WorldWideScience

Sample records for monograph items electronic

  1. A Comprehensive List of Items to be Included on a Pediatric Drug Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lauren E; Ito, Shinya; Woods, David; Nunn, Anthony J; Taketomo, Carol; de Hoog, Matthijs; Offringa, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Children require special considerations for drug prescribing. Drug information summarized in a formulary containing drug monographs is essential for safe and effective prescribing. Currently, little is known about the information needs of those who prescribe and administer medicines to children. Our primary objective was to identify a list of important and relevant items to be included in a pediatric drug monograph. Following the establishment of an expert steering committee and an environmental scan of adult and pediatric formulary monograph items, 46 participants from 25 countries were invited to complete a 2-round Delphi survey. Questions regarding source of prescribing information and importance of items were recorded. An international consensus meeting to vote on and finalize the items list with the steering committee followed. Pediatric formularies are most commonly the first resource consulted for information on medication used in children by 31 Delphi participants. After the Delphi rounds, 116 items were identified to be included in a comprehensive pediatric drug monograph, including general information, adverse drug reactions, dosages, precautions, drug-drug interactions, formulation, and drug properties. Health care providers identified 116 monograph items as important for prescribing medicines for children by an international consensus-based process. This information will assist in setting standards for the creation of new pediatric drug monographs for international application and for those involved in pediatric formulary development.

  2. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101... available from the Defense Logistics Agency. Agencies required to use GSA supply sources should also use... Logistics Agency, the catalog will contain only those items in Federal supply classification classes which...

  3. Molecular phylogeny, biogeography, and an e-monograph of the papaya family (Caricaceae) as an example of taxonomy in the electronic age

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes Carvalho, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation addresses an issue of key importance to the field of systematics, namely how to foster taxonomic work and the dissemination of knowledge about species by taking full advantage of electronic data and bioinformatic tools. I tested and applied modern systematic tools to produce an electronic monograph of a family of flowering plants, Caricaceae. In addition to a taxonomic revision, a molecular phylogeny of the family that includes representatives of all biological species clari...

  4. 41 CFR 101-26.603 - Electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.603 Section 101-26.603 Public Contracts and Property... items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. Executive agencies shall satisfy their requirements...

  5. IARC Monographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, Neil E; Blair, Aaron; Vineis, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that IARC Working Groups...... carcinogens. We have examined here criticisms of the IARC classification process to determine the validity of these concerns. We review the history of IARC evaluations and describe how the IARC evaluations are performed. DISCUSSION: We conclude that these recent criticisms are unconvincing. The procedures....... This does not mean, however, that the current procedures are flawed. CONCLUSIONS: The IARC Monographs have made, and continue to make, major contributions to the scientific underpinning for societal actions to improve the public's health....

  6. 77 FR 50932 - Electronic Transmission of Customs Data-Outbound International Letter-Post Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... 20 Electronic Transmission of Customs Data--Outbound International Letter-Post Items AGENCY: Postal... Standards of the United States Postal Service, International Mail Manual (IMM ) to require that customs data... Service and other federal agencies to ensure mailers' compliance with federal export...

  7. Comparing Usage Patterns Recorded between an Electronic Reference and an Electronic Monograph Collection: The Differences in Searches and Full-Text Content Viewings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Alain R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a quantitative and systematic analysis comparing the online usage of an e-reference and an e-monograph collection. A very strong relationship exists between size and usage: the larger the collection, the greater the usage. An equally strong relationship exists between searches and viewings, meaning that the…

  8. Comparing Usage Patterns Recorded between an Electronic Reference and an Electronic Monograph Collection: The Differences in Searches and Full-Text Content Viewings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Alain R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a quantitative and systematic analysis comparing the online usage of an e-reference and an e-monograph collection. A very strong relationship exists between size and usage: the larger the collection, the greater the usage. An equally strong relationship exists between searches and viewings, meaning that the…

  9. Monographs and Open Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Crossick

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the project that I led for HEFCE on the implications of OA (open access for monographs and other long-form research publications. The likely requirement that books should be OA if submitted to the REF (Research Excellence Framework after next means that OA development must be based on an understanding of the importance of the monograph in the AHSS (arts, humanities and social sciences as well as the challenges involved in making the transition to online OA. The project focused on three issues and each is summarized in turn in the article: What is the place of the monograph and other long-form publications in AHSS disciplines that makes it so important? What is happening to the monograph and is there a crisis as some suggest? What are the issues involved in moving monographs into a digital and OA environment – not just the challenge of effective business models but also many other aspects of sustaining and enhancing the qualities of the monograph? These include third-party rights, technical challenges, licences and the need for international collaboration.

  10. Analyzing Workforce Education. Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Community & Technical Coll. Workforce Education Consortium.

    This monograph examines the issue of task analysis as used in workplace literacy programs, debating the need for it and how to perform it in a rapidly changing environment. Based on experiences of community colleges in Texas, the report analyzes ways that task analysis can be done and how to implement work force education programs more quickly.…

  11. Multiple Primary Cancer Monograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    To identify groups of cancer survivors that are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers, investigators led an effort to provide the first comprehensive population-based analysis of the risk of subsequent cancer in the U.S., resulting in a monograph.

  12. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program - NASA Items of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    This presentation provides a background summary of the NEPP Program, its origins and operating principles followed by examples of issues and opportunities that NEPP is currently pursuing. These examples include Electrostatic Discharge protection procedures that are not being properly applied, one reason for which is the confusion caused by the numerous, different standards covering this topic. Updates are provided for key activities in radiation hardness assurance, and the evaluation of automotive grade electronic parts for use in space applications. Some recent examples of part problems experienced by NASA are briefly described and the latest trending of incidences of counterfeit electronic parts is shown graphically. Finally some forward actions are identified and the time, place and typical topics is provided for the next NEPP Electronic Technology Workshop (ETW).

  13. Monograph of Coccinia (Cucurbitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    This monograph deals with all 95 names described in the Cucurbitaceae genus Coccinia and recognizes 25 species. Taxonomic novelties are Cocciniaadoensisvar.aurantiaca (C.Jeffrey) Holstein, stat. nov., Cocciniasessilifoliavar.variifolia (A.Meeuse) Holstein, stat. nov., and Cocciniaadoensisvar.jeffreyana Holstein, var. nov. For the 25 species 3157 collections were examined, of which 2024 were georeferenced to produce distribution maps. All species are distributed in sub-Saharan Africa with one species, Cocciniagrandis, extending from Senegal in West Africa east to Indonesia and being naturalized on Pacific Islands, in Australia, the Caribbean, and South America. Coccinia species are dioecious creepers or climbers with simple or bifid tendrils that occupy a range of habitats from arid scrubland, woodlands to lowland rainforest and mist forest. The corolla of Coccinia species is sympetalous, usually pale yellow to orange, and 1 to 4.5 cm long. Pollination is by bees foraging for pollen or nectar. After pollination, the developing ovary often exhibits longitudinal mottling, which usually disappears during maturation. All species produce berries with a pericarp in reddish colors (orange-red through to scarlet red), hence the generic name. The globose to cylindrical fruits contain numerous grayish-beige flat to lenticular seeds. Chromosome numbers are 2n = 20, 24, and 22 + XX/XY. Many Coccinia species are used for food, either as roasted tubers, greens as spinach, or the fruits as vegetables. Medicinal value is established in Cocciniagrandis, of which leaves and sap are used against diabetes.

  14. Procedures for Inventorying and Replacing Missing Monographs in a Large Research Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Thomas W.

    Divided into inventory project procedures for the identification of missing books for future replacement and inventory guidelines for use by subject librarians to determine whether an item should be replaced, this report sets forth very specific procedures for conducting a comprehensive inventory of monographic holdings. They are based on…

  15. The Research Use of Astronomical Monographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    2014-04-01

    I explored the use of astronomical monographs used for research. After scanning 135 monographs (excluding conference proceedings and textbooks) listed in 2000-2003 issues of Physics Today and counting citations of them in 2000-2013 in ADS (Astrophysics Data System), I found that 67% of the monographs received fewer than 2 citations per year. The average citation rate for the 135 monographs is statistically the same as for ApJ papers. In contrast, only 41% of the ApJ papers produce fewer than 2 citations per year. ADS also counts the number of times each book or paper is read on-line. The average in 14 years is 181 ± 27 times for the monographs and 633 ± 47 times for ApJ papers. The total numbers of citations in 14 years for the monographs ranged from 0 to 711. I explored reasons for this range and only learned that it did not depend on (1) the numbers of book reviews published or (2) the scientific stature of the authors. I am unable to predict whether a monograph will be successful or not. The decreasing of references to monographs seems to be due to (1) monographs becoming so expensive that individuals and libraries cannot afford many of them, (2) readers seeming to prefer concise reviews, such as online searches and the Annual Reviews, and (3) most of the monographs having not been available free online.

  16. Monograph: Concluding Remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Private investment in biomedical research has increased over the last few decades. At most places it has been welcomed as the next best thing to technology itself. There are significant costs involved too. Major areas of conflict of interest especially applicable to biomedical research have arisen, as academia interacts with industry. Pharma image stinks because of a number of errors of omission and commission. A recent example is suppression of negative findings about Bayer's Trasylol (Aprotinin and the marketing maneuvers of Eli Lilly's Xigris (rhAPC. A voluntary moratorium over pharma spending to pamper drug prescribers is necessary.The integrity of industry-sponsored clinical research has come under increasing scrutiny. The basic shizm is between the value system of a patient welfare driven professional and that of a profit driven industry . While one wants to avoid control but wants the dough, the other wants to exercise the control by supplying the dough. Clinical practice guidelines (CPG are considered important as they guide diagnostic/therapeutic regimen of a large number of medical professionals and hospitals and provide recommendations on drugs, dosages and criteria for selection. Besides clinical trials, they are another area of growing influence by the pharmaceutical industry. For example, in a recent survey it was found that about 60% of 192 authors of clinical practice guidelines reported they had financial connections with the companies whose drugs were under consideration. This finding casts serious doubt on the credibility of this important pillar of modern clinical practice. It needs urgent reparative action. One of them is prospective and retrospective disclosure of financial conflict of interest by authors of CPGs.A Conference on Guideline Standardization (COGS was convened in April 2002 'to define a standard for guideline reporting that would promote guideline quality and facilitate implementation'. It includes items for

  17. Force Limited Vibration Testing Monograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharton, Terry D.

    1997-01-01

    The practice of limiting the shaker force in vibration tests was investigated at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in 1990 after the mechanical failure of an aerospace component during a vibration test. Now force limiting is used in almost every major vibration test at JPL and in many vibration tests at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and at many aerospace contractors. The basic ideas behind force limiting have been in the literature for several decades, but the piezo-electric force transducers necessary to conveniently implement force limiting have been available only in the last decade. In 1993, funding was obtained from the NASA headquarters Office of Chief Engineer to develop and document the technology needed to establish force limited vibration testing as a standard approach available to all NASA centers and aerospace contractors. This monograph is the final report on that effort and discusses the history, theory, and applications of the method in some detail.

  18. Monograph on prospective developments in oceanology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monin, A. S.

    1986-01-01

    Excerpts from a chapter of a monograph, Oceanology in the Year 2000, which has been prepared for publication at the USSR Academy of Sciences' Institute of Oceanology, is presented. The author of this chapter is A. S. Morin, corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences and director of the oceanology institute. The monograph is said to be the collective work of a group of specialists. Monin views prospective developments of oceanology and oceanology related research and development, technology and expedition research.

  19. Preface to the third monograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Fashions come and go. Filmstars have their hey days and sink into oblivion. Technological gadgets become outdated sometimes even before they enter the market. Everyone wants the latest in TVs, computers, mobiles, cars, household appliances, industrial machinery, the works.We want to hear the latest news. Nobody prefers to read yesterday's newspaper today out of choice. We also want to read the latest edition of a book, and look up recent references and research work.We want the latest in treatments as well. The most recent is always considered an advancement over what was available earlier. Newer therapies, newer investigations, newer procedures.But, at the some time, we want to go to the senior consultant. And, given a choice, the older the better. Even elsewhere, we do not go to the junior most person to solve our problems if we can approach the senior man, and he is amenable. The recent graduate or postgraduate has the latest information, but it is the senior man who sits on the panel of examiners.We want the most recent in some cases, and the older and more experienced in others. Why should this happen? How should we handle our great need to update our knowledge on the latest, and yet not neglect the old and time-tested?This dilemma occurs in the research field as well, and psychiatry is no exception.What can be a healthy way of resolving this issue is the subject matter of this monograph.

  20. Preface to the seventh monograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Like all good neighbours, competing schools of psychiatry claw at each other. Like all good samaritans, some people try to play arbiters and douse the fires. The tradition of fights and retaliation is not new to psy­chiatry, neither is it unique to the branch. Competing schools of thought exist almost everywhere. And it is tempting to say that the more intellec­tually robust a field, the greater the controversies and fights in it.In fact if intellectuals were to come together and not voice differences, either they are not intellectuals, or they have no opinions. (Or they may be simply scared, or silenced for other reasons.Ofcourse we must note that while in other fields of thought there can be controversies, there is one essential difference. They may not be dealing with patients and their lives. And to that the corollary is that psychiatric controversies should not be carried out at the expense of patient welfare.Having said that, let us also note that when there are fights, arbiters become very active. As do advocates, of one or the other approach.In this monograph we have tried to act the arbiters. Maybe because it is appropriate. Maybe also because that's the only thing we can do (and may be do well: atleast that's what we would love to believe.Why not advocates ? Well, for one, there are so many already. For another, we run the risk of doing a poor job of it.Not that we have necessarily done a good job of being arbiters.

  1. 21 CFR 330.11 - NDA deviations from applicable monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false NDA deviations from applicable monograph. 330.11... EFFECTIVE AND NOT MISBRANDED Administrative Procedures § 330.11 NDA deviations from applicable monograph. A new drug application requesting approval of an OTC drug deviating in any respect from a monograph that...

  2. Bibliometrics of NIHR HTA monographs and their related journal articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Pamela; Waugh, Norman

    2015-02-18

    A bibliometric analysis of the UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) monographs and their related journal articles by: (1) exploring the differences in citations to the HTA monographs in Google Scholar (GS), Scopus and Web of Science (WoS), and (2) comparing Scopus citations to the monographs with their related journal articles. A study of 111 HTA monographs published in 2010 and 2011, and their external journal articles. Citations to the monographs in GS, Scopus and WoS, and to their external journal articles in Scopus. The number of citations varied among the three databases, with GS having the highest and WoS the lowest; however, the citation-based rankings among the databases were highly correlated. Overall, 56% of monographs had a related publication, with the highest proportion for primary research (76%) and lowest for evidence syntheses (43%). There was a large variation in how the monographs were cited, compared to journal articles, resulting in more frequent problems, with unlinked citations in Scopus and WoS. When comparing differences in the number of citations between monograph publications with their related journal articles from the same project, we found that monographs received more citations than their journal articles for evidence syntheses and methodology projects; by contrast, journal articles related to primary research monographs were more highly cited than their monograph. The numbers of citations to the HTA monographs differed considerably between the databases, but were highly correlated. When a HTA monograph had a journal article from the same study, there were more citations to the journal article for primary research, but more to the monographs for evidence syntheses. Citations to the related journal articles were more reliably recorded than citations to the HTA monographs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please

  3. When Teachers Lead. UCEA Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuto, Terry A., Ed.

    This document contains six chapters that examine the role of teacher leadership in the school-restructuring process. Chapter 1, "When--Teachers Lead" (Bruce S. Cooper), provides a general introduction to the content and purpose of the monograph. Chapter 2, "When--Teachers Share School-Level Decision-Making" (Sharon Conley and Justo Robles),…

  4. Comparing Linear Relationships between E-Book Usage and University Student and Faculty Populations: The Differences between E-Reference and E-Monograph Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Alain R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results from a quantitative study examining the strength of linear relationships between Laurentian University students and faculty members and the J. N. Desmarais Library's reference and monograph e-book collections. The number of full-text items accessed, searches performed, and undergraduate, graduate, and faculty…

  5. Comparing Linear Relationships between E-Book Usage and University Student and Faculty Populations: The Differences between E-Reference and E-Monograph Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Alain R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results from a quantitative study examining the strength of linear relationships between Laurentian University students and faculty members and the J. N. Desmarais Library's reference and monograph e-book collections. The number of full-text items accessed, searches performed, and undergraduate, graduate, and faculty…

  6. 76 FR 51034 - Availability of Draft NTP Monograph on Potential Developmental Effects of Cancer Chemotherapy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Availability of Draft NTP Monograph on Potential Developmental Effects of Cancer... Monograph AGENCY: Division of the National Toxicology Program (DNTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National Institutes of Health. ACTION: Availability of Draft Monograph; Request...

  7. Report on carcinogens monograph on 1-bromopropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The National Toxicology Program conducted a cancer evaluation on 1 bromopropane for possible listing in the Report on Carcinogens (RoC). The cancer evaluation is captured in the RoC monograph, which was peer reviewed in a public forum. The monograph consists of two components: (Part 1) the cancer evaluation, which reviews the relevant scientific information, assesses its quality, applies the RoC listing criteria to the scientific information, and provides the NTP recommendation for listing status for 1 bromopropane in the RoC, and (Part 2) the substance profile proposed for the RoC, containing the NTP's listing status recommendation, a summary of the scientific evidence considered key to reaching that decision, and data on properties, use, production, exposure, and Federal regulations and guidelines to reduce exposure to 1-bromopropane. This monograph provides an assessment of the available scientific information on 1 bromopropane, including human exposure and properties, disposition and toxicokinetics, cancer studies in experimental animals, and studies of mechanisms and other related effects, including relevant toxicological effects, genetic toxicology, and mechanisms of carcinogenicity. From this assessment, the NTP recommended that 1 bromopropane be listed as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen in the RoC based on sufficient evidence from studies in experimental animals, which found inhalation exposure to 1-bromopropane caused skin tumors in male rats, large intestine tumors in female and male rats, and lung tumors in female mice. Also noted was that 1 bromopropane, either directly or via reactive metabolites, caused molecular alterations that typically are associated with carcinogenesis, including genotoxicity, oxidative stress, and glutathione depletion. These alterations, observed in mainly in vitro and toxicity studies in rodents, are relevant to possible mechanisms of human carcinogenicity and support the relevance of the cancer studies in

  8. Report on carcinogens monograph on cumene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The National Toxicology Program conducted a cancer evaluation on cumene for possible listing in the Report on Carcinogens (RoC). The cancer evaluation is captured in the RoC monograph, which was peer reviewed in a public forum. The monograph consists of two components: (Part 1) the cancer evaluation, which reviews the relevant scientific information, assesses its quality, applies the RoC listing criteria to the scientific information, and provides the NTP recommendation for listing status for cumene in the RoC, and (Part 2) the substance profile proposed for the RoC, containing the NTP's listing status recommendation, a summary of the scientific evidence considered key to reaching that decision, and data on properties, use, production, exposure, and Federal regulations and guidelines to reduce exposure to cumene. This monograph provides an assessment of the available scientific information on cumene, including human exposure and properties, disposition and toxicokinetics, cancer studies in experimental animals, and studies of mechanisms and other related effects, including relevant toxicological effects, genetic toxicology, and mechanisms of carcinogenicity. From this assessment, the NTP recommended that cumene be listed as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen in the RoC based on sufficient evidence from studies in experimental animals, which found that cumene exposure caused lung tumors in male and female mice and liver tumors in female mice. Several proposed mechanisms of carcinogenesis support the relevance to humans of the lung and liver tumors observed in experimental animals. Specifically, there is evidence that humans and experimental animals metabolize cumene through similar metabolic pathways. In addition, mutations of the K-ras oncogene and p53 tumor-suppressor gene observed in cumene-induced lung tumors in mice, along with altered expression of many other genes, resemble molecular alterations found in human lung and other cancers.

  9. Creative Drama as a Resource, K-12. Language Arts Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpham, John R.

    Defining creative drama as a teaching process that uses the inherent ability of each person to explore ideas, behavior patterns, and human relationships, this monograph is designed to help teachers create a working environment within which this process can be most productive. Various sections of the monograph provide information about how creative…

  10. [Leon Daraszkiewicz and his monograph on hebephrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinowski, Filip

    2012-01-01

    Leon Daraszkiewicz (1866-1931) was a Polish psychiatrist, a pupil and co-worker of E. Kraepelin and V. Tsiz on the University of Dorpat (now Tartu, Estonia), the author of highly regarded monograph on hebephrenia (1891). In his work on the basis of over 20 case histories, he described a natural history of hebephrenia and his own views on its aetiology and prognosis. Hebephrenia as described by Daraszkiewicz, served as a clinical model for the Kraepelinian concept of dementia praecox. In the article, the life and career of Daraszkiewicz is covered, with particular emphasis on the role of his doctoral dissertation on hebephrenia in the history of the concept of schizophrenia.

  11. Monograph for using paleoflood data in Water Resources Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, R.E.; Jarrett, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    The Environmental and Water Resources Institute (EWRI) Technical Committee on Surface Water Hydrology is sponsoring a Task Committee on Paleoflood Hydrology to prepare a monograph entitled, "Use of Paleoflood and Historical Data in Water Resources Applications." This paper introduces the subject of paleoflood hydrology and discusses the topics, which are expected to be included in the monograph. The procedure for preparing and reviewing the monograph will also be discussed. The paleoflood hydrology monograph will include a discussion of types of hydrologic and paleoflood data, paleostage indicators, flood chronology, modeling methods, interpretation issues, water resources applications and case studies, and research needs. Paleoflood data collection and analysis techniques will be presented, and various applications in water-resources investigations will be provided. An overview of several flood frequency analysis approaches, which consider historical and paleoflood data along with systematic streamflow records, will be presented. The monograph is scheduled for completion and publication in 2001. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  12. Screening Test Items for Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    2014-01-01

    A method for medical screening is adapted to differential item functioning (DIF). Its essential elements are explicit declarations of the level of DIF that is acceptable and of the loss function that quantifies the consequences of the two kinds of inappropriate classification of an item. Instead of a single level and a single function, sets of…

  13. 77 FR 48995 - Draft National Toxicology Program (NTP) Monograph on Developmental Effects and Pregnancy Outcomes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Draft National Toxicology Program (NTP) Monograph on... of the draft monograph. Topic: Peer review of the draft NTP Monograph on Developmental Effects and... scheduled for oral public comment. The NTP also invites written comments on the draft monograph, submission...

  14. 医生工作站电子申请检验项目时附加费用的智能收取%Additional fees charged intelligently while test items electronically applied for on Doctor workstation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范久波; 刘海菊; 刘晓东

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the realization and the value of additional fees charged intelligently while test items electronically applied for on Doctor workstation. Methods: The single item or combination tests grouped into many types. In each group first the cost for blood collection and materials expenses to be added one time into list and then compare sample type between each items in the group and that been added previously. If different, the material expense is added again. When there are multiple groups, the material expense is added one time for each group first, and then each subjected to the same judgment process. Results: When clinicians select the test items, the cost for blood collection and materials expenses needed be added into Doctor's advice automatically. When removing an item, only need deleting the item directly, additional fees needed to retain for the remaining items determined by judgment program, unnecessary deleted automatically. In special circumstances additional fees charged according to actual situation. Conclusion: Additional fees charged intelligently while test items electronically applied for on Doctor workstation, indicates that while pays great attention on big and complete function in His construction, also needs to pay more attention on small and the fine detail, in order to facilitate the daily work.%目的:探讨医生工作站电子申请检验项目时附加费用的智能收取的实现及应用价值.方法:检验单项和检验组套进行分组;每组内先根据标本类型收取采血费和一次卫材费,然后将标本类型同组内样本类型进行比较,不同则加收一次.有多个分组时,每组先加收一次卫材费,然后组内判断循环同上.特殊情况设置特殊的处理方案.结果:临床医生选中检验项目时,采样所需要收取的卫材费及采血费,自动添加到医嘱中.当去掉某一项目时只需删除项目,卫材费及采血费由收费程序判断保留,多余的自动删

  15. MSM 2010 Theme Monograph Psychopharmacology Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This theme monograph is called Psychopharmacology Today. It has some notable contributions on issues in psychopharmacology.MSM 2010 is dedicated to the fond memory of Dr V.N. Bagadia, who headed our Hon International Editorial Advisory Board. See Dedication, " Dr Bagadia, Sir, is no more"(p3.Thomas L. Schwartz, M.D. Associate Professor of Psychiatry, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, USA writes an editorial on, "Psychopharmacology today: where are we and where do we go from here?"(p6.Ajai R. Singh, MD. Editor, Mens Sana Monographs, writes the second editorial on, "Modern medicine: towards prevention, cure, well-being and longevity"(p17.Sannidhya Varma, Himanshu Sareen and J.K. Trivedi from CSM Medical University, Lucknow, India, write on, "The Geriatric Population and Psychiatric Medication"(p30.Amresh Shrivastava from The University of Western Ontario, Department of Psychiatry and Megan E. Johnston from University of Toronto, Department of Psychology, write on, "Weight Gain in Psychiatric Treatment: Risks, Implications, and Strategies for Prevention and Management"(p53.Avinash De Sousa, M.D. Consultant Psychiatrist& Psychotherapist, Mumbai, writes on, "The Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Dependence: A State of the Art Review"(p69. Late B. M. Tripathi, M.D. Professor, Department of Psychiatry and National Drug Dependence and Treatment Center, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, and Pradipta Majumder, MBBS, Resident, Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, write on, "Lactating Mother and Psychotropic Drugs"(p83.K.S. Latha PhD. Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry, KMC Hospital, Manipal University, writes on, "The Noncompliant Patient in Psychiatry: The Case For and Against Covert/Surreptitious Medication"(p96. Neha Khetrapal, [M.A. Cognitive Science], Centre of Excellence "Cognitive Interaction Technology" (CITEC And Faculty of Psychology& Sport Sciences, University of Bielefeld, Germany

  16. Probing Electron Dynamics with the Laplacian of the Momentum Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumar, N.; MacDougall, Preston J. [Middle Tennessee State University; Levit, M. Creon [Nasa Ames Research Center

    2012-09-24

    This chapter in the above-titled monograph presents topological analysis of the Laplacian of the electron momentum density in organic molecules. It relates topological features in this distribution to chemical and physical properties, particularly aromaticity and electron transport.

  17. Data Matching, Integration, and Interoperability for a Metric Assessment of Monographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuccala, Alesia Ann; Cornacchia, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    in a new Microsoft SQL database. The purpose of the experiment was to investigate co-varied metrics for a list of book titles based on their citation impact (from Scopus), presence in international libraries (WorldCat.org) and visibility as publically reviewed items (Goodreads). The results of our data......This paper details a unique data experiment carried out at the University of Amsterdam, Center for Digital Humanities. Data pertaining to monographs were collected from three autonomous resources, the Scopus Journal Index, WorldCat.org and Goodreads, and linked according to unique identifiers...... experiment highlighted current problems related citation indices and the way that books are recorded by different citing authors. Our research further demonstrates the primary problem of matching book titles as ‘cited objects’ with book titles held in a union library catalog, given that books are always...

  18. Writing better test items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucoin, Julia W

    2005-01-01

    Professional development specialists have had little opportunity to learn how to write test items to meet the expectations of today's graduate nurse. Schools of nursing have moved away from knowledge-level test items and have had to develop more application and analysis items to prepare graduates for the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX). This same type of question can be used effectively to support a competence assessment system and document critical thinking skills.

  19. Could EU herbal monographs contribute to Malta's treatment armamentarium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, B; Attard, E; Serracino-Inglott, A; Borg, J J

    2015-03-15

    Ten years have passed since Directive 2004/24/EC regulating herbal medicinal products across the EU were published. The directive created the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products within the European Medicines Agency whose remit includes the creation and publishing of official EU monographs on herbal medicinal products. These monographs include the official uses of the products and their evidence for efficacy and safety. To this effect, we are interested in analysing the potential impact herbal product EU monographs could have on the therapeutic treatment options available for prescribers in Malta. Therefore our aim was two-fold. First, to rationalise the spread of indications of the herbal substances listed in the community herbal monograph inventory and subsequently determine if these herbal substances could potentially contribute to the treatment options available in our local scenario (Malta). 128 EU monographs were analysed resulting in a total of 230 indications which subsequently codified into 42 unique ATC codes. The Malta Medicines List contains 1456 unique ATC codes. Comparative analysis of the Malta Medicines List revealed that the 21 therapeutic areas had 4 or less pharmaceutically used substances (5th level ATC codes) registered and therefore in our opinion are areas with limited therapeutic choice. The following 4 therapeutic areas, A05 bile and liver therapy, A13 tonics, A15 appetite stimulants and D03 preparations for treatment of wounds and ulcers, could potentially benefit from the registration of herbal medicinal products according to the EU herbal monographs. If such registration is effected the aforementioned areas would no longer be considered limited because more than 4 therapeutic choices would be available to prescribers. This study is the first study across the EU to analyse the potential impact of published EU herbal monographs on therapeutic coverage in an EU member state and confirms the notion that herbal products could potentially

  20. A monograph of Otidea (Pyronemataceae, Pezizomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olariaga, I; Van Vooren, N; Carbone, M; Hansen, K

    2015-12-01

    The easily recognised genus Otidea is subjected to numerous problems in species identification. A number of old names have undergone various interpretations, materials from different continents have not been compared and misidentifications occur commonly. In this context, Otidea is monographed, based on our multiple gene phylogenies assessing species boundaries and comparative morphological characters (see Hansen & Olariaga 2015). All names combined in or synonymised with Otidea are dealt with. Thirty-three species are treated, with full descriptions and colour illustrations provided for 25 of these. Five new species are described, viz. O. borealis, O. brunneoparva, O. oregonensis, O. pseudoleporina and O. subformicarum. Otidea cantharella var. minor and O. onotica var. brevispora are elevated to species rank. Otideopsis kaushalii is combined in the genus Otidea. A key to the species of Otidea is given. An LSU dataset containing 167 sequences (with 44 newly generated in this study) is analysed to place collections and determine whether the named Otidea sequences in GenBank were identified correctly. Fourty-nine new ITS sequences were generated in this study. The ITS region is too variable to align across Otidea, but had low intraspecific variation and it aided in species identifications. Thirty type collections were studied, and ITS and LSU sequences are provided for 12 of these. A neotype is designated for O. cantharella and epitypes for O. concinna, O. leporina and O. onotica, along with several lectotypifications. The apothecial colour and shape, and spore characters are important for species identification. We conclude that to distinguish closely related or morphologically similar species, a combination of additional features are needed, i.e. the shape of the paraphyses, ectal excipulum structure, types of ectal excipulum resinous exudates and their reactions in Melzer's reagent and KOH, tomentum and basal mycelium colours and exudates. The KOH reaction of

  1. 75 FR 30838 - Drometrizole Trisiloxane Eligibility for Potential Inclusion in Sunscreen Monograph; Over-the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Eligibility for Potential Inclusion in Sunscreen Monograph; Over-the-Counter Sunscreen Drug Products for Human... monograph. We reviewed a time and extent application (TEA) for drometrizole trisiloxane and determined that it is eligible to be considered for inclusion in our OTC drug monograph system. We will evaluate the...

  2. Regulation and Education: Strategies for Solving the Bottle Feeding Problem. Monograph Series No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Ted

    This book is the fourth monograph in the Cornell International Monograph Series, the second in the series to deal with the question of breast versus bottle feeding. The introduction to the monograph discusses the shift from breast to bottle feeding in both industrialized and developing nations. Some of the reasons for, and consequences of, the…

  3. 78 FR 4419 - Draft Report on Carcinogens Monographs for 1-Bromopropane and Cumene; Availability of Documents...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Draft Report on Carcinogens Monographs for 1-Bromopropane... meeting of the Draft Report on Carcinogens (RoC) Monographs for 1-Bromopropane and Cumene. These documents....m. until adjournment, approximately 2:00 p.m. EDT. Document Availability: Draft monographs will...

  4. The monographic sociology from the perspective of American critical ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Șerban Văetiși

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to reconsider some theoretical and methodological principles practiced by the Bucharest School of Sociology by invoking some concepts put forward by the so called Critical Ethnography. It considers three major ideas of the Monographic Sociology, that can be also found as theoretical assumptions of the postmodern critical ethnographic theory, in an interesting parallel that can be, thus, reconstructed and further suggested as useful paradigm within current approaches in social sciences and policies: interdisciplinarity, activism and criticism. The paper concludes on the contribution that the Monographic School may have to the current social theory, research and policy developed today in Romania.

  5. Evaluation of item candidates: the PROMIS qualitative item review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWalt, Darren A; Rothrock, Nan; Yount, Susan; Stone, Arthur A

    2007-05-01

    One of the PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System) network's primary goals is the development of a comprehensive item bank for patient-reported outcomes of chronic diseases. For its first set of item banks, PROMIS chose to focus on pain, fatigue, emotional distress, physical function, and social function. An essential step for the development of an item pool is the identification, evaluation, and revision of extant questionnaire items for the core item pool. In this work, we also describe the systematic process wherein items are classified for subsequent statistical processing by the PROMIS investigators. Six phases of item development are documented: identification of extant items, item classification and selection, item review and revision, focus group input on domain coverage, cognitive interviews with individual items, and final revision before field testing. Identification of items refers to the systematic search for existing items in currently available scales. Expert item review and revision was conducted by trained professionals who reviewed the wording of each item and revised as appropriate for conventions adopted by the PROMIS network. Focus groups were used to confirm domain definitions and to identify new areas of item development for future PROMIS item banks. Cognitive interviews were used to examine individual items. Items successfully screened through this process were sent to field testing and will be subjected to innovative scale construction procedures.

  6. A foundation monograph of Convolvulus L. (Convolvulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, John R I; Williams, Bethany R M; Mitchell, Thomas C; Carine, Mark A; Harris, David J; Scotland, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    .R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, comb. et stat. nov., Convolvuluscalvertiisubsp.ruprechtii (Boiss.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvuluscephalopodussubsp.bushiricus (Bornm.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov. The status of various infraspecific taxa is clarified and numerous taxa are lectotypified. This account represents a new initiative in terms of taxonomic monography, being an attempt to bring together the global approach of the traditional monograph with the more pragmatic and identification-focussed approach of most current floras while at the same time being informed by insights from molecular systematics.

