface area into a very small volume. The ceramic oxide interface is receptive to surface functionalization through molecular self-assembly. The marriage of mesoporous ceramics with self-assembled monolayer chemistry creates a powerful new class of environmental sorbent materials called self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous supports (SAMMS). These SAMMS materials are highly efficient sorbents, whose interfacial chemistry can be fine-tuned to selectively sequester a specific target species, such as heavy metals, tetrahedral oxometallate anions and radionuclides. Details addressing the design, synthesis and characterization of SAMMS materials specifically designed to sequester actinides, of central importance to the environmental clean-up necessary after 40 years of weapons grade plutonium production, as well as evaluation of their binding affinities and kinetics are presented

  3. Disorder-derived, strong tunneling attenuation in bis-phosphonate monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Anshuma; Bora, Achyut; Liao, Kung-Ching; Schmolke, Hannah; Jung, Antje; Klages, Claus-Peter; Schwartz, Jeffrey; Tornow, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Monolayers of alkyl bisphosphonic acids (bisPAs) of various carbon chain lengths (C4, C8, C10, C12) were grown on aluminum oxide (AlO x ) surfaces from solution. The structural and electrical properties of these self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were compared with those of alkyl monophosphonic acids (monoPAs). Through contact angle (CA) and Kelvin-probe (KP) measurements, ellipsometry, and infrared (IR) and x-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies, it was found that bisPAs form monolayers that are relatively disordered compared to their monoPA analogs. Current-voltage (J-V) measurements made with a hanging Hg drop top contact show tunneling to be the prevailing transport mechanism. However, while the monoPAs have an observed decay constant within the typical range for dense monolayers, β mono  =  0.85  ±  0.03 per carbon atom, a surprisingly high value, β bis  =  1.40  ±  0.05 per carbon atom, was measured for the bisPAs. We attribute this to a strong contribution of ‘through-space’ tunneling, which derives from conformational disorder in the monolayer due to strong interactions of the distal phosphonic acid groups; they likely form a hydrogen-bonding network that largely determines the molecular layer structure. Since bisPA SAMs attenuate tunnel currents more effectively than do the corresponding monoPA SAMs, they may find future application as gate dielectric modification in organic thin film devices.

  4. Nonlinear optical techniques for surface studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y.R.

    1981-09-01

    Recent effort in developing nonlinear optical techniques for surface studies is reviewed. Emphasis is on monolayer detection of adsorbed molecules on surfaces. It is shown that surface coherent antiStokes Raman scattering (CARS) with picosecond pulses has the sensitivity of detecting submonolayer of molecules. On the other hand, second harmonic or sum-frequency generation is also sensitive enough to detect molecular monolayers. Surface-enhanced nonlinear optical effects on some rough metal surfaces have been observed. This facilitates the detection of molecular monolayers on such surfaces, and makes the study of molecular adsorption at a liquid-metal interface feasible. Advantages and disadvantages of the nonlinear optical techniques for surface studies are discussed

  5. Phase transitions in surfactant monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casson, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    Two-dimensional phase transitions have been studied in surfactant monolayers at the air/water interface by sum-frequency spectroscopy and ellipsometry. In equilibrium monolayers of medium-chain alcohols C n H 2n+1 OH (n = 9-14) a transition from a two-dimensional crystalline phase to a liquid was observed at temperatures above the bulk melting point. The small population of gauche defects in the solid phase increased only slightly at the phase transition. A model of the hydrocarbon chains as freely rotating rigid rods allowed the area per molecule and chain tilt in the liquid phase to be determined. The area per molecule, chain tilt and density of the liquid phase all increased with increasing chain length, but for each chain length the density was higher than in a bulk liquid hydrocarbon. In a monolayer of decanol adsorbed at the air/water interface a transition from a two-dimensional liquid to a gas was observed. A clear discontinuity in the coefficient of ellipticity as a function of temperature showed that the transition is first-order. This result suggests that liquid-gas phase transitions in surfactant monolayers may be more widespread than once thought. A solid-liquid phase transition has also been studied in mixed monolayers of dodecanol with an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate) and with a homologous series of cationic surfactants (alkyltrimethylammonium bromides: C n TABs, n = 12, 14, 16). The composition and structure of the mixed monolayers was studied above and below the phase transition. At low temperatures the mixed monolayers were as densely packed as a monolayer of pure dodecanol in its solid phase. At a fixed temperature the monolayers under-went a first-order phase transition to form a phase that was less dense and more conformationally disordered. The proportion of ionic surfactant in the mixed monolayer was greatest in the high temperature phase. As the chain length of the C n TAB increased the number of conformational defects

  6. Measurement of molecular length of self-assembled monolayer probed by localized surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Juri; Kajikawa, Kotaro

    2016-02-01

    We propose a method to measure the variation of the molecular length of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) when it is exposed to solutions at different pH conditions. The surface immobilized gold nanospheres (SIGNs) shows strong absorption peak at the wavelengths of 600-800 nm when p-polarized light is illuminated. The peak wavelength depends on the length of the gap distance between the SIGNs and the substrate. The gap is supported by the SAM molecules. According to the analytical calculation based on multiple expansion, the relation between the peak wavelength of the SIGN structures and the gap distance is calculated, to evaluate the molecular length of the SAM through the optical absorption spectroscopy for the SIGN structures. The molecular length of the SIGN structure was measured in air, water, acidic, and basic solutions. It was found that the molecular lengths are longer in acidic solutions.

  7. Highly active engineered-enzyme oriented monolayers: formation, characterization and sensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patolsky Fernando

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interest in introducing ecologically-clean, and efficient enzymes into modern industry has been growing steadily. However, difficulties associated with controlling their orientation, and maintaining their selectivity and reactivity is still a significant obstacle. We have developed precise immobilization of biomolecules, while retaining their native functionality, and report a new, fast, easy, and reliable procedure of protein immobilization, with the use of Adenylate kinase as a model system. Methods Self-assembled monolayers of hexane-1,6-dithiol were formed on gold surfaces. The monolayers were characterized by contact-angle measurements, Elman-reagent reaction, QCM, and XPS. A specifically designed, mutated Adenylate kinase, where cysteine was inserted at the 75 residue, and the cysteine at residue 77 was replaced by serine, was used for attachment to the SAM surface via spontaneously formed disulfide (S-S bonds. QCM, and XPS were used for characterization of the immobilized protein layer. Curve fitting in XPS measurements used a Gaussian-Lorentzian function. Results and Discussion Water contact angle (65-70°, as well as all characterization techniques used, confirmed the formation of self-assembled monolayer with surface SH groups. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed clearly the two types of sulfur atom, one attached to the gold (triolate and the other (SH/S-S at the ω-position for the hexane-1,6-dithiol SAMs. The formation of a protein monolayer was confirmed using XPS, and QCM, where the QCM-determined amount of protein on the surface was in agreement with a model that considered the surface area of a single protein molecule. Enzymatic activity tests of the immobilized protein confirmed that there is no change in enzymatic functionality, and reveal activity ~100 times that expected for the same amount of protein in solution. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, immobilization of a protein by the method

  8. Formation and electrochemical investigation of ordered cobalt coordinated peptide monolayers on gold substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinxin; Nagata, Kenji; Higuchi, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    The monolayers composed of cobalt coordinated peptides were prepared on gold substrates by two different approaches. One was the self-assembly method, which was used to prepare a peptide monolayer on the gold substrate via the spontaneous attachment of peptides owing to the interaction between gold and sulfur at the N-terminal of the peptide. The other one was the stepwise polymerization method that was utilized to fabricate the unidirectionally arranged peptide monolayer by the stepwise condensation of amino acids from the initiator fixed on the gold substrate. Leu 2 Ala(4-Pyri)Leu 6 Ala(4-Pyri)Leu 6 sequence was chosen as the cobalt coordinated peptide. The 4-pyridyl alanines, Ala(4-Pyri)s, were introduced as ligands for cobalt to the leucine-rich sequential peptide. The complexation between cobalt and pyridyl groups of the peptide induced the formation of a stable α-helical bundle, which oriented perpendicularly to the substrate surface. In the case of the monolayer fabricated by the stepwise polymerization method, the direction of the peptide macro-dipole moment aligned unidirectionally, and the cobalt complexes were fixed in the monolayer to form the ordered arrangement. On the other hand, the peptides prepared by the self-assembly method formed the mixture of parallel and antiparallel packing owing to the dipole-dipole interaction. The spatial location of the cobalt complexes in the monolayer prepared by the self-assembly method was distorted, compared with that in the monolayer fabricated by the stepwise polymerization method. The vectorial electron flow through the peptide monolayer was achieved by the regular alignment of the peptide macro-dipole moment and the cobalt complexes in the monolayer fabricated by the stepwise polymerization method. - Highlights: ► We fabricated ordered Co coordinated peptide monolayers on the gold substrates. ► The Co complexes in peptide monolayer formed an ordered arrangement of the peptide. ► The peptide macro

  9. Chemical resistivity of self-assembled monolayer covalently attached to silicon substrate to hydrofluoric acid and ammonium fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, N.; Youda, S.; Hayashi, K.; Sugimura, H.; Takai, O.

    2003-06-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were prepared on hydrogen-terminated silicon substrates through chemical vapor deposition using 1-hexadecene (HD) as a precursor. The HD-SAMs prepared in an atmosphere under a reduced pressure (≈50 Pa) showed better chemical resistivities to hydrofluoric acid and ammonium fluoride (NH 4F) solutions than that of an organosilane SAM formed on oxide-covered silicon substrates. The surface covered with the HD-SAM was micro-patterned by vacuum ultraviolet photolithography and consequently divided into two areas terminated with HD-SAM or silicon dioxide. This micro-patterned sample was immersed in a 40 vol.% NH 4F aqueous solution. Surface images obtained by an optical microscopy clearly show that the micro-patterns of HD-SAM/silicon dioxide were successfully transferred into the silicon substrate.

  10. Self-assembled monolayers on metal oxides : applications in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, O.

    2010-01-01

    The thesis describes the use of phosph(on)ate-based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to modify and pattern metal oxides. Metal oxides have interesting electronic and magnetic properties such as insulating, semiconducting, metallic, ferromagnetic etc. and SAMs can tailor the surface properties. FePt

  11. Feedback Regulation of Intracellular Hydrostatic Pressure in Surface Cells of the Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junyuan; Sun, Xiurong; White, Thomas W.; Delamere, Nicholas A.; Mathias, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    In wild-type lenses from various species, an intracellular hydrostatic pressure gradient goes from ∼340 mmHg in central fiber cells to 0 mmHg in surface cells. This gradient drives a center-to-surface flow of intracellular fluid. In lenses in which gap-junction coupling is increased, the central pressure is lower, whereas if gap-junction coupling is reduced, the central pressure is higher but surface pressure is always zero. Recently, we found that surface cell pressure was elevated in PTEN null lenses. This suggested disruption of a feedback control system that normally maintained zero surface cell pressure. Our purpose in this study was to investigate and characterize this feedback control system. We measured intracellular hydrostatic pressures in mouse lenses using a microelectrode/manometer-based system. We found that all feedback went through transport by the Na/K ATPase, which adjusted surface cell osmolarity such that pressure was maintained at zero. We traced the regulation of Na/K ATPase activity back to either TRPV4, which sensed positive pressure and stimulated activity, or TRPV1, which sensed negative pressure and inhibited activity. The inhibitory effect of TRPV1 on Na/K pumps was shown to signal through activation of the PI3K/AKT axis. The stimulatory effect of TRPV4 was shown in previous studies to go through a different signal transduction path. Thus, there is a local two-legged feedback control system for pressure in lens surface cells. The surface pressure provides a pedestal on which the pressure gradient sits, so surface pressure determines the absolute value of pressure at each radial location. We speculate that the absolute value of intracellular pressure may set the radial gradient in the refractive index, which is essential for visual acuity. PMID:26536260

  12. He/Ar-atom scattering from molecular monolayers: C{sub 60}/Pt(111) and graphene/Pt(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Y; Sugawara, C; Satake, Y; Yokoyama, Y; Okada, R; Nakayama, T; Sasaki, M [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kondo, T; Oh, J; Nakamura, J [Institute of Material Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Hayes, W W [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2010-08-04

    Supersonic He and Ar atomic beam scattering from C{sub 60} and graphene monolayers adsorbed on a Pt(111) surface are demonstrated in order to obtain detailed insight into a gas-molecule collision that has not been studied in detail so far. The effective masses and phonon spectral densities of the monolayers seen by different projectiles are discussed based on classical models such as the hard cube model and the recently developed smooth surface model. Large effective masses are deduced for both the monolayers, suggesting collective effects of surface atoms in the single collision event. The effective Debye temperature of graphene was found to be similar to that reported in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), indicating that the graphene is decoupled well from the Pt substrate. A much smaller Debye-Waller factor was found for the C{sub 60} layer, probably reflecting the strong C{sub 60}-Pt(111) interaction.

  13. Proton and hydrogen transport through two-dimensional monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seel, Max; Pandey, Ravindra

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion of protons and hydrogen atoms in representative two-dimensional materials is investigated. Specifically, density functional calculations were performed on graphene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), phosphorene, silicene, and molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) monolayers to study the surface interaction and penetration barriers for protons and hydrogen atoms employing finite cluster models. The calculated barrier heights correlate approximately with the size of the opening formed by the three-fold open sites in the monolayers considered. They range from 1.56 eV (proton) and 4.61 eV (H) for graphene to 0.12 eV (proton) and 0.20 eV (H) for silicene. The results indicate that only graphene and h-BN monolayers have the potential for membranes with high selective permeability. The MoS 2 monolayer behaves differently: protons and H atoms become trapped between the outer S layers in the Mo plane in a well with a depth of 1.56 eV (proton) and 1.5 eV (H atom), possibly explaining why no proton transport was detected, suggesting MoS 2 as a hydrogen storage material instead. For graphene and h-BN, off-center proton penetration reduces the barrier to 1.38 eV for graphene and 0.11 eV for h-BN. Furthermore, Pt acting as a substrate was found to have a negligible effect on the barrier height. In defective graphene, the smallest barrier for proton diffusion (1.05 eV) is found for an oxygen-terminated defect. Therefore, it seems more likely that thermal protons can penetrate a monolayer of h-BN but not graphene and defects are necessary to facilitate the proton transport in graphene. (paper)

  14. Proton and hydrogen transport through two-dimensional monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seel, Max; Pandey, Ravindra

    2016-06-01

    Diffusion of protons and hydrogen atoms in representative two-dimensional materials is investigated. Specifically, density functional calculations were performed on graphene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), phosphorene, silicene, and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) monolayers to study the surface interaction and penetration barriers for protons and hydrogen atoms employing finite cluster models. The calculated barrier heights correlate approximately with the size of the opening formed by the three-fold open sites in the monolayers considered. They range from 1.56 eV (proton) and 4.61 eV (H) for graphene to 0.12 eV (proton) and 0.20 eV (H) for silicene. The results indicate that only graphene and h-BN monolayers have the potential for membranes with high selective permeability. The MoS2 monolayer behaves differently: protons and H atoms become trapped between the outer S layers in the Mo plane in a well with a depth of 1.56 eV (proton) and 1.5 eV (H atom), possibly explaining why no proton transport was detected, suggesting MoS2 as a hydrogen storage material instead. For graphene and h-BN, off-center proton penetration reduces the barrier to 1.38 eV for graphene and 0.11 eV for h-BN. Furthermore, Pt acting as a substrate was found to have a negligible effect on the barrier height. In defective graphene, the smallest barrier for proton diffusion (1.05 eV) is found for an oxygen-terminated defect. Therefore, it seems more likely that thermal protons can penetrate a monolayer of h-BN but not graphene and defects are necessary to facilitate the proton transport in graphene.

  15. A coupled inversion of pressure and surface displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasco, D.W.; Karasaki, Kenzi; Kishida, Kiyoshi

    2001-01-01

    A coupled inversion of transient pressure observations and surface displacement measurements provides an efficient technique for estimating subsurface permeability variations. The methodology has the advantage of utilizing surface observations, which are typically much less expensive than measurements requiring boreholes. Furthermore, unlike many other geophysical observables, the relationship between surface deformation and reservoir pore fluid volume changes is relatively well understood. Our treatment enables us to partition the estimation problem into a sequence of three linear sub-problems. An application of the approach to a set of tilt and borehole pressure data from the Raymond field site in California illustrates it's efficiency and utility. The observations are associated with a well test in which fluid is withdrawn from a shallow fracture zone. During the test thirteen tiltmeters recorded the movement of the ground surface. Simultaneously, nine transducers measured pressure changes in boreholes intersecting the fracture system. We are able to image a high permeability, north trending channel located within the fracture zone. The existence and orientation of this high permeability feature is substantiated by a semi-quantitative analysis of some 4,000 transient pressure curves. (author)

  16. Layer-by-layer evolution of structure, strain, and activity for the oxygen evolution reaction in graphene-templated Pt monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhafiz, Ali; Vitale, Adam; Joiner, Corey; Vogel, Eric; Alamgir, Faisal M

    2015-03-25

    In this study, we explore the dimensional aspect of structure-driven surface properties of metal monolayers grown on a graphene/Au template. Here, surface limited redox replacement (SLRR) is used to provide precise layer-by-layer growth of Pt monolayers on graphene. We find that after a few iterations of SLRR, fully wetted 4-5 monolayer Pt films can be grown on graphene. Incorporating graphene at the Pt-Au interface modifies the growth mechanism, charge transfers, equilibrium interatomic distances, and associated strain of the synthesized Pt monolayers. We find that a single layer of sandwiched graphene is able to induce a 3.5% compressive strain on the Pt adlayer grown on it, and as a result, catalytic activity is increased due to a greater areal density of the Pt layers beyond face-centered-cubic close packing. At the same time, the sandwiched graphene does not obstruct vicinity effects of near-surface electron exchange between the substrate Au and adlayers Pt. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) techniques are used to examine charge mediation across the Pt-graphene-Au junction and the local atomic arrangement as a function of the Pt adlayer dimension. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are used as probes to examine the electrochemically active area of Pt monolayers and catalyst activity, respectively. Results show that the inserted graphene monolayer results in increased activity for the Pt due to a graphene-induced compressive strain, as well as a higher resistance against loss of the catalytically active Pt surface.

  17. Detailed Analysis of ECMWF Surface Pressure Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagiolini, E.; Schmidt, T.; Schwarz, G.; Zenner, L.

    2012-04-01

    Investigations of temporal variations within the gravity field of the Earth led us to the analysis of common surface pressure data products delivered by ECMWF. We looked into the characteristics of global as well as spatially and temporally confined phenomena being visible in the data. In particular, we were interested in the overall data quality, the local and temporal signal-to-noise ratio of surface pressure data sets, and the identification of irregular data. To this end, we analyzed a time series of a full year of surface pressure operational analysis data and their nominal standard deviations. The use of pressure data on a Gaussian grid data allowed us to remain close to the internal computations at ECMWF during data assimilation. Thus, we circumvented potential interpolation effects that would otherwise occur in cylindrical projections of conventional map products. The results obtained by us demonstrate the identification of a few distinct outliers, data quality effects over land or water and along coastlines as well as neighborhood effects of samples within and outside of the tropics. Small scale neighborhood effects depend on their geographical direction, sampling distance, land or water, and local time. In addition, one notices large scale seasonal effects that are latitude and longitude dependent. As a consequence, we obtain a cause-and-effect survey of pressure data peculiarities. One can then use background corrected pressure data to analyze seasonal effects within given latitude belts. Here time series of pressure data allow the tracking of high and low pressure areas together with the identification of their actual extent, velocity and life time. This information is vital to overall mass transport calculations and the determination of temporally varying gravity fields. However, one has to note that the satellite and ground-based instruments and the assimilation software being used for the pressure calculations will not remain the same over the years

  18. Improvement of gas-adsorption performances of Ag-functionalized monolayer MoS2 surfaces: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jian; Lou, Huan

    2018-05-01

    Investigations of the adsorptions of representative gases (NO2, NH3, H2S, SO2, CO, and HCHO) on different Ag-functionalized monolayer MoS2 surfaces were performed by first principles methods. The adsorption configurations, adsorption energies, electronic structure properties, and charge transfer were calculated, and the results show that the adsorption activities to gases of monolayer MoS2 are dramatically enhanced by the Ag-modification. The Ag-modified perfect MoS2 (Ag-P) and MoS2 with S-vacancy (Ag-Vs) substrates exhibit a more superior adsorption activity to NO2 than other gases, which is consistent with the experimental reports. The charge transfer processes of different molecules adsorbed on different surfaces exhibit various characteristics, with potential benefits to gas selectivity. For instance, the NO2 and SO2 obtain more electrons from both Ag-P and Ag-Vs substrates but the NH3 and H2S donate more electrons to materials than others. In addition, the CO and HCHO possess totally opposite charge transfer directs on both substrates, respectively. The BS and PDOS calculations show that semiconductor types of gas/Ag-MoS2 systems are more determined by the metal-functionalization of material, and the directs and numbers of charge transfer process between gases and adsorbents can cause the increase or decline of material resistance theoretically, which is helpful to gas detection and distinction. The further analysis indicates suitable co-operation between the gain-lost electron ability of gas and metallicity of featuring metal might adjust the resistivity of complex and contribute to new thought for metal-functionalization. Our works provide new valuable ideas and theoretical foundation for the potential improvement of MoS2-based gas sensor performances, such as sensitivity and selectivity.

