WorldWideScience

Sample records for monoidal soft constraints

  1. Constraint-Muse: A Soft-Constraint Based System for Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzl, Matthias; Denker, Grit; Meier, Max; Wirsing, Martin

    Monoidal soft constraints are a versatile formalism for specifying and solving multi-criteria optimization problems with dynamically changing user preferences. We have developed a prototype tool for interactive music creation, called Constraint Muse, that uses monoidal soft constraints to ensure that a dynamically generated melody harmonizes with input from other sources. Constraint Muse provides an easy to use interface based on Nintendo Wii controllers and is intended to be used in music therapy for people with Parkinson’s disease and for children with high-functioning autism or Asperger’s syndrome.

  2. Coherence for Monoidal Endofunctors

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, K

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to prove coherence results with respect to relational graphs for monoidal endofunctors, i.e. endofunctors of a monoidal category that preserve the monoidal structure up to a natural transformation that need not be an isomorphism. These results are proved first in the absence of symmetry in the monoidal structure, and then with this symmetry. In the later parts of the paper the coherence results are extended to monoidal endofunctors in monoidal categories that have diagonal or codiagonal natural transformations, or where the monoidal structure is given by finite products or coproducts. Monoidal endofunctors are interesting because they stand behind monoidal monads and comonads, for which coherence will be proved in a sequel to this paper.

  3. The Soft Cumulative Constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Petit, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    This research report presents an extension of Cumulative of Choco constraint solver, which is useful to encode over-constrained cumulative problems. This new global constraint uses sweep and task interval violation-based algorithms.

  4. Ortho-u-monoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Mei GONG; Yu Qi Guo; K.P.SHUM

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the class of ortho-u-monoids which are generalized orthogroups within the class of E(S)-semiabundant semigroups. After introducing the concept of (~)-Green's rela- tions, and obtaining some important properties of (~)-Green's relations and super E(S)-semiabundant semigroups, we have given the semilattice decomposition of ortho-u-monoids and a structure theorem for regular ortho-u-monoids. The main techniques that we used in the study are the (~)-Green's relations, and the semi-spined product of semigroups.

  5. A Maximal Tractable Class of Soft Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, D; Jeavons, P; Krokhin, A; 10.1613/jair.1400

    2011-01-01

    Many researchers in artificial intelligence are beginning to explore the use of soft constraints to express a set of (possibly conflicting) problem requirements. A soft constraint is a function defined on a collection of variables which associates some measure of desirability with each possible combination of values for those variables. However, the crucial question of the computational complexity of finding the optimal solution to a collection of soft constraints has so far received very little attention. In this paper we identify a class of soft binary constraints for which the problem of finding the optimal solution is tractable. In other words, we show that for any given set of such constraints, there exists a polynomial time algorithm to determine the assignment having the best overall combined measure of desirability. This tractable class includes many commonly-occurring soft constraints, such as 'as near as possible' or 'as soon as possible after', as well as crisp constraints such as 'greater than'. F...

  6. Morita duality for monoids / Peeter Normak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Normak, Peeter

    1990-01-01

    In this paper Morita duality for monoids is introduced. Necessary and sufficient conditions for two monoids S and T to be Morita dual are given. Moreover, it is shown that if S and T are Morita dual monoids, then S and U are Moriaddition, every finite monoid having Morita duality is selfdual and even reflexive.

  7. Morita duality for monoids / Peeter Normak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Normak, Peeter

    1990-01-01

    In this paper Morita duality for monoids is introduced. Necessary and sufficient conditions for two monoids S and T to be Morita dual are given. Moreover, it is shown that if S and T are Morita dual monoids, then S and U are Moriaddition, every finite monoid having Morita duality is selfdual and even reflexive.

  8. Deformed soft matter under constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Martin

    In the last few decades, an increasing number of physicists specialized in soft matter, including polymers, have turned their attention to biologically relevant materials. The properties of various molecules and fibres, such as DNA, RNA, proteins, and filaments of all sorts, are studied to better understand their behaviours and functions. Self-assembled biological membranes, or lipid bilayers, are also the focus of much attention as many life processes depend on these. Small lipid bilayers vesicles dubbed liposomes are also frequently used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In this thesis, work is presented on both the elastic properties of polymers and the response of lipid bilayer vesicles to extrusion in narrow-channels. These two areas of research may seem disconnected but they both concern deformed soft materials. The thesis contains four articles: the first presenting a fundamental study of the entropic elasticity of circular chains; the second, a simple universal description of the effect of sequence on the elasticity of linear polymers such as DNA; the third, a model of the symmetric thermophoretic stretch of a nano-confined polymer; the fourth, a model that predicts the final sizes of vesicles obtained by pressure extrusion. These articles are preceded by an extensive introduction that covers all of the essential concepts and theories necessary to understand the work that has been done.

  9. Soft Budget Constraints in Professional Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.; Nielsen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    European professional football clubs go out of business even though they operate chronically on the edge of financial collapse? The paper argues that the paradox can be explained by the fact that professional football clubs operate within soft budget constraints in a way which is similar to the role...... of large companies in socialist economies – a phenomenon which was first identified by the Hungarian Economist János Kornai. More generally, it is argued that our understanding of the peculiar economics of professional team sports can be enhanced significantly by applying the soft budget constrain concept...

  10. Soft budget constraint and the parastatal sector

    OpenAIRE

    Vahabi, Mehrdad

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relevance of soft budget constraints (SBC) to development studies by examining the parastatal sector. The political ingredient of the SBC is discussed by focusing on two examples: 1) religious and military foundations in Iran; and 2) Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. It presents two main findings. First, the SBC of the parastatal sector can be understood as the political economy of a predator state or state’s rent-seeking activity. Second, the state sector is more prone to t...

  11. Exploring soft constraints on effective actions

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Massimo; Huang, Yu-tin; Lee, Chao-Jung; Wen, Congkao

    2016-01-01

    We study effective actions for simultaneous breaking of space-time and internal symmetries. Novel features arise due to the mixing of Goldstone modes under the broken symmetries which, in contrast to the usual Adler's zero, leads to non-vanishing soft limits. Such scenarios are common for spontaneously broken SCFT's. We explicitly test these soft theorems for $\\mathcal{N}=4$ sYM in the Coulomb branch both perturbatively and non-perturbatively. We explore the soft constraints systematically utilizing recursion relations. In the pure dilaton sector of a general CFT, we show that all amplitudes up to order $s^{n} \\sim \\partial^{2n}$ are completely determined in terms of the $k$-point amplitudes at order $s^k$ with $k \\leq n$. Terms with at most one derivative acting on each dilaton insertion are completely fixed and coincide with those appearing in the conformal DBI, i.e. DBI in AdS. With maximal supersymmetry, the effective actions are further constrained, leading to new non-renormalization theorems. In particu...

  12. Ockham Algebras Arising from Monoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.S. Blyth; H.J. Silva; J.C. Varlet

    2001-01-01

    An Ockham algebra (L; f) is of boolean shape if its lattice reduct L is boolean and f is not the complementation. We investigate a natural construction of Ockham algebras of boolean shape from any given monoid. Of particular interest is the question of when such algebras are subdirectly irreducible. In settling this, we obtain what is probably the first example of a subdirectly irreducible Ockham algebra that does not belong to the generalized variety Kω. We also prove that every semigroup can be embedded in the monoid of endomorphisms of an Ockham algebra of boolean shape.

  13. Coherence for Monoidal Monads and Comonads

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, K

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to prove coherence results with respect to relational graphs for monoidal monads and comonads, i.e. monads and comonads in a monoidal category such that the endofunctor of the monad or comonad is a monoidal functor (this means that it preserves the monoidal structure up to a natural transformation that need not be an isomorphism). These results are proved first in the absence of symmetry in the monoidal structure, and then with this symmetry. The monoidal structure is also allowed to be given with finite products or finite coproducts. Monoidal comonads with finite products axiomatize a plausible notion of identity of deductions in a fragment of the modal logic S4.

  14. Serre dimension of monoid algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MANOJ K KESHARI; HUSNEY PARVEZ SARWAR

    2017-04-01

    Let $R$ be a commutative Noetherian ring of dimension $d$, $M$ a commutative cancellative torsion-free monoid of rank $r$ and $P$ a finitely generated projective $R[M]$-module of rank $t$ . Assume $M$ is $\\Phi$-simplicial seminormal. If $M \\in C(\\Phi)$, then Serre dim $R[M] \\leq d$. If $r \\leq 3$, then Serre dim $R[int(M)] \\leq d$. If $M \\subset \\mathbb{Z}^2_+$ is a normal monoid of rank 2, then Serre dim $R[M] \\leq d$. Assume $M$ is $c$-divisible, $d$ = 1 and $t \\geq 3$. Then$P \\cong \\wedge^{t} P \\oplus R[M]^{t−1}$. Assume $R$ is a uni-branched affine algebra over an algebraically closed field and $d$ = 1. Then $P \\cong \\wedge^{t} P \\oplus R[M]^{t−1}$.

  15. A Cohomology Theory for Commutative Monoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Calvo-Cervera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Extending Eilenberg–Mac Lane’s cohomology of abelian groups, a cohomology theory is introduced for commutative monoids. The cohomology groups in this theory agree with the pre-existing ones by Grillet in low dimensions, but they differ beyond dimension two. A natural interpretation is given for the three-cohomology classes in terms of braided monoidal groupoids.

  16. Partial symmetry, reflection monoids and Coxeter groups

    OpenAIRE

    Everitt, Brent; Fountain, John

    2008-01-01

    This is the first of a series of papers in which we initiate and develop the theory of reflection monoids, motivated by the theory of reflection groups. The main results identify a number of important inverse semigroups as reflection monoids, introduce new examples, and determine their orders.

  17. Partial mirror symmetry I: reflection monoids

    OpenAIRE

    Everitt, Brent; Fountain, John

    2007-01-01

    This is the first of a series of papers in which we initiate and develop the theory of reflection monoids, motivated by the theory of reflection groups. The main results identify a number of important inverse semigroups as reflection monoids, introduce new examples, and determine their orders.

  18. Spans in 2-Categories: A monoidal tricategory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffnung, Alexander E

    2011-01-01

    We present Trimble's definition of a tetracategory and prove that the spans in (strict) 2-categories with certain limits have the structure of a monoidal tricategory, defined as a one-object tetracategory. We recall some notions of limits in 2-categories for use in the construction of the monoidal tricategory of spans.

  19. Representations of reductive normal algebraic monoids

    OpenAIRE

    Doty, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The rational representation theory of a reductive normal algebraic monoid (with one-dimensional center) forms a highest weight category, in the sense of Cline, Parshall, and Scott. This is a fundamental fact about the representation theory of reductive normal algebraic monoids. We survey how this result was obtained, and treat some natural examples coming from classical groups.

  20. Constraint-based soft tissue simulation for virtual surgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen; Wan, Tao Ruan

    2014-11-01

    Most of surgical simulators employ a linear elastic model to simulate soft tissue material properties due to its computational efficiency and the simplicity. However, soft tissues often have elaborate nonlinear material characteristics. Most prominently, soft tissues are soft and compliant to small strains, but after initial deformations they are very resistant to further deformations even under large forces. Such material characteristic is referred as the nonlinear material incompliant which is computationally expensive and numerically difficult to simulate. This paper presents a constraint-based finite-element algorithm to simulate the nonlinear incompliant tissue materials efficiently for interactive simulation applications such as virtual surgery. Firstly, the proposed algorithm models the material stiffness behavior of soft tissues with a set of 3-D strain limit constraints on deformation strain tensors. By enforcing a large number of geometric constraints to achieve the material stiffness, the algorithm reduces the task of solving stiff equations of motion with a general numerical solver to iteratively resolving a set of constraints with a nonlinear Gauss-Seidel iterative process. Secondly, as a Gauss-Seidel method processes constraints individually, in order to speed up the global convergence of the large constrained system, a multiresolution hierarchy structure is also used to accelerate the computation significantly, making interactive simulations possible at a high level of details. Finally, this paper also presents a simple-to-build data acquisition system to validate simulation results with ex vivo tissue measurements. An interactive virtual reality-based simulation system is also demonstrated.

  1. Coherence for Skew-Monoidal Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmo Uustalu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available I motivate a variation (due to K. Szlachányi of monoidal categories called skew-monoidal categories where the unital and associativity laws are not required to be isomorphisms, only natural transformations. Coherence has to be formulated differently than in the well-known monoidal case. In my (to my knowledge new version, it becomes a statement of uniqueness of normalizing rewrites. I present a proof of this coherence theorem and also formalize it fully in the dependently typed programming language Agda.

  2. Toric varieties, monoid schemes and $cdh$ descent

    CERN Document Server

    Cortiñas, Guillermo; Walker, Mark E; Weibel, Charles A

    2011-01-01

    We give conditions for the Mayer-Vietoris property to hold for the algebraic K-theory of blow-up squares of toric varieties in any characteristic, using the theory of monoid schemes. These conditions are used to relate algebraic K-theory to topological cyclic homology in characteristic p. To achieve our goals, we develop for monoid schemes many notions from classical algebraic geometry, such as separated and proper maps.

  3. Representation theory of finite monoids

    CERN Document Server

    Steinberg, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This first text on the subject provides a comprehensive introduction to the representation theory of finite monoids. Carefully worked examples and exercises provide the bells and whistles for graduate accessibility, bringing a broad range of advanced readers to the forefront of research in the area. Highlights of the text include applications to probability theory, symbolic dynamics, and automata theory. Comfort with module theory, a familiarity with ordinary group representation theory, and the basics of Wedderburn theory, are prerequisites for advanced graduate level study. Researchers in algebra, algebraic combinatorics, automata theory, and probability theory, will find this text enriching with its thorough presentation of applications of the theory to these fields. Prior knowledge of semigroup theory is not expected for the diverse readership that may benefit from this exposition. The approach taken in this book is highly module-theoretic and follows the modern flavor of the theory of finite dimensional ...

  4. Can EU Conditionality Remedy Soft Budget Constraints in Transition Countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Schröder, Philipp; Weise, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Soft budget constraints (SBCs) are a persistent feature of transition economies and have been blamed for i.a. a lack of fiscal consolidation and sluggish growth. EU eastward enlargement has - among other things - been conditioned on tackling SBCs. This paper analyses such outside conditionality...

  5. Compressed word problems for inverse monoids

    CERN Document Server

    Lohrey, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The compressed word problem for a finitely generated monoid M asks whether two given compressed words over the generators of M represent the same element of M. For string compression, straight-line programs, i.e., context-free grammars that generate a single string, are used in this paper. It is shown that the compressed word problem for a free inverse monoid of finite rank at least two is complete for Pi^p_2 (second universal level of the polynomial time hierarchy). Moreover, it is shown that there exists a fixed finite idempotent presentation (i.e., a finite set of relations involving idempotents of a free inverse monoid), for which the corresponding quotient monoid has a PSPACE-complete compressed word problem. It was shown previously that the ordinary uncompressed word problem for such a quotient can be solved in logspace. Finally, a PSPACE-algorithm that checks whether a given element of a free inverse monoid belongs to a given rational subset is presented. This problem is also shown to be PSPACE-complet...

  6. Robust stability in predictive control with soft constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sven Creutz; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we take advantage of the primary and dual Youla parameterizations for setting up a soft constrained model predictive control (MPC) scheme for which stability is guaranteed in face of norm-bounded uncertainties. Under special conditions guarantees are also given for hard input...... consisting of the primary and dual Youla parameter. This is included in the MPC optimization as a constraint on the induced gain of the optimization variable. We illustrate the method with a numerical simulation example....

  7. Semi-supervised clustering using soft-constraint affinity propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Leone, Michele; Weigt, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Semi-supervised clustering aims at dividing partially labeled data into groups, assigning labels to previously unlabeled points. It uses both the geometrical organization of the data set and the available labels assigned to few points, giving additional information compared to unsupervised clustering methods. In this letter, we present a novel, computationally efficient and statistically robust semi-supervised clustering algorithm based on soft-constraint affinity propagation. The method is successfully tested on artificial and biological benchmark data.

  8. Applying Soft Arc Consistency to Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Toshihiro; Silaghi, Marius C.; Hirayama, Katsutoshi; Yokoo, Makot; Matsuo, Hiroshi

    The Distributed Constraint Optimization Problem (DCOP) is a fundamental framework of multi-agent systems. With DCOPs a multi-agent system is represented as a set of variables and a set of constraints/cost functions. Distributed task scheduling and distributed resource allocation can be formalized as DCOPs. In this paper, we propose an efficient method that applies directed soft arc consistency to a DCOP. In particular, we focus on DCOP solvers that employ pseudo-trees. A pseudo-tree is a graph structure for a constraint network that represents a partial ordering of variables. Some pseudo-tree-based search algorithms perform optimistic searches using explicit/implicit backtracking in parallel. However, for cost functions taking a wide range of cost values, such exact algorithms require many search iterations. Therefore additional improvements are necessary to reduce the number of search iterations. A previous study used a dynamic programming-based preprocessing technique that estimates the lower bound values of costs. However, there are opportunities for further improvements of efficiency. In addition, modifications of the search algorithm are necessary to use the estimated lower bounds. The proposed method applies soft arc consistency (soft AC) enforcement to DCOP. In the proposed method, directed soft AC is performed based on a pseudo-tree in a bottom up manner. Using the directed soft AC, the global lower bound value of cost functions is passed up to the root node of the pseudo-tree. It also totally reduces values of binary cost functions. As a result, the original problem is converted to an equivalent problem. The equivalent problem is efficiently solved using common search algorithms. Therefore, no major modifications are necessary in search algorithms. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by experimentation. The results show that it is more efficient than previous methods.

  9. The Brauer Group of Central Separable Monoids in a Braided Monoidal Category

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.M. Fernández Vilaboa; R. González Rodríguez; E. Villanueva Novoa

    2002-01-01

    For a braided monoidal category (C,(○×), K, c), in a previous paper, we construct a Brauer group B1,c(C) for the 1-Azumaya monoids in C. In this paper,we investigate separability and centrality properties for 1-Azumaya monoids when the coequalizers in C are stable. This leads to the notion of 2-Azumaya monoids,and to a new subgroup B2,c(C) of the Brauer group B1,c(C) that generalizes the analogous groups in the symmetric case. Finally, we prove that B2,c(C) and B1,c(C) are equal if the base object of the category is projective.

  10. A Morphism Double Category and Monoidal Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a recipe for “fattening” a category that leads to the construction of a double category. Motivated by an example where the underlying category has vector spaces as objects, we show how a monoidal category leads to a law of composition, satisfying certain coherence properties, on the object set of the fattened category.

  11. Can EU conditionality remedy soft budget constraints in transition countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Brücker, Herbert; Weise, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Soft budget constraints (SBCs) are a persistent feature of transition economies and have been blamed for a lack of fiscal consolidation and sluggish growth. EU eastward enlargement has been conditioned on tackling SBCs. This paper analyzes such outside conditionality theoretically and empirically....... First, by modeling the SBC problem as a war of attrition between the applicant countries' governments and firms, we find that outside conditionality can foster SBC hardening. Second, estimating SBC hardening in a partial adjustment model by measuring the development of labor productivity, we find...

  12. Refinement monoids, equidecomposability types, and boolean inverse semigroups

    CERN Document Server

    Wehrung, Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    Adopting a new universal algebraic approach, this book explores and consolidates the link between Tarski's classical theory of equidecomposability types monoids, abstract measure theory (in the spirit of Hans Dobbertin's work on monoid-valued measures on Boolean algebras) and the nonstable K-theory of rings. This is done via the study of a monoid invariant, defined on Boolean inverse semigroups, called the type monoid. The new techniques contrast with the currently available topological approaches. Many positive results, but also many counterexamples, are provided.

  13. Corporate capital structure and how soft budget constraints may affect it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizov, M.I.

    2008-01-01

    This survey paper examines existing theories of capital structure and related empirical tests with the aim to derive theoretical as well empirically testable predictions about the implications of the soft budget constraint for corporate capital structure. We show that the soft budget constraint synd

  14. Eilenberg–Moore Monoids and Backtracking Monad Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Piróg

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We develop an algebraic underpinning of backtracking monad transformers in the general setting of monoidal categories. As our main technical device, we introduce Eilenberg–Moore monoids, which combine monoids with algebras for strong monads. We show that Eilenberg–Moore monoids coincide with algebras for the list monad transformer ('done right' known from Haskell libraries. From this, we obtain a number of results, including the facts that the list monad transformer is indeed a monad, a transformer, and an instance of the MonadPlus class. Finally, we construct an Eilenberg–Moore monoid of endomorphisms, which, via the codensity monad construction, yields a continuation-based implementation a la Hinze.

  15. Hopf monoids from class functions on unitriangular matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Aguiar, Marcelo; Thiem, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    We build, from the collection of all groups of unitriangular matrices, Hopf monoids in Joyal's category of species. Such structure is carried by the collection of class function spaces on those groups, and also by the collection of superclass function spaces, in the sense of Diaconis and Isaacs. Superclasses of unitriangular matrices admit a simple description from which we deduce a combinatorial model for the Hopf monoid of superclass functions, in terms of the Hadamard product of the Hopf monoids of linear orders and of set partitions. This implies a recent result relating the Hopf algebra of superclass functions on unitriangular matrices to symmetric functions in noncommuting variables. We determine the algebraic structure of the Hopf monoid: it is a free monoid in species, with the canonical Hopf structure. As an application, we derive certain estimates on the number of conjugacy classes of unitriangular matrices.

  16. Monoidal categories and topological field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Turaev, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to monoidal categories and their connections with 3-dimensional topological field theories. Starting with basic definitions, it proceeds to the forefront of current research. Part 1 introduces monoidal categories and several of their classes, including rigid, pivotal, spherical, fusion, braided, and modular categories. It then presents deep theorems of Müger on the center of a pivotal fusion category. These theorems are proved in Part 2 using the theory of Hopf monads. In Part 3 the authors define the notion of a topological quantum field theory (TQFT) and construct a Turaev-Viro-type 3-dimensional state sum TQFT from a spherical fusion category. Lastly, in Part 4 this construction is extended to 3-manifolds with colored ribbon graphs, yielding a so-called graph TQFT (and, consequently, a 3-2-1 extended TQFT). The authors then prove the main result of the monograph: the state sum graph TQFT derived from any spherical fusion category is isomorphic to the Reshetikhin-Turaev surgery gr...

  17. Green's Relation R on the Monoid of Clone Endomorphisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thawhat Changphas; Klaus Denecke

    2005-01-01

    A hypersubstitution is a map which takes n-ary operation symbols to n-ary terms. Any such map can be uniquely extended to a map defined on the set Wτ(X)of all terms of type τ, and any two such extensions can be composed in a natural way.Thus, the set Hyp(τ) of all hypersubstitutions of type τ forms a monoid. In this paper,we characterize Green's relation R on the monoid Hyp(τ) for the type τ = (n, n). In this case, the monoid of all hypersubstitutions is isomorphic with the monoid of all clone endomorphisms. The results can be applied to mutually derived varieties.

  18. A universality result for endomorphism monoids of some ultrahomogeneous structures

    CERN Document Server

    Dolinka, Igor

    2010-01-01

    We devise a fairly general sufficient condition ensuring that the endomorphism monoid of a countably infinite ultrahomogeneous structure (i.e. a Fra\\"{\\i}ss\\'{e} limit) embeds all countable semigroups. This approach provides us not only with a framework unifying the previous scattered results in this vein, but actually yields new applications for endomorphism monoids of the (rational) Urysohn space and the countable universal ultrahomogeneous semilattice.

  19. Symmetric centres of braided monoidal categories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of‘symmetric centres' of braided monoidal categories. Let H be a Hopf algebra with bijective antipode over a field k. We address the symmetric centre of the Yetter-Drinfel'd module category HH(yD) and show that a left Yetter-Drinfel'd module M belongs to the symmetric centre of HH(yD) if and only if M is trivial. We also study the symmetric centres of categories of representations of quasitriangular Hopf algebras and give a sufficient and necessary condition for the braid of H(M) to induce the braid of (H(H)(A),(○)A,A,φ,l,r), or equivalently, the braid of (A#H(H),(○)A,A,φ,l,r), where A is a quantum commutative H-module algebra.

  20. Constraints on finite soft supersymmetry-breaking terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, T. [High Energy Accel. Res. Organ., Tokyo (Japan). Inst. of Particle and Nucl. Studies; Kubo, J. [Department of Physics, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Mondragon, M. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 20-364, Mexico 01000 D.F. (Mexico); Zoupanos, G. [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, D-10115 Berlin (Germany)

    1998-02-02

    Requiring the soft supersymmetry-breaking (SSB) parameters in finite gauge-Yukawa unified models to be finite up to and including two-loop order, we derive a two-loop sum rule for the soft scalar masses. It is shown that this sum rule coincides with that of a certain class of string models in which the massive string states are organized into N=4 supermultiplets. We investigate the SSB sector of two finite SU(5) models. Using the sum rule which allows non-universality of the SSB terms and requiring that the lightest superparticle particle is neutral, we constrain the parameter space of the SSB sector in each model. (orig.). 50 refs.

  1. Tracing the Man in the Middle in Monoidal Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, Dusko

    2012-01-01

    Man-in-the-Middle (MM) is not only a ubiquitous attack pattern in security, but also an important paradigm of network computation and economics. Recognizing ongoing MM-attacks is an important security task; modeling MM-interactions is an interesting task for semantics of computation. Traced monoidal categories are a natural framework for MM-modelling, as the trace structure provides a tool to hide what happens *in the middle*. An effective analysis of what has been traced out seems to require an additional property of traces, called *normality*. We describe a modest model of network computation, based on partially ordered multisets (pomsets), where basic network interactions arise from the monoidal trace structure, and a normal trace structure arises from an iterative, i.e. coalgebraic structure over terms and messages used in computation and communication. The correspondence is established using a convenient monadic description of normally traced monoidal categories.

  2. On Monoids in the Category of Sets and Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenčová, Anna; Jenča, Gejza

    2017-02-01

    The category R e l is the category of sets (objects) and relations (morphisms). Equipped with the direct product of sets, R e l is a monoidal category. Moreover, R e l is a locally posetal 2-category, since every homset R e l(A,B) is a poset with respect to inclusion. We examine the 2-category of monoids R e l M o n in this category. The morphism we use are lax. This category includes, as subcategories, various interesting classes: hypergroups, partial monoids (which include various types of quantum logics, for example effect algebras) and small categories. We show how the 2-categorical structure gives rise to several previously defined notions in these categories, for example certain types of congruence relations on generalized effect algebras. This explains where these definitions come from.

  3. CT metal artifact reduction by soft inequality constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukalina, Marina; Nikolaev, Dmitry; Sokolov, Valerii; Ingacheva, Anastasiya; Buzmakov, Alexey; Prun, Victor

    2015-12-01

    The artifacts (known as metal-like artifacts) arising from incorrect reconstruction may obscure or simulate pathology in medical applications, hide or mimic cracks and cavities in the scanned objects in industrial tomographic scans. One of the main reasons caused such artifacts is photon starvation on the rays which go through highly absorbing regions. We indroduce a way to suppress such artifacts in the reconstructions using soft penalty mimicing linear inequalities on the photon starved rays. An efficient algorithm to use such information is provided and the effect of those inequalities on the reconstruction quality is studied.

  4. Drinfeld Center and Representation Theory for Monoidal Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neshveyev, Sergey; Yamashita, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the relation between the Drinfeld double and central property (T) for quantum groups, given a rigid C*-tensor category {mathcal{C}} and a unitary half-braiding on an ind-object, we construct a *-representation of the fusion algebra of {mathcal{C}}. This allows us to present an alternative approach to recent results of Popa and Vaes, who defined C*-algebras of monoidal categories and introduced property (T) for them. As an example we analyze categories {mathcal{C}} of Hilbert bimodules over a II1-factor. We show that in this case the Drinfeld center is monoidally equivalent to a category of Hilbert bimodules over another II1-factor obtained by the Longo-Rehren construction. As an application, we obtain an alternative proof of the result of Popa and Vaes stating that property (T) for the category defined by an extremal finite index subfactor {N subset M} is equivalent to Popa's property (T) for the corresponding SE-inclusion of II1-factors. In the last part of the paper we study Müger's notion of weakly monoidally Morita equivalent categories and analyze the behavior of our constructions under the equivalence of the corresponding Drinfeld centers established by Schauenburg. In particular, we prove that property (T) is invariant under weak monoidal Morita equivalence.

  5. A Hybrid Method for Modeling and Solving Supply Chain Optimization Problems with Soft and Logical Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Sitek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid method for modeling and solving supply chain optimization problems with soft, hard, and logical constraints. Ability to implement soft and logical constraints is a very important functionality for supply chain optimization models. Such constraints are particularly useful for modeling problems resulting from commercial agreements, contracts, competition, technology, safety, and environmental conditions. Two programming and solving environments, mathematical programming (MP and constraint logic programming (CLP, were combined in the hybrid method. This integration, hybridization, and the adequate multidimensional transformation of the problem (as a presolving method helped to substantially reduce the search space of combinatorial models for supply chain optimization problems. The operation research MP and declarative CLP, where constraints are modeled in different ways and different solving procedures are implemented, were linked together to use the strengths of both. This approach is particularly important for the decision and combinatorial optimization models with the objective function and constraints, there are many decision variables, and these are summed (common in manufacturing, supply chain management, project management, and logistic problems. The ECLiPSe system with Eplex library was proposed to implement a hybrid method. Additionally, the proposed hybrid transformed model is compared with the MILP-Mixed Integer Linear Programming model on the same data instances. For illustrative models, its use allowed finding optimal solutions eight to one hundred times faster and reducing the size of the combinatorial problem to a significant extent.

  6. Scheduling of Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems with Soft and Hard Timing Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izosimov, Viacheslav; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru

    2008-01-01

    /utility functions to capture the utility of soft processes. Process re-execution is employed to recover from multiple faults. A single static schedule computed off-line is not fault tolerant and is pessimistic in terms of utility, while a purely online approach, which computes a new schedule every time a process......In this paper we present an approach to the synthesis of fault-tolerant schedules for embedded applications with soft and hard real-time constraints. We are interested to guarantee the deadlines for the hard processes even in the case of faults, while maximizing the overall utility. We use time...

  7. Inversion formula for the growth function of a cancellative monoid

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Kyoji

    2012-01-01

    We consider any cancellative monoid $M$ equipped with a discrete degree map $deg:M\\to R_{\\ge0}$ and associated generating function $P(t)=\\sum_{m\\in M}t^{deg(m)}$, called the growth function of $M$. We also introduce, using some towers of minimal common multiple sets in $M$, another signed generating function $N(t)$, called the skew-growth function of $M$. We show that these functions satisfy the inversion formula $P(t)N(t)=1$. In case the monoid is the set of positive integers with ordinary product structure and the degree map is logarithm function, using the coordinate change $t=exp(-s)$, the inversion formula turns out to be the Euler product formula for the Riemann's zeta function.

  8. Algebraic and combinatorial aspects of sandpile monoids on directed graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, Scott; Garcia, Rebecca; Malandro, Martin E; Smith, Ken W

    2011-01-01

    We study the abelian sandpile model on a finite directed graph. We begin by reviewing the necessary background material starting with the identification, by Babai and Toumpakari, of the sandpile group on a directed graph as the minimal ideal of its sandpile monoid, and continuing through some of their recent results concerning the connections between the idempotent structure of a sandpile monoid and the cycle structure of its graph. We then build on these results to give our first main result, which is a combinatorial classification of the maximal subgroups of a sandpile monoid on a directed graph X in terms of the sandpile groups of certain easily-identifiable subgraphs of X. We then return to undirected graphs and give our second main result, which is a combinatorial classification of the sandpile group identity of every undirected distance regular graph. Along the way we give several new algebraic results for sandpiles based on directed graphs, and we point out parallels to previously known results for und...

  9. Algebraic Structures Of Neutrosophic Soft Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the algebraic operations of neutrosophic soft sets and their basic properties associated with these opertaions. And also define the associativity and distributivity of these operations. We discusse different algebraic structures, such as monoids, semiring and lattices, of neutrosophic soft sets.

  10. Software for Computing, Archiving, and Querying Semisimple Braided Monoidal Category Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-08-04

    This software package collects various open source and freely available codes and algorithms to compute and archive the categorical data for certain semisimple braided monoidal categories. In particular, it computes the data for of group theoretical categories for academic research.

  11. The constraints on the soft power efforts of authoritarian states. The case of the 2015 military parade in Beijing – strengthening patriotic pride, soft power and strategic deterrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Camilla T. N.

    2017-01-01

    further, this article analyses the 2015 military parade in Beijing and uses this case to highlight and discuss the constraints on the Chinese leaders’ efforts to project soft power. The key finding is that soft power will continue to be the weak link in China’s pursuit for a great power position...... and status as long as what continues to count as “Chinese” is defined in opposition to hostile “others” and the humiliation narrative continues to function as the central identity marker in the party-led construction of national identity (the “us”)....

  12. A braided monoidal category for free super-bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Runkel, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    The chiral conformal field theory of free super-bosons is generated by weight one currents whose mode algebra is the affinisation of an abelian Lie super-algebra h with non-degenerate super-symmetric pairing. The mode algebras of a single free boson and of a single pair of symplectic fermions arise for even|odd dimension 1|0 and 0|2 of h, respectively. In this paper, the representations of the untwisted mode algebra of free super-bosons are equipped with a tensor product, a braiding, and an associator. In the symplectic fermion case, i.e. if h is purely odd, the braided monoidal structure is extended to representations of the Z/2Z-twisted mode algebra. The tensor product is obtained by computing spaces of vertex operators. The braiding and associator are determined by explicit calculations from three- and four-point conformal blocks.

  13. Earthquake-related Tectonic Deformation of Soft-sediments and Its Constraints on Basin Tectonic Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Hongbo; ZHANG Yuxu; ZHANG Qiling; XIAO Jiafei

    2006-01-01

    The authors introduced two kinds of newly found soft-sediment deformation-syn-sedimentary extension structure and syn-sedimentary compression structure, and discuss their origins and constraints on basin tectonic evolution. One representative of the syn-sedimentary extension structure is syn-sedimentary boudinage structure, while the typical example of the syn-sedimentary compression structure is compression sand pillows or compression wrinkles. The former shows NW-SE-trending contemporaneous extension events related to earthquakes in the rift basin near a famous Fe-Nb-REE deposit in northern China during the Early Paleozoic (or Mesoproterozoic as proposed by some researches), while the latter indicates NE-SW-trending contemporaneous compression activities related to earthquakes in the Middle Triassic in the Nanpanjiang remnant basin covering south Guizhou, northwestern Guangxi and eastern Yunnan in southwestern China. The syn-sedimentary boudinage structure was found in an earthquake slump block in the lower part of the Early Paleozoic Sailinhudong Group, 20 km to the southeast of Bayan Obo, Inner Mongolia, north of China. The slump block is composed of two kinds of very thin layers-pale-gray micrite (microcrystalline limestone) of 1-2 cm thick interbedded with gray muddy micrite layers with the similar thickness. Almost every thin muddy micrite layer was cut into imbricate blocks or boudins by abundant tiny contemporaneous faults, while the interbedded micrite remain in continuity. Boudins form as a response to layer-parallel extension (and/or layer-perpendicular flattening) of stiff layers enveloped top and bottom by mechanically soft layers. In this case, the imbricate blocks cut by the tiny contemporaneous faults are the result of abrupt horizontal extension of the crust in the SE-NW direction accompanied with earthquakes. Thus, the rock block is, in fact, a kind of seismites. The syn-sedimentary boudins indicate that there was at least a strong earthquake

  14. Corporate rent-seeking and the managerial soft-budget constraint: An incremental cash flow approach to some corporate governance issues

    OpenAIRE

    Apreda, Rodolfo

    2004-01-01

    This paper seeks to expand on two topical strands in Government Finance and Political Science literature, rent-seeking and the soft-budget constraint, so as to bring forth a strong linkage with corporate governance environments. It will attempt to accomplish this task by setting up a distinctive framework of analysis that hinges on incremental cash flows. Firstly, it claims that both rent-seeking behavior and the soft-budget constraint are worthy of being applied to corporate governance learn...

  15. Hopf (bi-)modules and crossed modules in braided monoidal categories

    CERN Document Server

    Bespalov, Yu N; Bespalov, Yuri; Drabant, Bernhard

    1995-01-01

    Hopf (bi-)modules and crossed modules over a bialgebra B in a braided monoidal category C are considered. The (braided) monoidal equivalence of both categories is proved provided B is a Hopf algebra (with invertible antipode). Bialgebra projections and Hopf bimodule bialgebras over a Hopf algebra in C are found to be isomorphic categories. As a consequence a generalization of the Radford-Majid criterion for a braided Hopf algebra to be a cross product is obtained. The results of this paper turn out to be fundamental for the construction of (bicovariant) differential calculi on braided Hopf algebras.

  16. Constraints on photon pulse duration from longitudinal electron beam diagnostics at a soft x-ray free-electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Behrens

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The successful operation of x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs, like the Linac Coherent Light Source or the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH, makes unprecedented research on matter at atomic length and ultrafast time scales possible. However, in order to take advantage of these unique light sources and to meet the strict requirements of many experiments in photon science, FEL photon pulse durations need to be known and tunable. This can be achieved by controlling the FEL driving electron beams, and high-resolution longitudinal electron beam diagnostics can be utilized to provide constraints on the expected FEL photon pulse durations. In this paper, we present comparative measurements of soft x-ray pulse durations and electron bunch lengths at FLASH. The soft x-ray pulse durations were measured by FEL radiation pulse energy statistics and compared to electron bunch lengths determined by frequency-domain spectroscopy of coherent transition radiation in the terahertz range and time-domain longitudinal phase space measurements. The experimental results, theoretical considerations, and simulations show that high-resolution longitudinal electron beam diagnostics provide reasonable constraints on the expected FEL photon pulse durations. In addition, we demonstrated the generation of soft x-ray pulses with durations below 50 fs (FWHM after the implementation of the new uniform electron bunch compression scheme used at FLASH.

  17. The Soft Budget Constraint. An introductory study to volume IV of the Life’s Work series

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The author’s ideas on the soft budget constraint (SBC) were first expressed in 1976. Much progress has been made in understanding the problem over the ensuing four decades. The study takes issue with those who confine the concept to the process of bailing out loss-making socialist firms. It shows how the syndrome can appear in various organizations and forms in many spheres of the economy and points to the various means available for financial rescue. Single bailouts do not as such generate t...

  18. Comparing the notions of optimality in CP-nets, strategic games and soft constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apt, K.R.; Rossi, F.; Venable, K.B.

    2008-01-01

    The notion of optimality naturally arises in many areas of applied mathematics and computer science concerned with decision making. Here we consider this notion in the context of three formalisms used for different purposes in reasoning about multi-agent systems: strategic games, CP-nets, and soft c

  19. Using soft constraints to guide users in flexible business process management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefansen, Christian; Borch, Signe Ellegård

    2008-01-01

    Current Business Process Management Systems (BPMS) allow designers to specify processes in highly expressive languages supporting numerous control flow constructs, exceptions, complex predicates, etc., but process specifications are expressed in terms of hard constraints, and this leads to an unf...... the seriousness of their violations at runtime. We believe, this provides a combination of guidance and flexibility not otherwise attainable. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  20. Banking Competition and Soft Budget Constraints: How Market Power can Threaten Discipline in Lending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arping, S.

    2012-01-01

    n imperfectly competitive credit markets, banks can face a tradeoff between exploiting their market power and enforcing hard budget constraints. As market power rises, banks eventually find it too costly to discipline underperforming borrowers by stopping their projects. Lending relationships become

  1. Pictures of Processes: Automated Graph Rewriting for Monoidal Categories and Applications to Quantum Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Kissinger, Aleks

    2012-01-01

    This work is about diagrammatic languages, how they can be represented, and what they in turn can be used to represent. More specifically, it focuses on representations and applications of string diagrams. String diagrams are used to represent a collection of processes, depicted as "boxes" with multiple (typed) inputs and outputs, depicted as "wires". If we allow plugging input and output wires together, we can intuitively represent complex compositions of processes, formalised as morphisms in a monoidal category. [...] The first major contribution of this dissertation is the introduction of a discretised version of a string diagram called a string graph. String graphs form a partial adhesive category, so they can be manipulated using double-pushout graph rewriting. Furthermore, we show how string graphs modulo a rewrite system can be used to construct free symmetric traced and compact closed categories on a monoidal signature. The second contribution is in the application of graphical languages to quantum in...