  7. A monograph of the Vochysiaceae ̶ I. Salvertia and Vochysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, F.A.

    1948-01-01

    This publication is intended to be the first part of a taxonomic monograph of the family Vochysiaceae and deals with the genera Salvertia and Vochysia. Since Warming’s excellent treatise of the Brazilian species of this family in the Flora Brasiliensis (Vol. XIII, II,1875) a large number of new spec

  8. The Chemistry of Food Dyes. Palette of Color Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Dianne N.

    Dyes aren't just for fabrics--colorants have been added to food for centuries to enhance its appearance. This monograph and teaching guide investigates both the compounds that give foods their natural color and synthetic colorants currently approved for use in foods. Problem-solving inquiry based activities involve high school level students in…

  9. The Chemistry of Food Dyes. Palette of Color Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Dianne N.

    Dyes aren't just for fabrics--colorants have been added to food for centuries to enhance its appearance. This monograph and teaching guide investigates both the compounds that give foods their natural color and synthetic colorants currently approved for use in foods. Problem-solving inquiry based activities involve high school level students in…

  10. Safety in Team Sports. Sports Safety Series, Monograph No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borozne, Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    This monograph examines methods of promoting safe practices in the conduct of selected team sports with the aim of reducing and eliminating the occurrance of injuries. The team sports discussed are baseball and softball, basketball, field hockey, tackle football, touch and flag football, ice hockey, lacrosse, and soccer. (MJB)

  11. Use of High Throughput Screening Data in IARC Monograph ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Evaluation of carcinogenic mechanisms serves a critical role in IARC monograph evaluations, and can lead to “upgrade” or “downgrade” of the carcinogenicity conclusions based on human and animal evidence alone. Three recent IARC monograph Working Groups (110, 112, and 113) pioneered analysis of high throughput in vitro screening data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s ToxCast program in evaluations of carcinogenic mechanisms. Methods: For monograph 110, ToxCast assay data across multiple nuclear receptors were used to test the hypothesis that PFOA acts exclusively through the PPAR family of receptors, with activity profiles compared to several prototypical nuclear receptor-activating compounds. For monographs 112 and 113, ToxCast assays were systematically evaluated and used as an additional data stream in the overall evaluation of the mechanistic evidence. Specifically, ToxCast assays were mapped to 10 “key characteristics of carcinogens” recently identified by an IARC expert group, and chemicals’ bioactivity profiles were evaluated both in absolute terms (number of relevant assays positive for bioactivity) and relative terms (ranking with respect to other compounds evaluated by IARC, using the ToxPi methodology). Results: PFOA activates multiple nuclear receptors in addition to the PPAR family in the ToxCast assays. ToxCast assays offered substantial coverage for 5 of the 10 “key characteristics,” with the greates

  12. A monograph of the Vochysiaceae ̶ I. Salvertia and Vochysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, F.A.

    1948-01-01

    This publication is intended to be the first part of a taxonomic monograph of the family Vochysiaceae and deals with the genera Salvertia and Vochysia. Since Warming’s excellent treatise of the Brazilian species of this family in the Flora Brasiliensis (Vol. XIII, II,1875) a large number of new

  13. Baby Boom Equals Career Bust. Monographs on Career Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Charles Guy

    Presenting the Baby Boom (1946-1965) as both a potential social problem and opportunity for American leadership, this monograph discusses the following aspects of this population concern: (1) its immediate and long-term impact on career opportunities for those college graduates who make up the baby boom generation; (2) its impact on those whose…

  14. Sex Bias in ASAT? ACER Research Monograph No. 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Raymond J.

    The Australian Scholastic Test (ASAT) was first used as a moderating device in the Australian Capitol Territory in 1977. Differences have been observed in the average performance of males and females on the test. The study reported in this monograph investigated the nature and origin of the score differences recorded for ASAT The research focused…

  15. Systematic organization of medicinal plant information: a monograph template proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C.B. Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants in Brazil is widespread and is supported by public policies; it has the objective of providing the population with safe and effective herbal medicines of adequate quality. An action in these policies is to develop medicinal plant monographs to gather published information and decide which medicinal plants should be financed by the Brazilian government and distributed by the public health system. Currently, the monographs published worldwide do not present unified information regarding medicinal plants, and generally, they do not cover enough requirements for herbal medicine registration. The aim of this study is to develop a monograph model with standardized information not only about botany, agronomy, quality control, safety, and efficacy but also about relating regulatory aspects that support herbal medicine regulation. The development of standardized monographs favors the fast authorization and distribution of herbal medicines in the public system. The model also points out the lacking studies that should be carried out to supplement the necessary regulatory information of medicinal plants.

  16. Assessing Creativity: A Guide for Educators. Research Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffinger, Donald J.; Young, Grover C.; Selby, Edwin C.; Shepardson, Cindy

    This monograph deals specifically with the challenge of recognizing or assessing creativity. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 focuses on definitions and characteristics of creativity to help clarify the nature and meaning of creativity and creative thinking, and to consider the implications of those definitions for assessment. The…

  17. The significance of field work in monographic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of this paper is to document the clear and obvious advantages of field work for monographic studies. These advantages include: 1) ability to understand published distributions better and greatly expand these data, 2) access to taxonomic data obscured on herbarium sheets (as colors, odors, ...

  18. State Defense Force Monograph Series. Winter 2006, Medical Support Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    assets for mobile support teams, labs, immunizations, latent TB screening, and post-deployment assessments.” (COL Eric Allely, Maryland State Surgeon...infarctions ! Diabetes ! Mental health problems ! Hypertension ! Diarrhea ! Heat injuries 30 State Defense Force Monograph Series, Summer 2006...for dysentery and vomiting ! Viral meningitis ! Injuries due to off-site fighting ! Tuberculosis ! HIV ! Special medical needs. See Figures 3

  19. A foundation monograph of Convolvulus L. (Convolvulaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, John R.I.; Williams, Bethany R.M.; Mitchell, Thomas C.; Carine, Mark A.; Harris, David J.; Scotland, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    ., Convolvulus rottlerianus subsp. stocksii (Boiss.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, comb. et stat. nov., Convolvulus calvertii subsp. ruprechtii (Boiss.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov., Convolvulus cephalopodus subsp. bushiricus (Bornm.) J.R.I.Wood & R.W.Scotland, stat. nov. The status of various infraspecific taxa is clarified and numerous taxa are lectotypified. This account represents a new initiative in terms of taxonomic monography, being an attempt to bring together the global approach of the traditional monograph with the more pragmatic and identification-focussed approach of most current floras while at the same time being informed by insights from molecular systematics. PMID:26140023

  20. The Role of Item Models in Automatic Item Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis

    2012-01-01

    Automatic item generation represents a relatively new but rapidly evolving research area where cognitive and psychometric theories are used to produce tests that include items generated using computer technology. Automatic item generation requires two steps. First, test development specialists create item models, which are comparable to templates…

  1. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  2. Item Banking with Embedded Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, Robert G.; Stanley, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An item banking method that does not use Item Response Theory (IRT) is described. This method provides a comparable grading system across schools that would be suitable for low-stakes testing. It uses the Angoff standard-setting method to obtain item ratings that are stored with each item. An example of such a grading system is given, showing how…

  3. Item Banking with Embedded Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, Robert G.; Stanley, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An item banking method that does not use Item Response Theory (IRT) is described. This method provides a comparable grading system across schools that would be suitable for low-stakes testing. It uses the Angoff standard-setting method to obtain item ratings that are stored with each item. An example of such a grading system is given, showing how…

  4. Monograph use at an academic health sciences library: the first three years of shelf life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, Deborah D.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the circulation of monographs during the first three years of shelf life at an academic health sciences library. Method: A record was kept of monographs added to the circulating collection from mid-1994 to mid-1995. After three years, each monograph was located and the number of times it circulated during the first, second, and third year of shelf life determined by counting checkout stamps on the circulation slip. Results: Of the 1,958 monographs studied, 1,674 had complete data for the first three years of shelf life. Of those 1,674 titles, 81.48% circulated at least once. A total of 7,659 circulations were recorded; 38.69% occurred in the first year of shelf life, 32.37% in the second year, and 28.95% in the third year. The data did not fit the well-known 80/20 rule. Instead, approximately 38% of monographs accounted for 80% of circulation. A small percentage, 2.21%, of monographs accounted for a substantial percentage of circulation, 21.84%. Conclusions: A large percentage of the monographs circulated and use did not decline sharply with age within the first three years of shelf life, indicating a high demand for monographs at this academic health sciences library. These results, combined with the findings of earlier studies, suggested two possibilities. First, academic health sciences libraries might exhibit use of a higher percentage of monograph acquisitions than other types of libraries; or, second, a low monograph-to-user ratio might result in a higher percentage of monographs being used. Perhaps both factors contributed to the results found in this study. Further investigation would be needed to determine the extent to which library type and monograph-to-user ratio influenced monograph use. PMID:10783969

  5. ‘The Returned’: on the future of monographic books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Bunz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the current state of academic book publishing based on the findings of the Hybrid Publishing Lab's business model research. With students relying more and more on Google and Wikipedia, the role of books within today's university studies is a difficult one. From the perspective of publishers, open access (OA embracing the digital is seen as one potential way to bridge this gap between online search engines and traditional monographs. To illustrate this further, the article delivers an overview of its findings, which highlight changes in academic publishing: publishers have switched their emphasis from delivering a product to creating a service, whereby the author rather than the reader becomes their most focused-on customer. Research frameworks, funding and conventions about academic careers, however, often still need to adjust to this new development. If these frameworks acknowledge and foster OA publishing, and new experiments with collaborative book productions flourish, the monograph will have a future.

  6. Monograph on propagation of sound waves in curved ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostafinski, Wojciech

    1991-01-01

    After reviewing and evaluating the existing material on sound propagation in curved ducts without flow, it seems strange that, except for Lord Rayleigh in 1878, no book on acoustics has treated the case of wave motion in bends. This monograph reviews the available analytical and experimental material, nearly 30 papers published on this subject so far, and concisely summarizes what has been learned about the motion of sound in hard-wall and acoustically lined cylindrical bends.

  7. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  8. Circulation of core collection monographs in an academic medical library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C M; Eckerman, N L

    2001-04-01

    Academic medical librarians responsible for monograph acquisition face a challenging task. From the plethora of medical monographs published each year, academic medical librarians must select those most useful to their patrons. Unfortunately, none of the selection tools available to medical librarians are specifically intended to assist academic librarians with medical monograph selection. The few short core collection lists that are available are intended for use in the small hospital or internal medicine department library. As these are the only selection tools available, however, many academic medical librarians spend considerable time reviewing these collection lists and place heavy emphasis on the acquisition of listed books. The study reported here was initiated to determine whether the circulation of listed books in an academic library justified the emphasis placed on the acquisition of these books. Circulation statistics for "listed" and "nonlisted" books in the hematology (WH) section of Indiana University School of Medicine's Ruth Lilly Medical Library were studied. The average circulation figures for listed books were nearly two times as high as the corresponding figures for the WH books in general. These data support the policies of those academic medical libraries that place a high priority on collection of listed books.

  9. Experience of a monographic tuberculosis unit: the first 500 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Moreno, Juan; García-Gasalla, Mercedes; Cifuentes Luna, Carmen; Mir Villadrich, Isabel; Pareja Bezares, Antonio; Navarro Fernández, Verónica; Serrano Bujalance, Araceli; Pérez Seco, M Cruz; Payeras Cifre, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a highly prevalent and potentially severe disease. However, since 2002 the annual incidence has been decreasing both worldwide and in Spain, where the incidence varies widely between regions. The main objective of this study is to describe the experience of a monographic TB unit in a second level hospital. A descriptive study was carried out which included all cases of TB diagnosed in a monographic unit of a secondary hospital between 2003 and 2011. Demographic, clinical, epidemiological and microbiological data were recorded. We analyzed 500 TB cases and found an increasing annual incidence in all subgroups, including native and immigrant populations. Most cases (63.8%) were male, with a median age of 36 years (range 8 months-90 years). In total, 39.8% of patients were foreign born. Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus was found in 11% of cases. The pulmonary form was most frequently diagnosed (63.8%). Overall mortality was 5.8% with no significant differences between groups (including foreign born and human immunodeficiency virus positive patients). Although TB incidence is globally decreasing, in our study we found an increasing number of cases in recent years in all subgroups, which can be explained by this being a monographic unit with an intensive contact tracing program. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. NTP monograph on health effects of low-level lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Although reductions in lead (Pb) exposure for the U.S. population have resulted in lower blood Pb levels over time, epidemiological studies continue to provide evidence of health effects at lower and lower blood Pb levels. Low-level Pb was selected for evaluation by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) because of (1) the availability of a large number of epidemiological studies of Pb, (2) a nomination by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health for an assessment of Pb at lower levels of exposure, and (3) public concern for effects of Pb in children and adults. This evaluation summarizes the evidence in humans and presents conclusions on health effects in children and adults associated with low-level Pb exposure as indicated by less than 10 micrograms of Pb per deciliter of blood (Monograph on Health Effects of Low-Level Lead. The document and appendices are available at http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/evals. This document provides background on Pb exposure and includes a review of the primary epidemiological literature for evidence that low-level Pb is associated with neurological, immunological, cardiovascular, renal, and/or reproductive and developmental effects. The NTP Monograph presents specific conclusions for each health effect area. Overall, the NTP concludes that there is sufficient evidence that blood Pb levels Monograph on November 17-18, 2011 (http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/37090.

  11. Monograph of Keçiören Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaş Zafer Şahin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, urban administration can be defined from a judicial perspective as the bundle of powers vested in municipalities. It is known that throughout republican history, municipalities, using these powers, have differentiated themselves via their own internal dynamics in parallel to the evolution of public policy and changes in legislation. Yet, it is obvious that there are important gaps in understanding this differentiation taking into consideration the structural conditions of individual municipalities. In particular, in order to thoroughly understand municipalities, it is important to consider periodical pictures of how each municipality has been affected by waves of decentralization and centralization experienced over the last thirty years. In this respect, this monograph, using the same monographic approach developed for the Çankaya Municipality, provides a picture of the existing situation of Ankara’s Keçiören Municipality and presents related problems and potential. This monograph, based on qualitative and quantitative research, presents a holistic evaluation of Keçiören Municipality in terms of its external environment, provision of services, decision-making processes, use of technology and communications.

  12. Faculty development on item writing substantially improves item quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naeem, N.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Alfaris, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    The quality of items written for in-house examinations in medical schools remains a cause of concern. Several faculty development programs are aimed at improving faculty's item writing skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a faculty development program in item develo

  13. IRT Item Parameter Scaling for Developing New Item Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyeon-Ah; Lu, Ying; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Increasing use of item pools in large-scale educational assessments calls for an appropriate scaling procedure to achieve a common metric among field-tested items. The present study examines scaling procedures for developing a new item pool under a spiraled block linking design. The three scaling procedures are considered: (a) concurrent…

  14. Biowaiver monographs for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms: quinine sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Stefanie; Dressman, Jennifer B; Shah, Vinod P; Kopp, Sabine; Polli, James E; Barends, Dirk M

    2012-02-01

    The biowaiver approach permits evaluation of bioequivalence (BE) using a set of laboratory tests, obviating the need for expensive and time-consuming pharmacokinetic BE studies provided that both the active pharmaceutical ingredient and the formulations can meet the specified criteria. In the present monograph, the biowaiver-relevant data including solubility and permeability data, therapeutic use and therapeutic index, pharmacokinetic properties, reported excipient interactions, and BE/bioavailability studies of quinine sulfate are itemized and discussed. Quinine sulfate has borderline solubility characteristics and, on the whole, is highly permeable. Thus, depending on the jurisdiction, it is assigned to Biopharmaceutics Classification System class I or II. Although these characteristics would suggest a low risk of bioinequivalence among oral quinine products, a recent pharmacokinetic study showed bioinequivalence of two products. Even though quinine does not, strictly speaking, fit the definition of a narrow therapeutic index drug, it shows dose-related and, in some cases, irreversible side effects and toxicities at concentrations not far above the therapeutic concentration range. Taking all relevant aspects into consideration, a biowaiver cannot be recommended for new quinine immediate-release multisource products or major post-approval changes of already marketed quinine products, and in such cases, BE should be evaluated using an in vivo BE study.

  15. Towards iconic language for patient records, drug monographs, guidelines and medical search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Duclos, Catherine; Hamek, Saliha; Beuscart-Zéphir, Marie-Catherine; Kerdelhué, Gaetan; Darmoni, Stefan; Favre, Madeleine; Falcoff, Hector; Simon, Christian; Pereira, Suzanne; Serrot, Elisabeth; Mitouard, Thierry; Hardouin, Etienne; Kergosien, Yannick; Venot, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Practicing physicians have limited time for consulting medical knowledge and records. We have previously shown that using icons instead of text to present drug monographs may allow contraindications and adverse effects to be identified more rapidly and more accurately. These findings were based on the use of an iconic language designed for drug knowledge, providing icons for many medical concepts, including diseases, antecedents, drug classes and tests. In this paper, we describe a new project aimed at extending this iconic language, and exploring the possible applications of these icons in medicine. Based on evaluators' comments, focus groups of physicians and opinions of academic, industrial and associative partners, we propose iconic applications related to patient records, for example summarizing patient conditions, searching for specific clinical documents and helping to code structured data. Other applications involve the presentation of clinical practice guidelines and improving the interface of medical search engines. These new applications could use the same iconic language that was designed for drug knowledge, with a few additional items that respect the logic of the language.

  16. Item Overexposure in Computerized Classification Tests Using Sequential Item Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Huebner

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Computerized classification tests (CCTs often use sequential item selection which administers items according to maximizing psychometric information at a cut point demarcating passing and failing scores. This paper illustrates why this method of item selection leads to the overexposure of a significant number of items, and the performances of three different methods for controlling maximum item exposure rates in CCTs are compared. Specifically, the Sympson-Hetter, restricted, and item eligibility methods are examined in two studies realistically simulating different types of CCTs and are evaluated based upon criteria including classification accuracy, the number of items exceeding the desired maximum exposure rate, and test overlap. The pros and cons of each method are discussed from a practical perspective.

  17. Higher Education in the Republic of Moldova. Monographs on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiron, Stefan; Arion, Valentin; Paiu, Mihai; Scalini, Vitalie; Stan, Victor

    This monograph parallels others in the "Monographs" series, allowing easy comparisons among the higher education systems of Europe. The volume describes the development of the higher education system in the Republic of Moldava and analyzes its legislative framework and administrative structures. It outlines steps on the academic career ladder and…

  18. J. W. Gitt: The Cold War's "Voice in the Wilderness." Journalism Monographs Number Ninety-One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Mary Allienne

    This journalism monograph deals with Josiah W. Gitt and his newspaper, "The Gazette and Daily," which existed from 1915 to 1970 and was referred to as "the voice in the wilderness" because of its stand on controversial issues. The monograph discusses the "Gazette and Daily," its views, Gitt's employees, the…

  19. The Caribbean News Agency: Third World Model. Journalism Monographs Number 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, Marlene

    This monograph is a history of the Caribbean News Agency (CANA), which is jointly owned by private and public mass media of its region and independent of both governments and foreign news agencies. It is proposed that CANA may provide a unique model of an independent, regional third-world news agency. Sections of the monograph examine (1) CANA's…

  20. Use of High Throughput Screening Data in IARC Monograph Evaluations (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Evaluation of carcinogenic mechanisms serves a critical role in IARC monograph evaluations, and can lead to “upgrade” or “downgrade” of the carcinogenicity conclusions based on human and animal evidence alone. Three recent IARC monograph Working Groups (110, 112, and 11...

  1. Electronic Reference Works and Library Budgeting Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Ibironke O.

    2007-01-01

    The number of electronic resources has climbed up steadily in recent times. Some of these e-resources are reference sources, mostly in Science, Technology and Medicine (STM), which publishers convert to electronic for obvious reasons. The library budgets for materials usually have two main lines, budget for one time purchase (monographs) and…

  2. 76 FR 61704 - Availability of Draft NTP Monograph on the Health Effects of Low-Level Lead; Request for Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Availability of Draft NTP Monograph on the Health Effects of Low- Level Lead; Request for Comments; Announcement of a Panel Meeting to Peer Review Draft Monograph AGENCY: Division of the National... of Health. ACTION: Availability of Draft NTP Monograph; Request for Comments; Announcement of a Peer...

  3. 76 FR 55391 - Notice of Postponement of Release of Draft NTP Monograph on Potential Developmental Effects of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Notice of Postponement of Release of Draft NTP Monograph on Potential Developmental Effects of Cancer Chemotherapy During Pregnancy and Panel Meeting To Peer Review Draft Monograph AGENCY... (NIEHS), National Institutes of Health. ACTION: Notice of postponement of draft NTP monograph and peer...

  4. 78 FR 67371 - Draft Report on Carcinogens Monographs for ortho-Toluidine and Pentachlorophenol and By-products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Draft Report on Carcinogens Monographs for ortho-Toluidine... Report on Carcinogens (RoC) Monographs for ortho-Toluidine and Pentachlorophenol and By-products of its... a.m. until adjournment, approximately 11:30 a.m. Document Availability: Draft monographs...

  5. 78 FR 51733 - Draft Report on Carcinogens Monographs for ortho-Toluidine and Pentachlorophenol and By-Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Draft Report on Carcinogens Monographs for ortho-Toluidine... Carcinogens (RoC) Monographs for ortho-Toluidine and Pentachlorophenol and By-products of its Synthesis.... Document Availability: Draft monographs will be available by August 28, 2013, at...

  6. Bayesian item fit analysis for unidimensional item response theory models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sandip

    2006-11-01

    Assessing item fit for unidimensional item response theory models for dichotomous items has always been an issue of enormous interest, but there exists no unanimously agreed item fit diagnostic for these models, and hence there is room for further investigation of the area. This paper employs the posterior predictive model-checking method, a popular Bayesian model-checking tool, to examine item fit for the above-mentioned models. An item fit plot, comparing the observed and predicted proportion-correct scores of examinees with different raw scores, is suggested. This paper also suggests how to obtain posterior predictive p-values (which are natural Bayesian p-values) for the item fit statistics of Orlando and Thissen that summarize numerically the information in the above-mentioned item fit plots. A number of simulation studies and a real data application demonstrate the effectiveness of the suggested item fit diagnostics. The suggested techniques seem to have adequate power and reasonable Type I error rate, and psychometricians will find them promising.

  7. [The HMPC monograph on Hypericum: Background, development, contents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Länger, Reinhard

    2010-12-01

    The adoption of the EU community monograph on Hypericum constitutes a milestone in the process of harmonisation of herbal medicinal products within the European Community. The assessment of the published clinical data revealed that for two types of extracts the evidence of the efficacy in mild to moderate depressive episodes compared to placebo or standard medication was found to be acceptable. Additionally, a sufficient efficacy in relapse prophylaxis could be demonstrated for these two herbal preparations. For some other dry extracts, the efficacy in the short-term treatment of symptoms in mild depressive disorders was found to be substantiated. Short-term treatment with preparations containing low amounts of hyperforin did not increase cytochrome P450 enzyme activity. Therefore the oral administration of traditional herbal preparations is restricted to two weeks. In the case that an applicant demonstrates that the daily intake of hyperforin is below 1 mg the warnings on interactions may be omitted in traditional herbal medicinal products. Additionally the cutaneous administration of traditional liquid herbal preparations for the traditional use in symptomatic treatment of minor inflammations of the skin and as an aid in healing minor wounds was included in the monograph.

  8. GRE Verbal Analogy Items: Examinee Reasoning on Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Richard P.; And Others

    Information about how Graduate Record Examination (GRE) examinees solve verbal analogy problems was obtained in this study through protocol analysis. High- and low-ability subjects who had recently taken the GRE General Test were asked to "think aloud" as they worked through eight analogy items. These items varied factorially on the…

  9. Electronic components and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, W H

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Components and Systems focuses on the principles and processes in the field of electronics and the integrated circuit. Covered in the book are basic aspects and physical fundamentals; different types of materials involved in the field; and passive and active electronic components such as capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. Also covered in the book are topics such as the fabrication of semiconductors and integrated circuits; analog circuitry; digital logic technology; and microprocessors. The monograph is recommended for beginning electrical engineers who would like to kn

  10. A Mixed Effects Randomized Item Response Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J.-P.; Wyrick, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    The randomized response technique ensures that individual item responses, denoted as true item responses, are randomized before observing them and so-called randomized item responses are observed. A relationship is specified between randomized item response data and true item response data. True item response data are modeled with a (non)linear…

  11. Computerized adaptive testing with item cloning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; van der Linden, Willem J.

    2003-01-01

    To increase the number of items available for adaptive testing and reduce the cost of item writing, the use of techniques of item cloning has been proposed. An important consequence of item cloning is possible variability between the item parameters. To deal with this variability, a multilevel item

  12. Item Veto: Dangerous Constitutional Tinkering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Calvin

    1989-01-01

    In theory, the item veto would empower the President to remove wasteful and unnecessary projects from legislation. Yet, despite its history at the state level, the item veto is a loosely defined concept that may not work well at the federal level. Much more worrisome is the impact on the balance of power. (Author/CH)

  13. Continuous Online Item Calibration: Parameter Recovery and Item Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hao; van der Linden, Wim J; Diao, Qi

    2017-06-01

    Parameter recovery and item utilization were investigated for different designs for online test item calibration. The design was adaptive in a double sense: it assumed both adaptive testing of examinees from an operational pool of previously calibrated items and adaptive assignment of field-test items to the examinees. Four criteria of optimality for the assignment of the field-test items were used, each of them based on the information in the posterior distributions of the examinee's ability parameter during adaptive testing as well as the sequentially updated posterior distributions of the field-test item parameters. In addition, different stopping rules based on target values for the posterior standard deviations of the field-test parameters and the size of the calibration sample were used. The impact of each of the criteria and stopping rules on the statistical efficiency of the estimates of the field-test parameters and on the time spent by the items in the calibration procedure was investigated. Recommendations as to the practical use of the designs are given.

  14. Revisiting an open access monograph experiment: measuring citations and tweets 5 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijder, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    An experiment run in 2009 could not assess whether making monographs available in open access enhanced scholarly impact. This paper revisits the experiment, drawing on additional citation data and tweets. It attempts to answer the following research question: does open access have a positive influence on the number of citations and tweets a monograph receives, taking into account the influence of scholarly field and language? The correlation between monograph citations and tweets is also investigated. The number of citations and tweets measured in 2014 reveal a slight open access advantage, but the influence of language or subject should also be taken into account. However, Twitter usage and citation behaviour hardly overlap.

  15. Automatic identification and normalization of dosage forms in drug monographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each day, millions of health consumers seek drug-related information on the Web. Despite some efforts in linking related resources, drug information is largely scattered in a wide variety of websites of different quality and credibility. Methods As a step toward providing users with integrated access to multiple trustworthy drug resources, we aim to develop a method capable of identifying drug's dosage form information in addition to drug name recognition. We developed rules and patterns for identifying dosage forms from different sections of full-text drug monographs, and subsequently normalized them to standardized RxNorm dosage forms. Results Our method represents a significant improvement compared with a baseline lookup approach, achieving overall macro-averaged Precision of 80%, Recall of 98%, and F-Measure of 85%. Conclusions We successfully developed an automatic approach for drug dosage form identification, which is critical for building links between different drug-related resources.

  16. Acacia mangium: Growing and utilization. MPTS monograph series No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awang, K.; Taylor, D.

    1993-01-01

    With deforestation in the Asia-Pacific region progressing at the rate of 4.4 million ha per year, many countries have adopted plantation forestry using fast-growing species as a way to sustain the commercial supply of tree products and reduce pressure on natural forests. Acacia mangium (A. mangium) is playing a large role in this development, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia, due to its versatility and its ability to recapture grasslands dominated by the noxious weed, Imperata cylindrica. This monograph consolidates information on A. mangium from published literature, unpublished reports and studies, and observations from those familiar with the species. Priorities for future research are included in each chapter and in the final summary.

  17. I. Sleep and development: introduction to the monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Sadeh, Avi

    2015-03-01

    Literature on sleep and child development is growing rapidly in exciting new directions across several disciplines and with this comes a need for guiding conceptual principles and methodological tools. In this introductory chapter, the importance of sleep for child development across multiple domains is highlighted. The aims of this monograph are presented and pertain to the need to consider and integrate theory and research across multiple disciplines and use state-of-the-art methodologies. A developmental ecological systems perspective adapted to sleep illustrates the multiple levels of influence and their importance in the study of child sleep and development. A focal aim is to provide examples of longitudinal studies linking sleep with child development, which are presented in seven chapters of this volume. © 2015 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. Assessing item fit for unidimensional item response theory models using residuals from estimated item response functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Shelby J; Sinharay, Sandip; Chon, Kyong Hee

    2013-07-01

    Residual analysis (e.g. Hambleton & Swaminathan, Item response theory: principles and applications, Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1985; Hambleton, Swaminathan, & Rogers, Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) is a popular method to assess fit of item response theory (IRT) models. We suggest a form of residual analysis that may be applied to assess item fit for unidimensional IRT models. The residual analysis consists of a comparison of the maximum-likelihood estimate of the item characteristic curve with an alternative ratio estimate of the item characteristic curve. The large sample distribution of the residual is proved to be standardized normal when the IRT model fits the data. We compare the performance of our suggested residual to the standardized residual of Hambleton et al. (Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) in a detailed simulation study. We then calculate our suggested residuals using data from an operational test. The residuals appear to be useful in assessing the item fit for unidimensional IRT models.

  19. Faculty development on item writing substantially improves item quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Naghma; van der Vleuten, Cees; Alfaris, Eiad Abdelmohsen

    2012-08-01

    The quality of items written for in-house examinations in medical schools remains a cause of concern. Several faculty development programs are aimed at improving faculty's item writing skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a faculty development program in item development. An objective method was developed and used to assess improvement in faculty's competence to develop high quality test items. This was a quasi experimental study with a pretest-midtest-posttest design. A convenience sample of 51 faculty members participated. Structured checklists were used to assess the quality of test items at each phase of the study. Group scores were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. The results showed a significant increase in participants' mean scores on Multiple Choice Questions, Short Answer Questions and Objective Structured Clinical Examination checklists from pretest to posttest (p development are generally lacking in quality. It also provides evidence of the value of faculty development in improving the quality of items generated by faculty.

  20. Counting Frequencies from Zotero Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Roberts

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In Counting Frequencies you learned how to count the frequency of specific words in a list using python. In this lesson, we will expand on that topic by showing you how to get information from Zotero HTML items, save the content from those items, and count the frequencies of words. It may be beneficial to look over the previous lesson before we begin.

  1. The Pharmacokinetics of Second-Generation Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics: Limitations of Monograph Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lik Hang N; Choi, Charles; Collier, Abby C; Barr, Alasdair M; Honer, William G; Procyshyn, Ric M

    2015-12-01

    Product monographs (also known by terms such as Summary of Product Characteristics and Highlights of Prescribing Information, depending on the jurisdiction) provide essential information to ensure the safe and effective use of a drug. Medical practitioners often rely on these monographs for guidance on matters related to pharmacokinetics as well as indications, contraindications, clinical pharmacology, and adverse reactions. The clinical and scientific information found within these documents, forming the basis for decision making, are presumed to be derived from well-designed studies. The objective of this review is to examine the source and validity of the pharmacokinetic data used in establishing the half-lives and times to steady-state reported in the product monographs of second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics. Thus, we have critically evaluated the clinical trials from which the pharmacokinetic parameters listed in the product monographs were determined. In many cases, the pharmacokinetic information presented in product monographs is of limited use to clinicians wishing to optimize the effectiveness and tolerability of second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics. Under such circumstances, off-label prescribing practices may actually produce better clinical outcomes than if decisions were made based on the product monographs alone.

  2. Three Evidence Based Methods to Compensate for a Lack of Subject Background when Ordering Chemistry Monographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Wright

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The aim of this article is to present evidence based methods for the selection of chemistry monographs, particularly for librarians lacking a background in chemistry. These methods will be described in detail, their practical application illustrated, and their efficacy tested by analyzing circulation data.Methods – Two hundred and ninety-five chemistry monographs were selected between 2005 and 2007 using rigorously-applied evidence based methods involving the Library's integrated library system (ILS, Google, and SciFinder Scholar. The average circulation rate of this group of monographs was compared to the average circulation rate of 254 chemistry monographs selected between 2002 and 2004 when the methods were not used or were in an incomplete state of development.Results – Circulations/month were on average 9% greater in the cohort of monographs selected with the rigorously-applied evidence based methods. Further statistical analysis, however, finds that this result can not be attributed to the different application of these methods. Conclusion – The methods discussed in this article appear to provide an evidence base for the selection of chemistry monographs, but their application does not change circulation rates in a statistically significant way. Further research is needed to determine if this lack of statistical significance is real or a product of the organic development and application of these methods over time, making definitive comparisons difficult.

  3. Multilevel Modeling of Item Position Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Anthony D.

    2013-01-01

    In many testing programs it is assumed that the context or position in which an item is administered does not have a differential effect on examinee responses to the item. Violations of this assumption may bias item response theory estimates of item and person parameters. This study examines the potentially biasing effects of item position. A…

  4. NTP-CERHR monograph on Soy Infant Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Soy infant formula contains soy protein isolates and is fed to infants as a supplement to or replacement for human milk or cow milk. Soy protein isolates contains estrogenic isoflavones ("phytoestrogens") that occur naturally in some legumes, especially soybeans. Phytoestrogens are non-steroidal, estrogenic compounds. In plants, nearly all phytoestrogens are bound to sugar molecules and these phytoestrogen-sugar complexes are not generally considered hormonally active. Phytoestrogens are found in many food products in addition to soy infant formula, especially soy-based foods such as tofu, soy milk, and in some over-the-counter dietary supplements. Soy infant formula was selected for evaluation by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) because of the: (1)availability of large number of developmental toxicity studies in laboratory animals exposed to the isoflavones found in soy infant formula (namely, genistein) or other soy products, as well as a number of studies on human infants fed soy infant formula, (2)the availability of information on exposures in infants fed soy infant formula, and (3)public concern for effects on infant or child development. The NTP evaluation was conducted through its Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) and completed in September 2010. The results of this soy infant formula evaluation are published in an NTP Monograph. This document contains the NTP Brief on Soy Infant Formula, which presents NTP's opinion on the potential for exposure to soy infant formula to cause adverse developmental effects in humans. The NTP Monograph also contains an expert panel report prepared to assist the NTP in reaching conclusions on soy infant formula. The NTP concluded there is minimal concern for adverse effects on development in infants who consume soy infant formula. This level of concern represents a "2" on the five-level scale of concern used by the NTP that ranges from negligible concern ("1") to serious concern ("5"). This

  5. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: The Airline Quality Rating 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1998-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating 1991 issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1998, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1997. Additional copies are available by contacting Wichita State University or University of Nebraska at Omaha. The Airline Quality Rating 1998 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 1997. Using the Airline Quality Rating system and monthly performance data for each airline for the calendar year of 1997, individual and comparative ratings are reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 1997, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1991 through 1996 are included to provide a longer term view of quality in the industry.

  6. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: The Airline Quality Rating 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1997-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating 1991 issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Rating 1997, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1996. Additional copies are available by contacting Wichita State University or the University of Nebraska at Omaha. The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) 1997 is a summary of a month-by-month quality ratings for the nine major domestic U.S. airlines operating during 1996. Using the Airline Quality Rating system and monthly performance data for each airline for the calendar year of 1996, individual and comparative ratings are reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major domestic airlines across the 12 month period of 1996, and industry average results. Also comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1991 through 1995 are included to provide a longer term view of quality in the industry.

  7. Australian Item Bank Program: Social Science Item Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    After vigorous review, editing, and trial testing, this item bank was compiled to help secondary school teachers construct objective tests in the social sciences. Anthropology, economics, ethnic and cultural studies, geography, history, legal studies, politics, and sociology are among the topics represented. The bank consists of multiple choice…

  8. The Chemistry of Natural Dyes. Palette of Color Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Dianne N.

    From prehistoric times people have been fascinated with color; from cave paintings to the latest computers, color has been a constant companion. Textiles and craft items are made more beautiful by the alteration or application of colorants. This teaching resource investigates dyes obtained from natural sources, such as plants and animals. These…

  9. The Chemistry of Natural Dyes. Palette of Color Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Dianne N.

    From prehistoric times people have been fascinated with color; from cave paintings to the latest computers, color has been a constant companion. Textiles and craft items are made more beautiful by the alteration or application of colorants. This teaching resource investigates dyes obtained from natural sources, such as plants and animals. These…

  10. Modelling sequentially scored item responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, W.

    2000-01-01

    The sequential model can be used to describe the variable resulting from a sequential scoring process. In this paper two more item response models are investigated with respect to their suitability for sequential scoring: the partial credit model and the graded response model. The investigation is c

  11. Psychometric Consequences of Subpopulation Item Parameter Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This study defines subpopulation item parameter drift (SIPD) as a change in item parameters over time that is dependent on subpopulations of examinees, and hypothesizes that the presence of SIPD in anchor items is associated with bias and/or lack of invariance in three psychometric outcomes. Results show that SIPD in anchor items is associated…

  12. Psychometric Consequences of Subpopulation Item Parameter Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This study defines subpopulation item parameter drift (SIPD) as a change in item parameters over time that is dependent on subpopulations of examinees, and hypothesizes that the presence of SIPD in anchor items is associated with bias and/or lack of invariance in three psychometric outcomes. Results show that SIPD in anchor items is associated…

  13. Unidimensional Interpretations for Multidimensional Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Nilufer

    2013-01-01

    This article considers potential problems that can arise in estimating a unidimensional item response theory (IRT) model when some test items are multidimensional (i.e., show a complex factorial structure). More specifically, this study examines (1) the consequences of model misfit on IRT item parameter estimates due to unintended minor item-level…

  14. Generalizability theory and item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Item response theory is usually applied to items with a selected-response format, such as multiple choice items, whereas generalizability theory is usually applied to constructed-response tasks assessed by raters. However, in many situations, raters may use rating scales consisting of items with a

  15. Generalizability theory and item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, C.A.W.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Item response theory is usually applied to items with a selected-response format, such as multiple choice items, whereas generalizability theory is usually applied to constructed-response tasks assessed by raters. However, in many situations, raters may use rating scales consisting of items with a s

  16. 15 CFR 742.15 - Encryption items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Encryption items. 742.15 Section 742... BASED CONTROLS § 742.15 Encryption items. Encryption items can be used to maintain the secrecy of... export and reexport of encryption items. As the President indicated in Executive Order 13026 and in his...