  19. The Interface between Gd and Monolayer MoS2: A First-Principles Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuejing

    2014-12-08

    We analyze the electronic structure of interfaces between two-, four- and six-layer Gd(0001) and monolayer MoS2 by first-principles calculations. Strong chemical bonds shift the Fermi energy of MoS2 upwards into the conduction band. At the surface and interface the Gd f states shift to lower energy and new surface/interface Gd d states appear at the Fermi energy, which are strongly hybridized with the Mo 4d states and thus lead to a high spin-polarization (ferromagnetically ordered Mo magnetic moments of 0.15 μB). Gd therefore is an interesting candidate for spin injection into monolayer MoS2.

  20. Resistance of poly(ethylene oxide)-silane monolayers to the growth of polyelectrolyte multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buron, Cédric C; Callegari, Vincent; Nysten, Bernard; Jonas, Alain M

    2007-09-11

    The ability of poly(ethylene oxide)-silane (PEO-silane) monolayers grafted onto silicon surfaces to resist the growth of polyelectrolyte multilayers under various pH conditions is assessed for different pairs of polyelectrolytes of varying molar mass. For acidic conditions (pH 3), the PEO-silane monolayers exhibit good polyelectrolyte repellency provided the polyelectrolytes bear no moieties that are able to form hydrogen bonds with the ether groups of the PEO chains. At basic pH, PEO-silane monolayers undergo substantial hydrolysis leading to the formation of negatively charged defects in the monolayers, which then play the role of adsorption sites for the polycation. Once the polycation is adsorbed, multilayer growth ensues. Because this is defect-driven growth, the multilayer is not continuous and is made of blobs or an open network of adsorbed strands. For such conditions, the molar mass of the polyelectrolyte plays a key role, with polyelectrolyte chains of larger molar mass adsorbing on a larger number of defects, resulting in stronger anchoring of the polyelectrolyte complex on the surfaces and faster subsequent growth of the multilayer. For polyelectrolytes of sufficiently low molar mass at pH 9, the growth of the multilayer can nevertheless be prevented for as much as five cycles of deposition.

  1. Immobilization of dendrimers on Si-C linked carboxylic acid-terminated monolayers on silicon(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecking, Till; Wong, Elicia L.S.; James, Michael; Watson, Jolanta A.; Brown, Christopher L.; Chilcott, Terry C.; Barrow, Kevin D.; Coster, Hans G.L.

    2006-01-01

    Poly(amidoamine) dendrimers were attached to activated undecanoic acid monolayers, covalently linked to smooth silicon surfaces via Si-C bonds. The resulting ultra-thin dendrimer films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray reflectometry (XR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XPS results suggested amide bond formation between the dendrimer and the surface carboxylic acid groups. XR yielded thicknesses of 10 A for the alkyl region of the undecanoic acid monolayer and 12 A for the dendrimer layer, considerably smaller than the diameter of these spherical macromolecules in solution. This was consistent with AFM images showing collapsed dendrimers on the surface. It was concluded that the deformation arose from a large number of amine groups on the surface of each dendrimer reacting efficiently with the activated surface, whereby the dendrimers can deform to fill voids while spreading over the activated surface to form a homogeneous macromolecular layer

  2. Epitaxial growth by monolayer restricted galvanic displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilić Rastko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a new method for epitaxial growth of metals in solution by galvanic displacement of layers pre-deposited by underpotential deposition (UPD was discussed and experimentally illustrated throughout the lecture. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM are employed to carry out and monitor a “quasi-perfect”, two-dimensional growth of Ag on Au(111, Cu on Ag(111, and Cu on Au(111 by repetitive galvanic displacement of underpotentially deposited monolayers. A comparative study emphasizes the displacement stoichiometry as an efficient tool for thickness control during the deposition process and as a key parameter that affects the deposit morphology. The excellent quality of layers deposited by monolayer-restricted galvanic displacement is manifested by a steady UPD voltammetry and ascertained by a flat and uniform surface morphology maintained during the entire growth process.

  3. AFM investigation of effect of absorbed water layer structure on growth mechanism of octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayer on oxidized silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shaowei; Zheng, Yanjun; Chen, Changfeng

    2016-01-01

    The growth mechanism of an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) self-assembled monolayer on a silicon oxide surface at various relative humidities has been investigated. Atomic force microscopy images show that excess water may actually hinder the nucleation and growth of OTS islands. A moderate amount of water is favorable for the nucleation and growth of OTS islands in the initial stage; however, the completion of the monolayer is very slow in the final stage. The growth of OTS islands on a low-water-content surface maintains a relatively constant speed and requires the least amount of time. The mobility of water molecules is thought to play an important role in the OTS monolayers, and a low-mobility water layer provides a steady condition for OTS monolayer growth.

  4. Airfoil Trailing Edge Noise Generation and Its Surface Pressure Fluctuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of turbulent flows over a NACA 0015 airfoil is performed. The purpose of such numerical study is to relate the aerodynamic surface pressure with the noise generation. The results from LES are validated against detailed surface pressure measurements...... where the time history pressure data are recorded by the surface pressure microphones. After the flow-field is stabilized, the generated noise from the airfoil Trailing Edge (TE) is predicted using the acoustic analogy solver, where the results from LES are the input. It is found that there is a strong...

  5. Surface Structures and Thermal Desorption Behaviors of Cyclopentanethiol Self-Assembled Monolayers on Au(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hun Gu; Kim, You Young; Park, Tae Sun; Noh, Jae Geun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joon B. [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Ito, Eisuke; Hara, Masahiko [RIKEN-HYU Collaboration Center, Saitama (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    The surface structures, adsorption conditions, and thermal desorption behaviors of cyclopentanethiol (CPT) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au(111) were investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). STM imaging revealed that although the adsorption of CPT on Au(111) at room temperature generates disordered SAMs, CPT molecules at 50 .deg. C formed well-ordered SAMs with a (2√3 x √5)R41{sup .}deg. packing structure. XPS measurements showed that CPT SAMs at room temperature were formed via chemical reactions between the sulfur atoms and gold surfaces. TDS measurements showed two dominant TD peaks for the decomposed fragments (C{sub 5}H{sub 9} {sup +}, m/e = 69) generated via C-S bond cleavage and the parent molecular species (C{sub 5}H{sub 9}SH{sup +}, m/e = 102) derived from a recombination of the chemisorbed thiolates and hydrogen atoms near 440 K. Interestingly, dimerization of sulfur atoms in n-alkanethiol SAMs usually occurs during thermal desorption and the same reaction did not happen for CPT SAMs, which may be due to the steric hindrance of cyclic rings of the CPT molecules. In this study, we demonstrated that the alicyclic ring of organic thiols strongly affected the surface structure and thermal desorption behavior of SAMs, thus providing a good method for controlling chemical and physical properties of organic thiol SAMs.

  6. Disorder-derived, strong tunneling attenuation in bis-phosphonate monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, Anshuma; Bora, Achyut; Tornow, Marc; Liao, Kung-Ching; Schwartz, Jeffrey; Schmolke, Hannah; Jung, Antje; Klages, Claus-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Monolayers of alkyl bisphosphonic acids (bisPAs) of various carbon chain lengths (C4, C8, C10, C12) were grown on aluminum oxide (AlO x ) surfaces from solution. The structural and electrical properties of these self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were compared with those of alkyl monophosphonic acids (monoPAs). Through contact angle (CA) and Kelvin-probe (KP) measurements, ellipsometry, and infrared (IR) and x-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies, it was found that bisPAs form monolayers that are relatively disordered compared to their monoPA analogs. Current–voltage (J–V) measurements made with a hanging Hg drop top contact show tunneling to be the prevailing transport mechanism. However, while the monoPAs have an observed decay constant within the typical range for dense monolayers, β mono   =  0.85  ±  0.03 per carbon atom, a surprisingly high value, β bis   =  1.40  ±  0.05 per carbon atom, was measured for the bisPAs. We attribute this to a strong contribution of ‘through-space’ tunneling, which derives from conformational disorder in the monolayer due to strong interactions of the distal phosphonic acid groups; they likely form a hydrogen-bonding network that largely determines the molecular layer structure. Since bisPA SAMs attenuate tunnel currents more effectively than do the corresponding monoPA SAMs, they may find future application as gate dielectric modification in organic thin film devices. (paper)

  7. Adsorption behavior of magnetite nanoparticles into the DPPC model membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Changchun; Li, Junhua; Mu, Wenning; Zhu, Lingqing; Yang, Jiaxiang; Liu, Hongwei; Li, Bin; Chen, Shi; Sun, Runguang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A represents the state when DPPC was spread on air/water interface at 5 mN/m surface pressures. DPPC is in the liquid expanded state at the interface. B represents 15 mN/m surface pressures and DPPC monolayer is in the liquid condensed state at the interface. - Highlights: • The adsorption of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles on DPPC monolayer has been investigated. • The lifting area/molecule of DPPC monolayers increased with Fe 3 O 4 increasing. • The π–t curves were well fitted by single exponential association equation. • AFM images depended on surface pressure and concentration in subphase. - Abstract: In this report, we have studied the adsorption behavior of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles into dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayer. Adsorption kinetics (π–t) process as well as the surface pressure (π–A) isotherms were monitored by Langmuir Wilhelmy plate. The measurement data indicated the Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles incorporated into the monolayer at the air–water interface. The lifting area/molecule isotherms of DPPC monolayers increased with the increasing concentration of Fe 3 O 4 in the subphase, however, the values of elasticity reduced. The curves of π–t were well fitted by single exponential association equation. Observation by atomic force microscopy (AFM) on monolayers extracted at 5 mN/m and 15 mN/m suggested that the different interaction of Fe 3 O 4 with DPPC monolayer depended on surface pressure of monolayers and concentration in the subphase. The results of observations were in agreement with the fitted results.

  8. Surface acoustic wave oxygen pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A transducer for the measurement of absolute gas-state oxygen pressure from pressures of less than 100 Pa to atmospheric pressure (1.01 x 10(exp 5) Pa) is based on a standard surface acoustic wave (SAW) device. The piezoelectric material of the SAW device is coated with a compound which will selectively and reversibly bind oxygen. When oxygen is bound by the coating, the mass of the coating increases by an amount equal to the mass of the bound oxygen. Such an increase in the mass of the coating causes a corresponding decrease in the resonant frequency of the SAW device.

  9. Tribology and Stability of Organic Monolayers on CrN: A Comparison among Silane, Phosphate, Alkene, and Alkyne Chemistries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pujari, S.P.; Li, F.; Regeling, R.; Zuilhof, H.

    2013-01-01

    The fabrication of chemically and mechanically stable monolayers on the surfaces of various inorganic hard materials is crucial to the development of biomedical/electronic devices. In this Article, monolayers based on the reactivity of silane, phosphonate, 1-alkene, and 1-alkyne moieties were

  10. Reactive Landing of Gramicidin S and Ubiquitin Ions onto Activated Self-Assembled Monolayer Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Julia; Hu, Qichi

    2017-03-13

    Using mass-selected ion deposition combined with in situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), we examined the reactive landing of gramicidin S and ubiquitin ions onto activated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces terminated with N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester (NHS-SAM) and acyl fluoride (COF-SAM) groups. Doubly protonated gramicidin S, [GS+2H]2+, and two charge states of ubiquitin, [U+5H]5+ and [U+13H]13+, were used as model systems, allowing us to explore the effect of the number of free amino groups and the secondary structure on the efficiency of covalent bond formation between the projectile ion and the surface. For all projectile ions, ion deposition resulted in the depletion of IRRAS bands corresponding to the terminal groups on the SAM and the appearance of several new bands not associated with the deposited species. These new bands were assigned to the C=O stretching vibrations of COOH and COO- groups formed on the surface as a result of ion deposition. The presence of these bands was attributed to an alternative reactive landing pathway that competes with covalent bond formation. This pathway with similar yields for both gramicidin S and ubiquitin ions is analogous to the hydrolysis of the NHS ester bond in solution. The covalent bond formation efficiency increased linearly with the number of free amino groups and was found to be lower for the more compact conformation of ubiquitin compared with the fully unfolded conformation. This observation was attributed to the limited availability of amino groups on the surface of the folded conformation. Our results have provided new insights on the efficiency and mechanism of reactive landing of peptides and proteins onto activated SAMs

  11. Magnetism of Ta dichalcogenide monolayers tuned by strain and hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manchanda, Priyanka; Sellmyer, D. J.; Skomski, Ralph [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Sharma, Vinit [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Yu, Hongbin [School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    The effects of strain and hydrogenation on the electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of monolayers of Ta based dichalcogenides (TaX{sub 2}; X = S, Se, and Te) are investigated using density-functional theory. We predict a complex scenario of strain-dependent magnetic phase transitions involving paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, and modulated antiferromagnetic states. Covering one of the two chalcogenide surfaces with hydrogen switches the antiferromagnetic/nonmagnetic TaX{sub 2} monolayers to a semiconductor, and the optical behavior strongly depends on strain and hydrogenation. Our research opens pathways towards the manipulation of magnetic as well as optical properties for future spintronics and optoelectronics applications.

  12. Lanthanide Selective Sorbents: Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports (SAMMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryxell, Glen E.; Wu, Hong; Lin, Yuehe; Shaw, Wendy J.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Linehan, John C.; Nie, Zimin; Kemner, K. M.; Kelly, Shelley

    2004-11-01

    Through the marriage of mesoporous ceramics with self-assembled monolayer chemistry, the genesis of a powerful new class of environmental sorbent materials has been realized. By coating the mesoporous ceramic backbone with a monolayer terminated with a lanthanide-specific ligand, it is possible to couple high lanthanide binding affinity with the high loading capacity (resulting from the extremely high surface area of the support). This lanthanide-specific ligand field is created by pairing a ''hard'' anionic Lewis base with a suitable synergistic ligand, in a favorable chelating geometry. Details of the synthesis, characterization, lanthanide binding studies, binding kinetics, competition experiments and sorbent regeneration studies are summarized

  13. Lanthanide Selective Sorbents: Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Supports (SAMMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryxell, Glen E.; Wu, Hong; Lin, Yuehe; Shaw, Wendy J.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Linehan, John C.; Nie, Zimin; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Kelly, Shelley

    2004-11-01

    Through the marriage of mesoporous ceramics with self-assembled monolayer chemistry, the genesis of a powerful new class of environmental sorbent materials has been realized. By coating the mesoporous ceramic backbone with a monolayer terminated with a lanthanide-specific ligand, it is possible to couple high lanthanide binding affinity with the high loading capacity (resulting from the extremely high surface area of the support). This lanthanide-specific ligand field is created by pairing a “hard” anionic Lewis base with a suitable synergistic ligand, in a favorable chelating geometry. Details of the synthesis, characterization, lanthanide binding studies, binding kinetics, competition experiments and sorbent regeneration studies are summarized.

  14. Photoswitching in azobenzene self-assembled monolayers capped on zinc oxide: nanodots vs nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Mujtaba; Martini, Cyril; Ackermann, Jörg; Fages, Frédéric

    2012-02-01

    We report the synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of nanohybrid structures consisting of an azobenzene compound grafted on the surface of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Characteristic bathochromic shifts indicate that the azobenzene photochromic molecules self-assemble onto the surface of the nanocrystals. The extent of packing is dependent on the shape of the nanoparticle. ZnO nanorods, with flat facets, enable a tighter organization of the molecules in the self-assembled monolayer than in the case of nanodots that display a more curvated shape. Consistently, the efficiency of photochromic switching of the self-assembled monolayer on ZnO nanoparticles is also shown to be strongly affected by nanoparticle shape. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Stability analysis of a pressure-solution surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Doron; Nur, Amos; Aharonov, Einat

    We present a linear stability analysis of a dissolution surface subjected to non-hydrostatic stress. A sinusoidal perturbation is imposed on an initially flat solid/fluid interface, and the consequent changes in elastic strain energy and surface energy are calculated. Our results demonstrate that if the far-field lateral stresses are either greater, or much smaller than the fluid pressure, the perturbed configuration has a lower strain energy than the initial one. For wavelengths greater than a critical wavelength this energy decrease may be large enough to offset the increased surface energy. Under these conditions, the perturbation grows unstably. If these conditions are not met, the surface becomes flat. The growth rate and wavelength of the maximally unstable mode depend on the mechanism of matter transport. We conclude that the instability discussed in this paper may account for the formation of stylolites and other pressure-solution phenomena, such as roughening of grain contacts.

  16. Self-renewing Monolayer of Primary Colonic or Rectal Epithelial CellsSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Three-dimensional organoid culture has fundamentally changed the in vitro study of intestinal biology enabling novel assays; however, its use is limited because of an inaccessible luminal compartment and challenges to data gathering in a three-dimensional hydrogel matrix. Long-lived, self-renewing 2-dimensional (2-D tissue cultured from primary colon cells has not been accomplished. Methods: The surface matrix and chemical factors that sustain 2-D mouse colonic and human rectal epithelial cell monolayers with cell repertoires comparable to that in vivo were identified. Results: The monolayers formed organoids or colonoids when placed in standard Matrigel culture. As with the colonoids, the monolayers exhibited compartmentalization of proliferative and differentiated cells, with proliferative cells located near the peripheral edges of growing monolayers and differentiated cells predominated in the central regions. Screening of 77 dietary compounds and metabolites revealed altered proliferation or differentiation of the murine colonic epithelium. When exposed to a subset of the compound library, murine organoids exhibited similar responses to that of the monolayer but with differences that were likely attributable to the inaccessible organoid lumen. The response of the human primary epithelium to a compound subset was distinct from that of both the murine primary epithelium and human tumor cells. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a self-renewing 2-D murine and human monolayer derived from primary cells can serve as a physiologically relevant assay system for study of stem cell renewal and differentiation and for compound screening. The platform holds transformative potential for personalized and precision medicine and can be applied to emerging areas of disease modeling and microbiome studies. Keywords: Colonic Epithelial Cells, Monolayer, Organoids, Compound Screening

  17. Platinum monolayer electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction: effect of substrates, and long-term stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ZHANG

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel concept for a Ptmonolayer electrocatalyst and present the results of our electrochemical, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy studies. The electrocatalysts were prepared by a new method for depositing Pt monolayers involving the galvanic displacement by Pt of an underpotentially deposited Cu monolayer on substrates of Au (111, Ir(111, Pd(111, Rh(111 and Ru(0001 single crylstals, and Pd nanoparticles. The kinetics of O2 reduction showed significant enhancement with Pt monolayers on Pd(111 and Pd nanoparticle surfaces in comparisonwith the reaction on Pt(111 and Pt nanoparticles, respectively. This increase in catalytic activity is attributed partly to the decreased formation of PtOH, as shown by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results illustrate that placing a Pt monolayer on a suitable substrate of metal nanoparticles is an attractive way of designing better O2 reduction electrocatalysts with very low Pt contents.

  18. Decoupling of crystalline and conformational degrees of freedom in lipid monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, John Hjorth; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Zuckermann, Martin J.

    1989-01-01

    of variables which describe the orientations of crystalline domains in the solid. The phase behavior of the model as a function of temperature and lateral pressure is explored using mean-field theory and computer-simulation techniques. Attention is paid to the particular interplay between the two types......-formation processes observed along the isotherms in the phase diagram spanned by lateral pressure and area. A description is given of the kinetics of the nonequilibrium phase transitions and the concomitant heterogeneous microstructure of the monolayer. This leads to an explanation of the peculiarities...

  19. Ozone Oxidation of Self-Assembled Monolayers on SiOx-Coated Zinc Selenide Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, T. M.; Ryder, O. S.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    Airborne particles are important for visibility, human health, climate, and atmospheric reactions. Atmospheric particles contain a significant fraction of organics and such compounds present on airborne particles are susceptible to oxidation by atmospheric oxidants, such as OH, ozone, halogen atoms, and nitrogen trioxide. Oxidized organics associated with airborne particles are thought to be polar, hygroscopic species with enhanced cloud-nucleating properties. Oxide layers on silicon, or SiO2-coated substrates, act as models of environmentally relevant surfaces such as dust particles upon which organics adsorb. We have shown previously that ozone oxidation of unsaturated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on silicon attenuated total reflectance (ATR) crystals leads to the formation of carbonyl groups and micron-sized, hydrophobic organic aggregates surrounded by carbon depleted substrate that do not have increased water uptake as previously assumed. Reported here are further ATR-FTIR studies of the oxidation of alkene SAMs on ZnSe and SiO2-coated ZnSe. These substrates have the advantage that they transmit below 1500 cm-1, allowing detection of additional product species. These experiments show that the loss of C=C and formation of carbonyl groups is also accompanied by formation of a peak at 1110 cm-1, attributed to the secondary ozonide. Details concerning the products and mechanism of ozonolysis of alkene SAMs on surfaces based on these new data are presented and the implications for the oxidation of alkenes on airborne dust particles are discussed.