  2. On Reductive Monoid Mn(K)%既约么半群Mn(K)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹佑安; 李卓

    2004-01-01

    主要介绍Renner得到的重要结果代数么半群的Bruhat分解.这一结果是Putcha-Renner理论系统发展的一个里程碑.当保留首先被Renner发现时,它甚至对Mn(K)也是新的.该文利用线性代数知识对Mn(K)的Bruhat分解给出一个初等描述,并且给出所有秩2,半单秩1的既约么半群.作者用初等方法证明了Mn(K)的Bruhat分解,最后介绍了与Renner么半群密切相关的Hecke代数.%This article serves as an introduction to one of the amazing results established by Renner which is the analogue of the Bruhat decomposition of algebraic monoids. This result is a milestone in the system development of Putcha-Renner theory. It was even new to Mn(K) when it was first found by Renner. In this article we give an elementary description to Mn(K) using linear algebra knowledge and list all rank two, semisimple rank one reductive monoids. We prove the analogue of Bruhat decomposition for Mn(K) in an elementary way. Finally we pose some open problems on Hecke algebras related to Renner monoids.

  3. Soft gamma-ray constraints on a bright flare from the Galactic Center supermassive black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trap, G.; Goldwurm, A.; Ferrando, P. [Service d' Astrophysique - SAp, /IRFU/DSM/CEA Saclay, Bat. 709, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); AstroParticule and Cosmologie - APC, Universite Paris VII/CNRS/CEA/Observatoire de Paris, Bat. Condorcet, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (FR); Terrier, R. [AstroParticule and Cosmologie - APC, Universite Paris VII/CNRS/CEA/Observatoire de Paris, Bat. Condorcet, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (FR); Dodds-Eden, K.; Gillessen, S.; Genzel, R. [Max Planck Institut fuer Extraterretrische Physik - MPE, 85748 Garching (Germany); Pantin, E.; Lagage, P.O. [Service d' Astrophysique - SAp, /IRFU/DSM/CEA Saclay, Bat. 709, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (FR); Astrophysique Interactions Multi-echelles - AIM/Universite Paris VII/CEA/CNRS, Bat. 709, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (FR); Belanger, G. [European Space Agency - ESA/ESAC, P.O. Box 78, Villanueva de la Canada, 28691 Madrid (Spain); Porquet, D.; Grosso, N. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg/Universite de Strasbourg/CNRS, 11, rue de l' Universite, 67000 Strasbourg (FR); Yusef-Zadeh, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy/Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (US); Melia, F. [Department of Physics and Steward Observatory/The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (US)

    2010-07-01

    Sagittarius A* (SgrA*) is the supermassive black hole residing at the center of the Milky Way. It has been the main target of an extensive multiwavelength campaign we carried out in April 2007. Herein, we report the detection of a bright flare from the vicinity of the horizon, observed simultaneously in X-rays (XMM-Newton/EPIC) and near infrared (VLT/NACO) on April 4 for 1-2 h. For the first time, such an event also benefited from a soft gamma-rays (INTEGRAL/ISGRI) and mid infrared (VLT/VISIR) coverage, which enabled us to derive upper limits at both ends of the flare spectral energy distribution (SED). We discuss the physical implications of the contemporaneous light curves as well as the SED, in terms of synchrotron, synchrotron self-Compton and external Compton emission processes. (authors)

  4. 相对于幺半群的McCoy环的扩张%Extensions of McCoy Rings Relative to a Monoid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世洲; 宋雪梅

    2008-01-01

    For a monoid M, we introduce M-McCoy rings, which are generalization of McCoy rings, and we investigate their properties. Every M-Armendariz ring is M-McCoy for any monoid M. We show that R is an M-McCoy ring if and only if an n × n upper triangular matrix ring aUTn (R) over R is an M-McCoy ring for any monoid M. It is proved that if R is McCoy and R[x] is M-McCoy, then RIM] is McCoy for any monoid M. Moreover, we prove that if R is M-McCoy, then RIM] and R[x] are M-McCoy for a commutative and cancellative monoid M that contains an infinite cyclic submonoid.

  5. Complementary constraints from carbon (13C) and nitrogen (15N) isotopes on the glacial ocean's soft-tissue biological pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittner, A.; Somes, C. J.

    2016-06-01

    A three-dimensional, process-based model of the ocean's carbon and nitrogen cycles, including 13C and 15N isotopes, is used to explore effects of idealized changes in the soft-tissue biological pump. Results are presented from one preindustrial control run (piCtrl) and six simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) with increasing values of the spatially constant maximum phytoplankton growth rate μmax, which accelerates biological nutrient utilization mimicking iron fertilization. The default LGM simulation, without increasing μmax and with a shallower and weaker Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and increased sea ice cover, leads to 280 Pg more respired organic carbon (Corg) storage in the deep ocean with respect to piCtrl. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the colder glacial thermocline increase, which reduces water column denitrification and, with delay, nitrogen fixation, thus increasing the ocean's fixed nitrogen inventory and decreasing δ15NNO3 almost everywhere. This simulation already fits sediment reconstructions of carbon and nitrogen isotopes relatively well, but it overestimates deep ocean δ13CDIC and underestimates δ15NNO3 at high latitudes. Increasing μmax enhances Corg and lowers deep ocean δ13CDIC, improving the agreement with sediment data. In the model's Antarctic and North Pacific Oceans modest increases in μmax result in higher δ15NNO3 due to enhanced local nutrient utilization, improving the agreement with reconstructions there. Models with moderately increased μmax fit both isotope data best, whereas large increases in nutrient utilization are inconsistent with nitrogen isotopes although they still fit the carbon isotopes reasonably well. The best fitting models reproduce major features of the glacial δ13CDIC, δ15N, and oxygen reconstructions while simulating increased Corg by 510-670 Pg compared with the preindustrial ocean. These results are consistent with the idea that the soft-tissue pump was more efficient

  6. Soft Constraints in Interactive Behavior: The Case of Ignoring Perfect Knowledge In-The-World for Imperfect Knowledge In-The-Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-15

    interaction; Embodied cognition; Embodiment level; Soft constraints; Bounded rationality; Interface design; Information access; Eye tracking 1...To remedy this deficit we conducted experiment 2. Experiment 2 was run to provide eye - tracking data on the Free-Access condition. With these data...facilitate eye - tracking , the size of the Show Information Window was increased to increase the visual separation between each of the information fields

  7. 我国地方政府预算软约束成因探析%On Reasons of the Soft Budget Constraint of Chinese Local Government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马嫣然

    2015-01-01

    从市场约束、中央政府约束、地方民众约束、规则约束四个层面分析了造成地方政府预算软约束的成因,认为只有进行配套的行政体制改革、财政体制改革、司法体制改革,才能改善地方政府借贷面临的软约束环境,硬化地方政府预算约束。%This article is to make analysis on the causalities of local government’s soft budget constraint from the perspectives of market constraint, central government’s constraint, local people’s constraint, rules’ constraint. It concludes that it is possible to harden the budget constraint of local government only through the reforms of administrative system, fiscal system and judicial system.

  8. On Finite Presentability of Bruck-Reilly Extensions of a Monoid with Respect to an Endomorphism and Its Powers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.A.Carvalho; N.Ru(s)kuc

    2007-01-01

    Let M be a monoid and let (0) be an endomorphism of M.We prove that if the Bruck-Reilly extension BR(M,(0)) is finitely presented,then the Bruck-Reilly extensionBR(M,(0)m) is also finitely presented for all m≥ 1.

  9. On the syntactic monoids associated with a class of synchronized codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-feng

    2013-01-01

    A complete code C over an alphabet A is called synchronized if there exist x, y ∈ C* such that xA*∩A*y⊆C*. In this paper we describe the syntactic monoid Syn(C (+)) of C (+) for a complete synchronized code C over A such that C (+), the semigroup generated by C, is a single class of its syntactic congruence P C (+) . In particular, we prove that, for such a code C, either C = A or Syn(C (+)) is isomorphic to a special submonoid of (l) (I) × (r) (Λ), where (l) (I) and (r) (Λ) are the full transformation semigroups on the nonempty sets I and Λ, respectively.

  10. The algebraic Bethe ansatz for rational braid-monoid lattice models

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, M J

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we study isotropic integrable systems based on the braid-monoid algebra. These systems constitute a large family of rational multistate vertex models and are realized in terms of the B_n, C_n and D_n Lie algebra and by the superalgebra Osp(n|2m). We present a unified formulation of the quantum inverse scattering method for many of these lattice models. The appropriate fundamental commutation rules are found, allowing us to construct the eigenvectors and the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix associated to the B_n, C_n, D_n, Osp(2n-1|2), Osp(2|2n-2), Osp(2n-2|2) and Osp(1|2n) models. The corresponding Bethe Ansatz equations can be formulated in terms of the root structure of the underlying algebra.

  11. Analysis on the Growth of Chinese Private Enterprises Based on Soft Budget Constraint%预算软约束视角下私营企业成长分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊龙; 汤吉军

    2012-01-01

    Along with the constant improvement of the socialist market system,the private enterprises have made great achievements of development in the constantly optimizing environment.But behind the rapid development,the private enterprises face various of problems of soft budget constraint which are conducive to economic growth in some conditions and have a negative effect on the growth of private enterprises in most of the time.So it is necessary to harden soft budget constraint by markets and non-market measures,sticking to moderate principle to ensure the moderate soft budget constraint at the same time,so as to speed up transition process of private enterprises in the Twelfth Five-Year Plan time period.%随着社会市场经济体制的不断完善私营企业成长的环境在不断优化。但在快速发展的背后,私营企业面临着多种形式的预算软约束问题,虽在一定条件下有助于经济增长,但大多数对企业成长影响是负面的,并严重损害了社会经济效率。有必要采取各种市场与非市场措施对进行预算软约束硬化,同时要坚持适度原则,在特定条件下保证适度的预算软约束,以加快"十二五"时期私营企业的转型进程。

  12. Financial Development and Enterprises Investment Efficiency:From the Perspective of Financial Constraints and Soft Budget Constraint%金融发展与企业投资效率*--基于融资约束与预算软约束视角的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟淑萍; 顾群

    2014-01-01

    Along the way of“Financial development -financial constraints ease -corporate investment”,this paper analyzes China's financial development impact on corporate investment efficiency.This study indicates that:(1 )China's enterprises are un-der financial constraints widely,but the soft budget constraint weakens the actual role of state-owned enterprises’financial constraints.(2)Financial development eases state-owned enterprises’financial constraints through financial intermediary that is the state-owned banking system.However financial development doesn’t ease non-state-owned enterprises’fi-nancial constraints significantly.(3)Soft budget constraint weakens the effect that financial development eases state-owned enterprises’financial constraints,and also weakens the effect that financial development promotes investment efficiency.Soft budget constraint can lead to over-investment and efficiency loss.So to ease enterprises financial constraints,improve in-vestment efficiency,we should push forward financial (in especial financial market)development,and harden budget con-straint.%沿着“金融发展-融资约束缓解-企业投资”的思路探讨了中国金融发展对企业投资效率影响,研究结果显示:(1)中国企业普遍存在融资约束,但预算软约束弱化了国有企业融资约束的实际作用。(2)金融发展通过金融中介---国有银行体系这一途径缓解了国有企业的融资约束,而对非国有企业融资约束的缓解效应并不显著。(3)预算软约束弱化了金融发展对国有企业融资约束的缓解作用和对投资效率的促进作用,并带来过度投资和效率损失;由于金融发展对非国有企业融资约束的缓解效应不显著,也难以在提高企业投资效率方面起到推动作用。因此,缓解企业融资约束、提高企业投资效率,必须同时从金融发展(尤其是金融市场发展)与硬化预算约束两方面着手。

  13. Soft calender; Soft calender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-20

    This facility is a soft nip calender with both hot roll and soft roll. Since a multi-zone controlled shim CD roll is used as the soft roll, profile control of a caliper is possible only by deflection control of the roll without any peripheral facility. Main specifications: (1) Kinds of paper: newspaper paper, medium-quality paper, (2) Designed processing speed: 1,100m/min, (3) Paper width: 8,300mm. Features: (1) Possible of keeping paper strength by soft nip, (2) Soft paper surface, high smoothness and excellent gloss by using the hot roll, (3) Uniform ink absorbing by a constant paper bulk density, (4) Large mass even in kinds of paper including much DIP by possible low-linear pressure operation. (translated by NEDO)

  14. Distribution Network Optimization of Supply Chain under Constraints of Matching Transportation and Soft Time Windows%软时间窗和匹配运输下的供应链配送网络优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霞; 张岐山

    2012-01-01

    A new distribution network optimization problem in the supply chain background was studied. In the design of transportation network we adopted the matching mode in which a supplier and a customer are merged. The model was built with soft time windows constraint, vehicle maximum driving distance constraint and capacity constraints. Discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm based on integer number coding and random swap sequence was applied to solve the problem. Finally the validity of the model and the algorithm was tested through operating and comparing three different algorithms on numerical examples. Results show that DPSO can reduce the iteration number,and get the optimal solution of the problem.%针对客户和供应商匹配运输下的供应链配送网络优化问题,在模型中加入客户软时间窗约束、车辆最大行驶距离约束以及设施容量约束,建立了全新的0-1整数规划模型,采用基于整数编码和交换序的离散粒子群优化算法来求解.通过算例将标准粒子群算法( PSO)、局部版粒子群算法(LPSO)和离散粒子群算法(DPSO)的运行结果进行比较,结果表明,DPSO算法可以减少迭代次数,并获得问题的最优解.

  15. On some logical and algebraic properties of axiomatic extensions of the monoidal t-norm based logic MTL related with single chain completeness

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    In [Mon11] are studied, for the axiomatic extensions of the monoidal t-norm based logic ([EG01]), the properties of single chain completeness. On the other side, in [GJKO07, Chapter 5] are studied many logical and algebraic properties (like Halld\\'en completeness, variable separation properties, amalgamation property etc.), in the context of substructural logics. The aim of this paper is twofold: first of all we will specialize the properties studied in [GJKO07, Chapter 5] from the case of substructural logics to the one of extensions of MTL, by obtaining some general characterization. Moreover we will show that some of these properties are indeed strictly connected to the topics developed in [Mon11]. This will help to have a better intuition concerning some open problems of [Mon11].

  16. On Transmission Mechanism and Effect of Macroeconomic Policy under the Soft Budget Constraints%软预算约束下的宏观经济政策传导机制及政策效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢作诗; 李善杰

    2012-01-01

    Although fiscal policies are relatively more effective than monetary policies in the economy under soft budget constraints, effectiveness of both fiscal and monetary policies are diminished compared to those in the economy under hard budget constraints. So government has to regulate and control economy by taking such quantitive-variable controlling measures as administrative methods, controlling credit and land-use approval. Due to investment impulse and consumption repression under soft budget constraints and lack of flexibility in economic adjustment under special regulate-and- controlling macroeconomic policies, economy demonstrates different characteristics from those in common market economy. Economic fluctuations in China result not only from common market reasons but also from special economic system and institutions. The essential measure to solve the macroeconomic unbalance is not to adjust demand by using fiscal and monetary policies, but by reforming. In face of production capacity surplus and consumption repression as well as regression of overseas absorption from hyper-growth to normal-growth, fiscal overexpansion may land China' s economy into deflation again, and overexpansion of both fiscal and monetary policies may put China's economy at the risk of stagflation.%虽然在软预算约束经济中,财政政策相对于货币政策要高效一些,但是与硬预算约束经济相比,财政政策、货币政策的有效性都降低了。正因为如此,政府才不得不采用行政手段以及信贷控制、土地审批这样的控制数量变量的手段来调控经济。软预算约束下的“投资冲动”和“消费压抑”,加之特殊的宏观调控政策使得经济的调整缺少弹性,导致经济表现出不同于一般市场经济的特征来。中国的经济波动既有市场经济的一般性原因,更有特殊的体制性原因。解决宏观经济结构失衡的根本办法不是利用财政政策、货币政策

  17. Automatic frequency assignment for cellular telephones using constraint satisfaction techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Mats; Grindal, Mats

    1993-01-01

    We study the problem of automatic frequency assignment for cellular telephone systems. The frequency assignment problem is viewed as the problem to minimize the unsatisfied soft constraints in a constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) over a finite domain of frequencies involving co-channel, adjacent channel, and co-site constraints. The soft constraints are automatically derived from signal strength prediction data. The CSP is solved using a generalized graph coloring algorit...

  18. Fiscal Decentralization and Soft Budget Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Timofeev Andrey

    2002-01-01

    Liberalization policies of transition have led to the mass reduction of enterprise subsidization which prevailed in socialist economies. However, in some sectors of the economy, subsidies associated with price controls remain due to "social" and "political" factors. Moreover in multi-tier governments, subnational levels seem to be more sensitive to these factors because of their proximity to the constituency. Thus decentralization of fiscal resources might interfere with the elimination of re...

  19. Soft Matter under Exogenic Impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Rzoska, Sylwester J

    2007-01-01

    Soft Matter Under Exogenic Impacts’ is fairly unique in supplying a comprehensive presentation of high pressures, negative pressures, random constraints and strong electric field exogenic (external) impacts on various soft matter systems. These are: (i) critical liquids, (ii) glass formers, such as supercooled liquids including water, polymers and resins, (iii) liquid crystals and (iv) bio-liquids. It is, because of this, an excellent guide in this novel and still puzzling research area. Besides new results, the identification of new types of physical behavior, new technological materials, ultimate verification of condensed and soft matter physics models, new applications in geophysics, biophysics, biotechnology, are all discussed in this book.

  20. Constraint Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Basin, David; Viganò, Luca

    2010-01-01

    , under the assumption that the original constraint-based approach has these properties. Practically, as a concrete case study, we have integrated this technique into OFMC, a state-of-the-art model-checker for security protocol analysis, and demonstrated its effectiveness by extensive experimentation. Our......We introduce constraint differentiation, a powerful technique for reducing search when model-checking security protocols using constraint-based methods. Constraint differentiation works by eliminating certain kinds of redundancies that arise in the search space when using constraints to represent...

  1. Soft drop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkoski, Andrew J. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Marzani, Simone [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University,South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Soyez, Gregory [IPhT, CEA Saclay, CNRS URA 2306,F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Thaler, Jesse [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-05-29

    We introduce a new jet substructure technique called “soft drop declustering”, which recursively removes soft wide-angle radiation from a jet. The soft drop algorithm depends on two parameters — a soft threshold z{sub cut} and an angular exponent β — with the β=0 limit corresponding roughly to the (modified) mass drop procedure. To gain an analytic understanding of soft drop and highlight the β dependence, we perform resummed calculations for three observables on soft-dropped jets: the energy correlation functions, the groomed jet radius, and the energy loss due to soft drop. The β=0 limit of the energy loss is particularly interesting, since it is not only “Sudakov safe” but also largely insensitive to the value of the strong coupling constant. While our calculations are strictly accurate only to modified leading-logarithmic order, we also include a discussion of higher-order effects such as multiple emissions and (the absence of) non-global logarithms. We compare our analytic results to parton shower simulations and find good agreement, and we also estimate the impact of non-perturbative effects such as hadronization and the underlying event. Finally, we demonstrate how soft drop can be used for tagging boosted W bosons, and we speculate on the potential advantages of using soft drop for pileup mitigation.

  2. Soft Drop

    CERN Document Server

    Larkoski, Andrew J; Soyez, Gregory; Thaler, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new jet substructure technique called "soft drop declustering", which recursively removes soft wide-angle radiation from a jet. The soft drop algorithm depends on two parameters--a soft threshold $z_\\text{cut}$ and an angular exponent $\\beta$--with the $\\beta = 0$ limit corresponding roughly to the (modified) mass drop procedure. To gain an analytic understanding of soft drop and highlight the $\\beta$ dependence, we perform resummed calculations for three observables on soft-dropped jets: the energy correlation functions, the groomed jet radius, and the energy loss due to soft drop. The $\\beta = 0$ limit of the energy loss is particularly interesting, since it is not only "Sudakov safe" but also largely insensitive to the value of the strong coupling constant. While our calculations are strictly accurate only to modified leading-logarithmic order, we also include a discussion of higher-order effects such as multiple emissions and (the absence of) non-global logarithms. We compare our analytic r...

  3. 预算软约束、持续经营与投资者风险偏好漂移——实验室实验的证据%Soft Budget Constraints ,Going-concern and Risk Preference Drift of Investors -- Evidences From Lab Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建标; 李朝阳

    2012-01-01

    In order to test the influence of soft budget constraints on investor's behavior, we utilize economics experiments tv design 3 kinds of investment options with risk and 4 kinds of market structure with different soft budget constraints. It shows that soft budget constraints increase investors' risk preference, while sustainable management decreases risk their preference. Female investors are more likely to change their risk preference than males. In the sustainable management experiments, investors are risk-seeking when they have much or little capital, and they are risk-averse with moderate capital. There are short-sight effects when investors make decisions, and their profit of prior periods has an obvious effect on the current options.%利用实验经济学方法设置3种不同风险的投资选择和4类预算软约束市场,检验预算软约束对投资者行为的影响。结果发现,预算软约束提高了投资者的风险偏好程度,持续经营则削弱了投资者的风险偏好程度,风险偏好漂移女性比男性更明显;持续经营实验中投资者资产较高或较低时冒险、资产中等时相对风险规避,投资者的前期收益情况会影响其当期投资选择,投资者存在短视行为。

  4. Soft Clouding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas;

    2012-01-01

    Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound...

  5. CONSTRAINT PROGRAMMING AND UNIVERSITY TIMETABLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.W. Groves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The technology of Constraint Programming is rapidly becoming a popular alternative for solving large-scale industry problems. This paper provides an introduction to Constraint Programming and to Constraint Logic Programming (CLP, an enabler of constraint programming. The use of Constraint Logic Programming is demonstrated by describing a system developed for scheduling university timetables. Timetabling problems have a high degree of algorithmic complexity (they are usually NP-Complete, and share features with scheduling problems encountered in industry. The system allows the declaration of both hard requirements, which must always be satisfied, and soft constraints which need not be satisfied, though this would be an advantage.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel beskryf ’n familie van probleem-oplossingstegnieke bekend as “Constraint Programming”, wat al hoe meer gebruik word om groot-skaalse industriële probleme op te los. Die nut van hierdie tegnieke word gedemonstreer deur die beskrywing van ’n skeduleringsisteem om die roosters vir ’n universiteit te genereer. Roosterskeduleringsprobleme is in praktiese gevalle NP-volledig en deel baie eienskappe met industriële skeduleringsprobleme. Die sisteem wat hier beskryf word maak gebruik van beide harde beperkings (wat altyd bevredig moet word en sagte beperkings (bevrediging hiervan is wel voordelig maar dit is opsioneel.

  6. Soft Robotics Week

    CERN Document Server

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Iida, Fumiya; Cianchetti, Matteo; Margheri, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive, timely snapshot of current research, technologies and applications of soft robotics. The different chapters, written by international experts across multiple fields of soft robotics, cover innovative systems and technologies for soft robot legged locomotion, soft robot manipulation, underwater soft robotics, biomimetic soft robotic platforms, plant-inspired soft robots, flying soft robots, soft robotics in surgery, as well as methods for their modeling and control. Based on the results of the second edition of the Soft Robotics Week, held on April 25 – 30, 2016, in Livorno, Italy, the book reports on the major research lines and novel technologies presented and discussed during the event.

  7. Open Graphs and Monoidal Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    String diagrams are a powerful tool for reasoning about physical processes, logic circuits, tensor networks, and many other compositional structures. The distinguishing feature of these diagrams is that edges need not be connected to vertices at both ends, and these unconnected ends can be interpreted as the inputs and outputs of a diagram. In this paper, we give a concrete construction for string diagrams using a special kind of typed graph called an open-graph. While the category of open-graphs is not itself adhesive, we introduce the notion of a selective adhesive functor, and show that such a functor embeds the category of open-graphs into the ambient adhesive category of typed graphs. Using this functor, the category of open-graphs inherits "enough adhesivity" from the category of typed graphs to perform double-pushout (DPO) graph rewriting. A salient feature of our theory is that it ensures rewrite systems are "type-safe" in the sense that rewriting respects the inputs and outputs. This formalism lets u...

  8. Design with Nonlinear Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Chengcheng

    2015-12-10

    Most modern industrial and architectural designs need to satisfy the requirements of their targeted performance and respect the limitations of available fabrication technologies. At the same time, they should reflect the artistic considerations and personal taste of the designers, which cannot be simply formulated as optimization goals with single best solutions. This thesis aims at a general, flexible yet e cient computational framework for interactive creation, exploration and discovery of serviceable, constructible, and stylish designs. By formulating nonlinear engineering considerations as linear or quadratic expressions by introducing auxiliary variables, the constrained space could be e ciently accessed by the proposed algorithm Guided Projection, with the guidance of aesthetic formulations. The approach is introduced through applications in different scenarios, its effectiveness is demonstrated by examples that were difficult or even impossible to be computationally designed before. The first application is the design of meshes under both geometric and static constraints, including self-supporting polyhedral meshes that are not height fields. Then, with a formulation bridging mesh based and spline based representations, the application is extended to developable surfaces including origami with curved creases. Finally, general approaches to extend hard constraints and soft energies are discussed, followed by a concluding remark outlooking possible future studies.

  9. Soft inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkin, Andrew L.; Maeda, Kei-Ichi; Yokoyama, Junichi

    1990-01-01

    The cosmology resulting from two coupled scalar fields was studied, one which is either a new inflation or chaotic type inflation, and the other which has an exponentially decaying potential. Such a potential may appear in the conformally transformed frame of generalized Einstein theories like the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory. The constraints necessary for successful inflation are examined. Conventional GUT models such as SU(5) were found to be compatible with new inflation, while restrictions on the self-coupling constant are significantly loosened for chaotic inflation.

  10. Multiaspect Soft Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hashimah Sulaiman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel concept of multiaspect soft set which is an extension of the ordinary soft set by Molodtsov. Some basic concepts, operations, and properties of the multiaspect soft sets are studied. We also define a mapping on multiaspect soft classes and investigate several properties related to the images and preimages of multiaspect soft sets.

  11. 预算权分配视角下地方政府软预算约束的形成机理研究%Formation Mechanism of Soft Budget Constraint in Local Government Viewed from the Perspective of the Budget Allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙曼丽; 弓蕾

    2015-01-01

    Budget allocation rights are the main standard for distributing the budget between central and lo-cal governments as well as between different departments. In terms of hierarchical relationship,the rights can be sub-divided into vertical distribution and transverse distribution. The former specifies the budget rights of the central and local government,while the latter mainly refers to budget rights allocated between the differ-ent departments of local government and the allocation between local government and the People's Congress. Unreasonable distribution on budget allocation right is thought to be the main cause of the soft budget con-straint. Viewing from the institutional level of budget allocation rights,we can objectively and directly explore the formation mechanism of the soft budget constraint,and provide a new reference for strengthening budget management and hardening our budget constraints.%预算分配权是中央与地方、地方各部门进行预算分配的主要标准。预算分配权从层级关系上可划分为纵向预算分配权和横向预算分配权,其中纵向预算分配权是指预算权在中央与地方之间的划分,横向预算分配权主要是指预算权在地方政府内部以及地方政府与人大之间的分配。预算权在纵向和横向分配的不合理是我国预算软约束形成的重要原因。从预算分配权这一制度层面客观、直接地探究我国预算软约束的形成机理,可以为我国加强预算管理、硬化预算约束提供新的参考。

  12. Constraints Adjustment and Objectives Coordination of Satisfying Optimal Control Applied to Heavy Oil Fractionators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹涛; 李少远

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility and objectives coordination of real-time optimization (RTO) are systemically investigated under soft constraints. The reason for requiring soft constraints adjustment and objective relaxation simultaneously is that the result is not satisfactory when the feasible region is apart from the desired working point or the optimization problem is infeasible. The mixed logic method is introduced to describe the priority of the constraints and objectives, thereby the soft constraints adjustment and objectives coordination are solved together in RTO. A case study on the Shell heavy oil fractionators benchmark problem illustrating the method is finally presented.

  13. Generalization of Soft Neutrosophic Rings and Soft Neutrosophic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we extend soft neutrosophic rings and soft neutrosophic fields to soft neutrosophic birings, soft neutrosophic N-rings and soft neutrosophic bifields and soft neutrosophic N-fields. We also extend soft neutrosophic ideal theory to form soft neutrosophic biideal and soft neutrosophic N-ideals over a neutrosophic biring and soft neutrosophic N-ring. We have given examples to illustrate the theory of soft neutrosophic birings, soft neutrosophic N-rings and soft neutrosophic fields and soft neutrosophic N-fields and display many properties of these.

  14. On soft topological space via semiopen and semiclosed soft sets

    CERN Document Server

    Mahanta, J

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces semiopen and semiclosed soft sets in soft topological spaces. The notions of interior and closure are generalized using these sets. A detail study is carried out on properties of semiopen, semiclosed soft sets, semi interior and semi closure of a soft set in a soft topological space. Various forms of soft functions, like semicontinuous, irresolute, semiopen soft functions are introduced and characterized. Further soft semicompactness,soft semiconnectedness and soft semiseparation axioms are introduced and studied.

  15. Fuzzy Soft Topological Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nazmul

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Notions of Lowen type fuzzy soft topological space are introduced and some of their properties are established in the present paper. Besides this, a combined structure of a fuzzy soft topological space and a fuzzy soft group, which is termed here as fuzzy soft topological group is introduced. Homomorphic images and preimages are also examined. Finally, some definitions and results on fuzzy soft set are studied.

  16. Stochastic Constraint Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Toby

    2009-01-01

    To model combinatorial decision problems involving uncertainty and probability, we introduce stochastic constraint programming. Stochastic constraint programs contain both decision variables (which we can set) and stochastic variables (which follow a probability distribution). They combine together the best features of traditional constraint satisfaction, stochastic integer programming, and stochastic satisfiability. We give a semantics for stochastic constraint programs, and propose a number...

  17. Analysing soft matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom McLeish

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A new volume on soft materials ranges broadly across systems and techniques, experiment, and theory. Despite a lack of coherence, there is much of interest, which conveys the energy within soft-matter science, says

  18. Development of a Kinematic 3D Carpal Model to Analyze In Vivo Soft-Tissue Interaction Across Multiple Static Postures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marai, G. Elisabeta; Crisco, Joseph J.; Laidlaw, David H.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a subject-specific kinematic model to analyze in vivo soft-tissue interaction in the carpus in static, unloaded postures. The bone geometry was extracted from a reference computed tomography volume image. The soft-tissue geometry, including cartilage and ligament tissues, was computationally modeled based on kinematic constraints; the constraints were extracted from multiple computed tomography scans corresponding to different carpal postures. The data collected in vivo was next coupled with numerical simulation in order to analyze the role of soft-tissues in different postures. The resulting model extends the state of biomecanical modeling by incorporating soft-tissue constraints across the carpus range of motion, while successfully using only physiological constraints. The model results suggest that soft-tissue wrapping constraints have substantial impact on carpus stability. PMID:19965271

  19. Soft Congruence Relations over Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Xin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft congruence relations by using the soft set theory. The notions of soft quotient rings, generalized soft ideals and generalized soft quotient rings, are introduced, and several related properties are investigated. Also, we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and idealistic soft rings and a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and soft ideals. In particular, the first, second, and third soft isomorphism theorems are established, respectively.

  20. Soft congruence relations over rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiaolong; Li, Wenting

    2014-01-01

    Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft congruence relations by using the soft set theory. The notions of soft quotient rings, generalized soft ideals and generalized soft quotient rings, are introduced, and several related properties are investigated. Also, we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and idealistic soft rings and a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and soft ideals. In particular, the first, second, and third soft isomorphism theorems are established, respectively.

  1. Exactly isochoric deformations of soft solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, John S.; Wei, Z.; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-12-01

    Many materials of contemporary interest, such as gels, biological tissues and elastomers, are easily deformed but essentially incompressible. Traditional linear theory of elasticity implements incompressibility only to first order and thus permits some volume changes, which become problematically large even at very small strains. Using a mixed coordinate transformation originally due to Gauss, we enforce the constraint of isochoric deformations exactly to develop a linear theory with perfect volume conservation that remains valid until strains become geometrically large. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by calculating the response of an infinite soft isochoric solid to a point force that leads to a nonlinear generalization of the Kelvin solution. Our approach naturally generalizes to a range of problems involving deformations of soft solids and interfaces in two-dimensional and axisymmetric geometries, which we exemplify by determining the solution to a distributed load that mimics muscular contraction within the bulk of a soft solid.

  2. Soft Budget Constraint and Policy Burdens of China'SOEs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪文卿

    2002-01-01

    In this paper,we have analyzed the SBC problem in China' SOEs ,and think that the policy burdens for SOEs is the root of the SBC problem . Unless the government does not ask enterprises to employ more workers, to provide below market-clearing prices of goods, and to take other actions that increase the enterprise's costs, the SBC phenomenon will exist for a long term.

  3. Concave soft sets, critical soft points, and union-soft ideals of ordered semigroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Young Bae; Song, Seok Zun; Muhiuddin, G

    2014-01-01

    The notions of union-soft semigroups, union-soft l-ideals, and union-soft r-ideals are introduced, and related properties are investigated. Characterizations of a union-soft semigroup, a union-soft l-ideal, and a union-soft r-ideal are provided. The concepts of union-soft products and union-soft semiprime soft sets are introduced, and their properties related to union-soft l-ideals and union-soft r-ideals are investigated. Using the notions of union-soft l-ideals and union-soft r-ideals, conditions for an ordered semigroup to be regular are considered. The concepts of concave soft sets and critical soft points are introduced, and their properties are discussed.

  4. Concave Soft Sets, Critical Soft Points, and Union-Soft Ideals of Ordered Semigroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Bae Jun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The notions of union-soft semigroups, union-soft l-ideals, and union-soft r-ideals are introduced, and related properties are investigated. Characterizations of a union-soft semigroup, a union-soft l-ideal, and a union-soft r-ideal are provided. The concepts of union-soft products and union-soft semiprime soft sets are introduced, and their properties related to union-soft l-ideals and union-soft r-ideals are investigated. Using the notions of union-soft l-ideals and union-soft r-ideals, conditions for an ordered semigroup to be regular are considered. The concepts of concave soft sets and critical soft points are introduced, and their properties are discussed.

  5. Composing constraint solvers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoeteweij, P.

    2005-01-01

    Composing constraint solvers based on tree search and constraint propagation through generic iteration leads to efficient and flexible constraint solvers. This was demonstrated using OpenSolver, an abstract branch-and-propagate tree search engine that supports a wide range of relevant solver configu

  6. Simple Ontology Format (SOFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Simple Ontology Format (SOFT) library and file format specification provides a set of simple tools for developing and maintaining ontologies. The library, implemented as a perl module, supports parsing and verification of the files in SOFt format, operations with ontologies (adding, removing, or filtering of entities), and converting of ontologies into other formats. SOFT allows users to quickly create ontologies using only a basic text editor, verify it, and portray it in a graph layout system using customized styles.

  7. Flavoured Soft Leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Fong, Chee Sheng

    2008-01-01

    We study the impact of flavour in ``soft leptogenesis'' (leptogenesis induced by soft supersymmetry breaking terms). We address the question of how flavour effects can affect the region of parameters in which successful soft leptogenesis induced by CP violation in the right-handed sneutrino mixing is possible. We find that for decays which occur in the intermediate to strong washout regimes for all flavours, the produced total $B-L$ asymmetry can be up to a factor ${\\cal O}(30)$ larger than the one predicted with flavour effects being neglected. This enhancement, permits slightly larger values of the required lepton violating soft bilinear term.

  8. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students

  9. On Testing Constraint Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Lazaar, Nadjib; Yahia, Lebbah

    2010-01-01

    The success of several constraint-based modeling languages such as OPL, ZINC, or COMET, appeals for better software engineering practices, particularly in the testing phase. This paper introduces a testing framework enabling automated test case generation for constraint programming. We propose a general framework of constraint program development which supposes that a first declarative and simple constraint model is available from the problem specifications analysis. Then, this model is refined using classical techniques such as constraint reformulation, surrogate and global constraint addition, or symmetry-breaking to form an improved constraint model that must be thoroughly tested before being used to address real-sized problems. We think that most of the faults are introduced in this refinement step and propose a process which takes the first declarative model as an oracle for detecting non-conformities. We derive practical test purposes from this process to generate automatically test data that exhibit no...

  10. learning and soft skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2000-01-01

    Learning of soft skills are becoming more and more necessary due to the complexe development of modern companies and their environments. However, there seems to be a 'gap' between intentions and reality regarding need of soft skills and the possiblities to be educated in this subject in particular...

  11. learning and soft skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2000-01-01

    Learning of soft skills are becoming more and more necessary due to the complexe development of modern companies and their environments. However, there seems to be a 'gap' between intentions and reality regarding need of soft skills and the possiblities to be educated in this subject in particular...

  12. Embodying Soft Wearables Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    of soft wearables. Throughout, we will experiment with how embodied design research techniques might be shared, developed, and used as direct and unmediated vehicles for their own reporting. Rather than engage in oral presentations, participants will lead each other through a proven embodied method...... and knowledge transfer in the context of soft wearables....

  13. Kalman Filtering with Inequality Constraints for Turbofan Engine Health Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Dan; Simon, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    Kalman filters are often used to estimate the state variables of a dynamic system. However, in the application of Kalman filters some known signal information is often either ignored or dealt with heuristically. For instance, state variable constraints (which may be based on physical considerations) are often neglected because they do not fit easily into the structure of the Kalman filter. This paper develops two analytic methods of incorporating state variable inequality constraints in the Kalman filter. The first method is a general technique of using hard constraints to enforce inequalities on the state variable estimates. The resultant filter is a combination of a standard Kalman filter and a quadratic programming problem. The second method uses soft constraints to estimate state variables that are known to vary slowly with time. (Soft constraints are constraints that are required to be approximately satisfied rather than exactly satisfied.) The incorporation of state variable constraints increases the computational effort of the filter but significantly improves its estimation accuracy. The improvement is proven theoretically and shown via simulation results. The use of the algorithm is demonstrated on a linearized simulation of a turbofan engine to estimate health parameters. The turbofan engine model contains 16 state variables, 12 measurements, and 8 component health parameters. It is shown that the new algorithms provide improved performance in this example over unconstrained Kalman filtering.

  14. Evaluating six soft approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Sørensen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner’s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, and their usability in practice.

  15. Constraints meet concurrency

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro, Jacopo

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the benefits that emerge when the fields of constraint programming and concurrency meet. On the one hand, constraints can be used in concurrency theory to increase the conciseness and the expressive power of concurrent languages from a pragmatic point of view. On the other hand, problems modeled by using constraints can be solved faster and more efficiently using a concurrent system. Both directions are explored providing two separate lines of development. Firstly the expressive power of a concurrent language is studied, namely Constraint Handling Rules, that supports constraints as a primitive construct. The features of this language which make it Turing powerful are shown. Then a framework is proposed to solve constraint problems that is intended to be deployed on a concurrent system. For the development of this framework the concurrent language Jolie following the Service Oriented paradigm is used. Based on this experience, an extension to Service Oriented Languages is also proposed in ...

  16. Chemotherapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treating Soft Tissue Sarcomas Chemotherapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas Chemotherapy (chemo) is the use of drugs given into ... Depending on the type and stage of sarcoma, chemotherapy may be given as the main treatment or ...