  17. Item-Writing Guidelines for Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Tom

    2015-01-01

    A teacher learning how to write test questions (test items) will almost certainly encounter item-writing guidelines--lists of item-writing do's and don'ts. Item-writing guidelines usually are presented as applicable across all assessment settings. Table I shows some guidelines that I believe to be generally applicable and two will be briefly…

  18. Unidimensional Interpretations for Multidimensional Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Nilufer

    2013-01-01

    This article considers potential problems that can arise in estimating a unidimensional item response theory (IRT) model when some test items are multidimensional (i.e., show a complex factorial structure). More specifically, this study examines (1) the consequences of model misfit on IRT item parameter estimates due to unintended minor item-level…

  19. The impact of item-writing flaws and item complexity on examination item difficulty and discrimination value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Bonnie R; Rankin, David C; White, Brad J

    2016-09-29

    Failure to adhere to standard item-writing guidelines may render examination questions easier or more difficult than intended. Item complexity describes the cognitive skill level required to obtain a correct answer. Higher cognitive examination items promote critical thinking and are recommended to prepare students for clinical training. This study evaluated faculty-authored examinations to determine the impact of item-writing flaws and item complexity on the difficulty and discrimination value of examination items used to assess third year veterinary students. The impact of item-writing flaws and item complexity (cognitive level I-V) on examination item difficulty and discrimination value was evaluated on 1925 examination items prepared by clinical faculty for third year veterinary students. The mean (± SE) percent correct (83.3 % ± 17.5) was consistent with target values in professional education, and the mean discrimination index (0.18 ± 0.17) was slightly lower than recommended (0.20). More than one item-writing flaw was identified in 37.3 % of questions. The most common item-writing flaws were awkward stem structure, implausible distractors, longest response is correct, and responses are series of true-false statements. Higher cognitive skills (complexity level III-IV) were required to correctly answer 38.4 % of examination items. As item complexity increased, item difficulty and discrimination values increased. The probability of writing discriminating, difficult examination items decreased when implausible distractors and all of the above were used, and increased if the distractors were comprised of a series of true/false statements. Items with four distractors were not more difficult or discriminating than items with three distractors. Preparation of examination questions targeting higher cognitive levels will increase the likelihood of constructing discriminating items. Use of implausible distractors to complete a five-option multiple choice

  20. Preface to the first monograph: The Fourth Psychiatric Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2004-05-01

    the one hand, and cautious forays in the neurosciences, adoption and genetic studies on the other ( from where, hopefully, significant leads in understanding the aetiology of major psychiatric disorders must arise. Diagnostic refinement is a necessary step in this direction, as is use of sophisticated technology to aid the process.And yet, we know that psychiatry, its practitioners, and its patients, do not function in a vacuum. They interact with, and are influenced by, a wide range of complex, interlinked, social and interpersonal forces.These forces are often generated by people not directly connected with the medical speciality of psychiatry. They are the policy-planners, governments, political leaders, activists, social thinkers, NGOs, mass media, enlightened public opinion etc. They have marked influence on social thought and action, policy, funding and research. They influence people and societies often in more significant ways than the medical speciality of psychiatry considers healthy for society.We may continue to function in a vacuum and wait for wisdom to dawn. Or, we may establish a dialogue with them and work for wisdom for happen.The second option seems the more productive one.No doubt, there are some psychiatrists comfortable with the biological label. There are others comfortable with the social one. Both these are needed, for they help to further robust enquiry in their respective fields. But what we also probably need is an integration, a synthesis of the mass of evidence that these two fields have produced. The inevitable conclusions drawn at our present state of knowledge based on such integration will give rise to pointers for further research as well as guidelines for policy-planners. Moreover, it will result in an awakened public opinion empowered with knowledge and evidence, its actions enlightened, and unlikely to be swayed or manipulated by unscrupulous forces.The Mens Sana Monographs are meant to further attempts at such a Fourth

  1. Writing about Class and Race Differences and Similarities in Early Childhood Mathematics: The Case of One Monograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Amy Noelle

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a literature review of 49 articles that cited a single monograph East Lansing written in 1981 about early learning in mathematics to make claims of similarity or difference across lines of race and class in early mathematics. The review found that while about two-thirds of the articles cited the monograph to make claims of…

  2. Writing about Class and Race Differences and Similarities in Early Childhood Mathematics: The Case of One Monograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Amy Noelle

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a literature review of 49 articles that cited a single monograph East Lansing written in 1981 about early learning in mathematics to make claims of similarity or difference across lines of race and class in early mathematics. The review found that while about two-thirds of the articles cited the monograph to make claims of…

  3. Access to Basic Education in Ghana: Politics, Policies and Progress. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 42

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Angela W.

    2010-01-01

    This monograph examines the history and politics of educational reform in Ghana. Using data from interviews conducted with senior policy-makers, implementers and researchers, as well as documentary sources, to explore the drivers and inhibitors of change at the political, bureaucratic and grass-roots levels. The monograph explores the nature of…

  4. A monograph assignment as an integrative application of evidence-based medicine and pharmacoeconomic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Anandi V; Jackevicius, Cynthia A; Bounthavong, Mark

    2011-02-10

    To describe the development and assessment of monographs as an assignment to incorporate evidence-based medicine (EBM) and pharmacoeconomic principles into a third-year pharmacoeconomic course. Eight newly FDA-approved drugs were assigned to 16 teams of students, where each drug was assigned to 2 teams. Teams had to research their drug, write a professional monograph, deliver an oral presentation, and answer questions posed by faculty judges. One team was asked to present evidence for inclusion of the drug into a formulary, while another team presented evidence against inclusion. The teams' average score on the written report was 99.1%; on the oral presentation, 92.5%, and on the online quiz given at the end of the presentations, 77%. Monographs are a successful method of incorporating and integrating learning across different concepts, as well as increasing relevance of pharmacoeconomics in the PharmD curriculum.

  5. ŞTEFANIA CRISTESCU AND THE „MONOGRAPHIC RESEARCH CRISIS”, 1932–1934

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Professor ZOLTÁN ROSTÁS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the crisis of the monographic research undertaken by the Sociological School from Bucharest (led by Professor Dimitrie Gusti, between 1932–1933. The focus is on the particular perspective offered by one salient member of the group, Ştefania Cristescu-Golopenţia. The internal reason of the “monograph crisis” was the change in status and orientation of the young members of the School, a transformation that – at least in the case of Şt. C.-G. – disturbed her research work, but did not prevent her from carrying out outstanding studies

  6. Harmonization of monographic standards is needed to ensure the quality of Chinese medicinal materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Sandy

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article provides an overview on the regulations of Chinese medicinal materials (CMMs in various countries and regions. Harmonization of CMM monographs would provide standards for the quality control of CMM products and play an important role in the modernization and globalization of Chinese medicine. A harmonized regulatory system would improve the quality of CMMs thereby ensuring the safety of the products and assisting Chinese medicine practitioners in their practice. The fast growing demand worldwide for traditional medicines calls for harmonized monographic standards to safeguard the safety and quality of CMM products.

  7. Teoria da Resposta ao Item Teoria de la respuesta al item Item response theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eutalia Aparecida Candido de Araujo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação com medidas de traços psicológicos é antiga, sendo que muitos estudos e propostas de métodos foram desenvolvidos no sentido de alcançar este objetivo. Entre os trabalhos propostos, destaca-se a Teoria da Resposta ao Item (TRI que, a princípio, veio completar limitações da Teoria Clássica de Medidas, empregada em larga escala até hoje na medida de traços psicológicos. O ponto principal da TRI é que ela leva em consideração o item particularmente, sem relevar os escores totais; portanto, as conclusões não dependem apenas do teste ou questionário, mas de cada item que o compõe. Este artigo propõe-se a apresentar esta Teoria que revolucionou a teoria de medidas.La preocupación con las medidas de los rasgos psicológicos es antigua y muchos estudios y propuestas de métodos fueron desarrollados para lograr este objetivo. Entre estas propuestas de trabajo se incluye la Teoría de la Respuesta al Ítem (TRI que, en principio, vino a completar las limitaciones de la Teoría Clásica de los Tests, ampliamente utilizada hasta hoy en la medida de los rasgos psicológicos. El punto principal de la TRI es que se tiene en cuenta el punto concreto, sin relevar las puntuaciones totales; por lo tanto, los resultados no sólo dependen de la prueba o cuestionario, sino que de cada ítem que lo compone. En este artículo se propone presentar la Teoría que revolucionó la teoría de medidas.The concern with measures of psychological traits is old and many studies and proposals of methods were developed to achieve this goal. Among these proposed methods highlights the Item Response Theory (IRT that, in principle, came to complete limitations of the Classical Test Theory, which is widely used until nowadays in the measurement of psychological traits. The main point of IRT is that it takes into account the item in particular, not relieving the total scores; therefore, the findings do not only depend on the test or questionnaire

  8. Sharing the cost of redundant items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moulin, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    are network connectivity problems when an existing (possibly inefficient) network must be maintained. We axiomatize a family cost ratios based on simple liability indices, one for each agent and for each item, measuring the relative worth of this item across agents, and generating cost allocation rules......We ask how to share the cost of finitely many public goods (items) among users with different needs: some smaller subsets of items are enough to serve the needs of each user, yet the cost of all items must be covered, even if this entails inefficiently paying for redundant items. Typical examples...... additive in costs....

  9. Unfair items detection in educational measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Bakman, Yefim

    2012-01-01

    Measurement professionals cannot come to an agreement on the definition of the term 'item fairness'. In this paper a continuous measure of item unfairness is proposed. The more the unfairness measure deviates from zero, the less fair the item is. If the measure exceeds the cutoff value, the item is identified as definitely unfair. The new approach can identify unfair items that would not be identified with conventional procedures. The results are in accord with experts' judgments on the item qualities. Since no assumptions about scores distributions and/or correlations are assumed, the method is applicable to any educational test. Its performance is illustrated through application to scores of a real test.

  10. NTP-CERHR monograph on the potential human reproductive and developmental effects of hydroxyurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    , and serious concern. The NTP expresses serious concern that exposure of men to therapeutic doses of hydroxyurea may adversely affect sperm production. This level of concern is for all males who have reached puberty. The NTP concurs with the Expert Panel that there is concern that exposure of pregnant women to hydroxyurea may result in birth defects, abnormalities of fetal growth, or abnormal postnatal development in offspring. The NTP concurs with the Expert Panel that there is minimal concern that exposure of children to therapeutic doses of hydroxyurea at 5 -15 years of age will adversely affect growth. NTP will transmit the NTP-CERHR Monograph on the Potential Human Reproductive and Developmental Effects of Hydroxyurea to federal and state agencies, interested parties, and the public and make it available in electronic PDF format on the CERHR web site (http://cerhr niehs nih gov) and in printed text or CD from CERHR.

  11. NTP-CERHR monograph on the potential human reproductive and developmental effects of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Michael D

    2008-09-01

    Brief and the final expert panel report, are available on the CERHR website (http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov/). See bisphenol A under "CERHR Chemicals" on the homepage or go directly to http://cerhr.niehs. nih.gov/chemicals/bisphenol/bisphenol.html). The NTP reached the following conclusions on the possible effects of exposure to bisphenol A on human development and reproduction. Note that the possible levels of concern, from lowest to highest, are negligible concern, minimal concern, some concern, concern, and serious concern. The NTP has some concern for effects on the brain, behavior, and prostate gland in fetuses, infants, and children at current human exposures to bisphenol A. The NTP has minimal concern for effects on the mammary gland and an earlier age for puberty for females in fetuses, infants, and children at current human exposures to bisphenol A. The NTP has negligible concern that exposure of pregnant women to bisphenol A will result in fetal or neonatal mortality, birth defects, or reduced birth weight and growth in their offspring. The NTP has negligible concern that exposure to bisphenol A will cause reproductive effects in non-occupationally exposed adults and minimal concern for workers exposed to higher levels in occupational settings. NTP will transmit the NTP-CERHR Monograph on Bisphenol A to federal and state agencies, interested parties, and the public and make it available in electronic PDF format on the CERHR web site (http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov) and in printed text or CD from CERHR.

  12. A Bifactor Multidimensional Item Response Theory Model for Differential Item Functioning Analysis on Testlet-Based Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Hirotaka; Kamata, Akihito

    2011-01-01

    A differential item functioning (DIF) detection method for testlet-based data was proposed and evaluated in this study. The proposed DIF model is an extension of a bifactor multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) model for testlets. Unlike traditional item response theory (IRT) DIF models, the proposed model takes testlet effects into…

  13. Using automatic item generation to create multiple-choice test items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J; Lai, Hollis; Turner, Simon R

    2012-08-01

    Many tests of medical knowledge, from the undergraduate level to the level of certification and licensure, contain multiple-choice items. Although these are efficient in measuring examinees' knowledge and skills across diverse content areas, multiple-choice items are time-consuming and expensive to create. Changes in student assessment brought about by new forms of computer-based testing have created the demand for large numbers of multiple-choice items. Our current approaches to item development cannot meet this demand. We present a methodology for developing multiple-choice items based on automatic item generation (AIG) concepts and procedures. We describe a three-stage approach to AIG and we illustrate this approach by generating multiple-choice items for a medical licensure test in the content area of surgery. To generate multiple-choice items, our method requires a three-stage process. Firstly, a cognitive model is created by content specialists. Secondly, item models are developed using the content from the cognitive model. Thirdly, items are generated from the item models using computer software. Using this methodology, we generated 1248 multiple-choice items from one item model. Automatic item generation is a process that involves using models to generate items using computer technology. With our method, content specialists identify and structure the content for the test items, and computer technology systematically combines the content to generate new test items. By combining these outcomes, items can be generated automatically. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  14. Item calibration in incomplete testing designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, Theo J.H.M.; Verhelst, Norman D.

    2011-01-01

    This study discusses the justifiability of item parameter estimation in incomplete testing designs in item response theory. Marginal maximum likelihood (MML) as well as conditional maximum likelihood (CML) procedures are considered in three commonly used incomplete designs: random incomplete, multis

  15. Working toward a Continuum of Professional Learning Experiences for Teachers of Science and Mathematics. Research Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundry, Susan; Spector, Barbara; Stiles, Katherine; Loucks-Horsley, Susan

    This monograph is the result of a one-year qualitative study conducted by the National Institute for Science Education (NISE) of reform-oriented interventions, structures, and relationships in preservice and inservice education of teachers of science and mathematics. The study investigated 61 initiatives of reform activity involving teachers of…

  16. A monograph of the African Squirrels, with an enumeration of the specimens in the Leyden Museum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1882-01-01

    The African Squirrels have never been monographically studied, although a large number of more or less important descriptions of different species have been given, which are to be found in different periodicals. The late Temminck in his »Esquisses zoologiques sur la côte de Guiné. 1853” was the firs

  17. Herbert L. Matthews and the Cuban Story. Journalism Monographs No. 54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Jerry W.

    Herbert L. Matthews, a veteran journalist for the "New York Times," traveled to Cuba in 1957 to interview Fidel Castro, then a revolutionary seeking the overthrow of the Batista regime. This monograph considers the impact of Matthews' newspaper articles about those interviews and of his subsequent articles about the Cuban situation and…

  18. Nutritional Problems and Policy in Tanzania. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 7 (1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgaza, Olyvia

    This monograph discusses policies designed to deal with food and nutrition problems in Tanzania. Available information on food supplies and nutritional conditions in Tanzania clearly shows that the country faces nutritional problems; protein energy malnutrition is the most serious and requires priority action. Iron deficiency anemia, goiter, and…

  19. Interactive Robotic Aids--One Option for Independent Living: An International Perspective. Monograph Number 37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, Richard, Ed.

    The monograph is a collection of papers on the role of robotics in rehabilitation. The first four papers represent contributions from other countries: "Spartacus and Manus: Telethesis Developments in France and the Netherlands" (H. Kwee); "A Potential Application in Early Education and a Possible Role for a Vision System in a Workstation Based…

  20. The Taming of the Press in Sri Lanka. Journalism Monographs Number 39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, Shelton A.

    This issue of "Journalism Monographs" deals specifically with the state of newspaper journalism in Sri Lanka, formerly the Dominion of Ceylon. The country's literacy rate is about 81 percent. The first section of this article is a general discussion of newspaper journalism in Sri Lanka, examining historical background and such press…

  1. Logo and Geometry. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Douglas H.; Battista, Michael T.

    This book, the 10th volume in the Journal for Research in Mathematics Education (JRME) Monograph Series, discusses the geometry curriculum and investigates how elementary school students learn geometric concepts and how Logo programming and its turtle graphics might affect this learning. This volume also provides details on the development,…

  2. The evaluation of scientific monograph and publisher's role: the spanish project Scholarly Publishers Indicators (SPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Capaccioni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the issue about the quality assessment of scientific monograph and the role of publishers in the field of Humanities and Social Sciences, focusing on the Spanish project Scholarly Publishers Indicators (SPI. This project was born to identify and explore specific quality indicators for scientific books, starting from the opinion of SSH Spanish experts.

  3. Administration and Supervision for Safety in Sports. Sports Safety Series: Monograph No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borozne, Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    Examined in this monograph are issues concerned with accident problems in sports. Materials are organized under eight headings, each developed by an expert in the area: (1) the injury problem in sports; (2) philosophy of sports accident prevention and injury control; (3) an introduction to administration and supervision; (4) administration and…

  4. Honors Programs at Smaller Colleges. 3rd Edition. National Collegiate Honors Council Monograph Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This monograph focuses upon areas of special concern to those working with honors at smaller colleges and universities: mission, recruitment, facilities, administration, budget, and curriculum. In each area, the author makes some general suggestions about overall operating principles, note specific issues that can lead to difficulties, and suggest…

  5. Data Matching, Integration, and Interoperability for a Metric Assessment of Monographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuccala, Alesia Ann; Cornacchia, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This paper details a unique data experiment carried out at the University of Amsterdam, Center for Digital Humanities. Data pertaining to monographs were collected from three autonomous resources, the Scopus Journal Index, WorldCat.org and Goodreads, and linked according to unique identifiers...

  6. Employer Relations and Recruitment Services: An Essential Part of Postsecondary Career Services. Monograph Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Myrna P.; Lenz, Janet G.; Garis, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    This monograph is intended for any career services provider seeking a guide for developing employer relations and recruitment services at a postsecondary institution. It serves to inform readers about the changing meaning of "placement" over the years and the role it currently plays in career services. The publication describes…

  7. HPLC method validation for modernization of the tetracycline hydrochloride capsule USP monograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad M. Hussien

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a continuation to our previous work aiming at development and validation of a reversed-phase HPLC for modernization of tetracycline-related USP monographs and the USP general chapter . Previous results showed that the method is accurate and precise for the assay of tetracycline hydrochloride and the limit of 4-epianhydrotetracycline impurity in the drug substance and oral suspension monographs. The aim of the current paper is to examine the feasibility of the method for modernization of USP tetracycline hydrochloride capsule monograph. Specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision were examined for tetracycline hydrochloride assay and 4-epianhydrotetracycline limit. The method was linear in the concentration range from 80% to 160% (r>0.9998 of the assay concentration (0.1 mg/mL for tetracycline hydrochloride and from 50% to 150% (r>0.997 of the acceptance criteria specified in tetracycline hydrochloride capsule monograph for 4-epianhydrotetracycline (NMT 3.0%. The recovery at three concentration levels for tetracycline hydrochloride assay was between 99% and 101% and the RSD from six preparations at the concentration 0.1 mg/mL is less than 0.6%. The recovery for 4-epianhydrotetracycline limit procedure over the concentration range from 50% to 150% is between 96% and 102% with RSD less than 5%. The results met the specified acceptance criteria.

  8. Place as Text: Approaches to Active Learning. 2nd Edition. National Collegiate Honors Council Monograph Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braid, Bernice, Ed.; Long, Ada, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The decade since publication of "Place as Text: Approaches to Active Learning" has seen an explosion of interest and productivity in the field of experiential education. This monograph presents a story of an experiment and a blueprint of sorts for anyone interested in enriching an existing program or willing to experiment with pedagogy…

  9. Does It Make a Sound: Are Open Access Monographs Discoverable in Library Catalogs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollough, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    This article describes an exploratory study examining the common perception among library-based publishers that open access academic publications (especially monographs) are not readily discoverable in library catalogs. Using titles from the Michigan Publishing imprint, digital culture books, the study provides an empirical basis for evaluating…

  10. Does It Make a Sound: Are Open Access Monographs Discoverable in Library Catalogs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollough, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    This article describes an exploratory study examining the common perception among library-based publishers that open access academic publications (especially monographs) are not readily discoverable in library catalogs. Using titles from the Michigan Publishing imprint, digital culture books, the study provides an empirical basis for evaluating…

  11. Cocaine: Pharmacology, Effects, and Treatment of Abuse. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph 50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, John, Ed.

    This monograph consists of eight papers which refer in one way or another to the pharmacology of cocaine. The papers are: (1) Cocaine 1984: Introduction and Overview" (John Grabowski); (2) "Cocaine: A Growing Public Health Problem" (Edgar H. Adams and Jack Durell); (3) "Neural Mechanisms of the Reinforcing Action of…

  12. Interwoven Lives: Adolescent Mothers and Their Children. Research Monographs in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Thomas L.; Borkowski, John G.; Keogh, Deborah A.; Weed, Keri

    This monograph details the Notre Dame Parenting Project, a comprehensive longitudinal study of the lives of adolescent mothers and their children from pregnancy through the first 8 years of life, describing how their respective developmental trajectories are interwoven and linked to the social contexts in which they live. A total of 281…

  13. Education of the Handicapped and Its Implications for Elementary Industrial Arts. ACESIA Monograph 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Clarence R., Jr.; Horvath, Lester J.

    The purpose of this monograph is to illustrate the implications of Public Law 94-142 on public education at the state and local levels. The first section illustrates the importance for all educators to be aware of the administrative design used in this piece of permanent legislation. The second section describes the major provisions of Public Law…

  14. On the rise of Bayesian econometrics after Cowles Foundation monographs 10, 14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baştürk, N.; Çakmaklı, C.; Ceyhan, S.P.; van Dijk, H.K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper starts with a brief description of the introduction of the likelihood approach in econometrics as presented in Cowles Foundation Monographs 10 and 14. A sketch is given of the criticisms on this approach mainly from the first group of Bayesian econometricians. Publication and citation pat

  15. On the rise of Bayesian econometrics after Cowles Foundation Monographs 10, 14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baştürk, N.; Çakmak, C.; Pinar Ceyhan, S.; van Dijk, H.K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper starts with a brief description of the introduction of the likelihood approach in econometrics as presented in Cowles Foundation Monographs 10 and 14. A sketch is given of the criticisms on this approach mainly from the first group of Bayesian econometricians. Publication and citation pat

  16. The Self Perception of Male and Female Homosexuals. Criminal Justice Monograph: Vol. 6, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, William Henry, III

    This monograph presents a historical and theoretical review of homosexuality followed by a study of the self-perception of homosexuals. History bears out that homosexuality has always been one aspect of human sexuality and was more prominent in other periods of human history, depending on societal attitudes and mores. At present, many authors…

  17. Recent Advances in Nutrition Education. The Health Education Monograph Series. Volume 15 Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shier, Nathan W., Ed.; Torabi, Mohammad R., Ed.

    This monograph presents a collection of articles on nutrition education: "Using the DINE Score To Improve Food Choice Behavior" (Darwin Dennison and Kathryn F. Dennison); "Self-Reported Food Intake Patterns of Older Adults in Australia, China, and the United States" (Alyce D. Fly, Nathan W Shier, Barbara A. Hawkins, Susan J.…

  18. Employer Relations and Recruitment Services: An Essential Part of Postsecondary Career Services. Monograph Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Myrna P.; Lenz, Janet G.; Garis, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    This monograph is intended for any career services provider seeking a guide for developing employer relations and recruitment services at a postsecondary institution. It serves to inform readers about the changing meaning of "placement" over the years and the role it currently plays in career services. The publication describes…

  19. Making Industrial Education Facilities Accessible to the Physically Disabled. A Professional Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Ray; Henak, Richard

    This monograph focuses on the design of accessible industrial education facilities for individuals with physical disabilities. In chapter 1 accessibility is defined, and three significant pieces of federal legislation regarding the equality of educational opportunities for special needs populations are discussed. The role of industrial education…

  20. South Asian Nomads--A Literature Review. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anita

    2011-01-01

    This review of literature on South Asian nomads is part of a series of monographs on educational access published by the Consortium for Research on Educational Access Transitions and Equity (CREATE). In the context of India, most recent work has focused on access to the education system for the poor. CREATE research in India has focused on …

  1. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Box, Richard C.; Fink, Mary M.; Gogos, George; Lehrer, Henry R.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; O'Neil, Patrick D.; Tarry, Scott E.; Vlasek, Karisa D.

    This document contains four papers on aeronautics education, research, and partnerships that partly supported through the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL). The paper "2002 AERIAL Monograph" (Brent D. Bowen, Jocelyn S. Nickerson, Mary M. Fink, et al.) presents an overview of research and development in the…

  2. Cuento Therapy. Folktales as a Culturally Sensitive Psychotherapy for Puerto Rican Children. Monograph No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Giuseppe; And Others

    A seven-year project developing and testing cuento therapy, a form of child psychotherapy in which Puerto Rican mothers recount to their children folktales taken from Puerto Rican culture, is described and evaluated in this monograph. Chapter 1 explains how the research presented in later chapters fits into substantially broader patterns of…

  3. News Piracy: Unfair Competition and the Misappropriation Doctrine. Journalism Monographs No. 56.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Paul W.

    Unfair competition is a complex problem affecting all areas of American business, including the communications media. Piracy of material, an alarmingly widespread example of unfair competition, involves legal as well as ethical questions. This monograph uses the historical approach to trace the development of common-law precedent and trends and…

  4. The Evaluation and Selection of Instructional Software for Use with the Learning Disabled. CREATE Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgerber, Robert A.; Blake, Patricia L.

    Fourth in a series of six monographs on the use of new technologies in the instruction of learning disabled (LD) students, this paper explores issues related to the evaluation and selection of instructional software for LD students. Topics discussed include the following: (1) criteria for instructionally useful software (e.g., flexibility and…

  5. The Learning Disabled and Computer Based Education: Program Design Strategies. CREATE Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David; And Others

    Third in a series of six monographs on the use of new technologies in the instruction of learning disabled students, the paper explores program design strategies for computer-based instructional materials. Section 1 summarizes ideas related to models of perception and cognition, theories of instruction, and key characteristics of intelligent…

  6. Existing and Emerging Technologies in Education: A Descriptive Overview. CREATE Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Thomas W.

    Second in a series of six monographs on the use of new technologies in the instruction of learning disabled students, the paper offers a descriptive overview of new technologies. Topics addressed include the following: (1) techniques for sharing computer resources (including aspects of networking, sharing information through databases, and the use…

  7. Optimal Approaches to Microcomputer Implementation in the Schools. [CREATS Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Thomas W.

    Fifth in a series of six monographs on the use of new technologies in the instruction of learning disabled students, the paper describes how schools can plan for the acquisition of computer hardware and software, and how they can provide district-level staff training in its use. Discussion focuses on the development of a technology implementation…

  8. Man-made mineral (vitreous) fibres: evaluations of cancer hazards by the IARC Monographs Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baan, Robert A; Grosse, Yann

    2004-09-03

    Man-made vitreous (glass-like) fibres are non-crystalline, fibrous inorganic substances (silicates) made primarily from rock, slag, glass or other processed minerals. These materials, also called man-made mineral fibres, include glass fibres (used in glass wool and continuous glass filament), rock or stone wool, slag wool and refractory ceramic fibres. They are widely used for thermal and acoustical insulation and to a lesser extent for other purposes. These products are potentially hazardous to human health because they release airborne respirable fibres during their production, use and removal. Man-made mineral fibres and man-made vitreous fibres have been the subject of reviews by IARC Monographs Working Groups in 1987 and 2001, respectively, which resulted in evaluations of the carcinogenic hazard to humans from exposure to these materials. These reviews and evaluations have been published as Volumes 43 and 81 of the IARC Monographs series [IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 43, Man-made Mineral Fibres and Radon (1988); IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 81, Man-made Vitreous Fibres (2002)]. The re-evaluation in 2001 was undertaken because there have been substantial improvements in the quality of the epidemiological information available on the carcinogenicity to humans of glass fibres, continuous glass filament and rock/slag wool. The new evaluations have addressed the limitations of earlier cohort studies, particularly concerning the lack of adjustment with respect to concomitant risk factors such as smoking and other sources of occupational exposure. In addition, the evaluation of the evidence for carcinogenicity of glass fibres to experimental animals has been refined, by making a distinction between insulation glass wool and special-purpose glass fibres. The results of the evaluations in 1987 and 2001 are thus different in several aspects. In this paper, the reviews and evaluations

  9. Processing Polarity Items: Contrastive Licensing Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddy, Douglas; Drenhaus, Heiner; Frisch, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment that investigated the failure to license polarity items in German using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). The results reveal distinct processing reflexes associated with failure to license positive polarity items in comparison to failure to license negative polarity items. Failure to license both negative and…

  10. Towards an authoring system for item construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rikers, Jos H.A.N.

    1988-01-01

    The process of writing test items is analyzed, and a blueprint is presented for an authoring system for test item writing to reduce invalidity and to structure the process of item writing. The developmental methodology is introduced, and the first steps in the process are reported. A historical revi

  11. Generalized Full-Information Item Bifactor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li; Yang, Ji Seung; Hansen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Full-information item bifactor analysis is an important statistical method in psychological and educational measurement. Current methods are limited to single-group analysis and inflexible in the types of item response models supported. We propose a flexible multiple-group item bifactor analysis framework that supports a variety of…

  12. Real and Artificial Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, David; Hagquist, Curt

    2012-01-01

    The literature in modern test theory on procedures for identifying items with differential item functioning (DIF) among two groups of persons includes the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) procedure. Generally, it is not recognized explicitly that if there is real DIF in some items which favor one group, then as an artifact of this procedure, artificial DIF…

  13. Item Response Methods for Educational Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Rieser, Mark R.

    Multiple matrix sampling (MMS) theory indicates how data may be gathered to most efficiently convey information about levels of attainment in a population, but standard analyses of these data require random sampling of items from a fixed pool of items. This assumption proscribes the retirement of flawed or obsolete items from the pool as well as…

  14. Matrix Sampling of Test Items. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Ruth A.; Jaciw, Andrew P.

    This Digest describes matrix sampling of test items as an approach to achieving broad coverage while minimizing testing time per student. Matrix sampling involves developing a complete set of items judged to cover the curriculum, then dividing the items into subsets and administering one subset to each student. Matrix sampling, by limiting the…

  15. The Multidimensionality of Verbal Analogy Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullstadius, Eva; Carlstedt, Berit; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2008-01-01

    The influence of general and verbal ability on each of 72 verbal analogy test items were investigated with new factor analytical techniques. The analogy items together with the Computerized Swedish Enlistment Battery (CAT-SEB) were given randomly to two samples of 18-year-old male conscripts (n = 8566 and n = 5289). Thirty-two of the 72 items had…

  16. Optimal item pool design for computerized adaptive tests with polytomous items using GPCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuechun Zhou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Computerized adaptive testing (CAT is a testing procedure with advantages in improving measurement precision and increasing test efficiency. An item pool with optimal characteristics is the foundation for a CAT program to achieve those desirable psychometric features. This study proposed a method to design an optimal item pool for tests with polytomous items using the generalized partial credit model (G-PCM. It extended a method for approximating optimality with polytomous items being described succinctly for the purpose of pool design. Optimal item pools were generated using CAT simulations with and without practical constraints of content balancing and item exposure control. The performances of the item pools were evaluated against an operational item pool. The results indicated that the item pools designed with stratification based on discrimination parameters performed well with an efficient use of the less discriminative items within the target accuracy levels. The implications for developing item pools are also discussed.

  17. Emergency Power For Critical Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, William R.

    2009-07-01

    Natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, tornados, and tsunami, are becoming a greater problem as climate change impacts our environment. Disasters, whether natural or man made, destroy lives, homes, businesses and the natural environment. Such disasters can happen with little or no warning, leaving hundreds or even thousands of people without medical services, potable water, sanitation, communications and electrical services for up to several weeks. In our modern world, the need for electricity has become a necessity. Modern building codes and new disaster resistant building practices are reducing the damage to homes and businesses. Emergency gasoline and diesel generators are becoming common place for power outages. Generators need fuel, which may not be available after a disaster, but Photovoltaic (solar-electric) systems supply electricity without petroleum fuel as they are powered by the sun. Photovoltaic (PV) systems can provide electrical power for a home or business. PV systems can operate as utility interactive or stand-alone with battery backup. Determining your critical load items and sizing the photovoltaic system for those critical items, guarantees their operation in a disaster.

  18. Intact Transition Epitope Mapping (ITEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremova, Yelena; Opuni, Kwabena F. M.; Danquah, Bright D.; Thiesen, Hans-Juergen; Glocker, Michael O.

    2017-08-01

    Intact transition epitope mapping (ITEM) enables rapid and accurate determination of protein antigen-derived epitopes by either epitope extraction or epitope excision. Upon formation of the antigen peptide-containing immune complex in solution, the entire mixture is electrosprayed to translate all constituents as protonated ions into the gas phase. There, ions from antibody-peptide complexes are separated from unbound peptide ions according to their masses, charges, and shapes either by ion mobility drift or by quadrupole ion filtering. Subsequently, immune complexes are dissociated by collision induced fragmentation and the ion signals of the "complex-released peptides," which in effect are the epitope peptides, are recorded in the time-of-flight analyzer of the mass spectrometer. Mixing of an antibody solution with a solution in which antigens or antigen-derived peptides are dissolved is, together with antigen proteolysis, the only required in-solution handling step. Simplicity of sample handling and speed of analysis together with very low sample consumption makes ITEM faster and easier to perform than other experimental epitope mapping methods.

  19. Expected linking error resulting from item parameter drift among the common Items on Rasch calibrated tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G Edward; Gesn, Paul Randall; Rotou, Jourania

    2005-01-01

    In state assessment programs that employ Rasch-based common item linking procedures, the linking constant is usually estimated with only those common items not identified as exhibiting item difficulty parameter drift. Since state assessments typically contain a fixed number of items, an item classified as exhibiting parameter drift during the linking process remains on the exam as a scorable item even if it is removed from the common item set. Under the assumption that item parameter drift has occurred for one or more of the common items, the expected effect of including or excluding the "affected" item(s) in the estimation of the linking constant is derived in this article. If the item parameter drift is due solely to factors not associated with a change in examinee achievement, no linking error will (be expected to) occur given that the linking constant is estimated only with the items not identified as "affected"; linking error will (be expected to) occur if the linking constant is estimated with all common items. However, if the item parameter drift is due solely to change in examinee achievement, the opposite is true: no linking error will (be expected to) occur if the linking constant is estimated with all common items; linking error will (be expected to) occur if the linking constant is estimated only with the items not identified as "affected".