  20. Substoichiometric cobalt oxide monolayer on Ir(100)-(1 x 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubo, M; Ebensperger, C; Meyer, W; Hammer, L; Heinz, K

    2009-01-01

    A substoichiometric monolayer of cobalt oxide has been prepared by deposition and oxidation of slightly less than one monolayer of cobalt on the unreconstructed surface of Ir(100). The ultrathin film was investigated by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and quantitative low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). The cobalt species of the film reside in or near hollow positions of the substrate with, however, unoccupied sites (vacancies) in a 3 x 3 arrangement. In the so-formed 3 x 3 supercell the oxide's oxygen species are both threefold and fourfold coordinated to cobalt, forming pyramids with a triangular and square cobalt basis, respectively. These pyramids are the building blocks of the oxide. Due to the reduced coordination as compared to the sixfold one in the bulk of rock-salt-type CoO, the Co-O bond lengths are smaller than in the latter. For the threefold coordination they compare very well with the bond length in oxygen terminated CoO(111) films investigated recently. The substoichiometric 3 x 3 oxide monolayer phase transforms to a stoichiometric c(10 x 2)-periodic oxide monolayer under oxygen exposure, in which, however, cobalt and oxygen species are in (111) orientation and so form a CoO(111) layer.

  1. Morphology of compressed dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine monolayers investigated by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.-P.; Tsay, R.-Y.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of a substitute of natural lung surfactants on replacement therapy strongly depends on the stability of the monolayer of those substitute molecules. An atomic force microscope is utilized to investigate the microstructure of the films of the major components of natural lung surfactants, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine-DPPC, which are transferred to mica substrates by the Langmuir-Blodgett film technique. A concave deformation structure was first observed for DPPC in solid phase. The depth of the concave domain was about 6 nm and was remarkably uniform. For a collapsed DPPC monolayer, the surface film consists of a granular convex multilayer structure and a disc-like concave structure. Dynamic cyclic compression-expansion experiments indicate that the formation of the concave domain is a reversible process while the process for convex multilayer formation is irreversible. This gives direct evidence that convex grain is the collapsed structure of DPPC monolayer and the concave shallow disc corresponds to the elastic deformation of a DPPC solid film. Results of atomic force microscopy indicate that the nucleation and growth model instead of the fracture model can better describe the collapse behavior of a DPPC monolayer

  2. Bidisperse silica nanoparticles close-packed monolayer on silicon substrate by three step spin method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Sakshum; Marathey, Priyanka; Utsav, Chaliawala, Harsh; Mukhopadhyay, Indrajit

    2018-05-01

    We present the studies on the structural properties of monolayer Bidisperse silica (SiO2) nanoparticles (BDS) on Silicon (Si-100) substrate using spin coating technique. The Bidisperse silica nanoparticle was synthesised by the modified sol-gel process. Nanoparticles on the substrate are generally assembled in non-close/close-packed monolayer (CPM) form. The CPM form is obtained by depositing the colloidal suspension onto the silicon substrate using complex techniques. Here we report an effective method for forming a monolayer of bidisperse silica nanoparticle by three step spin coating technique. The samples were prepared by mixing the monodisperse solutions of different particles size 40 and 100 nm diameters. The bidisperse silica nanoparticles were self-assembled on the silicon substrate forming a close-packed monolayer film. The scanning electron microscope images of bidisperse films provided in-depth film structure of the film. The maximum surface coverage obtained was around 70-80%.

  3. Nonlinear dynamics in experimental devices with compressed/expanded surfactant monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuera, M; Perales, J M; Vega, J M

    2014-01-01

    A theory is provided for a common experimental set up that is used to measure surface properties in surfactant monolayers. The set up consists of a surfactant monolayer (over a shallow liquid layer) that is compressed/expanded in a periodic fashion by moving in counter-phase two parallel, slightly immersed solid barriers, which vary the free surface area and thus the surfactant concentration. The simplest theory ignores the fluid dynamics in the bulk fluid, assuming spatially uniform surfactant concentration, which requires quite small forcing frequencies and provides reversible dynamics in the compression/expansion cycles. In this paper, we present a long-wave theory for not so slow oscillations that assumes local equilibrium but takes the fluid dynamics into account. This simple theory uncovers the physical mechanisms involved in the surfactant behavior and allows for extracting more information from each experimental run. The conclusion is that the fluid dynamics cannot be ignored, and that some irreversible dynamics could well have a fluid dynamic origin. (paper)

  4. Structures and shear response of lipid monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, P.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1993-02-01

    This report discusses our work during the last 3 years using x-ray diffraction and shear measurements to study lipid monolayers (membranes). The report is divided into: (1) structure: phase diagram of saturated fatty acid Langmuir monolayers, effect of head group interactions, studies of transferred monolayers (LB films); (2) mechanical properties: fiber=optic capillary wave probe and centrosymmetric trough, mechanical behavior of heneicosanoic acid monolayer phases

  5. Detection of the adsorption of water monolayers through the ion oscillation frequency in the magnesium oxide lattice by means of low energy electron diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Guevara-Bertsch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the variation of the oscillation frequency of the Mg2+ and O2− ions in the magnesium oxide lattice due to the interactions of the surface with water monolayers by means of Low Energy Electron Diffraction. Our key result is a new technique to determine the adsorbate vibrations produced by the water monolayers on the surface lattice as a consequence of their change in the surface Debye temperature and its chemical shift. The latter was systematically investigated for different annealing times and for a constant external thermal perturbation in the range of 110–300 K in order to accomplish adsorption or desorption of water monolayers in the surface lattice.

  6. Detection of the adsorption of water monolayers through the ion oscillation frequency in the magnesium oxide lattice by means of low energy electron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara-Bertsch, M.; Avendaño, E. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 San Pedro, San José (Costa Rica); Centro de Investigación en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 San Pedro, San José (Costa Rica); Ramírez-Hidalgo, G. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 San Pedro, San José (Costa Rica); Sección de Física Teórica, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 San Pedro, San José (Costa Rica); Chavarría-Sibaja, A.; Araya-Pochet, J. A. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 San Pedro, San José (Costa Rica); Herrera-Sancho, O. A., E-mail: oscar-andrey.herrera@uibk.ac.at [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 San Pedro, San José (Costa Rica); Centro de Investigación en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 San Pedro, San José (Costa Rica); Institut für Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Technikerstr. 21a, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2016-03-15

    We investigate the variation of the oscillation frequency of the Mg{sup 2+} and O{sup 2−} ions in the magnesium oxide lattice due to the interactions of the surface with water monolayers by means of Low Energy Electron Diffraction. Our key result is a new technique to determine the adsorbate vibrations produced by the water monolayers on the surface lattice as a consequence of their change in the surface Debye temperature and its chemical shift. The latter was systematically investigated for different annealing times and for a constant external thermal perturbation in the range of 110–300 K in order to accomplish adsorption or desorption of water monolayers in the surface lattice.

  7. Formation of carboxy- and amide-terminated alkyl monolayers on silicon(111) investigated by ATR-FTIR, XPS, and X-ray scattering: Construction of photoswitchable surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rück-Braun, Karola; Petersen, Michael Åxman; Michalik, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    -FTIR and XPS studies of the fulgimide samples revealed closely covered amide-terminated SAMs. Reversible photoswitching of the headgroup was read out by applying XPS, ATR-FTIR, and difference absorption spectra in the mid-IR. In XPS, we observed a reversible breathing of the amide/imide C1s and N1s signals......We have prepared high-quality, densely packed, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of carboxy-terminated alkyl chains on Si(111). The samples were made by thermal grafting of methyl undec-10-enoate under an inert atmosphere and subsequent cleavage of the ester functionality to disclose the carboxylic...... zigzag-like substitution pattern for the ester- and carboxy-terminated monolayer. Hydrolysis of the remaining H-Si(111) bonds at the surface furnished HO-Si(111) groups according to XPS and attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) studies. The amide-terminated alkyl...

  8. Au Nanoparticle Sub-Monolayers Sandwiched between Sol-Gel Oxide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Gaspera, Enrico; Menin, Enrico; Sada, Cinzia

    2018-01-01

    Sub-monolayers of monodisperse Au colloids with different surface coverage have been embedded in between two different metal oxide thin films, combining sol-gel depositions and proper substrates functionalization processes. The synthetized films were TiO2, ZnO, and NiO. X-ray diffraction shows the crystallinity of all the oxides and verifies the nominal surface coverage of Au colloids. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the metal nanoparticles is affected by both bottom and top oxides: in fact, the SPR peak of Au that is sandwiched between two different oxides is centered between the SPR frequencies of Au sub-monolayers covered with only one oxide, suggesting that Au colloids effectively lay in between the two oxide layers. The desired organization of Au nanoparticles and the morphological structure of the prepared multi-layered structures has been confirmed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses that show a high quality sandwich structure. The multi-layered structures have been also tested as optical gas sensors. PMID:29538338

  9. Thermodynamic versus non-equilibrium stability of palmitic acid monolayers in calcium-enriched sea spray aerosol proxy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen Rudd, Bethany A; Vidalis, Andrew S; Allen, Heather C

    2018-04-16

    Of the major cations in seawater (Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+), Ca2+ is found to be the most enriched in fine sea spray aerosols (SSA). In this work, we investigate the binding of Ca2+ to the carboxylic acid headgroup of palmitic acid (PA), a marine-abundant fatty acid, and the impact such binding has on the stability of PA monolayers in both equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems. A range of Ca2+ conditions from 10 μM to 300 mM was utilized to represent the relative concentration of Ca2+ in high and low relative humidity aerosol environments. The CO2- stretching modes of PA detected by surface-sensitive infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) reveal ionic binding motifs of the Ca2+ ion to the carboxylate group with varying degrees of hydration. Surface tensiometry was used to determine the thermodynamic equilibrium spreading pressure (ESP) of PA on the various aqueous CaCl2 subphases. Up to concentrations of 1 mM Ca2+, each system reached equilibrium, and Ca2+:PA surface complexation gave rise to a lower energy state revealed by elevated surface pressures relative to water. We show that PA films are not thermodynamically stable at marine aerosol-relevant Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+] ≥ 10 mM). IRRAS and vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy were used to investigate the surface presence of PA on high concentration Ca2+ aqueous subphases. Non-equilibrium relaxation (NER) experiments were also conducted and monitored by Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) to determine the effect of the Ca2+ ions on PA stability. At high surface pressures, the relaxation mechanisms of PA varied among the systems and were dependent on Ca2+ concentration.

  10. Immobilization of Colloidal Monolayers at Fluid–Fluid Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Bähler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Monolayers of colloidal particles trapped at an interface between two immiscible fluids play a pivotal role in many applications and act as essential models in fundamental studies. One of the main advantages of these systems is that non-close packed monolayers with tunable inter-particle spacing can be formed, as required, for instance, in surface patterning and sensing applications. At the same time, the immobilization of particles locked into desired structures to be transferred to solid substrates remains challenging. Here, we describe three different strategies to immobilize monolayers of polystyrene microparticles at water–decane interfaces. The first route is based on the leaking of polystyrene oligomers from the particles themselves, which leads to the formation of a rigid interfacial film. The other two rely on in situ interfacial polymerization routes that embed the particles into a polymer membrane. By tracking the motion of the colloids at the interface, we can follow in real-time the formation of the polymer membranes and we interestingly find that the onset of the polymerization reaction is accompanied by an increase in particle mobility determined by Marangoni flows at the interface. These results pave the way for future developments in the realization of thin tailored composite polymer-particle membranes.

  11. Solution-processable septithiophene monolayer transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Defaux, M.; Gholamrezaie, F.; Wang, J.; Kreyes, A.; Ziener, U.; Anokhin, D.V.; Ivanov, D.A.; Moser, A.; Neuhold, A.; Salzmann, I.; Resel, R.; Leeuw, de D.M.; Meskers, S.C.J.; Moeller, M.; Mourran, A.

    2012-01-01

    Septithiophene with endgroups designed to form liquid crystalline phases and allows controlled deposition of an electrically connected monolayer. Field effect mobilies mobilities of charge carriers and spectroscopic properties of the monolayer provide evidence of sustainable transport and

  12. Solution-Processable Septithiophene Monolayer Transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Defaux, Matthieu; Gholamrezaie, Fatemeh; Wang, Jingbo; Kreyes, Andreas; Ziener, Ulrich; Anokhin, Denis V.; Ivanov, Dimitri A.; Moser, Armin; Neuhold, Alfred; Salzmann, Ingo; Resel, Roland; de Leeuw, Dago M.; Meskers, Stefan C. J.; Moeller, Martin; Mourran, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Septithiophene with endgroups designed to form liquid crystalline phases and allows controlled deposition of an electrically connected monolayer. Field effect mobilies mobilities of charge carriers and spectroscopic properties of the monolayer provide evidence of sustainable transport and

  13. Surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy substrate for arsenic sensing in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong; Mulvihill, Martin; Tao, Andrea R.; Sinsermsuksakul, Prasert; Arnold, John

    2015-06-16

    A surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate formed from a plurality of monolayers of polyhedral silver nanocrystals, wherein at least one of the monolayers has polyvinypyrrolidone (PVP) on its surface, and thereby configured for sensing arsenic is described. Highly active SERS substrates are formed by assembling high density monolayers of differently shaped silver nanocrystals onto a solid support. SERS detection is performed directly on this substrate by placing a droplet of the analyte solution onto the nanocrystal monolayer. Adsorbed polymer, polyvinypyrrolidone (PVP), on the surface of the nanoparticles facilitates the binding of both arsenate and arsenite near the silver surface, allowing for highly accurate and sensitive detection capabilities.

  14. Electrical resistivity of nanoporous gold modified with thiol self-assembled monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakamada, Masataka, E-mail: hakamada.masataka.3x@kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kato, Naoki, E-mail: katou.naoki.75w@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Mabuchi, Mamoru, E-mail: mabuchi@energy.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Nanoporous gold is modified with thiol-containing self-assembled monolayers. • The electrical resistivity of the thiol-modified nanoporous gold increases. • The electrical resistivity increases with increasing thiol concentration. • Monolayer tail groups enhance the atmosphere dependence of electrical resistivity. - Abstract: The electrical resistivity of nanoporous gold (NPG) modified with thiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) has been measured at 298 K using a four-probe method. We found that the adsorption of thiol SAMs increases the electrical resistivity of NPG by up to 22.2%. Dependence of the electrical resistivity on the atmosphere (air or water) was also observed in SAMs-modified NPG, suggesting that the electronic states of the tail groups affect the electrons of the binding sulfur and adjacent surface gold atoms. The present results suggest that adsorption of thiol molecules can influence the behavior of the conducting electrons in NPG and that modification of NPG with SAMs may be useful for environmental sensing.

  15. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, Robert F.; Herrmann, Hans W.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate a practical, atmospheric pressure plasma tool for the surface decontamination of radioactive waste. Decontamination of radioactive materials that have accumulated on the surfaces of equipment and structures is a challenging and costly undertaking for the US Department of Energy. Our technology shows great potential for accelerating this clean up effort

  16. N-Heterocyclic carbenes on close-packed coinage metal surfaces: bis-carbene metal adatom bonding scheme of monolayer films on Au, Ag and Cu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Zhang, Bodong; Médard, Guillaume; Seitsonen, Ari Paavo; Haag, Felix; Allegretti, Francesco; Reichert, Joachim; Kuster, Bernhard; Barth, Johannes V; Papageorgiou, Anthoula C

    2017-12-01

    By means of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), complementary density functional theory (DFT) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) we investigate the binding and self-assembly of a saturated molecular layer of model N -heterocyclic carbene (NHC) on Cu(111), Ag(111) and Au(111) surfaces under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. XPS reveals that at room temperature, coverages up to a monolayer exist, with the molecules engaged in metal carbene bonds. On all three surfaces, we resolve similar arrangements, which can be interpreted only in terms of mononuclear M(NHC) 2 (M = Cu, Ag, Au) complexes, reminiscent of the paired bonding of thiols to surface gold adatoms. Theoretical investigations for the case of Au unravel the charge distribution of a Au(111) surface covered by Au(NHC) 2 and reveal that this is the energetically preferential adsorption configuration.

  17. Adsorption of helium gas near Tλ at low pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachalin, G.V.; Kryukov, A.P.; Nesterov, S.B.

    1998-01-01

    Cryosorption of helium isotopes ( 4 He and 3 He) on thin argon cryo layers is studied experimentally in the temperature range 4.2-2 K at low pressures. It is shown that the sorption iso stere 4 He is anomalous at temperatures close to be temperature of the phase transition in the bulk of 4 He, T λ . An abrupt pressure change is observed for a 4 He film thickness approximately equal to two monolayers. The experiments on cryosorption of 3 He gas on an argon layer with a 3 He film thickness of approximately one monolayer display monotonous changes in the pressure within the whole temperature range

  18. Correction of the exciton Bohr radius in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Run-Ze; Dong, Xi-Ying; Li, Zhi-Qing; Wang, Zi-Wu

    2018-07-01

    We theoretically investigate the correction of exciton Bohr radius in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) on different polar substrates arising from the exciton-optical phonon coupling, in which both the intrinsic longitudinal optical phonon and surface optical phonon modes couple with the exciton are taken into account. We find that the exciton Bohr radius is enlarged markedly due to these coupling. Moreover, it can be changed on a large scale by modulating the polarizability of polar substrate and the internal distance between the monolayer TMDCs and polar substrate. Theoretical result provides a potential explanation for the variation of the exciton Bohr radius in experimental measurement.

  19. Surface properties of self-assembled monolayer films of tetra-substituted cobalt, iron and manganese alkylthio phthalocyanine complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinbulu, Isaac Adebayo; Khene, Samson [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Nyokong, Tebello, E-mail: t.nyokong@ru.ac.z [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa)

    2010-09-30

    Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) films of iron (SAM-1), cobalt (SAM-2) and manganese (SAM-3) phthalocyanine complexes, tetra-substituted with diethylaminoethanethio at the non-peripheral positions, were formed on gold electrode in dimethylformamide (DMF). Electrochemical, impedimentary and surface properties of the SAM films were investigated. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the electrochemical properties of the films. Ability of the films to inhibit common faradaic processes on bare gold surface (gold oxidation, solution redox chemistry of [Fe(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 3+}/[Fe(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 2+} and underpotential deposition (UDP) of copper) was investigated. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), using [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3-/4-} redox process as a probe, offered insights into the electrical properties of the films/electrode interfaces. Surface properties of the films were probed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The films were employed for the electrocatalytic oxidation of the pesticide, carbofuran. Electrocatalysis was evidenced from enhanced current signal and less positive oxidation potential of the pesticide on each film, relative to that observed on the bare gold electrode. Mechanism of electrocatalytic oxidation of the pesticide was studied using rotating disc electrode voltammetry.

  20. Dip-coating with prestructured substrates: transfer of simple liquids and Langmuir–Blodgett monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, Markus; Thiele, Uwe; Gurevich, Svetlana V; Zhu, Juan; Chi, Lifeng

    2017-01-01

    When a plate is withdrawn from a liquid bath, either a static meniscus forms in the transition region between the bath and the substrate or a liquid film of finite thickness (a Landau–Levich film) is transferred onto the moving substrate. If the substrate is inhomogeneous, e.g. has a prestructure consisting of stripes of different wettabilities, the meniscus can be deformed or show a complex dynamic behavior. Here we study the free surface shape and dynamics of a dragged meniscus occurring for striped prestructures with two orientations, parallel and perpendicular to the transfer direction. A thin film model is employed that accounts for capillarity through a Laplace pressure and for the spatially varying wettability through a Derjaguin (or disjoining) pressure. Numerical continuation is used to obtain steady free surface profiles and corresponding bifurcation diagrams in the case of substrates with different homogeneous wettabilities. Direct numerical simulations are employed in the case of the various striped prestructures. The final part illustrates the importance of our findings for particular applications that involve complex liquids by modeling a Langmuir–Blodgett transfer experiment. There, one transfers a monolayer of an insoluble surfactant that covers the surface of the bath onto the moving substrate. The resulting pattern formation phenomena can be crucially influenced by the hydrodynamics of the liquid meniscus that itself depends on the prestructure on the substrate. In particular, we show how prestructure stripes parallel to the transfer direction lead to the formation of bent stripes in the surfactant coverage after transfer and present similar experimental results. (paper)

  1. Kinetics of monolayer graphene growth by segregation on Pd(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, H. S.; Murata, Y.; Kodambaka, S.; Ebnonnasir, A.; Ciobanu, C. V.; Nie, S.; McCarty, K. F.