  17. On Minimal Constraint Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gottlob, Georg

    2011-01-01

    In a minimal binary constraint network, every tuple of a constraint relation can be extended to a solution. It was conjectured that computing a solution to such a network is NP complete. We prove this conjecture true and show that the problem remains NP hard even in case the total domain of all values that may appear in the constraint relations is bounded by a constant.

  18. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia Posso, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...... reflect the reactive interactions between concurrent constraint processes and their environment, as well as internal interactions between individual processes. Relationships between the suggested notions are studied, and they are all proved to be decidable for a substantial fragment of the calculus...

  19. Soft bounds on diffusion produce skewed distributions and Gompertz growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrà, Salvatore; Lagomarsino, Marco Cosentino; Gherardi, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Constraints can affect dramatically the behavior of diffusion processes. Recently, we analyzed a natural and a technological system and reported that they perform diffusion-like discrete steps displaying a peculiar constraint, whereby the increments of the diffusing variable are subject to configuration-dependent bounds. This work explores theoretically some of the revealing landmarks of such phenomenology, termed "soft bound." At long times, the system reaches a steady state irreversibly (i.e., violating detailed balance), characterized by a skewed "shoulder" in the density distribution, and by a net local probability flux, which has entropic origin. The largest point in the support of the distribution follows a saturating dynamics, expressed by the Gompertz law, in line with empirical observations. Finally, we propose a generic allometric scaling for the origin of soft bounds. These findings shed light on the impact on a system of such "scaling" constraint and on its possible generating mechanisms.

  20. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  1. Evaluating Six Soft Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  2. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  3. Theory of Constraints (TOC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Aage U.

    2004-01-01

    Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process.......Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process....

  4. Credit Constraints in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Lance; Monge-Naranjo, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We review studies of the impact of credit constraints on the accumulation of human capital. Evidence suggests that credit constraints have recently become important for schooling and other aspects of households' behavior. We highlight the importance of early childhood investments, as their response largely determines the impact of credit…

  5. Theory of Constraints (TOC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Aage U.

    2004-01-01

    Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process.......Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process....

  6. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  7. Evaluating Distributed Timing Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.H.; Drejer, N.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems.......In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems....

  8. Decentralized Constraint Satisfaction

    CERN Document Server

    Duffy, K R; Leith, D J

    2011-01-01

    Constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) lie at the heart of many modern industrial and commercial tasks. An important new collection of CSPs has recently been emerging that differ from classical problems in that they impose constraints on the class of algorithms that can be used to solve them. In computer network applications, these constraints arise as the variables within the CSP are located at physically distinct devices that cannot communicate. At each instant, every variable only knows if all its constraints are met or at least one is not. Consequently, the CSP's solution must be found using a decentralized approach. Existing algorithms for solving CSPs are either centralized or distributed, both of which violate these algorithmic constraints. In this article we present the first algorithm for solving CSPs that fulfills these new requirements. It is fully decentralized, making no use of a centralized controller or message-passing between variables. We prove that this algorithm converges with probability ...

  9. Constraints in Quantum Geometrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gentle, A P; Kheyfets, A I; Miller, W A; Gentle, Adrian P.; George, Nathan D.; Kheyfets, Arkady; Miller, Warner A.

    2003-01-01

    We compare different treatments of the constraints in canonical quantum gravity. The standard approach on the superspace of 3-geometries treats the constraints as the sole carriers of the dynamic content of the theory, thus rendering the traditional dynamic equations obsolete. Quantization of the constraints in both the Dirac and ADM square root Hamiltonian approach lead to the well known problems of the description of time evolution. These problems of time are both of interpretational and technical nature. In contrast, the so-called geometrodynamic quantization procedure on the superspace of the true dynamic variables separates the issue of quantization from enforcing the constraints. The resulting theory takes into account the states that are off shell with respect to the constraints, and thus avoids the problems of time. Here, we develop, for the first time, the geometrodynamic quantization formalism in a general setting and show that it retains all essential features previously illustrated in the context ...

  10. Multigait soft robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Robert F; Ilievski, Filip; Choi, Wonjae; Morin, Stephen A; Stokes, Adam A; Mazzeo, Aaron D; Chen, Xin; Wang, Michael; Whitesides, George M

    2011-12-20

    This manuscript describes a unique class of locomotive robot: A soft robot, composed exclusively of soft materials (elastomeric polymers), which is inspired by animals (e.g., squid, starfish, worms) that do not have hard internal skeletons. Soft lithography was used to fabricate a pneumatically actuated robot capable of sophisticated locomotion (e.g., fluid movement of limbs and multiple gaits). This robot is quadrupedal; it uses no sensors, only five actuators, and a simple pneumatic valving system that operates at low pressures (< 10 psi). A combination of crawling and undulation gaits allowed this robot to navigate a difficult obstacle. This demonstration illustrates an advantage of soft robotics: They are systems in which simple types of actuation produce complex motion.

  11. Soft bioelectronics using nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjae; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2016-09-01

    Recently, soft bioelectronics has attracted significant attention because of its potential applications in biointegrated healthcare devices and minimally invasive surgical tools. Mechanical mismatch between conventional electronic/optoelectronic devices and soft human tissues/organs, however, causes many challenges in materials and device designs of bio-integrated devices. Intrinsically soft hybrid materials comprising twodimensional nanomaterials are utilized to solve these issues. In this paper, we describe soft bioelectronic devices based on graphene synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition process. These devices have unique advantages over rigid electronics, particularly in biomedical applications. The functionalized graphene is hybridized with other nanomaterials and fabricated into high-performance sensors and actuators toward wearable and minimally invasive healthcare devices. Integrated bioelectronic systems constructed using these devices solve pending issues in clinical medicine while providing new opportunities in personalized healthcare.

  12. Deployable Soft Composite Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Hugo Rodrigue; Sung-Hoon Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and sim...

  13. Dynamics of Soft Matter

    CERN Document Server

    García Sakai, Victoria; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Dynamics of Soft Matter: Neutron Applications provides an overview of neutron scattering techniques that measure temporal and spatial correlations simultaneously, at the microscopic and/or mesoscopic scale. These techniques offer answers to new questions arising at the interface of physics, chemistry, and biology. Knowledge of the dynamics at these levels is crucial to understanding the soft matter field, which includes colloids, polymers, membranes, biological macromolecules, foams, emulsions towards biological & biomimetic systems, and phenomena involving wetting, friction, adhesion, or micr

  14. Hard and Soft

    OpenAIRE

    Claes H. de Vreese; Boomgaarden, Hajo G.; Semetko, Holli A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Support for European integration is a function no longer only of `hard' economic and utilitarian predictors but also of `soft' predictors such as feelings of identity and attitudes towards immigrants. Focusing on the issue of the potential membership of Turkey in the European Union (EU), this study demonstrates that the importance of `soft' predictors outweighs the role of `hard' predictors in understanding public opinion about Turkish membership. The study draws on survey...

  15. Taxing Soft Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Bahl

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the practice of levying an excise tax on soft drinks in sub-saharan African countries, and evaluates this practice against theoretical norms for levying an excise tax. The question is whether such taxes are justified or whether they are discriminatory and impose a welfare cost on the country. The paper concludes that the sin tax justification does not hold for soft drinks, nor do income distribution justifications. Arguably the best reason for such a levy is revenue, but th...

  16. Constraint-based reachability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Gotlieb

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Iterative imperative programs can be considered as infinite-state systems computing over possibly unbounded domains. Studying reachability in these systems is challenging as it requires to deal with an infinite number of states with standard backward or forward exploration strategies. An approach that we call Constraint-based reachability, is proposed to address reachability problems by exploring program states using a constraint model of the whole program. The keypoint of the approach is to interpret imperative constructions such as conditionals, loops, array and memory manipulations with the fundamental notion of constraint over a computational domain. By combining constraint filtering and abstraction techniques, Constraint-based reachability is able to solve reachability problems which are usually outside the scope of backward or forward exploration strategies. This paper proposes an interpretation of classical filtering consistencies used in Constraint Programming as abstract domain computations, and shows how this approach can be used to produce a constraint solver that efficiently generates solutions for reachability problems that are unsolvable by other approaches.

  17. Communication with Disturbance Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Bandemer, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    The problem of communication with disturbance constraints is introduced. The rate-disturbance region is established for the single constraint case. The optimal encoding scheme turns out to be the same as the Han-Kobayashi scheme for the two user-pair interference channel. For communication with two disturbance constraints, a coding scheme and a corresponding inner bound for the deterministic case are presented. The results suggest a natural way to obtain a new inner bound on the capacity region of the interference channel with more than two user pairs.

  18. Optimization under Nonlinear Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    In this paper a timesaving method is proposed for maximizing likelihood functions when the parameter space is subject to nonlinear constraints, expressible as second order polynomials. The suggested approach is especially attractive when dealing with systems with many parameters.

  19. Development of a Kinematic 3D Carpal Model to Analyze In Vivo Soft-Tissue Interaction Across Multiple Static Postures

    OpenAIRE

    Marai, G. Elisabeta; Crisco, Joseph J; Laidlaw, David H.

    2009-01-01

    We developed a subject-specific kinematic model to analyze in vivo soft-tissue interaction in the carpus in static, unloaded postures. The bone geometry was extracted from a reference computed tomography volume image. The soft-tissue geometry, including cartilage and ligament tissues, was computationally modeled based on kinematic constraints; the constraints were extracted from multiple computed tomography scans corresponding to different carpal postures. The data collected in vivo was next ...

  20. Soft and Ultra-soft Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, William; Burdynska, Joanna; Kirby, Sam; Zhou, Yang; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Rubinstein, Michael; Sheiko, Sergei; UNC-MIRT Team

    2014-03-01

    Polymeric networks are attractive engineering materials utilized for various mechanically demanding applications. As such, much attention has been paid to reinforcement of polymer mechanical properties with little interest in how to make softer elastomers to address numerous biomedical applications including implants and cell differentiation. Without swelling in a solvent, it is challenging to obtain materials with a modulus below ca.105 Pa, which is dictated by chain entanglements. Here we present two methodologies for the creation of soft and ultra-soft dry elastomeric compounds. The first method utilizes polymer capsules as temperature responsive filler. Depending on volume fraction of microcapsules this method is capable of fine tuning modulus within an order of magnitude. The second technique uses the densely grafted molecular brush architecture to create solvent-free polymer melts and elastomers with plateau moduli in the range one hundred to ten hundred Pa. Such compounds may find uses in biomedical applications including reconstructive surgery and cell differentiation. National Science Foundation DMR-1122483.

  1. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    and discusses governance forms at several levels. The first layer is the global: the methods of 'soft governance' that are being utilised by transnational agencies. The second layer is the national and local: the shift in national and local governance seen in many countries, but here demonstrated in the case......The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more focus...

  2. Introductory physics going soft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbeheim, Elon; Livne, Shelly; Safran, Samuel A.; Yerushalmi, Edit

    2012-01-01

    We describe an elective course on soft matter at the level of introductory physics. Soft matter physics serves as a context that motivates the presentation of basic ideas in statistical thermodynamics and their applications. It also is an example of a contemporary field that is interdisciplinary and touches on chemistry, biology, and physics. We outline a curriculum that uses the lattice gas model as a quantitative and visual tool, initially to introduce entropy, and later to facilitate the calculation of interactions. We demonstrate how free energy minimization can be used to teach students to understand the properties of soft matter systems such as the phases of fluid mixtures, wetting of interfaces, self-assembly of surfactants, and polymers. We discuss several suggested activities in the form of inquiry projects which allow students to apply the concepts they have learned to experimental systems.

  3. Soft, Embodied, Situated & Connected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based accessories that incorporate smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces to enable responsive and interactive experiences. When designed well, soft wearables leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dress......; diverse capabilities and meanings of the body; as well as the qualities and capabilities afforded by smart and programmable elements. Textiles behave in particular ways. They are part of culture. No matter a person’s views on fashion, dress, their own or others’ body, they will have an intimate...... relationship with textiles, as they are one of the few products worn much of the time, often in direct contact with the body. When designing wearables a designer must consider a range of requirements that do not typically demand focus when designing products that are not worn, including: sensitivity...

  4. Monoids of moduli spaces of manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galatius, Søren; Randal-Williams, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    with generalised orientations specified by a map ¿: X ¿ BO(d). The main result of [Acta Math. 202 (2009) 195–239] is a determination of the homotopy type of the classifying space BC¿. The goal of the present paper is a systematic investigation of subcategories D¿C¿ with the property that BD¿ BC¿, the smaller...

  5. Monoids, Segal's condition and bisimplicial spaces

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A characterization of simplicial objects in categories with finite products obtained by the reduced bar construction is given. The condition that characterizes such simplicial objects is a strictification of Segal's condition guaranteeing that the loop space of the geometric realization of a simplicial space $X$ and the space $X_1$ are of the same homotopy type. A generalization of Segal's result appropriate for bisimplicial spaces is given. This generalization gives conditions guaranteing th...

  6. Algebraic Graph Theory Morphisms, Monoids and Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Knauer, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    This is a highly self-contained book about algebraic graph theory which iswritten with a view to keep the lively and unconventional atmosphere of a spoken text to communicate the enthusiasm the author feels about this subject. The focus is on homomorphisms and endomorphisms, matrices and eigenvalues. Graph models are extremely useful for almost all applications and applicators as they play an important role as structuring tools. They allow to model net structures -like roads, computers, telephones -instances of abstract data structures -likelists, stacks, trees -and functional or object orient

  7. Mechanics of soft materials

    CERN Document Server

    Volokh, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a concise introduction to soft matter modelling. It offers an up-to-date review of continuum mechanical description of soft and biological materials from the basics to the latest scientific materials. It includes multi-physics descriptions, such as chemo-, thermo-, electro- mechanical coupling. It derives from a graduate course at Technion that has been established in recent years. It presents original explanations for some standard materials and features elaborated examples on all topics throughout the text. PowerPoint lecture notes can be provided to instructors. .

  8. Results on fuzzy soft topological spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Mahanta, J

    2012-01-01

    B. Tanay et. al. introduced and studied fuzzy soft topological spaces. Here we introduce fuzzy soft point and study the concept of neighborhood of a fuzzy soft point in a fuzzy soft topological space. We also study fuzzy soft closure and fuzzy soft interior. Separation axioms and connectedness are introduced and investigated for fuzzy soft topological spaces.

  9. Soft n-Ary Subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Prince Williams

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft set theory plays a vital role in solving many complicated problems with inherited uncertainty. An n-ary algebraic systems is a generalization of algebraic structures and it is the most natural way for the further development, deeper understanding of their properties. In this paper, we apply soft set theory to an n-ary algebraic systems and introduce the notions of soft n-ary groups and soft n-ary subgroups. Further, some operations on soft sets are extended to the former. Finally, we provide the characterization of soft n-ary subgroups over an n-ary group (G,f and study their related properties.

  10. Some properties of fuzzy soft proximity spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities.

  11. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224

  12. Soft, Embodied, Situated & Connected: enriching interactions with soft wearables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based accessories that incorporate smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces to enable responsive and interactive experiences. When designed well, soft wearables leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dress...... approaches impact use. Finally, we reflect on how embodied and collocated interactions might extend understanding of how to frame wearables research and development to arrive at rich interactions that are soft, embodied, situated and connected....

  13. Nanobiotechnology: soft lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Elisa; Pisignano, Dario

    2009-01-01

    An entirely new scientific and technological area has been born from the combination of nanotechnology and biology: nanobiotechnology. Such a field is primed especially by the strong potential synergy enabled by the integration of technologies, protocols, and investigation methods, since, while biomolecules represent functional nanosystems interesting for nanotechnology, micro- and nano-devices can be very useful instruments for studying biological materials. In particular, the research of new approaches for manipulating matter and fabricating structures with micrometre- and sub-micrometre resolution has determined the development of soft lithography, a new set of non-photolithographic patterning techniques applied to the realization of selective proteins and cells attachment, microfluidic circuits for protein and DNA chips, and 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering. Today, soft lithographies have become an asset of nanobiotechnology. This Chapter examines the biological applications of various soft lithographic techniques, with particular attention to the main general features of soft lithography and of materials commonly employed with these methods. We present approaches particularly suitable for biological materials, such as microcontact printing (muCP) and microfluidic lithography, and some key micro- and nanobiotechnology applications, such as the patterning of protein and DNA microarrays and the realization of microfluidic-based analytical devices.

  14. Optomechanical soft metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiangjun; He, Wei; Liu, Yifan; Xin, Fengxian; Lu, Tian Jian

    2017-06-01

    We present a new type of optomechanical soft metamaterials, which is different from conventional mechanical metamaterials, in that they are simple isotropic and homogenous materials without resorting to any complex nano/microstructures. This metamaterial is unique in the sense that its responses to uniaxial forcing can be tailored by programmed laser inputs to manifest different nonlinear constitutive behaviors, such as monotonic, S-shape, plateau, and non-monotonic snapping performance. To demonstrate the novel metamaterial, a thin sheet of soft material impinged by two counterpropagating lasers along its thickness direction and stretched by an in-plane tensile mechanical force is considered. A theoretical model is formulated to characterize the resulting optomechanical behavior of the thin sheet by combining the nonlinear elasticity theory of soft materials and the optical radiation stress theory. The optical radiation stresses predicted by the proposed model are validated by simulations based on the method of finite elements. Programmed optomechanical behaviors are subsequently explored using the validated model under different initial sheet thicknesses and different optical inputs, and the first- and second-order tangential stiffness of the metamaterial are used to plot the phase diagram of its nonlinear constitutive behaviors. The proposed optomechanical soft metamaterial shows great potential in biological medicine, microfluidic manipulation, and other fields.

  15. Soft condensed matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, D.

    2002-01-01

    These lectures illustrate some of the concepts of soft-condensed matter physics, taking examples from colloid physics. Many of the theoretical concepts will be illustrated with the results of computer simulations. After a brief introduction describing interactions between colloids, the paper focuses

  16. On Soft Biometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nixon, Mark; Correia, Paulo; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has formed much of the rich history in biometrics. The field of soft biometrics was originally aimed to augment the recognition process by fusion of metrics that were sufficient to discriminate populations rather than individuals. This was later refined to use measures that could be used...

  17. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2006-01-01

    The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner’s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff’s inter...

  18. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...

  19. Soft Tissue Extramedullary Plasmacytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ruiz Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the uncommon case of a subcutaneous fascia-based extramedullary plasmacytoma in the leg, which was confirmed by the pathology report and followed up until its remission. We report the differential diagnosis with other more common soft tissue masses. Imaging findings are nonspecific but are important to determine the tumour extension and to plan the biopsy.

  20. Soft Matter Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Borsali, Redouane

    2008-01-01

    Progress in basic soft matter research is driven largely by the experimental techniques available. Much of the work is concerned with understanding them at the microscopic level, especially at the nanometer length scales that give soft matter studies a wide overlap with nanotechnology. This 2 volume reference work, split into 4 parts, presents detailed discussions of many of the major techniques commonly used as well as some of those in current development for studying and manipulating soft matter. The articles are intended to be accessible to the interdisciplinary audience (at the graduate student level and above) that is or will be engaged in soft matter studies or those in other disciplines who wish to view some of the research methods in this fascinating field. Part 1 contains articles with a largely (but, in most cases, not exclusively) theoretical content and/or that cover material relevant to more than one of the techniques covered in subsequent volumes. It includes an introductory chapter on some of t...

  1. Soft matrices on soft multisets in an optimal decision process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Arzu Erdem; Aras, Cigdem Gunduz; Cakalli, Huseyin; Sonmez, Ayse

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we introduce a concept of a soft matrix on a soft multiset, and investigate how to use soft matrices to solve decision making problems. An algorithm for a multiple choose selection problem is also provided. Finally, we demonstrate an illustrative example to show the decision making steps.

  2. The photogrammetric inner constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermanis, Athanasios

    A derivation of the complete inner constraints, which are required for obtaining "free network" solutions in close-range photogrammetry, is presented. The inner constraints are derived analytically for the bundle method, by exploiting the fact that the rows of their coefficient matrix from a basis for the null subspace of the design matrix used in the linearized observation equations. The derivation is independent of any particular choice of rotational parameters and examples are given for three types of rotation angles used in photogrammetry, as well as for the Rodriguez elements. A convenient algorithm based on the use of the S-transformation is presented, for the computation of free solutions with either inner or partial inner constraints. This approach is finally compared with alternative approaches to free network solutions.

  3. Constraint algebra in bigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloviev, V. O., E-mail: Vladimir.Soloviev@ihep.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Institute for High Energy Physics (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    The number of degrees of freedom in bigravity theory is found for a potential of general form and also for the potential proposed by de Rham, Gabadadze, and Tolley (dRGT). This aim is pursued via constructing a Hamiltonian formalismand studying the Poisson algebra of constraints. A general potential leads to a theory featuring four first-class constraints generated by general covariance. The vanishing of the respective Hessian is a crucial property of the dRGT potential, and this leads to the appearance of two additional second-class constraints and, hence, to the exclusion of a superfluous degree of freedom—that is, the Boulware—Deser ghost. The use of a method that permits avoiding an explicit expression for the dRGT potential is a distinctive feature of the present study.

  4. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...... processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what...

  5. Soft X-ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, John

    1999-05-20

    The contents of this report cover the following: (1) design of the soft x-ray telescope; (2) fabrication and characterization of the soft x-ray telescope; and (3) experimental implementation at the OMEGA laser facility.

  6. Soft Decision Analyzer and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Glen F. (Inventor); Lansdowne, Chatwin (Inventor); Zucha, Joan P. (Inventor); Schlesinger, Adam M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A soft decision analyzer system is operable to interconnect soft decision communication equipment and analyze the operation thereof to detect symbol wise alignment between a test data stream and a reference data stream in a variety of operating conditions.

  7. Semantic Segmentation with Same Topic Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Mao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A popular approach to semantic segmentation problems is to construct a pair wise Conditional Markov Random Field (CRF over image pixels where the pair wise term encodes a preference for smoothness within pixel neighborhoods. Recently, researchers have considered higher-order models that encode local region or soft non-local constraints (e.g., label consistency or co-occurrence statistics. These new models with higher-order terms have significantly pushed the state-of-the-art for semantic segmentation problems. In this study, we consider a novel non-local constraint that enforces consistent pixel labels among those image regions having the same topic. These topics are discovered by Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis model (PLSA. We encode this constraint as a robust Pn higher-order potential among all the image regions of the same topic in a unified CRF model. We experimentally demonstrate quantitative and qualitative improvements over a refined baseline unary and pair wise CRF models.

  8. Constraints as evolutionary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rácz, István

    2016-01-01

    The constraint equations for smooth $[n+1]$-dimensional (with $n\\geq 3$) Riemannian or Lorentzian spaces satisfying the Einstein field equations are considered. It is shown, regardless of the signature of the primary space, that the constraints can be put into the form of an evolutionary system comprised either by a first order symmetric hyperbolic system and a parabolic equation or, alternatively, by a strongly hyperbolic system and a subsidiary algebraic relation. In both cases the (local) existence and uniqueness of solutions are also discussed.

  9. Constraint-based scheduling applying constraint programming to scheduling problems

    CERN Document Server

    Baptiste, Philippe; Nuijten, Wim

    2001-01-01

    Constraint Programming is a problem-solving paradigm that establishes a clear distinction between two pivotal aspects of a problem: (1) a precise definition of the constraints that define the problem to be solved and (2) the algorithms and heuristics enabling the selection of decisions to solve the problem. It is because of these capabilities that Constraint Programming is increasingly being employed as a problem-solving tool to solve scheduling problems. Hence the development of Constraint-Based Scheduling as a field of study. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the most widely used Constraint-Based Scheduling techniques. Following the principles of Constraint Programming, the book consists of three distinct parts: The first chapter introduces the basic principles of Constraint Programming and provides a model of the constraints that are the most often encountered in scheduling problems. Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 are focused on the propagation of resource constraints, which usually are responsibl...

  10. Possibility Intuitionistic Fuzzy Soft Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruah Bashir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibility intuitionistic fuzzy soft set and its operations are introduced, and a few of their properties are studied. An application of possibility intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets in decision making is investigated. A similarity measure of two possibility intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets has been discussed. An application of this similarity measure in medical diagnosis has been shown.

  11. General Information about Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forms in soft tissues of the body, including muscle, tendons, fat, blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves, and tissue around joints. Soft tissue sarcoma occurs in children and adults. Soft ... disorders can increase the risk of childhood soft tissue sarcoma. Anything ...

  12. Stages of Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forms in soft tissues of the body, including muscle, tendons, fat, blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves, and tissue around joints. Soft tissue sarcoma occurs in children and adults. Soft ... disorders can increase the risk of childhood soft tissue sarcoma. Anything ...

  13. Treatment Options for Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forms in soft tissues of the body, including muscle, tendons, fat, blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves, and tissue around joints. Soft tissue sarcoma occurs in children and adults. Soft ... disorders can increase the risk of childhood soft tissue sarcoma. Anything ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forms in soft tissues of the body, including muscle, tendons, fat, blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves, and tissue around joints. Soft tissue sarcoma occurs in children and adults. Soft ... disorders can increase the risk of childhood soft tissue sarcoma. Anything ...

  15. Constraint Optimization Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    COPs. 15. SUBJECT TERMS high-performance computing, mobile ad hoc network, optimization, constraint, satisfaction 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...France): INRA Editions; 1996. p. 111–150. Black PE. Branch-and-bound. US national institute of standards and technology dictionary of algorithms

  16. A Statistical Approach to Performance Monitoring in Soft Real-Time Distributed Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bickson, Danny; Hoch, Ezra N; Shagin, Konstantin

    2009-01-01

    Soft real-time applications require timely delivery of messages conforming to the soft real-time constraints. Satisfying such requirements is a complex task both due to the volatile nature of distributed environments, as well as due to numerous domain-specific factors that affect message latency. Prompt detection of the root-cause of excessive message delay allows a distributed system to react accordingly. This may significantly improve compliance with the required timeliness constraints. In this work, we present a novel approach for distributed performance monitoring of soft-real time distributed systems. We propose to employ recent distributed algorithms from the statistical signal processing and learning domains, and to utilize them in a different context of online performance monitoring and root-cause analysis, for pinpointing the reasons for violation of performance requirements. Our approach is general and can be used for monitoring of any distributed system, and is not limited to the soft real-time dom...

  17. Effective Field Theories from Soft Limits of Scattering Amplitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Clifford; Kampf, Karol; Novotny, Jiri; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2015-06-05

    We derive scalar effective field theories-Lagrangians, symmetries, and all-from on-shell scattering amplitudes constructed purely from Lorentz invariance, factorization, a fixed power counting order in derivatives, and a fixed order at which amplitudes vanish in the soft limit. These constraints leave free parameters in the amplitude which are the coupling constants of well-known theories: Nambu-Goldstone bosons, Dirac-Born-Infeld scalars, and Galilean internal shift symmetries. Moreover, soft limits imply conditions on the Noether current which can then be inverted to derive Lagrangians for each theory. We propose a natural classification of all scalar effective field theories according to two numbers which encode the derivative power counting and soft behavior of the corresponding amplitudes. In those cases where there is no consistent amplitude, the corresponding theory does not exist.

  18. Soft-Collinear Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Timothy; Larkoski, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) is a framework for modeling the infrared structure of theories whose long distance behavior is dominated by soft and collinear divergences. This paper demonstrates that SCET can be made compatible with supersymmetry (SUSY). Explicitly, the effective theory for $\\mathcal{N} = 1$ SUSY Yang-Mills is constructed and shown to be consistent. For contrast, arguments are given that chiral SUSY theories with Yukawa couplings, specifically the single flavor Wess-Zumino model, are incompatible with the collinear expansion. SCET is formulated by expanding fields along a light-like direction and then subsequently integrating out degrees-of-freedom that are away from the light-cone. Defining the theory with respect to a specific frame obfuscates Lorentz invariance -- given that SUSY is a space-time symmetry, this presents a possible obstruction. The cleanest language with which to expose the congruence between SUSY and SCET requires exploring two novel formalisms: collinear fermions a...

  19. Biological Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  20. Genital soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolmeester, John K; Fritchie, Karen J

    2015-07-01

    Mesenchymal neoplasms of the vulvovaginal and inguinoscrotal regions are among the most diagnostically challenging specimens in the pathology laboratory owing largely to their unique intersection between general soft tissue tumors and relatively genital-specific mesenchymal tumors. Genital stromal tumors are a unique subset of soft tissue tumors encountered at this location, and this group includes fibroepithelial stromal polyp, superficial (cervicovaginal) myofibroblastoma, cellular angiofibroma, mammary-type myofibroblastoma, angiomyofibroblastoma and aggressive angiomyxoma. Aside from the striking morphologic and immunophenotypic similarity that is seen with these entities, there is evidence that a subset of genital stromal tumors may be linked genetically. This review will focus on simplifying this group of tumors and provide the pathologist or dermatopathologist with practical management information. Smooth muscle tumors of the external genitalia will also be discussed.

  1. Hypoelastic Soft Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Alan D.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Sacks, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    In Part I, a novel hypoelastic framework for soft-tissues was presented. One of the hallmarks of this new theory is that the well-known exponential behavior of soft-tissues arises consistently and spontaneously from the integration of a rate based formulation. In Part II, we examine the application of this framework to the problem of biaxial kinematics, which are common in experimental soft-tissue characterization. We confine our attention to an isotropic formulation in order to highlight the distinction between non-linearity and anisotropy. In order to provide a sound foundation for the membrane extension of our earlier hypoelastic framework, the kinematics and kinetics of in-plane biaxial extension are revisited, and some enhancements are provided. Specifically, the conventional stress-to-traction mapping for this boundary value problem is shown to violate the conservation of angular momentum. In response, we provide a corrected mapping. In addition, a novel means for applying loads to in-plane biaxial experiments is proposed. An isotropic, isochoric, hypoelastic, constitutive model is applied to an in-plane biaxial experiment done on glutaraldehyde treated bovine pericardium. The experiment is comprised of eight protocols that radially probe the biaxial plane. Considering its simplicity (two adjustable parameters) the model does a reasonably good job of describing the non-linear normal responses observed in these experimental data, which are more prevalent than are the anisotropic responses exhibited by this tissue. PMID:21394222

  2. Some Results on Fuzzy Soft Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Gunduz (Aras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce some important properties of fuzzy soft topological spaces. Furthermore, fuzzy soft continuous mapping, fuzzy soft open and fuzzy soft closed mappings, and fuzzy soft homeomorphism for fuzzy soft topological spaces are given and structural characteristics are discussed and studied.

  3. Optimal reliability allocation for large software projects through soft computing techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Albeanu, Grigore; Albu, Razvan-Daniel

    2012-01-01

    or maximizing the system reliability subject to budget constraints. These kinds of optimization problems were considered both in deterministic and stochastic frameworks in literature. Recently, the intuitionistic-fuzzy optimization approach was considered as a soft computing successful modelling approach....... Firstly, a review on existing soft computing approaches to optimization is given. The main section extends the results considering self-organizing migrating algorithms for solving intuitionistic-fuzzy optimization problems attached to complex fault-tolerant software architectures which proved...

  4. A constraint algorithm for singular Lagrangians subjected to nonholonomic constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Leon, M. [Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); de Diego, D.M. [Departamento de Economia Aplicada Cuantitativa, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, UNED, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    1997-06-01

    We construct a constraint algorithm for singular Lagrangian systems subjected to nonholonomic constraints which generalizes that of Dirac for constrained Hamiltonian systems. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Dynamical Constraints on Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Horner, Jonti; Tinney, Chris; Hinse, Tobias C; Marshall, Jonathan P

    2013-01-01

    Dynamical studies of new exoplanet systems are a critical component of the discovery and characterisation process. Such studies can provide firmer constraints on the parameters of the newly discovered planets, and may even reveal that the proposed planets do not stand up to dynamical scrutiny. Here, we demonstrate how dynamical studies can assist the characterisation of such systems through two examples: QS Virginis and HD 73526.

  6. (non) Emergent Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. S.; Hattab, M. W.; Huerta, G.

    2014-12-01

    Emergent constraints are observable quantities that provide some physical basis for testing or predicting how a climate model will respond to greenhouse gas forcing. Very few such constraints have been identified for the multi-model CMIP archive. Here we explore the question of whether constraints that apply to a single model, a perturbed parameter ensemble (PPE) of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3.1), can be applied to predicting the climate sensitivities of models within the CMIP archive. In particular we construct our predictive patterns from multivariate EOFs of the CAM3.1 ensemble control climate. Multiple regressive statistical models were created that do an excellent job of predicting CAM3.1 sensitivity to greenhouse gas forcing. However, these same patterns fail spectacularly to predict sensitivities of models within the CMIP archive. We attribute this failure to several factors. First, and perhaps the most important, is that the structures affecting climate sensitivity in CAM3.1 have a unique signature in the space of our multivariate EOF patterns that are unlike any other climate model. That is to say, we should not expect CAM3.1 to represent the way another models within CMIP archive respond to greenhouse gas forcing. The second, perhaps related, reason is that the CAM3.1 PPE does a poor job of spanning the range of climates and responses found within the CMIP archive. We shall discuss the implications of these results for the prospect of finding emergent constraints within the CMIP archive. We will also discuss what this may mean for establishing uncertainties in climate projections.

  7. The NCL natural constraint language

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jianyang

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the Natural Constraint Language (NCL) language, a description language in conventional mathematical logic for modeling and solving constraint satisfaction problems. It uses illustrations and tutorials to detail NCL and its applications.

  8. Constraints on Relaxion Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Kiwoon

    2016-01-01

    We examine low energy phenomenology of the relaxion solution to the weak scale hierarchy problem. Assuming that the Hubble friction is responsible for the dissipation of relaxion energy, we identify the cosmological relaxion window which corresponds to the parameter region compatible with a given value of the acceptable number of inflationary $e$-foldings. We then discuss a variety of observational constraints on the relaxion window, while focusing on the case that the barrier potential to stabilize the relaxion is induced by new physics, rather than by low energy QCD dynamics. We find that majority of the parameter space with a relaxion mass $m_\\phi\\gtrsim 100$ eV or a relaxion decay constant $f\\lesssim 10^7$ GeV is excluded by existing constraints. There is an interesting small parameter region with $m_\\phi\\sim \\,0.2-1$ GeV and $f\\sim\\, {\\rm few}-10$ TeV, which is allowed by existing constraints, but can be probed soon by future beam dump experiment such as the SHiP experiment, or by improved EDM experiment...

  9. Killing the CMSSM softly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtle, Philip; Desch, Klaus; Sarrazin, Bjoern; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Wienemann, Peter [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bonn (Germany); Dreiner, Herbert K. [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bonn (Germany); Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Bonn (Germany); Hamer, Matthias [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Kraemer, Michael [Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology, RWTH Aachen (Germany); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University (United States); O' Leary, Ben; Porod, Werner [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Stefaniak, Tim [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Because of its simplicity the CMSSM is one of the best studied and most popular supersymmetric models. The non-observation of convincing hints of new physics at the LHC, however, becomes challenging for this model once constraints from low energy observables are taken into account. While this is well known, it has so far been an open question what that means quantitatively for the validity of the model. We present the first systematic investigation of this question, using global toy fits to calculate p-values for the CMSSM. We combine constraints from low-energy and astrophysical observables, Higgs boson mass and rate measurements as well as the non-observation of new physics in searches for supersymmetry at the LHC. Using the framework Fittino, we perform global fits of the CMSSM to the toy data.

  10. Parallel Handling of Integrity Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Flokstra, Jan; Apers, Peter M.G.

    1990-01-01

    Integrity constraints form an important part of a data model. Therefore, a complete integrity constraint handling subsystem is considered an important part of any modern DBMS. In implementing an integrity constraint handling subsystem, there are two major problem areas: providing enough functionalit

  11. How Soft Power Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-03

    China Security, Vol. 5, No. 2 (2009), p. 37; Maiko Ichihara, “Making the Case for Soft Power,” SAIS Review, Vol. 26, 4 |Vuving H o w s o f t p o w...behavior signals that you are putting other people‟s interests before your own. The opposite of benignity is harmfulness, aggressiveness, and egoism ...by “beauty” (the resonance of shared norms and purposes). In some cases , it is the benignity of actual nonintervention and political support from

  12. Soft, Embodied, Situated & Connected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    capabilities and meanings of the body; as well as the qualities and capabilities afforded by smart and programmable elements. Textiles behave in particular ways. They are part of culture. No matter a person’s views on fashion or dress, they will have an intimate relationship with textiles, as they are one...... with perhaps diverse and idiosyncratic movement capabilities; openness to a diversity of meanings that may be generated; and consideration of wearers’ intimate relations with technology. In this paper we discuss the opportunities and challenges of designing and using soft wearables, applying notions...

  13. Fundamentals of soft robot locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisti, M; Picardi, G; Laschi, C

    2017-05-01

    Soft robotics and its related technologies enable robot abilities in several robotics domains including, but not exclusively related to, manipulation, manufacturing, human-robot interaction and locomotion. Although field applications have emerged for soft manipulation and human-robot interaction, mobile soft robots appear to remain in the research stage, involving the somehow conflictual goals of having a deformable body and exerting forces on the environment to achieve locomotion. This paper aims to provide a reference guide for researchers approaching mobile soft robotics, to describe the underlying principles of soft robot locomotion with its pros and cons, and to envisage applications and further developments for mobile soft robotics. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Soft skills and dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, M A G; Abu Kasim, N H; Naimie, Z

    2013-05-01

    Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discusses the different soft skills, how they are taught and assessed and the issues that need to be addressed in their teaching and assessment. The use of the module by the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya for development of soft skills for institutions of higher learning introduced by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia.

  15. Self Assembly in Soft Matter

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The term “soft matter” applies to a variety of physical systems, such as liquids, colloids, polymers, foams, gels, and granular materials. The most fascinating aspect of soft matter lies in the fact that they are not atomic or molecular in nature. They are instead macromolecular aggregates, whose spatial extent lies in the domain 1 nm to 1 micron. Some of the most important examples of soft matter are polymers, which exhibit intriguing and useful physical properties. In this...

  16. Generalized Soft Breaking Leverage for the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Ün, Cem Salih; Kerman, Saime; Solmaz, Levent

    2014-01-01

    In this work we study implications of additional non-holomorphic soft breaking terms (mu', A'_t, A'_b and A'_tau$) on the MSSM phenomenology. By respecting the existing bounds on the mass measurements and restrictions coming from certain B-decays, we probe reactions of the MSSM to these additional soft breaking terms. We provide examples in which some slightly excluded solutions of the MSSM can be made to be consistent with the current experimental results. During this, even after applying additional fine-tuning constraints the non-holomorphic terms are allowed to be as large as hundreds of GeV. Such terms prove that they are capable of enriching the phenomenology and varying the mass spectra of the MSSM heavily, with a reasonable amount of fine-tuning. We observe that higgsinos, the lightest stop, the heavy Higgs boson states A, H, charged H, sbottom and stau exhibit the highest sensitivity to the new terms. We also show how the light stop can become nearly degenerate with top quark using these non-holomorph...

  17. Modeling Soft Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kurt

    Soft matter science or soft materials science is a relatively new term for the science of a huge class of rather different materials such as colloids, polymers (of synthetic or biological origin), membranes, complex molecular assemblies, complex fluids, etc. and combinations thereof. While many of these systems are contained in or are even the essential part of everyday products ("simple" plastics such as yoghurt cups, plastic bags, CDs, many car parts; gels and networks such as rubber, many low fat foods, "gummi" bears; colloidal systems such as milk, mayonnaise, paints, almost all cosmetics or body care products, the border lines between the different applications and systems are of course not sharp) or as biological molecules or assemblies (DNA, proteins, membranes and cytoskeleton, etc.) are central to our existence, others are basic ingredients of current and future high tech products (polymers with specific optical or electronic properties, conducting macromolecules, functional materials). Though the motivation is different in life science rather than in materials science biomolecular simulations, the basic structure of the problems faced in the two fields is very similar.