  20. NTP-CERHR Monograph on the Potential Human Reproductive and Developmental Effects of 1-Bromopropane (1-BP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) conducted an evaluation of the potential for 1-bromopropane to cause adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans. 1-Bromopropane was selected for evaluation due to recent consideration of 1-bromopropane as a replacement chemical for hydrochlorofluorocarbons and chlorinated solvents. 1-Bromopropane is used in spray adhesives and in cleaning metal and electronic components; as a solvent for fats, waxes, or resins; and as an intermediate in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, insecticides, quaternary ammonium compounds, flavors, or fragrances. The results of this evaluation on 1-brompropane are published in a NTP-CERHR monograph which includes: 1) the NTP Brief, 2) the Expert Panel Report on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of 1-Bromopropane, and 3) public comments received on the Expert Panel Report. As stated in the NTP Brief, the NTP reached the following conclusions regarding the possible effects of exposure to 1-bromopropane on human development and reproduction. No data were available on 1-bromopropane exposures in the general US population. Therefore, conclusions were based on the available occupational exposure data and on studies in humans and laboratory animals. First, there is serious concern for reproductive and developmental effects at the upper end of the human occupational exposure range (18-381 ppm). Adverse developmental and/or reproductive effects have been reported in animal studies at exposure levels of >/=200 ppm. Second, there is minimal concern for reproductive and developmental effects when humans are exposed at the lower end of the human occupational exposure range (0.04-0.63 ppm). This level is at least 300- fold lower than the no effect level identified from reproductive studies in laboratory animals. These conclusions are based upon limited occupational inhalation exposure data. It is likely that worker exposures

  1. Approximation Preserving Reductions among Item Pricing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamane, Ryoso; Itoh, Toshiya; Tomita, Kouhei

    When a store sells items to customers, the store wishes to determine the prices of the items to maximize its profit. Intuitively, if the store sells the items with low (resp. high) prices, the customers buy more (resp. less) items, which provides less profit to the store. So it would be hard for the store to decide the prices of items. Assume that the store has a set V of n items and there is a set E of m customers who wish to buy those items, and also assume that each item i ∈ V has the production cost di and each customer ej ∈ E has the valuation vj on the bundle ej ⊆ V of items. When the store sells an item i ∈ V at the price ri, the profit for the item i is pi = ri - di. The goal of the store is to decide the price of each item to maximize its total profit. We refer to this maximization problem as the item pricing problem. In most of the previous works, the item pricing problem was considered under the assumption that pi ≥ 0 for each i ∈ V, however, Balcan, et al. [In Proc. of WINE, LNCS 4858, 2007] introduced the notion of “loss-leader, ” and showed that the seller can get more total profit in the case that pi < 0 is allowed than in the case that pi < 0 is not allowed. In this paper, we derive approximation preserving reductions among several item pricing problems and show that all of them have algorithms with good approximation ratio.

  2. Losing Items in the Psychogeriatric Nursing Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Hoof PhD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Losing items is a time-consuming occurrence in nursing homes that is ill described. An explorative study was conducted to investigate which items got lost by nursing home residents, and how this affects the residents and family caregivers. Method: Semi-structured interviews and card sorting tasks were conducted with 12 residents with early-stage dementia and 12 family caregivers. Thematic analysis was applied to the outcomes of the sessions. Results: The participants stated that numerous personal items and assistive devices get lost in the nursing home environment, which had various emotional, practical, and financial implications. Significant amounts of time are spent on trying to find items, varying from 1 hr up to a couple of weeks. Numerous potential solutions were identified by the interviewees. Discussion: Losing items often goes together with limitations to the participation of residents. Many family caregivers are reluctant to replace lost items, as these items may get lost again.

  3. Instructional Topics in Educational Measurement (ITEMS) Module: Using Automated Processes to Generate Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis

    2013-01-01

    Changes to the design and development of our educational assessments are resulting in the unprecedented demand for a large and continuous supply of content-specific test items. One way to address this growing demand is with automatic item generation (AIG). AIG is the process of using item models to generate test items with the aid of computer…

  4. New technologies for item monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, J.A. [EG & G Energy Measurements, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Waddoups, I.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This report responds to the Department of Energy`s request that Sandia National Laboratories compare existing technologies against several advanced technologies as they apply to DOE needs to monitor the movement of material, weapons, or personnel for safety and security programs. The authors describe several material control systems, discuss their technologies, suggest possible applications, discuss assets and limitations, and project costs for each system. The following systems are described: WATCH system (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling); Tag system (an electrostatic proximity sensor); PANTRAK system (Personnel And Material Tracking); VRIS (Vault Remote Inventory System); VSIS (Vault Safety and Inventory System); AIMS (Authenticated Item Monitoring System); EIVS (Experimental Inventory Verification System); Metrox system (canister monitoring system); TCATS (Target Cueing And Tracking System); LGVSS (Light Grid Vault Surveillance System); CSS (Container Safeguards System); SAMMS (Security Alarm and Material Monitoring System); FOIDS (Fiber Optic Intelligence & Detection System); GRADS (Graded Radiation Detection System); and PINPAL (Physical Inventory Pallet).

  5. Reversed item bias: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijters, Bert; Baumgartner, Hans; Schillewaert, Niels

    2013-09-01

    In the recent methodological literature, various models have been proposed to account for the phenomenon that reversed items (defined as items for which respondents' scores have to be recoded in order to make the direction of keying consistent across all items) tend to lead to problematic responses. In this article we propose an integrative conceptualization of three important sources of reversed item method bias (acquiescence, careless responding, and confirmation bias) and specify a multisample confirmatory factor analysis model with 2 method factors to empirically test the hypothesized mechanisms, using explicit measures of acquiescence and carelessness and experimentally manipulated versions of a questionnaire that varies 3 item arrangements and the keying direction of the first item measuring the focal construct. We explain the mechanisms, review prior attempts to model reversed item bias, present our new model, and apply it to responses to a 4-item self-esteem scale (N = 306) and the 6-item Revised Life Orientation Test (N = 595). Based on the literature review and the empirical results, we formulate recommendations on how to use reversed items in questionnaires.

  6. The Development of Monograph with 3-Dimentional Illustrations Titled “Augmented Chemistry: Hydrocarbon” as Learning Enrichment Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernawati, D.; Ikhsan, J.

    2017-02-01

    The development of 3D technology provides more advantages in education sectors. In chemistry, the 3D technology makes chemistry objects look more tangible. This research developed a monograph titled “Augmented Chemistry: Hydrocarbon” as learning enrichment materials. The development model consisted of 5 steps, which were the adaptation of the ADDIE model. The 3D objects of chemistry were built using the computer applications of Chem Sketch, and Google Sketch Up with AR Plugin. The 3D objects were displayed by relevant markers on the texts of the monograph from which the visualizations of the 3D objects appeared when they were captured by digital camera of laptop or smartphone, and were possibly viewed with free-rotation. Not only were 3D chemistry objects included in the monograph, but also graphics, videos, audios, and animations, which facilitated more fun learning for readers of the monograph. After the reviews by the experts of subject matter, of media, of instruction, and by peers, the monograph was revised, and then rated by chemistry teachers. The analysis of the data showed that the monograph titled “Augmented Chemistry: Hydrocarbon” was in the criteria of very good for the enrichment materials of Chemistry learning.

  7. Examining item difficulty and response time on perceptual ability test items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chien-Lin; O'Neill, Thomas R; Kramer, Gene A

    2002-01-01

    This study examined item calibration stability in relation to response time and the levels of item difficulty between different response time groups on a sample of 389 examinees responding to six different subtest items of the Perceptual Ability Test (PAT). The results indicated that no Differential Item Functioning (DIF) was found and a significant correlation coefficient of item difficulty was formed between slow and fast responders. Three distinct levels of difficulty emerged among the six subtests across groups. Slow responders spent significantly more time than fast responders on the four most difficult subtests. A positive significant relationship was found between item difficulty and response time across groups on the overall perceptual ability test items. Overall, this study found that: 1) the same underlying construct is being measured across groups, 2) the PAT scores were equally useful across groups, 3) different sources of item difficulty may exist among the six subtests, and 4) more difficult test items may require more time to answer.

  8. From concepts to lexical items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierwisch, M; Schreuder, R

    1992-03-01

    In this paper we address the question how in language production conceptual structures are mapped onto lexical items. First we describe the lexical system in a fairly abstract way. Such a system consists of, among other things, a fixed set of basic lexical entries characterized by four groups of information: phonetic form, grammatical features, argument structure, and semantic form. A crucial assumption of the paper is that the meaning in a lexical entry has a complex internal structure composed of more primitive elements (decomposition). Some aspects of argument structure and semantic form and their interaction are discussed with respect to the issue of synonymy. We propose two different mappings involved in lexical access. One maps conceptual structures to semantic forms, and the other maps semantic forms to conceptual structures. Both mappings are context dependent and are many-to-many mappings. We present an elaboration of Levelt's (1989) model in which these processes interact with the grammatical encoder and the mental lexicon. Then we address the consequences of decomposition for processing models, especially the nature of the input of lexical access and the time course. Processing models that use the activation metaphor may have difficulties accounting for certain phenomena where a certain lemma triggers not one, but two or more word forms that have to be produced with other word forms in between.

  9. Arrangement and processing of monographic publications in youth sections of public libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Ločniškar-Fidler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic and transparent layout of library material on book shelves of public libraries is one of the essential conditions for successful viewing and searching of materials. The research tried to determine the contemporary classification system of library material for the youth. The data needed for the research was gathered and analyzed by a questionnaire completed by five randomly selected central public libraries. Special collections, arrangement and classification of certain fiction and specialized monographic publications for infants, teenagers and adolescents were analyzed. It was of our interest to observe whether the libraries assign the elements of a call number - which are evident on the library material and in online catalogs – according to standards and current instructions. The article also focuses on the unity and differences of the technical processing, and on color and/or image of labels which additionally explain the classification and the contents of the monographic publications for the youth.

  10. Non-European traditional herbal medicines in Europe: a community herbal monograph perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Liping; Zou, Wenjun; Zhou, Zhenxiang; Zhang, Tingmo; Greef, JanVander; Wang, Mei

    2014-10-28

    The European Directive 2004/24/EC introducing a simplified registration procedure for traditional herbal medicinal products, plays an important role in harmonising the current legislation framework for all herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Although substantial achievements have been made under the new scheme, only a limited number of herbal medicinal products from non-European traditions commonly used in Europe have been registered. Therefore, identification of the obstacles, and determination of appropriate means to overcome the major challenges in the registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products are of critical importance for the EU herbal medicinal product market. The primary aims of this study were to understand the key issues and obstacles to registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products within the EU. The findings may identify the need for more attention on the Community herbal monographs elaborated by the Herbal Medicinal Products Committee (HMPC), as well as further evidence based scientific research on non-European herbal substances/preparations by the scientific community. A systematic evaluation of the herbal substances and preparations included in Community herbal monographs and public statements has been carried out. The focus was herbal substances and preparations derived from non-European traditions. Of the 109 adopted Community herbal monographs, 10 are herbal substances used in Chinese traditional medicine. Where the HMPC issued a public statement because it was unable to elaborate a monograph more than half-involved herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions. The main reasons herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions were not accepted for inclusion in the Community herbal monographs have been identified as due to unfulfilled requirements of Directive 2004/24/EC. The most common reasons were the lack of evidence to demonstrate a 15-year minimum

  11. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: Aviation Security: An Annotated Bibliography of Responses to the Gore Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrico, John S.; Schaaf, Michaela M.

    1998-01-01

    This monograph is a companion to UNOAI Monograph 96-2, "The Image of Airport Security: An Annotated Bibliography," compiled in June 1996. The White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, headed by Vice President Al Gore, was formed as a result of the TWA Flight 800 crash in August 1996. The Commission's final report included 31 recommendations addressed toward aviation security. The recommendations were cause for security issues to be revisited in the media and by the aviation industry. These developments necessitated the need for an updated bibliography to review the resulting literature. Many of the articles were written in response to the recommendations made by the Gore Commission. "Aviation Security: An Annotated Bibliography of Responses to the Gore Commission" is the result of this need.

  12. Truth, Perception, and Consequences (Proteus Monograph Series, Volume 1, Issue 1, November 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    TruTh , PercePTion, and consequences The Proteus Monograph Series Volume 1, Issue 1 November 2007 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Truth , Perception, and Consequences 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Intelligence, or the U.S. Government. This report is cleared for public release; distribution is unlimited. TruTh , PercePTion, and consequences by

  13. Elements for a of Rural Research Methodology. Sociological Monographs and the Rural Sociological Atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERONICA DUMITRAŞCU

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to provide an "X-ray image" of rural life through the inventory of certain research methods and techniques used in the study of Romanian rural communities. Sociological monographs, including the sociological rural atlas,were the epitome of Gustian sociology. The investigation of rural life focusing on certain key aspects - economic, political, and religious - simultaneously, can provide a more comprehensive perspective on the Romanian village than would be possible by considering each of these elements on its own. Hence, the monograph brings unity to past and present realities. The dynamic character of sociology, on which the Sociological School of Bucharest focused, can be applied nowadays as well. The sociologist is called forth now more than ever in order to interfere with social life. In this case, the methodological tool, that is the monograph, is very useful. Through the Social Atlas, the problems of rural communities can be anticipated and diagnosed and, as such, certain serious problems which take place in a social dimension can be averted. Hence, the Social Atlas project is very useful for research on rural life, as the maps capture the progress of social change.

  14. Are extraction methods in quantitative assays of pharmacopoeia monographs exhaustive? A comparison with pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalo, Carlos; Mohn, Tobias; Hamburger, Matthias

    2006-10-01

    The extraction methods in selected monographs of the European and the Swiss Pharmacopoeia were compared to pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with respect to the yield of constituents to be dosed in the quantitative assay for the respective herbal drugs. The study included five drugs, Belladonnae folium, Colae semen, Boldo folium, Tanaceti herba and Agni casti fructus. They were selected to cover different classes of compounds to be analyzed and different extraction methods to be used according to the monographs. Extraction protocols for PLE were optimized by varying the solvents and number of extraction cycles. In PLE, yields > 97 % of extractable analytes were typically achieved with two extraction cycles. For alkaloid-containing drugs, the addition of ammonia prior to extraction significantly increased the yield and reduced the number of extraction cycles required for exhaustive extraction. PLE was in all cases superior to the extraction protocol of the pharmacopoeia monographs (taken as 100 %), with differences ranging from 108 % in case of parthenolide in Tanaceti herba to 343 % in case of alkaloids in Boldo folium.

  15. 41 CFR 101-30.701-2 - Item standardization code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Item standardization code....7-Item Reduction Program § 101-30.701-2 Item standardization code. Item standardization code (ISC) means a code assigned an item in the supply system which identifies the item as authorized...

  16. Detection of Differential Item Functioning Using the Lasso Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, David; Tuerlinckx, Francis; De Boeck, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a novel approach to detect differential item functioning (DIF) among dichotomously scored items. Unlike standard DIF methods that perform an item-by-item analysis, we propose the "LR lasso DIF method": logistic regression (LR) model is formulated for all item responses. The model contains item-specific intercepts,…

  17. An Item Analysis and Validity Investigation of Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test Score Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Nadine M.

    1971-01-01

    This investigation attempted to demonstrate the utility of standard item analysis procedures for selecting the most reliable and valid items for scoring Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test test records. (Author)

  18. 76 FR 60474 - Commercial Item Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Commercial Item Handbook AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations... Commercial Item Handbook. The purpose of the Handbook is to help acquisition personnel develop sound business... the Handbook. DATES: Comments should be submitted in writing to the address shown below on or before...

  19. Item nonresponse in questionnaire research with children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hox, J.J.; Borgers, N.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of item and person characteristics on item nonresponse, for written questionnaires used with school children. Secondary analyses were done on questionnaire data collected in five distinct studies. To analyze the data, logistic multilevel analysis was used with the

  20. Restricted Interests and Teacher Presentation of Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Corey S.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rodriguez, Nicole M.

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is more pervasive, prevalent, frequent, and severe in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) than in their typical peers. One subtype of RRB is restricted interests in items or activities, which is evident in the manner in which individuals engage with items (e.g., repetitious wheel spinning),…

  1. Item Calibration in Incomplete Testing Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Theo J. H. M.; Verhelst, Norman D.

    2011-01-01

    This study discusses the justifiability of item parameter estimation in incomplete testing designs in item response theory. Marginal maximum likelihood (MML) as well as conditional maximum likelihood (CML) procedures are considered in three commonly used incomplete designs: random incomplete, multistage testing and targeted testing designs.…

  2. Grouping of Items in Mobile Web Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavletova, Aigul; Couper, Mick P.

    2016-01-01

    There is some evidence that a scrolling design may reduce breakoffs in mobile web surveys compared to a paging design, but there is little empirical evidence to guide the choice of the optimal number of items per page. We investigate the effect of the number of items presented on a page on data quality in two types of questionnaires: with or…

  3. 38 CFR 3.1606 - Transportation items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation items. 3... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... shipment. (6) Cost of transportation by common carrier including amounts paid as Federal taxes. (7) Cost...

  4. Interservice Availability of Multiservice Used Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-14

    t PIVT OF DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for Public Releaseo r. Distribution Unlimited 19990817 034 INTERSERVICE AVAILABILTY OF MULTISERVICE USED...was initially cataloged or placed in the DoD supply system. As items matured, that is, as recurring item costs, usage rates, and technological

  5. The use of an item response theory-based disability item bank across diseases: accounting for differential item functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisscher, Nadine; Glas, Cees A; Vermeulen, Marinus; De Haan, Rob J

    2010-05-01

    There is not a single universally accepted activity of daily living (ADL) instrument available to compare disability assessments across different patient groups. We developed a generic item bank of ADL items using item response theory, the Academic Medical Center Linear Disability Scale (ALDS). When comparing outcomes of the ALDS between patients groups, item characteristics of the ALDS should be comparable across groups. The aim of the study was to assess the differential item functioning (DIF) in a group of patients with various disorders to investigate the comparability across these groups. Cross-sectional, multicenter study including 1,283 in- and outpatients with a variety of disorders and disability levels. The sample was divided in two groups: (1) mainly neurological patients (n=497; vascular medicine, Parkinson's disease and neuromuscular disorders) and (2) patients from internal medicine (n=786; pulmonary diseases, chronic pain, rheumatoid arthritis, and geriatric patients). Eighteen of 72 ALDS items showed statistically significant DIF (P<0.01). However, the DIF could effectively be modeled by the introduction of disease-specific parameters. In the subgroups studied, DIF could be modeled in such a way that the ensemble of the items comprised a scale applicable in both groups.

  6. Item response theory - A first approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Sandra; Oliveira, Teresa; Oliveira, Amílcar

    2017-07-01

    The Item Response Theory (IRT) has become one of the most popular scoring frameworks for measurement data, frequently used in computerized adaptive testing, cognitively diagnostic assessment and test equating. According to Andrade et al. (2000), IRT can be defined as a set of mathematical models (Item Response Models - IRM) constructed to represent the probability of an individual giving the right answer to an item of a particular test. The number of Item Responsible Models available to measurement analysis has increased considerably in the last fifteen years due to increasing computer power and due to a demand for accuracy and more meaningful inferences grounded in complex data. The developments in modeling with Item Response Theory were related with developments in estimation theory, most remarkably Bayesian estimation with Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms (Patz & Junker, 1999). The popularity of Item Response Theory has also implied numerous overviews in books and journals, and many connections between IRT and other statistical estimation procedures, such as factor analysis and structural equation modeling, have been made repeatedly (Van der Lindem & Hambleton, 1997). As stated before the Item Response Theory covers a variety of measurement models, ranging from basic one-dimensional models for dichotomously and polytomously scored items and their multidimensional analogues to models that incorporate information about cognitive sub-processes which influence the overall item response process. The aim of this work is to introduce the main concepts associated with one-dimensional models of Item Response Theory, to specify the logistic models with one, two and three parameters, to discuss some properties of these models and to present the main estimation procedures.

  7. AN ITEM RESPONSE MODEL WITH SINGLE PEAKED ITEM CHARACTERISTIC CURVES - THE PARELLA MODEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOIJTINK, H; MOLENAAR, [No Value

    In this paper an item response model (the PARELLA model) designed specifically for the measurement of attitudes and preferences will be introduced. In contrast with the item response models currently used (e.g. the Rasch model and, the two and three parameter logistic model) the item characteristic

  8. Comparing Methods for Item Analysis: The Impact of Different Item-Selection Statistics on Test Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    Practitioners often depend on item analysis to select items for exam forms and have a variety of options available to them. These include the point-biserial correlation, the agreement statistic, the B index, and the phi coefficient. Although research has demonstrated that these statistics can be useful for item selection, no research as of yet has…

  9. Developing and evaluating innovative items for the NCLEX: Part 2, item characteristics and cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Anne; Harmes, J Christine

    2009-01-01

    This article is a continuation of the research on the development and evaluation of innovative item formats for the NCLEX examinations that was published in the March/April 2009 edition of Nurse Educator. The authors discuss the innovative item templates and evaluate the statistical characteristics and level of cognitive processing required to answer the examination items.

  10. Ramsay-Curve Item Response Theory for the Three-Parameter Logistic Item Response Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carol M.

    2008-01-01

    In Ramsay-curve item response theory (RC-IRT), the latent variable distribution is estimated simultaneously with the item parameters of a unidimensional item response model using marginal maximum likelihood estimation. This study evaluates RC-IRT for the three-parameter logistic (3PL) model with comparisons to the normal model and to the empirical…

  11. Evaluation of Northwest University, Kano Post-UTME Test Items Using Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichi, Ado Abdu; Hafiz, Hadiza; Bello, Samira Abdullahi

    2016-01-01

    High-stakes testing is used for the purposes of providing results that have important consequences. Validity is the cornerstone upon which all measurement systems are built. This study applied the Item Response Theory principles to analyse Northwest University Kano Post-UTME Economics test items. The developed fifty (50) economics test items was…

  12. SERENITY in e-Business and Smart Item Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benameur, Azzedine; Khoury, Paul El; Seguran, Magali; Sinha, Smriti Kumar

    SERENITY Artefacts, like Class, Patterns, Implementations and Executable Components for Security & Dependability (S&D) in addition to Serenity Runtime Framework (SRF) are discussed in previous chapters. How to integrate these artefacts with applications in Serenity approach is discussed here with two scenarios. The e-Business scenario is a standard loan origination process in a bank. The Smart Item scenario is an Ambient intelligence case study where we take advantage of Smart Items to provide an electronic healthcare infrastructure for remote healthcare assistance. In both cases, we detail how the prototype implementations of the scenarios select proper executable components through Serenity Runtime Framework and then demonstrate how these executable components of the S&D Patterns are deployed.

  13. Measuring student learning with item response theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jin Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate short-term learning from hints and feedback in a Web-based physics tutoring system. Both the skill of students and the difficulty and discrimination of items were determined by applying item response theory (IRT to the first answers of students who are working on for-credit homework items in an introductory Newtonian physics course. We show that after tutoring a shifted logistic item response function with lower discrimination fits the students’ second responses to an item previously answered incorrectly. Student skill decreased by 1.0 standard deviation when students used no tutoring between their (incorrect first and second attempts, which we attribute to “item-wrong bias.” On average, using hints or feedback increased students’ skill by 0.8 standard deviation. A skill increase of 1.9 standard deviation was observed when hints were requested after viewing, but prior to attempting to answer, a particular item. The skill changes measured in this way will enable the use of IRT to assess students based on their second attempt in a tutoring environment.

  14. Item response theory for measurement validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Frances M; Kao, Solon T

    2014-06-01

    Item response theory (IRT) is an important method of assessing the validity of measurement scales that is underutilized in the field of psychiatry. IRT describes the relationship between a latent trait (e.g., the construct that the scale proposes to assess), the properties of the items in the scale, and respondents' answers to the individual items. This paper introduces the basic premise, assumptions, and methods of IRT. To help explain these concepts we generate a hypothetical scale using three items from a modified, binary (yes/no) response version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale that was administered to 19,399 respondents. We first conducted a factor analysis to confirm the unidimensionality of the three items and then proceeded with Mplus software to construct the 2-Parameter Logic (2-PL) IRT model of the data, a method which allows for estimates of both item discrimination and item difficulty. The utility of this information both for clinical purposes and for scale construction purposes is discussed.

  15. Bookmark locations and item response model selection in the presence of local item dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, Gary

    2007-01-01

    The bookmark standard setting procedure is a popular method for setting performance standards on state assessment programs. This study reanalyzed data from an application of the bookmark procedure to a passage-based test that used the Rasch model to create the item ordered booklet. Several problems were noted in this implementation of the bookmark procedure, including disagreement among the SMEs about the correct order of items in the bookmark booklet, performance level descriptions of the passing standard being based on passage difficulty as well as item difficulty, and the presence of local item dependence within reading passages. Bookmark item locations were recalculated for the IRT three-parameter model and the multidimensional bifactor model. The results showed that the order of item locations was very similar for all three models when items of high difficulty and low discrimination were excluded. However, the items whose positions were the most discrepant between models were not the items that the SMEs disagreed about the most in the original standard setting. The choice of latent trait model did not address problems of item order disagreement. Implications for the use of the bookmark method in the presence of local item dependence are discussed.

  16. Sequential item pricing for unlimited supply

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which price updates can increase the revenue of a seller with little prior information on demand. We study prior-free revenue maximization for a seller with unlimited supply of n item types facing m myopic buyers present for k < log n days. For the static (k = 1) case, Balcan et al. [2] show that one random item price (the same on each item) yields revenue within a \\Theta(log m + log n) factor of optimum and this factor is tight. We define the hereditary maximizer...

  17. Postcolonial Times: Lock the Gate or Pull Down the Fences? A special Monograph Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Boyd

    2013-06-01

    understands but that does not actually express what you mean, or speak your own language and risk the other party not understanding what you mean. Copyright © Bill Boyd 2013. This text may be archived and redistributed both in electronic form and in hard copy, provided that the author and journal are properly cited and no fee is charged. Coolabah, No.12, 2013, ISSN 1988-5946, Observatori: Centre d’Estudis Australians, Australian Studies Centre, Universitat de Barcelona 2 From a postcolonial studies perspective, this example reminds students of two key processes. First, students need to master the intellectual skills of the humanities in order to provide critical analysis of social situations. Secondly, students need to know that, as western scholars, they are as much part of any postcolonial problem as those in power, and therefore need to develop good reflective skills and to learn to think ‘otherwise’. This invited monograph is the text of the lecture, supplemented with further comments and illustrations, delivered to second year Humanities students at the University of Barcelona, Catalonia, on Monday 8th April 2013

  18. NHRIC (National Health Related Items Code)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Related Items Code (NHRIC) is a system for identification and numbering of marketed device packages that is compatible with other numbering...

  19. NHRIC (National Health Related Items Code)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Related Items Code (NHRIC) is a system for identification and numbering of marketed device packages that is compatible with other numbering...

  20. National Hospice Item Set (HIS) data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This data set includes the national averages (mean) for quality measure scores of Medicare-certified hospice agencies calculated from the Hospice Item Set (HIS) for...

  1. The Analysis of The Multiple Choice Item

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹吴惠

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author analyzes in detail the advantages, disadvantages and forming of the multiple choice item in examinations. On its basis, the author also exploree some aspects the teacher should pay attention to while setting an examination paper.

  2. Extending Item Response Theory to Online Homework

    CERN Document Server

    Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Item Response Theory becomes an increasingly important tool when analyzing ``Big Data'' gathered from online educational venues. However, the mechanism was originally developed in traditional exam settings, and several of its assumptions are infringed upon when deployed in the online realm. For a large enrollment physics course for scientists and engineers, the study compares outcomes from IRT analyses of exam and homework data, and then proceeds to investigate the effects of each confounding factor introduced in the online realm. It is found that IRT yields the correct trends for learner ability and meaningful item parameters, yet overall agreement with exam data is moderate. It is also found that learner ability and item discrimination is over wide ranges robust with respect to model assumptions and introduced noise, less so than item difficulty.

  3. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  4. Calorimetry of low mass Pu239 items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremers, Teresa L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sampson, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Calorimetric assay has the reputation of providing the highest precision and accuracy of all nondestructive assay measurements. Unfortunately, non-destructive assay practitioners and measurement consumers often extend, inappropriately, the high precision and accuracy of calorimetric assay to very low mass items. One purpose of this document is to present more realistic expectations for the random uncertainties associated with calorimetric assay for weapons grade plutonium items with masses of 200 grams or less.

  5. New developments in reprocessing semicritical items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2013-05-01

    Semicritical medical devices are defined as items that come into contact with mucous membranes or nonintact skin (eg, gastrointestinal endoscopes). Such medical devices require minimally high-level disinfection. Because many of these items are temperature sensitive, low-temperature chemical methods must be used rather than steam sterilization. Strict adherence to current guidelines is required because more outbreaks have been linked to inadequately cleaned or disinfected endoscopes undergoing high-level disinfection than any other medical device.

  6. A Review of Test Item Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-06

    for integration with the CAT- ASVAB as it exists now. The CAT-ASVAB currently employs only dichotomously scored items using the 3 parameter logistic ...model ( 3PL ; Lord & Novick, 1968). IRT models appropriate for polytomously scored items (e.g., Muraki, 1997) are available, and mixing of models is not...problematic within the IRT framework per se. Nevertheless, the current CAT-ASVAB infrastructure is configured to work with the 3PL model only, and

  7. Prioritizing Chemicals for Risk Assessment Using Chemoinformatics: Examples from the IARC Monographs on Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Neela; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Loomis, Dana; Barupal, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Identifying cancer hazards is the first step towards cancer prevention. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs Programme, which has evaluated nearly 1,000 agents for their carcinogenic potential since 1971, typically selects agents for hazard identification on the basis of public nominations, expert advice, published data on carcinogenicity, and public health importance. Here, we present a novel and complementary strategy for identifying agents for hazard evaluation using chemoinformatics, database integration, and automated text mining. To inform selection among a broad range of pesticides nominated for evaluation, we identified and screened nearly 6,000 relevant chemical structures, after which we systematically compiled information on 980 pesticides, creating network maps that allowed cluster visualization by chemical similarity, pesticide class, and publicly available information concerning cancer epidemiology, cancer bioassays, and carcinogenic mechanisms. For the IARC Monograph meetings that took place in March and June 2015, this approach supported high-priority evaluation of glyphosate, malathion, parathion, tetrachlorvinphos, diazinon, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), lindane, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). This systematic approach, accounting for chemical similarity and overlaying multiple data sources, can be used by risk assessors as well as by researchers to systematize, inform, and increase efficiency in selecting and prioritizing agents for hazard identification, risk assessment, regulation, or further investigation. This approach could be extended to an array of outcomes and agents, including occupational carcinogens, drugs, and foods. Citation: Guha N, Guyton KZ, Loomis D, Barupal DK. 2016. Prioritizing chemicals for risk assessment using chemoinformatics: examples from the IARC Monographs on Pesticides. Environ Health Perspect 124:1823-1829; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP186.

  8. Prioritizing Chemicals for Risk Assessment Using Chemoinformatics: Examples from the IARC Monographs on Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Neela; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Loomis, Dana; Barupal, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Identifying cancer hazards is the first step towards cancer prevention. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs Programme, which has evaluated nearly 1,000 agents for their carcinogenic potential since 1971, typically selects agents for hazard identification on the basis of public nominations, expert advice, published data on carcinogenicity, and public health importance. Objectives: Here, we present a novel and complementary strategy for identifying agents for hazard evaluation using chemoinformatics, database integration, and automated text mining. Discussion: To inform selection among a broad range of pesticides nominated for evaluation, we identified and screened nearly 6,000 relevant chemical structures, after which we systematically compiled information on 980 pesticides, creating network maps that allowed cluster visualization by chemical similarity, pesticide class, and publicly available information concerning cancer epidemiology, cancer bioassays, and carcinogenic mechanisms. For the IARC Monograph meetings that took place in March and June 2015, this approach supported high-priority evaluation of glyphosate, malathion, parathion, tetrachlorvinphos, diazinon, p,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), lindane, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Conclusions: This systematic approach, accounting for chemical similarity and overlaying multiple data sources, can be used by risk assessors as well as by researchers to systematize, inform, and increase efficiency in selecting and prioritizing agents for hazard identification, risk assessment, regulation, or further investigation. This approach could be extended to an array of outcomes and agents, including occupational carcinogens, drugs, and foods. Citation: Guha N, Guyton KZ, Loomis D, Barupal DK. 2016. Prioritizing chemicals for risk assessment using chemoinformatics: examples from the IARC Monographs on Pesticides. Environ Health Perspect 124:1823–1829;

  9. Le monde du theatre: monographie relative au montage d'une piece de theatre (The World of Theater: Monograph on Mounting a Theatrical Production).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokor, Pierre

    This monograph (in French) provides Alberta teachers with information relating to teaching about the world of the theater, and discusses the principal elements to be considered in mounting a theatrical production. It is intended for French language dramatic arts teachers (both in immersion courses and French-speaking schools). The monograph's four…

  10. A Review of the Multi-Authored Monograph “The Medical (Clinical Psychology Diagnosis: Current State and Prospects”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vachkov I.V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The monograph presents a number of articles written by leading domestic clinical psychologists on various issues connected with psychological diagnosis. The multi-authored monograph was written for the international research-to-practice conference “The medical (clinical psychology diagnosis: tradition and prospects”. The conference took place in Moscow on November 29-30, 2016. The book consists of the following sections: "Research methodology in clinical psychology", “The development of endogenous mental pathology diagnosis current trends”, “The development of clinical psychology diagnostics current trends: age aspects”, “The main problems of clinical-psychological prevention and rehabilitation”. The materials of the monograph may be interesting and useful for scientists, psychology lecturers, students and post-graduate students, as well as for specialists working in the field of public health, education and social support for the population.

  11. NTP Monograph: Developmental Effects and Pregnancy Outcomes Associated With Cancer Chemotherapy Use During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) conducted an evaluation of the developmental effects and pregnancy outcomes associated with cancer chemotherapy use during pregnancy in humans. The final NTP monograph was completed in May 2013 (available at http:// ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/36495). The incidence of cancer during pregnancy has been reported to occur from 17 to 100 per 100,000 pregnant women. Chemotherapy is a common treatment for cancer; however, most chemotherapy agents are classified as known or suspected human teratogens. Cancer chemotherapy use during pregnancy was selected for evaluation by the NTP because of the: (1) paucity of comprehensive reviews on the pregnancy outcomes following cancer chemotherapy use during pregnancy in humans, including the integration of the developmental animal toxicology literature with the observational studies in humans, and (2) growing public interest in the developmental effects of chemotherapy on offspring exposed to cancer chemotherapy during gestation due to the expected incidence of cancer diagnosed during pregnancy as women delay pregnancy to later ages. Of the approximately 110 cancer chemotherapeutic agents currently in use, the NTP monograph includes data on 56 agents used during 1,261 pregnancies for which pregnancy outcomes were documented. Overall, the NTP evaluation found that treatment with chemotherapy for cancer appeared to be associated with: (1) a higher rate of major malformations following exposure during the first trimester compared to exposure in the second and/or third trimester; (2) an increase the rate of stillbirth following exposure in the second and/ or third trimester; abnormally low levels of amniotic fluid (primarily attributable to Trastuzumab); and (3), also data are insufficient, impaired fetal growth and myelosuppression. Treatment with chemotherapy for cancer during pregnancy did not appear to increase spontaneous preterm birth, or impair

  12. Investigating Item Exposure Control Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Nagihan Boztunc; Dogan, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of item exposure control methods on measurement precision and on test security under various item selection methods and item pool characteristics. In this study, the Randomesque (with item group sizes of 5 and 10), Sympson-Hetter, and Fade-Away methods were used as item exposure control methods. Moreover,…

  13. 15 CFR 734.3 - Items subject to the EAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Items subject to the EAR. 734.3... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.3 Items subject to the EAR. (a) Except for items excluded in paragraph (b) of this section, the following items are subject to the EAR: (1) All items in the...