    2014-01-01

    Using in situ low-energy electron microscopy and density functional theory calculations, we follow the growth of monolayer graphene on Pd(111) via surface segregation of bulk-dissolved carbon. Upon lowering the substrate temperature, nucleation of graphene begins on graphene-free Pd surface and continues to occur during graphene growth. Measurements of graphene growth rates and Pd surface work functions establish that this continued nucleation is due to increasing C adatom concentration on the Pd surface with time. We attribute this anomalous phenomenon to a large barrier for attachment of C adatoms to graphene coupled with a strong binding of the non-graphitic C to the Pd surface

  2. Kinetics of monolayer graphene growth by segregation on Pd(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mok, H. S.; Murata, Y.; Kodambaka, S., E-mail: kodambaka@ucla.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Ebnonnasir, A.; Ciobanu, C. V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science Program, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Nie, S.; McCarty, K. F. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    Using in situ low-energy electron microscopy and density functional theory calculations, we follow the growth of monolayer graphene on Pd(111) via surface segregation of bulk-dissolved carbon. Upon lowering the substrate temperature, nucleation of graphene begins on graphene-free Pd surface and continues to occur during graphene growth. Measurements of graphene growth rates and Pd surface work functions establish that this continued nucleation is due to increasing C adatom concentration on the Pd surface with time. We attribute this anomalous phenomenon to a large barrier for attachment of C adatoms to graphene coupled with a strong binding of the non-graphitic C to the Pd surface.

  3. Surface cleaning of metal wire by atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Buttapeng, C.; Furuya, S.; Harada, N.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the possible application of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma for the annealing of metallic wire is examined and presented. The main purpose of the current study is to examine the surface cleaning effect for a cylindrical object by atmospheric pressure plasma. The experimental setup consists of a gas tank, plasma reactor, and power supply with control panel. The gas assists in the generation of plasma. Copper wire was used as an experimental cylindrical object. This copper wire was irradiated with the plasma, and the cleaning effect was confirmed. The result showed that it is possible to remove the tarnish which exists on the copper wire surface. The experiment reveals that atmospheric pressure plasma is usable for the surface cleaning of metal wire. However, it is necessary to examine the method for preventing oxidization of the copper wire.

  4. Nanocapillary Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet: A Tool for Ultrafine Maskless Surface Modification at Atmospheric Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motrescu, Iuliana; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2016-05-18

    With respect to microsized surface functionalization techniques we proposed the use of a maskless, versatile, simple tool, represented by a nano- or microcapillary atmospheric pressure plasma jet for producing microsized controlled etching, chemical vapor deposition, and chemical modification patterns on polymeric surfaces. In this work we show the possibility of size-controlled surface amination, and we discuss it as a function of different processing parameters. Moreover, we prove the successful connection of labeled sugar chains on the functionalized microscale patterns, indicating the possibility to use ultrafine capillary atmospheric pressure plasma jets as versatile tools for biosensing, tissue engineering, and related biomedical applications.

  5. Immobilization of rhodium complexes at thiolate monolayers on gold surfaces : Catalytic and structural studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belser, T; Stöhr, Meike; Pfaltz, A

    2005-01-01

    Chiral rhodium-diphosphine complexes have been incorporated into self-assembled thiolate monolayers (SAMS) on gold colloids. Catalysts of this type are of interest because they combine properties of homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. In addition, it should be possible to influence the catalytic

  6. Janus Monolayer Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Jia, Shuai; Kholmanov, Iskandar; Dong, Liang; Er, Dequan; Chen, Weibing; Guo, Hua; Jin, Zehua; Shenoy, Vivek B; Shi, Li; Lou, Jun

    2017-08-22

    The crystal configuration of sandwiched S-Mo-Se structure (Janus SMoSe) at the monolayer limit has been synthesized and carefully characterized in this work. By controlled sulfurization of monolayer MoSe 2 , the top layer of selenium atoms is substituted by sulfur atoms, while the bottom selenium layer remains intact. The structure of this material is systematically investigated by Raman, photoluminescence, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and confirmed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to better understand the Raman vibration modes and electronic structures of the Janus SMoSe monolayer, which are found to correlate well with corresponding experimental results. Finally, high basal plane hydrogen evolution reaction activity is discovered for the Janus monolayer, and DFT calculation implies that the activity originates from the synergistic effect of the intrinsic defects and structural strain inherent in the Janus structure.

  7. Resonant surface-enhanced Raman scattering by optical phonons in a monolayer of CdSe nanocrystals on Au nanocluster arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milekhin, Alexander G., E-mail: milekhin@isp.nsc.ru [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, pr. Lavrentjeva, 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogov str. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sveshnikova, Larisa L.; Duda, Tatyana A. [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, pr. Lavrentjeva, 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Rodyakina, Ekaterina E. [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, pr. Lavrentjeva, 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogov str. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Dzhagan, Volodymyr M. [Semiconductor Physics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Sheremet, Evgeniya [Solid Surfaces Analysis, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Gordan, Ovidiu D. [Semiconductor Physics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Himcinschi, Cameliu [Institut für Theoretische Physik, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Latyshev, Alexander V. [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, pr. Lavrentjeva, 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogov str. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Zahn, Dietrich R.T. [Semiconductor Physics, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2016-05-01

    Highlights: • Regular Au nanocluster and dimer arrays as well as single Au dimers are fabricated. • Resonant SERS by monolayers of CdSe nanocrystals deposited on the Au nanostructures is observed. • LO energy change for CdSe NCs on different single Au dimers indicates SERS by single or a few NCs. - Abstract: Here we present the results on an investigation of resonant Stokes and anti- Stokes surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by optical phonons in colloidal CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) homogeneously deposited on arrays of Au nanoclusters using the Langmuir–Blodgett technology. The thickness of deposited NCs, determined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, amounts to approximately 1 monolayer. Special attention is paid to the determination of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) energy in the arrays of Au nanoclusters as a function of the nanocluster size by means of micro-ellipsometry. SERS by optical phonons in CdSe NCs shows a significant enhancement factor with a maximal value of 2 × 10{sup 3} which depends resonantly on the Au nanocluster size and thus on the LSPR energy. The deposition of CdSe NCs on the arrays of Au nanocluster dimers enabled us to study the polarization dependence of SERS. It was found that a maximal SERS signal is observed for the light polarization along the dimer axis. Finally, SERS by optical phonons was observed for CdSe NCs deposited on the structures with a single Au dimer. A difference of the LO phonon energy is observed for CdSe NCs on different single dimers. This effect is explained as the confinement-induced shift which depends on the CdSe nanocrystal size and indicates quasi-single NC Raman spectra being obtained.

  8. Complexation of phospholipids and cholesterol by triterpenic saponins in bulk and in monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Kamil; Orczyk, Marta; Gutberlet, Thomas; Geue, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    The interactions between three triterpene saponins: α-hederin, hederacoside C and ammonium glycyrrhizate with model lipids: cholesterol and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) are described. The oleanolic acid-type saponins (α-hederin and hederacoside C) were shown to form 1:1 complexes with lipids in bulk, characterized by stability constants in the range (4.0±0.2)·10(3)-(5.0±0.4)·10(4) M(-1). The complexes with cholesterol are generally stronger than those with DPPC. On the contrary, ammonium glycyrrhizate does not form complexes with any of the lipids in solution. The saponin-lipid interactions were also studied in a confined environment of Langmuir monolayers of DPPC and DPPC/cholesterol with the saponins present in the subphase. A combined monolayer relaxation, surface dilational rheology, fluorescence microscopy and neutron reflectivity (NR) study showed that all three saponins are able to penetrate pure DPPC and mixed DPPC/cholesterol monolayers. Overall, the effect of the saponins on the model lipid monolayers does not fully correlate with the lipid-saponin complex formation in the homogeneous solution. The best correlation was found for α-hederin, for which even the preference for cholesterol over DPPC observed in bulk is well reflected in the monolayer studies and the literature data on its membranolytic activity. Similarly, the lack of interaction of ammonium glycyrrhizate with both lipids is evident equally in bulk and monolayer experiments, as well as in its weak membranolytic activity. The combined bulk and monolayer results are discussed in view of the role of confinement in modulating the saponin-lipid interactions and possible mechanism of membranolytic activity of saponins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Site-selective growth of surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks on self-assembled monolayer patterns prepared by AFM nanografting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Ladnorg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface anchored metal-organic frameworks, SURMOFs, are highly porous materials, which can be grown on modified substrates as highly oriented, crystalline coatings by a quasi-epitaxial layer-by-layer method (liquid-phase epitaxy, or LPE. The chemical termination of the supporting substrate is crucial, because the most convenient method for substrate modification is the formation of a suitable self-assembled monolayer. The choice of a particular SAM also allows for control over the orientation of the SURMOF. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the site-selective growth of the SURMOF HKUST-1 on thiol-based self-assembled monolayers patterned by the nanografting technique, with an atomic force microscope as a structuring tool. Two different approaches were applied: The first one is based on 3-mercaptopropionic acid molecules which are grafted in a 1-decanethiolate SAM, which serves as a matrix for this nanolithography. The second approach uses 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid, which is grafted in a matrix of an 1-octadecanethiolate SAM. In both cases a site-selective growth of the SURMOF is observed. In the latter case the roughness of the HKUST-1 is found to be significantly higher than for the 1-mercaptopropionic acid. The successful grafting process was verified by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy. The SURMOF structures grown via LPE were investigated and characterized by atomic force microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared microscopy.

  10. Site-selective growth of surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks on self-assembled monolayer patterns prepared by AFM nanografting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladnorg, Tatjana; Welle, Alexander; Heißler, Stefan; Wöll, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Summary Surface anchored metal-organic frameworks, SURMOFs, are highly porous materials, which can be grown on modified substrates as highly oriented, crystalline coatings by a quasi-epitaxial layer-by-layer method (liquid-phase epitaxy, or LPE). The chemical termination of the supporting substrate is crucial, because the most convenient method for substrate modification is the formation of a suitable self-assembled monolayer. The choice of a particular SAM also allows for control over the orientation of the SURMOF. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the site-selective growth of the SURMOF HKUST-1 on thiol-based self-assembled monolayers patterned by the nanografting technique, with an atomic force microscope as a structuring tool. Two different approaches were applied: The first one is based on 3-mercaptopropionic acid molecules which are grafted in a 1-decanethiolate SAM, which serves as a matrix for this nanolithography. The second approach uses 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid, which is grafted in a matrix of an 1-octadecanethiolate SAM. In both cases a site-selective growth of the SURMOF is observed. In the latter case the roughness of the HKUST-1 is found to be significantly higher than for the 1-mercaptopropionic acid. The successful grafting process was verified by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy. The SURMOF structures grown via LPE were investigated and characterized by atomic force microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared microscopy. PMID:24205458

  11. Surface modification of polylactic acid films by atmospheric pressure plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtseva, V. L.; Zhuravlev, M. V.; Tverdokhlebov, S. I.

    2017-09-01

    A new approach for the modification of polylactic acid (PLA) materials using atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) is described. PLA films plasma exposure time was 20, 60, 120 s. The surface morphology and wettability of the obtained PLA films were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the sitting drop method. The atmospheric pressure plasma increased the roughness and surface energy of PLA film. The wettability of PLA has been improved with the application of an atmospheric plasma surface treatment. It was shown that it is possible to obtain PLA films with various surface relief and tunable wettability. Additionally, we demonstrated that the use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma for surface activation allows for the immobilization of bioactive compounds like hyaluronic acid (HA) on the surface of obtained films. It was shown that composite PLA-HA films have an increased long-term hydrophilicity of the films surface.

  12. Ionic-Liquid-Infused Nanostructures as Repellent Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Yaraset; Phillips, Katherine R; Haumann, Marco; Wasserscheid, Peter; Zarraga, Ramon; Vogel, Nicolas

    2018-02-02

    In order to prepare lubricant-infused repellent coatings on silica nanostructures using low vapor pressure ionic liquids as lubricants, we study the wetting behavior of a set of imidazolium-based ionic liquids with different alkyl side chains as a function of the applied surface functionalities. We take advantage of the structural color of inverse opals prepared from a colloidal coassembly technique to study the infiltration of ionic liquids into these nanoporous structures. We find that the more hydrophobic ionic liquids with butyl and hexyl side chains can completely infiltrate inverse opals functionalized with mixed self-assembled monolayers composed of imidazole groups and aliphatic hydrocarbon chains, which we introduce via silane chemistry. These molecular species reflect the chemical nature of the ionic liquid, thereby increasing the affinity between the liquid and solid surface. The mixed surface chemistry provides sufficiently small contact angles with the ionic liquid to infiltrate the nanopores while maximizing the contact angle with water. As a result, the mixed monolayers enable the design of a stable ionic liquid/solid interface that is able to repel water as a test liquid. Our results underline the importance of matching chemical affinities to predict and control the wetting behavior in complex, multiphase systems.

  13. Mechanical and charge transport properties of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers on Au (111) surface: The Role of Molecular Tilt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulleregan, Alice; Qi, Yabing; Ratera, Imma; Park, Jeong Y.; Ashby, Paul D.; Quek, Su Ying; Neaton, J. B.; Salmeron, Miquel

    2007-11-12

    The relationship between charge transport and mechanical properties of alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAM) on Au(111) films has been investigated using an atomic force microscope with a conductive tip. Molecular tilts induced by the pressure applied by the tip cause stepwise increases in film conductivity. A decay constant {beta} = 0.57 {+-} 0.03 {angstrom}{sup -1} was found for the current passing through the film as a function of tip-substrate separation due to this molecular tilt. This is significantly smaller than the value of {approx} 1 {angstrom}{sup -1} found when the separation is changed by changing the length of the alkanethiol molecules. Calculations indicate that for isolated dithiol molecules S-bonded to hollow sites, the junction conductance does not vary significantly as a function of molecular tilt. The impact of S-Au bonding on SAM conductance is discussed.

  14. Controlling the stereochemistry and regularity of butanethiol self-assembled monolayers on Au(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Jiawei; Ouyang, Runhai; Jensen, Palle Skovhus

    2014-01-01

    The rich stereochemistry of the self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of four butanethiols on Au(111) is described, the SAMs containing up to 12 individual C, S, or Au chiral centers per surface unit cell. This is facilitated by synthesis of enantiomerically pure 2-butanethiol (the smallest unsubstitu......The rich stereochemistry of the self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of four butanethiols on Au(111) is described, the SAMs containing up to 12 individual C, S, or Au chiral centers per surface unit cell. This is facilitated by synthesis of enantiomerically pure 2-butanethiol (the smallest...... when R is achiral, while adatom binding leads to rectangular plane groups that suppress long-range expression of chirality. Binding as RS• also inhibits the pitting intrinsically associated with adatom binding, desirably producing more regularly structured SAMs....

  15. A new contact electric resistance technique for in-situ measurement of the electric resistance of surface films on metals in electrolytes at high temperatures and pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saario, T.; Marichev, V.A.

    1993-01-01

    Surface films play a major role in corrosion assisted cracking. A new Contact Electric Resistance (CER) method has been recently developed for in situ measurement of the electric resistance of surface films. The method has been upgraded for high temperature high pressure application. The technique can be used for any electrically conductive material in any environment including liquid, gas or vacuum. The technique has been used to determine in situ the electric resistance of films on metals during adsorption of water and anions, formation and destruction of oxides and hydrides, electroplating of metals and to study the electric resistance of films on semiconductors. The resolution of the CER technique is 10 -9 Ω, which corresponds to about 0.03 monolayers of deposited copper during electrochemical deposition Cu/Cu 2+ . Electric resistance data can be measured with a frequency of the order of one hertz, which enables one to follow in situ the kinetics of surface film related processes. The kinetics of these processes and their dependence on the environment, temperature, pH and electrochemical potential can be investigated

  16. Self-assembled monolayers of a disulphide-derivatised cobalt-porphyrin on gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, A.S.; Leupold, S.; Montforts, F.-P.; Abrantes, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of a novel cobalt(II)porphyrin disulphide derivative was prepared on flat gold(1 1 1) electrode. Evidence for surface modification was provided by electrochemical reductive desorption of the monolayer and ellipsometry, consistent with a coverage of 2.5 x 10 -10 mol cm -2 and a thickness of 13 A, respectively. Both results support the presence of SAMs where the molecules share an intermediate position between perpendicular and flat orientation. Scanning tunnelling microscopy have also proven the formation of CoPSS SAMs, however high-resolution images could only be obtained when the CoPSS molecules were diluted in an hexanethiol SAM. The electrocatalytic activity of the surface confined Co-porphyrin was evaluated for the oxygen reduction. Voltammetric data indicate that reaction involves two electrons consistent with the formation of hydrogen peroxide. Under similar experimental conditions the data obtained for an iron-porphyrin analogue points for a full reduction of dioxygen to water

  17. Preparation and Photoluminescence of Tungsten Disulfide Monolayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Lv

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten disulfide (WS2 monolayer is a direct band gap semiconductor. The growth of WS2 monolayer hinders the progress of its investigation. In this paper, we prepared the WS2 monolayer through chemical vapor transport deposition. This method makes it easier for the growth of WS2 monolayer through the heterogeneous nucleation-and-growth process. The crystal defects introduced by the heterogeneous nucleation could promote the photoluminescence (PL emission. We observed the strong photoluminescence emission in the WS2 monolayer, as well as thermal quenching, and the PL energy redshift as the temperature increases. We attribute the thermal quenching to the energy or charge transfer of the excitons. The redshift is related to the dipole moment of WS2.

  18. Permeability of surface modified polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers across Caco-2 cell monolayers

    OpenAIRE

    Yellepeddi, Venkata K.; Pisal, Dipak S.; Kumar, Ajay; Kaushik, Radhey S.; Hildreth, Michael B.; Guan, Xiangming; Palakurthi, Srinath

    2007-01-01

    Aim of this study was to prepare polyamine-conjugated PAMAM dendrimers and study their permeability across Caco-2 cell monolayers. Polyamines, namely, arginine and ornithine were conjugated to the amine terminals of the G4 PAMAM dendrimers by Fmoc synthesis. The apical-to-basolateral (AB) and basolateral-to-apical (BA) apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) for the PAMAM dendrimers increased by conjugating the dendrimers with both of the polyamines. The enhancement in permeability was depe...

  19. Enhanced photocurrent in engineered bacteriorhodopsin monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Amol V; Premaruban, Thenhuan; Berthoumieu, Olivia; Watts, Anthony; Davis, Jason J

    2012-01-12

    The integration of the transmembrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (BR) with man-made electrode surfaces has attracted a great deal of interest for some two decades or more and holds significant promise from the perspective of derived photoresponse or energy capture interfaces. Here we demonstrate that a novel and strategically engineered cysteine site (M163C) can be used to intimately and effectively couple delipidated BR to supporting metallic electrode surfaces. By virtue of the combined effects of the greater surface molecular density afforded by delipidation, and the vicinity of the electrostatic changes associated with proton pumping to the transducing metallic continuum, the resulting films generate a considerably greater photocurrent density on wavelength-selective illumination than previously achievable with monolayers of BR. Given the uniquely photoresponsive, wavelength-selective, and photostable characteristics of this protein, the work has implications for utilization in solar energy capture and photodetector devices.

  20. Formation of graphene on Ru(0001) surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Yi; Shi Dong-Xia; Gao Hong-Jun

    2007-01-01

    We report on the formation of a graphene monolayer on a Ru(0001) surface by annealing the Ru(0001) crystal.The samples are characterized by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). STM images show that the Moiré pattern is caused by the graphene layer mismatched with the underlying Ru(0001) surface and has an N × N superlattice. It is further found that the graphene monolayer on a Ru(0001) surface is very stable at high temperatures. Our results provide a simple and convenient method to produce a graphene monolayer on the Ru(0001) surface, which is used as a template for fabricating functional nanostructures needed in future nano devices and catalysis.

  1. Grafting cavitands on the Si(100) surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condorelli, Guglielmo G; Motta, Alessandro; Favazza, Maria; Fragalà, Ignazio L; Busi, Marco; Menozzi, Edoardo; Dalcanale, Enrico; Cristofolini, Luigi

    2006-12-19

    Cavitand molecules having double bond terminated alkyl chains and different bridging groups at the upper rim have been grafted on H-terminated Si(100) surface via photochemical hydrosilylation of the double bonds. Pure and mixed monolayers have been obtained from mesitylene solutions of either pure cavitand or cavitand/1-octene mixtures. Angle resolved high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been used as the main tool for the monolayer characterization. The cavitand decorated surface consists of Si-C bonded layers with the upper rim at the top of the layer. Grafting of pure cavitands leads to not-well-packed layers, which are not able to efficiently passivate the Si(100) surface. By contrast, monolayers obtained from cavitand/1-octene mixtures consist of well-packed layers since they prevent silicon oxidation after aging. AFM measurements showed that these monolayers have a structured topography, with objects protruding from the Si(100) surface with average heights compatible with the expected ones for cavitand molecules.