  18. Deployable Soft Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel.

  19. Deployable Soft Composite Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-02-19

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel.

  20. Critical issues in soft rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Milton Assis Kanji

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses several efforts made to study and investigate soft rocks, as well as their physico-mechanical characteristics recognized up to now, the problems in their sampling and testing, and the possibility of its reproduction through artificially made soft rocks. The problems in utilizing current and widespread classification systems to some types of weak rocks are also discussed, as well as other problems related to them. Some examples of engineering works in soft rock or in soft ground are added, with emphasis on their types of problems and solutions.

  1. Lossless Convexification of Control Constraints for a Class of Nonlinear Optimal Control Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Lars; Acikmese, Behcet; Carson, John M.,III

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we consider a class of optimal control problems that have continuous-time nonlinear dynamics and nonconvex control constraints. We propose a convex relaxation of the nonconvex control constraints, and prove that the optimal solution to the relaxed problem is the globally optimal solution to the original problem with nonconvex control constraints. This lossless convexification enables a computationally simpler problem to be solved instead of the original problem. We demonstrate the approach in simulation with a planetary soft landing problem involving a nonlinear gravity field.

  2. Asteroseismic constraints for Gaia

    CERN Document Server

    Creevey, O L

    2012-01-01

    Distances from the Gaia mission will no doubt improve our understanding of stellar physics by providing an excellent constraint on the luminosity of the star. However, it is also clear that high precision stellar properties from, for example, asteroseismology, will also provide a needed input constraint in order to calibrate the methods that Gaia will use, e.g. stellar models or GSP_phot. For solar-like stars (F, G, K IV/V), asteroseismic data delivers at the least two very important quantities: (1) the average large frequency separation and (2) the frequency corresponding to the maximum of the modulated-amplitude spectrum nu_max. Both of these quantities are related directly to stellar parameters (radius and mass) and in particular their combination (gravity and density). We show how the precision in , nu_max, and atmospheric parameters T_eff and [Fe/H] affect the determination of gravity (log g) for a sample of well-known stars. We find that log g can be determined within less than 0.02 dex accuracy for ou...

  3. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  4. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Claudine

    1999-01-01

    What do colloids, fractals, liquid crystals, and polymers have in common? Nothing at first sight. Yet the distance scales, the energy transfers, the way these objects react to an external field are very similar. For the first time, this book offers an introduction to the physics of these soft materials in one single volume. A variety of experiments and concepts are presented, including the phenomena of capillarity and wetting, fractals, small volumes and large surfaces, colloids, surfactants, giant micelles and fluid membranes, polymers, and liquid crystals. Each chapter is written by experts in the field with the aim of making the book accessible to the widest possible scientific audience: graduate students, lecturers, and research scientists in physics, chemistry, and other disciplines. Nobel Prize winner Pierre-Gilles de Gennes inspired this book and has written a foreword.

  5. Soft Systems Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkland, Peter; Poulter, John

    Soft systems methodology (SSM) is an approach for tackling problematical, messy situations of all kinds. It is an action-oriented process of inquiry into problematic situations in which users learn their way from finding out about the situation, to taking action to improve it. The learning emerges via an organised process in which the situation is explored using a set of models of purposeful action (each built to encapsulate a single worldview) as intellectual devices, or tools, to inform and structure discussion about a situation and how it might be improved. This paper, written by the original developer Peter Checkland and practitioner John Poulter, gives a clear and concise account of the approach that covers SSM's specific techniques, the learning cycle process of the methodology and the craft skills which practitioners develop. This concise but theoretically robust account nevertheless includes the fundamental concepts, techniques, core tenets described through a wide range of settings.

  6. Soft tissue lipoleiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurry, J P; Carey, M P; Targett, C S; Dowling, J P

    1991-10-01

    A primary tumor composed of mature adipose tissue and smooth muscle occurring in the anterior abdominal wall of a 46 yr old Filipino woman is described. The tumor was not attached to the uterus, but had an appearance similar to a uterine lipoleiomyoma. It appeared as a soft, rubbery, encapsulated 11 cm ovoid mass with a uniform, white cut surface. Histologically, there were long intersecting bundles of bland smooth muscle mixed with nests of mature fat cells. The presence of differentiated smooth muscle was confirmed by fuchsinophilia, desmin positivity and electron microscopy. The patient also had 6 intramural leiomyomas, an area of adenomyosis, a subcutaneous lipoma of the subscapular region and chronic schistosomiasis of the appendix and left adnexa.

  7. Myoepithelioma of soft tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai Mukhta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Myoepitheliomas and mixed tumors involving deep subcutaneous and subfascial soft tissues of limb or limb girdle are rare lesions as against salivary lesions that are well established conditions. Here, we report a 22-year-old female who presented with painful hard swelling in the left gluteal region of 1½ year duration. MRI showed a large ill-defined heterogeneous mass lesion measuring about 7-8 cm. in the left sacral region eroding the left sacroiliac region and left sacroiliac joint. With a clinical diagnosis of chondrosarcoma, the tumor with the surrounding tissue was resected in segments at surgery. Histomorphology revealed nests, sheets and cords of round to spindled cells with extensive squamous metaplasia in a myxoid to fibrous stroma. These cells extensively infiltrated muscle and bone. The tumor cells expressed immunoreactivity for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3 and S-100.

  8. Electrostatic interaction of soft particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    Theories of the electrostatic interaction between two soft particles (i.e., particles covered with an ion-penetrable surface layer of polyelectrolytes) in an electrolyte solution are reviewed. Interactions of soft particles after contact of their surface layers are particularly discussed. Interaction in a salt-free medium and the discrete-charge effect are also treated.

  9. Fuzzy Soft Compact Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied compactness in fuzzy soft topological spaces which is a generalization of the corresponding concept by R. Lowen in the case of fuzzy topological spaces. Several basic desirable results have been established. In particular, we have proved the counterparts of Alexander’s subbase lemma and Tychonoff theorem for fuzzy soft topological spaces.

  10. BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF SOFT DRINKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, William Royal

    1920-01-01

    Prohibition has boomed soft drinks so that more than ever there is need of rigid inspection. Dr. Stokes finds beverages with five-figure counts and empty “sterile” bottles always with some bacteria, sometimes with millions. This paper should attract the attention of health officers to their soft drink problems. PMID:18010284

  11. Soft-collinear supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Timothy; Elor, Gilly; Larkoski, Andrew J.

    2017-03-01

    Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) is a framework for modeling the infrared structure of theories whose long distance behavior is dominated by soft and collinear divergences. This paper demonstrates that SCET can be made compatible with super-symmetry (SUSY). Explicitly, the effective Lagrangian for N=1 SUSY Yang-Mills is cconstructed and shown to be a complete description for the infrared of this model. For contrast, we also construct the effective Lagrangian for chiral SUSY theories with Yukawa couplings, specifically the single flavor Wess-Zumino model. Only a subset of the infrared divergences are reproduced by the Lagrangian — to account for the complete low energy description requires the inclusion of local operators. SCET is formulated by expanding fields along a light-like direction and then subsequently integrating out degrees-of-freedom that are away from the light-cone. Defining the theory with respect to a specific frame obfuscates Lorentz invariance — given that SUSY is a space-time symmetry, this presents a possible obstruction. The cleanest language with which to expose the congruence be-tween SUSY and SCET requires exploring two novel formalisms: collinear fermions as two-component Weyl spinors, and SCET in light-cone gauge. By expressing SUSY Yang-Mills in "collinear superspace", a slice of superspace derived by integrating out half the fermionic coordinates, the light-cone gauge SUSY SCET theory can be written in terms of superfields. As a byproduct, bootstrapping up to the full theory yields the first algorithmic approach for determining the SUSY Yang-Mills on-shell superspace action. This work paves the way toward discovering the effective theory for the collinear limit of N=4 SUSY Yang-Mills.

  12. Soft rocks in Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giambastiani; Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Soft rocks are a still fairly unexplored chapter in rock mechanics. Within this category are the clastic sedimentary rocks and pyroclastic volcanic rocks, of low to moderate lithification (consolidation, cemen-tation, new formed minerals), chemical sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks formed by minerals with Mohs hardness less than 3.5, such as limestone, gypsum, halite, sylvite, between the first and phyllites, graphitic schist, chloritic shale, talc, etc., among the latter. They also include any type of rock that suffered alteration processes (hydrothermal or weathering). In Argentina the study of low-strength rocks has not received much attention despite having extensive outcrops in the Andes and great impact in the design criteria. Correlation between geomechanical properties (UCS, deformability) to physical index (porosity, density, etc.) has shown promising results to be better studied. There are many studies and engineering projects in Argentina in soft rock geological environments, some cited in the text (Chihuído dam, N. Kirchner dam, J. Cepernic Dam, etc.) and others such as International Tunnel in the Province of Mendoza (Corredor Bioceánico), which will require the valuable contribution from rock mechanics. The lack of consistency between some of the physical and mechanical parameters explored from studies in the country may be due to an insufficient amount of information and/or non-standardization of criteria for testing materials. It is understood that more and better academic and professional efforts in improv-ing techniques will result in benefits to the better understanding of the geomechanics of weak rocks.

  13. Wind turbine control with constraint handling: a model predictive control approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a wind turbine controller able to handle both hard and soft constraints, typically on actuators but also on other components of the wind turbine, if needed. An issue especially relevant during extreme events or for under-dimensioned actuators. The presented controller is based...

  14. Dense baryonic matter: constraints from recent neutron star observations

    CERN Document Server

    Hell, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Updated constraints from neutron star masses and radii impose stronger restrictions on the equation of state for baryonic matter at high densities and low temperatures. The existence of two-solar-mass neutron stars rules out many soft equations of state with prominent "exotic" compositions. The present work reviews the conditions required for the pressure as a function of baryon density in order to satisfy these new constraints. Several scenarios for sufficiently stiff equations of state are evaluated. The common starting point is a realistic description of both nuclear and neutron matter based on a chiral effective field theory approach to the nuclear many-body problem. Possible forms of hybrid matter featuring a quark core in the center of the star are discussed using a three-flavor Polyakov--Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model. It is found that a conventional equation of state based on nuclear chiral dynamics meets the astrophysical constraints. Hybrid matter generally turns out to be too soft unless addition...

  15. Rewriting Constraint Models with Metamodels

    CERN Document Server

    Chenouard, Raphael; Soto, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    An important challenge in constraint programming is to rewrite constraint models into executable programs calculat- ing the solutions. This phase of constraint processing may require translations between constraint programming lan- guages, transformations of constraint representations, model optimizations, and tuning of solving strategies. In this paper, we introduce a pivot metamodel describing the common fea- tures of constraint models including different kinds of con- straints, statements like conditionals and loops, and other first-class elements like object classes and predicates. This metamodel is general enough to cope with the constructions of many languages, from object-oriented modeling languages to logic languages, but it is independent from them. The rewriting operations manipulate metamodel instances apart from languages. As a consequence, the rewriting operations apply whatever languages are selected and they are able to manage model semantic information. A bridge is created between the metamode...

  16. Constraint Propagation as Information Maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, A Nait

    2012-01-01

    Dana Scott used the partial order among partial functions for his mathematical model of recursively defined functions. He interpreted the partial order as one of information content. In this paper we elaborate on Scott's suggestion of regarding computation as a process of information maximization by applying it to the solution of constraint satisfaction problems. Here the method of constraint propagation can be interpreted as decreasing uncertainty about the solution -- that is, as gain in information about the solution. As illustrative example we choose numerical constraint satisfaction problems to be solved by interval constraints. To facilitate this approach to constraint solving we formulate constraint satisfaction problems as formulas in predicate logic. This necessitates extending the usual semantics for predicate logic so that meaning is assigned not only to sentences but also to formulas with free variables.

  17. Efficient Searching with Linear Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    We show how to preprocess a set S of points in d into an external memory data structure that efficiently supports linear-constraint queries. Each query is in the form of a linear constraint xd a0+∑d−1i=1 aixi; the data structure must report all the points of S that satisfy the constraint. This pr......We show how to preprocess a set S of points in d into an external memory data structure that efficiently supports linear-constraint queries. Each query is in the form of a linear constraint xd a0+∑d−1i=1 aixi; the data structure must report all the points of S that satisfy the constraint...

  18. Radiation Therapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treating Soft Tissue Sarcomas Radiation Therapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas Radiation therapy uses ... spread. This is called palliative treatment . Types of radiation therapy External beam radiation therapy: For this treatment, ...

  19. Constraints On Cosmic Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mbonye, M R

    2003-01-01

    Observationally, the universe appears virtually critical. Yet, there is no simple explanation for this state. In this article we advance and explore the premise that the dynamics of the universe always seeks equilibrium conditions. Vacuum-induced cosmic accelerations lead to creation of matter-energy modes at the expense of vacuum energy. Because they gravitate, such modes constitute inertia against cosmic acceleration. On the other extreme, the would-be ultimate phase of local gravitational collapse is checked by a phase transition in the collapsing matter fields leading to a de Sitter-like fluid deep inside the black hole horizon, and at the expense of the collapsing matter fields. As a result, the universe succumbs to neither vacuum-induced run-away accelerations nor to gravitationally induced spacetime curvature singularities. Cosmic dynamics is self-regulating. We discuss the physical basis for these constraints and the implications, pointing out how the framework relates and helps resolve standing puzzl...

  20. Constraints on Spontaneous Entrainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Michael J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Past research has revealed that a person's rhythmic limb movements become spontaneously entrained to an environmental rhythm if a. visual information about the environmental rhythm is available and b. its frequency of the environmental rhythm is near that of the person's movements. Further, this research has demonstrated that if the eyes track the environmental stimulus, the spontaneous entrainment to the environmental rhythm is strengthened. Experiments were performed to investigate two hypotheses that could explain this eye-tracking enhancement of spontaneous entrainment. One hypothesis is that eye tracking allows for the pick up of important coordinative information at the turn-around points of a movement trajectory. Another hypothesis is that the limb movements entrain to the moving eyes through a neuromotor synergy linking the eyes and limb. Results of these experiments will help delineate the informational and dynamical constraints that can impact the acquisition of skilled actions.

  1. Constraint-Based Categorial Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Bouma, G; Bouma, Gosse; Noord, Gertjan van

    1994-01-01

    We propose a generalization of Categorial Grammar in which lexical categories are defined by means of recursive constraints. In particular, the introduction of relational constraints allows one to capture the effects of (recursive) lexical rules in a computationally attractive manner. We illustrate the linguistic merits of the new approach by showing how it accounts for the syntax of Dutch cross-serial dependencies and the position and scope of adjuncts in such constructions. Delayed evaluation is used to process grammars containing recursive constraints.

  2. Generalised Interval-Valued Fuzzy Soft Set

    OpenAIRE

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh; Abdul Razak Salleh

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the concept of generalised interval-valued fuzzy soft set and its operations and study some of their properties. We give applications of this theory in solving a decision making problem. We also introduce a similarity measure of two generalised interval-valued fuzzy soft sets and discuss its application in a medical diagnosis problem: fuzzy set; soft set; fuzzy soft set; generalised fuzzy soft set; generalised interval-valued fuzzy soft set; interval-valued fuzz...

  3. Soft Decision Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Glen; Lansdowne, Chatwin; Zucha, Joan; Schlensinger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) is an instrument that combines hardware, firmware, and software to perform realtime closed-loop end-to-end statistical analysis of single- or dual- channel serial digital RF communications systems operating in very low signal-to-noise conditions. As an innovation, the unique SDA capabilities allow it to perform analysis of situations where the receiving communication system slips bits due to low signal-to-noise conditions or experiences constellation rotations resulting in channel polarity in versions or channel assignment swaps. SDA s closed-loop detection allows it to instrument a live system and correlate observations with frame, codeword, and packet losses, as well as Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) events. The SDA s abilities are not confined to performing analysis in low signal-to-noise conditions. Its analysis provides in-depth insight of a communication system s receiver performance in a variety of operating conditions. The SDA incorporates two techniques for identifying slips. The first is an examination of content of the received data stream s relation to the transmitted data content and the second is a direct examination of the receiver s recovered clock signals relative to a reference. Both techniques provide benefits in different ways and allow the communication engineer evaluating test results increased confidence and understanding of receiver performance. Direct examination of data contents is performed by two different data techniques, power correlation or a modified Massey correlation, and can be applied to soft decision data widths 1 to 12 bits wide over a correlation depth ranging from 16 to 512 samples. The SDA detects receiver bit slips within a 4 bits window and can handle systems with up to four quadrants (QPSK, SQPSK, and BPSK systems). The SDA continuously monitors correlation results to characterize slips and quadrant change and is capable of performing analysis even when the

  4. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  5. Soft Hair on Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  6. Advances in Soft Matter Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shaofan

    2012-01-01

    "Advances in Soft Matter Mechanics" is a compilation and selection of recent works in soft matter mechanics by a group of active researchers in the field. The main objectives of this book are first to disseminate the latest developments in soft matter mechanics in the field of applied and computational mechanics, and second to introduce soft matter mechanics as a sub-discipline of soft matter physics. As an important branch of soft matter physics, soft matter mechanics has developed rapidly in recent years. A number of the novel approaches discussed in this book are unique, such as the coarse grained finite element method for modeling colloidal adhesion, entropic elasticity, meshfree simulations of liquid crystal elastomers, simulations of DNA, etc. The book is intended for researchers and graduate students in the field of mechanics, condensed matter physics and biomaterials. Dr. Shaofan Li is a professor of the University of California-Berkeley, U.S.A; Dr. Bohua Sun is a professor of Cape Peninsula Universit...

  7. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen W; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been shown that BMS supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft ($i.e.$ zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This paper gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the ho...

  8. Constraints Adjustment and Objectives Coordination of Satisfying Optimal Control Applied to Heavy Oil Fractionators%约束优化控制的约束调整与目标协调及在重油分离器过程中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹涛; 李少远

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility and objectives coordination of real-time optimization (RTO) are systemically investigated under soft constraints. The reason for requiring soft constraints adjustment and objective relaxation simultaneously is that the result is not satisfactory when the feasible region is apart from the desired working point or the optimization problem is infeasible. The mixed logic method is introduced to describe the priority of the constraints and objectives, thereby the soft constraints adjustment and objectives coordination are solved together in RTO. A case study on the Shell heavy oil fractionators benchmark problem illustrating the method is finally presented.

  9. Frictional Compliant Haptic Contact and Deformation of Soft Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naci Zafer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with compliant haptic contact and deformation of soft objects. A human soft fingertip model is considered to act as the haptic interface and is brought into contact with and deforms a discrete surface. A nonlinear constitutive law is developed in predicting normal forces and, for the haptic display of surface texture, motions along the surface are also resisted at various rates by accounting for dynamic Lund-Grenoble (LuGre frictional forces. For the soft fingertip to apply forces over an area larger than a point, normal and frictional forces are distributed around the soft fingertip contact location on the deforming surface. The distribution is realized based on a kernel smoothing function and by a nonlinear spring-damper net around the contact point. Experiments conducted demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of our approach in real-time haptic rendering of a kidney surface. The resistive (interaction forces are applied at the user fingertip bone edge. A 3-DoF parallel robotic manipulator equipped with a constraint based controller is used for the implementation. By rendering forces both in lateral and normal directions, the designed haptic interface system allows the user to realistically feel both the geometrical and mechanical (nonlinear properties of the deforming kidney.

  10. Water demand forecasting: review of soft computing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalehkhondabi, Iman; Ardjmand, Ehsan; Young, William A; Weckman, Gary R

    2017-07-01

    Demand forecasting plays a vital role in resource management for governments and private companies. Considering the scarcity of water and its inherent constraints, demand management and forecasting in this domain are critically important. Several soft computing techniques have been developed over the last few decades for water demand forecasting. This study focuses on soft computing methods of water consumption forecasting published between 2005 and 2015. These methods include artificial neural networks (ANNs), fuzzy and neuro-fuzzy models, support vector machines, metaheuristics, and system dynamics. Furthermore, it was discussed that while in short-term forecasting, ANNs have been superior in many cases, but it is still very difficult to pick a single method as the overall best. According to the literature, various methods and their hybrids are applied to water demand forecasting. However, it seems soft computing has a lot more to contribute to water demand forecasting. These contribution areas include, but are not limited, to various ANN architectures, unsupervised methods, deep learning, various metaheuristics, and ensemble methods. Moreover, it is found that soft computing methods are mainly used for short-term demand forecasting.

  11. Frictional Compliant Haptic Contact and Deformation of Soft Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naci Zafer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with compliant haptic contact and deformation of soft objects. A human soft fingertip model is considered to act as the haptic interface and is brought into contact with and deforms a discrete surface. A nonlinear constitutive law is developed in predicting normal forces and, for the haptic display of surface texture, motions along the surface are also resisted at various rates by accounting for dynamic Lund-Grenoble (LuGre frictional forces. For the soft fingertip to apply forces over an area larger than a point, normal and frictional forces are distributed around the soft fingertip contact location on the deforming surface. The distribution is realized based on a kernel smoothing function and by a nonlinear spring-damper net around the contact point. Experiments conducted demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of our approach in real-time haptic rendering of a kidney surface. The resistive (interaction forces are applied at the user fingertip bone edge. A 3-DoF parallel robotic manipulator equipped with a constraint based controller is used for the implementation. By rendering forces both in lateral and normal directions, the designed haptic interface system allows the user to realistically feel both the geometrical and mechanical (nonlinear properties of the deforming kidney.

  12. Position and locality constrained soft coding for human action recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Liu, Yu; Xiao, Wenhua; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Maojun

    2013-10-01

    Although the traditional bag-of-words model has shown promising results for human action recognition, in the feature coding phase, the ambiguous features from different body parts are still difficult to distinguish. Furthermore, it also suffers from serious representation error. We propose an innovative coding strategy called position and locality constrained soft coding (PLSC) to overcome these limitations. PLSC uses the feature position in a human oriented region of interest (ROI) to distinguish the ambiguous features. We first construct a subdictionary for each feature by selecting the bases from their spatial neighbor in human ROI. Then, a modified soft coding with locality constraint is adopted to alleviate the quantization error and preserve the manifold structure of features. This novel coding algorithm increases both the representation accuracy and discriminative power with low computational cost. The human action recognition experimental results on KTH, Weizmann, and UCF sports datasets show that PLSC can achieve a better performance than previous competing feature coding methods.

  13. Soft tissue angiosarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, P.H.; Lindberg, R.D.; Barkley, H.T.

    1981-12-01

    From 1949 to 1979, 12 patients with soft tissue angiosarcoma received radiotherapy (alone or in combination with other modalities of treatment) with curative intent at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute. The primary site was the head and neck in six patients (scalp, four; maxillary antrum, one; and oral tongue, one), the breast in four patients, and the thigh in two patients. All four patients with angiosarcoma of the scalp had advanced multifocal tumors, and two of them had clinically positive neck nodes. None of these tumors were controlled locally, and local recurrences occurred within and/or at a distance from the generous fields of irradiation. The remaining two patients with head and neck lesions had their disease controlled by surgery and postoperative irradiation. Three of the four angiosarcomas of the breast were primary cases which were treated by a combination of surgery (excisional biopsy, simple mastectomy, radical mastectomy) and postoperative irradiation. One patient also received adjuvant chemotherapy. The fourth patient was treated for scar recurrence after radical mastectomy. All four patients had their disease locally controlled, and two of them have survived over 5 years. The two patients with angiosarcoma of the thigh were treated by conservative surgical excision and postoperative irradiation. One patient had her disease controlled; the other had a local recurrence requiring hip disarticulation and subsequent hemipelvectomy for salvage.

  14. Soft magnetic wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M.

    2001-06-01

    An overview of the present state of the art on the preparation techniques, outstanding magnetic properties and applications of soft magnetic micro and nanowires is presented. Rapid solidification techniques (in-rotating-water quenching and drawing methods) to fabricate amorphous microwires with diameter in the range from 100 down to 1 μm are first described. Electrodeposition is also employed to prepare composite microtubes (magnetic coatings) and to fill porous membranes (diameter of the order of 0.1 μm). Magnetic behaviours of interest are related to the different hysteresis loops of samples: square-shaped loops typical of bistable behaviour, and nearly non-hysteretic loop with well-defined transverse anisotropy field. The role played by magnetic dipolar interactions in the magnetic behaviour of arrays of micro and nanowires is described. A particular analysis is done on the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect in the radio and microwave frequency ranges exhibited by ultrasoft microwires. Finally, a few examples of applications are introduced for magnetostrictive and non-magnetostrictive wires, they are: “magnetoelastic pens”, micromotors; DC current-sensors based on GMI, and sharpened amorphous wire tips in spin polarised scanning tunneling microscopy.

  15. Seismological Constraints on Geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, C.

    2004-12-01

    Earth is an open thermodynamic system radiating heat energy into space. A transition from geostatic earth models such as PREM to geodynamical models is needed. We discuss possible thermodynamic constraints on the variables that govern the distribution of forces and flows in the deep Earth. In this paper we assume that the temperature distribution is time-invariant, so that all flows vanish at steady state except for the heat flow Jq per unit area (Kuiken, 1994). Superscript 0 will refer to the steady state while x denotes the excited state of the system. We may write σ 0=(J{q}0ṡX{q}0)/T where Xq is the conjugate force corresponding to Jq, and σ is the rate of entropy production per unit volume. Consider now what happens after the occurrence of an earthquake at time t=0 and location (0,0,0). The earthquake introduces a stress drop Δ P(x,y,z) at all points of the system. Response flows are directed along the gradients toward the epicentral area, and the entropy production will increase with time as (Prigogine, 1947) σ x(t)=σ 0+α {1}/(t+β )+α {2}/(t+β )2+etc A seismological constraint on the parameters may be obtained from Omori's empirical relation N(t)=p/(t+q) where N(t) is the number of aftershocks at time t following the main shock. It may be assumed that p/q\\sim\\alpha_{1}/\\beta times a constant. Another useful constraint is the Mexican-hat geometry of the seismic transient as obtained e.g. from InSAR radar interferometry. For strike-slip events such as Landers the distribution of \\DeltaP is quadrantal, and an oval-shaped seismicity gap develops about the epicenter. A weak outer triggering maxiμm is found at a distance of about 17 fault lengths. Such patterns may be extracted from earthquake catalogs by statistical analysis (Lomnitz, 1996). Finally, the energy of the perturbation must be at least equal to the recovery energy. The total energy expended in an aftershock sequence can be found approximately by integrating the local contribution over

  16. Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas...

  17. Nonholonomic constraints with fractional derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, Vasily E [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Zaslavsky, George M [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St, New York, NY 10012 (United States)

    2006-08-04

    We consider the fractional generalization of nonholonomic constraints defined by equations with fractional derivatives and provide some examples. The corresponding equations of motion are derived using variational principle. We prove that fractional constraints can be used to describe the evolution of dynamical systems in which some coordinates and velocities are related to velocities through a power-law memory function.

  18. An Introduction to 'Creativity Constraints'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjær, Michael Mose

    2013-01-01

    Constraints play a vital role as both restrainers and enablers in innovation processes by governing what the creative agent/s can and cannot do, and what the output can and cannot be. Notions of constraints are common in creativity research, but current contributions are highly dispersed due to n...

  19. Market segmentation using perceived constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard Kyle; Andrew Mowen

    2008-01-01

    We examined the practical utility of segmenting potential visitors to Cleveland Metroparks using their constraint profiles. Our analysis identified three segments based on their scores on the dimensions of constraints: Other priorities--visitors who scored the highest on 'other priorities' dimension; Highly Constrained--visitors who scored relatively high on...

  20. On Constraints in Assembly Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calton, T.L.; Jones, R.E.; Wilson, R.H.

    1998-12-17

    Constraints on assembly plans vary depending on product, assembly facility, assembly volume, and many other factors. Assembly costs and other measures to optimize vary just as widely. To be effective, computer-aided assembly planning systems must allow users to express the plan selection criteria that appIy to their products and production environments. We begin this article by surveying the types of user criteria, both constraints and quality measures, that have been accepted by assembly planning systems to date. The survey is organized along several dimensions, including strategic vs. tactical criteria; manufacturing requirements VS. requirements of the automated planning process itself and the information needed to assess compliance with each criterion. The latter strongly influences the efficiency of planning. We then focus on constraints. We describe a framework to support a wide variety of user constraints for intuitive and efficient assembly planning. Our framework expresses all constraints on a sequencing level, specifying orders and conditions on part mating operations in a number of ways. Constraints are implemented as simple procedures that either accept or reject assembly operations proposed by the planner. For efficiency, some constraints are supplemented with special-purpose modifications to the planner's algorithms. Fast replanning enables an interactive plan-view-constrain-replan cycle that aids in constraint discovery and documentation. We describe an implementation of the framework in a computer-aided assembly planning system and experiments applying the system to a number of complex assemblies, including one with 472 parts.

  1. Constraint Programming for Context Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    of knowledge. The language of Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, is suggested for defining constraint solvers that reflect “world knowledge” for the given domain, and driver algorithms may be ex- pressed in Prolog or additional rules of CHR. It is argued that this way of doing context comprehension is an instance...

  2. Phenomenological constraints on light mixed sneutrino dark matter scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakizaki, Mitsuru, E-mail: kakizaki@sci.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Park, Eun-Kyung, E-mail: epark@particle.sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Park, Jae-hyeon, E-mail: jae.park@uv.es [Departament de Física Teòrica and IFIC, Universitat de València-CSIC, 46100, Burjassot (Spain); Santa, Akiteru, E-mail: santa@jodo.sci.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

    2015-10-07

    In supersymmetric models with Dirac neutrinos, the lightest sneutrino can be a good thermal dark matter candidate when the soft sneutrino trilinear parameter is large. In this paper, we focus on scenarios where the mass of the mixed sneutrino LSP is of the order of GeV so the sneutrino dark matter is still viable complying with the limits by current and near future direct detection experiments. We investigate phenomenological constraints in the parameter space of the models, as well as the vacuum stability bound. Finally, we show that the allowed regions can be explored by measuring Higgs boson properties at future collider experiments.

  3. Neutron Star Dense Matter Equation of State Constraints with NICER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Slavko; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Guillot, Sebastien; Kust Harding, Alice; Ho, Wynn C. G.; Lamb, Frederick K.; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Miller, M. Coleman; Morsink, Sharon; Ozel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Ray, Paul S.; Riley, Tom; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Watts, Anna; Wolff, Michael Thomas; Gendreau, Keith

    2017-08-01

    One of the principal goals of the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is to place constraints on the dense matter equation of state through sensitive X-ray observations of neutron stars. The NICER mission will focus on measuring the masses and radii of several relatively bright, thermally-emitting, rotation-powered millisecond pulsars, by fitting models that incorporate all relevant relativistic effects and atmospheric radiation transfer processes to their periodic soft X-ray modulations. Here, we provide an overview of the targets NICER will observe and tthe technique and models that have been developed by the NICER team to estimate the masses and radii of these pulsars.

  4. Phenomenological constraints on light mixed sneutrino dark matter scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Kakizaki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In supersymmetric models with Dirac neutrinos, the lightest sneutrino can be a good thermal dark matter candidate when the soft sneutrino trilinear parameter is large. In this paper, we focus on scenarios where the mass of the mixed sneutrino LSP is of the order of GeV so the sneutrino dark matter is still viable complying with the limits by current and near future direct detection experiments. We investigate phenomenological constraints in the parameter space of the models, as well as the vacuum stability bound. Finally, we show that the allowed regions can be explored by measuring Higgs boson properties at future collider experiments.

  5. MICROBIAL DIVERSITY IN SOFT DRINKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shiva Shanker

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 4 carbonated soft drink (CSD samples, from various locations in nine places of India were examined to determine their biological quality. Most samples were not in compliance with microbiological standards set by organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO. The prevailing bacterial isolates were Gluconobacter sp., Lactobacillus sp., and Leuconostoc sp. The prevailing fungal isolates were Penicillium expansum and the next isolate was Penicillium roqueforti. Many microorganisms are found in soft drinks as environmental or raw materials contaminants, but relatively can grow within the acidic and low oxygen environment. It is crucial for soft drink manufacturers to inspect raw materials before they are mixed with other ingredients. Concern with consumer health, safety and the environment will continue to have a positive impact on trend in the soft drink industry.

  6. Engineering applications of soft computing

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-Cortés, Margarita-Arimatea; Rojas, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    This book bridges the gap between Soft Computing techniques and their applications to complex engineering problems. In each chapter we endeavor to explain the basic ideas behind the proposed applications in an accessible format for readers who may not possess a background in some of the fields. Therefore, engineers or practitioners who are not familiar with Soft Computing methods will appreciate that the techniques discussed go beyond simple theoretical tools, since they have been adapted to solve significant problems that commonly arise in such areas. At the same time, the book will show members of the Soft Computing community how engineering problems are now being solved and handled with the help of intelligent approaches. Highlighting new applications and implementations of Soft Computing approaches in various engineering contexts, the book is divided into 12 chapters. Further, it has been structured so that each chapter can be read independently of the others.

  7. Soft particles feel the squeeze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, D.

    2009-01-01

    It's hard to fit in when you're different — especially if you're a large particle trying to squeeze into an array of smaller ones. But some soft, polymeric particles simply shrink to fit the space available.

  8. On exponentiable soft topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Mirhosseinkhani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An object $X$ of a category $mathbf{C}$ with finite limits is called exponentiable if the functor $-times X:mathbf{C}rightarrow mathbf{C}$ has a right adjoint. There are many characterizations of the exponentiable  spaces in the category $mathbf{Top}$ of topological spaces. Here, we study the exponentiable objects in the category $mathbf{STop}$ of soft topological spaces which is a generalization of the category  $mathbf{Top}$. We investigate  the exponentiability problem and give a characterization of exponentiable soft spaces. Also wegive the definition of exponential topology on the lattice of soft open sets of a soft space and present some characterizations of it.

  9. Towards tooth friendly soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad; Kadivar, Mahdi

    2009-10-01

    Most soft drinks contain high concentration of simple carbohydrates and have a pH of 3 or even lower. Therefore, they are harmful for tooth structure. A tooth friendly soft drink (T.F.S.D) should have the following characteristics and elements; fluoride (approximately 1 ppm), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (2%), xylitol (4-6g/serving), tea polyphenols (2-4 mg/ml), cranberry extract (250 mg/ml of the flavonoids quercetin and myricetin), sugar free, pH close to 5.5 and super oxygenation (240,000 ppm) vs. carbonation. T.F.S.D can be packaged in a container which gaseous oxygen is dissolved in a liquid in the form of bubbles. However, looking at opportunities for so-called sophisticated soft drinks, T.F.S.D will be an example for a functional and health oriented soft drink.

  10. Soft tissue application of lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Timothy L; Mann, Fred A

    2002-05-01

    Despite increasing numbers of veterinarians incorporating lasers into their clinical practices, little information has been published about laser clinical applications in soft tissue surgery. This article reviews soft tissue interaction, describes laser equipment and accessories commonly marketed to veterinarians, and discusses clinical applications of the carbon dioxide laser in a systems-based approach. A table of recommended laser tips and settings based on the authors' experiences using a carbon dioxide laser (AccuVet Novapulse LX-20SP, Bothell, WA) is provided.

  11. Bioinspired locomotion and grasping in water: the soft eight-arm OCTOPUS robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianchetti, M; Calisti, M; Margheri, L; Kuba, M; Laschi, C

    2015-05-13

    The octopus is an interesting model for the development of soft robotics, due to its high deformability, dexterity and rich behavioural repertoire. To investigate the principles of octopus dexterity, we designed an eight-arm soft robot and evaluated its performance with focused experiments. The OCTOPUS robot presented here is a completely soft robot, which integrates eight arms extending in radial direction and a central body which contains the main processing units. The front arms are mainly used for elongation and grasping, while the others are mainly used for locomotion. The robotic octopus works in water and its buoyancy is close to neutral. The experimental results show that the octopus-inspired robot can walk in water using the same strategy as the animal model, with good performance over different surfaces, including walking through physical constraints. It can grasp objects of different sizes and shapes, thanks to its soft arm materials and conical shape.

  12. [Soft tissue rheumatism in erderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepański, Leszek

    2008-01-01

    Disorders of soft, peri-articular tissues are a common cause of musculoskeletal pain in elderly patients. Nevertheless, most physicians underestimate the role of soft tissue rheumatism in the pathomechanism of the pain. The impairments of soft tissue can not be diagnosed by X-rays examinations, whereas degenerative lesions of joints are easy diagnosed using this method even despite of their uncertain role in producing the symptoms. The incidence of pain syndromes originated from soft tissues differ regarding to the age of patients. In young subjects the incidence of all of them is generally low. Syndromes provoked by overloading during work: repetitive strain syndrome, canal tunnel syndrome, tennis elbow, golfers elbow, shoulder tendon coin disorders and myofascial pain syndrome are common in middle-aged patients. The morbidity of fibromialgia syndrome is also lower in old people probably as the result of diminished numbers and degenerative changes in nociceptive fibers. The syndromes prevailing in elderly patients include trochanteric syndrome and the pain syndromes provoked by muscle spasm depended on posture abnormalities. In the soft tissue pain syndrome prevention adapted to old age kinesitherapy and avoiding muscle overloading are recommended. Soft tissue pain syndromes are usually treated with non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs. In local pain syndromes better results can be obtained by local treatment. Local injections of glikocorticosteroids are usually very effective and safe.

  13. Optimal lunar soft landing trajectories using taboo evolutionary programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutyalarao, M.; Raj, M. Xavier James

    A safe lunar landing is a key factor to undertake an effective lunar exploration. Lunar lander consists of four phases such as launch phase, the earth-moon transfer phase, circumlunar phase and landing phase. The landing phase can be either hard landing or soft landing. Hard landing means the vehicle lands under the influence of gravity without any deceleration measures. However, soft landing reduces the vertical velocity of the vehicle before landing. Therefore, for the safety of the astronauts as well as the vehicle lunar soft landing with an acceptable velocity is very much essential. So it is important to design the optimal lunar soft landing trajectory with minimum fuel consumption. Optimization of Lunar Soft landing is a complex optimal control problem. In this paper, an analysis related to lunar soft landing from a parking orbit around Moon has been carried out. A two-dimensional trajectory optimization problem is attempted. The problem is complex due to the presence of system constraints. To solve the time-history of control parameters, the problem is converted into two point boundary value problem by using the maximum principle of Pontrygen. Taboo Evolutionary Programming (TEP) technique is a stochastic method developed in recent years and successfully implemented in several fields of research. It combines the features of taboo search and single-point mutation evolutionary programming. Identifying the best unknown parameters of the problem under consideration is the central idea for many space trajectory optimization problems. The TEP technique is used in the present methodology for the best estimation of initial unknown parameters by minimizing objective function interms of fuel requirements. The optimal estimation subsequently results into an optimal trajectory design of a module for soft landing on the Moon from a lunar parking orbit. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed approach is highly efficient and it reduces the minimum fuel

  14. Evolutionary constraints or opportunities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharov, Alexei A.

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection is traditionally viewed as a leading factor of evolution, whereas variation is assumed to be random and non-directional. Any order in variation is attributed to epigenetic or developmental constraints that can hinder the action of natural selection. In contrast I consider the positive role of epigenetic mechanisms in evolution because they provide organisms with opportunities for rapid adaptive change. Because the term “constraint” has negative connotations, I use the term “regulated variation” to emphasize the adaptive nature of phenotypic variation, which helps populations and species to survive and evolve in changing environments. The capacity to produce regulated variation is a phenotypic property, which is not described in the genome. Instead, the genome acts as a switchboard, where mostly random mutations switch “on” or “off” preexisting functional capacities of organism components. Thus, there are two channels of heredity: informational (genomic) and structure-functional (phenotypic). Functional capacities of organisms most likely emerged in a chain of modifications and combinations of more simple ancestral functions. The role of DNA has been to keep records of these changes (without describing the result) so that they can be reproduced in the following generations. Evolutionary opportunities include adjustments of individual functions, multitasking, connection between various components of an organism, and interaction between organisms. The adaptive nature of regulated variation can be explained by the differential success of lineages in macro-evolution. Lineages with more advantageous patterns of regulated variation are likely to produce more species and secure more resources (i.e., long-term lineage selection). PMID:24769155

  15. Soft robotics: a bioinspired evolution in robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangbae; Laschi, Cecilia; Trimmer, Barry

    2013-05-01

    Animals exploit soft structures to move effectively in complex natural environments. These capabilities have inspired robotic engineers to incorporate soft technologies into their designs. The goal is to endow robots with new, bioinspired capabilities that permit adaptive, flexible interactions with unpredictable environments. Here, we review emerging soft-bodied robotic systems, and in particular recent developments inspired by soft-bodied animals. Incorporating soft technologies can potentially reduce the mechanical and algorithmic complexity involved in robot design. Incorporating soft technologies will also expedite the evolution of robots that can safely interact with humans and natural environments. Finally, soft robotics technology can be combined with tissue engineering to create hybrid systems for medical applications.