  14. Monograph support provided by the National Library of Medicine and its regional medical libraries in the medical behavioral sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saye, J D; Griffith, B C

    1988-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine's (NLM) monographic resources in the medical behavioral sciences (MBS) were examined to assess NLM's ability to support the needs of researchers writing in this area. A sample of 239 representative monographs derived from citations in MBS-related articles published in 61 journals in 1981 were evaluated. These monographs were limited to works published between 1978 and 1981, inclusive. The subject distribution of the sample included fourteen of the twenty-one main classes in the LC classification, although BF (psychology), H (social sciences), and R (medicine) constituted 80.3% of the sample. The study revealed that NLM held 48.5% of the sample. The holdings of ten research medical libraries, including six of the seven regional medical libraries, were also evaluated in order to gauge NLM's ability to support that element of the medical library network. The holding rates of these libraries ranged widely (9.6% to 36%), although NLM was found to have far more extensive holdings overall, and when assessed against classes BF, H, and R. Overall, NLM could have supplied from 28.8% to 44.5% of the monographs not held by the medical libraries. In only a few cases were the ten medical libraries able to provide access to monographs not held by NLM. The findings of the study indicate that, regardless of NLM's indication of support to the MBS area, the holdings of more general research and academic libraries are essential to support the monograph needs of MBS researchers. PMID:3224221

  15. An emotional functioning item bank of 24 items for computerized adaptive testing (CAT) was established

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Aa.; Gamper, Eva-Maria; Costantini, Anna

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To improve measurement precision, the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is developing an item bank for computerized adaptive testing (CAT) of emotional functioning (EF). The item bank will be within the conceptual framework...... of the widely used EORTC Quality of Life questionnaire (QLQ-C30). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: On the basis of literature search and evaluations by international samples of experts and cancer patients, 38 candidate items were developed. The psychometric properties of the items were evaluated in a large...... international sample of cancer patients. This included evaluations of dimensionality, item response theory (IRT) model fit, differential item functioning (DIF), and of measurement precision/statistical power. RESULTS: Responses were obtained from 1,023 cancer patients from four countries. The evaluations showed...

  16. Psychometric Changes on Item Difficulty Due to Item Review by Examinees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena C. Papanastasiou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available If good measurement depends in part on the estimation of accurate item characteristics, it is essential that test developers become aware of discrepancies that may exist on the item parameters before and after item review. The purpose of this study was to examine the answer changing patterns of students while taking paper-and-pencil multiple choice exams, and to examine how these changes affect the estimation of item difficulty parameters. The results of this study have shown that item review by examinees does produce some changes to the examinee ability estimates and to the item difficulty parameters. In addition, these effects are more pronounced in shorter tests than in longer tests. In turn, these small changes produce larger effects when estimating the changes in the information values of each student's test score.

  17. Alternate item types: continuing the quest for authentic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Anne; Kenny, Lorraine E

    2009-03-01

    Many test developers suggest that multiple-choice items can be used to evaluate critical thinking if the items are focused on measuring higher order thinking ability. The literature supports the use of alternate item types to assess additional competencies, such as higher level cognitive processing and critical thinking, as well as ways to allow examinees to demonstrate their competencies differently. This research study surveyed nurses after taking a test composed of alternate item types paired with multiple-choice items. The participants were asked to provide opinions regarding the items and the item formats. Demographic information was asked. In addition, information was collected as the participants responded to the items. The results of this study reveal that the participants thought that, in general, the items were more authentic and allowed them to demonstrate their competence better than multiple-choice items did. Further investigation into the optimal blend of alternate items and multiple-choice items is needed.

  18. Bibliometric analysis of martial arts monographs published in Spain (1906-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Pérez Gutiérrez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the martial arts monographs published in Spain between 1906 and 2006 from a bibliometric point of view. Starting from Pérez and Gutiérrez’s previous bibliography (2008, the total number of published monographs following the criteria of subject, decade and the combination of both was analyzed. The results showed a total of 2.036 books (1.285 original editions with a prevalence of Japanese and Chinese martial arts. A group of eight subjects exceeded a hundred volumes (karate, judo/jujutsu, taijiquan, wu-shu/kung fu, classics, qigong, philosophy, history and education, and aikido, with two patterns of bibliographic evolution appearing. The first, represented by Japanese martial arts considered as a group and martial arts focused on the utilitarian and/or sporting performance aspects (judo/jujutsu, karate and wu-shu/kung fu, developed increasingly until the 80’s when it followed a steady-state and/or drop. The second model, which characterises the Chinese martial arts group and martial arts mainly focused on healthy and/or spiritual aspects of training (taijiquan, qigong, aikido, has increased significantly from the 90’s until the present moment. The interpretation of these patterns and the evolution of the martial arts bibliographic production in Spain highlights some aspects such as the development of the Spanish society and sports practice, bibliographic production, reading habits, or the cultural influences of eastern countries on Spain.

  19. Measuring response styles in Likert items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckenholt, Ulf

    2017-03-01

    The recently proposed class of item response tree models provides a flexible framework for modeling multiple response processes. This feature is particularly attractive for understanding how response styles may affect answers to attitudinal questions. Facilitating the disassociation of response styles and attitudinal traits, item response tree models can provide powerful process tests of how different response formats may affect the measurement of substantive traits. In an empirical study, 3 response formats were used to measure the 2-dimensional Personal Need for Structure traits. Different item response tree models are proposed to capture the response styles for each of the response formats. These models show that the response formats give rise to similar trait measures but different response-style effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Physics Items and Student's Performance at Enem

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, Wanderley P

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian National Assessment of Secondary Education (ENEM, Exame Nacional do Ensino M\\'edio) has changed in 2009: from a self-assessment of competences at the end of high school to an assessment that allows access to college and student financing. From a single general exam, now there are tests in four areas: Mathematics, Language, Natural Sciences and Social Sciences. A new Reference Matrix is build with components as cognitive domains, competencies, skills and knowledge objects; also, the methodological framework has changed, using now Item Response Theory to provide scores and allowing longitudinal comparison of results from different years, providing conditions for monitoring high school quality in Brazil. We present a study on the issues discussed in Natural Science Test of ENEM over the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. Qualitative variables are proposed to characterize the items, and data from students' responses in Physics items were analysed. The qualitative analysis reveals the characteristics of the ...

  1. Validation of Physics Standardized Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jill

    2008-10-01

    The Texas Physics Assessment Team (TPAT) examined the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) to determine whether it is a valid indicator of physics preparation for future course work and employment, and of the knowledge and skills needed to act as an informed citizen in a technological society. We categorized science items from the 2003 and 2004 10th and 11th grade TAKS by content area(s) covered, knowledge and skills required to select the correct answer, and overall quality. We also analyzed a 5000 student sample of item-level results from the 2004 11th grade exam using standard statistical methods employed by test developers (factor analysis and Item Response Theory). Triangulation of our results revealed strengths and weaknesses of the different methods of analysis. The TAKS was found to be only weakly indicative of physics preparation and we make recommendations for increasing the validity of standardized physics testing..

  2. Differential item functioning due to gender between depression and anxiety items among Chilean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Cristina; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Kamata, Akihito

    2012-07-01

    Although much is known about the higher prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders among adolescent females, less is known about the differential item endorsement due to gender in items of scales commonly used to measure anxiety and depression. We conducted a study to examine if adolescent males and females from Chile differed on how they endorsed the items of the Youth Self Report (YSR) anxious/depressed problem scale. We used data from a cross-sectional sample consisting of 925 participants (mean age = 14, SD 1.3, 49% females) of low to lower-middle socioeconomic status. A two-parameter logistic (2PL) IRT DIF model was fit. s revealed differential item functioning (DIF) by gender for six of the 13 items, with adolescent females being more likely to endorse a depression item while males were found more likely to endorse anxiety items. Findings suggest that items found in commonly used measures of anxiety and depression symptoms may not equally capture the true levels of these behavioural problems in adolescent males and females. Given the high levels of mental disorders in Chile and the surrounding countries, further attention should be focused on increasing the number of empirical studies examining potential gender differences in the assessment of mental health problems among Latin American populations to better aid our understanding of the phenomenology and determinants of these problems in the region.

  3. Developing Multidimensional Likert Scales Using Item Factor Analysis: The Case of Four-Point Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asún, Rodrigo A.; Rdz-Navarro, Karina; Alvarado, Jesús M.

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the performance of two approaches in analysing four-point Likert rating scales with a factorial model: the classical factor analysis (FA) and the item factor analysis (IFA). For FA, maximum likelihood and weighted least squares estimations using Pearson correlation matrices among items are compared. For IFA, diagonally weighted…

  4. Evaluating Item Discrimination Power of WHOQOL-BREF from an Item Response Model Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting Hsiang; Yao, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) has become an important component of health. By using the methodology of psychometric theory, we examine the item properties of the WHOQOL-BRIEF. Samejima's graded response model with natural metrics of the logistic response function was fitted. The results showed items with negative natures were less discriminating. Items…

  5. Application of Unidimensional Item Response Models to Tests with Items Sensitive to Secondary Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo

    2008-01-01

    In this research, the author addresses whether the application of unidimensional item response models provides valid interpretation of test results when administering items sensitive to multiple latent dimensions. Overall, the present study found that unidimensional models are quite robust to the violation of the unidimensionality assumption due…

  6. Are Inferential Reading Items More Susceptible to Cultural Bias than Literal Reading Items?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate a seven-step process for determining whether inferential reading items were more susceptible to cultural bias than literal reading items. The seven-step process was demonstrated using multiple-choice data from the reading portion of a reading/language arts test for fifth and seventh grade Hispanic,…

  7. Modeling Local Item Dependence in Cloze and Reading Comprehension Test Items Using Testlet Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaei, Purya; Ravand, Hamdollah

    2016-01-01

    In this study the magnitudes of local dependence generated by cloze test items and reading comprehension items were compared and their impact on parameter estimates and test precision was investigated. An advanced English as a foreign language reading comprehension test containing three reading passages and a cloze test was analyzed with a…

  8. Item Structure as a Determinant of Item Difficulty in Verbal Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ace, Merle C.; Dawis, Rene V.

    1973-01-01

    Because no previous study was found in which both blank position in the item stem and positional placement of the correct response were studied simultaneously, it was decided to investigate the influence of these two factors, alone and in combination, on the difficulty level of verbal analogy items. (Authors)

  9. Secondary Item Procurement Lead Time Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    NONEhhhhhh % I - 15 III& 1-- -NAION&°I° oI Ai OF .° NAIU REUONF TEST CANA -~~ 7 .. SECONDARY ITEM PROCUREMENT LEAD TIME STUDY __ LOGISTICS SYSTEMS...ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE (RD&L) DIRECTOR, DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY SUBJECT: Secondary Item Procurement Lead Time Study A recent report by the...determination of procurement lead time. A plan for the study is enclosed. In order to achieve the objectives of the procurement lead time study as well as the

  10. MULTI-ITEM FAIR EXCHANGE SCHEME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Dong; Chen Kefei

    2002-01-01

    As more business is conduced over the Internet, the fair exchange problem assumes increasing importance. However, the problem of multi-party fair exchange has not been studied as widely as the more fundamental problem of 2-party fair exchange. Recently, Franklin and Tsudik proposed two protocols for n-party multi-item exchange on FC'98, SUCEX-1 and SUCES-2. This paper first gives an attack on the proposed protocol SUCEX-1, then presents two protocols for multi-item exchange, one is an improved protocol of SUCEX-1, another is the extension of protocol SUCEX-2.

  11. MULTI—ITEM FAIR EXCHANGE SCHEME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhengDong; ChenKefei

    2002-01-01

    As more ubsiness is conduced over the Internet,the fair exchange problem assumes increasing importance,However,the problem of multi-party fair exchange has not been studied as widely as the more fundamental problem of 2-party fair exchange,Recently,Franklin and Tsudik proposed two protocols for n-parth multi-item exchange on FC'98,SUCEX-1 and SUCES-2,This paper first gives an attack on the proposed protocol SUCEX-1,then presents two protocols for multi-item exchange,one is an improoved protocol of SUCEX-1,another is the extension of protocol SUCEX-2.

  12. Comparison on Computed Tomography using industrial items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In a comparison involving 27 laboratories from 8 countries, measurements on two common industrial items, a polymer part and a metal part, were carried out using X-ray Computed Tomography. All items were measured using coordinate measuring machines before and after circulation, with reference...... measurement uncertainties in the range 1.5–5.5 μm, showing a good stability over the 6 months of the circulation. The comparison has shown that CT measurements on the industrial parts used lie in the range 6–53 μm, with maximum values up to 158 μm....

  13. Cognitive interviewing methodology in the development of a pediatric item bank: a patient reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeWalt Darren A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of patient-reported outcomes (PROs in health care has seen greater use in recent years, and methods to improve the reliability and validity of PRO instruments are advancing. This paper discusses the cognitive interviewing procedures employed by the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS pediatrics group for the purpose of developing a dynamic, electronic item bank for field testing with children and adolescents using novel computer technology. The primary objective of this study was to conduct cognitive interviews with children and adolescents to gain feedback on items measuring physical functioning, emotional health, social health, fatigue, pain, and asthma-specific symptoms. Methods A total of 88 cognitive interviews were conducted with 77 children and adolescents across two sites on 318 items. From this initial item bank, 25 items were deleted and 35 were revised and underwent a second round of cognitive interviews. A total of 293 items were retained for field testing. Results Children as young as 8 years of age were able to comprehend the majority of items, response options, directions, recall period, and identify problems with language that was difficult for them to understand. Cognitive interviews indicated issues with item comprehension on several items which led to alternative wording for these items. Conclusion Children ages 8–17 years were able to comprehend most item stems and response options in the present study. Field testing with the resulting items and response options is presently being conducted as part of the PROMIS Pediatric Item Bank development process.

  14. Fundamentos Basicos de Career Education. Monografia en Career Education. [Basic Fundamentals of Career Education. Monograph in Career Education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This document is the Spanish translation of ED 145 222, A Primer for Career Education. In this monograph, a view of the basic nature of the career education effort is discussed under the following topics: the basis of need for career education; the meaning and goals of career education; the difference between career education and vocational…

  15. Administration of Literacy Programmes. Planning, Administration and Monitoring in Literacy; Portfolio of Literacy Materials, Series 2, Monograph 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The second of three related monographs resulting from a Unesco regional literacy workshop in Asia, this booklet provides information useful to those administering national programs in literacy training in underdeveloped and developing nations. The introduction discusses the reasons why an effective administration machinery for literacy and adult…

  16. Planning of Literacy Programmes. Planning, Administration and Monitoring in Literacy; Portfolio of Literacy Materials, Series 2, Monograph 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The first of three related monographs resulting from a Unesco regional literacy workshop in Asia, this booklet provides information useful to those designing national programs in literacy training for underdeveloped and developing nations. Following an introduction, the booklet discusses the formulation of both policy guidelines and policy…

  17. Monitoring of Literacy Programmes. Planning, Administration and Monitoring in Literacy; Portfolio of Literacy Materials, Series 2, Monograph 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The third of three related monographs resulting from a Unesco regional literacy workshop in Asia, this booklet provides information useful to those designing national programs in literacy training for underdeveloped and developing nations. The booklet is divided into four parts. The first part discusses the monitoring of literacy programs,…

  18. Suitability of a liquid chromatography assay of neomycin sulfate to replace the microbiological assay for neomycin in USP Monographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanko, Valoran P; Rohrer, Jeffrey S

    2010-01-01

    The current USP National Formulary contains 65 Monographs for drug formulations containing neomycin. All 65 Monographs prescribe a bioassay for neomycin assay. This bioassay, based on cell culture, is labor intensive, has poor precision, and cannot be adapted for purity or identification. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-IPAD), a liquid chromatography technique, has been shown to be suitable for neomycin purity analysis and neomycin assay of an over-the-counter first aid cream (Hanko and Rohrer [17]). Here we propose that an HPAE-IPAD assay can replace the bioassay in the 65 neomycin-containing Monographs. We applied the HPAE-IPAD assay to four neomycin-containing drug products representing the four classes of formulations found in the 65 Monographs, liquid, solid, suspension, and cream. Each drug was analyzed with two chromatography systems, and on 3 separate days. For all products, HPAE-IPAD measurements were precise and accurate with respect to the label concentrations. There was also high accuracy for spike recovery of neomycin from the four drug products throughout 70-150% of the labeled concentration. These results suggest that an HPAE-IPAD assay would be an accurate assay for neomycin, and would be faster and more precise than the current bioassay.

  19. Access to Elementary Education in India: Politics, Policies and Progress. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Angela W.

    2010-01-01

    This monograph examines progress in, and policies for, access to elementary education over the past 60 years, the role played by political factors in the process of policy formulation and implementation and the drivers and inhibitors of the implementation of reforms in elementary education in recent years in India. Drawing on interviews and…

  20. Value Orientations of Vietnamese Culture. Cultural Monograph No. 3. Bilingual Multicultural Education Training Project for School Psychologists and Guidance Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Clemens L.; And Others

    This teacher training monograph deals with value orientations of cultures in general with specific reference to Vietnamese culture. The first two sections discuss the conceptual issues of value orientation and give axiological definitions of the six clusters used to describe cultural orientation. The third section introduces the section on…

  1. Social Development: Self Help Skills. A Performance-Based Early Childhood-Special Education Teacher Preparation Program. Monograph 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Lynne

    This monograph presents the self-help skills module of the social development curriculum portion of the Early Childhood-Special Education Teacher Preparation Program. Included are: (1) an ontogeny of self-help skills (feeding, dressing, toileting, and grooming) in young children; (2) a brief discussion of the relevance of self-help skills to the…

  2. Principles and procedures of considering item sequence effects in the development of calibrated item pools: Conceptual analysis and empirical illustration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safir Yousfi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Item responses can be context-sensitive. Consequently, composing test forms flexibly from a calibrated item pool requires considering potential context effects. This paper focuses on context effects that are related to the item sequence. It is argued that sequence effects are not necessarily a violation of item response theory but that item response theory offers a powerful tool to analyze them. If sequence effects are substantial, test forms cannot be composed flexibly on the basis of a calibrated item pool, which precludes applications like computerized adaptive testing. In contrast, minor sequence effects do not thwart applications of calibrated item pools. Strategies to minimize the detrimental impact of sequence effects on item parameters are discussed and integrated into a nomenclature that addresses the major features of item calibration designs. An example of an item calibration design demonstrates how this nomenclature can guide the process of developing a calibrated item pool.

  3. Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Wade B.

    An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

  4. 10 CFR 74.55 - Item monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., except for reactor components measuring at least one meter in length and weighing in excess of 30... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Item monitoring. 74.55 Section 74.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL...

  5. The Fantastic Four of Mathematics Assessment Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlees, Jane

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author makes reference to four comic book characters to make the point that together they are a formidable team, but on their own they are vulnerable. She examines the four components of mathematics assessment items and the need for implicit instruction within the classroom for student success. Just like the "Fantastic Four"…

  6. 47 CFR 65.820 - Included items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Included items. 65.820 Section 65.820 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE...) Cash working capital. The average amount of investor-supplied capital needed to provide funds for...

  7. Algorithmic test design using classical item parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Adema, Jos J.

    1988-01-01

    Two optimalization models for the construction of tests with a maximal value of coefficient alpha are given. Both models have a linear form and can be solved by using a branch-and-bound algorithm. The first model assumes an item bank calibrated under the Rasch model and can be used, for instance, wh

  8. Estimating the Importance of Differential Item Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudas, Tamas; Zwick, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    The mixture index of fit (T. Rudas et al, 1994) is used to estimate the fraction of a population for which differential item functioning (DIF) occurs, and this approach is compared to the Mantel Haenszel test of DIF. The proposed noniterative procedure provides information about data portions contributing to DIF. (SLD)

  9. Item Feature Effects in Evolution Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Ha, Minsu

    2011-01-01

    Despite concerted efforts by science educators to understand patterns of evolutionary reasoning in science students and teachers, the vast majority of evolution education studies have failed to carefully consider or control for item feature effects in knowledge measurement. Our study explores whether robust contextualization patterns emerge within…

  10. Bayesian item selection criteria for adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der Wim J.

    1996-01-01

    R.J. Owen (1975) proposed an approximate empirical Bayes procedure for item selection in adaptive testing. The procedure replaces the true posterior by a normal approximation with closed-form expressions for its first two moments. This approximation was necessary to minimize the computational comple

  11. Bayesian item selection criteria for adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1996-01-01

    R.J. Owen (1975) proposed an approximate empirical Bayes procedure for item selection in adaptive testing. The procedure replaces the true posterior by a normal approximation with closed-form expressions for its first two moments. This approximation was necessary to minimize the computational comple

  12. Estimating the Importance of Differential Item Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudas, Tamas; Zwick, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    The mixture index of fit (T. Rudas et al, 1994) is used to estimate the fraction of a population for which differential item functioning (DIF) occurs, and this approach is compared to the Mantel Haenszel test of DIF. The proposed noniterative procedure provides information about data portions contributing to DIF. (SLD)

  13. Item Feature Effects in Evolution Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Ha, Minsu

    2011-01-01

    Despite concerted efforts by science educators to understand patterns of evolutionary reasoning in science students and teachers, the vast majority of evolution education studies have failed to carefully consider or control for item feature effects in knowledge measurement. Our study explores whether robust contextualization patterns emerge within…

  14. An Analytical Method of Identifying Biased Test Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plake, Barbara S.; Hoover, H. D.

    1979-01-01

    A follow-up technique is needed to identify items contributing to items-by-groups interaction when using an ANOVA procedure to examine a test for biased items. The method described includes distribution theory for assessing level of significance and is sensitive to items at all difficulty levels. (Author/GSK)

  15. A Process for Reviewing and Evaluating Generated Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis

    2016-01-01

    Testing organization needs large numbers of high-quality items due to the proliferation of alternative test administration methods and modern test designs. But the current demand for items far exceeds the supply. Test items, as they are currently written, evoke a process that is both time-consuming and expensive because each item is written,…

  16. The Licensing of Negative Sensitive Items in Jordanian Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsarayreh, Atef

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the licensing conditions on Negative Sensitive Items (NSIs) in Jordanian Arabic (JA). JA exhibits both types of NSIs that are discussed in the literature: Negative Polarity Items (NPIs) and Negative Concord Items (NCIs). Although these two sets of items seem to form a natural class in the sense that they show certain…

  17. An optimized item-based collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm based on item genre prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, De-Jia

    2009-07-01

    With the fast development of Internet, many systems have emerged in e-commerce applications to support the product recommendation. Collaborative filtering is one of the most promising techniques in recommender systems, providing personalized recommendations to users based on their previously expressed preferences in the form of ratings and those of other similar users. In practice, with the adding of user and item scales, user-item ratings are becoming extremely sparsity and recommender systems utilizing traditional collaborative filtering are facing serious challenges. To address the issue, this paper presents an approach to compute item genre similarity, through mapping each item with a corresponding descriptive genre, and computing similarity between genres as similarity, then make basic predictions according to those similarities to lower sparsity of the user-item ratings. After that, item-based collaborative filtering steps are taken to generate predictions. Compared with previous methods, the presented collaborative filtering employs the item genre similarity can alleviate the sparsity issue in the recommender systems, and can improve accuracy of recommendation.

  18. 17 CFR 260.7a-16 - Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and answers, omission of instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion of items... INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Formal Requirements § 260.7a-16 Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and... application, statement, or report shall contain all of the items of the form as well as the answers...

  19. Differential Item Functioning Analysis of the Science and Mathematics Items in the University Entrance Examinations in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaycioglu, Dilara Bakan; Berberoglu, Giray

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed to detect differential item functioning (DIF) items across gender groups, analyze item content for the possible sources of DIF, and eventually investigate the effect of DIF items on the criterion-related validity of the test scores in the quantitative section of the university entrance examination (UEE) in Turkey. The reason…

  20. Differential Item Functioning on the International Personality Item Poolâ s Neuroticism Scale

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Nadine LeBarron

    2008-01-01

    As use of the public-domain International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) scales has grown significantly over the past decade (Goldberg, Johnson, Eber, Hogan, Ashton, Cloninger, & Gough, 2006) research on the psychometric properties of the items and scales have become increasingly important. This research study examines the IPIP scale constructed to measure the Five Factor Model (FFM) domain of Neuroticism (as measured by the NEO-PI-R) for occurrences of differential functioning a...

  1. Item Screening in Graphical Loglinear Rasch Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Svend; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2011-01-01

    the initial item analysis may disclose a great deal of spurious and misleading evidence of DIF and local dependence that has to disposed of during the modelling procedure. Like graphical models, graphical loglinear Rasch models possess Markov properties that are useful during the statistical analysis......In behavioural sciences, local dependence and DIF are common, and purification procedures that eliminate items with these weaknesses often result in short scales with poor reliability. Graphical loglinear Rasch models (Kreiner & Christensen, in Statistical Methods for Quality of Life Studies, ed....... by M. Mesbah, F.C. Cole & M.T. Lee, Kluwer Academic, pp. 187–203, 2002) where uniform DIF and uniform local dependence are permitted solve this dilemma by modelling the local dependence and DIF. Identifying loglinear Rasch models by a stepwise model search is often very time consuming, since...

  2. Teoria de la respuesta al item

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A preocupação com medidas de traços psicológicos é antiga, sendo que muitos estudos e propostas de métodos foram desenvolvidos no sentido de alcançar este objetivo. Entre os trabalhos propostos, destaca-se a Teoria da Resposta ao Item (TRI) que, a princípio, veio completar limitações da Teoria Clássica de Medidas, empregada em larga escala até hoje na medida de traços psicológicos. O ponto principal da TRI é que ela leva em consideração o item particularmente, sem relevar os escores totais; p...

  3. Global positive polarity items and obligatory exhaustivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Spector

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available I argue for a distinction between two types of positive polarity items (PPIs which has not been recognized so far. While for some PPIs, anti-licensing is a strictly local phenomenon, for other PPIs anti-licensing should be stated as a global condition. I aim to contribute to a principled explanation for the distribution of a significant subset of global PPIs, by relating it to specific semantic properties of the relevant items. More specifically, I argue that PPIs such as soit ... soit ..., quelques and almost trigger obligatory exhaustivity effects and scalar inferences, and that independently motivated constraints regarding the generation of such inferences can account for their distribution. The paper also briefly addresses the case of other global PPIs, e.g., at least, for which a similar account is not straightforwardly available. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.7.11 BibTeX info

  4. An item factor analysis and item response theory-based revision of the Everyday Discrimination Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Brian D; Gottfredson, Nisha C; Panter, A T; Daye, Charles E; Allen, Walter R; Wightman, Linda F

    2011-04-01

    The Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS), a widely used measure of daily perceived discrimination, is purported to be unidimensional, to function well among African Americans, and to have adequate construct validity. Two separate studies and data sources were used to examine and cross-validate the psychometric properties of the EDS. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted on a sample of African American law students (N = 589), providing strong evidence of local dependence, or nuisance multidimensionality within the EDS. In Study 2, a separate nationally representative community sample (N = 3,527) was used to model the identified local dependence in an item factor analysis (i.e., bifactor model). Next, item response theory (IRT) calibrations were conducted to obtain item parameters. A five-item, revised-EDS was then tested for gender differential item functioning (in an IRT framework). Based on these analyses, a summed score to IRT-scaled score translation table is provided for the revised-EDS. Our results indicate that the revised-EDS is unidimensional, with minimal differential item functioning, and retains predictive validity consistent with the original scale.

  5. NBC Contamination Survivability, Large Item Exteriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Perform these tasks (timed) in the standard garment. .(3) Perform these tasks (timed) in mission-oriented protective posture level 4 (MOPP4). (4...bring the chamber to the environmental conditions specified for the test. Condition the test item until it has equilibrated at 30±50 C. Temperature and...condition that all essential operations can be continued in the lowest protective posture consistent with the mission and threat, and without long-term

  6. CTTITEM: SAS macro and SPSS syntax for classical item analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Pui-Wa; Wu, Qiong

    2007-08-01

    This article describes the functions of a SAS macro and an SPSS syntax that produce common statistics for conventional item analysis including Cronbach's alpha, item difficulty index (p-value or item mean), and item discrimination indices (D-index, point biserial and biserial correlations for dichotomous items and item-total correlation for polytomous items). These programs represent an improvement over the existing SAS and SPSS item analysis routines in terms of completeness and user-friendliness. To promote routine evaluations of item qualities in instrument development of any scale, the programs are available at no charge for interested users. The program codes along with a brief user's manual that contains instructions and examples are downloadable from suen.ed.psu.edu/-pwlei/plei.htm.

  7. Assessing the Psychometric Properties of Alternative Items for Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Mary Anne; Muckle, Timothy

    Alternative items were added as scored items to the National Certification Examination for Nurse Anesthetists (NCE) in 2010. A common concern related to the new items has been their measurement attributes. This study was undertaken to evaluate the psychometric impact of adding these items to the examination. Candidates had a significantly higher ability estimate in alternative items than in multiple choice questions and 6.7 percent of test candidates performed significantly differently in alternative item formats. The ability estimates of multiple choice questions correlated at r = .58. The alternative items took significantly longer time to answer than standard multiple choice questions and discriminated to a higher degree than MCQs. The alternative items exhibited unidimensionality to the same degree as MCQs and the BIC confirmed the Rasch model as acceptable for scoring. The new item types were found to have acceptable attributes for inclusion in the certification program.

  8. A short biography of Hubert Ludwig and a note on the publication dates of his monograph Die Seewalzen (1889-1892).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Mike

    2015-12-03

    The dates of publication of Hubert Ludwig's (1852-1913) comprehensive monograph Die Seewalzen [= Sea cucumbers] are reviewed. The precise publication dates of his volume, originally published in 16 fascicles and 8 parts/issues, delivered between 1889 and 1892, has been re-examined. Additionally, a short biographical note on Hubert Ludwig's life and a discussion of all new taxa introduced by him in his monograph is given.

  9. Selection of items for “InteraqCT Comparison on Assemblies”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolfi, Alessandro; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    an aluminium step gauge embedded inside a glass tube. The item is distributed to participants who are offered to carry out dimensional measurements at two different levels: 1) as instructed by coordinator; 2) at participant’s own choice. The second assembly is based on an industrial assembly, provided by Novo...... Nordisk A/S, encompassing two different polymer materials. This item consists of a data set for electronical distribution to participants who are offered to carry out dimensional measurements at two different levels: 1) high noise data set and 2) low noise data set....

  10. Investigation on several monographs of the Tang dynasty related to Lingnan (Southern Tidges) medicine%唐代几部有关岭南医药专著的考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳士英; 靳朴

    2008-01-01

    、、共著录8部唐代有关岭南的医药专著,至元、明时全佚.今桂林南溪山有宋人摩崖石刻一通;中有、各一条,是唐人郑景岫迄今仅有的遗存.唐代有关南药、海药的专著,有未著撰人的和李珣,李时珍认为两者为一书.今查发现,有一药引一书者,有一药同时引两书者,内容不同,疑为两书.%In the Tang dynasty,eight monographs related to Lingnan medicine were recorded in Yi wen zhi (Bibliography of Arts and Literature) of Xin tang shu (Annals of New Tang Dynasty),Yi wen liie (Brief Bibliography of Arts had Literature) of Tong zhi liie(Brief Annals of General History),Yi wen zhi (Bibliography of Arts and Literature) of Song shi (Annals of Song Dynasty).However,all of them were lost in the Yuan and Ming dynasty.Now,a piece of stone-carving,Gnang nan she sheng lun yang qi tang fang (Nourishing Qi Prescription of Treatise of Keeping Health of Guangnan) was found at the cliff on Nanxi Mountain in Guilin,the descriptions about keeping health prescription and keeping health treatise in Ling nan wei sheng fang (Hygiene Prescriptions of Southern Ridges) were regarded as the only extant version of Guang nan she sheng lun (Treatise of Keeping Health of Guangnan) written by Zheng Jing-xiu in the Tang Dynasty.Monographs about southern Chinese medicines and oversea medicines in the Tang dynasty can be seen,such as Nan hai yao pu (Prescriptions of Nanhai) written by anonymous author and Li Xun's Hai yao ben cao (Oversea Materia Medica).Both claimed by Li Shi-zhen to be the same book.Now,after checking the Zheng he ben cao (Materia Medica of Zhenghe Reign),it is suspicious that these are two different books instead of one,because sometimes,one medicinal item is quoted from one source,while other item can be quoted from the both sourees at the same time with different contexts.

  11. Electron spectroscopy of crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Nemoshkalenko, V V

    1979-01-01

    This book is conceived as a monograph, and represents an up-to-date collection of information concerning the use of the method of X-ray photoelectron spec­ troscopy in the study of the electron structure of crystals, as well as a personal interpretation of the subject by the authors. In a natural way, the book starts in Chapter 1 with a recapitulation of the fundamentals of the method, basic relations, principles of operation, and a com­ parative presentation of the characteristics and performances of the most com­ monly used ESCA instruments (from the classical ones-Varian, McPherson, Hewlett Packard, and IEEE-up to the latest model developed by Professor Siegbahn in Uppsala), and continues with a discussion of some of the difficult problems the experimentalist must face such as calibration of spectra, prepara­ tion of samples, and evaluation of the escape depth of electrons. The second chapter is devoted to the theory of photoemission from crystal­ line solids. A discussion of the methods of Hartree-Fo...

  12. Electronic network links physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Now that AGU is a member of the American Institute of Physics (AIP) (see item on page 150), AGU members may access Pi-NET, the Physics Information Network developed by AIP on behalf of its member societies. The electronic network will be available after March 31, 1986, to members of AIP member and affiliate societies for the cost of a local telephone call.This electronic database service provides listings of job opportunities in physics, calendars of meetings, advance abstracts of more than 40 journals published by AIP and member societies, brief announcements and news items, titles of journal articles from AIP's Searchable Physics Information Notices (SPIN) database, and an electronic catalog and on-line ordering of publications from AIP and member societies. AGU journals will be included in the database shortly.

  13. Use of high-throughput in vitro toxicity screening data in cancer hazard evaluations by IARC Monograph Working Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Weihsueh A; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Martin, Matthew T; Reif, David M; Rusyn, Ivan

    2017-07-24

    Evidence regarding carcinogenic mechanisms serves a critical role in International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monograph evaluations. Three recent IARC Working Groups pioneered inclusion of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ToxCast program high-throughput screening (HTS) data to supplement other mechanistic evidence. In Monograph V110, HTS profiles were compared between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and prototypical activators across multiple nuclear receptors. For Monograph V112 -113, HTS assays were mapped to 10 key characteristics of carcinogens identified by an IARC expert group, and systematically considered as an additional mechanistic data stream. Both individual assay results and ToxPi-based rankings informed mechanistic evaluations. Activation of multiple nuclear receptors in HTS assays showed that PFOA targets peroxisome proliferator activated and other receptors. ToxCast assays substantially covered 5 of 10 key characteristics, corroborating literature evidence of "induces oxidative stress" and "alters cell proliferation, cell death or nutrient supply" and filling gaps for "modulates receptor-mediated effects." Thus, ToxCast HTS data were useful both in evaluating specific mechanistic hypotheses and in the overall evaluation of mechanistic evidence. However, additional HTS assays are needed to provide more comprehensive coverage of the 10 key characteristics of carcinogens that form the basis of current IARC mechanistic evaluations.