  2. Monolayers of gold nanostars with two Near-IR LSPR capable of additive photothermal response

    KAUST Repository

    Pallavicini, Piersandro

    2015-07-06

    Monolayers of photothermally responsive gold nanostars on PEI-coated surfaces display two Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances (LSPR) in the near-IR region that can be laser-irradiated either separately, obtaining two different T jumps, or simultaneously, obtaining a T jump equal to the sum of what obtained with separate irradiations

  3. Monolayers of gold nanostars with two Near-IR LSPR capable of additive photothermal response

    KAUST Repository

    Pallavicini, Piersandro; Basile, Simone; Chirico, Giuseppe; Dacarro, Giacomo; D'Alfonso, Laura; Donà , Alice; Patrini, Maddalena; Falqui, Andrea; Sironi, Laura; Taglietti, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Monolayers of photothermally responsive gold nanostars on PEI-coated surfaces display two Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances (LSPR) in the near-IR region that can be laser-irradiated either separately, obtaining two different T jumps, or simultaneously, obtaining a T jump equal to the sum of what obtained with separate irradiations

  4. Secondary structure of spiralin in solution, at the air/water interface, and in interaction with lipid monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, Sabine; Blaudez, Daniel; Desbat, Bernard; Dufourcq, Jean; Wróblewski, Henri

    2002-05-03

    The surface of spiroplasmas, helically shaped pathogenic bacteria related to the mycoplasmas, is crowded with the membrane-anchored lipoprotein spiralin whose structure and function are unknown. In this work, the secondary structure of spiralin under the form of detergent-free micelles (average Stokes radius, 87.5 A) in water and at the air/water interface, alone or in interaction with lipid monolayers was analyzed. FT-IR and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic data indicate that spiralin in solution contains about 25+/-3% of helices and 38+/-2% of beta sheets. These measurements are consistent with a consensus predictive analysis of the protein sequence suggesting about 28% of helices, 32% of beta sheets and 40% of irregular structure. Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) revealed that, in water, the micelles slowly disaggregate to form a stable and homogeneous layer at the air/water interface, exhibiting a surface pressure up to 10 mN/m. Polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PMIRRAS) spectra of interfacial spiralin display a complex amide I band characteristic of a mixture of beta sheets and alpha helices, and an intense amide II band. Spectral simulations indicate a flat orientation for the beta sheets and a vertical orientation for the alpha helices with respect to the interface. The combination of tensiometric and PMIRRAS measurements show that, when spiroplasma lipids are used to form a monolayer at the air/water interface, spiralin is adsorbed under this monolayer and its antiparallel beta sheets are mainly parallel to the polar-head layer of the lipids without deep perturbation of the fatty acid chains organization. Based upon these results, we propose a 'carpet model' for spiralin organization at the spiroplasma cell surface. In this model, spiralin molecules anchored into the outer leaflet of the lipid bilayer by their N-terminal lipid moiety are composed of two colinear domains (instead of a single globular domain) situated at

  5. Optimized monolayer grafting of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane onto amorphous, anatase and rutile TiO 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan-Yan; Hildebrand, Helga; Schmuki, Patrik

    2010-02-01

    Experimental conditions were studied for optimized attachment of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) onto amorphous, anatase and rutile titanium dioxide (TiO 2) surfaces. The attachment process and extent was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In particular, the effect of attachment time, silane concentration, reaction temperature and the TiO 2 crystalline structure on the growth kinetics of the silane layers was studied. The measurements reveal that typically monolayers are more dense on amorphous than on crystalline TiO 2. The results show that critical experimental conditions exist where APTES attachment to the TiO 2 surface changes from a monolayer to a multilayer growth mode. The obtained results and parameters to produce optimized APTES layers are of a high practical relevance as APTES attachment often constitutes the initial step for organic modification of TiO 2 surface with biorelevant molecules such as proteins, enzymes or growth factors.

  6. Monolayer Superconductivity in WS2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheliuk, Oleksandr; Lu, Jianming; Yang, Jie; Ye, Jianting

    Superconductivity in monolayer tungsten disulfide (2H-WS2) is achieved by strong electrostatic electron doping of an electric double-layer transistor (EDLT). Single crystals of WS2 are grown by a scalable method - chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on standard Si/SiO2 substrate. The monolayers are

  7. Tribology of monolayer films: comparison between n-alkanethiols on gold and n-alkyl trichlorosilanes on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Brandon D; Vilt, Steven G; McCabe, Clare; Jennings, G Kane

    2009-09-01

    This Article presents a quantitative comparison of the frictional performance for monolayers derived from n-alkanethiolates on gold and n-alkyl trichlorosilanes on silicon. Monolayers were characterized by pin-on-disk tribometry, contact angle analysis, ellipsometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Pin-on-disk microtribometry provided frictional analysis at applied normal loads from 10 to 1000 mN at a speed of 0.1 mm/s. At low loads (10 mN), methyl-terminated n-alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) exhibited a 3-fold improvement in coefficient of friction over SAMs with hydroxyl- or carboxylic-acid-terminated surfaces. For monolayers prepared from both n-alkanethiols on gold and n-alkyl trichlorosilanes on silicon, a critical chain length of at least eight carbons is required for beneficial tribological performance at an applied load of 9.8 mN. Evidence for disruption of chemisorbed alkanethiolate SAMs with chain lengths n tribology wear tracks. The direct comparison between the tribological stability of alkanethiolate and silane monolayers shows that monolayers prepared from n-octadecyl dimethylchlorosilane and n-octadecyl trichlorosilane withstood normal loads at least 30 times larger than those that damaged octadecanethiolate SAMs. Collectively, our results show that the tribological properties of monolayer films are dependent on their internal stabilities, which are influenced by cohesive chain interactions (van der Waals) and the adsorbate-substrate bond.

  8. Stability of silver nanoparticle monolayers determined by in situ streaming potential measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morga, Maria; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Oćwieja, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    A silver particle suspension obtained by a chemical reduction was used in this work. Monolayers of these particles (average size 28 nm) on mica modified by poly(allylamine hydrochloride) were produced under diffusion-controlled transport. Monolayer coverages, quantitatively determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and SEM, was regulated by adjusting the nanoparticle deposition time and the suspension concentration. The zeta potential of the monolayers was determined by streaming potential measurements carried out under in situ (wet) conditions. These measurements performed for various ionic strengths and pH were interpreted in terms of the three-dimensional (3D) electrokinetic model. The stability of silver monolayers was also investigated using streaming potential and the AFM methods. The decrease in the surface coverage of particles as a function of time and ionic strength varied between 10 −1 and 10 −4  M was investigated. This allowed one to determine the equilibrium adsorption constant K a and the binding energy of silver particles (energy minima depth). Energy minima depth were calculated that varied between −18 kT for I = 10 −1  M and −19 kT for I = 10 −4 for pH 5.5 and T = 298 K. Our investigations suggest that the interactions between surface and nanoparticles are controlled by the electrostatic interactions among ion pairs. It was also shown that the in situ electrokinetic measurements are in accordance with those obtained by more tedious ex situ AFM measurements. This confirmed the utility of the streaming potential method for direct kinetic studies of nanoparticle deposition/release processes.Graphical Abstract

  9. Highly Surface-Active Ca(OH)2 Monolayer as a CO2 Capture Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçelik, V Ongun; Gong, Kai; White, Claire E

    2018-03-14

    Greenhouse gas emissions originating from fossil fuel combustion contribute significantly to global warming, and therefore the design of novel materials that efficiently capture CO 2 can play a crucial role in solving this challenge. Here, we show that reducing the dimensionality of bulk crystalline portlandite results in a stable monolayer material, named portlandene, that is highly effective at capturing CO 2 . On the basis of theoretical analysis comprised of ab initio quantum mechanical calculations and force-field molecular dynamics simulations, we show that this single-layer phase is robust and maintains its stability even at high temperatures. The chemical activity of portlandene is seen to further increase upon defect engineering of its surface using vacancy sites. Defect-containing portlandene is capable of separating CO and CO 2 from a syngas (CO/CO 2 /H 2 ) stream, yet is inert to water vapor. This selective behavior and the associated mechanisms have been elucidated by examining the electronic structure, local charge distribution, and bonding orbitals of portlandene. Additionally, unlike conventional CO 2 capturing technologies, the regeneration process of portlandene does not require high temperature heat treatment because it can release the captured CO 2 by application of a mild external electric field, making portlandene an ideal CO 2 capturing material for both pre- and postcombustion processes.

  10. Surface characterization on binary nano/micro-domain composed of alkyl- and amino-terminated self-assembled monolayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H. [Faculty of Engineering, Shinshu University, 4-17-1 Wakasato, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Ishizaki, T. [Materials Research Institute for Sustainable Development, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimo-Shidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Saito, N. [Department of Molecular Design and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagano 464-8603 (Japan)], E-mail: hiro@eco-t.esi.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Takai, O. [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    The binary alkyl- and amino-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) composed of nano/micro-sized domains was prepared though a self-assembly technique. In addition, the wetting and electrostatic property of the binary SAMs was investigated by the analysis of the static and dynamic water contact angle and zeta-potentials measurement. The binary SAMs were also characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM), Kelvin probe force microscope (KPFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The domains on the binary SAMs were observed in topographic and surface potential images. The height of domain and the surface potential between octadecyltrichlorosilanes (OTS)-domain and n-(6-aminohexl)aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (AHAPS)-SAM were about 1.1 nm and -30 mV. These differences of height and surface potential correspond to the ones between OTS and AHAPS. In XPS N 1s spectra, we confirmed the formation of binary SAMs by an amino peak observed at 399.15 eV. The dynamic and the static water contact angles indicated that the wetting property of the binary SAMs was depended on the OTS domain size. In addition, static water contact angles were measured under the conditions of different pH water and zeta-potential also indicated that the electrostatic property of the binary SAMs depended on OTS domain size. Thus, these results showed that the wetting and electrostatic property on the binary SAMs could be regulated by controlling the domain size.

  11. Surface modification of GC and HOPG with diazonium, amine, azide, and olefin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Mutsuo; Sawaguchi, Takahiro; Sato, Yukari; Yoshioka, Kyoko; Niwa, Osamu

    2011-01-04

    Surface modification of glassy carbon (GC) and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) was carried out with diazonium, amine, azide, and olefin derivatives bearing ferrocene as an electroactive moiety. Features of the modified surfaces were evaluated by surface concentrations of immobilized molecule, blocking effect of the modified surface against redox reaction, and surface observation using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope (EC-STM). The measurement of surface concentrations of immobilized molecule revealed the following three aspects: (i) Diazonium and olefin derivatives could modify substrates with the dense-monolayer concentration. (ii) The surface concentration of immobilized amine derivative did not reach to the dense-monolayer concentration reflecting their low reactivity. (iii) The surface modification with the dense-monolayer concentration was also possible with azide derivative, but the modified surface contained some oligomers produced by the photoreaction of azides. Besides, the blocking effect against redox reaction was observed for GC modified with diazonium derivative and for HOPG modified with diazonium and azide derivatives, suggesting fabrication of a densely modified surface. Finally, the surface observation for HOPG modified with diazonium derivative by EC-STM showed a typical monolayer structure, in which the ferrocene moieties were packed densely at random. On the basis of those results, it was demonstrated that surface modification of carbon substrates with diazonium could afford a dense monolayer similar to the self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formation.

  12. Low-temperature poly(oxymethylene) direct bonding via self-assembled monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Weixin; Ma, Bo; Kuwae, Hiroyuki; Shoji, Shuichi; Mizuno, Jun

    2018-02-01

    A direct bonding of poly(oxymethylene) (POM) was feasible at 100 °C by using self-assembled monolayer (SAM) as a surface modification method. (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GOPTS) were used in our work. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that both APTES and GOPTS modified the POM surface successfully. Bonding strength evaluation revealed that surface modification was affected by pretreatment (VUV/O3) process time. In addition, the bonding condition with highest strength had an average strength of 372 kPa. This technology is expected to be used in packaging for micro-/nano-electromechanical systems, such as biomedical devices.

  13. Electronic excitation of Ti atoms sputtered by energetic Ar+ and He+ from clean and monolayer oxygen covered surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellin, M.J.; Gruen, D.M.; Young, C.E.; Wiggins, M.D.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1983-01-01

    Electronic excitation of Ti atoms ejected during energetic ion bombardment (Ar + , He + ) of well characterized clean and oxygen covered polycrystalline Ti metal surfaces has been determined. For states with 0 to 2 eV and 3 to 5.5 eV of electronic energy, static mode laser fluorescence spectroscopy (LFS) and static mode spontaneous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) were used respectively. These experiments which were carried out in a UHV ( -10 Torr) system equipped with an Auger spectrometer provide measurements of the correlation between oxygen coverage (0 to 3 monolayers) and the excited state distribution of sputtered Ti atoms. The experimentally determined electronic partition function of Ti atoms does not show an exponential dependence on energy (E) above the ground state but rather an E -2 or E -3 power law dependence. (orig.)

  14. Neutron Reflectivity Measurement for Polymer Dynamics near Graphene Oxide Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Jaseung

    We investigated the diffusion dynamics of polymer chains confined between graphene oxide layers using neutron reflectivity (NR). The bilayers of polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA)/ deuterated PMMA (d-PMMA) films and polystyrene (PS)/d-PS films with various film thickness sandwiched between Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayers of graphene oxide (GO) were prepared. From the NR results, we found that PMMA diffusion dynamics was reduced near the GO surface while the PS diffusion was not significantly changed. This is due to the different strength of GO-polymer interaction. In this talk, these diffusion results will be compared with dewetting dynamics of polymer thin films on the GO monolayers. This has given us the basis for development of graphene-based nanoelectronics with high efficiency, such as heterojunction devices for polymer photovoltaic (OPV) applications.

  15. Strain-induced band engineering in monolayer stanene on Sb(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Jian; Kong, Longjuan; Li, Hui; Zhong, Qing; Li, Wenbin; Cheng, Peng; Chen, Lan; Wu, Kehui

    2017-10-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) allotrope of tin with low buckled honeycomb structure named stanene is proposed to be an ideal 2D topological insulator with a nontrivial gap larger than 0.1 eV. Theoretical works also pointed out the topological property of stanene amenability to strain tuning. In this paper we report the successful realization of high quality, monolayer stanene film as well as monolayer stanene nanoribbons on Sb(111) surface by molecular-beam epitaxy, providing an ideal platform to the study of stanene. More importantly, we observed a continuous evolution of the electronic bands of stanene across the nanoribbon, related to the strain field gradient in stanene. Our work experimentally confirmed that strain is an effective method for band engineering in stanene, which is important for fundamental research and application of stanene.

  16. Building high-coverage monolayers of covalently bound magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mackenzie G.; Teplyakov, Andrew V., E-mail: andrewt@udel.edu

    2016-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A method for forming a layer of covalently bound nanoparticles is offered. • A nearly perfect monolayer of covalently bound magnetic nanoparticles was formed on gold. • Spectroscopic techniques confirmed covalent binding by the “click” reaction. • The influence of the functionalization scheme on surface coverage was investigated. - Abstract: This work presents an approach for producing a high-coverage single monolayer of magnetic nanoparticles using “click chemistry” between complementarily functionalized nanoparticles and a flat substrate. This method highlights essential aspects of the functionalization scheme for substrate surface and nanoparticles to produce exceptionally high surface coverage without sacrificing selectivity or control over the layer produced. The deposition of one single layer of magnetic particles without agglomeration, over a large area, with a nearly 100% coverage is confirmed by electron microscopy. Spectroscopic techniques, supplemented by computational predictions, are used to interrogate the chemistry of the attachment and to confirm covalent binding, rather than attachment through self-assembly or weak van der Waals bonding. Density functional theory calculations for the surface intermediate of this copper-catalyzed process provide mechanistic insight into the effects of the functionalization scheme on surface coverage. Based on this analysis, it appears that steric limitations of the intermediate structure affect nanoparticle coverage on a flat solid substrate; however, this can be overcome by designing a functionalization scheme in such a way that the copper-based intermediate is formed on the spherical nanoparticles instead. This observation can be carried over to other approaches for creating highly controlled single- or multilayered nanostructures of a wide range of materials to result in high coverage and possibly, conformal filling.

  17. Biomimetic nanoparticles with polynucleotide and PEG mixed-monolayers enhance calcium phosphate mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Kayla B.; McHugh, Sean M.; Dapsis, Katherine J.; Petty, Alexander R.; Gerdon, Aren E.

    2013-09-01

    Biomineralization of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is of significant importance in biomedical applications such as bone and dental repair, and biomimetic control of mineral formation may lead to more effective restorative procedures. Gold nanoparticles are functional scaffolds on which to assemble multi-component monolayers capable of mimicking protein activity in the templated synthesis of calcium phosphate. The goal of this research was to explore nanoparticle templates with mixed-monolayers of uncharged polar polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules and highly charged polynucleotide and amino acid molecules in their ability to influence mineralization rates and mineral particle size and morphology. This research demonstrates through time-resolved optical density and dynamic light scattering measurements that the combination of tiopronin, PEG, and DNA presented on a nanoparticle surface decreases nanoparticle aggregation from 59 to 21 nm solvated radius, increases mineralization kinetics from 1.5 × 10-3 to 3.1 × 10-3 OD/min, and decreases mineral particle size from 685 to 442 nm average radius. FT-IR and TEM data demonstrate that mineralized material, while initially amorphous, transforms to a semi-crystalline material when guided by template interactions. This demonstrates that surface-tailored monolayer protected cluster scaffolds are successful and controllable mineralization templates with further potential for biomedical applications involving calcium phosphate and other biomaterials.

  18. Biomimetic nanoparticles with polynucleotide and PEG mixed-monolayers enhance calcium phosphate mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Kayla B.; McHugh, Sean M.; Dapsis, Katherine J.; Petty, Alexander R.; Gerdon, Aren E., E-mail: gerdoar@emmanuel.edu [Emmanuel College (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Biomineralization of hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}) is of significant importance in biomedical applications such as bone and dental repair, and biomimetic control of mineral formation may lead to more effective restorative procedures. Gold nanoparticles are functional scaffolds on which to assemble multi-component monolayers capable of mimicking protein activity in the templated synthesis of calcium phosphate. The goal of this research was to explore nanoparticle templates with mixed-monolayers of uncharged polar polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules and highly charged polynucleotide and amino acid molecules in their ability to influence mineralization rates and mineral particle size and morphology. This research demonstrates through time-resolved optical density and dynamic light scattering measurements that the combination of tiopronin, PEG, and DNA presented on a nanoparticle surface decreases nanoparticle aggregation from 59 to 21 nm solvated radius, increases mineralization kinetics from 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} to 3.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} OD/min, and decreases mineral particle size from 685 to 442 nm average radius. FT-IR and TEM data demonstrate that mineralized material, while initially amorphous, transforms to a semi-crystalline material when guided by template interactions. This demonstrates that surface-tailored monolayer protected cluster scaffolds are successful and controllable mineralization templates with further potential for biomedical applications involving calcium phosphate and other biomaterials.

  19. Oxygen adsorption and dissociation during the oxidation of monolayer Ti2C

    KAUST Repository

    Gan, Liyong

    2013-08-20

    Exfoliated two-dimensional early transition metal carbides and carbonitrides are usually not terminated by metal atoms but saturated by O, OH, and/or F, thus making it difficult to understand the surface structure evolution and the induced electronic modifications. To fill this gap, density functional theory and molecular dynamics simulations are performed to capture the initial stage of the oxidation process of Ti2C, a prototypical example from the recently fabricated class of two-dimensional carbides and carbonitrides. It is shown that the unsaturated Ti 3d orbitals of the pristine Ti2C surface interact strongly with the approaching O2 molecules, resulting in barrierless O2 dissociation. The diffusion of the dissociated O atoms is also found to be very facile. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that both dissociation and diffusion are enhanced as the O2 coverage increases to 0.25 monolayer. For a coverage of less than 0.11 monolayer, the adsorbates lead to a minor modification of the electronic properties of Ti2C, while the modification is remarkable at 0.25 monolayer. The formed Ti2CO2 after O saturation is an indirect narrow gap semiconductor (0.33 eV) with high intrinsic carrier concentration at room temperature and high thermodynamic stability at intermediate temperature (e.g., 550 °C).

  20. Oxygen adsorption and dissociation during the oxidation of monolayer Ti2C

    KAUST Repository

    Gan, Liyong; Huang, Dan; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    Exfoliated two-dimensional early transition metal carbides and carbonitrides are usually not terminated by metal atoms but saturated by O, OH, and/or F, thus making it difficult to understand the surface structure evolution and the induced electronic modifications. To fill this gap, density functional theory and molecular dynamics simulations are performed to capture the initial stage of the oxidation process of Ti2C, a prototypical example from the recently fabricated class of two-dimensional carbides and carbonitrides. It is shown that the unsaturated Ti 3d orbitals of the pristine Ti2C surface interact strongly with the approaching O2 molecules, resulting in barrierless O2 dissociation. The diffusion of the dissociated O atoms is also found to be very facile. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that both dissociation and diffusion are enhanced as the O2 coverage increases to 0.25 monolayer. For a coverage of less than 0.11 monolayer, the adsorbates lead to a minor modification of the electronic properties of Ti2C, while the modification is remarkable at 0.25 monolayer. The formed Ti2CO2 after O saturation is an indirect narrow gap semiconductor (0.33 eV) with high intrinsic carrier concentration at room temperature and high thermodynamic stability at intermediate temperature (e.g., 550 °C).