  16. Effective Constraints for Quantum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bojowald, Martin; Skirzewski, Aureliano; Tsobanjan, Artur

    2008-01-01

    An effective formalism for quantum constrained systems is presented which allows manageable derivations of solutions and observables, including a treatment of physical reality conditions without requiring full knowledge of the physical inner product. Instead of a state equation from a constraint operator, an infinite system of constraint functions on the quantum phase space of expectation values and moments of states is used. The examples of linear constraints as well as the free non-relativistic particle in parameterized form illustrate how standard problems of constrained systems can be dealt with in this framework.

  17. Neutrosophic Parameterized Soft Relations and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Deli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of relation on neutrosophic parameterized soft set (NP- soft sets theory. We have studied some related properties and also put forward some propositions on neutrosophic parameterized soft relation with proofs and examples. Finally the notions of symmetric, transitive, reflexive, and equivalence neutrosophic parameterized soft set relations have been established in our work. Finally a decision making method on NP-soft sets is presented.

  18. Interval Valued Neutrosophic Soft Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the concept of interval valued neutrosophic soft topological space together with interval valued neutrosophic soft finer and interval valued neutrosophic soft coarser topology. We also define interval valued neutrosophic interior and closer of an interval valued neutrosophic soft set. Some theorems and examples are cites. Interval valued neutrosophic soft subspace topology are studied. Some examples and theorems regarding this concept are presented.

  19. Nurse Scheduling System based on Dynamic Weighted Maximal Constraint Satisfaction Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Hiromitsu; Isomura, Atsushi; Ito, Takayuki; Ozono, Tadachika; Shintani, Toramatsu

    Scheduling has been an important research field in Artificial Intelligence. Because typical scheduling problems could be modeled as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem(CSP), several constraint satisfaction techniques have been proposed. In order to handle the different levels of importance of the constraints, solving a problem as a Weighted Maximal Constraint Satisfaction Problem(W-MaxCSP) is an promising approach. However, there exists the case where unexpected events are added and some sudden changes are required, i.e., the case with dynamic changes in scheduling problems. In this paper, we describe such dynamic scheduling problem as a Dynamic Weighted Maximal Constraint Satisfaction Problem(DW-MaxCSP) in which constraints would changes dynamically. Generally, it is undesirable to determine vastly modified schedule even if re-scheduling is needed. A new schedule should be close to the current one as much as possible. In order to obtain stable solutions, we propose the methodology to maintain portions of the current schedule using the provisional soft constraints, which explicitly penalize the changes from the current schedule. We have experimentally confirmed the efficacy of re-scheduling based on our method with provisional constraints. In this paper, we construct the nurse scheduling system for applying the proposed scheduling method.

  20. Geometry and Material Constraint Effects on Creep Crack Growth Behavior in Welded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Wang, G. Z.; Xuan, F. Z.; Tu, S. T.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, the geometry and material constraint effects on creep crack growth (CCG) and behavior in welded joints were investigated. The CCG paths and rates of two kinds of specimen geometry (C(T) and M(T)) with initial cracks located at soft HAZ (heat-affected zone with lower creep strength) and different material mismatches were simulated. The effect of constraint on creep crack initiation (CCI) time was discussed. The results show that there exists interaction between geometry and material constraints in terms of their effects on CCG rate and CCI time of welded joints. Under the condition of low geometry constraint, the effect of material constraint on CCG rate and CCI time becomes more obvious. Higher material constraint can promote CCG due to the formation of higher stress triaxiality around crack tip. Higher geometry constraint can increase CCG rate and reduce CCI time of welded joints. Both geometry and material constraints should be considered in creep life assessment and design for high-temperature welded components.

  1. Weighted constraints in generative linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, Joe

    2009-08-01

    Harmonic Grammar (HG) and Optimality Theory (OT) are closely related formal frameworks for the study of language. In both, the structure of a given language is determined by the relative strengths of a set of constraints. They differ in how these strengths are represented: as numerical weights (HG) or as ranks (OT). Weighted constraints have advantages for the construction of accounts of language learning and other cognitive processes, partly because they allow for the adaptation of connectionist and statistical models. HG has been little studied in generative linguistics, however, largely due to influential claims that weighted constraints make incorrect predictions about the typology of natural languages, predictions that are not shared by the more popular OT. This paper makes the case that HG is in fact a promising framework for typological research, and reviews and extends the existing arguments for weighted over ranked constraints.

  2. Topology Optimization with Stress Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbart, A.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis contains contributions to the development of topology optimization techniques capable of handling stress constraints. The research that led to these contributions was motivated by the need for topology optimization techniques more suitable for industrial applications. Currently, topolo

  3. Model-Driven Constraint Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Chenouard, Raphael; Soto, Ricardo; 10.1145/1389449.1389479

    2010-01-01

    Constraint programming can definitely be seen as a model-driven paradigm. The users write programs for modeling problems. These programs are mapped to executable models to calculate the solutions. This paper focuses on efficient model management (definition and transformation). From this point of view, we propose to revisit the design of constraint-programming systems. A model-driven architecture is introduced to map solving-independent constraint models to solving-dependent decision models. Several important questions are examined, such as the need for a visual highlevel modeling language, and the quality of metamodeling techniques to implement the transformations. A main result is the s-COMMA platform that efficiently implements the chain from modeling to solving constraint problems

  4. An Introduction to 'Creativity Constraints'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    Constraints play a vital role as both restrainers and enablers in innovation processes by governing what the creative agent/s can and cannot do, and what the output can and cannot be. Notions of constraints are common in creativity research, but current contributions are highly dispersed due...... to no overall conceptual framing or shared terminology. This lack of unity hinders overt opportunities for cross-disciplinary interchange. We argue that an improved understanding of constraints in creativity holds a promising potential for advancements in creativity research across domains and disciplines. Here......, we give an overview of the growing, but incohesive body of research into creativity and constraints, which leads us to introduce ‘creativity constraints’ as a unifying concept to help bridge these disjoint contributions to facilitate cross- disciplinary interchange. Finally, we suggest key topics...

  5. Decentralized systems with design constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2014-01-01

    This volume provides a rigorous examination of the analysis, stability and control of large-scale systems, and addresses the difficulties that arise because of dimensionality, information structure constraints, parametric uncertainty and time-delays.

  6. Constraint Programming for Context Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    A close similarity is demonstrated between context comprehension, such as discourse analysis, and constraint programming. The constraint store takes the role of a growing knowledge base learned throughout the discourse, and a suitable con- straint solver does the job of incorporating new pieces o...... of abductive reasoning. The approach fits with possible worlds semantics that allows both standard first-order and non-monotonic semantics....

  7. Formal Verification under Unknown Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang-hui; LI Xiao-wei

    2005-01-01

    We present a formal method of verifying designs with unknown constraints (e. g. , black boxes) using Boolean satisfiability (SAT). This method is based on a new encoding scheme of unknown constraints, and solves the corresponding conjunctive normal form (CNF) formulas. Furthermore, this method can avoid the potential memory explosion, which the binary decision diagram (BDD) based techniques maybe suffer from, thus it has the capacity of verifying large designs. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency and feasibility of the proposed method.

  8. Trabectedin in Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Petek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue sarcomas are a group of rare tumors derived from mesenchymal tissue, accounting for about 1% of adult cancers. There are over 60 different histological subtypes, each with their own unique biological behavior and response to systemic therapy. The outcome for patients with metastatic soft tissue sarcoma is poor with few available systemic treatment options. For decades, the mainstay of management has consisted of doxorubicin with or without ifosfamide. Trabectedin is a synthetic agent derived from the Caribbean tunicate, Ecteinascidia turbinata. This drug has a number of potential mechanisms of action, including binding the DNA minor groove, interfering with DNA repair pathways and the cell cycle, as well as interacting with transcription factors. Several phase II trials have shown that trabectedin has activity in anthracycline and alkylating agent-resistant soft tissue sarcoma and suggest use in the second- and third-line setting. More recently, trabectedin has shown similar progression-free survival to doxorubicin in the first-line setting and significant activity in liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma subtypes. Trabectedin has shown a favorable toxicity profile and has been approved in over 70 countries for the treatment of metastatic soft tissue sarcoma. This manuscript will review the development of trabectedin in soft tissue sarcomas.

  9. Soft nanotechnology: "structure" vs. "function".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, George M; Lipomi, Darren J

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a perspective on "soft nanotechnology"; that is, the branch of nanotechnology concerned with the synthesis and properties of organic and organometallic nanostructures, and with nanofabrication using techniques in which soft components play key roles. It begins with a brief history of soft nanotechnology. This history has followed a path involving a gradual shift from the promise of revolutionary electronics, nanorobotics, and other futuristic concepts, to the realization of evolutionary improvements in the technology for current challenges in information technology, medicine, and sustainability. Soft nanoscience is an area that is occupied principally by chemists, and is in many ways indistinguishable from "nanochemistry". The paper identifies the natural tendency of its practitioners--exemplified by the speakers at this Faraday Discussion--to focus on synthesis and structure, rather than on function and application, of nanostructures. Soft nanotechnology has the potential to apply to a wide variety of large-scale applied (information technology, healthcare cost reduction, sustainability, energy) and fundamental (molecular biochemistry, cell biology, charge transport in organic matter) problems.

  10. How Soft are “Soft Skills” in Engineering Educations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Pedersen, Jon Ram; Kofoed, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Engineering education communities have long recognized that graduates not only need to poses technical knowledge in their chosen disciplines, but also need to be better educated in areas of communication skills, teamwork and leadership. Several studies mention these so-called “soft” skills as inc...... transfer theory into practice. In addition to their project, students have to make a “Process Analysis”, which is an evaluation of their experience of the soft skills or process competences. Results show that “Soft Skills” are hard to learn....

  11. HAPTIC RENDERING OF THIN AND SOFT OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Garg

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we take up the problem of modeling deformations, both local and global, along with stable translations for radially-thin virtual objects especially like that of a wire or a spaghetti noodle, during haptic manipulation. To achieve this we recommend the use of mass-spring systems rather than geometric models like vertex based and free form deformation as they do not model the physics behind the interactions. Finite Equation Methods (FEMs are also not chosen as they are computationally expensive for fast haptic interactions and force feedback. We have explored different types of distribution of masses within the volume of the object, in order to come up with a suitable distribution of masses and network of springs and dampers so that the simulations mimic the behavior of a real object. We also model the constraint forces like normal and frictional forces between the object and the plane on which it is kept. Further, we simulate the effect of a varying temperature distribution of the object and discuss how anisotropic deformation of an object may be effected. We demonstrate through experimentations that it is indeed possible to haptically interact with virtual soft objects.

  12. Killing the cMSSM softly

    CERN Document Server

    Bechtle, Philip; Desch, Klaus; Dreiner, Herbert Karl; Hamer, Matthias; Kraemer, Michael; O'Leary, Ben; Porod, Werner; Sarrazin, Björn; Stefaniak, Tim; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Wienemann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the data collected by the major LHC experiments during the LHC Run I has put strong constraints on supersymmetric models. We study the parameter space of the constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (cMSSM) in a global fit, taking into account the non- observation of supersymmetry at the LHC, Higgs mass and rate measurements, as well as several cosmological and low energy observables. Before the start of the LHC, global fits of the cMSSM showed a favourable goodness-of-fit and indicated a strong preference for the existence of light SUSY particles. This region now has largely been excluded by the LHC. We present the final results of our study of the status of the cMSSM after the LHC Run1, where for the first time we use pseudo experiments to determine the p-value of the model. We find that the cMSSM is softly getting near its exclusion at the 90% CL.

  13. Soft tissue tumours: imaging strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisse, Herve J. [Institute Curie, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Orbach, Daniel [Institute Curie, Department of Paediatric Oncology, Paris (France); Klijanienko, Jerzy [Institute Curie, Department of Pathology, Paris (France)

    2010-06-15

    Vascular tumours and malformations, fibrous and fibrohistiocytic tumours and pseudotumours are the most common benign soft-tissue masses observed in children, and can be treated conservatively. Rhabdomyosarcomas are the most frequent malignant tumours, accounting for about half of soft tissue sarcomas. A child referred for a soft-tissue mass should ideally be managed by a multidisciplinary team and primary excision should be proscribed until a definite diagnosis has been established. Clinical examination, conventional radiography and US with Doppler represent the first-line examinations and are sometimes sufficient to make a diagnosis. In all other situations, MRI is mandatory to establish the aggressiveness and extension of the tumour. This technique provides the relevant data to guide the decision regarding tissue sampling. (orig.)

  14. High performance soft magnetic materials

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the current state-of-the-art in soft magnetic materials and related applications, with particular focus on amorphous and nanocrystalline magnetic wires and ribbons and sensor applications. Expert chapters cover preparation, processing, tuning of magnetic properties, modeling, and applications. Cost-effective soft magnetic materials are required in a range of industrial sectors, such as magnetic sensors and actuators, microelectronics, cell phones, security, automobiles, medicine, health monitoring, aerospace, informatics, and electrical engineering. This book presents both fundamentals and applications to enable academic and industry researchers to pursue further developments of these key materials. This highly interdisciplinary volume represents essential reading for researchers in materials science, magnetism, electrodynamics, and modeling who are interested in working with soft magnets. Covers magnetic microwires, sensor applications, amorphous and nanocrystalli...

  15. Validation of SPAMM Tagged MRI Based Measurement of 3D Soft Tissue Deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Moerman, Kevin M; Simms, Ciaran K; Lamerichs, Rolf M; Stoker, Jaap; Nederveen, Aart J

    2016-01-01

    This study presents and validates a novel (non-ECG-triggered) MRI sequence based on SPAtial Modulation of the Magnetization (SPAMM) to non-invasively measure 3D (quasi-static) soft tissue deformations using only six acquisitions (three static and three indentations). In current SPAMM tagged MRI approaches data is typically constructed from many repeated motion cycles. This has so far restricted its application to the measurement of highly repeatable and periodic movements (e.g. cardiac deformation). In biomechanical applications where soft tissue deformation is artificially induced, often by indentation, significant repeatability constraints exist and, for clinical applications, discomfort and health issues generally preclude a large number of repetitions.

  16. Entirely soft dielectric elastomer robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, E.-F. Markus; Wilson, Katherine E.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2017-04-01

    Multifunctional Dielectric Elastomer (DE) devices are well established as actuators, sensors and energy har- vesters. Since the invention of the Dielectric Elastomer Switch (DES), a piezoresistive electrode that can directly switch charge on and off, it has become possible to expand the wide functionality of DE structures even more. We show the application of fully soft DE subcomponents in biomimetic robotic structures. It is now possible to couple arrays of actuator/switch units together so that they switch charge between them- selves on and off. One can then build DE devices that operate as self-controlled oscillators. With an oscillator one can produce a periodic signal that controls a soft DE robot - a DE device with its own DE nervous system. DESs were fabricated using a special electrode mixture, and imprinting technology at an exact pre-strain. We have demonstrated six orders of magnitude change in conductivity within the DES over 50% strain. The control signal can either be a mechanical deformation from another DE or an electrical input to a connected dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). We have demonstrated a variety of fully soft multifunctional subcomponents that enable the design of autonomous soft robots without conventional electronics. The combination of digital logic structures for basic signal processing, data storage in dielectric elastomer flip-flops and digital and analogue clocks with adjustable frequencies, made of dielectric elastomer oscillators (DEOs), enables fully soft, self-controlled and electronics-free robotic structures. DE robotic structures to date include stiff frames to maintain necessary pre-strains enabling sufficient actuation of DEAs. Here we present a design and production technology for a first robotic structure consisting only of soft silicones and carbon black.

  17. Soft Pneumatic Actuators for Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Belforte

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic artificial muscles are pneumatic devices with practical and various applications as common actuators. They, as human muscles, work in agonistic-antagonistic way, giving a traction force only when supplied by compressed air. The state of the art of soft pneumatic actuators is here analyzed: different models of pneumatic muscles are considered and evolution lines are presented. Then, the use of Pneumatic Muscles (PAM in rehabilitation apparatus is described and the general characteristics required in different applications are considered, analyzing the use of proper soft actuators with various technical properties. Therefore, research activity carried out in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering in the field of soft and textile actuators is presented here. In particular, pneumatic textile muscles useful for active suits design are described. These components are made of a tubular structure, with an inner layer of latex coated with a deformable outer fabric sewn along the edge. In order to increase pneumatic muscles forces and contractions Braided Pneumatic Muscles are studied. In this paper, new prototypes are presented, based on a fabric construction and various kinds of geometry. Pressure-force-deformation tests results are carried out and analyzed. These actuators are useful for rehabilitation applications. In order to reproduce the whole upper limb movements, new kind of soft actuators are studied, based on the same principle of planar membranes deformation. As an example, the bellows muscle model and worm muscle model are developed and described. In both cases, wide deformations are expected. Another issue for soft actuators is the pressure therapy. Some textile sleeve prototypes developed for massage therapy on patients suffering of lymph edema are analyzed. Different types of fabric and assembly techniques have been tested. In general, these Pressure Soft Actuators are useful for upper/lower limbs treatments

  18. Soft QGP probes with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Graczykowski, Łukasz Kamil

    2016-01-01

    In heavy-ion collisions at the LHC a hot and dense medium of deconfided partons, the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), is created. Its global properties can be characterized by the measurements of particles in the low transverse momentum (or "soft") regime, which represent the majority of created particles. In this report we outline a selection of measurements of the soft probes by the ALICE experiment in pp, p--Pb, and Pb--Pb collisions. The paper focuses on recent flow measurements via angular correlations and femtoscopic studies. The first ever preliminary analysis of $\\mathrm{K}^0_{\\rm S}\\mathrm{K}^{\\pm}$ femtoscopy is also presented.

  19. Biomechanical properties of soft tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾衍钧; 许传青; 杨坚; 徐小虎

    2003-01-01

    Viscoelasticity is the primary mechanical property of bio-soft tissues. It has been widely applied in basic research of biological tissues including cornea, lung, heart and blood vessels. Along with the development of tissue engineering research, the evaluation of soft tissue viscoelasticity is becoming more and more important. In this paper, using the Whittaker function, we give an approximate power series of the exponential integral E1(x) and the parameters c, ?1 and ?2 of the generalized relaxation function G(t) and generalized creep function J(t). With expanded skin as an example, the relationship between stress relaxation, creep and stress-strain finite deformation are studied.

  20. Soft theorems from string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Vecchia, Paolo [The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University (Sweden); Marotta, Raffaele [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Napoli (Italy); Mojaza, Matin [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University (Sweden)

    2016-04-15

    Soft behaviour of closed string amplitudes involving dilatons, gravitons and anti-symmetric tensors, is studied in the framework of bosonic string theory. The leading double soft limit of gluons is analysed as well, starting from scattering amplitudes computed in the open bosonic string. Field theory expressions are then obtained by sending the string tension to infinity. The presented results have been derived in the papers of Ref [1]. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Soft Neutrosophic Bi-LA-semigroup and Soft Neutrosophic N-LA-seigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft set theory is a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertain, fuzzy, not clearly defined objects. In this paper we introduced soft neutrosophic biLA-semigroup,soft neutosophic sub bi-LA-semigroup, soft neutrosophic N -LA-semigroup with the discuission of some of their characteristics. We also introduced a new type of soft neutrophic bi-LAsemigroup, the so called soft strong neutrosophic bi-LAsemigoup which is of pure neutrosophic character. This is also extend to soft neutrosophic strong N-LA-semigroup. We also given some of their properties of this newly born soft structure related to the strong part of neutrosophic theory.

  2. Constraint-based animation: temporal constraints in the Animus systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duisberg, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Algorithm animation has a growing role in computer-aided algorithm design documentation and debugging, since interactive graphics is a richer channel than text for communication. Most animation is currently done laboriously by hand, and it often has the character of canned demonstrations with restricted user interaction. Animus is a system that allows easy construction of an animation with minimal concern for lower-level graphics programming. Constraints are used to describe the appearance and structure of a picture as well as how those pictures evolve in time. The implementation and support of temporal constraints is a substantive extension to previous constraint languages which had only allowed specification of static state. Use of the Animus system is demonstrated in the creation of animations of dynamic mechanical and electrical-circuit simulations, sorting algorithms, problems in operating systems, and geometric curve-drawing algorithms.

  3. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holekamp, Kay E; Swanson, Eli M; Van Meter, Page E

    2013-05-19

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility.

  4. In Defense of Soft Universalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is work in progress, a preliminary attempt to present a position of soft universalism as regards human rights. The position is not seen as a compromise between contradicting perceptions, universalism and relativism, but rather as a better and more correct position. It takes as a...

  5. Metrics for Soft Goods Merchandising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in soft goods merchandising, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  6. Modeling soft interface dominated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamorgese, A.; Mauri, R.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    The two main continuum frameworks used for modeling the dynamics of soft multiphase systems are the Gibbs dividing surface model, and the diffuse interface model. In the former the interface is modeled as a two dimensional surface, and excess properties such as a surface density, or surface energy

  7. Soft Matter: Food for Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogborn, Jon

    2004-01-01

    "Soft matter" is a lively current field of research, looking at fundamental theoretical questions about the structure and behaviour of complex forms of matter, and at very practical problems of, for example, improving the performance of glues or the texture of ice cream. Foodstuffs provide an excellent way in to this modern topic, which lies on…

  8. Soft QCD Measurements at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Tasevsky, Marek; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Results of recent soft QCD measurements by LHC experiments ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, LHCf and TOTEM are reported. The measurements include total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, inclusive and identified particle spectra, underlying event and particle correlations in all three collision systems: pp, pPb and PbPb.

  9. Nanomedicine a soft matter perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Dipanjan

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a broad introduction to soft matters for nanomedicinal applications, with a deeper discussion of the individual modalities for molecular imaging. It includes a general introduction to the opportunities provided by this technology in chemistry, materials, biology and nanomedicine. It is designed and written with the perspective that anyone, with or without previous knowledge of nanotechnology, would benefit.

  10. In Defense of Soft Universalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2011-01-01

    improved considerably since the time of the natural rights theories and the enlightenment. As a consequence prevailing international human rights are not the only possible human rights, and soft universalism is therefore partially open as regards the content of human rights, even though non discrimination...... and other elements have some naturalness to them....

  11. Soft tick sampling and collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several soft tick species in the genus Ornithodoros are vectors of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in nature, or known to be susceptible to infection. African swine fever (ASF) caused by ASFV is considered one of the most serious transboundary swine diseases because of its high lethality for pigs, ...

  12. Soft-Collinear Effective Theory

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    I will review the basic principles about Soft-Collinear Effective Theory. I will focus on how it can be used to understand factorization properties and how one can resum large logarithms arising from infrared physics using the renormalization group evolution.

  13. Soft radiation in Quantum Chromodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, G.C.

    2009-01-01

    We study the effect of soft radiation in QCD to all orders in perturbation theory. The eikonal approximation is generalised to next-to-leading order, and factorises in the sum over all Feynman diagrams. This results in an exponential form for the cross-section at next-to-eikonal order.

  14. Constraint programming and decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    2014-01-01

    In many application areas, it is necessary to make effective decisions under constraints. Several area-specific techniques are known for such decision problems; however, because these techniques are area-specific, it is not easy to apply each technique to other applications areas. Cross-fertilization between different application areas is one of the main objectives of the annual International Workshops on Constraint Programming and Decision Making. Those workshops, held in the US (El Paso, Texas), in Europe (Lyon, France), and in Asia (Novosibirsk, Russia), from 2008 to 2012, have attracted researchers and practitioners from all over the world. This volume presents extended versions of selected papers from those workshops. These papers deal with all stages of decision making under constraints: (1) formulating the problem of multi-criteria decision making in precise terms, (2) determining when the corresponding decision problem is algorithmically solvable; (3) finding the corresponding algorithms, and making...

  15. Sheet Bending using Soft Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinke, J.

    2011-05-01

    Sheet bending is usually performed by air bending and V-die bending processes. Both processes apply rigid tools. These solid tools facilitate the generation of software for the numerical control of those processes. When the lower rigid die is replaced with a soft or rubber tool, the numerical control becomes much more difficult, since the soft tool deforms too. Compared to other bending processes the rubber backed bending process has some distinct advantages, like large radius-to-thickness ratios, applicability to materials with topcoats, well defined radii, and the feasibility of forming details (ridges, beads). These advantages may give the process exclusive benefits over conventional bending processes, not only for industries related to mechanical engineering and sheet metal forming, but also for other disciplines like Architecture and Industrial Design The largest disadvantage is that also the soft (rubber) tool deforms. Although the tool deformation is elastic and recovers after each process cycle, the applied force during bending is related to the deformation of the metal sheet and the deformation of the rubber. The deformation of the rubber interacts with the process but also with sheet parameters. This makes the numerical control of the process much more complicated. This paper presents a model for the bending of sheet materials using a rubber lower die. This model can be implemented in software in order to control the bending process numerically. The model itself is based on numerical and experimental research. In this research a number of variables related to the tooling and the material have been evaluated. The numerical part of the research was used to investigate the influence of the features of the soft lower tool, like the hardness and dimensions, and the influence of the sheet thickness, which also interacts with the soft tool deformation. The experimental research was focused on the relation between the machine control parameters and the most

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Soft ... dye reacts to the light. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment ...

  17. Treatment Options for Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Soft ... dye reacts to the light. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment ...

  18. Optimization of LED light spectrum to enhance colorfulness of illuminated objects with white light constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haining; Dong, Jianfei; Qi, Gaojin; Zhang, Guoqi

    2015-07-01

    Enhancing the colorfulness of illuminated objects is a promising application of LED lighting for commercial, exhibiting, and scientific purposes. This paper proposes a method to enhance the color of illuminated objects for a given polychromatic lamp. Meanwhile, the light color is restricted to white. We further relax the white light constraints by introducing soft margins. Based on the spectral and electrical characteristics of LEDs and object surface properties, we determine the optimal mixing of the LED light spectrum by solving a numerical optimization problem, which is a quadratic fractional programming problem by formulation. Simulation studies show that the trade-off between the white light constraint and the level of the color enhancement can be adjusted by tuning an upper limit value of the soft margin. Furthermore, visual evaluation experiments are performed to evaluate human perception of the color enhancement. The experiments have verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Soft symmetry improvement of two particle irreducible effective actions

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Two particle irreducible effective actions (2PIEAs) are valuable non-perturbative techniques in quantum field theory; however, finite truncations of them violate the Ward identities (WIs) of theories with spontaneously broken symmetries. The symmetry improvement (SI) method of Pilaftsis and Teresi attempts to overcome this by imposing the WIs as constraints on the solution; however the method suffers from the non-existence of solutions in linear response theory and in certain truncations in equilibrium. Motivated by this, we introduce a new method called soft symmetry improvement (SSI) which relaxes the constraint. Violations of WIs are allowed but punished in a least-squares implementation of the symmetry improvement idea. A new parameter $\\xi$ controls the strength of the constraint. The method interpolates between the unimproved ($\\xi \\to \\infty$) and SI ($\\xi \\to 0$) cases and the hope is that practically useful solutions can be found for finite $\\xi$. We study the SSI-2PIEA for a scalar O(N) model in the...

  20. Generalized formulation of the interactions between soft spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Marroquín, F.; McNamara, S.

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this paper is to identify the most general formulation that consistently links the different degrees of freedom in a contact between spherical soft particles. These contact laws have two parts: a set of "generalized contact velocities" that characterize the relative motion of the two particles, and a set of "generalized contact forces" that characterize the interparticle forces. One well known constraint on contact models is that the contact velocities must be objective. This requirement fixes the number of linearly independent contact velocities. We also present a previously unnoticed (in this context) constraint, namely, that the velocities and forces must be related in such a way that the stiffness matrix is symmetric. This constraint also places restrictions on the coupling between the contact forces. Within our generalized contact model, we discuss the expression for rolling velocity that need to be used in the calculation of rolling resistance, and the risk or producing perpetual mobile when other expressions of rolling velocity are using instead.

  1. Planar Elongation Measurements on Soft Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Krog; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2009-01-01

    A new fixture to the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks. To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propyleneoxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation.......A new fixture to the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks. To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propyleneoxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation....

  2. Wanted: Soft Skills for Today's Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Barton J.

    2017-01-01

    Educating high school students for both college and career is difficult. Teaching trade skills seems alien to the academic culture. But new research indicates that soft skills are quite important to judgments of employability and that youth learn many soft skills in traditional academic subjects (e.g., literature). A focus on soft skills allows…

  3. Wanted: Soft Skills for Today's Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Barton J.

    2017-01-01

    Educating high school students for both college and career is difficult. Teaching trade skills seems alien to the academic culture. But new research indicates that soft skills are quite important to judgments of employability and that youth learn many soft skills in traditional academic subjects (e.g., literature). A focus on soft skills allows…

  4. Windchill-201 - Custom Soft-Type Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; LaPha, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will explain Windchill soft-types-what they are, how they work, and how to construct custom ones, configured specifically for your system. The process and particulars of creating and implementing a WTDocument soft-type will be discussed, and the interaction between soft-types and Windchill objects will be shown.

  5. Applications of Soft Union Sets in the Ring Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwei Yang

    2013-01-01

    through discussing quotient soft subsets, an approach for constructing quotient soft union rings is made. Finally, isomorphism theorems of λ,μ-soft union rings related to invariant soft sets are discussed.

  6. Intertemporal consumption and credit constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    There is continuing controversy over the importance of credit constraints. This paper investigates whether total household expenditure and debt is affected by an exogenous increase in access to credit provided by a credit market reform that enabled Danish house owners to use housing equity as col...

  7. Perceptual Constraints in Phonotactic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Mehler, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Structural regularities in language have often been attributed to symbolic or statistical general purpose computations, whereas perceptual factors influencing such generalizations have received less interest. Here, we use phonotactic-like constraints as a case study to ask whether the structural properties of specific perceptual and memory…

  8. Sterile neutrino constraints from cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of light particles beyond the standard model's three neutrino species can profoundly impact the physics of decoupling and primordial nucleosynthesis. I review the observational signatures of extra light species, present constraints from recent data, and discuss the implications...... of possible sterile neutrinos with O(eV)-masses for cosmology....

  9. Sterile neutrino constraints from cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.;

    2012-01-01

    The presence of light particles beyond the standard model's three neutrino species can profoundly impact the physics of decoupling and primordial nucleosynthesis. I review the observational signatures of extra light species, present constraints from recent data, and discuss the implications of po...

  10. Constraint-based facial animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.M. Ruttkay

    1999-01-01

    textabstractConstraints have been traditionally used for computer animation applications to define side conditions for generating synthesized motion according to a standard, usually physically realistic, set of motion equations. The case of facial animation is very different, as no set of motion equ

  11. Constraint-induced movement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellini, Greta; Gianola, Silvia; Banzi, Rita;

    2014-01-01

    on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included in a Cochrane systematic review on the effectiveness of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) for stroke patients. METHODS: We extracted data on the functional independence measure (FIM) and the action research arm test (ARAT) from RCTs that compared CIMT...

  12. Constraint Programming versus Mathematical Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a relatively new technique from the 80's with origins in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Lately, much research have been focused on ways of using CLP within the paradigm of Operations Research (OR) and vice versa. The purpose of this paper...

  13. Observational constraints on cluster evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, S.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833347

    2008-01-01

    Current observational constraints on the dynamical evolution of star clusters are reviewed. Theory and observations now agree nicely on the mass dependency and time scales for disruption of young star clusters in galactic disks, but many problems still await resolution. The origin of the mass

  14. Constraint-based facial animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.M. Ruttkay

    1999-01-01

    textabstractConstraints have been traditionally used for computer animation applications to define side conditions for generating synthesized motion according to a standard, usually physically realistic, set of motion equations. The case of facial animation is very different, as no set of motion

  15. Soft computing for business intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Rafael; Cobo, Angel; Marx, Jorge; Valdés, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The book Soft Computing for Business Intelligence is the remarkable output of a program based on the idea of joint trans-disciplinary research as supported by the Eureka Iberoamerica Network and the University of Oldenburg. It contains twenty-seven papers allocated to three sections: Soft Computing, Business Intelligence and Knowledge Discovery, and Knowledge Management and Decision Making. Although the contents touch different domains they are similar in so far as they follow the BI principle “Observation and Analysis” while keeping a practical oriented theoretical eye on sound methodologies, like Fuzzy Logic, Compensatory Fuzzy Logic (CFL), Rough Sets and other softcomputing elements. The book tears down the traditional focus on business, and extends Business Intelligence techniques in an impressive way to a broad range of fields like medicine, environment, wind farming, social collaboration and interaction, car sharing and sustainability.

  16. Lubrication of soft viscoelastic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Anupam; Venner, Kees; Snoeijer, Jacco

    2015-01-01

    Lubrication flows appear in many applications in engineering, biophysics, and in nature. Separation of surfaces and minimisation of friction and wear is achieved when the lubrication fluid builds up a lift force. In this paper we analyse soft lubricated contacts by treating the solid walls as viscoelastic: soft materials are typically not purely elastic, but dissipate energy under dynamical loading conditions. We present a method for viscoelastic lubrication and focus on three canonical examples, namely Kelvin-Voigt-, Standard Linear-, and Power Law-rheology. It is shown how the solid viscoelasticity affects the lubrication process when the timescale of loading becomes comparable to the rheological timescale. We derive asymptotic relations between lift force and sliding velocity, which give scaling laws that inherit a signature of the rheology. In all cases the lift is found to decrease with respect to purely elastic systems.

  17. Soft substrates suppress droplet splashing

    CERN Document Server

    Howland, Christopher J; Style, Robert W; Castrejón-Pita, A A

    2015-01-01

    Droplets splash when they impact dry, flat substrates above a critical velocity that depends on parameters such as droplet size, viscosity and air pressure. We show that substrate stiffness also impacts the splashing threshold by imaging ethanol drops impacting silicone gels of different stiffnesses. Splashing is significantly suppressed: droplets on the softest substrates need over 70% more kinetic energy to splash than they do on rigid substrates. We show that splash suppression is likely to be due to energy losses caused by deformations of soft substrates during the first few microseconds of impact. We find that solids with Youngs modulus $\\lesssim O(10^5)$Pa suppress splashing, in agreement with simple scaling arguments. Thus materials like soft gels and elastomers can be used as simple coatings for effective splash prevention.

  18. Soft Pomeron in Holographic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ballon-Bayona, Alfonso; Costa, Miguel S; Djurić, Marko

    2016-01-01

    We study the graviton Regge trajectory in Holographic QCD as a model for high energy scattering processes dominated by soft pomeron exchange. This is done by considering spin J fields from the closed string sector that are dual to glueball states of even spin and parity. In particular, we construct a model that governs the analytic continuation of the spin J field equation to the region of real J < 2, which includes the scattering domain of negative Maldelstam variable t. The model leads to approximately linear Regge trajectories and is compatible with the measured values of 1.08 for the intercept and 0.25 GeV$^{-2}$ for the slope of the soft pomeron. The intercept of the secondary pomeron trajectory is in the same region of the subleading trajectories, made of mesons, proposed by Donnachie and Landshoff, and should therefore be taken into account.

  19. Soft lithography contacts to organics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia W.P. Hsu

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials play an increasingly important role in (optoelectronics, particularly in low-cost or flexible devices. A major challenge is the contact between the electrodes and the organic material. Processes developed for inorganic semiconductors are inapplicable because of the sensitivity of organic materials to heat, radiation, and chemicals. Deposition of metal(s through shadow masks onto organic materials is commonly used, despite problems with ill-controlled interfaces and material damage. In addition, conventional approaches restrict device size to >1 μm. Clearly, a better technique is needed. In this article, two soft lithography methods for making contacts to organic materials are reviewed: nanotransfer printing (nTP and soft-contact lamination (ScL. These new approaches produce devices that outperform those made by conventional methods. The link between better device performance and better interfacial control is explained, and nanoscale devices are described.

  20. Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of soft matter interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roke, Sylvie

    2009-07-13

    Soft matter consists of complex molecules that can undergo drastic structural transformations under mild changes of chemical and physical conditions. Since a wide variety of chemical, physical and biological processes occur at soft matter interfaces, they can exhibit complex behavior. This is even more so for interfaces of colloidal soft matter since the relative amount of interface material increases by orders of magnitude. Herein, we focus on new developments that enable us to obtain detailed molecular structural changes in the topmost molecular layers of soft matter interfaces composed of complex bio-molecules. In particular, the possibilities to probe interfaces of colloidal soft matter systems are discussed.

  1. Soft photon registration at Nuclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Kokoulina, Elena; Golovkin, V; Golovnya, S; Gorokhov, S; Kholodenko, A; Kiryakov, A; Lobanov, I; Polkovnikov, M; Ronzhin, V; Ryadovikov, V; Tsyupa, Yu; Vorobiev, A; Avdeichikov, V; Balandin, V; Dunin, V; Gavrishchuk, O; Isupov, A; Kuzmin, N; Nikitin, V; Petukhov, Yu; Reznikov, S; Rogov, V; Rufanov, I; Zhidkov, N; Zolin, L; Bogdanova, G; Popov, V; Volkov, V; Kutov, A; Kazakov, A; Pokatashkin, G; Salyanko, R

    2015-01-01

    First results of a soft photon yield in nucleus-nuclear interactions at 3.5 GeV per nucleon are presented. These photons have been registered at Nuclotron (LHEP, JINR) by an electromagnetic calorimeter built in the SVD Collaboration. The obtained spectra confirm the excess yield in the energy region less than 50 MeV in comparison with theoretical predictions and agree with previous experiments at high-energy interactions.

  2. MICROBIAL DIVERSITY IN SOFT DRINKS

    OpenAIRE

    Shiva Shanker, A.; Ashwitha Kodaparthi; Pavan Kumar Pindi

    2012-01-01

    A total of 4 carbonated soft drink (CSD) samples, from various locations in nine places of India were examined to determine their biological quality. Most samples were not in compliance with microbiological standards set by organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO). The prevailing bacterial isolates were Gluconobacter sp., Lactobacillus sp., and Leuconostoc sp. The prevailing fungal isolates were Penicillium expansum and the next isolate was Penicillium roqueforti. Many microorg...

  3. Microwave applications of soft ferrites

    CERN Document Server

    Pardavi-Horvath, M P

    2000-01-01

    Signal processing requires broadband, low-loss, low-cost microwave devices (circulators, isolators, phase shifters, absorbers). Soft ferrites (garnets, spinels, hexaferrites), applied in planar microwave devices, are reviewed from the point of view of device requirements. Magnetic properties, specific to operation in high-frequency electromagnetic fields, are discussed. Recent developments in thick film ferrite technology and device design are reviewed. Magnetic losses related to planar shape and inhomogeneous internal fields are analyzed.

  4. Soft Pneumatic Actuators for Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Belforte; Gabriella Eula; Alexandre Ivanov; Silvia Sirolli

    2014-01-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles are pneumatic devices with practical and various applications as common actuators. They, as human muscles, work in agonistic-antagonistic way, giving a traction force only when supplied by compressed air. The state of the art of soft pneumatic actuators is here analyzed: different models of pneumatic muscles are considered and evolution lines are presented. Then, the use of Pneumatic Muscles (PAM) in rehabilitation apparatus is described and the general characteri...