  14. Pengendalian Persediaan Primary Items dalam Logistik Konstruksi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Lisya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Construction logistics are activities that consist of ordering, storage and transportation of materials of construction projects. Storage material is logistics activity that ensure the availability of materials in project site. Generally, material storage activities have been conducted at the project site. Logistics construction is aimed to support the project activities that the completion schedule has been set. Construction logistics issues is determining the schedule of ordering materials so that the project can be implemented on schedule. The purpose of research is to determine the optimum ordering period for the primary items on the main building structure construction and designing inventory control cards as a mechanism for monitoring procurement of materials. This research has been obtained optimal ordering period for the primary items of main building structure with elements of the work using Fixed Period Requirement method. Inventories were already meet the material requirement of each period. Material management has been conducted based grouping approach as many as 31 groups. In addition, this research has proposed the inventory control cards as an instrument for material procurement monitoring. The implications of inventory control cards are coordinate contracting parties with vendors to plan the replenishment  of materials to meet the work schedule. Further research can be developed with other aspects such as integrated material order system between contractors and vendors to consider the safety stock. In addition, the information system for planning material is an important consideration for construction projects with large scale so that the companies can plan primary items inventory and other materials in the projects completion more easily, quickly and accurately.

  15. A NEW ASSOCIATION RULE MINING BASED ON FREQUENT ITEM SET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Sanober Shaikh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new mining algorithm is defined based on frequent item set. Apriori Algorithm scans the database every time when it finds the frequent item set so it is very time consuming and at each step it generates candidate item set. So for large databases it takes lots of space to store candidate item set. The defined algorithm scans the database at the start only once and then makes the undirected item set graph. From this graph by considering minimum support it finds the frequent item set and by considering the minimum confidence it generates the association rule. If database and minimum support is changed, the new algorithm finds the new frequent items by scanning undirected item set graph. That is why it’s executing efficiency is improved distinctly compared to traditional algorithm.

  16. Small-Item Contact Test Method, FY11 Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    sections on an item. Often designated in a sampling plan and marked on an item to enable quick reference. • sessile drop : A liquid droplet that is...Full item contamination illustration 25 9. Localized contamination illustration 25 10. Gross sample collection technique for small items 32 Blank...decontaminant performance. contamination set: A specific contamination density, drop volume, and deposition pattern combination used for dose confirmation

  17. Negative affect impairs associative memory but not item memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Bisby, J. A.; Burgess, N.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine the effects of emotion on memory for items and their associations. By presenting neutral and negative items with background contexts, Experiment 1 ...

  18. Curriculum, Translation, and Differential Functioning of Measurement and Geometry Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenogu, Barnabas C.; Childs, Ruth A.

    2005-01-01

    A test item exhibits differential item functioning (DIF) if students with the same ability find it differentially difficult. When the item is administered in French and English, differences in language difficulty and meaning are the most likely explanations. However, curriculum differences may also contribute to DIF. The responses of Ontario…

  19. 41 CFR 101-27.209-1 - GSA stock items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.209-1 GSA stock items. Shelf-life items that meet the criteria... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true GSA stock items. 101-27.209-1 Section 101-27.209-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  20. The Identification of Radex Properties in Objective Test Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, G. M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    In a Monte Carlo simulation, a methodology was developed to investigate the existence of radex properties among objective test items. In an experiment with items covering four categories of Bloom's cognitive domain taxonomy, the items did not have the factorial properties of a radex with four levels of complexity. (Author/BW)

  1. Effect of Multiple Testing Adjustment in Differential Item Functioning Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Oshima, T. C.

    2013-01-01

    In a typical differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, a significance test is conducted for each item. As a test consists of multiple items, such multiple testing may increase the possibility of making a Type I error at least once. The goal of this study was to investigate how to control a Type I error rate and power using adjustment…

  2. Multistage Computerized Adaptive Testing with Uniform Item Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael C.; Flora, David B.; Thissen, David

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a computerized adaptive test (CAT) based on the uniform item exposure multi-form structure (uMFS). The uMFS is a specialization of the multi-form structure (MFS) idea described by Armstrong, Jones, Berliner, and Pashley (1998). In an MFS CAT, the examinee first responds to a small fixed block of items. The items comprising…

  3. Stochastic Approximation Methods for Latent Regression Item Response Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Davier, Matthias; Sinharay, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an application of a stochastic approximation expectation maximization (EM) algorithm using a Metropolis-Hastings (MH) sampler to estimate the parameters of an item response latent regression model. Latent regression item response models are extensions of item response theory (IRT) to a latent variable model with covariates…

  4. A method for designing IRT-based item banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekkooi-Timminga, Ellen

    1990-01-01

    Since 1985 several procedures for computerized test construction using linear programing techniques have been described in the literature. To apply these procedures successfully, suitable item banks are needed. The problem of designing item banks based on item response theory (IRT) is addressed. A p

  5. Higher-Order Item Response Models for Hierarchical Latent Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Po-Hsi; Su, Chi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Many latent traits in the human sciences have a hierarchical structure. This study aimed to develop a new class of higher order item response theory models for hierarchical latent traits that are flexible in accommodating both dichotomous and polytomous items, to estimate both item and person parameters jointly, to allow users to specify…

  6. The Applicability of Interactive Item Templates in Varied Knowledge Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koong, Chorng-Shiuh; Wu, Chi-Ying

    2011-01-01

    A well-edited assessment can enhance student's learning motives. Applicability of items, which includes item content and template, plays a crucial role in authoring a good assessment. Templates in discussion contain not only conventional true & false, multiple choice, completion item and short answer but also of those interactive ones. Methods…

  7. DIF Trees: Using Classification Trees to Detect Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Qiu

    2010-01-01

    A nonparametric tree classification procedure is used to detect differential item functioning for items that are dichotomously scored. Classification trees are shown to be an alternative procedure to detect differential item functioning other than the use of traditional Mantel-Haenszel and logistic regression analysis. A nonparametric…

  8. Guide to good practices for the development of test items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    While the methodology used in developing test items can vary significantly, to ensure quality examinations, test items should be developed systematically. Test design and development is discussed in the DOE Guide to Good Practices for Design, Development, and Implementation of Examinations. This guide is intended to be a supplement by providing more detailed guidance on the development of specific test items. This guide addresses the development of written examination test items primarily. However, many of the concepts also apply to oral examinations, both in the classroom and on the job. This guide is intended to be used as guidance for the classroom and laboratory instructor or curriculum developer responsible for the construction of individual test items. This document focuses on written test items, but includes information relative to open-reference (open book) examination test items, as well. These test items have been categorized as short-answer, multiple-choice, or essay. Each test item format is described, examples are provided, and a procedure for development is included. The appendices provide examples for writing test items, a test item development form, and examples of various test item formats.

  9. Is the New Item Priority Effect an Experimental Artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Thomas

    This research was directed at determining whether the new item priority (NIP) effect in free recall was a result of an experimental artifact produced by the joint action of the serial position effect and the randomization of items over trials, or a consequence of a strategy of recalling newer items before older ones. In the experiment, subjects…

  10. The Feasibility of Single-Item Measures for Organizational Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeremy S.; Turner, Brian A.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers in a number of disciplines have examined the utility of single-item measures for both affective and cognitive constructs. While these authors have indicated that, under certain circumstances, the use of single-item measures is appropriate, there remains concern regarding the reliability and validity of single-item measures. This study…

  11. The Applicability of Interactive Item Templates in Varied Knowledge Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koong, Chorng-Shiuh; Wu, Chi-Ying

    2011-01-01

    A well-edited assessment can enhance student's learning motives. Applicability of items, which includes item content and template, plays a crucial role in authoring a good assessment. Templates in discussion contain not only conventional true & false, multiple choice, completion item and short answer but also of those interactive ones. Methods…

  12. Gating Items: Definition, Significance, and Need for Further Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Wallace

    2009-01-01

    Over the past twenty years in performance testing a specific item type with distinguishing characteristics has arisen time and time again. It's been invented independently by dozens of test development teams. And yet this item type is not recognized in the research literature. This article is an invitation to investigate the item type, evaluate…

  13. The Development of Practical Item Analysis Program for Indonesian Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhson, Ali; Lestari, Barkah; Supriyanto; Baroroh, Kiromim

    2017-01-01

    Item analysis has essential roles in the learning assessment. The item analysis program is designed to measure student achievement and instructional effectiveness. This study was aimed to develop item-analysis program and verify its feasibility. This study uses a Research and Development (R & D) model. The procedure includes designing and…

  14. A Procedure for Linear Polychotomous Scoring of Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    associated with the response categories of test items . When tests are scored using these scoring weights, test reliability increases. The new procedure is...program POLY. The example demonstrates how polyweighting can be used to calibrate and score test items drawn from an item bank that is too large to

  15. Primary Science Assessment Item Setters' Misconceptions Concerning Biological Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Hong Kwen

    2007-01-01

    Assessment is an integral and vital part of teaching and learning, providing feedback on progress through the assessment period to both learners and teachers. However, if test items are flawed because of misconceptions held by the question setter, then such test items are invalid as assessment tools. Moreover, such flawed items are also likely to…

  16. Classroom Test Writing: Effects of Item Format on Test Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi-Parizi, Rosa; Campbell, Noma Jo

    1982-01-01

    Investigates the effects of varying the placement of blanks and the number of options available in multiple-choice items on the reliability of fifth-grade students' scores. Results indicate that scores on three-choice item tests were not less reliable than scores on four-choice item tests. A similar finding was found regarding the placement of…

  17. Influence of Item Direction on Student Responses in Attitude Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Noma Jo; Grissom, Stephen

    To investigate the effects of wording in attitude test items, a five-point Likert-type rating scale was administered to 173 undergraduate education majors. The test measured attitudes toward college and self, and contained 38 positively-worded items. Thirty-eight negatively-worded items were also written to parallel the positive statements.…

  18. Analysis of Differential Item Functioning in the NAEP History Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Rebecca; Ercikan, Kadriye

    The Mantel-Haenszel approach for investigating differential item functioning (DIF) was applied to U.S. history items that were administered as part of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). DIF analyses were based on the responses of 7,743 students in grade 11. On some items, Blacks, Hispanics, and females performed more poorly…

  19. 41 CFR 101-28.306-6 - Sensitive items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for embarrassment of GSA and customer agencies, the level of customer complaints, and control as an accountable item of personal property. Each customer activity shall take all appropriate measures necessary to... 28.3-Customer Supply Centers § 101-28.306-6 Sensitive items. Many items stocked by the CSCs may...

  20. Social Desirability Scale Values of Locus of Control Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestenbaum, Joel M.

    1976-01-01

    Subjects rated each item in Rotter's I-E Scale for its social desirability value. Social desirability scale values (SDSV) of paired items were compared with one another. Results indicate that paired items are not similar in their SDSV, thus enabling subjects to respond on the basis of social desirability. (Author/DEP)

  1. 17 CFR 229.1100 - (Item 1100) General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229.1100 (Item... source of various disclosure items and requirements for “asset-backed securities” filings under the... this Regulation AB, including the definition of “asset-backed security,” are set forth in Item 1101. (b...

  2. Item validity of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, O C; Outcalt, D; Boyer, S L; Ware, R; Landis, D

    1984-06-01

    The present study presents a brief summary of four extensive psychometric analyses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) items. Positive empirical evidence supports the MBTI item validity. However, several measurement issues on item construction were raised to caution the future users.

  3. Differential PIXE analysis of Mesoamerican jewelry items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demortier, G.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.

    1996-09-01

    Gold jewelry items of Mesoamerican origin (from Peru, Colombia, Mexico, etc,…) are usually cast in Tumbaga: a man-made gold-copper-silver alloy containing a large proportion of copper. In order to give the objects a colour close to that of pure gold, ancient Mesoamerican goldsmiths experimented with a procedure to eliminate less noble metals (like copper and silver) from the surface. RBS may be used to identify a possible enrichment in gold in the most external layer of the items but due to the low capability of this technique to separate scattered particles on gold and silver and due to the low Rutherford cross section for α-particles on copper by comparison with those on gold, the determination of the exact depth depletion of copper cannot be easily reached. Differential PIXE is an appropriate method to achieve this goal. It takes the relative X-ray intensities of Cu and Au lines into account. By varying the incident proton energy, this ratio is modified in a completely different way if the sample is homogeneous or exhibits a layered or depth profile structure.

  4. The future of electronic scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Holtorf

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper about the future of electronic scholarship takes the form of a commentary about my experiences with publishing an electronic monograph. An earlier version of that work was originally submitted to the University of Wales as a hypermedia Doctoral dissertation in archaeology. I will discuss to what extent (if any the electronic and multilinear format of my work proved valuable in challenging and advancing some foundations of current academic discourse. A key question is how academic credibility can be maintained, while at the same time pioneering some radical possibilities of electronic scholarship. It emerges that the criteria for this credibility are themselves at stake. The paper is divided into three main parts. After a short introduction , I will first review three ways in which I originally thought that the hypermedia format would allow clear benefits for academic writing and discourse, and how I see them now. They refer to intertextuality, the open-ended 'living' text, and multilinearity in writing and argument. Then I will review the main problems which I originally thought might be difficult to reconcile with contemporary academic discourse, and discuss to what extent they indeed turned out to be obstacles. These include screen reading, orientation and navigation issues, and the problem of long-term preservation. Finally, I will turn to the issue of academic publishing and how electronic scholarship may be able to help it become more satisfactory by dissolving existing ties to commercial interests.

  5. The Academic Medical Center Linear Disability Score (ALDS) item bank: item response theory analysis in a mixed patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Rebecca; Weisscher, Nadine; Glas, Cees A W; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Vermeulen, Marinus; de Haan, Rob J; Lindeboom, Robert

    2005-12-29

    Currently, there is a lot of interest in the flexible framework offered by item banks for measuring patient relevant outcomes. However, there are few item banks, which have been developed to quantify functional status, as expressed by the ability to perform activities of daily life. This paper examines the measurement properties of the Academic Medical Center linear disability score item bank in a mixed population. This paper uses item response theory to analyse data on 115 of 170 items from a total of 1002 respondents. These were: 551 (55%) residents of supported housing, residential care or nursing homes; 235 (23%) patients with chronic pain; 127 (13%) inpatients on a neurology ward following a stroke; and 89 (9%) patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Of the 170 items, 115 were judged to be clinically relevant. Of these 115 items, 77 were retained in the item bank following the item response theory analysis. Of the 38 items that were excluded from the item bank, 24 had either been presented to fewer than 200 respondents or had fewer than 10% or more than 90% of responses in the category 'can carry out'. A further 11 items had different measurement properties for younger and older or for male and female respondents. Finally, 3 items were excluded because the item response theory model did not fit the data. The Academic Medical Center linear disability score item bank has promising measurement characteristics for the mixed patient population described in this paper. Further studies will be needed to examine the measurement properties of the item bank in other populations.

  6. The Academic Medical Center Linear Disability Score (ALDS) item bank: item response theory analysis in a mixed patient population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Rebecca; Weisscher, Nadine; Glas, Cees AW; Dijkgraaf, Marcel GW; Vermeulen, Marinus; de Haan, Rob J; Lindeboom, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background Currently, there is a lot of interest in the flexible framework offered by item banks for measuring patient relevant outcomes. However, there are few item banks, which have been developed to quantify functional status, as expressed by the ability to perform activities of daily life. This paper examines the measurement properties of the Academic Medical Center linear disability score item bank in a mixed population. Methods This paper uses item response theory to analyse data on 115 of 170 items from a total of 1002 respondents. These were: 551 (55%) residents of supported housing, residential care or nursing homes; 235 (23%) patients with chronic pain; 127 (13%) inpatients on a neurology ward following a stroke; and 89 (9%) patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Results Of the 170 items, 115 were judged to be clinically relevant. Of these 115 items, 77 were retained in the item bank following the item response theory analysis. Of the 38 items that were excluded from the item bank, 24 had either been presented to fewer than 200 respondents or had fewer than 10% or more than 90% of responses in the category 'can carry out'. A further 11 items had different measurement properties for younger and older or for male and female respondents. Finally, 3 items were excluded because the item response theory model did not fit the data. Conclusion The Academic Medical Center linear disability score item bank has promising measurement characteristics for the mixed patient population described in this paper. Further studies will be needed to examine the measurement properties of the item bank in other populations. PMID:16381611

  7. The Academic Medical Center Linear Disability Score (ALDS item bank: item response theory analysis in a mixed patient population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeulen Marinus

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there is a lot of interest in the flexible framework offered by item banks for measuring patient relevant outcomes. However, there are few item banks, which have been developed to quantify functional status, as expressed by the ability to perform activities of daily life. This paper examines the measurement properties of the Academic Medical Center linear disability score item bank in a mixed population. Methods This paper uses item response theory to analyse data on 115 of 170 items from a total of 1002 respondents. These were: 551 (55% residents of supported housing, residential care or nursing homes; 235 (23% patients with chronic pain; 127 (13% inpatients on a neurology ward following a stroke; and 89 (9% patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Results Of the 170 items, 115 were judged to be clinically relevant. Of these 115 items, 77 were retained in the item bank following the item response theory analysis. Of the 38 items that were excluded from the item bank, 24 had either been presented to fewer than 200 respondents or had fewer than 10% or more than 90% of responses in the category 'can carry out'. A further 11 items had different measurement properties for younger and older or for male and female respondents. Finally, 3 items were excluded because the item response theory model did not fit the data. Conclusion The Academic Medical Center linear disability score item bank has promising measurement characteristics for the mixed patient population described in this paper. Further studies will be needed to examine the measurement properties of the item bank in other populations.

  8. The 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II: a nonparametric item response analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Ana

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have analyzed the psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II using classical omnibus measures of scale quality. These analyses are sample dependent and do not model item responses as a function of the underlying trait level. The main objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the WHO-DAS II items and their options in discriminating between changes in the underlying disability level by means of item response analyses. We also explored differential item functioning (DIF in men and women. Methods The participants were 3615 adult general practice patients from 17 regions of Spain, with a first diagnosed major depressive episode. The 12-item WHO-DAS II was administered by the general practitioners during the consultation. We used a non-parametric item response method (Kernel-Smoothing implemented with the TestGraf software to examine the effectiveness of each item (item characteristic curves and their options (option characteristic curves in discriminating between changes in the underliying disability level. We examined composite DIF to know whether women had a higher probability than men of endorsing each item. Results Item response analyses indicated that the twelve items forming the WHO-DAS II perform very well. All items were determined to provide good discrimination across varying standardized levels of the trait. The items also had option characteristic curves that showed good discrimination, given that each increasing option became more likely than the previous as a function of increasing trait level. No gender-related DIF was found on any of the items. Conclusions All WHO-DAS II items were very good at assessing overall disability. Our results supported the appropriateness of the weights assigned to response option categories and showed an absence of gender differences in item functioning.

  9. Biowaiver monographs for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms: Zidovudine (azidothymidine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Kelen C C; Rediguieri, Camila F; Souza, Jacqueline; Serra, Cristina Helena R; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Groot, D W; Kopp, Sabine; Langguth, Peter; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Dressman, Jennifer

    2013-08-01

    Literature data on the properties of zidovudine relevant to waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing requirements for the approval of immediate-release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing zidovudine alone or in combination with other active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are reviewed. Solubility, dissolution, and permeability data for zidovudine, along with its dosing schedule, therapeutic index and pharmacokinetic properties, and reports related to BE/bioavailability were all taken into consideration. Data for solubility and permeability suggest that zidovudine belongs to Class I according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. Also, zidovudine is not a narrow therapeutic index drug. Although five out of 13 formulations tested in vivo (mostly of unreported composition) failed to show BE, it appears that in vitro studies performed according to biowaiver methods could predict in vivo behavior. Nevertheless, it is highly recommended that if a biowaiver is to be applied, excipient choices be limited to those found in IR drug products approved in International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) or associated countries in the same dosage form (Table 2 of this monograph), in their usual amounts. These conclusions apply to products containing zidovudine as the only API and also to fixed combination products containing zidovudine with respect to the zidovudine component of the formulation.

  10. Biowaiver monographs for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms: codeine phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; Wolk, Omri; Zur, Moran; Amidon, Gordon L; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Groot, D W; Kopp, Sabine; Langguth, Peter; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2014-06-01

    The present monograph reviews data relevant to applying the biowaiver procedure for the approval of immediate-release multisource solid dosage forms containing codeine phosphate. Both biopharmaceutical and clinical data of codeine were assessed. Solubility studies revealed that codeine meets the "highly soluble" criteria according to World Health Organization (WHO), the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA). Codeine's fraction of dose absorbed in humans was reported to be high (>90%) based on cumulative urinary excretion of drug and drug-related material following oral administration. The permeability of codeine was also assessed to be high in both Caco-2 monolayers and rat intestinal perfusion studies. The main risks associated with codeine, that is, toxicity (attributed to CYP2D6 polymorphism) and its abuse potential, are present irrespective of the dosage form, and do not need to be taken into account for bioequivalence (BE) considerations. Taken together, codeine is a class 1 drug with manageable risk and is a good candidate for waiver of in vivo BE studies.

  11. Metrics and Science Monograph Collections at the Marston Science Library, University of Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C. Haas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As academic libraries are increasingly supported by a matrix of database functions, the use of data mining and visualization techniques offer significant potential for future collection development and service initiatives based on quantifiable data. While data collection techniques are still not standardized and results may be skewed because of granularity problems, faulty algorithms, and a host of other factors, useful baseline data is extractable and broad trends can be identified.The purpose of the current study is to provide an initial assessment of data associated with science monograph collection at the Marston Science Library (MSL, University of Florida. These sciences fall within the major Library of Congress Classification schedules of Q, S, and T, excluding TR, TT, and TX. The Rs are also excluded as these subjects are the responsibility of the Health Science Center Library which is connected with the medical school and the teaching hospital. The overall strategy of this project is to look at the potential science audiences within the university community and analyze data related to purchasing and circulation patterns, e-book usage, and interlibrary loan (ILL statistics. This paper presents the results from the academic year July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2009, because all data reservoirs needed were available for the circulation and ILL data. The Springer e-book study is based on 2009 data. The research team consisted of both librarians and technical support staff from MSL, the Acquisitions Department, the Cataloging Department, and the IT Department.

  12. Tools to Ensure Safe Medicines: New Monograph Tests in USP-NF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Sheehan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes USP-NF compendial updates to six ‘high-priority” excipient monographs: Glycerin, Propylene Glycol, Sorbitol Solution, Sorbitol Sorbitan Solution, Noncrystallizing Sorbitol Solution and Maltitol Solution. The USP-NF revisions arose from the Food and DrugAdministration’s (FDA’s requests to include, as part of each monograph’s Identification test, a limit test to detect the presence of Diethylene Glycol (DEG, a toxic adulterant. These revisions alignwith the 2007 FDA Guidance for Industry: Testing of Glycerin for Diethylene Glycol (1, that drug product manufacturers perform a specific identity test for DEG on all containers of all lots ofglycerin before glycerin is used in the manufacture and preparation of drug products. This paper describes several risk factors due to a complex global excipient supply chain, nonspecific specifications, inadequate supply chain qualification, and poor understanding of regulations. Strengthening and conformance to compendial specifications is one of the tools necessary to mitigate risk and help prevent the next DEG adulteration that is part of USP’s efforts to ensure safe medicines.

  13. Clinical roundtable monograph. New alternatives in CLL therapy: managing adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanan-Khan, Asher; Kipps, Thomas; Stilgenbauer, Stephan

    2010-08-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a B-cell leukemia mainly affecting older adults. Historically, CLL has been regarded as an incurable disease, and treatment has been confined to cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens. However, prognosis for patients treated with these agents remained poor, prompting the development of new, targeted agents. The introduction of rituximab, a CD20-targeted monoclonal antibody, revolutionized the treatment for this disease. Rituximab in combination with fludarabine improved response rates and length of progression-free survival. The success of rituximab in this setting has prompted the development of many more investigational agents for CLL, including other antibody agents. However, as with any medication, the potential benefit achieved with CLL therapies is mitigated by the safety risk for the patient. These agents have been associated with adverse events such as immunosuppression, reactivation of cytomegalovirus, and infusion-related reactions that can occur with antibody administration. Adverse events can greatly affect the patient’s quality of life and ability to tolerate therapy. Management of adverse events is a critical component of the overall treatment strategy for CLL, particularly in elderly patients. In this clinical roundtable monograph, 3 expert physicians discuss the latest clinical studies evaluating the treatment of CLL, focusing on the adverse events associated with each agent and the potential interventions that can be used to manage their occurrence.

  14. Clinical roundtable monograph: Unmet needs in the management of chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Elias J; Bixby, Dale; Akard, Luke P

    2012-12-01

    Approximately 5,000 cases of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) are diagnosed each year in the United States. The introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has dramatically improved survival time for many CML patients. Current first-line treatment options include imatinib and the second-generation agents nilotinib and dasatinib. Second- and third-line agents include nilotinib, dasatinib, bosutinib, and the new agent ponatinib. Despite the effectiveness of TKIs, some patients develop resistance or intolerance to these agents. A number of mutations of the BCR-ABL gene have been identified and are associated with TKI resistance. Patients may benefit from switching to a second-line TKI, undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant, or receiving newly emerging agents. Although early response is associated with improved patient outcome, clinicians lack tests that can determine which patients will benefit from which therapies. To ensure adequate response, patients should be monitored by both polymerase chain reaction and cytogenetic analysis of the bone marrow. This roundtable monograph reviews key unmet needs in patients with CML related to disease management and treatment options.

  15. Clinical roundtable monograph: new and emerging treatments for advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Daniel J; Kantoff, Philip W; Lin, Daniel W

    2011-06-01

    Historically, the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has been limited to chemotherapeutic regimens that did not improve patient survival. In 2004, clinical studies began to demonstrate significant improvements in patient outcomes, including overall survival, with docetaxel versus mitoxantrone chemotherapy. Since these pivotal trials, the combination of docetaxel plus prednisone has become a standard of care for patients with metastatic CRPC. However, the limited survival benefit achieved with this regimen prompted several investigations into the development of alternative therapeutic options. Recent advances have now led to an unprecedented number of new drug approvals within the past year, providing many new treatment options for patients with metastatic CRPC. Sipuleucel-T, considered a new paradigm in cancer treatment, is the first such immunotherapeutic agent approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Other successes include abiraterone acetate, the first androgen biosynthesis inhibitor, and cabazitaxel, a novel microtubule inhibitor, both of which have demonstrated improved survival following docetaxel failure. The bone-targeting agent denosumab, also recently approved in this setting, offers these patients significant improvement in the prevention of skeletal-related events. The data supporting the approval of each of these agents are described in this monograph, as are current approaches in the treatment of metastatic CRPC and ongoing clinical trials of novel treatments and strategies. The experts also discuss several of the issues regarding the introduction of these novel agents into clinical practice for metastatic CRPC patients.

  16. Biowaiver monograph for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms: acetylsalicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressman, Jennifer B; Nair, Anita; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Barends, Dirk M; Groot, D W; Kopp, Sabine; Langguth, Peter; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Zimmer, Markus

    2012-08-01

    A biowaiver monograph for acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is presented. Literature and experimental data indicate that ASA is a highly soluble and highly permeable drug, leading to assignment of this active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) to Class I of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). Limited bioequivalence (BE) studies reported in the literature indicate that products that have been tested are bioequivalent. Most of the excipients used in products with a marketing authorization in Europe are not considered to have an impact on gastrointestinal motility or permeability. Furthermore, ASA has a wide therapeutic index. Thus, the risks to the patient that might occur if a nonbioequivalent product were to be incorrectly deemed bioequivalent according to the biowaiver procedure appear to be minimal. As a result, the BCS-based biowaiver procedure can be recommended for approval of new formulations of solid oral dosage forms containing ASA as the only API, including both multisource and reformulated products, under the following conditions: (1) excipients are chosen from those used in ASA products already registered in International Conference on Harmonization and associated countries and (2) the dissolution profiles of the test and the comparator products comply with the BE guidance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Biowaiver Monograph for Immediate-Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms: Amoxicillin Trihydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambavita, Dhanusha; Galappatthy, Priyadarshani; Mannapperuma, Uthpali; Jayakody, Lal; Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Groot, Dirk W; Langguth, Peter; Mehta, Mehul; Parr, Alan; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Dressman, Jennifer

    2017-10-01

    Literature and experimental data relevant to waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate-release solid oral dosage forms containing amoxicillin trihydrate are reviewed. Solubility and permeability characteristics according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), therapeutic uses, therapeutic index, excipient interactions, as well as dissolution and BE and bioavailability studies were taken into consideration. Solubility and permeability studies indicate that amoxicillin doses up to 875 mg belong to BCS class I, whereas 1000 mg belongs to BCS class II and doses of more than 1000 mg belong to BCS class IV. Considering all aspects, the biowaiver procedure can be recommended for solid oral products of amoxicillin trihydrate immediate-release preparations containing amoxicillin as the single active pharmaceutical ingredient at dose strengths of 875 mg or less, provided (a) only the excipients listed in this monograph are used, and only in their usual amounts, (b) the biowaiver study is performed according to the World Health Organization-, U.S. Food and Drug Administration-, or European Medicines Agency-recommended method using the innovator as the comparator, and (c) results comply with criteria for "very rapidly dissolving" or "similarly rapidly dissolving." Products containing other excipients and those containing more than 875 mg amoxicillin per unit should be subjected to an in vivo BE study. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. All rights reserved.

  18. Tools to Ensure Safe Medicines: New Monograph Tests in USP-NF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Sheehan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes USP-NF compendial updates to six ‘high-priority” excipient monographs: Glycerin, Propylene Glycol, Sorbitol Solution, Sorbitol Sorbitan Solution, Noncrystallizing Sorbitol Solution and Maltitol Solution. The USP-NF revisions arose from the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s requests to include, as part of each monograph’s Identification test, a limit test to detect the presence of Diethylene Glycol (DEG, a toxic adulterant. These revisions align with the 2007 FDA Guidance for Industry: Testing of Glycerin for Diethylene Glycol (1, that drug product manufacturers perform a specific identity test for DEG on all containers of all lots of glycerin before glycerin is used in the manufacture and preparation of drug products. This paper describes several risk factors due to a complex global excipient supply chain, nonspecific specifications, inadequate supply chain qualification, and poor understanding of regulations. Strengthening and conformance to compendial specifications is one of the tools necessary to mitigate risk and help prevent the next DEG adulteration that is part of USP’s efforts to ensure safe medicines.

  19. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the M5-50: An Implementation of the International Personality Item Pool Item Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, Alan; Cooper, Christopher A.; McCord, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Goldberg's International Personality Item Pool (IPIP; Goldberg, 1999) provides researchers with public-domain, free-access personality measurement scales that are proxies of well-established published scales. One of the more commonly used IPIP sets employs 50 items to measure the 5 broad domains of the 5-factor model, with 10 items per factor. The…

  20. Multidimensional CAT Item Selection Methods for Domain Scores and Composite Scores with Item Exposure Control and Content Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    The intent of this research was to find an item selection procedure in the multidimensional computer adaptive testing (CAT) framework that yielded higher precision for both the domain and composite abilities, had a higher usage of the item pool, and controlled the exposure rate. Five multidimensional CAT item selection procedures (minimum angle;…

  1. Multidimensional CAT Item Selection Methods for Domain Scores and Composite Scores with Item Exposure Control and Content Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    The intent of this research was to find an item selection procedure in the multidimensional computer adaptive testing (CAT) framework that yielded higher precision for both the domain and composite abilities, had a higher usage of the item pool, and controlled the exposure rate. Five multidimensional CAT item selection procedures (minimum angle;…

  2. Do Images Influence Assessment in Anatomy? Exploring the Effect of Images on Item Difficulty and Item Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Anatomists often use images in assessments and examinations. This study aims to investigate the influence of different types of images on item difficulty and item discrimination in written assessments. A total of 210 of 460 students volunteered for an extra assessment in a gross anatomy course. This assessment contained 39 test items grouped in…

  3. A Comparison of Anchor-Item Designs for the Concurrent Calibration of Large Banks of Likert-Type Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Perez, Miguel A.; Alcala-Quintana, Rocio; Garcia-Cueto, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Current interest in measuring quality of life is generating interest in the construction of computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with Likert-type items. Calibration of an item bank for use in CAT requires collecting responses to a large number of candidate items. However, the number is usually too large to administer to each subject in the…

  4. Line-item veto may pass this month

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. House and Senate Republicans have cleared the way for legislation to give the President the power of a line-item-veto in time for the 1998 budget season.The line-item veto, as proposed, would allow the President to remove from appropriations bills selected appropriations items, new entitlement spending, or narrowly targeted tax breaks. Once a line item is cut from the budget, Congress would have to pass a separate appropriations bill for that individual item; that new, separate bill would then be subject to the traditional Presidential veto.

  5. A generalized item response tree model for psychological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Minjeong; De Boeck, Paul

    2016-09-01

    A new item response theory (IRT) model with a tree structure has been introduced for modeling item response processes with a tree structure. In this paper, we present a generalized item response tree model with a flexible parametric form, dimensionality, and choice of covariates. The utilities of the model are demonstrated with two applications in psychological assessments for investigating Likert scale item responses and for modeling omitted item responses. The proposed model is estimated with the freely available R package flirt (Jeon et al., 2014b).

  6. The Development of Practical Item Analysis Program for Indonesian Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Muhson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Item analysis has essential roles in the learning assessment. The item analysis program is designed to measure student achievement and instructional effectiveness. This study was aimed to develop item-analysis program and verify its feasibility. This study uses a Research and Development (R & D model. The procedure includes designing and developing a product, validating, and testing the product. The data were collected through documentations, questionnaires, and interviews. This study successfully developed item analysis program, namely AnBuso. It is developed based on classical test theory (CTT. It was practical and applicable for Indonesian teachers to analyse test items

  7. Item Discrimination and Type I Error in the Detection of Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanju; Brooks, Gordon P.; Johanson, George A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, DeMars stated that when impact exists there will be Type I error inflation, especially with larger sample sizes and larger discrimination parameters for items. One purpose of this study is to present the patterns of Type I error rates using Mantel-Haenszel (MH) and logistic regression (LR) procedures when the mean ability between the…

  8. Item Analysis and Differential Item Functioning of a Brief Conduct Problem Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Johnny; King, Kevin M.; Witkiewitz, Katie; Racz, Sarah Jensen; McMahon, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that boys display higher levels of childhood conduct problems than girls, and Black children display higher levels than White children, but few studies have tested for scalar equivalence of conduct problems across gender and race. The authors conducted a 2-parameter item response theory (IRT) model to examine item…

  9. An NCME Instructional Module on Item-Fit Statistics for Item Response Theory Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Allison J.; Penfield, Randall D.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing valid inferences from item response theory (IRT) models is contingent upon a good fit of the data to the model. Violations of model-data fit have numerous consequences, limiting the usefulness and applicability of the model. This instructional module provides an overview of methods used for evaluating the fit of IRT models. Upon completing…

  10. Detecting measurement disturbance effects: the graphical display of item characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacker, Randall E

    2015-01-01

    Traditional identification of misfitting items in Rasch measurement models have interpreted the Infit and Outfit z standardized statistic. A more recent approach made possible by Winsteps is to specify "group = 0" in the control file and subsequently view the item characteristic curve for each item against the true probability curve. The graphical display reveals whether an item follows the true probability curve or deviates substantially, thus indicating measurement disturbance. Probability of item response and logit ability are easily copied into data vectors in R software then graphed. An example control file, output item data, and subsequent preparation of an overlay graph for misfit items are presented using Winsteps and R software. For comparison purposes the data are also analyzed using a multi-dimensional (MD) mapping procedure.