  1. Self-assembled monolayers of alkyl-thiols on InAs: A Kelvin probe force microscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwajca, A.; Wei, J.; Schukfeh, M. I.; Tornow, M.

    2015-03-01

    We report on the preparation and characterization of self-assembled monolayers from aliphatic thiols with different chain length and termination on InAs (100) planar surfaces. This included as first step the development and investigation of a thorough chemical InAs surface preparation step using a dedicated bromine/NH4OH-based etching process. Ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated the formation of smooth, surface conforming monolayers. The molecular tilt angles were obtained as 30 ± 10° with respect to the surface normal. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements in hand with Parameterized Model number 5 (PM5) calculations of the involved molecular dipoles allowed for an estimation of the molecular packing densities on the surface. We obtained values of up to n = 1014 cm- 2 for the SAMs under study. These are close to what is predicted from a simple geometrical model that would calculate a maximum density of about n = 2.7 × 1014 cm- 2. We take this as additional conformation of the substrate smoothness and quality of our InAs-SAM hybrid layer systems.

  2. Structure and phase transitions of monolayers of intermediate-length n-alkanes on graphite studied by neutron diffraction and molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diama, A.; Matthies, B.; Herwig, K. W.; Hansen, F. Y.; Criswell, L.; Mo, H.; Bai, M.; Taub, H.

    2009-08-01

    We present evidence from neutron diffraction measurements and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of three different monolayer phases of the intermediate-length alkanes tetracosane (n-C24H50 denoted as C24) and dotriacontane (n-C32H66 denoted as C32) adsorbed on a graphite basal-plane surface. Our measurements indicate that the two monolayer films differ principally in the transition temperatures between phases. At the lowest temperatures, both C24 and C32 form a crystalline monolayer phase with a rectangular-centered (RC) structure. The two sublattices of the RC structure each consists of parallel rows of molecules in their all-trans conformation aligned with their long axis parallel to the surface and forming so-called lamellas of width approximately equal to the all-trans length of the molecule. The RC structure is uniaxially commensurate with the graphite surface in its [110] direction such that the distance between molecular rows in a lamella is 4.26 Å=√3 ag, where ag=2.46 Å is the lattice constant of the graphite basal plane. Molecules in adjacent rows of a lamella alternate in orientation between the carbon skeletal plane being parallel and perpendicular to the graphite surface. Upon heating, the crystalline monolayers transform to a "smectic" phase in which the inter-row spacing within a lamella expands by ˜10% and the molecules are predominantly oriented with the carbon skeletal plane parallel to the graphite surface. In the smectic phase, the MD simulations show evidence of broadening of the lamella boundaries as a result of molecules diffusing parallel to their long axis. At still higher temperatures, they indicate that the introduction of gauche defects into the alkane chains drives a melting transition to a monolayer fluid phase as reported previously.

  3. Ultrasound enhanced plasma surface modification at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Norrman, Kion

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can be highly enhanced by simultaneous high power ultrasonic irradiation onto the treating surface. It is because ultrasonic waves with a sound pressure level (SPL) above ∼140 dB can reduce the thickness of a boundary gas layer between the plasma...... arc at atmospheric pressure to study adhesion improvement. The effect of ultrasonic irradiation with the frequency diapason between 20 and 40 kHz at the SPL of ∼150 dB was investigated. After the plasma treatment without ultrasonic irradiation, the wettability was significantly improved...

  4. Determination of low levels of cadmium ions by the under potential deposition on a self-assembled monolayer on gold electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyhouzer, Tomer [Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Mandler, Daniel, E-mail: mandler@vms.huji.ac.il [Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2011-01-17

    The electrochemical determination of low levels of Cd using a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) modified Au electrode is reported. Determination was based on the stripping of Cd, which was deposited by under potential deposition (UPD). A series of short alkanethiol SAMs bearing different end groups, i.e., sulfonate, carboxylate and ammonium, were examined. Lowest level of detection (ca. 50 ng L{sup -1}) was achieved with a 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) monolayer using subtractive anodic square wave voltammetry (SASV). Additional surface methods, namely, reductive desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, were applied to determine the interfacial structure of the electrodeposited Cd on the modified electrodes. We conclude that the deposited Cd forms a monoatomic layer, which bridges between the gold surface and the alkanethiol monolayer associating with both the gold and the sulfur atoms.

  5. Monolayer MoS2 heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Menglin

    2014-08-26

    We realized photovoltaic operation in large-scale MoS2 monolayers by the formation of a type-II heterojunction with p-Si. The MoS 2 monolayer introduces a built-in electric field near the interface between MoS2 and p-Si to help photogenerated carrier separation. Such a heterojunction photovoltaic device achieves a power conversion efficiency of 5.23%, which is the highest efficiency among all monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide-based solar cells. The demonstrated results of monolayer MoS 2/Si-based solar cells hold the promise for integration of 2D materials with commercially available Si-based electronics in highly efficient devices. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  6. Fabrication of phytic acid sensor based on mixed phytase-lipid Langmuir-Blodgett films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caseli, Luciano; Moraes, Marli L; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Ferreira, Marystela; Nobre, Thatyane M; Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D; Rodrigues Filho, Ubirajara P; Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2006-09-26

    This paper reports the surface activity of phytase at the air-water interface, its interaction with lipid monolayers, and the construction of a new phytic acid biosensor on the basis of the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. Phytase was inserted in the subphase solution of dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) Langmuir monolayers, and its incorporation to the air-water interface was monitored with surface pressure measurements. Phytase was able to incorporate into DPPG monolayers even at high surface pressures, ca. 30 mN/m, under controlled ionic strength, pH, and temperature. Mixed Langmuir monolayers of phytase and DPPG were characterized by surface pressure-area and surface potential-area isotherms, and the presence of the enzyme provided an expansion in the monolayers (when compared to the pure lipid at the interface). The enzyme incorporation also led to significant changes in the equilibrium surface compressibility (in-plane elasticity), especially in liquid-expanded and liquid-condensed regions. The dynamic surface elasticity for phytase-containing interfaces was investigated using harmonic oscillation and axisymmetric drop shape analysis. The insertion of the enzyme at DPPG monolayers caused an increase in the dynamic surface elasticity at 30 mN m(-)(1), indicating a strong interaction between the enzyme and lipid molecules at a high-surface packing. Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films containing 35 layers of mixed phytase-DPPG were characterized by ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy and crystal quartz microbalance nanogravimetry. The ability in detecting phytic acid was studied with voltammetric measurements.

  7. Controlling Schottky energy barriers in organic electronic devices using self-assembled monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, I. H.; Rubin, S.; Zawodzinski, T. A.; Kress, J. D.; Martin, R. L.; Smith, D. L.; Barashkov, N. N.; Ferraris, J. P.

    1996-11-01

    We demonstrate tuning of Schottky energy barriers in organic electronic devices by utilizing chemically tailored electrodes. The Schottky energy barrier of Ag on poly[2-methoxy, 5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)- 1,4-phenylene was tuned over a range of more than 1 eV by using self-assembled monolayers (SAM's) to attach oriented dipole layers to the Ag prior to device fabrication. Kelvin probe measurements were used to determine the effect of the SAM's on the Ag surface potential. Ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations of the molecular dipole moments successfully describe the surface potential changes. The chemically tailored electrodes were then incorporated in organic diode structures and changes in the metal/organic Schottky energy barriers were measured using an electroabsorption technique. These results demonstrate the use of self-assembled monolayers to control metal/organic interfacial electronic properties. They establish a physical principle for manipulating the relative energy levels between two materials and demonstrate an approach to improve metal/organic contacts in organic electronic devices.

  8. Surface-water interface induces conformational changes critical for protein adsorption: Implications for monolayer formation of EAS hydrophobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamron eLey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The class I hydrophobin EAS is part of a family of small, amphiphilic fungal proteins best known for their ability to self-assemble into stable monolayers that modify the hydrophobicity of a surface to facilitate further microbial growth. These proteins have attracted increasing attention for industrial and biomedical applications, with the aim of designing surfaces that have the potential to maintain their clean state by resisting non-specific protein binding. To gain a better understanding of this process, we have employed all-atom molecular dynamics to study initial stages of the spontaneous adsorption of monomeric EAS hydrophobin on fully hydroxylated silica, a commonly used industrial and biomedical substrate. Particular interest has been paid to the Cys3-Cys4 loop, which has been shown to exhibit disruptive behavior in solution, and the Cys7-Cys8 loop, which is believed to be involved in the aggregation of EAS hydrophobin at interfaces. Specific and water mediated interactions with the surface were also analyzed. We have identified two possible binding motifs, one which allows unfolding of the Cys7-Cys8 loop due to the surfactant-like behavior of the Cys3-Cys4 loop, and another which has limited unfolding due to the Cys3-Cys4 loop remaining disordered in solution. We have also identified intermittent interactions with water which mediate the protein adsorption to the surface, as well as longer lasting interactions which control the diffusion of water around the adsorption site. These results have shown that EAS behaves in a similar way at the air-water and surface-water interfaces, and have also highlighted the need for hydrophilic ligand functionalization of the silica surface in order to prevent the adsorption of EAS hydrophobin.

  9. Electroactive oligoaniline-containing self-assembled monolayers for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi; Li, Mengyan; Mylonakis, Andreas; Han, Jingjia; MacDiarmid, Alan G; Chen, Xuesi; Lelkes, Peter I; Wei, Yen

    2007-10-01

    A novel electroactive silsesquioxane precursor, N-(4-aminophenyl)-N'-(4'-(3-triethoxysilyl-propyl-ureido) phenyl-1,4-quinonenediimine) (ATQD), was successfully synthesized from the emeraldine form of amino-capped aniline trimers via a one-step coupling reaction and subsequent purification by column chromatography. The physicochemical properties of ATQD were characterized using mass spectrometry as well as by nuclear magnetic resonance and UV-vis spectroscopy. Analysis by cyclic voltammetry confirmed that the intrinsic electroactivity of ATQD was maintained upon protonic acid doping, exhibiting two distinct reversible oxidative states, similar to polyaniline. The aromatic amine terminals of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of ATQD on glass substrates were covalently modified with an adhesive oligopeptide, cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) (ATQD-RGD). The mean height of the monolayer coating on the surfaces was approximately 3 nm, as measured by atomic force microscopy. The biocompatibility of the novel electroactive substrates was evaluated using PC12 pheochromocytoma cells, an established cell line of neural origin. The bioactive, derivatized electroactive scaffold material, ATQD-RGD, supported PC12 cell adhesion and proliferation, similar to control tissue-culture-treated polystyrene surfaces. Importantly, electroactive surfaces stimulated spontaneous neuritogenesis in PC12 cells, in the absence of neurotrophic growth factors, such as nerve growth factor (NGF). As expected, NGF significantly enhanced neurite extension on both control and electroactive surfaces. Taken together, our results suggest that the newly electroactive SAMs grafted with bioactive peptides, such as RGD, could be promising biomaterials for tissue engineering.

  10. Dynamical speckles in watery surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llovera-Gonzalez, J.J.; Moreno-Yeras, A.; Garcia-Diaz, M.; Alvarez-Salgado, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of watery surfaces with monolayer of surfactant substances is of interest in diverse technological applications. The format ion and study of molecular monolayer deposited in these surfaces require the application of measurements techniques that allow evaluating the recovery grade locally without modifying practically the studied surface. In this paper the preliminary results obtained by the authors it plows exposed applying the technique of dynamic speckle interferometry in watery surfaces and their consideration like to possible resource to measure the grade of local recovery of these surfaces on the it bases that the speckles pattern dog reveal the dynamics of evaporation that takes place in the same ones. (Author)

  11. Self-assembled monolayers of 1-alkenes on oxidized platinum surfaces as platforms for immobilized enzymes for biosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Jose Maria; Bielen, Abraham A.M.; Olthuis, Wouter; Kengen, Servé W.M.; Zuilhof, Han; Franssen, Maurice C.R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three different oxidases are covalently attached to alkene based SAMs on PtOx. • Attached enzymes remain active and their activity is assessed by chronoamperometry. • Functionalized PtOx allows electron mediator free chronoamperometry measurements. • The thus formed enzyme electrodes are useful as biosensors for glucose and lactate. • Immobilization of human HAOX foresees in vivo lactate monitoring in humans. - Abstract: Alkene-based self-assembled monolayers grafted on oxidized Pt surfaces were used as a scaffold to covalently immobilize oxidase enzymes, with the aim to develop an amperometric biosensor platform. NH_2-terminated organic layers were functionalized with either aldehyde (CHO) or N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester-derived groups, to provide anchoring points for enzyme immobilization. The functionalized Pt surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), static water contact angle (CA), infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Glucose oxidase (GOX) was covalently attached to the functionalized Pt electrodes, either with or without additional glutaraldehyde crosslinking. The responses of the acquired sensors to glucose concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 100 mM were monitored by chronoamperometry. Furthermore, lactate oxidase (LOX) and human hydroxyacid oxidase (HAOX) were successfully immobilized onto the PtOx surface platform. The performance of the resulting lactate sensors was investigated for lactate concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 20 mM. The successful attachment of active enzymes (GOX, LOX and HAOX) on Pt electrodes demonstrates that covalently functionalized PtOx surfaces provide a universal platform for the development of oxidase enzyme-based sensors.

  12. Self-assembled monolayers of 1-alkenes on oxidized platinum surfaces as platforms for immobilized enzymes for biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Jose Maria; Bielen, Abraham A.M. [Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB, Wageningen (Netherlands); Olthuis, Wouter [BIOS Lab on a Chip Group, MESA+ and MIRA Institutes, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Kengen, Servé W.M. [Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, 6703HB Wageningen (Netherlands); Zuilhof, Han, E-mail: han.zuilhof@wur.nl [Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB, Wageningen (Netherlands); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 22254 (Saudi Arabia); Franssen, Maurice C.R., E-mail: maurice.franssen@wur.nl [Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Three different oxidases are covalently attached to alkene based SAMs on PtOx. • Attached enzymes remain active and their activity is assessed by chronoamperometry. • Functionalized PtOx allows electron mediator free chronoamperometry measurements. • The thus formed enzyme electrodes are useful as biosensors for glucose and lactate. • Immobilization of human HAOX foresees in vivo lactate monitoring in humans. - Abstract: Alkene-based self-assembled monolayers grafted on oxidized Pt surfaces were used as a scaffold to covalently immobilize oxidase enzymes, with the aim to develop an amperometric biosensor platform. NH{sub 2}-terminated organic layers were functionalized with either aldehyde (CHO) or N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester-derived groups, to provide anchoring points for enzyme immobilization. The functionalized Pt surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), static water contact angle (CA), infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Glucose oxidase (GOX) was covalently attached to the functionalized Pt electrodes, either with or without additional glutaraldehyde crosslinking. The responses of the acquired sensors to glucose concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 100 mM were monitored by chronoamperometry. Furthermore, lactate oxidase (LOX) and human hydroxyacid oxidase (HAOX) were successfully immobilized onto the PtOx surface platform. The performance of the resulting lactate sensors was investigated for lactate concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 20 mM. The successful attachment of active enzymes (GOX, LOX and HAOX) on Pt electrodes demonstrates that covalently functionalized PtOx surfaces provide a universal platform for the development of oxidase enzyme-based sensors.

  13. Sensitive detection of plastic explosives with self-assembled monolayer-coated microcantilevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnaduwage, L. A.; Boiadjiev, V.; Hawk, J. E.; Thundat, T.

    2003-08-01

    We report the detection of 10-30 parts-per-trillion levels of pentaerythritol tetranitrate and hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine within 20 s of exposure to a silicon microcantilever with its gold surface modified with a self-assembled monolayer of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. These measurements correspond to a limit of detection of a few fg.

  14. Pressure controlled transition into a self-induced topological superconducting surface state

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Ab-initio calculations show a pressure induced trivial-nontrivial-trivial topological phase transition in the normal state of 1T-TiSe2. The pressure range in which the nontrivial phase emerges overlaps with that of the superconducting ground state. Thus, topological superconductivity can be induced in protected surface states by the proximity effect of superconducting bulk states. This kind of self-induced topological surface superconductivity is promising for a realization of Majorana fermions due to the absence of lattice and chemical potential mismatches. For appropriate electron doping, the formation of the topological superconducting surface state in 1T-TiSe 2 becomes accessible to experiments as it can be controlled by pressure.

  15. Pressure controlled transition into a self-induced topological superconducting surface state

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2014-02-07

    Ab-initio calculations show a pressure induced trivial-nontrivial-trivial topological phase transition in the normal state of 1T-TiSe2. The pressure range in which the nontrivial phase emerges overlaps with that of the superconducting ground state. Thus, topological superconductivity can be induced in protected surface states by the proximity effect of superconducting bulk states. This kind of self-induced topological surface superconductivity is promising for a realization of Majorana fermions due to the absence of lattice and chemical potential mismatches. For appropriate electron doping, the formation of the topological superconducting surface state in 1T-TiSe 2 becomes accessible to experiments as it can be controlled by pressure.

  16. The Interface between Gd and Monolayer MoS2: A First-Principles Study

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuejing; Mi, Wenbo; Wang, Xiaocha; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the electronic structure of interfaces between two-, four- and six-layer Gd(0001) and monolayer MoS2 by first-principles calculations. Strong chemical bonds shift the Fermi energy of MoS2 upwards into the conduction band. At the surface

  17. Effect of Internal Heteroatoms on Level Alignment at Metal/Molecular Monolayer/Si Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alon, Hadas; Garrick, Rachel; Pujari, Sidharam P.; Toledano, Tal; Sinai, Ofer; Kedem, Nir; Bendikov, Tatyana; Baio, Joe E.; Weidner, Tobias; Zuilhof, Han; Cahen, David; Kronik, Leeor; Sukenik, Chaim N.; Vilan, Ayelet

    2018-01-01

    Molecular monolayers at metal/semiconductor heterointerfaces affect electronic energy level alignment at the interface by modifying the interface's electrical dipole. On a free surface, the molecular dipole is usually manipulated by means of substitution at its external end. However, at an interface

  18. Multivariate analysis of TOF-SIMS spectra of monolayers on scribed silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Lua, Yit-Yian; Jiang, Guilin; Tyler, Bonnie J; Linford, Matthew R

    2005-07-15

    Static time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) was performed on monolayers on scribed silicon (Si(scr)) derived from 1-alkenes, 1-alkynes, 1-holoalkanes, aldehydes, and acid chlorides. To rapidly determine the variation in the data without introducing user bias, a multivariate analysis was performed. First, principal components analysis (PCA) was done on data obtained from silicon scribed with homologous series of aldehydes and acid chlorides. For this study, the positive ion spectra, the negative ion spectra, and the concatentated (linked) positive and negative ion spectra were preprocessed by normalization, mean centering, and autoscaling. The mean centered data consistently showed the best correlations between the scores on PC1 and the number of carbon atoms in the adsorbate. These correlations were not as strong for the normalized and autoscaled data. After reviewing these methods, it was concluded that mean centering is the best preprocessing method for TOF-SIMS spectra of monolayers on Si(scr). A PCA analysis of all of the positive ion spectra revealed a good correlation between the number of carbon atoms in all of the adsorbates and the scores on PC1. PCA of all of the negative ion spectra and the concatenated positive and negative ion spectra showed a correlation based on the number of carbon atoms in the adsorbate and the class of the adsorbate. These results imply that the positive ion spectra are most sensitive to monolayer thickness, while the negative ion spectra are sensitive to the nature of the substrate-monolayer interface and the monolayer thickness. Loadings show an inverse relationship between (inorganic) fragments that are expected from the substrate and (organic) fragments expected from the monolayer. Multivariate peak intensity ratios were derived. It is also suggested that PCA can be used to detect outlier surfaces. Partial least squares showed a strong correlation between the number of carbon atoms in the adsorbate and the

  19. Estimating Subglottal Pressure from Neck-Surface Acceleration during Normal Voice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryd, Amanda S.; Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Hillman, Robert E.; Mehta, Daryush D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for estimating subglottal air pressure using a neck-surface accelerometer and to compare the accuracy of predicting subglottal air pressure relative to predicting acoustic sound pressure level (SPL). Method: Indirect estimates of subglottal pressure (P[subscript sg]') were obtained…

  20. Discharge physics and chemistry of a novel atmospheric pressure plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.; Henins, I.; Hermann, J.W.; Selwyn, G.S.; Jeong, J.Y.; Hickis, R.

    1999-07-01

    The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is a unique plasma source operating at atmospheric pressure. The APPJ operates with RF power and produces a stable non-thermal discharge in capacitively-coupled configuration. The discharge is spatially and temporally homogeneous and provides a unique gas phase chemistry that is well suited for various applications including etching, film deposition, surface treatment and decontamination of chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents. A theoretical model shows electron densities of 0.2--2 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup {minus}3} for a helium discharge at a power level of 3--30 W cm{sup {minus}3}. The APPJ also produces a large flux, equivalent of up to 10,000 monolayer s{sup {minus}1}, of chemically-active, atomic and metastable molecular species which can impinge surfaces several cm downstream of the confined source. In addition, the efforts are in progress to measure the electron density using microwave diagnostics and to benchmark the gas phase chemical model by using LIF and titration.