  5. MICROBIAL DIVERSITY IN SOFT DRINKS

    OpenAIRE

    Shiva Shanker, A.; Ashwitha Kodaparthi; Pavan Kumar Pindi

    2012-01-01

    A total of 4 carbonated soft drink (CSD) samples, from various locations in nine places of India were examined to determine their biological quality. Most samples were not in compliance with microbiological standards set by organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO). The prevailing bacterial isolates were Gluconobacter sp., Lactobacillus sp., and Leuconostoc sp. The prevailing fungal isolates were Penicillium expansum and the next isolate was Penicillium roqueforti. Many microorg...

  6. Time matters in soft proofing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Y. Hardeberg

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available One of latest developments for pre-press applications is the concept of soft proofing, which aims to provide an accurate preview on a monitor of how the final document will appear once it is printed. At the core of this concept is the problem of identifying, for any printed color, the most similar color the monitor can display. This problem is made difficult by such factors as varying viewing conditions, color gamut limitations, or the less studied color memory shift.Color matching experiments are usually done by examining samples viewed simultaneously. However, in soft proofing applications, the proof and the print are not always viewed together. This paper attempts to shed more light on the difference between simultaneous and time-spaced color matching, in order to contribute to improving the accuracy of soft proofs. A color matchingexperiment setup has been established in which observers were asked to match a color patch displayed on a LCD monitor, by adjusting its RGB values, to another color patch printed out on paper. In the first part of the experiment the two colors were viewed simultaneously. In the second part, the observers were asked to produce the match according to a previously memorized color. According to the obtained results, the color appearance attributes lightness and chroma were the most difficult components for the observers to remember, generating huge differences with the simultaneous match, whereas hue was the component which varied the least. This indicates that for soft proofing, getting the hues right is of primordial importance.

  7. Advance Trends in Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik; Kacprzyk, Janusz; WCSC 2013

    2014-01-01

    This book is the proceedings of the 3rd World Conference on Soft Computing (WCSC), which was held in San Antonio, TX, USA, on December 16-18, 2013. It presents start-of-the-art theory and applications of soft computing together with an in-depth discussion of current and future challenges in the field, providing readers with a 360 degree view on soft computing. Topics range from fuzzy sets, to fuzzy logic, fuzzy mathematics, neuro-fuzzy systems, fuzzy control, decision making in fuzzy environments, image processing and many more. The book is dedicated to Lotfi A. Zadeh, a renowned specialist in signal analysis and control systems research who proposed the idea of fuzzy sets, in which an element may have a partial membership, in the early 1960s, followed by the idea of fuzzy logic, in which a statement can be true only to a certain degree, with degrees described by numbers in the interval [0,1]. The performance of fuzzy systems can often be improved with the help of optimization techniques, e.g. evolutionary co...

  8. Gluing Soft Interfaces by Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhen; Dobrynin, Andrey

    Using a combination of the molecular dynamics simulations and scaling analysis we studied reinforcement of interface between two soft gel-like materials by spherical nanoparticles. Analysis of the simulations shows that the depth of penetration of a nanoparticle into a gel is determined by a balance of the elastic energy of the gel and nanoparticle deformations and the surface energy of nanoparticle/gel interface. In order to evaluate work of adhesion of the reinforced interface, the potential of mean force for separation of two gels was calculated. These simulations showed that the gel separation proceeds through formation of necks connecting nanoparticle with two gels. The shapes of the necks are controlled by a fine interplay between nanoparticle/gel surface energies and elastic energy of the neck deformation. Our simulations showed that by introducing nanoparticles at soft interfaces, the work required for separation of two gels could be 10-100 times larger than the work of adhesion between two gels without nanoparticle reinforcement. These results provide insight in understanding the mechanism of gluing soft gels and biological tissues by nano- and micro-sized particles. NSF DMR-1409710.

  9. Creativity from Constraints in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of constraints in limiting and enhancing creativity in engineering design. Based on a review of literature relating constraints to creativity, the paper presents a longitudinal participatory study from Coloplast A/S, a major international producer of disposable......, removal, introducing and revising. Constraints introduced late in a project contributed to the generation of new solutions to old problems, and existing solutions were creatively adopted to satisfy new constraints. This paper recommends creative constraint-handling strategies, as well as identifying...... potential directions for future research on the relationship between creativity and constraints...

  10. An achievement-weighted constraint satisfaction approach to modeling user preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokawa, Takashi; Ogawa, Hitoshi

    The presented study deals with the so-called soft constraint satisfaction problem (SCSP) and proposes an extension to the standard SCSP formulation to accommodate a wider class of over-constrained situations and allow for a generally higher level of flexibility in the constraint-driven problem-solving. The extended modeling approach called Achievement-Weighted Constraint Satisfaction (AWCS) assumes the definition of constraint parameters ``traditional'' for SCSPs, as well as additional parameters specified to dynamically manipulate constraint weights in the course of solution search. These latter parameters make it possible to ``relax'' over-constrained models and obtain a solution even when there are mutually contradicting rules utilized by an AWCS problem-solver. To explore the proposed modeling framework, a task of finding an optimal route in car navigation, based on user preferences - a popular are of research in SCSP studies - is considered. A case study is presented, in which an optimal route is first modeled with constraints reflecting user preferences. Problem solutions having different optimality levels are then obtained. A software system is developed to automate both the optimal route modeling (via interaction with the user) and the solution search processes. The system is applied in an experiment conducted to validate the theoretical ideas. Experimental results are discussed, and conclusions are drawn.

  11. Self-Imposed Creativity Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    2013-01-01

    . As the majority of work in creativity research originates from psychology, the dissertation shows how the humanities – given their salient critical-analytical reflection and high concept awareness – can contribute new types of studies to creativity research, which, despite its blossoming as a field, is becoming...... increasingly fragmented and in need of new ‘big’ unifying questions. Hence the designation of the dissertation’s research approach. The four papers serve a dual purpose. They are contributions in their own right, and they provide partial answers to the overall research question. In this respect, the concept...... of the current dispersed studies on constraints in creativity, spanning psychology, engineering, philosophy, design, and aesthetics. (2) Definitions, concepts, and models of self-imposed creativity constraints for analytical application within and across creative domains, including the 6i model for demonstrating...

  12. Observational Constraints on Exponential Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Louis; Luo, Ling-Wei; Geng, Chao-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    We study the observational constraints on the exponential gravity model of f(R)=-beta*Rs(1-e^(-R/Rs)). We use the latest observational data including Supernova Cosmology Project (SCP) Union2 compilation, Two-Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS), Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7) and Seven-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP7) in our analysis. From these observations, we obtain a lower bound on the model parameter beta at 1.27 (95% CL) but no appreciable upper bound. The constraint on the present matter density parameter is 0.245< Omega_m^0<0.311 (95% CL). We also find out the best-fit value of model parameters on several cases.

  13. A Compendium of Chameleon Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Burrage, Clare

    2016-01-01

    The chameleon model is a scalar field theory with a screening mechanism that explains how a cosmologically relevant light scalar can avoid the constraints of intra-solar-system searches for fifth-forces. The chameleon is a popular dark energy candidate and also arises in $f(R)$ theories of gravity. Whilst the chameleon is designed to avoid historical searches for fifth-forces it is not unobservable and much effort has gone into identifying the best observables and experiments to detect it. These results are not always presented for the same models or in the same language, a particular problem when comparing astrophysical and laboratory searches making it difficult to understand what regions of parameter space remain. Here we present combined constraints on the chameleon model from astrophysical and laboratory searches for the first time and identify the remaining windows of parameter space. We discuss the implications for cosmological chameleon searches and future small-scale probes.

  14. Integral Constraints and MHD Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, T. H.

    2003-10-01

    Determining stability of a plasma in MHD equilibrium, energetically isolated by a conducting wall, requires an assumption on what governs the dynamics of the plasma. One example is the assumption that the plasma obeys ideal MHD, leading to the well known ``δ W" criteria [I. Bernstein, et al., Proc. Roy. Soc. London A244, 17 (1958)]. A radically different approach was used by Taylor [J.B. Taylor, Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 741 (1986)] in assuming that the dynamics of the plasma is restricted only by the requirement that helicity, an integral constant associated with the plasma, is conserved. The relevancy of Taylor's assumption is supported by the agreement between resulting theoretical results and experimental observations. Another integral constraint involves the canonical angular momentum of the plasma particles. One consequence of using this constraint is that tokamak plasmas have no poloidal current in agreement with some current hole tokamak observations [T.H. Jensen, Phys. Lett. A 305, 183 (2002)].

  15. A compendium of chameleon constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrage, Clare; Sakstein, Jeremy

    2016-11-01

    The chameleon model is a scalar field theory with a screening mechanism that explains how a cosmologically relevant light scalar can avoid the constraints of intra-solar-system searches for fifth-forces. The chameleon is a popular dark energy candidate and also arises in f(R) theories of gravity. Whilst the chameleon is designed to avoid historical searches for fifth-forces it is not unobservable and much effort has gone into identifying the best observables and experiments to detect it. These results are not always presented for the same models or in the same language, a particular problem when comparing astrophysical and laboratory searches making it difficult to understand what regions of parameter space remain. Here we present combined constraints on the chameleon model from astrophysical and laboratory searches for the first time and identify the remaining windows of parameter space. We discuss the implications for cosmological chameleon searches and future small-scale probes.

  16. Self-Imposed Creativity Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This dissertation epitomizes three years of research guided by the research question: how can we conceptualize creative self-binding as a resource in art and design processes? Concretely, the dissertation seeks to offer insight into the puzzling observation that highly skilled creative...... practitioners sometimes freely and intentionally impose rigid rules, peculiar principles, and other kinds of creative obstructions on themselves as a means to spur momentum in the process and reach a distinctly original outcome. To investigate this the dissertation is composed of four papers (Part II) framed...... of analysis. Informed by the insight that constraints both enable and restrain creative agency, the dissertation’s main contention is that creative self- binding may profitably be conceptualized as the exercise of self-imposed creativity constraints. Thus, the dissertation marks an analytical move from vague...

  17. Lessons from the Russian meltdown : the economics of soft legal constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.

    2002-01-01

    On August 17, 1998, Russia defaulted on its domestic public debt, declared a moratorium on the private banks foreign liabilities which was equivalent to an outright default, and abandoned its exchange rate regime. The depth of the Russian meltdown shocked the international markets, and precipitated

  18. Lessons from the Russian meltdown : the economics of soft legal constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.

    2001-01-01

    On August 17, 1998, Russia defaulted on its domestic public debt, declared a moratorium on the private banks foreign liabilities which was equivalent to an outright default, and abandoned its exchange rate regime. The depth of the Russian meltdown shocked the international markets, and precipitated

  19. The stabilizing effect of soft-tissue constraints in artificial Galeazzi fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T M; Lester, D K; Sarmiento, A

    1985-04-01

    Shortening of the radius is observed in Galeazzi (Piedmont) fractures and results from muscle pull after distal radioulnar joint disruption. A cadaver study was designed to examine the normal laxity at the distal radioulnar joint and contributions of the fibrocartilaginous complex (triangular ligament) and the interosseous membrane in prevention of proximal displacement of the distal radius fragment. It was found that up to 5 mm of radial shortening occurred after osteotomy alone. Shortening of over 10 mm did not occur unless both the interosseous ligament and the triangular ligament were sectioned. Some Galeazzi-type fractures may occur in the absence of distal radioulnar joint disruption, and others may result in disruption of the interosseous membrane of the forearm in addition to disruption of the triangular ligament at the wrist. Diaphyseal fractures of the distal radius may occur in several stages of severity. Attempts to produce a Galeazzi lesion by axial loading and pronation of the forearm above the dorsiflexed wrist caused a variety of injuries but did not result in an isolated fracture of the distal radius or disruption of the distal radioulnar joint.

  20. Lessons from the Russian meltdown : the economics of soft legal constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.

    2002-01-01

    On 17 August 1998 Russia abandoned its exchange rate regime, defaulted on its domestic public debt and declared a moratorium on banks' foreign liabilities. This was equivalent to an outright default. The depth and speed of the Russian meltdown shocked the international markets and precipitated a

  1. Soft budget constraint but no moral hazard? The Dutch local government bailout puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allers, Maarten; Merkus, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The fiscal federalism and public choice literatures stress that government bailouts should be avoided as they increase the probability that governments incur unsustainable debt levels or take excessive risk (moral hazard problem). The current problems in the euro area seem to confirm this view. Howe

  2. Lessons from the Russian meltdown : the economics of soft legal constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.

    2001-01-01

    On August 17, 1998, Russia defaulted on its domestic public debt, declared a moratorium on the private banks foreign liabilities which was equivalent to an outright default, and abandoned its exchange rate regime. The depth of the Russian meltdown shocked the international markets, and precipitated

  3. Lessons from the Russian meltdown : the economics of soft legal constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.

    2002-01-01

    On August 17, 1998, Russia defaulted on its domestic public debt, declared a moratorium on the private banks foreign liabilities which was equivalent to an outright default, and abandoned its exchange rate regime. The depth of the Russian meltdown shocked the international markets, and precipitated

  4. Lessons from the Russian meltdown : the economics of soft legal constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.

    2002-01-01

    On 17 August 1998 Russia abandoned its exchange rate regime, defaulted on its domestic public debt and declared a moratorium on banks' foreign liabilities. This was equivalent to an outright default. The depth and speed of the Russian meltdown shocked the international markets and precipitated a per

  5. Fine-Grained Linguistic Soft Constraints on Statistical Natural Language Processing Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    monolingual paraphrases for the unigram baile improve when using the larger corpus, (e.g., danza and un balie become the third and fourth top candidates...paraphrases of deal are semantically close to it (agreement, 127 pivot wmt09+acquis wmt09+acquis+afp Source: baile danza el baile el baile bailar baile y...baile y a de david palomar y la danza dans viejo como quien se acomoda una un baile empresa por julián estrada el tercero de teatro coro al baile a

  6. The Soft Constraints Hypothesis: A Rational Analysis Approach to Resource Allocation for Interactive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    analysis approach from signal-detection theorists (Geisler, 2003; Macmillan & Creelman , 2004) with rational analysis (Anderson, 1990, 1991) to present an...Rational Analysis3 Our ideal performer analysis combines elements of an ideal observer analysis (Geisler, 2003; Macmillan & Creelman , 2004) with those...of rational analysis (Anderson, 1990, 1991). The ideal observer analysis (Geisler, 2003; Macmillan & Creelman , 2004) is used to “determine the

  7. Deepening Contractions and Collateral Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik; Ravn, Søren Hove; Santoro, Emiliano

    on the differential impact that occasionally non-binding constraints exert on the shape of expansions and contractions, we are also able to reconcile a more negatively skewed business cycle with a moderation in its volatility. Finally, our model can account for an intrinsic feature of economic downturns preceded...... by private credit build-ups: Financially driven expansions lead to deeper contractions, as compared to equally-sized non-financial expansions....

  8. Managing Restaurant Tables using Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, Alfio; Brown, Kenneth N.; Beck, J. Christopher

    Restaurant table management can have significant impact on both profitability and the customer experience. The core of the issue is a complex dynamic combinatorial problem. We show how to model the problem as constraint satisfaction, with extensions which generate flexible seating plans and which maintain stability when changes occur. We describe an implemented system which provides advice to users in real time. The system is currently being evaluated in a restaurant environment.

  9. Causality constraints on TMD PDF

    CERN Document Server

    Efremov, A V

    2013-01-01

    In this short note, we discuss constraints on the transverse momentum dependent factorization formulae coming from the causality properties for the hadronic tensor. We show that the range of definition of the TMD PDFs in the transverse coordinate plane is wider that it is allowed by the causality. It indicates the presents of the large compensating corrections for the TMD PDF factorization theorem and/or overestimation of the transverse component dependence of TMD PDF.

  10. Expressing Preferences using Preference Set Constraint Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Brik, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces an extension of Answer Set Programming called Preference Set Constraint Programming which is a convenient and general formalism to reason with preferences. PSC programming extends Set Constraint Programming introduced by Marek and Remmel (Marek and Remmel 2004) by introducing two types of preference set constraint atoms, measure preference set constraint atoms and pre-ordered preference set constraint atoms, which are extensions of set constraint atoms. We show that the question of whether a PSC program has a preferred stable model is CoNP-complete. We give examples of the uses of the preference set constraint atoms and show that Answer Set Optimization (Brewka, Niemel\\"a, and Truszczynski 2003) and General Preference (Son and Pontelli 2006) can be expressed using preference set constraint atoms.

  11. Relaxations of semiring constraint satisfaction problems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leenen, L

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The Semiring Constraint Satisfaction Problem (SCSP) framework is a popular approach for the representation of partial constraint satisfaction problems. In this framework preferences can be associated with tuples of values of the variable domains...

  12. Infrared Constraint on Ultraviolet Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Yuhsin [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2012-08-01

    While our current paradigm of particle physics, the Standard Model (SM), has been extremely successful at explaining experiments, it is theoretically incomplete and must be embedded into a larger framework. In this thesis, we review the main motivations for theories beyond the SM (BSM) and the ways such theories can be constrained using low energy physics. The hierarchy problem, neutrino mass and the existence of dark matter (DM) are the main reasons why the SM is incomplete . Two of the most plausible theories that may solve the hierarchy problem are the Randall-Sundrum (RS) models and supersymmetry (SUSY). RS models usually suffer from strong flavor constraints, while SUSY models produce extra degrees of freedom that need to be hidden from current experiments. To show the importance of infrared (IR) physics constraints, we discuss the flavor bounds on the anarchic RS model in both the lepton and quark sectors. For SUSY models, we discuss the difficulties in obtaining a phenomenologically allowed gaugino mass, its relation to R-symmetry breaking, and how to build a model that avoids this problem. For the neutrino mass problem, we discuss the idea of generating small neutrino masses using compositeness. By requiring successful leptogenesis and the existence of warm dark matter (WDM), we can set various constraints on the hidden composite sector. Finally, to give an example of model independent bounds from collider experiments, we show how to constrain the DM–SM particle interactions using collider results with an effective coupling description.

  13. Closure constraints for hyperbolic tetrahedra

    CERN Document Server

    Charles, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the generalization of loop gravity's twisted geometries to a q-deformed gauge group. In the standard undeformed case, loop gravity is a formulation of general relativity as a diffeomorphism-invariant SU(2) gauge theory. Its classical states are graphs provided with algebraic data. In particular closure constraints at every node of the graph ensure their interpretation as twisted geometries. Dual to each node, one has a polyhedron embedded in flat space R^3. One then glues them allowing for both curvature and torsion. It was recently conjectured that q-deforming the gauge group SU(2) would allow to account for a non-vanishing cosmological constant Lambda, and in particular that deforming the loop gravity phase space with real parameter q>0 would lead to a generalization of twisted geometries to a hyperbolic curvature. Following this insight, we look for generalization of the closure constraints to the hyperbolic case. In particular, we introduce two new closure constraints for hyperbolic tetrahe...

  14. Updating neutrino magnetic moment constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Cañas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we provide an updated analysis of the neutrino magnetic moments (NMMs, discussing both the constraints on the magnitudes of the three transition moments Λi and the role of the CP violating phases present both in the mixing matrix and in the NMM matrix. The scattering of solar neutrinos off electrons in Borexino provides the most stringent restrictions, due to its robust statistics and the low energies observed, below 1 MeV. Our new limit on the effective neutrino magnetic moment which follows from the most recent Borexino data is 3.1×10−11μB at 90% C.L. This corresponds to the individual transition magnetic moment constraints: |Λ1|≤5.6×10−11μB, |Λ2|≤4.0×10−11μB, and |Λ3|≤3.1×10−11μB (90% C.L., irrespective of any complex phase. Indeed, the incoherent admixture of neutrino mass eigenstates present in the solar flux makes Borexino insensitive to the Majorana phases present in the NMM matrix. For this reason we also provide a global analysis including the case of reactor and accelerator neutrino sources, presenting the resulting constraints for different values of the relevant CP phases. Improved reactor and accelerator neutrino experiments will be needed in order to underpin the full profile of the neutrino electromagnetic properties.

  15. Geometric constraint solving with geometric transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes two algorithms for solving geometric constraint systems. The first algorithm is for constrained systems without loops and has linear complexity. The second algorithm can solve constraint systems with loops. The latter algorithm is of quadratic complexity and is complete for constraint problems about simple polygons. The key to it is to combine the idea of graph based methods for geometric constraint solving and geometric transformations coming from rule-based methods.

  16. Ant colony optimization and constraint programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solnon, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic which has been successfully applied to a wide range of combinatorial optimization problems. The author describes this metaheuristic and studies its efficiency for solving some hard combinatorial problems, with a specific focus on constraint programming. The text is organized into three parts. The first part introduces constraint programming, which provides high level features to declaratively model problems by means of constraints. It describes the main existing approaches for solving constraint satisfaction problems, including complete tree search

  17. Soft particle production in very high energy hadron interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebr, Jan; Nečesal, Petr; Ridky, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Indications of a discrepancy between simulations and data on the number of muons in cosmic ray (CR) showers exist over a large span of energies. We focus in particular on the excess of multi-muon bundles observed by the DELPHI detector at LEP and on the excess in the muon number in general reported by the Pierre Auger Observatory. Even though the primary CR energies relevant for these experiments differ by orders of magnitude, we can find a single mechanism which can simultaneously increase predicted muon counts for both, while not violating constraints from accelerators or from the longitudinal shower development as observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory. We present a brief motivation and describe a practical implementation of such a model, based on the addition of soft particles to interactions above a chosen energy threshold. Results of an extensive set of simulations show the behavior of this model in various parts of a simplified parameter space.

  18. Soft Particle Production in Very High Energy Hadron Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ebr, Jan; Ridky, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Indications of a discrepancy between simulations and data on the number of muons in cosmic ray (CR) showers exist over a large span of energies. We focus in particular on the excess of multi-muon bundles observed by the DELPHI detector at LEP and on the excess in the muon number in general reported by the Pierre Auger Observatory. Even though the primary CR energies relevant for these experiments differ by orders of magnitude, we can find a single mechanism which can simultaneously increase predicted muon counts for both, while not violating constraints from accelerators or from the longitudinal shower development as observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory. We present a brief theoretical motivation and describe a practical implementation of such a model, based on the addition of soft particles to interactions above a chosen energy threshold. Results of an extensive set of simulations show the behavior of this model in various parts of a simplified parameter space.

  19. Molecular hardness and softness, local hardness and softness, hardness and softness kernels, and relations among these quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Max; Parr, Robert G.

    1988-02-01

    Hardness and softness kernels η(r,r') and s(r,r') are defined for the ground state of an atomic or molecular electronic system, and the previously defined local hardness and softness η(r) and s(r) and global hardness and softness η and S are obtained from them. The physical meaning of s(r), as a charge capacitance, is discussed (following Huheey and Politzer), and two alternative ``hardness'' indices are identified and briefly discussed.

  20. Set Constraints and Logic Programming (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-24

    Assoc Comput Sci Logic Springer September A Aiken D Kozen and E Wimmers Decidability of systems of set constraints with negative...Extensions of Logic Programming ELP volume of Lect Notes Articial Intell pages Springer February J Englefriet Tree... Springer September D Kozen Set constraints and logic programming abstract In JP Jouannaud editor Proc First Conf Constraints in

  1. A general treatment of dynamic integrity constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Brock, EO

    This paper introduces a general, set-theoretic model for expressing dynamic integrity constraints, i.e., integrity constraints on the state changes that are allowed in a given state space. In a managerial context, such dynamic integrity constraints can be seen as representations of "real world"

  2. The Ambiguous Role of Constraints in Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjær, Michael Mose; Onarheim, Balder; Wiltschnig, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between creativity and constraints is often described in the literature either in rather imprecise, general concepts or in relation to very specific domains. Cross-domain and cross-disciplinary takes on how the handling of constraints influences creative activities are rare. In t......-disciplinary research into the ambiguous role of constraints in creativity....

  3. A general treatment of dynamic integrity constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Brock, EO

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces a general, set-theoretic model for expressing dynamic integrity constraints, i.e., integrity constraints on the state changes that are allowed in a given state space. In a managerial context, such dynamic integrity constraints can be seen as representations of "real world" cons

  4. Soft Skills for Hard Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorov, Ivo; Davidson, Joy; Knoth, Petr; Kuchma, Iryna; Schmidt, Birgit; Rettberg, Najla; Rogrigues, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    Marine and Earth Science graduates will be under increasing pressure in future to delve into research questions of relevance to societal challenges. Even fundamental research focused on basic processes of the environment and universe will in the coming decade need to justify their societal impact. As the Research Excellence Frameworks (REF) for research evaluation shift more and more away from the classical Impact Factor and number of peer-reviewed publications to "societal impact", the question remains whether the current graduates, and future researchers, are sufficiently prepared to deal with this reality. The essential compliment of skills beyond research excellence, rigor and method are traditionally described as "soft skills". This includes how to formulate an argument, how to construct a scientific publication, how to communicate such publications to non-experts, place them in context of societal challenges and relevant policies, how to write a competitive proposal and "market" one's research idea to build a research group around an interesting research topic. Such "soft skills" can produce very measurable and concrete impact for career development, but are rarely provided systematically and coherently by graduate schools in general. The presentation will focus on Open Science as a set of "soft skills", and demonstrate why graduate schools should train Open Science competencies alongside research excellence by default. Open Science is about removing all barriers to research process and outputs, both published and unpublished, and directly supports transparency and reproducibility of the research process. Open Science as a set of news competencies can also foster unexpected collaborations, engage citizen scientists into co-creation of solutions to societal challenges, as well as use concepts of Open Science to transfer new knowledge to the knowledge-based private sector, and help them with formulating more competitive research proposals in future.

  5. Hard Identity and Soft Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rachik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Often collective identities are classified depending on their contents and rarely depending on their forms. Differentiation between soft identity and hard identity is applied to diverse collective identities: religious, political, national, tribal ones, etc. This classification is made following the principal dimensions of collective identities: type of classification (univocal and exclusive or relative and contextual, the absence or presence of conflictsof loyalty, selective or totalitarian, objective or subjective conception, among others. The different characteristics analysed contribute to outlining an increasingly frequent type of identity: the authoritarian identity.

  6. Ordering multiple soft gluon emissions

    CERN Document Server

    Ángeles-Martínez, René; Seymour, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    We present an expression for the QCD amplitude for a general hard scattering process with any number of soft gluon emissions, to one-loop accuracy. The amplitude is written in two different but equivalent ways: as a product of operators ordered in dipole transverse momentum and as a product of loop-expanded currents. We hope that these results will help in the development of an all-orders algorithm for multiple emissions that includes the full colour structure and both the real and imaginary contributions to the amplitude.

  7. Register file soft error recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Wait, Charles D.; Muff, Adam J.; Watson, III, Alfred T.

    2013-10-15

    Register file soft error recovery including a system that includes a first register file and a second register file that mirrors the first register file. The system also includes an arithmetic pipeline for receiving data read from the first register file, and error detection circuitry to detect whether the data read from the first register file includes corrupted data. The system further includes error recovery circuitry to insert an error recovery instruction into the arithmetic pipeline in response to detecting the corrupted data. The inserted error recovery instruction replaces the corrupted data in the first register file with a copy of the data from the second register file.

  8. Soft computing application in bioinformatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MITRA Sushmita

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an outline on a recent application of soft computing for the mining of microarray gene expres-sions. We describe investigations with an evolutionary-rough feature selection algorithm for feature selection and classifica-tion on cancer data. Rough set theory is employed to generate reducts, which represent the minimal sets of non-redundant eatures capable of discerning between all objects, in a multi-objective framework. The experimental results demonstrate the ffectiveness of the methodology on three cancer datasets.

  9. The mathematics of Soft logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Moshe; Maimon, Oded

    2016-11-01

    We strive to understand, by using mathematical tools, the phenomena where the observer can interpret simultaneously opposite situations, such as the distinct interpretations of the Necker cube. In this study we present a new coordinate system that draws a distinction between -0 and +0. The central theorem presented here postulates that when divisions and multiplications of 0 are combined with real numbers, the Mobius strip provides a model for non-standard analysis. We also suggest that the axis 0 is the fifth dimension extension of the quaternions. We also propose to add the soft logic capability to humanoid type robots, as a way to overcome the Turing test.

  10. High thermal conductivity in soft elastomers with elongated liquid metal inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Michael D.; Powell-Palm, Matthew J.; Huang, Xiaonan; Sun, Wenhuan; Malen, Jonathan A.; Majidi, Carmel

    2017-01-01

    Soft dielectric materials typically exhibit poor heat transfer properties due to the dynamics of phonon transport, which constrain thermal conductivity (k) to decrease monotonically with decreasing elastic modulus (E). This thermal−mechanical trade-off is limiting for wearable computing, soft robotics, and other emerging applications that require materials with both high thermal conductivity and low mechanical stiffness. Here, we overcome this constraint with an electrically insulating composite that exhibits an unprecedented combination of metal-like thermal conductivity, an elastic compliance similar to soft biological tissue (Young’s modulus 600% strain). By incorporating liquid metal (LM) microdroplets into a soft elastomer, we achieve a ∼25× increase in thermal conductivity (4.7 ± 0.2 W⋅m−1⋅K−1) over the base polymer (0.20 ± 0.01 W⋅m−1·K−1) under stress-free conditions and a ∼50× increase (9.8 ± 0.8 W⋅m−1·K−1) when strained. This exceptional combination of thermal and mechanical properties is enabled by a unique thermal−mechanical coupling that exploits the deformability of the LM inclusions to create thermally conductive pathways in situ. Moreover, these materials offer possibilities for passive heat exchange in stretchable electronics and bioinspired robotics, which we demonstrate through the rapid heat dissipation of an elastomer-mounted extreme high-power LED lamp and a swimming soft robot. PMID:28193902

  11. High thermal conductivity in soft elastomers with elongated liquid metal inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Michael D; Kazem, Navid; Powell-Palm, Matthew J; Huang, Xiaonan; Sun, Wenhuan; Malen, Jonathan A; Majidi, Carmel

    2017-02-28

    Soft dielectric materials typically exhibit poor heat transfer properties due to the dynamics of phonon transport, which constrain thermal conductivity (k) to decrease monotonically with decreasing elastic modulus (E). This thermal-mechanical trade-off is limiting for wearable computing, soft robotics, and other emerging applications that require materials with both high thermal conductivity and low mechanical stiffness. Here, we overcome this constraint with an electrically insulating composite that exhibits an unprecedented combination of metal-like thermal conductivity, an elastic compliance similar to soft biological tissue (Young's modulus 600% strain). By incorporating liquid metal (LM) microdroplets into a soft elastomer, we achieve a ∼25× increase in thermal conductivity (4.7 ± 0.2 W⋅m(-1)⋅K(-1)) over the base polymer (0.20 ± 0.01 W⋅m(-1)·K(-1)) under stress-free conditions and a ∼50× increase (9.8 ± 0.8 W⋅m(-1)·K(-1)) when strained. This exceptional combination of thermal and mechanical properties is enabled by a unique thermal-mechanical coupling that exploits the deformability of the LM inclusions to create thermally conductive pathways in situ. Moreover, these materials offer possibilities for passive heat exchange in stretchable electronics and bioinspired robotics, which we demonstrate through the rapid heat dissipation of an elastomer-mounted extreme high-power LED lamp and a swimming soft robot.

  12. Multiple Soft Limits of Cosmological Correlation Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Joyce, Austin; Simonović, Marko

    2015-01-01

    We derive novel identities satisfied by inflationary correlation functions in the limit where two external momenta are taken to be small. We derive these statements in two ways: using background-wave arguments and as Ward identities following from the fixed-time path integral. Interestingly, these identities allow us to constrain some of the O(q^2) components of the soft limit, in contrast to their single-soft analogues. We provide several nontrivial checks of our identities both in the context of resonant non-Gaussianities and in small sound speed models. Additionally, we extend the relation at lowest order in external momenta to arbitrarily many soft legs, and comment on the many-soft extension at higher orders in the soft momentum. Finally, we consider how higher soft limits lead to identities satisfied by correlation functions in large-scale structure.

  13. Multiple soft limits of cosmological correlation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, Austin [Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Khoury, Justin [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Simonović, Marko, E-mail: ajoy@uchicago.edu, E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu, E-mail: msimonov@sissa.it [SISSA, via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy)

    2015-01-01

    We derive novel identities satisfied by inflationary correlation functions in the limit where two external momenta are taken to be small. We derive these statements in two ways: using background-wave arguments and as Ward identities following from the fixed-time path integral. Interestingly, these identities allow us to constrain some of the O(q{sup 2}) components of the soft limit, in contrast to their single-soft analogues. We provide several nontrivial checks of our identities both in the context of resonant non-Gaussianities and in small sound speed models. Additionally, we extend the relation at lowest order in external momenta to arbitrarily many soft legs, and comment on the many-soft extension at higher orders in the soft momentum. Finally, we consider how higher soft limits lead to identities satisfied by correlation functions in large-scale structure.

  14. Imaging of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turecki, Marcin B.; Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Holden, Dean A.; Hunter, Tim B.; Rogers, Lee F. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Stubbs, Alana Y. [Southern Arizona VA Health Care System, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Graham, Anna R. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Pathology, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Prompt and appropriate imaging work-up of the various musculoskeletal soft tissue infections aids early diagnosis and treatment and decreases the risk of complications resulting from misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. The signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections can be nonspecific, making it clinically difficult to distinguish between disease processes and the extent of disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of soft tissue infections. Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, radiography and nuclear medicine studies are considered ancillary. This manuscript illustrates representative images of superficial and deep soft tissue infections such as infectious cellulitis, superficial and deep fasciitis, including the necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis/soft tissue abscess, septic bursitis and tenosynovitis on different imaging modalities, with emphasis on MRI. Typical histopathologic findings of soft tissue infections are also presented. The imaging approach described in the manuscript is based on relevant literature and authors' personal experience and everyday practice. (orig.)

  15. Constructing Amplitudes from Their Soft Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher-Veronneau, Camille; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC

    2011-12-09

    The existence of universal soft limits for gauge-theory and gravity amplitudes has been known for a long time. The properties of the soft limits have been exploited in numerous ways; in particular for relating an n-point amplitude to an (n-1)-point amplitude by removing a soft particle. Recently, a procedure called inverse soft was developed by which 'soft' particles can be systematically added to an amplitude to construct a higher-point amplitude for generic kinematics. We review this procedure and relate it to Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten recursion. We show that all tree-level amplitudes in gauge theory and gravity up through seven points can be constructed in this way, as well as certain classes of NMHV gauge-theory amplitudes with any number of external legs. This provides us with a systematic procedure for constructing amplitudes solely from their soft limits.

  16. Constructing amplitudes from their soft limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher-Veronneau, Camille; Larkoski, Andrew J.

    2011-09-01

    The existence of universal soft limits for gauge-theory and gravity amplitudes has been known for a long time. The properties of the soft limits have been exploited in numerous ways; in particular for relating an n-point amplitude to an ( n - 1)-point amplitude by removing a soft particle. Recently, a procedure called inverse soft was developed by which "soft" particles can be systematically added to an amplitude to construct a higher-point amplitude for generic kinematics. We review this procedure and relate it to Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten recursion. We show that all tree-level amplitudes in gauge theory and gravity up through seven points can be constructed in this way, as well as certain classes of NMHV gauge-theory amplitudes with any number of external legs. This provides us with a systematic procedure for constructing amplitudes solely from their soft limits.

  17. Nasal Soft-Tissue Triangle Deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2016-08-01

    The soft-tissue triangle is one of the least areas attended to in rhinoplasty. Any postoperative retraction, notching, or asymmetries of soft triangles can seriously affect the rhinoplasty outcome. A good understanding of the risk factors predisposing to soft triangle deformities is necessary to prevent such problems. The commonest risk factors in our study were the wide vertical domal angle between the lateral and intermediate crura, and the increased length of intermediate crus. Two types of soft triangle grafts were described to prevent and treat soft triangle deformities. The used soft triangle grafts resulted in an excellent long-term aesthetic and functional improvement. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Acoustomechanical constitutive theory for soft materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengxian Xin; Tian Jian Lu

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic wave propagation from surrounding medium into a soft material can generate acoustic radiation stress due to acoustic momentum transfer inside the medium and material, as well as at the interface between the two. To analyze acoustic-induced deformation of soft materials, we establish an acoustomechanical constitutive theory by com-bining the acoustic radiation stress theory and the nonlinear elasticity theory for soft materials. The acoustic radiation stress tensor is formulated by time averaging the momen-tum equation of particle motion, which is then introduced into the nonlinear elasticity constitutive relation to construct the acoustomechanical constitutive theory for soft materials. Considering a specified case of soft material sheet subjected to two counter-propagating acoustic waves, we demonstrate the nonlinear large deformation of the soft material and ana-lyze the interaction between acoustic waves and material deformation under the conditions of total reflection, acoustic transparency, and acoustic mismatch.

  19. Subleading Soft Factor for String Disk Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Schwab, Burkhard U W

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of superstring disk scattering amplitudes in the presence of a soft external momentum at finite string tension. We prove that there are no $\\alpha'$-corrections to the field theory form of the subleading soft factor $S^{(1)}$. At the end of this work, we also comment on the possibility to find the corresponding subleading soft factors in closed string theory using our result and the KLT relations.

  20. Soft errors in modern electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolaidis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive presentation of the most advanced research results and technological developments enabling understanding, qualifying and mitigating the soft errors effect in advanced electronics, including the fundamental physical mechanisms of radiation induced soft errors, the various steps that lead to a system failure, the modelling and simulation of soft error at various levels (including physical, electrical, netlist, event driven, RTL, and system level modelling and simulation), hardware fault injection, accelerated radiation testing and natural environment testing, s

  1. Stabilization of Very Soft Soils Using Geosynthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    AIN 245 STABILIZATION OF VERY SOFT SOILS USING GEOSYNTHETICS U (U) ARMY ENGINEER UATER&IAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG MS GEOTECI4NICAL LRB J...OTIC FILE COPMISCELLANE0USPAEGL8- STABILIZATION OF VERY SOFT SOILS USING GEOSYNTHETICS by Jack Fowler Geotechnical Laboratory Itn DEPARTMENT OF THE...Stabilization of Ver’: Soft Soils Using Geosynthetics 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Fowler, Jack, KoWerner, R. M. 13a TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT

  2. Constraint Specialisation in Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query-answer transformation of a given set of clauses and a goal. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top......-down and propagate answer constraints bottom-up. Our approach does not unfold the clauses at all; we use the constraints from the model to compute a specialised version of each clause in the program. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and the constraints theory underlying the clauses. Experimental...

  3. Minimal Model Semantics for Sorted Constraint Representation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖乐健; 史忠植

    1995-01-01

    Sorted constraint representation is a very useful representation in AI which combines class hierarchies and constraint networks.For such sorted constraint representation,a problem is how to generalize the idea of default inheritance to constraint network,where the attributes in a class or between different classes interact with each other via the network.To give a formal account for the defeasible reasoning in such representation,a general sorted constraint logic is proposed,and a minimal-model semantics for the logic is presented.

  4. Puncture mechanics of soft solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhouri, Sami; Hutchens, Shelby B; Crosby, Alfred J

    2015-06-21

    Gels and other soft elastic networks are a ubiquitous and important class of materials whose unique properties enable special behavior, but generally elude characterization due to the inherent difficulty in manipulating them. An example of such behavior is the stability of gels to large local deformations on their surface. This paper analyzes puncture of model soft materials with particular focus on the force response to deep indentation and the critical load for material failure. Large-strain behavior during deep indentation is described with a neo-hookean contact model. A fracture process zone model is applied to the critical load for puncture. It is found that the indenter geometry influences the size of the fracture process zone, resulting in two distinct failure regimes: stress-limited and energy-limited. The methods outlined in this paper provide a simple means for measuring Young's modulus, E, as well as the material's maximum cohesive stress, σ0, fracture energy, Γ0, and the intrinsic length scale linking the two, l0, all without requiring specialized sample preparation.