  11. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Timothy Kent; Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2012-11-06

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  12. Item Response Theory Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah Ravand

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel models (MLMs are flexible in that they can be employed to obtain item and person parameters, test for differential item functioning (DIF and capture both local item and person dependence. Papers on the MLM analysis of item response data have focused mostly on theoretical issues where applications have been add-ons to simulation studies with a methodological focus. Although the methodological direction was necessary as a first step to show how MLMs can be utilized and extended to model item response data, the emphasis needs to be shifted towards providing evidence on how applications of MLMs in educational testing can provide the benefits that have been promised. The present study uses foreign language reading comprehension data to illustrate application of hierarchical generalized models to estimate person and item parameters, differential item functioning (DIF, and local person dependence in a three-level model.

  13. Identifying Unbiased Items for Screening Preschoolers for Disruptive Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studts, Christina R; Polaha, Jodi; van Zyl, Michiel A

    2016-10-25

    OBJECTIVE : Efficient identification and referral to behavioral services are crucial in addressing early-onset disruptive behavior problems. Existing screening instruments for preschoolers are not ideal for pediatric primary care settings serving diverse populations. Eighteen candidate items for a new brief screening instrument were examined to identify those exhibiting measurement bias (i.e., differential item functioning, DIF) by child characteristics. METHOD : Parents/guardians of preschool-aged children (N = 900) from four primary care settings completed two full-length behavioral rating scales. Items measuring disruptive behavior problems were tested for DIF by child race, sex, and socioeconomic status using two approaches: item response theory-based likelihood ratio tests and ordinal logistic regression. RESULTS : Of 18 items, eight were identified with statistically significant DIF by at least one method. CONCLUSIONS : The bias observed in 8 of 18 items made them undesirable for screening diverse populations of children. These items were excluded from the new brief screening tool.

  14. The effects of relative food item size on optimal tooth cusp sharpness during brittle food item processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthaume, Michael A; Dumont, Elizabeth R; Godfrey, Laurie R; Grosse, Ian R

    2014-12-01

    Teeth are often assumed to be optimal for their function, which allows researchers to derive dietary signatures from tooth shape. Most tooth shape analyses normalize for tooth size, potentially masking the relationship between relative food item size and tooth shape. Here, we model how relative food item size may affect optimal tooth cusp radius of curvature (RoC) during the fracture of brittle food items using a parametric finite-element (FE) model of a four-cusped molar. Morphospaces were created for four different food item sizes by altering cusp RoCs to determine whether optimal tooth shape changed as food item size changed. The morphospaces were also used to investigate whether variation in efficiency metrics (i.e. stresses, energy and optimality) changed as food item size changed. We found that optimal tooth shape changed as food item size changed, but that all optimal morphologies were similar, with one dull cusp that promoted high stresses in the food item and three cusps that acted to stabilize the food item. There were also positive relationships between food item size and the coefficients of variation for stresses in food item and optimality, and negative relationships between food item size and the coefficients of variation for stresses in the enamel and strain energy absorbed by the food item. These results suggest that relative food item size may play a role in selecting for optimal tooth shape, and the magnitude of these selective forces may change depending on food item size and which efficiency metric is being selected.

  15. Dependability of technical items: Problems of standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotova, G. A.; Voropai, N. I.; Kovalev, G. F.

    2016-12-01

    This paper is concerned with problems blown up in the development of a new version of the Interstate Standard GOST 27.002 "Industrial product dependability. Terms and definitions". This Standard covers a wide range of technical items and is used in numerous regulations, specifications, standard and technical documentation. A currently available State Standard GOST 27.002-89 was introduced in 1990. Its development involved a participation of scientists and experts from different technical areas, its draft was debated in different audiences and constantly refined, so it was a high quality document. However, after 25 years of its application it's become necessary to develop a new version of the Standard that would reflect the current understanding of industrial dependability, accounting for the changes taking place in Russia in the production, management and development of various technical systems and facilities. The development of a new version of the Standard makes it possible to generalize on a terminological level the knowledge and experience in the area of reliability of technical items, accumulated over a quarter of the century in different industries and reliability research schools, to account for domestic and foreign experience of standardization. Working on the new version of the Standard, we have faced a number of issues and problems on harmonization with the International Standard IEC 60500-192, caused first of all by different approaches to the use of terms and differences in the mentalities of experts from different countries. The paper focuses on the problems related to the chapter "Maintenance, restoration and repair", which caused difficulties for the developers to harmonize term definitions both with experts and the International Standard, which is mainly related to differences between the Russian concept and practice of maintenance and repair and foreign ones.

  16. Differences in Patient Health Questionnaire and Aachen Depression Item Bank scores between tablet versus paper-and-pencil administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Lena; Glaesmer, Heide; Boecker, Maren; Forkmann, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    To extend knowledge about measurement equivalence of depression measures assessed by tablet and paper-pencil administration, the present study evaluated the effect of mode of administration (MoA) on scale and item level for the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Aachen Depression Item Bank (ADIB) in elderly patients. Primary care patients (N = 193, ≥60 years) were assessed following a crossover design in Leipzig, Germany. All participants filled out the PHQ-9 and the ADIB in both MoAs under study. Effects of MoA were analyzed by intra-class correlation, mixed-effects regression, and differential item functioning (DIF). Additionally, detection rates between both MoAs were compared using receiver operating characteristics analysis compared to a diagnostic interview (SCID-I, N = 163). No effect of MoA was found in the PHQ-9 on scale score or item level. Two ADIB items showed DIF according to MoA. In terms of discriminatory power, MoA did not influence detection rates of both instruments. In summary, our findings suggest that no severe effect of mode of administration on self-report assessments of depression should be expected. It can be concluded that tablets provide a valid way to electronically assess depressive symptoms in elderly patients. Yet changes in item presentation can influence the psychometric properties and require equivalence testing using sophisticated analyses on item level such as DIF.

  17. Practical Public Relations: Effective PR Techniques for School Library/Media Specialists. Monograph Series No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, Mary W., Ed.

    This handbook of publicity ideas suggests activities and themes to highlight services and resources of school media centers, including approaches to students, faculty, administration, and the community at large. A 14-item annotated bibliography and six mailing list addresses are provided as additional sources for ideas. Clip art illustrations…

  18. The Prediction of TOEFL Reading Comprehension Item Difficulty for Expository Prose Passages for Three Item Types: Main Idea, Inference, and Supporting Idea Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedle, Roy; Kostin, Irene

    Prediction of the difficulty (equated delta) of a large sample (n=213) of reading comprehension items from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) was studied using main idea, inference, and supporting statement items. A related purpose was to examine whether text and text-related variables play a significant role in predicting item…

  19. Item Response Theory with Covariates (IRT-C): Assessing Item Recovery and Differential Item Functioning for the Three-Parameter Logistic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Louis; Huang, Qiming; Vermunt, Jeroen K.

    2016-01-01

    In large-scale testing, the use of multigroup approaches is limited for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) across multiple variables as DIF is examined for each variable separately. In contrast, the item response theory with covariate (IRT-C) procedure can be used to examine DIF across multiple variables (covariates) simultaneously. To…

  20. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  1. Editorial Changes and Item Performance: Implications for Calibration and Pretesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Stoffel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on the impact of text and formatting changes on test-item performance has produced mixed results. This matter is important because it is generally acknowledged that any change to an item requires that it be recalibrated. The present study investigated the effects of seven classes of stylistic changes on item difficulty, discrimination, and response time for a subset of 65 items that make up a standardized test for physician licensure completed by 31,918 examinees in 2012. One of two versions of each item (original or revised was randomly assigned to examinees such that each examinee saw only two experimental items, with each item being administered to approximately 480 examinees. The stylistic changes had little or no effect on item difficulty or discrimination; however, one class of edits -' changing an item from an open lead-in (incomplete statement to a closed lead-in (direct question -' did result in slightly longer response times. Data for nonnative speakers of English were analyzed separately with nearly identical results. These findings have implications for the conventional practice of repretesting (or recalibrating items that have been subjected to minor editorial changes.

  2. Item analysis of in use multiple choice questions in pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Singla, Shweta; Mahajan, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple choice questions (MCQs) are a common method of assessment of medical students. The quality of MCQs is determined by three parameters such as difficulty index (DIF I), discrimination index (DI), and distracter efficiency (DE). Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the quality of MCQs currently in use in pharmacology and discard the MCQs which are not found useful. Materials and Methods: A class test of central nervous system unit was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology. This test comprised 50 MCQs/items and 150 distracters. A correct response to an item was awarded one mark with no negative marking for incorrect response. Each item was analyzed for three parameters such as DIF I, DI, and DE. Results: DIF of 38 (76%) items was in the acceptable range (P = 30–70%), 11 (22%) items were too easy (P > 70%), and 1 (2%) item was too difficult (P 0.35), of 12 (24%) items was good (d = 0.20–0.34), and of 7 (14%) items was poor (d < 0.20). A total of 50 items had 150 distracters. Among these, 27 (18%) were nonfunctional distracters (NFDs) and 123 (82%) were functional distracters. Items with one NFD were 11 and with two NFDs were 8. Based on these parameters, 6 items were discarded, 17 were revised, and 27 were kept for subsequent use. Conclusion: Item analysis is a valuable tool as it helps us to retain the valuable MCQs and discard the items which are not useful. It also helps in increasing our skills in test construction and identifies the specific areas of course content which need greater emphasis or clarity. PMID:27563581

  3. Efficient Algorithms for Segmentation of Item-Set Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chundi, Parvathi; Rosenkrantz, Daniel J.

    We propose a special type of time series, which we call an item-set time series, to facilitate the temporal analysis of software version histories, email logs, stock market data, etc. In an item-set time series, each observed data value is a set of discrete items. We formalize the concept of an item-set time series and present efficient algorithms for segmenting a given item-set time series. Segmentation of a time series partitions the time series into a sequence of segments where each segment is constructed by combining consecutive time points of the time series. Each segment is associated with an item set that is computed from the item sets of the time points in that segment, using a function which we call a measure function. We then define a concept called the segment difference, which measures the difference between the item set of a segment and the item sets of the time points in that segment. The segment difference values are required to construct an optimal segmentation of the time series. We describe novel and efficient algorithms to compute segment difference values for each of the measure functions described in the paper. We outline a dynamic programming based scheme to construct an optimal segmentation of the given item-set time series. We use the item-set time series segmentation techniques to analyze the temporal content of three different data sets—Enron email, stock market data, and a synthetic data set. The experimental results show that an optimal segmentation of item-set time series data captures much more temporal content than a segmentation constructed based on the number of time points in each segment, without examining the item set data at the time points, and can be used to analyze different types of temporal data.

  4. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: amodiaquine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Anita; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Barends, Dirk M; Groot, D W; Kopp, Sabine; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2012-12-01

    The present monograph reviews data relevant to applying the biowaiver procedure for the approval of immediate release (IR) multisource solid dosage forms containing amodiaquine hydrochloride (ADQ) as the single active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Both biopharmaceutical and clinical data of ADQ were assessed. Solubility studies revealed that ADQ meets the "highly soluble" criteria according to World Health Organization (WHO) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) but fails to comply with the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) specifications. Although metabolism hints at high permeability, available permeability data are too scanty to classify ADQ inequivocably as a Class I drug substance. According to WHO and EMA guidances, ADQ would be conservatively categorized as a Class III drug, whereas according to the US FDA specifications, it would fall into Class IV. ADQ has a wide therapeutic index. Furthermore, no cases of bioinequivalent products have been reported in the open literature. As risks associated with biowaiving appear minimal and requirements for "highly soluble" API are met in the WHO and EMA jurisdictions, the biowaiver procedure can be recommended for bioequivalence (BE) testing of multisource IR products containing ADQ as the only API, provided the test product contains excipients used in ADQ products approved in International Conference of Harmonisation and associated countries, and in similar amounts. Furthermore, both comparator and test should conform to "very rapidly dissolving" product criteria (≥85% dissolution of the API in 15 min at pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8) and the labeling should specify that the product not be coadministered with high-fat meals. If the comparator and/or test product fails to meet these criteria, BE needs to be established by pharmacokinetic studies in humans.

  5. Prevalence of genotoxic chemicals among animal and human carcinogens evaluated in the IARC Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, H; Malaveille, C

    1989-06-01

    To determine whether genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens contribute similarly to the cancer burden in humans, an analysis was performed on agents that were evaluated in Supplements 6 and 7 to the IARC Monographs for their carcinogenic effects in humans and animals and for the activity in short-term genotoxicity tests. The prevalence of genotoxic carcinogens on four groups of agents, consisting of established human carcinogens (group 1, n = 30), probable human carcinogens (group 2A, n = 37), possible human carcinogens (group 2B, n = 113) and on agents with limited evidence of carcinogenicity in animals (a subset of group 3, n = 149) was determined. A high prevalence in the order of 80 to 90% of genotoxic carcinogens was found in each of the groups 1, 2A and 2B, which were also shown to be multi-species/multi-tissues carcinogens. The distribution of carcinogenic potency in rodents did not reveal any specific characteristic of the human carcinogens in group 1 that would differentiate them from agents in groups 2A, 2B and 3. The results of this analysis indicate that (a) an agent with unknown carcinogenic potential showing sufficient evidence of activity in in vitro/in vivo genotoxicity assays (involving as endpoints DNA damage and chromosomal/mutational damage) may represent a hazard to humans; and b) an agent showing lack of activity in this spectrum of genotoxicity assays should undergo evaluation for carcinogenicity by rodent bioassay, in view of the present lack of validated short-term tests for non-genotoxic carcinogens. Overall, this analysis implies that genotoxic carcinogens add more to the cancer burden in man than non-genotoxic carcinogens. Thus, identification of such genotoxic carcinogens and subsequent lowering of exposure will remain the main goal for primary cancer prevention in man.

  6. Impacts of Newly Acquired Items Within Business Combinations on the Items of the Financial Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Gláserová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the operations with the company (business combinations. These are those operations that are associated with the formation or dissolution of companies or reorganization of their ownership structure. They are often referred as equity transactions. In the concept of Czech accounting legislation, these are the purchase, sale, investment (deposit of firms or their parts, and various forms of transformation of enterprises. There are analyzed the accounting practices of recording of these issues under the Czech accounting legislation and International Financial Reporting Standards. Consequently there are identified newly acquired assets and liabilities arising directly in connection with the business combinations. In the conclusion of this paper there are examined the effects of different reporting of newly acquired items in the context of business combinations according to Czech accounting legislation and in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards on the significant items of balance sheet and profit and loss statement from the material and time point of view.

  7. Hiding Sensitive Association Rules without Altering the Support of Sensitive Item(s)

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Dhyanendra

    2012-01-01

    Association rule mining is an important data-mining technique that finds interesting association among a large set of data items. Since it may disclose patterns and various kinds of sensitive knowledge that are difficult to find otherwise, it may pose a threat to the privacy of discovered confidential information. Such information is to be protected against unauthorized access. Many strategies had been proposed to hide the information. Some use distributed databases over several sites, data perturbation, clustering, and data distortion techniques. Hiding sensitive rules problem, and still not sufficiently investigated, is the requirement to balance the confidentiality of the disclosed data with the legitimate needs of the user. The proposed approach uses the data distortion technique where the position of the sensitive items is altered but its support is never changed. The size of the database remains the same. It uses the idea of representative rules to prune the rules first and then hides the sensitive rule...

  8. 欧盟传统草药专论述评%Review on community herbal monographs for traditional herbal medicinal products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹文俊; 瞿礼萍; 叶祖光; 姬建新; 李伯刚

    2011-01-01

    该文通过对欧盟传统草药专论的建立与评价进行深入分析研究,关注传统草药专论的最新进展,阐明欧盟传统草药专论与简化注册的关系,为我国中药产品欧盟注册提供参考.%This article discusses the characteristics of cmmunity herbal monographs for traditional herbal medicinal products and its establishment procedure. It also reviews the new development of cmmunity traditional herbal monographs. The purpose is to clarify the relationship between cmmunity herbal monographs and simplified registration for traditional herbal medicinal product in European Union and provide reference to the registration of taditional Chinese mdicinal products in Europe.

  9. Binary classification of items of interest in a repeatable process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Jeffrey A.; Spicer, John Patrick; Wincek, Michael Anthony; Wang, Hui; Chakraborty, Debejyo

    2014-06-24

    A system includes host and learning machines in electrical communication with sensors positioned with respect to an item of interest, e.g., a weld, and memory. The host executes instructions from memory to predict a binary quality status of the item. The learning machine receives signals from the sensor(s), identifies candidate features, and extracts features from the candidates that are more predictive of the binary quality status relative to other candidate features. The learning machine maps the extracted features to a dimensional space that includes most of the items from a passing binary class and excludes all or most of the items from a failing binary class. The host also compares the received signals for a subsequent item of interest to the dimensional space to thereby predict, in real time, the binary quality status of the subsequent item of interest.

  10. The basics of item response theory using R

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Frank B

    2017-01-01

    This graduate-level textbook is a tutorial for item response theory that covers both the basics of item response theory and the use of R for preparing graphical presentation in writings about the theory. Item response theory has become one of the most powerful tools used in test construction, yet one of the barriers to learning and applying it is the considerable amount of sophisticated computational effort required to illustrate even the simplest concepts. This text provides the reader access to the basic concepts of item response theory freed of the tedious underlying calculations. It is intended for those who possess limited knowledge of educational measurement and psychometrics. Rather than presenting the full scope of item response theory, this textbook is concise and practical and presents basic concepts without becoming enmeshed in underlying mathematical and computational complexities. Clearly written text and succinct R code allow anyone familiar with statistical concepts to explore and apply item re...

  11. Differential functioning of Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisto, Fermino Fernandes; Dos Santos, Acácia Aparecida Angeli; Noronha, Ana Paula Porto

    2010-02-01

    Differential Item Functioning (DIF) refers to items that do not function the same way for comparable members of different groups. The present study focuses on analyzing and classifying sex-related differential item functioning in the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test. Subjects were 1,052 children attending public schools (513 boys, 539 girls, ages 6-10 years). The protocols were scored using the Bender Graduated Scoring System, which evaluates only the distortion criterion using the Rasch logistic response model. The scoring system fit the Rasch model, although two items were found to be biased by sex. When analyzing differential functioning of items for boys and girls separately, the number of differentially functioning items was equal.

  12. Promoting cold-start items in recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Yang, Zimo; Liu, Chuang; Li, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    As one of major challenges, cold-start problem plagues nearly all recommender systems. In particular, new items will be overlooked, impeding the development of new products online. Given limited resources, how to utilize the knowledge of recommender systems and design efficient marketing strategy for new items is extremely important. In this paper, we convert this ticklish issue into a clear mathematical problem based on a bipartite network representation. Under the most widely used algorithm in real e-commerce recommender systems, so-called the item-based collaborative filtering, we show that to simply push new items to active users is not a good strategy. To our surprise, experiments on real recommender systems indicate that to connect new items with some less active users will statistically yield better performance, namely these new items will have more chance to appear in other users' recommendation lists. Further analysis suggests that the disassortative nature of recommender systems contributes to such ...

  13. The Body Appreciation Scale-2: item refinement and psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L

    2015-01-01

    Considered a positive body image measure, the 13-item Body Appreciation Scale (BAS; Avalos, Tylka, & Wood-Barcalow, 2005) assesses individuals' acceptance of, favorable opinions toward, and respect for their bodies. While the BAS has accrued psychometric support, we improved it by rewording certain BAS items (to eliminate sex-specific versions and body dissatisfaction-based language) and developing additional items based on positive body image research. In three studies, we examined the reworded, newly developed, and retained items to determine their psychometric properties among college and online community (Amazon Mechanical Turk) samples of 820 women and 767 men. After exploratory factor analysis, we retained 10 items (five original BAS items). Confirmatory factor analysis upheld the BAS-2's unidimensionality and invariance across sex and sample type. Its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, incremental, and discriminant) validity were supported. The BAS-2 is a psychometrically sound positive body image measure applicable for research and clinical settings.

  14. OPTIMIZING HIGHWAY PROFILES FOR INDIVIDUAL COST ITEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Dabbour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the current practice, vertical alignment of a highway segment is usually selected by creating a profile showing the actual ground surface and selecting initial and final grades to minimize the overall cut and fill quantities. Those grades are connected together with a parabolic curve. However, in many highway construction or rehabilitation projects, the cost of cut may be substantially different from that of fill (e.g. in extremely hard soils where blasting is needed to cut the soil. In that case, an optimization process will be needed to minimize the overall cost of cut and fill rather than to minimize their quantities. This paper proposes a nonlinear optimization model to select optimum vertical curve parameters based on individual cost items of cut and fill. The parameters selected by the optimization model include the initial grade, the final grade, the station and elevation of the point of vertical curvature (PVC, and the station and elevation of the point of vertical tangency (PVT. The model is flexible to include any design constraints for particular design problems. Different application examples are provided using the Evolutionary Algorithm in Microsoft Excel’s Solver add-in. The application examples validated the model and demonstrated its advantage of minimizing the overall cost rather than minimizing the overall volume of cut and fill quantities.

  15. Percent Errors in the Estimation of Demand for Secondary Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-01

    percent errors, and the program change factor (PCF) to predict item demana during the procurement *’ leadtime (PROLT) ior the item. The PCF accounts for...type of demand it was. It may"-- have been demanded over two years ago or it may nave been a non-recurring demana . Since CC b only retains two years of...observed distributions could be compared with negative binomial distributions. For each item the computed ratio of actual demana to expected demand was

  16. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OBRIEN, J.H.

    2000-07-14

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments.

  17. Assessing the quality of multiple-choice test items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Sandra L; Schriner, Cheryl L

    2010-01-01

    With the focus of nursing education geared toward teaching students to think critically, faculty need to assure that test items require students to use a high level of cognitive processing. To evaluate their examinations, the authors assessed multiple-choice test items on final nursing examinations. The assessment included determining cognitive learning levels and frequency of items among 3 adult health courses, comparing difficulty values with cognitive learning levels, and examining discrimination values and the relationship to distracter performance.

  18. Three controversies over item disclosure in medical licensure examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Soo Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In response to views on public's right to know, there is growing attention to item disclosure – release of items, answer keys, and performance data to the public – in medical licensure examinations and their potential impact on the test's ability to measure competence and select qualified candidates. Recent debates on this issue have sparked legislative action internationally, including South Korea, with prior discussions among North American countries dating over three decades. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze three issues associated with item disclosure in medical licensure examinations – 1 fairness and validity, 2 impact on passing levels, and 3 utility of item disclosure – by synthesizing existing literature in relation to standards in testing. Historically, the controversy over item disclosure has centered on fairness and validity. Proponents of item disclosure stress test takers’ right to know, while opponents argue from a validity perspective. Item disclosure may bias item characteristics, such as difficulty and discrimination, and has consequences on setting passing levels. To date, there has been limited research on the utility of item disclosure for large scale testing. These issues requires ongoing and careful consideration.

  19. Embodied Valuation: Directional Action is Associated with Item Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Danielle J; Harris, Alison; Young, Aleena; Reed, Catherine L

    2017-08-31

    We have a lifetime of experience interacting with objects we value. Although many economic theories represent valuation as a purely cognitive process independent of the sensorimotor system, embodied cognitive theory suggests that our memories for items' value should be linked to actions we use to obtain them. Here we investigated whether the value of real items was associated with specific directional movements toward or away from the body. Participants priced a set of food items to determine their values; they then used directional actions to classify each item as high- or low-value. To determine if value is linked to specific action mappings, movements were referenced either with respect to the object (push toward high-value items; pull away from low-value items) or the self (pull high-value items toward self; push low-value items away). Participants who were assigned (Experiment 1) or chose (Experiment 2) to use an object-referenced action mapping were faster than those using a self-referenced mapping. A control experiment (Experiment 3) using left/right movements found no such difference when action mappings were not toward/away from the body. These results indicate that directional actions towards items are associated with the representation of their value, suggesting an embodied component to economic choice.

  20. [Perceptions on item disclosure for the Korean medical licensing examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunbae B

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzed the perceptions of medical students and faculty regarding disclosure of test items on the Korean medical licensing examination. I conducted a survey of medical students from medical colleges and professional medical schools nationwide. Responses were analyzed from 718 participants as well as 69 faculty members who participated in creating the medical licensing examination item sets. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the chi-square test. It is important to maintain test quality and to keep the test items unavailable to the public. There are also concerns among students that disclosure of test items would prompt increasing difficulty of test items (48.3%). Further, few students found it desirable to disclose test items regardless of any considerations (28.5%). The professors, who had experience in designing the test items, also expressed their opposition to test item disclosure (60.9%). It is desirable not to disclose the test items of the Korean medical licensing examination to the public on the condition that students are provided with a sufficient amount of information regarding the examination. This is so that the exam can appropriately identify candidates with the required qualifications.

  1. NFC based Inspection and Qualification Management (NIQM) System Preventing Counterfeit and Fraudulent Item

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Choong Koo; Kim, Young Joo [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Design, manufacturing, fabrication, transportation and installation of the devices and equipment for nuclear power plants shall be conducted under the thorough quality assurance program for the nuclear safety. However, from late in the 1980s, NRC began to issue a number of communications alerting licenses to issues involving counterfeit and fraudulent items. A number of incidents identified by the NRC in the 1980s and 1990s catalyzed the US nuclear industry to adopt standard precautions to guard against counterfeit items. The purpose of this paper is to develop the NFC (Near Field Communication) based Inspection and Qualification Management(NIQM) system preventing counterfeit and fraudulent items. NFC is one of the latest wireless communication technologies. As a short-range wireless connectivity technology, NFC offers safe-yet simple and intuitive-communication between electronic devices. As described above, NFC technology can be applied to the inspection and qualification management system very effectively to prevent counterfeit and fraudulent items. In addition, NIQM system can use existing data and information through the interface with legacy system.

  2. Conditional recall and the frequency effect in the serial recall task: an examination of item-to-item associativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Leonie M; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-11-01

    The frequency effect in short-term serial recall is influenced by the composition of lists. In pure lists, a robust advantage in the recall of high-frequency (HF) words is observed, yet in alternating mixed lists, HF and low-frequency (LF) words are recalled equally well. It has been argued that the preexisting associations between all list items determine a single, global level of supportive activation that assists item recall. Preexisting associations between items are assumed to be a function of language co-occurrence; HF-HF associations are high, LF-LF associations are low, and mixed associations are intermediate in activation strength. This account, however, is based on results when alternating lists with equal numbers of HF and LF words were used. It is possible that directional association between adjacent list items is responsible for the recall patterns reported. In the present experiment, the recall of three forms of mixed lists-those with equal numbers of HF and LF items and pure lists-was examined to test the extent to which item-to-item associations are present in serial recall. Furthermore, conditional probabilities were used to examine more closely the evidence for a contribution, since correct-in-position scoring may mask recall that is dependent on the recall of prior items. The results suggest that an item-to-item effect is clearly present for early but not late list items, and they implicate an additional factor, perhaps the availability of resources at output, in the recall of late list items.

  3. Scientific Items in Cyprus Turkish Tales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevilay Atmaca

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Folk literature, which is a production of daily life experiences transferred from mouth to mouth, encompasses many types such as epic, legend, folk poetry, mania, laments, songs, riddles, tales, folk story, anecdote, proverbs, idioms, rhymes, and etc. These products, which represent the oral tradition of the people, transfer numerous information regarding the life experiences, beliefs, and values of their communities to the next generation. Tales are more attractive since they depict extraordinary events and because of these characteristics they are very didactic. These are some reasons why tales have a very significant place in Turkish folk literature. People have documented tales successfully transferring from a nomadic life to a settled one. This study attempts to determine the scientific elements in Cyprus Turkish Tales, as sample in the scope of the Turkish Tales, through content analysis. Researchers in this study will examine the themes in the selected tales such as “Earth and Cosmos”, “Physical Event”, “Matter and Change”, and “Living Organisms and Life”. They will also provide a code-list according to the themes found in the tales. Researchers will do a content analysis in relation to the themes and code-listing activities in “Cyprus Turkish Tales” collected by Mustafa Gökçeoğlu, a well-known Cyprus Turkish folk literature writer. It is seen from the research that living organism and life (f: 25 and matter and change (f: 24 themes have very abundant coded. It is followed with an orderly physical events theme (f: 13 and earth and cosmos theme (f: 6. As a result, it is seen that in samples which are taken from Turkish Cypriot Tales, scientific items are widely used. It is believed that the results of the study will give different perspectives to Turkish Language, literature, science-technology, and classroom teacher providing them with interdisciplinary and rich materials.

  4. Measurement Assurance for End-Item Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to assure the end product meets specifications and customer requirements. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipments (MTE), provide the evidence of product conformity to the prescribed requirements. Therefore the processes which employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to development and execution of these processes. Traditionally, calibration of MTE is given more focus in industry standards and process control efforts than the equally important proper usage of the same equipment. It is a common complaint of calibration laboratory personnel that MTE users are only interested in "a sticker." If the QMS requires the MTE "to demonstrate conformity of the product," then the quality of the measurement process must be adequate for the task. This leads to an ad hoc definition; measurement assurance is a discipline that assures that all processes, activities, environments, standards, and procedures involved in making a measurement produce a result that can be rigorously evaluated for validity and accuracy. To evaluate that the existing measurement processes are providing an adequate level of quality to support the decisions based upon this measurement data, an understanding of measurement assurance basics is essential. This topic is complimentary to the calibration standard, ANSI/NCSL Z540.3-2006, which targets the calibration of MTE at the organizational level. This paper will discuss general measurement assurance when MTE is used to provide evidence of product conformity, therefore the target audience of this paper is end item users of MTE. A central focus of the paper will be the verification of tolerances and the associated risks, so calibration professionals may find the paper useful in communication with their customers, MTE users.

  5. Creation of New Items and Forms for the Project A Assembling Objects Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    correct; D, a measure of item discrimination - the rpbi , between the item score (correct or incorrect) and the total score on the 36 original items...D2 another measure of item discrimination - the rpbis between the item score and the total score on the 18 original items of the same type (marked

  6. Item Purification Does Not Always Improve DIF Detection: A Counterexample with Angoff's Delta Plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, David; Facon, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Item purification is an iterative process that is often advocated as improving the identification of items affected by differential item functioning (DIF). With test-score-based DIF detection methods, item purification iteratively removes the items currently flagged as DIF from the test scores to get purified sets of items, unaffected by DIF. The…

  7. Inter-laboratory verification of European pharmacopoeia monograph on derivative spectrophotometry method and its application for chitosan hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Bojan; Ignjatović, Janko; Vujadinović, Mirjana; Savić, Vedrana; Vladimirov, Sote; Karljiković-Rajić, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Inter-laboratory verification of European pharmacopoeia (EP) monograph on derivative spectrophotometry (DS) method and its application for chitosan hydrochloride was carried out on two generation of instruments (earlier GBC Cintra 20 and current technology TS Evolution 300). Instruments operate with different versions of Savitzky-Golay algorithm and modes of generating digital derivative spectra. For resolution power parameter, defined as the amplitude ratio A/B in DS method EP monograph, comparable results were obtained only with algorithm's parameters smoothing points (SP) 7 and the 2nd degree polynomial and those provided corresponding data with other two modes on TS Evolution 300 Medium digital indirect and Medium digital direct. Using quoted algorithm's parameters, the differences in percentages between the amplitude ratio A/B averages, were within accepted criteria (±3%) for assay of drug product for method transfer. The deviation of 1.76% for the degree of deacetylation assessment of chitosan hydrochloride, determined on two instruments, (amplitude (1)D202; the 2nd degree polynomial and SP 9 in Savitzky-Golay algorithm), was acceptable, since it was within allowed criteria (±2%) for assay deviation of drug substance, for method transfer in pharmaceutical analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Conditional Versus Unconditional Procedures for Sample-Free Item Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Benjamin D.; Douglas, Graham A.

    1977-01-01

    Two procedures for Rasch, sample-free item calibration are reviewed and compared for accuracy. The theoretically ideal "conditional" procedure is impractical for more than fifteen items. The more practical but biased "unconditional" procedure is discussed in detail. (Author/JKS)

  9. Item-Specific and Interitem Elaboration in Recall and Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    However, increasing task difficulty, resulting in a more istinctive encoding for items, plays a larger role in recognition. In a similar vein, Belleza ...and his collegues ( Belleza , Cheesman & Reddy 1977) have demonstrated that organizational strategies, such as the alphabet and story mnemonics, aid...specific semantic processing (Craik & Tulving, 1975). Presumably, some item-specific semantic processing occurs prior to or during organization ( Belleza

  10. 26 CFR 1.461-5 - Recurring item exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... satisfied, generally accepted accounting principles are an important factor, but are not dispositive. (ii... of accounting may adopt the recurring item exception described in paragraph (b) of this section as method of accounting for one or more types of recurring items incurred by the taxpayer. In the case...

  11. 48 CFR 252.211-7003 - Item identification and valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in this clause— Automatic identification device means a device, such as a reader or interrogator... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Item identification and... of Provisions And Clauses 252.211-7003 Item identification and valuation. As prescribed in 211.274-6...

  12. Semiparametric Item Response Functions in the Context of Guessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Carl F.; Cai, Li

    2016-01-01

    We present a logistic function of a monotonic polynomial with a lower asymptote, allowing additional flexibility beyond the three-parameter logistic model. We develop a maximum marginal likelihood-based approach to estimate the item parameters. The new item response model is demonstrated on math assessment data from a state, and a computationally…

  13. 17 CFR 229.10 - (Item 10) General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Corporate governance. Item 503 Prospectus summary, risk factors, and ratio of earnings to fixed charges... term is defined in Item 1101 of Regulation AB (§ 229.1101)), reference may not be made to any document... this part, the term smaller reporting company means an issuer that is not an investment company,...

  14. A nonparametric approach to the analysis of dichotomous item responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokken, R.J.; Lewis, C.

    1982-01-01

    An item response theory is discussed which is based on purely ordinal assumptions about the probabilities that people respond positively to items. It is considered as a natural generalization of both Guttman scaling and classical test theory. A distinction is drawn between construction and evaluatio

  15. Do item-writing flaws reduce examinations psychometric quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, João; Silva, Artur; Guimarães, Bruno; Povo, Ana; Coelho, Elisabete; Silva-Pereira, Fernanda; Lourinho, Isabel; Ferreira, Maria Amélia; Severo, Milton

    2016-08-11

    The psychometric characteristics of multiple-choice questions (MCQ) changed when taking into account their anatomical sites and the presence of item-writing flaws (IWF). The aim is to understand the impact of the anatomical sites and the presence of IWF in the psychometric qualities of the MCQ. 800 Clinical Anatomy MCQ from eight examinations were classified as standard or flawed items and according to one of the eight anatomical sites. An item was classified as flawed if it violated at least one of the principles of item writing. The difficulty and discrimination indices of each item were obtained. 55.8 % of the MCQ were flawed items. The anatomical site of the items explained 6.2 and 3.2 % of the difficulty and discrimination parameters and the IWF explained 2.8 and 0.8 %, respectively. The impact of the IWF was heterogeneous, the Writing the Stem and Writing the Choices categories had a negative impact (higher difficulty and lower discrimination) while the other categories did not have any impact. The anatomical site effect was higher than IWF effect in the psychometric characteristics of the examination. When constructing MCQ, the focus should be in the topic/area of the items and only after in the presence of IWF.