  1. Ionic interactions in electroactive self-assembled monolayers of ferrocene species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delong, Hugh C.; Donohue, John J.; Buttry, Daniel A.

    1991-04-01

    The electrochemical and interfacial behavior of two types of electroactive self-assembled monolayer systems is investigated at gold electrodes. The first type is a ferrocene-based surfactant (a redox surfactant) derived from (dimethylamino)methylferrocene via quaternization of the amino group with various n-alkylbromides. These have a long alkyl chain with 16 or 18 carbons in the chain pendent from the cationic ammonium group. These are referred to as C16 and C18. The second type is a ferrocene-based dimeric species with a disulfide functional group capable of providing a permanent anchor to the Au electrode, thus endowing monolayers of this species with exceptional stability towards desorption. The electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQM) is used to monitor the mass changes which occur at the electrode surface during the redox processes of these two species.

  2. An in situ study of the adsorption behavior of functionalized particles on selfassembled monolayers via different chemical interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ling, X.Y.; Malaquin, Laurent; Reinhoudt, David; Wolf, Heiko; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2007-01-01

    The formation of particle monolayers by convective assembly was studied in situ with three different kinds of particle-surface interactions: adsorption onto native surfaces, with additional electrostatic interactions, and with supramolecular host-guest interactions. In the first case

  3. Functionalizing Arrays of Transferred Monolayer Graphene on Insulating Surfaces by Bipolar Electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Line; Pedersen, Emil Bjerglund; Thyssen, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Development of versatile methods for graphene functionalization is necessary before use in applications such as composites or as catalyst support. In this study, bipolar electrochemistry is used as a wireless functionalization method to graft 4-bromobenzenediazonium on large (10 × 10 mm2) monolayer...... graphene sheets supported on SiO2. Using this technique, transferred graphene can be electrochemically functionalized without the need of a metal support or the deposition of physical contacts. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy are used to map the chemical changes and modifications...

  4. Surface studies of thermionic cathodes and the mechanism of operation of an impregnated tungsten cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, R.

    1976-09-01

    The surface properties of conventional impregnated cathodes were investigated by the use of Auger spectroscopy and work function measurements, and these were compared with a synthesized barium- or barium oxide coated tungsten surface. The barium- and barium oxide coated surfaces were prepared by evaporating barium onto a tungsten surface that can be heated to elevated temperatures. Multilayer or monolayer coverages can be investigated using this technique. The results of this study show that the surface of an impregnated tungsten cathode is identical to that observed for a synthesized monolayer or partial monolayer of barium on partially oxidized tungsten, using the criteria of identical Auger patterns and work functions. Desorption measurements of barium from a tungsten surface were also made. These results in conjunction with Auger and work function data were interpreted to show that throughout most of its life an impregnated cathode operating in the range of 1100 C has a partial monolayer rather than a monolayer of barium on its surface

  5. Induced Rashba splitting of electronic states in monolayers of Au, Cu on a W(110) substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikin, A M; Rybkina, A A; Rybkin, A G; Marchenko, D; Korshunov, A S; Kudasov, Yu B; Frolova, N V; Sánchez-Barriga, J; Varykhalov, A; Rader, O

    2013-01-01

    The paper sums up a theoretical and experimental investigation of the influence of the spin–orbit coupling in W(110) on the spin structure of electronic states in deposited Au and Cu monolayers. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy reveals that in the case of monolayers of Au and Cu spin–orbit split bands are formed in a surface-projected gap of W(110). Spin resolution shows that these states are spin polarized and that, therefore, the spin–orbit splitting is of Rashba type. The states evolve from hybridization of W 5d, 6p-derived states with the s, p states of the deposited metal. Interaction with Au and Cu shifts the original W 5d-derived states from the edges toward the center of the surface-projected gap. The size of the spin–orbit splitting of the formed states does not correlate with the atomic number of the deposited metal and is even higher for Cu than for Au. These states can be described as W-derived surface resonances modified by hybridization with the p, d states of the adsorbed metal. Our electronic structure calculations performed in the framework of the density functional theory correlate well with the experiment and demonstrate the crucial role of the W top layer for the spin–orbit splitting. It is shown that the contributions of the spin–orbit interaction from W and Au act in opposite directions which leads to a decrease of the resulting spin–orbit splitting in the Au monolayer on W(110). For the Cu monolayer with lower spin–orbit interaction the resulting spin splitting is higher and mainly determined by the W. (paper)

  6. Self-Assembled Monolayers on Gold of β-Cyclodextrin Adsorbates with Different Anchoring Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Méndez Ardoy, Alejandro; Steentjes, Tom; Kudernac, Tibor; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2014-01-01

    We designed multivalent β-cyclodextrin-based adsorbates bearing different anchoring groups aiming to yield stable monolayers with improved packing and close contact of the cavity to the gold surface. Toward this end the primary rim of the β-cyclodextrin was decorated with several functional groups,

  7. Formation of Underbrushes on thiolated Poly (ethylene glycol) PEG monolayers by Oligoethylene glycol (OEG) terminated Alkane Thiols on Gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lokanathan, Arcot R.

    2011-01-01

    Adding underbrushes of oligoethylene glycol (OEG) to monolayers of long chain PEG molecules on a surface is one of the strategies [1] in designing a suitable platform for antifouling purpose, where it is possible to have high graft density and molecular conformational freedom[4] simultaneously......, there by maximal retention of activity of covalently immobilised antifouling enzyme [2] on PEG surfaces along with resistance to protein adsorption[3]. Here we present some our studies on the addition of OEG thiol molecules over a self assembled monolayer of PEG thiol on gold. The kinetics of addition of OEG thiol...

  8. Immobilization of transition metal ions on zirconium phosphate monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melezhik, A.V.; Brej, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that ions of transition metals (copper, iron, vanadyl, titanium) are adsorbed on zirconium phosphate monolayers. The zirconium phosphate threshold capacity corresponds to substitution of all protons of hydroxyphosphate groups by equivalent amounts of copper, iron or vanadyl. Adsorption of polynuclear ions is possible in case of titanium. The layered substance with specific surface up to 300 m 2 /g, wherein ultradispersed titanium dioxide particles are intercalirated between zirconium-phosphate layers, is synthesized

  9. Natural Deposition Strategy for Interfacial, Self-Assembled, Large-Scale, Densely Packed, Monolayer Film with Ligand-Exchanged Gold Nanorods for In Situ Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Drug Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Mei; Zhou, Binbin; Tang, Xianghu; Chen, Cheng; Ge, Meihong; Li, Pan; Huang, Xingjiu; Yang, Liangbao; Liu, Jinhuai

    2018-03-15

    Liquid interfacial self-assembly of metal nanoparticles holds great promise for its various applications, such as in tunable optical devices, plasmonics, sensors, and catalysis. However, the construction of large-area, ordered, anisotropic, nanoparticle monolayers and the acquisition of self-assembled interface films are still significant challenges. Herein, a rapid, validated method to fabricate large-scale, close-packed nanomaterials at the cyclohexane/water interface, in which hydrophilic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide coated nanoparticles and gold nanorods (AuNRs) self-assemble into densely packed 2D arrays by regulating the surface ligand and suitable inducer, is reported. Decorating AuNRs with polyvinylpyrrolidone not only extensively decreases the charge of AuNRs, but also diminishes repulsive forces. More importantly, a general, facile, novel technique to transfer an interfacial monolayer through a designed in situ reaction cell linked to a microfluidic chip is revealed. The self-assembled nanofilm can then automatically settle on the substrate and be directly detected in the reaction cell in situ by means of a portable Raman spectrometer. Moreover, a close-packed monolayer of self-assembled AuNRs provides massive, efficient hotspots to create great surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement, which provides high sensitivity and reproducibility as the SERS-active substrate. Furthermore, this strategy was exploited to detect drug molecules in human urine for cyclohexane-extracted targets acting as the oil phase to form an oil/water interface. A portable Raman spectrometer was employed to detect methamphetamine down to 100 ppb levels in human urine, exhibiting excellent practicability. As a universal platform, handy tool, and fast pretreatment method with a good capability for drug detection in biological systems, this technique shows great promise for rapid, credible, and on-spot drug detection. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Effect of time and deposition method on quality of phosphonic acid modifier self-assembled monolayers on indium zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, Lingzi [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Knesting, Kristina M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1700 (United States); Bulusu, Anuradha [School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Sigdel, Ajaya K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Giordano, Anthony J.; Marder, Seth R. [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0400 (United States); Berry, Joseph J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Graham, Samuel [School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Ginger, David S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1700 (United States); Pemberton, Jeanne E., E-mail: pembertn@email.arizona.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Deposition of phosphonic acid monolayers on oxides from ethanol solutions occurs by rapid adsorption within 10 s with slower equilibration complete in 48 h. • The slower equilibration step involves molecular reorientation and vacancy filling on the oxide surface. • Soak-free deposition by spray coating and microcontact printing do not provide reproducible, fully-covered, uniform monolayers without substrate etching. • Adjustments to exposure time, substrate temperature, and solution/substrate contact efficiency are necessary to optimize soak-free methods. - Abstract: Phosphonic acid (PA) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are utilized at critical interfaces between transparent conductive oxides (TCO) and organic active layers in organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs). The effects of PA deposition method and time on the formation of close-packed, high-quality monolayers is investigated here for SAMs fabricated by solution deposition, micro-contact printing, and spray coating. The solution deposition isotherm for pentafluorinated benzylphosphonic acid (F{sub 5}BnPA) on indium-doped zinc oxide (IZO) is studied using polarization modulation-infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) at room temperature as a model PA/IZO system. Fast surface adsorption occurs within the first min; however, well-oriented high-quality SAMs are reached only after ∼48 h, presumably through a continual process of molecular adsorption/desorption and monolayer filling accompanied by molecular reorientation. Two other rapid, soak-free deposition techniques, micro-contact printing and spray coating, are also explored. SAM quality is compared for deposition of phenyl phosphonic acid (PPA), F{sub 13}-octylphosphonic acid (F{sub 13}OPA), and pentafluorinated benzyl phosphonic acid (F{sub 5}BnPA) by solution deposition, micro-contact printing and spray coating using PM-IRRAS. In contrast to micro-contact printing and spray coating techniques, 48–168 h solution

  11. Large Friction Anisotropy of a Polydiacetylene Monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, A.R.; Carpick, R.W.; Sasaki, D.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Friction force microscopy measurements of a polydiacetylene monolayer film reveal a 300% friction anisotropy that is correlated with the film structure. The film consists of a monolayer of the red form of N-(2-ethanol)- 10,12 pentacosadiynamide, prepared on a Langmuir trough and deposited on a mica substrate. As confirmed by atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, the monolayer consists of domains of linearly oriented conjugated backbones with pendant hydrocarbon side chains above and below the backbones. Maximum friction occurs when the sliding direction is perpendicular to the backbone. We propose that the backbones impose anisotropic packing of the hydrocarbon side chains which leads to the observed friction anisotropy. Friction anisotropy is therefore a sensitive, optically-independent indicator of polymer backbone direction and monolayer structural properties

  12. Thermal conductivity of a h-BCN monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Yan; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Liu, Hong-Yuan; Wei, Ning

    2017-10-18

    A hexagonal graphene-like boron-carbon-nitrogen (h-BCN) monolayer, a new two-dimensional (2D) material, has been synthesized recently. Herein we investigate for the first time the thermal conductivity of this novel 2D material. Using molecular dynamics simulations based on the optimized Tersoff potential, we found that the h-BCN monolayers are isotropic in the basal plane with close thermal conductivity magnitudes. Though h-BCN has the same hexagonal lattice as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), it exhibits a much lower thermal conductivity than the latter two materials. In addition, the thermal conductivity of h-BCN monolayers is found to be size-dependent but less temperature-dependent. Modulation of the thermal conductivity of h-BCN monolayers can also be realized by strain engineering. Compressive strain leads to a monotonic decrease in the thermal conductivity while the tensile strain induces an up-then-down trend in the thermal conductivity. Surprisingly, the small tensile strain can facilitate the heat transport of the h-BCN monolayers.

  13. High-frequency pressure variations in the vicinity of a surface CO2 flux chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene S. Takle; James R. Brandle; R. A. Schmidt; Rick Garcia; Irina V. Litvina; William J. Massman; Xinhua Zhou; Geoffrey Doyle; Charles W. Rice

    2003-01-01

    We report measurements of 2Hz pressure fluctuations at and below the soil surface in the vicinity of a surface-based CO2 flux chamber. These measurements were part of a field experiment to examine the possible role of pressure pumping due to atmospheric pressure fluctuations on measurements of surface fluxes of CO2. Under the moderate wind speeds, warm temperatures,...

  14. Plasmonic Gold Nanorods Coverage Influence on Enhancement of the Photoluminescence of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Monolayer

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kevin C. J.

    2015-11-17

    The 2-D transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) semiconductors, has received great attention due to its excellent optical and electronic properties and potential applications in field-effect transistors, light emitting and sensing devices. Recently surface plasmon enhanced photoluminescence (PL) of the weak 2-D TMD atomic layers was developed to realize the potential optoelectronic devices. However, we noticed that the enhancement would not increase monotonically with increasing of metal plasmonic objects and the emission drop after the certain coverage. This study presents the optimized PL enhancement of a monolayer MoS2 in the presence of gold (Au) nanorods. A localized surface plasmon wave of Au nanorods that generated around the monolayer MoS2 can provide resonance wavelength overlapping with that of the MoS2 gain spectrum. These spatial and spectral overlapping between the localized surface plasmon polariton waves and that from MoS2 emission drastically enhanced the light emission from the MoS2 monolayer. We gave a simple model and physical interpretations to explain the phenomena. The plasmonic Au nanostructures approach provides a valuable avenue to enhancing the emitting efficiency of the 2-D nano-materials and their devices for the future optoelectronic devices and systems.

  15. Plasmonic Gold Nanorods Coverage Influence on Enhancement of the Photoluminescence of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Monolayer

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kevin C. J.; Chen, Yi-Huan; Lin, Hsiang-Yu; Cheng, Chia-Chin; Chen, Pei-Ying; Wu, Ting-Yi; Shih, Min-Hsiung; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Li, Lain-Jong; Chang, Chien-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The 2-D transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) semiconductors, has received great attention due to its excellent optical and electronic properties and potential applications in field-effect transistors, light emitting and sensing devices. Recently surface plasmon enhanced photoluminescence (PL) of the weak 2-D TMD atomic layers was developed to realize the potential optoelectronic devices. However, we noticed that the enhancement would not increase monotonically with increasing of metal plasmonic objects and the emission drop after the certain coverage. This study presents the optimized PL enhancement of a monolayer MoS2 in the presence of gold (Au) nanorods. A localized surface plasmon wave of Au nanorods that generated around the monolayer MoS2 can provide resonance wavelength overlapping with that of the MoS2 gain spectrum. These spatial and spectral overlapping between the localized surface plasmon polariton waves and that from MoS2 emission drastically enhanced the light emission from the MoS2 monolayer. We gave a simple model and physical interpretations to explain the phenomena. The plasmonic Au nanostructures approach provides a valuable avenue to enhancing the emitting efficiency of the 2-D nano-materials and their devices for the future optoelectronic devices and systems.

  16. Stability of FDTS monolayer coating on aluminum injection molding tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cech, Jiri; Taboryski, Rafael J.

    2012-01-01

    microns can obliterate small features. The nanoimprint lithography community extensively uses functional monolayer coatings on silicon/SiO2 lithographic stamps [7–11]. This treatment dramatically reduces stiction, and improves yield and quality of replicated nanostructures. Here we report on a fluorinated...... trichloro-silane based coating deposited on aluminum or its alloys by molecular vapor deposition. We have tested the stability of this coating in challenging conditions of injection molding, an environment with high shear stress from the molten polymer, pressures up to 200 MPa, temperatures up to 250 ◦C...

  17. An oxygen pressure sensor using surface acoustic wave devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighty, Bradley D.; Upchurch, Billy T.; Oglesby, Donald M.

    1993-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) piezoelectric devices are finding widespread applications in many arenas, particularly in the area of chemical sensing. We have developed an oxygen pressure sensor based on coating a SAW device with an oxygen binding agent which can be tailored to provide variable sensitivity. The coating is prepared by dissolving an oxygen binding agent in a toluene solution of a copolymer which is then sprayed onto the surface of the SAW device. Experimental data shows the feasibility of tailoring sensors to measure the partial pressure of oxygen from 2.6 to 67 KPa (20 to 500 torr). Potential applications of this technology are discussed.

  18. Self-assembled monolayers of bimetallic Au/Ag nanospheres with superior surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity for ultra-sensitive triphenylmethane dyes detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yue; Zhang, Hua; Xu, Linlin; Chen, Ming; Chen, Feng

    2018-02-15

    The bimetallic Au/Ag self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were constructed by using mono-dispersed Au/Ag nanospheres (Ag: 4.07%-34.53%) via evaporation-based assembly strategy. The composition-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy revealed that the Au/Ag (Ag: 16.83%) SAMs provide maximized activity for triphenylmethane dyes detection. With the inter-metallic synergy, the optimized SAMs enable the Raman intensity of crystal violet molecules to be about 223 times higher than that of monometallic Au SAMs. Moreover, the SERS signals with excellent uniformity (<5% variation) are sensitive down to 10 -13   M concentrations because of the optimal matching between bimetallic plasmon resonance and the incident laser wavelength.

  19. Toward tunable doping in graphene FETs by molecular self-assembled monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Klekachev, Alexander V.; Cantoro, Mirco; Huyghebaert, Cedric; Stesmans, André; Asselberghs, Inge; de Gendt, Stefan; de Feyter, Steven

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we report the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of oleylamine (OA) on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and graphene surfaces and demonstrate the potential of using such organic SAMs to tailor the electronic properties of graphene. Molecular resolution Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) images reveal the detailed molecular ordering. The electrical measurements show that OA strongly interacts with graphene leading to n-doping effects in graphene devices. The doping levels are tunable by varying the OA deposition conditions. Importantly, neither hole nor electron mobilities are decreased by the OA modification. As a benefit from this noncovalent modification strategy, the pristine characteristics of the device are recoverable upon OA removal. From this study, one can envision the possibility to correlate the graphene-based device performance with the molecular structure and supramolecular ordering of the organic dopant.In this paper, we report the formation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of oleylamine (OA) on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and graphene surfaces and demonstrate the potential of using such organic SAMs to tailor the electronic properties of graphene. Molecular resolution Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) images reveal the detailed molecular ordering. The electrical measurements show that OA strongly interacts with graphene leading to n-doping effects in graphene devices. The doping levels are tunable by varying the OA deposition conditions. Importantly, neither hole nor electron mobilities are decreased by the OA modification. As a benefit from this noncovalent modification strategy, the pristine characteristics of the device are recoverable upon OA removal. From this study, one can envision the possibility to correlate the graphene-based device performance with the molecular structure and supramolecular ordering of the organic

  20. Changes in work function due to NO2 adsorption on monolayer and bilayer epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Nuala M.; Armiento, Rickard; Yakimova, Rositsa; Abrikosov, Igor A.

    2016-11-01

    The electronic properties of monolayer graphene grown epitaxially on SiC(0001) are known to be highly sensitive to the presence of NO2 molecules. The presence of small areas of bilayer graphene, on the other hand, considerably reduces the overall sensitivity of the surface. We investigate how NO2 molecules interact with monolayer and bilayer graphene, both free-standing and on a SiC(0001) substrate. We show that it is necessary to explicitly include the effect of the substrate in order to reproduce the experimental results. When monolayer graphene is present on SiC, there is a large charge transfer from the interface between the buffer layer and the SiC substrate to the molecule. As a result, the surface work function increases by 0.9 eV after molecular adsorption. A graphene bilayer is more effective at screening this interfacial charge, and so the charge transfer and change in work function after NO2 adsorption is much smaller.

  1. On the Hopping Efficiency of Nanoparticles in the Electron Transfer across Self‐Assembled Monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Feng; Khan, Kamran; Liang, Jing‐Hong

    2013-01-01

    Redox reactions of solvated molecular species at gold‐electrode surfaces modified by electrochemically inactive self‐assembled molecular monolayers (SAMs) are found to be activated by introducing Au nanoparticles (NPs) covalently bound to the SAM to form a reactive Au–alkanedithiol–NP–molecule hy...