  5. Nanoscale Mixing of Soft Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Sangwoo; Soto, Haidy E.; Lodge, Timothy P.; Bates, Frank S. (UMM); (Texas)

    2013-03-07

    Assessing the state of mixing on the molecular scale in soft solids is challenging. Concentrated solutions of micelles formed by self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PS-PEP) diblock copolymers in squalane (C{sub 30}H{sub 62}) adopt a body-centered cubic (bcc) lattice, with glassy PS cores. Utilizing small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and isotopic labeling ({sup 1}H and {sup 2}H (D) polystyrene blocks) in a contrast-matching solvent (a mixture of squalane and perdeuterated squalane), we demonstrate quantitatively the remarkable fact that a commercial mixer can create completely random mixtures of micelles with either normal, PS(H), or deuterium-labeled, PS(D), cores on a well-defined bcc lattice. The resulting SANS intensity is quantitatively modeled by the form factor of a single spherical core. These results demonstrate both the possibility of achieving complete nanoscale mixing in a soft solid and the use of SANS to quantify the randomness.

  6. Liquid drops on soft solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Luuk A.; Weijs, Joost H.; Das, Siddhartha; Botto, Lorenzo; Andreotti, Bruno; Snoeijer, Jacco H.

    2014-03-01

    A sessile drop can elastically deform a substrate by the action of capillary forces. The typical size of the deformation is given by the ratio of surface tension and the elastic modulus, γ / E , which can reach up to 10-100 microns for soft elastomers. In this talk we theoretically show that the contact angles of drops on such a surface exhibit two transitions when increasing γ / E : (i) the microsocopic geometry of the contact line first develops a Neumann-like cusp when γ / E is of the order of few nanometers, (ii) the macroscopic angle of the drop is altered only when γ / E reaches the size of the drop. Using the same framework we then show that two neighboring drops exhibit an effective interaction, mediated by the deformation of the elastic medium. This is in analogy to the well-known Cheerios effect, where small particles at a liquid interface attract each other due to the meniscus deformations. Here we reveal the nature of drop-drop interactions on a soft substrate by combining numerical and analytical calculations.

  7. Distributed Wind Soft Costs: A Beginning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, Tony; Forsyth,Trudy; Preus, Robert; Christol, Corrie; Orrell, Alice; Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-06-14

    Tony Jimenez presented this overview of distributed wind soft costs at the 2016 Small Wind Conference in Stevens Point, Wisconsin, on June 14, 2016. Soft costs are any non-hardware project costs, such as costs related to permitting fees, installer/developer profit, taxes, transaction costs, permitting, installation, indirect corporate costs, installation labor, and supply chain costs. This presentation provides an overview of soft costs, a distributed wind project taxonomy (of which soft costs are a subset), an alpha data set project demographics, data summary, and future work in this area.

  8. Soft optics in intelligent optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shue, Chikong; Cao, Yang

    2001-10-01

    In addition to the recent advances in Hard-optics that pushes the optical transmission speed, distance, wave density and optical switching capacity, Soft-optics provides the necessary intelligence and control software that reduces operational costs, increase efficiency, and enhances revenue generating services by automating optimal optical circuit placement and restoration, and enabling value-added new services like Optical VPN. This paper describes the advances in 1) Overall Hard-optics and Soft-optics 2) Layered hierarchy of Soft-optics 3) Component of Soft-optics, including hard-optics drivers, Management Soft-optics, Routing Soft-optics and System Soft-optics 4) Key component of Routing and System Soft-optics, namely optical routing and signaling (including UNI/NNI and GMPLS signaling). In summary, the soft-optics on a new generation of OXC's enables Intelligent Optical Networks to provide just-in-time service delivery and fast restoration, and real-time capacity management that eliminates stranded bandwidth. It reduces operational costs and provides new revenue opportunities.

  9. Soft Manipulators and Grippers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josie Hughes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soft robotics is a growing area of research which utilises the compliance and adaptability of soft structures to develop highly adaptive robotics for soft interactions. One area in which soft robotics has the ability to make significant impact is in the development of soft grippers and manipulators. With an increased requirement for automation, robotics systems are required to perform task in unstructured and not well defined environments; conditions which conventional rigid robotics are not best suited. This requires a paradigm shift in the methods and materials used to develop robots such that they can adapt to and work safely in human environments. One solution to this is soft robotics, which enables soft interactions with the surroundings whilst maintaining the ability to apply significant force. This review paper assess the current materials and methods, actuation methods and sensors which are used in the development of soft manipulators. The achievements and shortcomings of recent technology in these key areas are evaluated, and this paper concludes with a discussion on the potential impacts of soft manipulators on industry and society.

  10. Constraints on the timeon model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Takeshi; Geng, C. Q.

    2009-04-01

    The timeon model recently proposed by Friedberg and Lee has a potential problem of flavor changing neutral currents (FCNCs) if the mass of the timeon is small. In order to avoid, we introduce a small dimensionless parameter to suppress FCNCs. Even in this case, we find that the timeon mass must be larger than 151 GeV to satisfy all the constraints from processes involving FCNCs in the quark sectors. We also extend the timeon model to the lepton sector and examine the leptonic processes.

  11. "Demand Constraints and Economic Growth"

    OpenAIRE

    Marc-Andre Pigeon; L. Randall Wray

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, the U.S. has seemed to achieve the best of all possible worlds: robust economic growth, very low unemployment, and low inflation. Many would attribute this performance to fewer supply side constraints, as the U.S. has moved away from stifling regulations and other impediments to trade. Indeed, our lower unemployment rates—especially when compared with the very high unemployment rates suffered in European countries—would appear to be due to freer labor markets and to a less ge...

  12. Closure constraints for hyperbolic tetrahedra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Christoph; Livine, Etera R.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the generalization of loop gravity's twisted geometries to a q-deformed gauge group. In the standard undeformed case, loop gravity is a formulation of general relativity as a diffeomorphism-invariant SU(2) gauge theory. Its classical states are graphs provided with algebraic data. In particular, closure constraints at every node of the graph ensure their interpretation as twisted geometries. Dual to each node, one has a polyhedron embedded in flat space {{{R}}3}. One then glues them, allowing for both curvature and torsion. It was recently conjectured that q-deforming the gauge group SU(2) would allow us to account for a non-vanishing cosmological constant Λ \

  13. Quantum Gravity Constraints on Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Conlon, Joseph P

    2012-01-01

    We study quantum gravity constraints on inflationary model building. Our approach is based on requiring the entropy associated to a given inflationary model to be less than that of the de Sitter entropy. We give two prescriptions for determining the inflationary entropy, based on either `bits per unit area' or entanglement entropy. The existence of transPlanckian flat directions, necessary for large tensor modes in the CMB, correlates with an inflationary entropy greater than that allowed by de Sitter space. Independently these techniques also constrain or exclude de Sitter models with large-rank gauge groups and high UV cutoffs, such as racetrack inflation or the KKLT construction.

  14. Transition constraints for temporal attributes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ongoma, EAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available over time as the object migrates from one class to the next. Research on transition constraints has covered only object migration [3] and relation migration [14]. However, to efficiently represent and reason over data, we need to also look at attribute... transition, which is the migration of attributes along an object’s life cycle. Temporal attributes have been used and studied less in comparison to classes and relations. Yet in databases, we have a direct contact with attributes, and if those (temporal...

  15. Double large Barkhausen jump in soft/soft composite microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infante, G; Badini-Confalonieri, G A; Real, R P del; Vazquez, M, E-mail: mvazquez@icmm.csic.e [Materials Science Institute of Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-01

    The magnetic properties of double layer microwires consisting of a soft FeSiBP amorphous core, an intermediate non-magnetic glass spacer and a softer FeNi outer shell have been investigated. As in the case of other magnetostatically coupled two-phase systems, the hysteresis loops are characterized by two well-defined Barkhausen jumps corresponding each to the magnetization reversal of the individual phases, separated by a plateau. The strong dipolar interaction that leads to the appearance of the plateau is investigated in terms of the microwire geometry. It is shown that this source of coupling is capable of increasing up to one order of magnitude the switching field of the Fe-rich core. Thus, magnetic bistability can be effectively controlled in these kinds of composite wires.

  16. TOPSIS Evaluation Method on "Have Both Hard and Soft" Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shi-lian

    2001-01-01

    In "Have Both Hard and Soft" systems, the soft targets and hard targets are divided into twodistinct target system. The measured results of soft target system are regarded as a matrix with intervalnumbers. On the basis of Topsis method, we discuss a new Topsis evaluation method on "Have Both Hardand Soft" systems, which combined soft targets with hard targets.

  17. Updating neutrino magnetic moment constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Canas, B C; Parada, A; Tortola, M; Valle, J W F

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we provide an updated analysis of the neutrino magnetic moments (NMMs), discussing both the constraints on the magnitudes of the three transition moments Lambda_i as well as the role of the CP violating phases present both in the mixing matrix and in the NMM matrix. The scattering of solar neutrinos off electrons in Borexino provides the most stringent restrictions, due to its robust statistics and the low energies observed, below 1 MeV. Our new limit on the effective neutrino magnetic moment which follows from the most recent Borexino data is 3.1 x 10^-11 mu_B at 90% C.L. This corresponds to the individual transition magnetic moment constraints: |Lambda_1| < 5.6 x10^-11 mu_B, |Lambda_2| < 4.0 x 10^-11 mu_B, and |Lambda_3| < 3.1 x 10^-11 mu_B (90% C.L.), irrespective of any complex phase. Indeed, the incoherent admixture of neutrino mass eigenstates present in the solar flux makes Borexino insensitive to the Majorana phases present in the NMM matrix. For this reason we also provide a gl...

  18. Dilaton constraints and LHC prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Coleppa, Baradhwaj; Logan, Heather E

    2011-01-01

    The Standard Model Higgs searches using the first 1-2 fb-1 of LHC data can be used to put interesting constraints on new scalar particles other than the Higgs. We investigate one such scenario in which electroweak symmetry is broken via strongly coupled conformal dynamics. This scenario contains a neutral scalar dilaton---the Goldstone boson associated with spontaneously broken scale invariance---with a mass below the conformal symmetry breaking scale and couplings to Standard Model particles similar (but not identical) to those of the Standard Model Higgs boson. We translate the LEP and LHC Higgs limits to constrain the dilaton mass and conformal breaking scale. The conformal breaking scale f is constrained to be above 1 TeV for dilaton masses between 145 and 600 GeV, though it can be as low as 400 GeV for dilaton masses below 110 GeV. We also show that (i) a dilaton chi with mass below 110 GeV and consistent with the LEP constraints can appear in gg --> chi --> gamma gamma with a rate up to ~10 times the co...

  19. Developmental constraint of insect audition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strauß Johannes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect ears contain very different numbers of sensory cells, from only one sensory cell in some moths to thousands of sensory cells, e.g. in cicadas. These differences still await functional explanation and especially the large numbers in cicadas remain puzzling. Insects of the different orders have distinct developmental sequences for the generation of auditory organs. These sensory cells might have different functions depending on the developmental stages. Here we propose that constraints arising during development are also important for the design of insect ears and might influence cell numbers of the adults. Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that the functional requirements of the subadult stages determine the adult complement of sensory units in the auditory system of cicadas. The hypothetical larval sensory organ should function as a vibration receiver, representing a functional caenogenesis. Testing the hypothesis Experiments at different levels have to be designed to test the hypothesis. Firstly, the neuroanatomy of the larval sense organ should be analyzed to detail. Secondly, the function should be unraveled neurophysiologically and behaviorally. Thirdly, the persistence of the sensory cells and the rebuilding of the sensory organ to the adult should be investigated. Implications of the hypothesis Usually, the evolution of insect ears is viewed with respect to physiological and neuronal mechanisms of sound perception. This view should be extended to the development of sense organs. Functional requirements during postembryonic development may act as constraints for the evolution of adult organs, as exemplified with the auditory system of cicadas.

  20. Soft symmetry improvement of two particle irreducible effective actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael J.; Whittingham, Ian B.

    2017-01-01

    Two particle irreducible effective actions (2PIEAs) are valuable nonperturbative techniques in quantum field theory; however, finite truncations of them violate the Ward identities (WIs) of theories with spontaneously broken symmetries. The symmetry improvement (SI) method of Pilaftsis and Teresi attempts to overcome this by imposing the WIs as constraints on the solution; however, the method suffers from the nonexistence of solutions in linear response theory and in certain truncations in equilibrium. Motivated by this, we introduce a new method called soft-symmetry improvement (SSI) which relaxes the constraint. Violations of WIs are allowed but punished in a least-squares implementation of the symmetry improvement idea. A new parameter ξ controls the strength of the constraint. The method interpolates between the unimproved (ξ →∞ ) and SI (ξ →0 ) cases, and the hope is that practically useful solutions can be found for finite ξ . We study the SSI 2PIEA for a scalar O (N ) model in the Hartree-Fock approximation. We find that the method is IR sensitive; the system must be formulated in finite volume V and temperature T =β-1 , and the V β →∞ limit must be taken carefully. Three distinct limits exist. Two are equivalent to the unimproved 2PIEA and SI 2PIEA respectively, and the third is a new limit where the WI is satisfied but the phase transition is strongly first order and solutions can fail to exist depending on ξ . Further, these limits are disconnected from each other; there is no smooth way to interpolate from one to another. These results suggest that any potential advantages of SSI methods, and indeed any application of (S)SI methods out of equilibrium, must occur in finite volume.

  1. Monoidal structure of the category of u$_q^+$-modules

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnlaugsdottir, Elisabet

    2000-01-01

    We study the finite dimensional modules on the half-quantum group u_q^+ at a root of unity q, whose action can be extended to u_q (quotient of the quantized enveloping algebra of sl_2). We derive decomposition formulas of the tensor product of indecomposable u_q^+-modules, which includes the cases of the universal and the quantized universal enveloping algebra of sl_2 for q not a root of unity. We also prove that simple modules on u_q correspond exactly to the extendable non projective u_q^+-...

  2. The Donkey and the Monoid: Dynamic Semantics with Control Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic Predicate Logic (DPL) is a variant of Predicate Logic introduced by Groenendijk en Stokhof. One rationale behind the indroduction of DPL is that it is closer to Natural Language than ordinary Predicate Logic in the way it treats scope. In this paper I develop some variants of DPL that can mo

  3. The donkey and the Monoid : Dynamic semantics with control elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic Predicate Logic (DPL) is a variant of Predicate Logic introduced by Groenendijk and Stokhof. One rationale behind the introduction of DPL is that it is closer to Natural Language than ordinary Predicate Logic in the way it treats scope. In this paper I develop some variants of DPL that can m

  4. Clustered Numerical Data Analysis Using Markov Lie Monoid Based Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph

    2016-03-01

    We have designed and build an optimal numerical standardization algorithm that links numerical values with their associated units, error level, and defining metadata thus supporting automated data exchange and new levels of artificial intelligence (AI). The software manages all dimensional and error analysis and computational tracing. Tables of entities verses properties of these generalized numbers (called ``metanumbers'') support a transformation of each table into a network among the entities and another network among their properties where the network connection matrix is based upon a proximity metric between the two items. We previously proved that every network is isomorphic to the Lie algebra that generates continuous Markov transformations. We have also shown that the eigenvectors of these Markov matrices provide an agnostic clustering of the underlying patterns. We will present this methodology and show how our new work on conversion of scientific numerical data through this process can reveal underlying information clusters ordered by the eigenvalues. We will also show how the linking of clusters from different tables can be used to form a ``supernet'' of all numerical information supporting new initiatives in AI.

  5. The Donkey and the Monoid: Dynamic Semantics with Control Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    1998-01-01

    Dynamic Predicate Logic (DPL) is a variant of Predicate Logic introduced by Groenendijk en Stokhof. One rationale behind the indroduction of DPL is that it is closer to Natural Language than ordinary Predicate Logic in the way it treats scope. In this paper I develop some variants of DPL that can

  6. The donkey and the Monoid : Dynamic semantics with control elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    Dynamic Predicate Logic (DPL) is a variant of Predicate Logic introduced by Groenendijk and Stokhof. One rationale behind the introduction of DPL is that it is closer to Natural Language than ordinary Predicate Logic in the way it treats scope. In this paper I develop some variants of DPL that

  7. Soft Confinement for Polymer Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Oya, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    As a model of soft confinement for polymers, we investigated equilibrium shapes of a flexible vesicle that contains a phase-separating polymer solution. To simulate such a system, we combined the phase field theory (PFT) for the vesicle and the self-consistent field theory (SCFT) for the polymer solution. We observed a transition from a symmetric prolate shape of the vesicle to an asymmetric pear shape induced by the domain structure of the enclosed polymer solution. Moreover, when a non-zero spontaneous curvature of the vesicle is introduced, a re-entrant transition between the prolate and the dumbbell shapes of the vesicle is observed. This re-entrant transition is explained by considering the competition between the loss of conformational entropy and that of translational entropy of polymer chains due to the confinement by the deformable vesicle. This finding is in accordance with the recent experimental result reported by Terasawa, et al.

  8. Rehabilitative Soft Exoskeleton for Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, Juan Manuel; Shah, Manan; Moraud, Eduardo Martin; Wurth, Sophie; Baud, Laetitia; Von Zitzewitz, Joachim; van den Brand, Rubia; Micera, Silvestro; Courtine, Gregoire; Paik, Jamie

    2017-02-01

    Robotic exoskeletons provide programmable, consistent and controllable active therapeutic assistance to patients with neurological disorders. Here we introduce a prototype and preliminary experimental evaluation of a rehabilitative gait exoskeleton that enables compliant yet effective manipulation of the fragile limbs of rats. To assist the displacements of the lower limbs without impeding natural gait movements, we designed and fabricated soft pneumatic actuators (SPAs). The exoskeleton integrates two customizable SPAs that are attached to a limb. This configuration enables a 1 N force load, a range of motion exceeding 80 mm in the major axis, and speed of actuation reaching two gait cycles/s. Preliminary experiments in rats with spinal cord injury validated the basic features of the exoskeleton. We propose strategies to improve the performance of the robot and discuss the potential of SPAs for the design of other wearable interfaces.

  9. Understanding foods as soft materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzenga, Raffaele; Schurtenberger, Peter; Burbidge, Adam; Michel, Martin

    2005-10-01

    Foods make up some of the most complex examples of soft condensed matter (SCM) with which we interact daily. Their complexity arises from several factors: the intricacy of components, the different aggregation states in which foods are encountered, and the multitude of relevant characteristic time and length scales. Because foodstuffs are governed by the rules of SCM physics but with all the complications related to real systems, the experimental and theoretical approaches of SCM physics have deepened our comprehension of their nature and behaviour, but many questions remain. In this review we discuss the current understanding of food science, by considering established SCM methods as well as emerging techniques and theoretical approaches. With their complexity, heterogeneity and multitude of states, foods provide SCM physics with a challenge of remarkable importance.

  10. Thin films of soft matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2007-01-01

    A detailed overview and comprehensive analysis of the main theoretical and experimental advances on free surface thin film and jet flows of soft matter is given. At the theoretical front the book outlines the basic equations and boundary conditions and the derivation of low-dimensional models for the evolution of the free surface. Such models include long-wave expansions and equations of the boundary layer type and are analyzed via linear stability analysis, weakly nonlinear theories and strongly nonlinear analysis including construction of stationary periodic and solitary wave and similarity solutions. At the experimental front a variety of very recent experimental developments is outlined and the link between theory and experiments is illustrated. Such experiments include spreading drops and bubbles, imbibitions, singularity formation at interfaces and experimental characterization of thin films using atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry and contact angle measurements and analysis of patterns using Minkows...

  11. Soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.L.; Gielen, J.L.; Delrue, F.; De Schepper, A.M.A. [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen (University of Antwerp), Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium); Salgado, R. [Department of Pathology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen (University of Antwerp), Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium)

    2004-08-01

    A soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst located in the right gluteus medius of a 21-year-old man is reported. On conventional radiography, the lesion demonstrated a spherically trabeculated mass with a calcific rim. On CT scan, it showed a well-organized peripheral calcification resembling a myositis ossificans. On MRI, it presented as a multilocular, cystic lesion with fluid-fluid levels. The lesion had no solid components except for intralesional septa. Although findings on imaging and histology were identical to those described in classical aneurysmal bone cyst, diagnosis was delayed because of lack of knowledge of this entity and its resemblance to the more familiar post-traumatic heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans). (orig.)

  12. Why mercury prefers soft ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riccardi, Demian M [ORNL; Guo, Hao-Bo [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL; Summers, Anne [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Miller, S [University of California, San Francisco; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a major global pollutant arising from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Defining the factors that determine the relative affinities of different ligands for the mercuric ion, Hg2+, is critical to understanding its speciation, transformation, and bioaccumulation in the environment. Here, we use quantum chemistry to dissect the relative binding free energies for a series of inorganic anion complexes of Hg2+. Comparison of Hg2+ ligand interactions in the gaseous and aqueous phases shows that differences in interactions with a few, local water molecules led to a clear periodic trend within the chalcogenide and halide groups and resulted in the well-known experimentally observed preference of Hg2+ for soft ligands such as thiols. Our approach establishes a basis for understanding Hg speciation in the biosphere.

  13. "Soft docking": matching of molecular surface cubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, F; Kim, S H

    1991-05-05

    Molecular recognition is achieved through the complementarity of molecular surface structures and energetics with, most commonly, associated minor conformational changes. This complementarity can take many forms: charge-charge interaction, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals' interaction, and the size and shape of surfaces. We describe a method that exploits these features to predict the sites of interactions between two cognate molecules given their three-dimensional structures. We have developed a "cube representation" of molecular surface and volume which enables us not only to design a simple algorithm for a six-dimensional search but also to allow implicitly the effects of the conformational changes caused by complex formation. The present molecular docking procedure may be divided into two stages. The first is the selection of a population of complexes by geometric "soft docking", in which surface structures of two interacting molecules are matched with each other, allowing minor conformational changes implicitly, on the basis of complementarity in size and shape, close packing, and the absence of steric hindrance. The second is a screening process to identify a subpopulation with many favorable energetic interactions between the buried surface areas. Once the size of the subpopulation is small, one may further screen to find the correct complex based on other criteria or constraints obtained from biochemical, genetic, and theoretical studies, including visual inspection. We have tested the present method in two ways. First is a control test in which we docked the components of a molecular complex of known crystal structure available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Two molecular complexes were used: (1) a ternary complex of dihydrofolate reductase, NADPH and methotrexate (3DFR in PDB) and (2) a binary complex of trypsin and trypsin inhibitor (2PTC in PDB). The components of each complex were taken apart at an arbitrary relative orientation and then docked

  14. Double soft theorem for perturbative gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Arnab Priya

    2016-09-01

    Following up on the recent work of Cachazo, He and Yuan [1], we derive the double soft graviton theorem in perturbative gravity. We show that the double soft theorem derived using CHY formula precisely matches with the perturbative computation involving Feynman diagrams. In particular, we find how certain delicate limits of Feynman diagrams play an important role in obtaining this equivalence.

  15. Media Translation and Cultural Soft Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段蕾

    2015-01-01

    Media translation is a kind of applied translation,it is the symbol of a country’s development,and the demonstration of its cultural soft power.This essay mainly talks about how does media translation affect a country’s cultural soft power from three forms of media translation—news,movie and television,newspapers and magazines.

  16. Novelty Search for Soft Robotic Space Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Methenitis, G.; Hennes, D.; Izzo, D.; Visser, A.

    2015-01-01

    The use of soft robots in future space exploration is still a far-fetched idea, but an attractive one. Soft robots are inherently compliant mechanisms that are well suited for locomotion on rough terrain as often faced in extra-planetary environments. Depending on the particular application and requ

  17. Novelty Search for Soft Robotic Space Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Methenitis (Georgios); D. Hennes; D. Izzo; A. Visser

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe use of soft robots in future space exploration is still a far-fetched idea, but an attractive one. Soft robots are inherently compliant mechanisms that are well suited for locomotion on rough terrain as often faced in extra-planetary environments. Depending on the particular

  18. Media Translation and Cultural Soft Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段蕾

    2015-01-01

    Media translation is a kind of applied translation,itis the symbol of a country’s development,and the demonstration of its cultural soft power.This essay mainly talks about how does media translation affect a country’s cultural soft power from three forms of media translation-news,movie and television,newspapers and magazines.

  19. Exploratory Practice and Soft Systems Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajino, Akira; Smith, Craig

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate that Soft Systems Methodology (SSM), a soft systems approach developed in management studies (see Checkland, 1981), can be usefully linked with Exploratory Practice (EP), a form of practitioner research for language classrooms. Some compatible SSM and EP characteristics, in tandem, could enhance continual efforts to…

  20. Probing Non-holomorphic MSSM via precision constraints, dark matter and LHC data

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, Utpal

    2016-01-01

    In this analysis we explore the phenomenological constraints of models with non-holomorphic soft SUSY breaking terms in a beyond the MSSM scenario having identical particle content. The model referred as NHSSM shows various promising features like the possibility of a strong reduction in electroweak fine-tuning even for a scenario of a heavy higgsino type of LSP, a fact that is unavailable in pMSSM models. The other important aspect is satisfying the muon $g-2$ data even for a small $\\tan\\beta$ via a small value of coupling $A_\\mu'$ associated with the tri-linear non-holomorphic soft term. Thus, a large SUSY contribution to muon $g-2$ is possible even for a significantly large smuon mass $m_{\\tilde {\\mu_1}}$. The Higgs mass radiative corrections are contributed by both the holomorphic and non-holomorphic trilinear soft parameters $A_t$ and $A_t'$, thus diluting the requirement to have a larger $A_t$ to satisfy the Higgs mass data. The model also provides with valid parameter space satisfying the constraint of...

  1. Cephalometric soft tissue facial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R T

    1999-10-01

    My objective is to present a cephalometric-based facial analysis to correlate with an article that was published previously in the American Journal of Orthodontic and Dentofacial Orthopedics. Eighteen facial or soft tissue traits are discussed in this article. All of them are significant in successful orthodontic outcome, and none of them depend on skeletal landmarks for measurement. Orthodontic analysis most commonly relies on skeletal and dental measurement, placing far less emphasis on facial feature measurement, particularly their relationship to each other. Yet, a thorough examination of the face is critical for understanding the changes in facial appearance that result from orthodontic treatment. A cephalometric approach to facial examination can also benefit the diagnosis and treatment plan. Individual facial traits and their balance with one another should be identified before treatment. Relying solely on skeletal analysis, assuming that the face will balance if the skeletal/dental cephalometric values are normalized, may not yield the desired outcome. Good occlusion does not necessarily mean good facial balance. Orthodontic norms for facial traits can permit their measurement. Further, with a knowledge of standard facial traits and the patient's soft tissue features, an individualized norm can be established for each patient to optimize facial attractiveness. Four questions should be asked regarding each facial trait before treatment: (1) What is the quality and quantity of the trait? (2) How will future growth affect the trait? (3) How will orthodontic tooth movement affect the existing trait (positively or negatively)? (4) How will surgical bone movement to correct the bite affect the trait (positively or negatively)?

  2. Constraints on Thermal X-Ray Radiation from SAX J1808.4-3658 and Implications for Neutron Star Neutrino Emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.O. Heinke; P.G. Jonker; R. Wijnands; R.E. Taam

    2007-01-01

    Thermal X-ray radiation from neutron star soft X-ray transients in quiescence provides the strongest constraints on the cooling rates of neutron stars and thus on the interior composition and properties of matter in the cores of neutron stars. We analyze new (2006) and archival (2001) XMM-Newton obs

  3. Soft Space Planning in Cities unbound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    This paper analyses contemporary experiments of building governance capacity in new soft spaces in Denmark through processes of spatial strategy-making. The paper argues that new soft spaces are emerging in Danish spatial planning, which set out to promote more effective forms of strategic spatial...... of critical questions about whether the normative arguments in the soft space literature are unfounded, or whether the significance of soft spaces is simply overrated in the planning literature. Furthermore, it is argued that critical attention needs to be paid to the prevalence of soft spaces in spatial...... planning, and how their obsession with promoting economic development at the expense of wider planning responsibilities support contemporary neoliberal transformations of strategic spatial planning....

  4. Soft computing techniques in engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Baojiang

    2014-01-01

    The Soft Computing techniques, which are based on the information processing of biological systems are now massively used in the area of pattern recognition, making prediction & planning, as well as acting on the environment. Ideally speaking, soft computing is not a subject of homogeneous concepts and techniques; rather, it is an amalgamation of distinct methods that confirms to its guiding principle. At present, the main aim of soft computing is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision and uncertainty to achieve tractability, robustness and low solutions cost. The principal constituents of soft computing techniques are probabilistic reasoning, fuzzy logic, neuro-computing, genetic algorithms, belief networks, chaotic systems, as well as learning theory. This book covers contributions from various authors to demonstrate the use of soft computing techniques in various applications of engineering.  

  5. 4th World Conference on Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasov, Ali; Yager, Ronald; Shahbazova, Shahnaz; Reformat, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This book reports on advanced theories and cutting-edge applications in the field of soft computing. The individual chapters, written by leading researchers, are based on contributions presented during the 4th World Conference on Soft Computing, held May 25-27, 2014, in Berkeley. The book covers a wealth of key topics in soft computing, focusing on both fundamental aspects and applications. The former include fuzzy mathematics, type-2 fuzzy sets, evolutionary-based optimization, aggregation and neural networks, while the latter include soft computing in data analysis, image processing, decision-making, classification, series prediction, economics, control, and modeling. By providing readers with a timely, authoritative view on the field, and by discussing thought-provoking developments and challenges, the book will foster new research directions in the diverse areas of soft computing. .

  6. Soft-/rapidity- anomalous dimensions correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Vladimirov, Alexey A

    2016-01-01

    We establish a correspondence between ultraviolet singularities of soft factors for multi-particle production and rapidity singularities of soft factors for multi-parton scattering. This correspondence is a consequence of a conformal mapping between scattering geometries. The correspondence is valid to all orders of perturbation theory and in this way provides a proof of rapidity renormalization procedure for multi-parton scattering soft factors (including the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) soft factor as a special case). As a by-product we obtain an exact relation between the rapidity anomalous dimension and the well-known soft anomalous dimension. The three-loop rapidity anomalous dimensions for TMD and a general multi-parton scattering are derived.

  7. Factorized soft graviton theorems at loop level

    CERN Document Server

    Broedel, Johannes; Plefka, Jan; Rosso, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the low-energy behavior of scattering amplitudes involving gravitons at loop level in four dimensions. The single-graviton soft limit is controlled by soft operators which have been argued to separate into a factorized piece and a non-factorizing infrared divergent contribution. In this note we show that the soft operators responsible for the factorized contributions are strongly constrained by gauge and Poincare invariance under the assumption of a local structure. We show that the leading and subleading orders in the soft-momentum expansion can not receive radiative corrections. The first radiative correction occurs for the sub-subleading soft graviton operator and is one-loop exact. It depends on only two undetermined coefficients which should reflect the field content of the theory under consideration.

  8. Soft error mechanisms, modeling and mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Sayil, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces readers to various radiation soft-error mechanisms such as soft delays, radiation induced clock jitter and pulses, and single event (SE) coupling induced effects. In addition to discussing various radiation hardening techniques for combinational logic, the author also describes new mitigation strategies targeting commercial designs. Coverage includes novel soft error mitigation techniques such as the Dynamic Threshold Technique and Soft Error Filtering based on Transmission gate with varied gate and body bias. The discussion also includes modeling of SE crosstalk noise, delay and speed-up effects. Various mitigation strategies to eliminate SE coupling effects are also introduced. Coverage also includes the reliability of low power energy-efficient designs and the impact of leakage power consumption optimizations on soft error robustness. The author presents an analysis of various power optimization techniques, enabling readers to make design choices that reduce static power consumption an...

  9. Data Driven Constraints for the SVM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2012-01-01

    We propose a generalized data driven constraint for support vector machines exemplified by classification of paired observations in general and specifically on the human ear canal. This is particularly interesting in dynamic cases such as tissue movement or pathologies developing over time....... Assuming that two observations of the same subject in different states span a vector, we hypothesise that such structure of the data contains implicit information which can aid the classification, thus the name data driven constraints. We derive a constraint based on the data which allow for the use...... of the ℓ1-norm on the constraint while still allowing for the application of kernels. We specialize the proposed constraint to orthogonality of the vectors between paired observations and the estimated hyperplane. We show that imposing the constraint of orthogonality on the paired data yields a more robust...

  10. Causality Constraints in Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Causality places nontrivial constraints on QFT in Lorentzian signature, for example fixing the signs of certain terms in the low energy Lagrangian. In d-dimensional conformal field theory, we show how such constraints are encoded in crossing symmetry of Euclidean correlators, and derive analogous constraints directly from the conformal bootstrap (analytically). The bootstrap setup is a Lorentzian four-point function corresponding to propagation through a shockwave. Crossing symmetry fixes the signs of certain log terms that appear in the conformal block expansion, which constrains the interactions of low-lying operators. As an application, we use the bootstrap to rederive the well known sign constraint on the (∂φ)4 coupling in effective field theory, from a dual CFT. We also find constraints on theories with higher spin conserved currents. Our analysis is restricted to scalar correlators, but we argue that similar methods should also impose nontrivial constraints on the interactions of spinni...

  11. Causality Constraints in Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hartman, Thomas; Kundu, Sandipan

    2015-01-01

    Causality places nontrivial constraints on QFT in Lorentzian signature, for example fixing the signs of certain terms in the low energy Lagrangian. In d-dimensional conformal field theory, we show how such constraints are encoded in crossing symmetry of Euclidean correlators, and derive analogous constraints directly from the conformal bootstrap (analytically). The bootstrap setup is a Lorentzian four-point function corresponding to propagation through a shockwave. Crossing symmetry fixes the signs of certain log terms that appear in the conformal block expansion, which constrains the interactions of low-lying operators. As an application, we use the bootstrap to rederive the well known sign constraint on the $(\\partial\\phi)^4$ coupling in effective field theory, from a dual CFT. We also find constraints on theories with higher spin conserved currents. Our analysis is restricted to scalar correlators, but we argue that similar methods should also impose nontrivial constraints on the interactions of spinning o...

  12. The conceptualisation of "soft skills" among medical students before ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conceptualisation of "soft skills" among medical students before and after ... emphasis on soft skills, including professional interpersonal and social skills, ... Results: Both groups of students revealed conceptualisations of soft skills that ...

  13. Microbial quality of soft drinks sold in Abuja, Nigeria | Okpalugo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This study assessed the microbial quality of sixteen brands of soft drink ... from soft drinks was determined using the antibiotic sensitivity test (zones of inhibition). ... Visual inspection of packages, quality assessment of soft drinks ...

  14. Thermodynamic constraints on fluctuation phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroney, O. J. E.

    2009-12-01

    The relationships among reversible Carnot cycles, the absence of perpetual motion machines, and the existence of a nondecreasing globally unique entropy function form the starting point of many textbook presentations of the foundations of thermodynamics. However, the thermal fluctuation phenomena associated with statistical mechanics has been argued to restrict the domain of validity of this basis of the second law of thermodynamics. Here we demonstrate that fluctuation phenomena can be incorporated into the traditional presentation, extending rather than restricting the domain of validity of the phenomenologically motivated second law. Consistency conditions lead to constraints upon the possible spectrum of thermal fluctuations. In a special case this uniquely selects the Gibbs canonical distribution and more generally incorporates the Tsallis distributions. No particular model of microscopic dynamics need be assumed.

  15. Meditations on Quantified Constraint Satisfaction

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hubie

    2012-01-01

    The quantified constraint satisfaction problem (QCSP) is the problem of deciding, given a structure and a first-order prenex sentence whose quantifier-free part is the conjunction of atoms, whether or not the sentence holds on the structure. One obtains a family of problems by defining, for each structure B, the problem QCSP(B) to be the QCSP where the structure is fixed to be B. In this article, we offer a viewpoint on the research program of understanding the complexity of the problems QCSP(B) on finite structures. In particular, we propose and discuss a group of conjectures; throughout, we attempt to place the conjectures in relation to existing results and to emphasize open issues and potential research directions.

  16. The Kauffman Constraint Coefficients Kw

    CERN Document Server

    Griggs, Kenneth A

    2011-01-01

    The Kauffman Constraint Coefficients Kw and their corresponding Elementals Ew are presented as solutions to the construction of the (beta)-derivative of Kauffman's Theta-function. Additionally, a new recursion relation is provided to construct the (beta)-derivative of Theta that requires only operational substitutions and summations; this algorithmically simplifies Kauffman's original technique. To demonstrate Kw, we generate the 30 Kw Coefficients from the corresponding Elementals Ew for the (9)-derivative of Theta and find that our results are in complete agreement with Kauffman's Mathematica\\texttrademark solutions. We further present a calculation of two coefficients for the (12)-derivative of Theta and invite readers to use Mathematica\\texttrademark or any other means to calculate and verify our results. Finally, we present a challenging calculation for a coefficient of the (40)-derivative of Theta; owing to the vast numbers of permutations involved, a Mathematica\\texttrademark approach may require subst...

  17. Thermodynamic constraints on fluctuation phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroney, O J E

    2009-12-01

    The relationships among reversible Carnot cycles, the absence of perpetual motion machines, and the existence of a nondecreasing globally unique entropy function form the starting point of many textbook presentations of the foundations of thermodynamics. However, the thermal fluctuation phenomena associated with statistical mechanics has been argued to restrict the domain of validity of this basis of the second law of thermodynamics. Here we demonstrate that fluctuation phenomena can be incorporated into the traditional presentation, extending rather than restricting the domain of validity of the phenomenologically motivated second law. Consistency conditions lead to constraints upon the possible spectrum of thermal fluctuations. In a special case this uniquely selects the Gibbs canonical distribution and more generally incorporates the Tsallis distributions. No particular model of microscopic dynamics need be assumed.

  18. Integrating Gricean and Attentional Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Passonneau, R J

    1995-01-01

    This paper concerns how to generate and understand discourse anaphoric noun phrases. I present the results of an analysis of all discourse anaphoric noun phrases (N=1,233) in a corpus of ten narrative monologues, where the choice between a definite pronoun or phrasal NP conforms largely to Gricean constraints on informativeness. I discuss Dale and Reiter's [To appear] recent model and show how it can be augmented for understanding as well as generating the range of data presented here. I argue that integrating centering [Grosz et al., 1983] [Kameyama, 1985] with this model can be applied uniformly to discourse anaphoric pronouns and phrasal NPs. I conclude with a hypothesis for addressing the interaction between local and global discourse processing.

  19. Atom mapping with constraint programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Martin; Nahar, Feras; Schnorr, Norah; Backofen, Rolf; Stadler, Peter F; Flamm, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Chemical reactions are rearrangements of chemical bonds. Each atom in an educt molecule thus appears again in a specific position of one of the reaction products. This bijection between educt and product atoms is not reported by chemical reaction databases, however, so that the "Atom Mapping Problem" of finding this bijection is left as an important computational task for many practical applications in computational chemistry and systems biology. Elementary chemical reactions feature a cyclic imaginary transition state (ITS) that imposes additional restrictions on the bijection between educt and product atoms that are not taken into account by previous approaches. We demonstrate that Constraint Programming is well-suited to solving the Atom Mapping Problem in this setting. The performance of our approach is evaluated for a manually curated subset of chemical reactions from the KEGG database featuring various ITS cycle layouts and reaction mechanisms.

  20. Geographic versus industry diversification: constraints matter

    OpenAIRE

    Ehling, Paul; Ramos, Sofia Brito

    2005-01-01

    This research addresses whether geographic diversification provides benefits over industry diversification. In the absence of constraints, no empirical evidence is found to support the argument that country diversification is superior. With short-selling constraints, however, the geographic tangency portfolio is not attainable by industry portfolios. Results with upper and lower constraints on portfolio weights as well as an out-of-sample analysis show that geographic diversification almost c...