  2. Multispectral selective near-perfect light absorption by graphene monolayer using aperiodic multilayer microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Iman; Dalir, Hamed; Chen, Ray T.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate one-dimensional aperiodic multilayer microstructures in order to achieve near-total absorptions at preselected wavelengths in a graphene monolayer. The proposed structures are designed using a genetic optimization algorithm coupled to a transfer matrix code. Coupled-mode-theory analysis, consistent with transfer matrix method results, indicates the existence of a critical coupling in the graphene monolayer for perfect absorptions. Our findings show that the near-total-absorption peaks are highly tunable and can be controlled simultaneously or independently in a wide range of wavelengths in the near-infrared and visible ranges. The proposed approach is metal-free, does not require surface texturing or patterning, and can be also applied for other two-dimensional materials.

  3. Zitterbewegung in monolayer silicene in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romera, E.; Roldán, J.B.; Santos, F. de los

    2014-01-01

    We study the Zitterbewegung in monolayer silicene under a perpendicular magnetic field. Using an effective Hamiltonian, we have investigated the autocorrelation function and the density currents in this material. Moreover, we have analyzed other types of periodicities of the system (classical and revival times). Finally, the above results are compared with their counterparts in two other monolayer materials subject to a magnetic field: graphene and MoS 2 . - Highlights: • We study Zitterbewegung in monolayer silicene in a magnetic field. • We have analyzed other types of periodicities in silicene. • The above results are compared with other monolayer materials (graphene and MoS 2 )

  4. Zitterbewegung in monolayer silicene in a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romera, E. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear and Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Roldán, J.B. [Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de Computadores and CITIC, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Santos, F. de los [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Física de la Materia, and Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2014-07-04

    We study the Zitterbewegung in monolayer silicene under a perpendicular magnetic field. Using an effective Hamiltonian, we have investigated the autocorrelation function and the density currents in this material. Moreover, we have analyzed other types of periodicities of the system (classical and revival times). Finally, the above results are compared with their counterparts in two other monolayer materials subject to a magnetic field: graphene and MoS{sub 2}. - Highlights: • We study Zitterbewegung in monolayer silicene in a magnetic field. • We have analyzed other types of periodicities in silicene. • The above results are compared with other monolayer materials (graphene and MoS{sub 2})

  5. Controlling Schottky energy barriers in organic electronic devices using self-assembled monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, I.H.; Rubin, S.; Zawodzinski, T.A.; Kress, J.D.; Martin, R.L.; Smith, D.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Barashkov, N.N.; Ferraris, J.P. [The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75083 (United States)

    1996-11-01

    We demonstrate tuning of Schottky energy barriers in organic electronic devices by utilizing chemically tailored electrodes. The Schottky energy barrier of Ag on poly[2-methoxy], 5-(2{prime}-ethyl-hexyloxy)- 1,4-phenylene was tuned over a range of more than 1 eV by using self-assembled monolayers (SAM{close_quote}s) to attach oriented dipole layers to the Ag prior to device fabrication. Kelvin probe measurements were used to determine the effect of the SAM{close_quote}s on the Ag surface potential. {ital Ab} {ital initio} Hartree-Fock calculations of the molecular dipole moments successfully describe the surface potential changes. The chemically tailored electrodes were then incorporated in organic diode structures and changes in the metal/organic Schottky energy barriers were measured using an electroabsorption technique. These results demonstrate the use of self-assembled monolayers to control metal/organic interfacial electronic properties. They establish a physical principle for manipulating the relative energy levels between two materials and demonstrate an approach to improve metal/organic contacts in organic electronic devices. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  6. Controlling Schottky energy barriers in organic electronic devices using self-assembled monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, I.H.; Rubin, S.; Zawodzinski, T.A.; Kress, J.D.; Martin, R.L.; Smith, D.L.; Barashkov, N.N.; Ferraris, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate tuning of Schottky energy barriers in organic electronic devices by utilizing chemically tailored electrodes. The Schottky energy barrier of Ag on poly[2-methoxy], 5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)- 1,4-phenylene was tuned over a range of more than 1 eV by using self-assembled monolayers (SAM close-quote s) to attach oriented dipole layers to the Ag prior to device fabrication. Kelvin probe measurements were used to determine the effect of the SAM close-quote s on the Ag surface potential. Ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations of the molecular dipole moments successfully describe the surface potential changes. The chemically tailored electrodes were then incorporated in organic diode structures and changes in the metal/organic Schottky energy barriers were measured using an electroabsorption technique. These results demonstrate the use of self-assembled monolayers to control metal/organic interfacial electronic properties. They establish a physical principle for manipulating the relative energy levels between two materials and demonstrate an approach to improve metal/organic contacts in organic electronic devices. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  7. Boosting the performance of Pt electro-catalysts toward formic acid electro-oxidation by depositing sub-monolayer Au clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Xuanxuan; Wang Rongyue; Ding Yi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Au decoration on Pt nanoparticles simultaneously increases the activity and stability. → Sub-monolayer Au decoration changes the reaction path and results in the activity improvement. → Increasing the Au coverage will increase the specific activity. → Proper Au coverage results in a maximum mass specific activity. - Abstract: CO poisoning is the main obstacle to the application of Pt nanoparticles as anode catalysts in direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFCs). Significant types of Pt alloys have been investigated, which often demonstrate evidently improved catalytic performance governed by difference mechanisms. By using a well-known electrochemical technique of under potential deposition and in situ redox replacement, sub-monolayer Au clusters are deposited onto Pt nanoparticle surfaces in a highly controlled manner, generating a unique surface alloy structure. Under optimum conditions, the modified Pt nanoparticles can exhibit greatly enhanced specific activity (up to 23-fold increase) at potential of -0.2 V vs. MSE toward formic acid electro-oxidation (FAEO). Interestingly, the mass specific activity can also be improved by a factor of 2.3 at potential of -0.35 V vs. MSE although significant amount of surface Pt atoms are covered by the overlayer Au clusters. The much enhanced catalytic activity can be ascribed to a Pt surface ensemble effect, which induces change of the reaction path. Moreover, the sub-monolayer Au coating on the surface also contributes to the enhanced catalyst durability by inhibiting the Pt oxidation. These results show great potential to rationally design more active and stable nanocatalysts by modifying the Pt surface with otherwise inactive materials.

  8. Testing the effectiveness of monolayers under wind and wave conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palada, C; Schouten, P; Lemckert, C

    2012-01-01

    Monolayers are highly desirable for their evaporation reducing capabilities due to their relatively minimal cost and ease of application. Despite these positive attributes, monolayers have consistently failed to perform effectively due to the harsh wind and wave conditions prevalent across real-world water reserves. An exhaustive and consistent study testing the influence of wind and wave combinations on monolayer performance has yet to be presented in the literature. To remedy this, the effect of simultaneous wind and wave conditions on a benchmark high-performance monolayer (octadecanol suspension, CH(3)(CH(2))(16)CH(2)OH) has been analysed. Subjected only to waves, the monolayer remained intact due to its innate ability to compress and expand. However, the constant simultaneous application of wind and waves caused the monolayer to break up and gather down-wind where it volatilised over time. At wind speeds above 1.3 m s(-1) the monolayer was completely ineffective. For wind speeds below this threshold, the monolayer had an influence on the evaporation rate dependent on wind speed. From these results a series of application protocols can now be developed for the optimised deployment of monolayers in real-world water reserves. This will be of interest to private, commercial and government organisations involved in the storage and management of water resources.

  9. Formation Mechanism of Surface Crack in Low Pressure Casting of A360 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan-Guang; Cao, Fu-Yang; Ying, Tao; Zhao, Xin-Yi; Liu, Jing-Shun; Shen, Hong-Xian; Guo, Shu; Sun, Jian-Fei

    2017-12-01

    A surface crack defect is normally found in low pressure castings of Al alloy with a sudden contraction structure. To further understand the formation mechanism of the defect, the mold filling process is simulated by a two-phase flow model. The experimental results indicate that the main reason for the defect deformation is the mismatching between the height of liquid surface in the mold and pressure in the crucible. In the case of filling, a sudden contraction structure with an area ratio smaller than 0.5 is obtained, and the velocity of the liquid front increases dramatically with the influence of inertia. Meanwhile, the pressurizing speed in the crucible remains unchanged, resulting in the pressure not being able to support the height of the liquid level. Then the liquid metal flows back to the crucible and forms a relatively thin layer solidification shell on the mold wall. With the increasing pressure in the crucible, the liquid level rises again, engulfing the shell and leading to a surface crack. As the filling velocity is characterized by the damping oscillations, surface cracks will form at different heights. The results shed light on designing a suitable pressurizing speed for the low pressure casting process.

  10. Lipid dip-pen nanolithography on self-assembled monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavutis, Martynas; Navikas, Vytautas; Rakickas, Tomas; Vaitekonis, Šarūnas; Valiokas, Ramūnas

    2016-01-01

    Dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) with lipids as an ink enables functional micro/nanopatterning on different substrates at high process speeds. However, only a few studies have addressed the influence of the physicochemical properties of the surface on the structure and phase behavior of DPN-printed lipid assemblies. Therefore, by combining the scanning probe and optical imaging techniques in this work we have analyzed lipid microdomain formation on the self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold as well-defined model surfaces that displayed hydrophilic (protein-repellent) or hydrophobic (protein-adhesive) characteristics. We have found that on the tri(ethylene glycol)-terminated SAM the lipid ink transfer was fast (∼10 –1 μm 3 s −1 ), quasi-linear and it yielded unstable, sparsely packed lipid microspots. Contrary to this, on the methyl-terminated SAM the lipid transfer was ∼20 times slower, nonlinear, and the obtained stable dots of ∼1 μm in diameter consisted of lipid multilayers. Our comparative analysis indicated that the measured lipid transfer was consistent with the previously reported so-called polymer transfer model (Felts et al 2012, Nanotechnology 23 215301). Further on, by employing the observed distinct contrast in the DPN ink behavior we constructed confined lipid microdomains on pre-patterned SAMs, in which the lipids assembled either into monolayer or multilamellar phases. Such microdomains can be further utilized for lipid membrane mimetics in microarray and lab-on-a-chip device formats. (paper)

  11. Cold pressure welding of aluminium-steel blanks: Manufacturing process and electrochemical surface preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans Christian; Homberg, Werner; Orive, Alejandro Gonzalez; Grundmeier, Guido; Hordych, Illia; Maier, Hans Jürgen

    2018-05-01

    In this study the manufacture of aluminium-steel blanks by cold pressure welding and their preparation for a welding process through electrochemical surface treatment are investigated and discussed. The cold pressure welding process was done with an incremental rolling tool that allows for the partial pressure welding of two blanks along a prepared path. The influence of the surface preparation by electrochemical deposition of bond promoting organosilane-based agents and roughening on a nano-scale is investigated and compared to conventional surface treatments. Coating the surfaces with a thin organosilane-based film incorporating specific functional groups should promote additional bonding between the mating oxide layers; its influence on the total weld strength is studied. Pressure welding requires suitable process strategies, and the current advances in the proposed incremental rolling process for the combination of mild steel and aluminium are presented.

  12. Controlled modification of octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayer by CO2 plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, Nicolas; Bardeau, Jean-Francois; Bulou, Alain; Poncin-Epaillard, Fabienne

    2006-01-01

    CO 2 -plasma is used to introduce functional groups on the uppermost surface of an alkoxy silane self-assembled monolayer (Sam). The structural and chemical modifications of the material surface were monitored by X-ray reflectometry, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectrons spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. Optimization of the plasma parameters is performed in order to achieve a maximum functionalization and to prevent degradation of the SAM. Finally, the ability of grafting organic compounds onto the plasma modified SAMS was demonstrated by the formation of an alkoxysilane bilayer

  13. Langmuir isoterms of 4-methylbenzenethiol encapsulated gold nanoparticles and two kinds of poly(ethyleneoxide) derivatives with incorporated Li ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capan, I.

    2004-01-01

    Surface pressure - area isotherms are used to investigate the behavior of monolayers on a water surface by recording surface pressure (□) during reduction of the confinernem area (A). A number of isotherms have been recorded using gold thiol nanoparticles and polymers in different ratios and with LiClO 4 -. salt to provide ions within the monolayer. lt is seen that the area per molecule reduces in size when gold thiol is added to Poly(Ethyleneoxide) derivatives. AIso adding lithium ions modifies the area per molecule for both polymers. A mixed monolayer containing both POlY(Ethyleneoxide)derivatives and gold thiol with Li ions all mixed together shows a plateau region representing a phase transition. All these results will be discussed and isotherms will be used to find out behaviors of the monolayers on the water surface

  14. Super-Hydrophobic/Icephobic Coatings Based on Silica Nanoparticles Modified by Self-Assembled Monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junpeng Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A super-hydrophobic surface has been obtained from nanocomposite materials based on silica nanoparticles and self-assembled monolayers of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane (POTS using spin coating and chemical vapor deposition methods. Scanning electron microscope images reveal the porous structure of the silica nanoparticles, which can trap small-scale air pockets. An average water contact angle of 163° and bouncing off of incoming water droplets suggest that a super-hydrophobic surface has been obtained based on the silica nanoparticles and POTS coating. The monitored water droplet icing test results show that icing is significantly delayed by silica-based nano-coatings compared with bare substrates and commercial icephobic products. Ice adhesion test results show that the ice adhesion strength is reduced remarkably by silica-based nano-coatings. The bouncing phenomenon of water droplets, the icing delay performance and the lower ice adhesion strength suggest that the super-hydrophobic coatings based on a combination of silica and POTS also show icephobicity. An erosion test rig based on pressurized pneumatic water impinging impact was used to evaluate the durability of the super-hydrophobic/icephobic coatings. The results show that durable coatings have been obtained, although improvement will be needed in future work aiming for applications in aerospace.

  15. Controlled electrodeposition of Au monolayer film on ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Qiang; Pang, Liuqing; Li, Man; Zhang, Yunxia; Ren, Xianpei [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, National Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Engineering Lab for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Liu, Shengzhong Frank, E-mail: szliu@dicp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, National Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Engineering Lab for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • We fabricate Au monolayer film on Ionic liquid substrate using an electrochemical deposition technique. • Au monolayer film was deposited on a “soft substrate” for the first time. • Au monolayer film can contribute extra Raman enhancement. - Abstract: Gold (Au) nanoparticles have been attractive for centuries for their vibrant appearance enhanced by their interaction with sunlight. Nowadays, there have been tremendous research efforts to develop them for high-tech applications including therapeutic agents, sensors, organic photovoltaics, medical applications, electronics and catalysis. However, there remains to be a challenge to fabricate a monolayer Au coating with complete coverage in controlled fashion. Here we present a facile method to deposit a uniform Au monolayer (ML) film on the [BMIM][PF{sub 6}] ionic liquid substrate using an electrochemical deposition process. It demonstrates that it is feasible to prepare a solid phase coating on the liquid-based substrate. Moreover, the thickness of the monolayer coating can be controlled to a layer-by-layer accuracy.

  16. Understanding the role of thiol and disulfide self-assembled DNA receptor monolayers for biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, Laura G; Martínez, Lidia; Huttel, Yves; Román, Elisa; Lechuga, Laura M

    2010-09-01

    A detailed study of the immobilization of three differently sulfur-modified DNA receptors for biosensing applications is presented. The three receptors are DNA-(CH)n-SH-, DNA-(CH)n-SS-(CH)n-DNA, and DNA-(CH)n-SS-DMTO. Nanomechanical and surface plasmon resonance biosensors and fluorescence and radiolabelling techniques were used for the experimental evaluation. The results highlight the critical role of sulfur linker type in DNA self-assembly, affecting the kinetic adsorption and spatial distribution of DNA chains within the monolayer and the extent of chemisorption and physisorption. A spacer (mercaptohexanol, MCH) is used to evaluate the relative efficiencies of chemisorption of the three receptors by analysing the extent to which MCH can remove physisorbed molecules from each type of monolayer. It is demonstrated that -SH derivatization is the most suitable for biosensing purposes as it results in densely packed monolayers with the lowest ratio of physisorbed probes.

  17. Dynamics of decanethiol self-assembled monolayers on Au(111) studied by Scanning tunnelling microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Hairong; Sotthewes, Kai; Kumar, Avijit; Vancso, Gyula J.; Schön, Peter Manfred; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the dynamics of decanethiol self-assembled monolayers on Au(111) surfaces using time-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy at room temperature. The expected ordered phases (β, δ, χ*, and ) and a disordered phase (ε) were observed. Current–time traces with the feedback loop disabled

  18. Chemical and physical passivation of type II strained-layer superlattice devices by means of thiolated self-assembled monolayers and polymer encapsulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Nathan C.; Knorr, Daniel B.; Williams, Kristen S.; Baril, Neil; Nallon, Eric; Lenhart, Joseph L.; Andzelm, Jan W.; Pellegrino, Joseph; Tidrow, Meimei; Cleveland, Erin; Bandara, Sumith

    2015-05-01

    The efficacy of solution deposition of thiolated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) has been explored for the purpose of passivating III-V type II superlattice (T2SL) photodetectors, more specifically a p-type heterojunction device. Sulfur passivation has previously been achieved on T2SL devices. However, degradation over time, temperature sensitivity and inconsistent reproducibility necessitate a physical encapsulate that can chemically bond to the chemical passivant. Thus, this research investigates two passivation methods, surface passivation with a thiol monolayer and passivation with a polymer encapsulant with a view toward future combination of these techniques. Analysis of the physical and chemical condition of the surface prior to deposition assisted in the development of ideal processes for optimized film quality. Successful deposition was facilitated by in situ oxide removal. Various commercially available functional (cysteamine) and non-functional (alkane) thiolated monolayers were investigated. Dark current was reduced by 3 orders of magnitude and achieved negligible surface leakage at low bias levels. The lowest dark current result, 7.69 × 10-6 A/cm2 at 50 mV, was achieved through passivation with cysteamine.

  19. Impact of self-assembled monolayer assisted surface dipole modulation of PET substrate on the quality of RF-sputtered AZO film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vo, Thieu Thi Tien [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Ba Ria-Vung Tau University, Vung Tau (Viet Nam); Mahesh, K.P.O. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Lin, Pao-Hung [Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Tai, Yian, E-mail: ytai@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • We use SAMs functionalizing the PET substrates to generate different surface dipoles. • We deposited AZO film on pristine and SAMs-modified PET substrate. • The positive dipole moment of PET surface promotes the crystallinity of AZO film. • The negative dipole moment of PET surface deteriorates the crystallinity of AZO film. • The electrical properties of AZO/PET changes upon the variation of the crystallinity. - Abstract: In this study, we fabricated the electron donating/withdrawing group functionalized organosilane self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on transparent polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flexible substrate followed by the deposition of aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) using RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The effect of different SAMs on transparent PET substrates and AZO films were studied by contact angle (CA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field-Emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Hall measurement and UV–vis spectroscopy (UV–vis). The results presented that the surface dipole (i.e. electron-donating/withdrawing) of different SAMs functionalized PET substrates affected the quality of the AZO films which deposited on top of them. The crystallinity, the charge mobility, and the carrier concentration of the AZO improved when the film was deposited on the PET functionalized with electron donating group, which was possibly due to favored interaction between electron donating group and Al ions.

  20. Impact of self-assembled monolayer assisted surface dipole modulation of PET substrate on the quality of RF-sputtered AZO film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, Thieu Thi Tien; Mahesh, K.P.O.; Lin, Pao-Hung; Tai, Yian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We use SAMs functionalizing the PET substrates to generate different surface dipoles. • We deposited AZO film on pristine and SAMs-modified PET substrate. • The positive dipole moment of PET surface promotes the crystallinity of AZO film. • The negative dipole moment of PET surface deteriorates the crystallinity of AZO film. • The electrical properties of AZO/PET changes upon the variation of the crystallinity. - Abstract: In this study, we fabricated the electron donating/withdrawing group functionalized organosilane self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on transparent polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flexible substrate followed by the deposition of aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) using RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The effect of different SAMs on transparent PET substrates and AZO films were studied by contact angle (CA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field-Emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Hall measurement and UV–vis spectroscopy (UV–vis). The results presented that the surface dipole (i.e. electron-donating/withdrawing) of different SAMs functionalized PET substrates affected the quality of the AZO films which deposited on top of them. The crystallinity, the charge mobility, and the carrier concentration of the AZO improved when the film was deposited on the PET functionalized with electron donating group, which was possibly due to favored interaction between electron donating group and Al ions.

  1. Evidence of indirect gap in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Wei-Ting

    2017-10-09

    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, such as MoS2 and WSe2, have been known as direct gap semiconductors and emerged as new optically active materials for novel device applications. Here we reexamine their direct gap properties by investigating the strain effects on the photoluminescence of monolayer MoS2 and WSe2. Instead of applying stress, we investigate the strain effects by imaging the direct exciton populations in monolayer WSe2–MoS2 and MoSe2–WSe2 lateral heterojunctions with inherent strain inhomogeneity. We find that unstrained monolayer WSe2 is actually an indirect gap material, as manifested in the observed photoluminescence intensity–energy correlation, from which the difference between the direct and indirect optical gaps can be extracted by analyzing the exciton thermal populations. Our findings combined with the estimated exciton binding energy further indicate that monolayer WSe2 exhibits an indirect quasiparticle gap, which has to be reconsidered in further studies for its fundamental properties and device applications.

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