  1. A simpler way of imposing simplicity constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Banburski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a way of imposing simplicity constraints in a holomorphic Spin Foam model that we recently introduced. Rather than imposing the constraints on the boundary spin network, as is usually done, one can impose the constraints directly on the Spin Foam propagator. We find that the two approaches have the same leading asymptotic behaviour, with differences appearing at higher order. This allows us to obtain a model that greatly simplifies calculations, but still has Regge Calculus as its semi-classical limit.

  2. Stability Constraints for Robust Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda G. S. Ottoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach for the robust stabilization of systems controlled by MPC strategies. Uncertain SISO linear systems with box-bounded parametric uncertainties are considered. The proposed approach delivers some constraints on the control inputs which impose sufficient conditions for the convergence of the system output. These stability constraints can be included in the set of constraints dealt with by existing MPC design strategies, in this way leading to the “robustification” of the MPC.

  3. Cosmographic Constraints and Cosmic Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Capozziello

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of reproducing dark energy effects is reviewed here with particular interest devoted to cosmography. We summarize some of the most relevant cosmological models, based on the assumption that the corresponding barotropic equations of state evolve as the universe expands, giving rise to the accelerated expansion. We describe in detail the ΛCDM (Λ-Cold Dark Matter and ωCDM models, considering also some specific examples, e.g., Chevallier–Polarsky–Linder, the Chaplygin gas and the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati cosmological model. Finally, we consider the cosmological consequences of f(R and f(T gravities and their impact on the framework of cosmography. Keeping these considerations in mind, we point out the model-independent procedure related to cosmography, showing how to match the series of cosmological observables to the free parameters of each model. We critically discuss the role played by cosmography, as a selection criterion to check whether a particular model passes or does not present cosmological constraints. In so doing, we find out cosmological bounds by fitting the luminosity distance expansion of the redshift, z, adopting the recent Union 2.1 dataset of supernovae, combined with the baryonic acoustic oscillation and the cosmic microwave background measurements. We perform cosmographic analyses, imposing different priors on the Hubble rate present value. In addition, we compare our results with recent PLANCK limits, showing that the ΛCDM and ωCDM models seem to be the favorite with respect to other dark energy models. However, we show that cosmographic constraints on f(R and f(T cannot discriminate between extensions of General Relativity and dark energy models, leading to a disadvantageous degeneracy problem.

  4. Observability analysis of biochemical process models as a valuable tool for the development of mechanistic soft sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabgir, Aydin; Hoch, Thomas; Zhariy, Mariya; Herwig, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    By enabling the estimation of difficult-to-measure target variables using available indirect measurements, mechanistic soft sensors have become important tools for various bioprocess monitoring and control scenarios. Despite promising higher process efficiencies and increased process understanding, widespread application of soft sensors has been stalled by uncertainty about the feasibility and reliability of their estimations given present process analytical constraints. Observability analysis can provide an indication of the possibility and reliability of soft sensor estimations by analyzing the structural properties of first-principle (mechanistic) models. In addition, it can provide a criteria for selection of suitable measurement methods with respect to their information content; thereby leading to successful implementation of soft sensors in bioprocess development and manufacturing environments. We demonstrate the utility of observability analysis for two classes of upstream bioprocesses: the processes involving growth and ethanol formation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the process of penicillin production by Penicillium chrysogenum. Results obtained from laboratory-scale cultivations in addition to in-silico experiments enable a comparison of theoretical aspects of observability analysis and the real-life performance of soft sensors. By taking the expected error of measurements provided to the soft sensor into account, an innovative scaling approach facilitates a higher degree of comparability of observability results among various measurement configurations and process conditions.

  5. Review of Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Fukano, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  6. Constraint Processing in Lifted Probabilistic Inference

    CERN Document Server

    Kisynski, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    First-order probabilistic models combine representational power of first-order logic with graphical models. There is an ongoing effort to design lifted inference algorithms for first-order probabilistic models. We analyze lifted inference from the perspective of constraint processing and, through this viewpoint, we analyze and compare existing approaches and expose their advantages and limitations. Our theoretical results show that the wrong choice of constraint processing method can lead to exponential increase in computational complexity. Our empirical tests confirm the importance of constraint processing in lifted inference. This is the first theoretical and empirical study of constraint processing in lifted inference.

  7. Notes on Timed Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia, Frank D.

    2004-01-01

    and program reactive systems. This note provides a comprehensive introduction to the background for and central notions from the theory of tccp. Furthermore, it surveys recent results on a particular tccp calculus, ntcc, and it provides a classification of the expressive power of various tccp languages.......A constraint is a piece of (partial) information on the values of the variables of a system. Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a model of concurrency in which agents (also called processes) interact by telling and asking information (constraints) to and from a shared store (a constraint...

  8. Optimality criteria design and stress constraint processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, R.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for pre-screening stress constraints into either primary or side-constraint categories are reviewed; a projection method, which is developed from prior cycle stress resultant history, is introduced as an additional screening parameter. Stress resultant projections are also employed to modify the traditional stress-ratio, side-constraint boundary. A special application of structural modification reanalysis is applied to the critical stress constraints to provide feasible designs that are preferable to those obtained by conventional scaling. Sample problem executions show relatively short run times and fewer design cycle iterations to achieve low structural weights; those attained are comparable to the minimum values developed elsewhere.

  9. Rigidity Constraints for Large Mesh Deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Zhao; Xin-Guo Liu; Qun-Sheng Peng; Hu-Jun Bao

    2009-01-01

    It is a challenging problem of surface-based deformation to avoid apparent volumetric distortions around largely deformed areas. In this paper, we propose a new rigidity constraint for gradient domain mesh deformation to address this problem. Intuitively the proposed constraint can be regarded as several small cubes defined by the mesh vertices through mean value coordinates. The user interactively specifies the cubes in the regions which are prone to volumetric distortions, and the rigidity constraints could make the mesh behave like a solid object during deformation. The experimental results demonstrate that our constraint is intuitive, easy to use and very effective.

  10. Toward an automaton Constraint for Local Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We explore the idea of using finite automata to implement new constraints for local search (this is already a successful technique in constraint-based global search. We show how it is possible to maintain incrementally the violations of a constraint and its decision variables from an automaton that describes a ground checker for that constraint. We establish the practicality of our approach idea on real-life personnel rostering problems, and show that it is competitive with the approach of [Pralong, 2007].

  11. Inventions on Soft Keyboards -- A TRIZ Based Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2013-01-01

    The soft keyboards are onscreen representation of physical keyboard having alphanumeric characters and other controls. The user operates the soft keyboard with the mouse, a stylus or other pointing device. The soft keys dont have any mechanical component. The soft keyboards are used in many public places for informational purpose, educational systems and financial transactional systems. A soft keyboard is convenient in some cases where a hard keyboard is difficult to manage. The soft keyboard...

  12. Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutich, A.; White, A. C.; White, D. D.; Larson, K. L.; Brewis, A.; Roberts, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine how development status and water scarcity shape people's perceptions of "hard path" and "soft path" water solutions. Based on ethnographic research conducted in four semi-rural/peri-urban sites (in Bolivia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US), we use content analysis to conduct statistical and thematic comparisons of interview data. Our results indicate clear differences associated with development status and, to a lesser extent, water scarcity. People in the two less developed sites were more likely to suggest hard path solutions, less likely to suggest soft path solutions, and more likely to see no path to solutions than people in the more developed sites. Thematically, people in the two less developed sites envisioned solutions that involve small-scale water infrastructure and decentralized, community-based solutions, while people in the more developed sites envisioned solutions that involve large-scale infrastructure and centralized, regulatory water solutions. People in the two water-scarce sites were less likely to suggest soft path solutions and more likely to see no path to solutions (but no more likely to suggest hard path solutions) than people in the water-rich sites. Thematically, people in the two water-rich sites seemed to perceive a wider array of unrealized potential soft path solutions than those in the water-scarce sites. On balance, our findings are encouraging in that they indicate that people are receptive to soft path solutions in a range of sites, even those with limited financial or water resources. Our research points to the need for more studies that investigate the social feasibility of soft path water solutions, particularly in sites with significant financial and natural resource constraints.

  13. Soft Tissue Finite Element Modeling and Calibration of the Material Properties in the Context of Computer-Assisted Medical Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Payan, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This chapter aims at illustrating how patient-specific models of human organs / soft tissues can be implemented into Finite Element (FE) packages. First is addressed the question of the generation of patient-specific FE models compatible with the clinical constraints. Then is discussed the calibration of the material properties, with choices that should be done between calibrations based on ex vivo or in vivo tissues loadings. The example of computer assisted maxillofa...

  14. New Concepts and Applications in Soft Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, János; Várkonyi-Kóczy, Annamária

    2013-01-01

                  The book provides a sample of research on the innovative theory and applications of soft computing paradigms.             The idea of Soft Computing was initiated in 1981 when Professor Zadeh published his first paper on soft data analysis and constantly evolved ever since. Professor Zadeh defined Soft Computing as the fusion of the fields of fuzzy logic (FL), neural network theory (NN) and probabilistic reasoning (PR), with the latter subsuming belief networks, evolutionary computing including DNA computing, chaos theory and parts of learning theory into one multidisciplinary system. As Zadeh said the essence of soft computing is that unlike the traditional, hard computing, soft computing is aimed at an accommodation with the pervasive imprecision of the real world. Thus, the guiding principle of soft computing is to exploit the tolerance for imprecision, uncertainty and partial truth to achieve tractability, robustness, low solution cost and better rapport with reality. ...

  15. Nonspecificity of Chronic Soft Tissue Pain Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldon Tunks

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent (or chronic pain occurs with a prevalence of about 10% in the adult population, and chronic soft tissue pain is especially problematic. Criteria for diagnosis of these soft tissue pain disorders appear to suffer from specificity problems, even though they appear to be sensitive in distinguishing normal from soft tissue pain sufferers. A few decades ago the term 'neuraesthenia' was used as a diagnosis in individuals who now would probably be diagnosed as suffering from fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue and anxiety disorders with fatigue. Soft tissue pain provokes skepticism, especially among third-party payers, and controversy among clinicians. Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated sex differences in the prevalence of widespread pain and multiple tender points, which are distributed variably throughout the adult population and tend to be correlated with subjective symptoms. Although there is a tendency for these syndromes to persist, follow-up studies show that they tend to vary in extent and sometimes show remissions over longer follow-up, casting doubt about the distinctions between chronic diffuse pains and localized chronic soft tissue pains. Because both accidents and soft tissue pains are relatively prevalent problems, the possibility of chance coincidence of accident and chronic soft tissue pain in an individual creates the need to be cautious in attributing these syndromes to specific accidents in medicolegal situations. At the same time, the available evidence does not support a generally dismissive attitude towards these patients.

  16. ON SOFT COMPUTING TECHNIQUES IN VARIOUS AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Das

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Soft Computing refers to the science of reasoning, thinking and deduction that recognizes and uses the real world phenomena of grouping, memberships, and classification of various quantities under study. As such, it is an extension of natural heuristics and capable of dealing with complex systems because it does not require strict mathematical definitions and distinctions for the system components. It differs from hard computing in that, unlike hard computing, it is tolerant of imprecision, uncertainty and partial truth. In effect, the role model for soft computing is the human mind. The guiding principle of soft computing is: Exploit the tolerance for imprecision, uncertainty and partial truth to achieve tractability, robustness and low solution cost. The main techniques in soft computing are evolutionary computing, artificial neural networks, and fuzzy logic and Bayesian statistics. Each technique can be used separately, but a powerful advantage of soft computing is the complementary nature of the techniques. Used together they can produce solutions to problems that are too complex or inherently noisy to tackle with conventional mathematical methods. The applications of soft computing have proved two main advantages. First, it made solving nonlinear problems, in which mathematical models are not available, possible. Second, it introduced the human knowledge such as cognition, recognition, understanding, learning, and others into the fields of computing. This resulted in the possibility of constructing intelligent systems such as autonomous self-tuning systems, and automated designed systems. This paper highlights various areas of soft computing techniques.

  17. Constraints on galactic wind models

    CERN Document Server

    Meiksin, Avery

    2016-01-01

    Observational implications are derived for two standard models of supernovae-driven galactic winds: a freely expanding steady-state wind and a wind sourced by a self-similarly expanding superbubble including thermal heat conduction. It is shown that, for the steady-state wind, matching the measured correlation between the soft x-ray luminosity and star formation rate of starburst galaxies is equivalent to producing a scaled wind mass-loading factor relative to the star-formation rate of 0.5 - 3, in agreement with the amount inferred from metal absorption line measurements. The match requires the asymptotic wind velocity v_inf to scale with the star formation rate SFR (in solar masses per year) approximately as v_inf ~ (700 - 1000) km/s SFR^{1/6}. The corresponding mass injection rate is close to the amount naturally provided by thermal evaporation from the wall of a superbubble in a galactic disc, suggesting thermal evaporation may be a major source of mass-loading. The predicted mass-loading factors from the...

  18. Constraints on galactic wind models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiksin, Avery

    2016-09-01

    Observational implications are derived for two standard models of supernovae-driven galactic winds: a freely expanding steady-state wind and a wind sourced by a self-similarly expanding superbubble including thermal heat conduction. It is shown that, for the steady-state wind, matching the measured correlation between the soft X-ray luminosity and star formation rate of starburst galaxies is equivalent to producing a scaled wind mass-loading factor relative to the star formation rate of 0.5-3, in agreement with the amount inferred from metal absorption line measurements. The match requires the asymptotic wind velocity v∞ to scale with the star formation rate dot{M}_{ast } (in M⊙ yr-1) approximately as v_∞ ≃ (700-1000) {{km s^{-1}}} {dot{M}_{ast }}^{1/6}. The implied mass injection rate is close to the amount naturally provided by thermal evaporation from the wall of a superbubble in a galactic disc, suggesting that thermal evaporation may be a major source of mass loading. The predicted mass-loading factors from thermal evaporation within the galactic disc alone, however, are somewhat smaller, 0.2-2, so that a further contribution from cloud ablation or evaporation within the wind may be required. Both models may account for the 1.4 GHz luminosity of unresolved radio sources within starburst galaxies for plausible parameters describing the distribution of relativistic electrons. Further observational tests to distinguish the models are suggested.

  19. Revisiting No-Scale Supergravity Inspired Scenarios: Updated Theoretical and Phenomenological Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Benhenni, Amine; Moultaka, Gilbert; Bailly, Sean

    2011-01-01

    We consider no-scale inspired supergravity scenarios, where the gravitino mass and related soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters are determined dynamically by radiative corrections to an essentially flat tree-level potential in the supersymmetry breaking hidden sector. We examine the theoretical and phenomenological viability of such a mechanism, when including up-to-date calculations of the low energy sparticle spectrum and taking into account the latest LHC results and other experimental constraints. We (re)emphasize the role of the scale-dependent vacuum energy contribution to the effective potential, in obtaining realistic no-scale electroweak minima, examining carefully the impact of boundary conditions and of variants of the minimization procedure. We also discuss and implement the B_0 (soft breaking Higgs mixing parameter) input boundary condition at high scale, therefore fixing tan beta(B_0) at low scales. For general high scale boundary conditions with non-vanishing B_0, m_0..., our analysis provide...

  20. Practical applications of soft computing in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Soft computing has been presented not only with the theoretical developments but also with a large variety of realistic applications to consumer products and industrial systems. Application of soft computing has provided the opportunity to integrate human-like vagueness and real-life uncertainty into an otherwise hard computer program. This book highlights some of the recent developments in practical applications of soft computing in engineering problems. All the chapters have been sophisticatedly designed and revised by international experts to achieve wide but in-depth coverage. Contents: Au

  1. Flexible adult flatfoot: soft tissue procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Jeremy L; Mendicino, Samuel S

    2014-07-01

    Classically, adult posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) was considered primarily a tendon rupture and was treated as such with soft tissue repair alone. The understanding that PTTD involves more than simply an inflammatory condition or tendon rupture but also a muscle imbalance, leading to a flatfoot, osteoarthritis, and peritalar subluxation, led to surgeons advocating osseous procedures as well. The advancements in knowledge of the pathomechanics of the deformity have modified the role that soft tissue repair plays in surgical treatment, but the importance of soft tissue restoration in flatfoot repair should not be overlooked.

  2. Design, fabrication and control of soft robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Daniela; Tolley, Michael T.

    2015-05-01

    Conventionally, engineers have employed rigid materials to fabricate precise, predictable robotic systems, which are easily modelled as rigid members connected at discrete joints. Natural systems, however, often match or exceed the performance of robotic systems with deformable bodies. Cephalopods, for example, achieve amazing feats of manipulation and locomotion without a skeleton; even vertebrates such as humans achieve dynamic gaits by storing elastic energy in their compliant bones and soft tissues. Inspired by nature, engineers have begun to explore the design and control of soft-bodied robots composed of compliant materials. This Review discusses recent developments in the emerging field of soft robotics.

  3. Novel dielectric elastomer structure of soft robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi; Xie, Yuhan; Huang, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Junjie; Jin, Yongbin; Li, Tiefeng

    2015-04-01

    Inspired from the natural invertebrates like worms and starfish, we propose a novel elastomeric smart structure. The smart structure can function as a soft robot. The soft robot is made from a flexible elastomer as the body and driven by dielectric elastomer as the muscle. Finite element simulations based on nonlinear field theory are conducted to investigate the working condition of the structure, and guide the design of the smart structure. The effects of the prestretch, structural stiffness and voltage on the performance of the smart structure are investigated. This work can guide the design of soft robot.

  4. Design, fabrication and control of soft robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Daniela; Tolley, Michael T

    2015-05-28

    Conventionally, engineers have employed rigid materials to fabricate precise, predictable robotic systems, which are easily modelled as rigid members connected at discrete joints. Natural systems, however, often match or exceed the performance of robotic systems with deformable bodies. Cephalopods, for example, achieve amazing feats of manipulation and locomotion without a skeleton; even vertebrates such as humans achieve dynamic gaits by storing elastic energy in their compliant bones and soft tissues. Inspired by nature, engineers have begun to explore the design and control of soft-bodied robots composed of compliant materials. This Review discusses recent developments in the emerging field of soft robotics.

  5. Shaving off Black Hole Soft Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Mirbabayi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    A recent, intriguing paper by Hawking, Perry and Strominger suggests that soft photons and gravitons can be regarded as black hole hair and may be relevant to the black hole information paradox. In this note we make use of factorization theorems for infrared divergences of the S-matrix to argue that by appropriately dressing in and out hard states, the soft-quanta-dependent part of the S-matrix becomes essentially trivial. The information paradox can be fully formulated in terms of dressed hard states, which do not depend on soft quanta.

  6. Mesoscopic Fractional Quantum in Soft Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, W

    2005-01-01

    Soft matter (e.g., biomaterials, polymers, sediments, oil, emulsions) has become an important bridge between physics and diverse disciplines. Its fundamental physical mechanism, however, is largely obscure. This study made the first attempt to connect fractional Schrodinger equation and soft matter physics under a consistent framework from empirical power scaling to phenomenological kinetics and macromechanics to mesoscopic quantum mechanics. The original contributions are the fractional quantum relationships, which show Levy statistics and fractional Brownian motion are essentially related to momentum and energy, respectively. The fractional quantum underlies fractal mesostructures and many-body interactions of macromolecules in soft matter and is experimentally testable.

  7. ALS-II, a Potential Soft X-ray, Diffraction Limited Upgrade of the Advanced Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarawneh, H.; Steier, C.; Falcone, R.; Robin, D.; Nishimura, H.; Sun, C.; Wan, W.

    2014-03-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Berkeley Lab has seen many upgrades over the years, keeping it one of the brightest sources for soft x-rays worldwide. Recent developments in magnet technology and lattice design appear to open the door for very large further increases in brightness [1], particularly by reducing the horizontal emittance, even within the space constraints of the existing tunnel. Initial studies for possible lattices will be presented that could approach the soft x-ray diffraction limit around 2 keV in both planes within the ALS footprint. Emerging scientific applications and experimental methods that would greatly benefit from ring based sources having much higher brightness and transverse coherence than present or near future storage ring facilities include nanometer imaging applications, X-ray correlation spectroscopy, diffraction microscopy, holography, ptychography, and resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering at high resolution.

  8. Suppressing Lepton Flavour Violation in a Soft-Wall Extra Dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, Michael

    2010-01-01

    A soft-wall warped extra dimension allows one to relax the tight constraints imposed by electroweak data in conventional Randall-Sundrum models. We investigate a setup, where the lepton flavour structure of the Standard Model is realised by split fermion locations. Bulk fermions with general locations are not analytically tractable in a soft-wall background, so we follow a numerical approach to perform the Kaluza-Klein reduction. Lepton flavour violation is induced by the exchange of Kaluza-Klein gauge bosons. We find that rates for processes such as muon-electron conversion are significantly reduced compared to hard-wall models, allowing for a Kaluza-Klein scale as low as 2 TeV. Accommodating small neutrino masses forces one to introduce a large hierarchy of scales into the model, making pressing the question of a suitable stabilisation mechanism.

  9. A RED modified weighted moving average for soft real-time application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domanśka Joanna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of TCP/IP has resulted in an increase in usage of best-effort networks for real-time communication. Much effort has been spent to ensure quality of service for soft real-time traffic over IP networks. The Internet Engineering Task Force has proposed some architecture components, such as Active Queue Management (AQM. The paper investigates the influence of the weighted moving average on packet waiting time reduction for an AQM mechanism: the RED algorithm. The proposed method for computing the average queue length is based on a difference equation (a recursive equation. Depending on a particular optimality criterion, proper parameters of the modified weighted moving average function can be chosen. This change will allow reducing the number of violations of timing constraints and better use of this mechanism for soft real-time transmissions. The optimization problem is solved through simulations performed in OMNeT++ and later verified experimentally on a Linux implementation

  10. Electrophoresis of diffuse soft particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Jérôme F L; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2006-04-11

    A theory is presented for the electrophoresis of diffuse soft particles in a steady dc electric field. The particles investigated consist of an uncharged impenetrable core and a charged diffuse polyelectrolytic shell, which is to some extent permeable to ions and solvent molecules. The diffuse character of the shell is defined by a gradual distribution of the density of polymer segments in the interspatial region separating the core from the bulk electrolyte solution. The hydrodynamic impact of the polymer chains on the electrophoretic motion of the particle is accounted for by a distribution of Stokes resistance centers. The numerical treatment of the electrostatics includes the possibility of partial dissociation of the hydrodynamically immobile ionogenic groups distributed throughout the shell as well as specific interaction between those sites with ions from the background electrolyte other than charge-determining ions. Electrophoretic mobilities are computed on the basis of an original numerical scheme allowing rigorous evaluation of the governing transport and electrostatic equations derived following the strategy reported by Ohshima, albeit within the restricted context of a discontinuous chain distribution. Attention is particularly paid to the influence of the type of distribution adopted on the electrophoretic mobility of the particle as a function of its size, charge, degree of permeability, and solution composition. The results are systematically compared with those obtained with a discontinuous representation of the interface. The theory constitutes a basis for interpreting electrophoretic mobilities of heterogeneous systems such as environmental or biological colloids or swollen/deswollen microgel particles.

  11. Olaratumab for soft tissue sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssonneau, Diego; Italiano, Antoine

    2017-08-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are rare malignant tumors. Unfortunately, the first-line doxorubicin-based treatment has not been improved since the 1970s. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor alpha (PDGFR-α) and its ligands are co-expressed in many types of cancer, including sarcomas. They are involved in stimulating growth and regulating stromal-derived fibroblasts and angiogenesis. PDGFR-α and its ligand may play an important role in tumorigenesis and be a potential target in the treatment of sarcomas. Olaratumab is a fully human IgG1-type anti-PDGFR-α monoclonal antibody with a high affinity and a low 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50). Areas covered: The authors review the role of olaratumab in the treatment of STS by focusing on the recent, randomized Phase II JDGD trial that challenged patients with unresectable or metastatic STS with doxorubicin in the presence or absence of olaratumab. This trial showed a great improvement in overall survival (OS), with an increase in survival from 14.7 months to 26.5 months for patients in the experimental arm and showed acceptable toxicity. Expert opinion: Results seem promising. However, it must be qualified, as the study includes several uncertainties. These uncertainties should be addressed by the ongoing Phase 3 JGDJ confirmatory trial, for which the final efficacy analysis is expected by 2019.

  12. Negative printing by soft lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jason Kee Yang; Moore, David; Kane, Jennifer; Saraf, Ravi F

    2014-08-27

    In inkless microcontact printing (IμCP) by soft lithography, the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamp transfers uncured polymer to a substrate corresponding to its pattern. The spontaneous diffusion of PDMS oligomers to the surface of the stamp that gives rise to this deleterious side effect has been leveraged to fabricate a variety of devices, such as organic thin film transistors, single-electron devices, and biomolecular chips. Here we report an anomalous observation on a partially cured PDMS stamp where the transfer of oligomers onto Au occurred on regions that were not in contact with the stamp, while the surface in contact with the stamp was pristine with no polymer. On the SiO2 surface of the same chip, as expected, the transfer of PDMS occurred exclusively on regions in contact with the stamp. The printing on Au was quantified by a novel method where the submonolayer of PDMS transfer was measured by probing the local electrochemical passivation of the Au. The local transfer of polymer on SiO2 (and also Au) was measured by selective deposition of Au nanoparticle necklaces that exclusively deposited on PDMS at submonolayer sensitivity. It was discovered that the selectivity and sharpness of PDMS deposition on Au for inkless printing (i.e., negative) is significantly better than the traditional (positive) microcontact printing where the stamp is "inked" with low molecular weight PDMS.

  13. Phonological Constraint Induction in a Connectionist Network: Learning OCP-Place Constraints from Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, John; Tupper, Paul; Frisch, Stefan A.

    2013-01-01

    A significant problem in computational language learning is that of inferring the content of well-formedness constraints from input data. In this article, we approach the constraint induction problem as the gradual adjustment of subsymbolic constraints in a connectionist network. In particular, we develop a multi-layer feed-forward network that…

  14. Ideal theory in semigroups based on intersectional soft sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seok Zun; Kim, Hee Sik; Jun, Young Bae

    2014-01-01

    The notions of int-soft semigroups and int-soft left (resp., right) ideals are introduced, and several properties are investigated. Using these notions and the notion of inclusive set, characterizations of subsemigroups and left (resp., right) ideals are considered. Using the notion of int-soft products, characterizations of int-soft semigroups and int-soft left (resp., right) ideals are discussed. We prove that the soft intersection of int-soft left (resp., right) ideals (resp., int-soft semigroups) is also int-soft left (resp., right) ideals (resp., int-soft semigroups). The concept of int-soft quasi-ideals is also introduced, and characterization of a regular semigroup is discussed.

  15. Polymer constraint effect for electrothermal bimorph microactuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chu Duc, T.; Lau, G.K.; Sarro, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors report on the analysis of the polymer constraint effect and its use for a micromachined electrothermal bimorph actuator. The actuated displacement is enhanced due to the polymer constraint effect. Both the thermal expansion and apparent Young’s modulus of the constrained polymer blocks a

  16. A model for strategy in constraint solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, J.J. van

    1997-01-01

    The use of constraints for the definition of graphical user interfaces has been recognized as a great concept. However, often many valuations of the variables will satisfy the constraints, and which particular valuation matches best with the expectation of the user cannot be decided without further

  17. Constraint solving for direct manipulation of features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenco, D.; Oliveira, P.; Noort, A.; Bidarra, R.

    2006-01-01

    In current commercial feature modeling systems, support for direct manipulation of features is not commonly available. This is partly due to the strong reliance of such systems on constraints, but also to the lack of speed of current constraint solvers. In this paper, an approach to the optimization

  18. A Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia Posso, Frank Darwin

    2001-01-01

    The tcc model is a formalism for reactive concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we propose a model of temporal concurrent constraint programming which adds to tcc the capability of modeling asynchronous and non-deterministic timed behavior. We call this tcc extension the ntcc calculus...

  19. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Wash Sale Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne; Marekwica, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    We analytically solve the portfolio choice problem in the presence of wash sale constraints in a two-period model with one risky asset. Our results show that wash sale constraints can heavily affect portfolio choice of investors with unrealized losses. The trading behavior of such investors...

  20. Supernova constraints on neutrino mass and mixing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srubabati Goswami

    2000-01-01

    In this article I review the constraints on neutrino mass and mixing coming from type-II supernovae. The bounds obtained on these parameters from shock reheating, -process nucleosynthesis and from SN1987A are discussed. Given the current constraints on neutrino mass and mixing the effect of oscillations of neutrinos from a nearby supernova explosion in future detectors will also be discussed.

  1. On Noisy Extensions of Nonholonomic Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay-Balmaz, François; Putkaradze, Vakhtang

    2016-12-01

    We propose several stochastic extensions of nonholonomic constraints for mechanical systems and study the effects on the dynamics and on the conservation laws. Our approach relies on a stochastic extension of the Lagrange-d'Alembert framework. The mechanical system we focus on is the example of a Routh sphere, i.e., a rolling unbalanced ball on the plane. We interpret the noise in the constraint as either a stochastic motion of the plane, random slip or roughness of the surface. Without the noise, this system possesses three integrals of motion: energy, Jellet and Routh. Depending on the nature of noise in the constraint, we show that either energy, or Jellet, or both integrals can be conserved, with probability 1. We also present some exact solutions for particular types of motion in terms of stochastic integrals. Next, for an arbitrary nonholonomic system, we consider two different ways of including stochasticity in the constraints. We show that when the noise preserves the linearity of the constraints, then energy is preserved. For other types of noise in the constraint, e.g., in the case of an affine noise, the energy is not conserved. We study in detail a class of Lagrangian mechanical systems on semidirect products of Lie groups, with "rolling ball type" constraints. We conclude with numerical simulations illustrating our theories, and some pedagogical examples of noise in constraints for other nonholonomic systems popular in the literature, such as the nonholonomic particle, the rolling disk and the Chaplygin sleigh.

  2. Filtering Algorithms for Global Chance Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hnich, B.; Rossi, R.; Tarim, S.A.; Prestwich, S.

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic Constraint Satisfaction Problems (SCSPs) are a powerful modeling framework for problems under uncertainty. To solve them is a PSPACE task. The only complete solution approach to date — scenario-based stochastic constraint programming — compiles SCSPs down into classical CSPs. This allows

  3. Network Design with Node Degree Balance Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Berliner; Crainic, Teodor Gabriel

    This presentation discusses an extension to the network design model where there in addition to the flow conservation constraints also are constraints that require design conservation. This means that the number of arcs entering and leaving a node must be the same. As will be shown the model has ...

  4. A Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia Posso, Frank Darwin

    2001-01-01

    The tcc model is a formalism for reactive concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we propose a model of temporal concurrent constraint programming which adds to tcc the capability of modeling asynchronous and non-deterministic timed behavior. We call this tcc extension the ntcc calculus...

  5. Singularity Analysis of Geometric Constraint Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭小波; 陈立平; 周凡利; 周济

    2002-01-01

    Singularity analysis is an important subject of the geometric constraint sat-isfaction problem. In this paper, three kinds of singularities are described and corresponding identification methods are presented for both under-constrained systems and over-constrained systems. Another special but common singularity for under-constrained geometric systems, pseudo-singularity, is analyzed. Pseudo-singularity is caused by a variety of constraint match ing of under-constrained systems and can be removed by improving constraint distribution. To avoid pseudo-singularity and decide redundant constraints adaptively, a differentiation algo rithm is proposed in the paper. Its correctness and efficiency have been validated through its practical applications in a 2D/3D geometric constraint solver CBA.

  6. SOFT ROBOTICS. A 3D-printed, functionally graded soft robot powered by combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Nicholas W; Tolley, Michael T; Overvelde, Johannes T B; Weaver, James C; Mosadegh, Bobak; Bertoldi, Katia; Whitesides, George M; Wood, Robert J

    2015-07-10

    Roboticists have begun to design biologically inspired robots with soft or partially soft bodies, which have the potential to be more robust and adaptable, and safer for human interaction, than traditional rigid robots. However, key challenges in the design and manufacture of soft robots include the complex fabrication processes and the interfacing of soft and rigid components. We used multimaterial three-dimensional (3D) printing to manufacture a combustion-powered robot whose body transitions from a rigid core to a soft exterior. This stiffness gradient, spanning three orders of magnitude in modulus, enables reliable interfacing between rigid driving components (controller, battery, etc.) and the primarily soft body, and also enhances performance. Powered by the combustion of butane and oxygen, this robot is able to perform untethered jumping.

  7. Volcanological constraints of Archaean tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, P. C.; Ayres, L. D.

    1986-01-01

    Volcanological and trace element geochemical data can be integrated to place some constraints upon the size, character and evolutionary history of Archean volcanic plumbing, and hence indirectly, Archean tectonics. The earliest volcanism in any greenhouse belt is almost universally tholeitic basalt. Archean mafic magma chambers were usually the site of low pressure fractionation of olivine, plagioclase and later Cpx + or - an oxide phase during evolution of tholeitic liquids. Several models suggest basalt becoming more contaminated by sial with time. Data in the Uchi Subprovince shows early felsic volcanics to have fractionated REE patterns followed by flat REE pattern rhyolites. This is interpreted as initial felsic liquids produced by melting of a garnetiferous mafic source followed by large scale melting of LIL-rich sial. Rare andesites in the Uchi Subprovince are produced by basalt fractionation, direct mantle melts and mixing of basaltic and tonalitic liquids. Composite dikes in the Abitibi Subprovince have a basaltic edge with a chill margin, a rhyolitic interior with no basalt-rhyolite chill margin and partially melted sialic inclusions. Ignimbrites in the Uchi and Abitibi Subprovinces have mafic pumice toward the top. Integration of these data suggest initial mantle-derived basaltic liquids pond in a sialic crust, fractionate and melt sial. The inirial melts low in heavy REE are melts of mafic material, subsequently melting of adjacent sial produces a chamber with a felsic upper part underlain by mafic magma.

  8. Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility accommodates a 155mm Howitzer, fired horizontally into a 104-foot long water trough to slow the projectile and recover...

  9. Nonlinear Properties of Soft Glass Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Henrik

    This thesis builds around the investigation into using soft glass materials for midinfrared and THz applications. Soft glasses is a term that cov ers a wide range of chemical compositions where many are yet to be fully investigated. The work in this thesis is separated in two parts, the mid......-infrared applications and the THz applications. In the mid-infrared, it is investigated whether soft glasses are a suitable candidate for supercontinuum generation (SCG). A few commercially available fluoride fibers are tested for their zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW), a key property when determining the possibility...... of SCG in a fiber. A group of soft glasses, namely the chalcogenides, are known to display two photon absorption (TPA) which could potentially limit the SCG when this is initiated within the frequency range where this nonlinear process occur. An analytic model is presented to estimate the soliton self...

  10. Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Treatment Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid Cancer Cancer Resources Childhood Cancer Statistics Coping With Cancer CureSearch CancerCare App Late Effects ...

  11. The Geometry of Soft Materials: A Primer

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    We present an overview of the differential geometry of curves and surfaces using examples from soft matter as illustrations. The presentation requires a background only in vector calculus and is otherwise self-contained.

  12. Responsive polyelectrolyte hydrogels and soft matter micromanipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glazer, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation describes experimental studies on the mechanisms underlying the dynamic response of polyelectrolyte hydrogels when submitted to an external electric potential. In addition, we explore the possibilities of miniaturization and manipulation of responsive gels and other soft matter sys

  13. Nonthermal CP Violation in Soft Leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Adhikari, Rathin; Fong, Chee Sheng; Rangarajan, Raghavan

    2015-01-01

    Soft leptogenesis is a mechanism which generates the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe via the out-of-equilibrium decays of heavy sneutrinos in which soft supersymmetry breaking terms play two important roles: they provide the required CP violation and give rise to the mass splitting between otherwise degenerate sneutrino mass eigenstates within a single generation. This mechanism is interesting because it can be successful at lower temperature regime $T \\lesssim 10^9$ GeV in which the conflict with the overproduction of gravitinos can possibly be avoided. In earlier works the leading CP violation is found to be nonzero only if finite temperature effects are included. By considering generic soft trilinear couplings, we find two interesting consequences: 1) the leading CP violation can be nonzero even at zero temperature realizing nonthermal CP violation and 2) the CP violation is sufficient even far away from the resonant regime allowing soft supersymmetry breaking parameters to assume natural value...

  14. Problem solving using soft systems methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, L

    This article outlines a method of problem solving which considers holistic solutions to complex problems. Soft systems methodology allows people involved in the problem situation to have control over the decision-making process.

  15. Drugs Approved for Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015 2014 2013 2012 Media Resources Media Contacts Multicultural Media ... This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for soft tissue sarcoma. The list includes ...

  16. Limits for an inverse bremsstrahlung origin of the diffuse Galactic soft gamma-ray emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, M.

    1998-01-01

    -7 MeV emission from the Galactic plane, in concert with the constraints from pi(0)-decay gamma-ray emission at higher energies, are in serious conflict with an inverse bremsstrahlung origin of the Galactic soft gamma-ray emission for any physically plausible low-energy cosmic ray spectrum. While...... in case of energetic heavy nuclei the limits are violated by about an order of magnitude, for a large population of low-energy protons the implied gamma-ray line flux and pi(0)-decay continuum intensity are larger than the existing limits by at least a factor of 2....

  17. A Constraint-directed Local Search Approach to Nurse Rostering Problems

    CERN Document Server

    He, Fang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the hybridization of constraint programming and local search techniques within a large neighbourhood search scheme for solving highly constrained nurse rostering problems. As identified by the research, a crucial part of the large neighbourhood search is the selection of the fragment (neighbourhood, i.e. the set of variables), to be relaxed and re-optimized iteratively. The success of the large neighbourhood search depends on the adequacy of this identified neighbourhood with regard to the problematic part of the solution assignment and the choice of the neighbourhood size. We investigate three strategies to choose the fragment of different sizes within the large neighbourhood search scheme. The first two strategies are tailored concerning the problem properties. The third strategy is more general, using the information of the cost from the soft constraint violations and their propagation as the indicator to choose the variables added into the fragment. The three strategies are a...

  18. Adapting nurse competence to future patient needs using Checkland's Soft Systems Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Železnik, Danica; Kokol, Peter; Blažun Vošner, Helena

    2017-01-01

    New emerging technologies, health globalization, demographic change, new healthcare paradigms, advances in healthcare delivery and social networking will change the needs of patients in the future and consequently will require that new knowledge, competence and skill sets be acquired by nurses. Checkland's Soft Systems Methodology, focusing on the enriched CATWOE and PQR elements of the root definitions, combined with our own developed "Too much - Too little constraint" approach was used to devise impending knowledge, competence and skill sets. The analysis revealed ten needs among patients of the future, 63 constraints and 18 knowledge, competence and skill sets for the future nurse. The completed study showed that SSM is an appropriate tool for high level structuring of a "messy" real-world problem situation to meet prospective nursing challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stabilization of Soft Soil Using Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Zaid Hameed Majeed; Mohd Raihan Taha; Ibtehaj Taha Jawad

    2014-01-01

    Tests were conducted to investigate the influence of using nanomaterials in the modification and stabilization of soft soil. The soft soils were collected from two sites and treated with three nanomaterial types (nano-copper, nano-clay and nano-magnesium). Nanomaterials were added in small amount (≤1.0%) by dry weight of the soil. Laboratory tests to determine the Atterberg limits, linear shrinkage, compaction characteristics and unconfined compressive strength were performed. Results of the ...

  20. Double Soft Theorem for Perturbative Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Arnab Priya

    2016-01-01

    Following up on the recent work of Cachazo, He and Yuan \\cite{arXiv:1503.04816 [hep-th]}, we derive the double soft graviton theorem in perturbative gravity. We show that the double soft theorem derived using CHY formula precisely matches with the perturbative computation involving Feynman diagrams. In particular, we find how certain delicate limits of Feynman diagrams play an important role in obtaining this equivalence.