  16. Mathematical-programming approaches to test item pool design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Ariel, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to item pool design that has the potential to improve on the quality of current item pools in educational and psychological testing andhence to increase both measurement precision and validity. The approach consists of the application of mathematical programming

  17. Using response times for item selection in adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der Wim J.

    2008-01-01

    Response times on items can be used to improve item selection in adaptive testing provided that a probabilistic model for their distribution is available. In this research, the author used a hierarchical modeling framework with separate first-level models for the responses and response times and a s

  18. Detecting Local Item Dependence in Polytomous Adaptive Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislevy, Jessica L.; Rupp, Andre A.; Harring, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    A rapidly expanding arena for item response theory (IRT) is in attitudinal and health-outcomes survey applications, often with polytomous items. In particular, there is interest in computer adaptive testing (CAT). Meeting model assumptions is necessary to realize the benefits of IRT in this setting, however. Although initial investigations of…

  19. Distributed Item Review: Administrator User Guide. Technical Report #1603

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, P. Shawn

    2016-01-01

    The Distributed Item Review (DIR) is a secure and flexible, web-based system designed to present test items to expert reviewers across a broad geographic area for evaluation of important dimensions of quality (e.g., alignment with standards, bias, sensitivity, and student accessibility). The DIR is comprised of essential features that allow system…

  20. Automated addition of Chelex solution to tubes containing trace items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hansen, Thomas Møller; Hansen, Anders Johannes;

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA from trace items for forensic genetic DNA typing using a manual Chelex based extraction protocol requires addition of Chelex solution to sample tubes containing trace items. Automated of addition of Chelex solution may be hampered by high viscosity of the solution and fast sedim...

  1. Lower-fat menu items in restaurants satisfy customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M P; Chapman, G E; Barr, S I

    1997-05-01

    To evaluate a restaurant-based nutrition program by measuring customer satisfaction with lower-fat menu items and assessing patrons' reactions to the program. Questionnaires to assess satisfaction with menu items were administered to patrons in eight of the nine restaurants that volunteered to participate in the nutrition program. One patron from each participating restaurant was randomly selected for a semistructured interview about nutrition programming in restaurants. Persons dining in eight participating restaurants over a 1-week period (n = 686). Independent samples t tests were used to compare respondents' satisfaction with lower-fat and regular menu items. Two-way analysis of variance tests were completed using overall satisfaction as the dependent variable and menu-item classification (ie, lower fat or regular) and one of eight other menu item and respondent characteristics as independent variables. Qualitative methods were used to analyze interview transcripts. Of 1,127 menu items rated for satisfaction, 205 were lower fat, 878 were regular, and 44 were of unknown classification. Customers were significantly more satisfied with lower-fat than with regular menu items (P satisfaction did not vary by any of the other independent variables. Interview results indicate the importance of restaurant during as an indulgent experience. High satisfaction with lower-fat menu items suggests that customers will support restaurant providing such choices. Dietitians can use these findings to encourage restaurateurs to include lower-fat choices on their menus, and to assure clients that their expectations of being indulged are not incompatible with these choices.

  2. Effects of clinical practice focusing on level-3 OSCE items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hiroaki; Kanada, Yoshikiyo; Sugiura, Yoshito; Motoya, Ikuo; Wada, Yosuke; Yamada, Masayuki; Tomita, Masao; Tanabe, Shigeo; Koyama, Soichiro; Teranishi, Toshio; Sawa, Syunji; Okanishi, Tetsuo

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of clinical training focusing on level-3 OSCE (analytical and therapeutic skills) items, and compared the achievement levels of physical (PT) and occupational (OT) therapist students. [Subjects] A total of 282 (165 PT and 117 OT) students enrolled at our university between 2008 and 2010 were studied. [Methods] OSCE scores were compared between before and after clinical training focusing on level-3 OSCE items, and between PT and OT students. [Results] Scores for 5 out of the 6 level-3a items were significantly higher after than before clinical training. Increases in scores of 2 or 3 level-3b and -3c items were also observed after clinical training. There were no marked differences between PT and OT students in scores for level-3a, -3b, and -3c items before clinical training. In contrast, after clinical training, OT students' scores for 3a and 3c items related to dressing were higher than those of PT students, and the latter's scores for 3b items related to transfer were higher than those of the former. [Conclusion] The results suggest level-3 OSCE items are effectively taught during clinical training.

  3. 48 CFR 211.105 - Items peculiar to one manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Items peculiar to one manufacturer. 211.105 Section 211.105 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Requirements Documents 211.105 Items peculiar to one manufacturer. Follow the publication requirements at...

  4. 48 CFR 811.105 - Items peculiar to one manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Items peculiar to one manufacturer. 811.105 Section 811.105 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... 811.105 Items peculiar to one manufacturer. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this...

  5. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Johnson, W.

    2009-01-01

    It is important to understand potential sources of group differences in the heritability of intelligence test scores. On the basis of a basic item response model we argue that heritabilities which are based on dichotomous item scores normally do not generalize from one sample to the next. If groups

  6. Individuality of Item Interpretation in Interchangeable ACL Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Donald W.; Barack, Leonard I.

    1976-01-01

    The diversity among interpretations of single items in personality questionnaires has been noted previously. Using adjectives from the Adjective Check List (ACL), the study sought evidence bearing on these questions: Does such diversity make the responses to an item not comparable across subjects? If so, what are the implications for scores based…

  7. 32 CFR 643.51 - Additional items concerning leasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Additional items concerning leasing. 643.51... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Leases § 643.51 Additional items concerning leasing. In addition to the general and... leasing of Army real estate....

  8. Characterizing Sources of Uncertainty in Item Response Theory Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Seung; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2012-01-01

    Traditional estimators of item response theory scale scores ignore uncertainty carried over from the item calibration process, which can lead to incorrect estimates of the standard errors of measurement (SEMs). Here, the authors review a variety of approaches that have been applied to this problem and compare them on the basis of their statistical…

  9. 7 CFR 65.220 - Processed food item.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.220 Processed food item. Processed food item... further step in the preparation of the product for consumption, would not in itself result in a processed...

  10. Negative Affect Impairs Associative Memory but Not Item Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisby, James A.; Burgess, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine…

  11. Dissociation between source and item memory in Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Panpan; Li Youhai; Ma Huijuan; Xi Chunhua; Chen Xianwen; Wang Kai

    2014-01-01

    Background Episodic memory includes information about item memory and source memory.Many researches support the hypothesis that these two memory systems are implemented by different brain structures.The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of item memory and source memory processing in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD),and to further verify the hypothesis of dual-process model of source and item memory.Methods We established a neuropsychological battery to measure the performance of item memory and source memory.Totally 35 PD individuals and 35 matched healthy controls (HC) were administrated with the battery.Item memory task consists of the learning and recognition of high-frequency national Chinese characters; source memory task consists of the learning and recognition of three modes (character,picture,and image) of objects.Results Compared with the controls,the idiopathic PD patients have been impaired source memory (PD vs.HC:0.65±0.06 vs.0.72±0.09,P=0.001),but not impaired in item memory (PD vs.HC:0.65±0.07 vs.0.67±0.08,P=0.240).Conclusions The present experiment provides evidence for dissociation between item and source memory in PD patients,thereby strengthening the claim that the item or source memory rely on different brain structures.PD patients show poor source memory,in which dopamine plays a critical role.

  12. Elu kui näitemäng / Helju Koger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koger, Helju, 1943-

    2007-01-01

    VI kihelkonnapäevadest Juurus. Juuru Mihkli kirikus esines ansambel Resonabilis. Konverentsil räägiti Järlepa mõisast, Anu Allikvee pidas ettekande "August von Kotzebue elu nagu näitemäng" jm. Näitemängu "Pärmi Jaagu unenägu" nägi kohalike asjaarmastajate esituses

  13. Estimating the Reliability of a Test Containing Multiple Item Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Audrey L.

    1995-01-01

    Classically parallel, tau-equivalently parallel, and congenerically parallel models representing various degrees of part-test parallelism and their appropriateness for tests composed of multiple item formats are discussed. An appropriate reliability estimate for a test with multiple item formats is presented and illustrated. (SLD)

  14. The Use of Item Analysis for Improvement of Biochemical Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Ryoichi

    2004-01-01

    Item analysis was used to find out which biochemical explanations need to be improved in biochemical teaching, not which items are to be discarded, improved, or reusable in biochemical examinations. The analysis revealed the basic facts of which less able students had more misunderstanding than able students. Identifying these basic facts helps…

  15. Bayesian Item Selection in Constrained Adaptive Testing Using Shadow Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2010-01-01

    Application of Bayesian item selection criteria in computerized adaptive testing might result in improvement of bias and MSE of the ability estimates. The question remains how to apply Bayesian item selection criteria in the context of constrained adaptive testing, where large numbers of specifications have to be taken into account in the item…

  16. Costs of Matrix Sampling of Test Items. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Ruth A.; Jaciw, Andrew P.

    Matrix sampling of test items, the division of a set of items into different versions of a test form, is used by several large-scale testing programs. This Digest discusses nine categories of costs associated with matrix sampling. These categories are: (1) development costs; (2) materials costs; (3) administration costs; (4) educational costs; (5)…

  17. 14 CFR Section 17 - Objective Classification-Extraordinary Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Objective Classification-Extraordinary Items Section 17 Section 17 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AIR CARRIERS Profit and Loss Classification Section 17 Objective Classification—Extraordinary Items...

  18. Automated addition of Chelex solution to tubes containing trace items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hansen, Thomas Møller; Hansen, Anders Johannes;

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA from trace items for forensic genetic DNA typing using a manual Chelex based extraction protocol requires addition of Chelex solution to sample tubes containing trace items. Automated of addition of Chelex solution may be hampered by high viscosity of the solution and fast...

  19. 17 CFR 229.1002 - (Item 1002) Subject company information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Mergers and Acquisitions (Regulation M-A) § 229.1002 (Item 1002) Subject company information. (a) Name and address. State the name of the subject... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1002) Subject...

  20. Effects of Aging and IQ on Item and Associative Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2011-01-01

    The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in 4 memory tasks: item recognition, associative recognition, cued recall, and free recall. For item and associative recognition, accuracy and the response time (RT) distributions for correct and error responses were explained by Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model at the level of individual…

  1. Multidimensional Linking for Tests with Mixed Item Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lihua; Boughton, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Numerous assessments contain a mixture of multiple choice (MC) and constructed response (CR) item types and many have been found to measure more than one trait. Thus, there is a need for multidimensional dichotomous and polytomous item response theory (IRT) modeling solutions, including multidimensional linking software. For example,…

  2. Optimal Bayesian Adaptive Design for Test-Item Calibration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der Wim J.; Ren, Hao

    2015-01-01

    An optimal adaptive design for test-item calibration based on Bayesian optimality criteria is presented. The design adapts the choice of field-test items to the examinees taking an operational adaptive test using both the information in the posterior distributions of their ability parameters and the

  3. Textiles and Design Library of Test Items. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jan, Ed.

    As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection is reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test…

  4. Refine test items for accurate measurement: six valuable tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siroky, Karen; Di Leonardi, Bette Case

    2015-01-01

    Nursing Professional Development (NPD) specialists frequently design test items to assess competence, to measure learning outcomes, and to create active learning experiences. This article presents six valuable tips for improving test items and using test results to strengthen validity of measurement. NPD specialists can readily apply these tips and examples to measure knowledge with greater accuracy.

  5. A lognormal model for response times on test items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    2006-01-01

    A lognormal model for the response times of a person on a set of test items is investigated. The model has a parameter structure analogous to the two-parameter logistic response models in item response theory, with a parameter for the speed of each person as well as parameters for the time intensity

  6. Studies on statistical models for polytomously scored test items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, Wies

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation, which is structured as a collection of self-contained papers, will be concerned mainly with di�erences between item response models. The purpose of item response theory (IRT) is estimation of a hypothesized latent variable, such as, for example, intelligence or ability in geograph

  7. 48 CFR 53.212 - Acquisition of commercial items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 53.212 Acquisition of commercial items. SF 1449 (Rev. 3/2005), Solicitation/Contract/Order for Commercial Items. SF 1449 is prescribed for use in... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition of...

  8. 17 CFR 229.407 - (Item 407) Corporate governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 407) Corporate....407 (Item 407) Corporate governance. (a) Director independence. Identify each director and, when the... independent accountant's communications with the audit committee concerning independence, and has...

  9. 17 CFR 229.406 - (Item 406) Code of ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 406) Code of ethics. 229... 406) Code of ethics. (a) Disclose whether the registrant has adopted a code of ethics that applies to... code of ethics, explain why it has not done so. (b) For purposes of this Item 406, the term code...

  10. Comparison of Methods for Varying Item Presentation during Noncontingent Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Rocio; Worsdell, April; Trahan, Maranda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the relative effectiveness of three item presentation methods during noncontingent reinforcement (NCR). Four individuals with developmental disabilities and problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement were recruited for the study. Single-item stimulus preference assessments were…

  11. Visual Items in Tests of Intelligence for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyver, Shirley R.; Markham, Roslyn; Hlavacek, Sonia

    1999-01-01

    A study compared the performance of 15 children (ages 5-12) with visual impairments and 15 controls on the Comprehension and Similarities items of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Results indicated the children with visual impairments were disadvantaged by comprehension-type items with high visual content. (CR)

  12. 17 CFR 229.1110 - (Item 1110) Originators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229.1110 (Item... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1110) Originators. 229.1110 Section 229.1110 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD...

  13. 17 CFR 229.1120 - (Item 1120) Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229.1120 (Item... rating monitored while the asset-backed securities are outstanding. ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1120) Ratings. 229.1120...

  14. 17 CFR 229.1104 - (Item 1104) Sponsors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229.1104 (Item... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false (Item 1104) Sponsors. 229.1104 Section 229.1104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD...

  15. 48 CFR 1852.246-73 - Human space flight item.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Human space flight item. 1852.246-73 Section 1852.246-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... 1852.246-73 Human space flight item. As prescribed in 1845.370(b), insert the following clause:...

  16. Model Penjadwalan Batch Multi Item dengan Dependent Processing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukoyo Sukoyo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a development of single machine batch scheduling for multi items with dependent processing time. The batch scheduling problem is to determine simultaneously number of batch (N, which item and its size allocated for each batch, and processing sequences of resulting batches. We use total actual flow time as the objective of schedule performance. The multi item batch scheduling problem could be formulated into a biner-integer nonlinear programming model because the number of batch should be in integer value, the allocation of items to resulting batch need binary values, and also there are some non-linearity on objective function and constraint due to the dependent processing time. By applying relaxation on the decision variable of number of batch (N as parameter, a heuristic procedure could be applied to find solution of the single machine batch scheduling problem for multi items.

  17. An autoregressive growth model for longitudinal item analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Minjeong; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia

    2016-09-01

    A first-order autoregressive growth model is proposed for longitudinal binary item analysis where responses to the same items are conditionally dependent across time given the latent traits. Specifically, the item response probability for a given item at a given time depends on the latent trait as well as the response to the same item at the previous time, or the lagged response. An initial conditions problem arises because there is no lagged response at the initial time period. We handle this problem by adapting solutions proposed for dynamic models in panel data econometrics. Asymptotic and finite sample power for the autoregressive parameters are investigated. The consequences of ignoring local dependence and the initial conditions problem are also examined for data simulated from a first-order autoregressive growth model. The proposed methods are applied to longitudinal data on Korean students' self-esteem.

  18. Modeling local item dependence with the hierarchical generalized linear model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hong; Wang, Shudong; Kamata, Akihito

    2005-01-01

    Local item dependence (LID) can emerge when the test items are nested within common stimuli or item groups. This study proposes a three-level hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM) to model LID when LID is due to such contextual effects. The proposed three-level HGLM was examined by analyzing simulated data sets and was compared with the Rasch-equivalent two-level HGLM that ignores such a nested structure of test items. The results demonstrated that the proposed model could capture LID and estimate its magnitude. Also, the two-level HGLM resulted in larger mean absolute differences between the true and the estimated item difficulties than those from the proposed three-level HGLM. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the proposed three-level HGLM estimated the ability distribution variance unaffected by the LID magnitude, while the two-level HGLM with no LID consideration increasingly underestimated the ability variance as the LID magnitude increased.

  19. Quantum entanglement in electron optics generation, characterization, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Naresh

    2013-01-01

    This monograph forms an interdisciplinary study in atomic, molecular, and quantum information (QI) science. Here a reader will find that applications of the tools developed in QI provide new physical insights into electron optics as well as properties of atoms & molecules which, in turn, are useful in studying QI both at fundamental and applied levels. In particular, this book investigates entanglement properties of flying electronic qubits generated in some of the well known processes capable of taking place in an atom or a molecule following the absorption of a photon. Here, one can generate Coulombic or fine-structure entanglement of electronic qubits. The properties of these entanglements differ not only from each other, but also from those when spin of an inner-shell photoelectron is entangled with the polarization of the subsequent fluorescence. Spins of an outer-shell electron and of a residual photoion can have free or bound entanglement in a laboratory.

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Complex Multiple-Choice Items in Science Technology and Society: Item Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Vázquez Alonso

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The scarce attention to assessment and evaluation in science education research has been especially harmful for Science-Technology-Society (STS education, due to the dialectic, tentative, value-laden, and controversial nature of most STS topics. To overcome the methodological pitfalls of the STS assessment instruments used in the past, an empirically developed instrument (VOSTS, Views on Science-Technology-Society have been suggested. Some methodological proposals, namely the multiple response models and the computing of a global attitudinal index, were suggested to improve the item implementation. The final step of these methodological proposals requires the categorization of STS statements. This paper describes the process of categorization through a scaling procedure ruled by a panel of experts, acting as judges, according to the body of knowledge from history, epistemology, and sociology of science. The statement categorization allows for the sound foundation of STS items, which is useful in educational assessment and science education research, and may also increase teachers’ self-confidence in the development of the STS curriculum for science classrooms.

  1. Exploring the Relevance of Items in the Communicative Participation Item Bank (CPIB) for Individuals With Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylor, Carolyn R.; Birch, Kristen; Yorkston, Kathryn M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The Communicative Participation Item Bank (CPIB) was developed to evaluate participation restrictions in communication situations for individuals with speech and language disorders. This study evaluated the potential relevance of CPIB items for individuals with hearing loss. Method Cognitive interviews were conducted with 17 adults with a range of treated and untreated hearing loss, who responded to 46 items. Interviews were continued until saturation was reached and prevalent trends emerged. A focus group was also conducted with 3 experienced audiologists to seek their views on the CPIB. Analysis of data included qualitative and quantitative approaches. Results The majority of the items were applicable to individuals with hearing loss; however, 12 items were identified as potentially not relevant. This was largely attributed to the items' focus on speech production rather than hearing. The results from the focus group were in agreement for a majority of items. Conclusions The next step in validating the CPIB for individuals with hearing loss is a psychometric analysis on a large sample. Possible outcomes could be that the CPIB is considered valid in its entirety or the creation of a new questionnaire or a hearing loss–specific short form with a subset of items is necessary. PMID:28114665

  2. The academic medical center linear disability score (ALDS) item bank: item response theory analysis in a mixed patient population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holman, Rebecca; Weisscher, Nadine; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.W.; Vermeulen, Martinus; de Haan, Rob J.; Lindeboom, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background: Currently, there is a lot of interest in the flexible framework offered by item banks for measuring patient relevant outcomes. However, there are few item banks, which have been developed to quantify functional status, as expressed by the ability to perform activities of daily life. This

  3. The use of predicted values for item parameters in item response theory models: An application in intelligence tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matteucci, M.; S. Mignani, Prof.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2012-01-01

    In testing, item response theory models are widely used in order to estimate item parameters and individual abilities. However, even unidimensional models require a considerable sample size so that all parameters can be estimated precisely. The introduction of empirical prior information about candi

  4. Evaluation of the Magnitude of Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items. Program Statistics Research Technical Report No. 94-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Rebecca; Thayer, Dorothy T.

    Several recent studies have investigated the application of statistical inference procedures to the analysis of differential item functioning (DIF) in test items that are scored on an ordinal scale. Mantel's extension of the Mantel-Haenszel test is a possible hypothesis-testing method for this purpose. The development of descriptive statistics for…

  5. Analysis of differential item functioning in the depression item bank from the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS: An item response theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSEPH P. EIMICKE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are to present findings related to differential item functioning (DIF in the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS depression item bank, and to discuss potential threats to the validity of results from studies of DIF. The 32 depression items studied were modified from several widely used instruments. DIF analyses of gender, age and education were performed using a sample of 735 individuals recruited by a survey polling firm. DIF hypotheses were generated by asking content experts to indicate whether or not they expected DIF to be present, and the direction of the DIF with respect to the studied comparison groups. Primary analyses were conducted using the graded item response model (for polytomous, ordered response category data with likelihood ratio tests of DIF, accompanied by magnitude measures. Sensitivity analyses were performed using other item response models and approaches to DIF detection. Despite some caveats, the items that are recommended for exclusion or for separate calibration were "I felt like crying" and "I had trouble enjoying things that I used to enjoy." The item, "I felt I had no energy," was also flagged as evidencing DIF, and recommended for additional review. On the one hand, false DIF detection (Type 1 error was controlled to the extent possible by ensuring model fit and purification. On the other hand, power for DIF detection might have been compromised by several factors, including sparse data and small sample sizes. Nonetheless, practical and not just statistical significance should be considered. In this case the overall magnitude and impact of DIF was small for the groups studied, although impact was relatively large for some individuals.

  6. Analysis of differential item functioning in the depression item bank from the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS): An item response theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresi, Jeanne A.; Ocepek-Welikson, Katja; Kleinman, Marjorie; Eimicke, Joseph P.; Crane, Paul K.; Jones, Richard N.; Lai, Jin-shei; Choi, Seung W.; Hays, Ron D.; Reeve, Bryce B.; Reise, Steven P.; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Cella, David

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to present findings related to differential item functioning (DIF) in the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) depression item bank, and to discuss potential threats to the validity of results from studies of DIF. The 32 depression items studied were modified from several widely used instruments. DIF analyses of gender, age and education were performed using a sample of 735 individuals recruited by a survey polling firm. DIF hypotheses were generated by asking content experts to indicate whether or not they expected DIF to be present, and the direction of the DIF with respect to the studied comparison groups. Primary analyses were conducted using the graded item response model (for polytomous, ordered response category data) with likelihood ratio tests of DIF, accompanied by magnitude measures. Sensitivity analyses were performed using other item response models and approaches to DIF detection. Despite some caveats, the items that are recommended for exclusion or for separate calibration were “I felt like crying” and “I had trouble enjoying things that I used to enjoy.” The item, “I felt I had no energy,” was also flagged as evidencing DIF, and recommended for additional review. On the one hand, false DIF detection (Type 1 error) was controlled to the extent possible by ensuring model fit and purification. On the other hand, power for DIF detection might have been compromised by several factors, including sparse data and small sample sizes. Nonetheless, practical and not just statistical significance should be considered. In this case the overall magnitude and impact of DIF was small for the groups studied, although impact was relatively large for some individuals. PMID:20336180

  7. Psychotherapy and Counseling in the Treatment of Drug Abuse [Technical Review] (Rockville, Maryland, May 18-19, 1989). National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series 104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onken, Lisa Simon; Blaine, Jack D.

    This monograph is based on the papers from a technical review. These papers are included: (1) Psychotherapy and Counseling Research in Drug Abuse Treatment: Questions, Problems, and Solutions (Lisa Onken, Jack Blaine); (2) Psychotherapy and Counseling for Methadone-Maintained Opiate Addicts: Results of Research Studies (George Woody, A. T.…

  8. A monograph of the fern Genus Microsorum (Polypodiaceae) including an attempt towards a reconstruction of the phylogenetic history of the microsoroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, M.T.M.

    1991-01-01

    This revision is a monographic treatment of the fern genus Microsorum (Polypodiaceae). To elucidate the problematic generic delimitation and systematic position of this genus an additional selection of 26 possibly related species was also studied. Most of these related species are traditionally plac

  9. The Impact of Socioeconomic Development and Ecological Change on Health and Nutrition in Latin America. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 9 (1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimano, Giorgio R.; Chapin, Georganne

    This monograph presents an examination of patterns which emerge from the interrelationship between development, environment, and health and nutrition in Latin America. First, the authors consider the components of this interrelationship, discussing the inseparability of health problems such as malnutrition, fecally-borne and parasitic diseases,…

  10. The Genetics Revolution: Programs and Issues for the Community College. A Monograph Highlighting the Winners of the Exxon Education Foundation Innovation Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Marilyn Elaine, Ed.

    Presented at a 1996 conference on the implications of the Human Genome Project for community and technical colleges, the 30 papers included in this monograph describe methods for incorporating genetics studies into the two-year college curriculum. Among the papers provided are: (1) "Facing the Unknown: The Ethical Challenges of…

  11. Development of monograph titled "augmented chemistry aldehida & keton" with 3 dimensional (3D) illustration as a supplement book on chemistry learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damayanti, Latifah Adelina; Ikhsan, Jaslin

    2017-05-01

    Integration of information technology in education more rapidly performed in a medium of learning. Three-dimensional (3D) molecular modeling was performed in Augmented Reality as a tangible manifestation of increasingly modern technology utilization. Based on augmented reality, three-dimensional virtual object is projected in real time and the exact environment. This paper reviewed the uses of chemical learning supplement book of aldehydes and ketones which are equipped with three-dimensional molecular modeling by which students can inspect molecules from various viewpoints. To plays the 3D illustration printed on the book, smartphones with the open-source software of the technology based integrated Augmented Reality can be used. The aims of this research were to develop the monograph of aldehydes and ketones with 3 dimensional (3D) illustrations, to determine the specification of the monograph, and to determine the quality of the monograph. The quality of the monograph is evaluated by experiencing chemistry teachers on the five aspects of contents/materials, presentations, language and images, graphs, and software engineering, resulted in the result that the book has a very good quality to be used as a chemistry learning supplement book.

  12. Transfer Students in Higher Education: Building Foundations for Policies, Programs, and Services that Foster Student Success. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series No. 54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisel, Mark Allen, Ed.; Joseph, Sonya, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Transfer Students in Higher Education" presents what individuals know about transfer students, addresses assumptions and myths about the transfer experience, and explores the changing demographics of this student group. Adopting a student-centered approach, the monograph offers strategies to begin (and continue) the work of serving students and…

  13. Bullying and School Attendance: A Case Study of Senior High School Students in Ghana. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Mairead; Bosumtwi-Sam, Cynthia; Sabates, Ricardo; Owusu, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This monograph analyses the effects of bullying on school attendance among senior high school students in Ghana. A strong correlation is found between being bullied and having poor attendance. The effects of emotional problems and of peer friendships on this correlation are then examined. For both boys and girls, having emotional problems is…

  14. Writing on Your Feet: Reflective Practices in City as Text™. A Tribute to the Career of Bernice Braid. National Collegiate Honors Council Monograph Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ada, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    City as Text™ (CAT) is one of the earliest structural forms of experiential learning created and practiced in the United States. This monograph explores the centrality of writing in the process of active learning, focusing primarily on the Faculty Institutes and Honors Semesters that foster CAT experiences. All manifestations of this pedagogical…

  15. What Do They Use? Where Do They Get It? An Interdisciplinary Citation Analysis of Latin American Studies Faculty Monographs, 2004-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostos, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    This citation analysis examines the ability of the local collection at the Pennsylvania State University to meet the needs of global and area studies researchers focusing on monographs published by faculty members on Latin American studies in a ten-year period. The study focuses on book use to address the tempting notion that packages and online…

  16. The Economic Value of Breastfeeding (With Results from Research Conducted in Ghana and the Ivory Coast). Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series Number 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Ted; And Others

    This monograph focuses attention on economic considerations related to infant feeding practices in developing countries. By enlarging on previous methodologies, this paper proposes to improve the accuracy of past estimates of the economic value of human milk, or more specifically, the practice of breastfeeding. The theoretical model employed…

  17. The Decline in Breastfeeding: An Analysis of the Role of the Nestle Corporation from Two Perspectives. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 11 (1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Carolyn E.

    An attempt is made to analyze the ascendancy of formula feeding of infants in terms of the conflicting ideologies of Marxism and capitalism. The decline of breastfeeding is traced, and is linked with the interrelated phenomena of free market economics and the domination of women by men in Western society. The monograph has two sections:…

  18. The Law of Procedure in Student Suspensions and Expulsions. NOLPE Monograph Series. ERIC/CEM State-of-the-Knowledge Series, Number Thirty-four.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phay, Robert E.

    This state-of-the-knowledge paper, a companion to the author's 1975 monograph on a similar topic, examines the legal ramifications of student suspension, expulsion, and search and seizure of students' property. The author reviews relevant court litigation and state laws pertaining to specific rules on student conduct, the procedures to follow in…

  19. School Administrators and the Courts: A Review of Recent Decisions. ERS Monograph. Series, No. 3. ERIC/CEM State-of-the-Knowledge Series, No. 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, H. C., Jr.

    This monograph is a review of selected judicial decisions reported by state and federal courts during the past two years and related directly to the administration of elementary or secondary schools. The decisions were identified through a standard search of legal resources at the Temple University Law Library; each decision was read in its…

  20. The Economic Value of Breastfeeding (With Results from Research Conducted in Ghana and the Ivory Coast). Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series Number 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Ted; And Others

    This monograph focuses attention on economic considerations related to infant feeding practices in developing countries. By enlarging on previous methodologies, this paper proposes to improve the accuracy of past estimates of the economic value of human milk, or more specifically, the practice of breastfeeding. The theoretical model employed…

  1. Adult Education in the Federal Republic of Germany: Scholarly Approaches and Professional Practice. Monographs on Comparative and Area Studies in Adult Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Wilhelm, Ed.

    This monograph offers insight into the development of the conceptual basis, scholarly inquiry, and professional practice of adult education in West Germany from the end of World War II to the German reunification. Introductory materials are an "Introduction" (Wilhelm Mader) and "Translator's Note and Acknowledgements" (Martin…

  2. Monograph of Arctium L. (Asteraceae). Generic delimitation (including Cousinia Cass, p.p.), revision of the species, pollen morphology, and hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duistermaat, Helena

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is a monograph of the genus Arctium, now including also five species formerly placed into Cousinia. Based on herbarium material and some field observations, this study presents new insights on three subjects: a) the generic delimitation of Arctium, b) the species

  3. Corrections and Juvenile Justice: Current Education Practice for Youth with Learning and Other Disabilities. Monograph Series on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Kenneth W.; Wolford, Bruce I.

    This monograph, one of a series on youth with disabilities and the juvenile justice system, focuses on the educational services provided to youth with behavioral and cognitive disabilities placed in the juvenile justice system. It reports on a review of correctional system monitoring reports, materials from enforcement actions taken against…

  4. Monograph of Arctium L. (Asteraceae). Generic delimitation (including Cousinia Cass, p.p.), revision of the species, pollen morphology, and hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duistermaat, Helena

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is a monograph of the genus Arctium, now including also five species formerly placed into Cousinia. Based on herbarium material and some field observations, this study presents new insights on three subjects: a) the generic delimitation of Arctium, b) the species delimitat

  5. Item response theory analysis of the life orientation test-revised: age and gender differential item functioning analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steca, Patrizia; Monzani, Dario; Greco, Andrea; Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina

    2015-06-01

    This study is aimed at testing the measurement properties of the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) for the assessment of dispositional optimism by employing item response theory (IRT) analyses. The LOT-R was administered to a large sample of 2,862 Italian adults. First, confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated the theoretical conceptualization of the construct measured by the LOT-R as a single bipolar dimension. Subsequently, IRT analyses for polytomous, ordered response category data were applied to investigate the items' properties. The equivalence of the items across gender and age was assessed by analyzing differential item functioning. Discrimination and severity parameters indicated that all items were able to distinguish people with different levels of optimism and adequately covered the spectrum of the latent trait. Additionally, the LOT-R appears to be gender invariant and, with minor exceptions, age invariant. Results provided evidence that the LOT-R is a reliable and valid measure of dispositional optimism.

  6. AVOID BECOMING A VICTIM OF COUNTERFEIT ITEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WARRINER RD

    2011-07-13

    In today's globalized economy, we cannot live without imported products. Most people do not realize how thin the safety net of regulation and inspection really is. Less than three percent of imported products receive any form of government inspection prior to sale. Avoid flea markets, street vendors and deep discount stores. The sellers of counterfeit wares know where to market their products. They look for individuals who are hungry for a brand name item but do not want to pay a brand name price for it. The internet provides anonymity to the sellers of counterfeit products. Unlike Europe, U.S. law does not hold internet-marketing organizations, responsible for the quality of the products sold on their websites. These organizations will remove an individual vendor when a sufficient number of complaints are lodged, but they will not take responsibility for the counterfeit products you may have purchased. EBay has a number of counterfeit product guides to help you avoid being a victim of the sellers of these products. Ten percent of all medications taken worldwide are counterfeit. If you do buy medications on-line, be sure that the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites (VIPPS) recommends the pharmacy you choose to use. Inspect all medication purchases and report any change in color, shape, imprinting or odor to your pharmacist. If you take generic medications these attributes may change from one manufacturer to another. Your pharmacist should inform you of any changes when you refill your prescription. If they do not, get clarification prior to taking the medication. Please note that the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate supplements. The FDA only steps in when a specific supplement proves to cause physical harm or contains a regulated ingredient. Due to counterfeiting, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) changed their label design three times since 1996. The new gold label should be attached to the cord

  7. Mediate gamma radiation effects on some packaged food items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; del Mastro, Nelida L.

    2012-08-01

    For most of prepackaged foods a 10 kGy radiation dose is considered the maximum dose needed; however, the commercially available and practically accepted packaging materials must be suitable for such application. This work describes the application of ionizing radiation on several packaged food items, using 5 dehydrated food items, 5 ready-to-eat meals and 5 ready-to-eat food items irradiated in a 60Co gamma source with a 3 kGy dose. The quality evaluation of the irradiated samples was performed 2 and 8 months after irradiation. Microbiological analysis (bacteria, fungus and yeast load) was performed. The sensory characteristics were established for appearance, aroma, texture and flavor attributes were also established. From these data, the acceptability of all irradiated items was obtained. All ready-to-eat food items assayed like manioc flour, some pâtés and blocks of raw brown sugar and most of ready-to-eat meals like sausages and chicken with legumes were considered acceptable for microbial and sensory characteristics. On the other hand, the dehydrated food items chosen for this study, such as dehydrated bacon potatoes or pea soups were not accepted by the sensory analysis. A careful dose choice and special irradiation conditions must be used in order to achieve sensory acceptability needed for the commercialization of specific irradiated food items.

  8. Item Banking Enables Stand-Alone Measurement of Driving Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Jyoti; Fenwick, Eva K; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Pesudovs, Konrad

    2016-12-01

    To explore whether large item sets, as used in item banking, enable important latent traits, such as driving, to form stand-alone measures. The 88-item activity limitation (AL) domain of the glaucoma module of the Eye-tem Bank was interviewer-administered to patients with glaucoma. Rasch analysis was used to calibrate all items in AL domain on the same interval-level scale and test its psychometric properties. Based on Rasch dimensionality metrics, the AL scale was separated into subscales. These subscales underwent separate Rasch analyses to test whether they could form stand-alone measures. Independence of these measures was tested with Bland and Altman (B&A) Limit of Agreement (LOA). The AL scale was completed by 293 patients (median age, 71 years). It demonstrated excellent precision (3.12). However, Rasch analysis dimensionality metrics indicated that the domain arguably had other dimensions which were driving, luminance, and reading. Once separated, the remaining AL items, driving and luminance subscales, were unidimensional and had excellent precision of 4.25, 2.94, and 2.22, respectively. The reading subscale showed poor precision (1.66), so it was not examined further. The luminance subscale demonstrated excellent agreement (mean bias, 0.2 logit; 95% LOA, -2.2 to 3.3 logit); however, the driving subscale demonstrated poor agreement (mean bias, 1.1 logit; 95% LOA, -4.8 to 7.0 logit) with the AL scale. These findings indicate that driving items in the AL domain of the glaucoma module were perceived and responded to differently from the other AL items, but the reading and luminance items were not. Therefore, item banking enables stand-alone measurement of driving ability in glaucoma.

  9. How did Danish students solve the PISA CBAS items?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Helene; Andersen, Annemarie Møller

    2009-01-01

    is not gender-neutral to the same extent as the paper-and-pencil test. Instead of that the items appear to be more difficult for girls than boys in all three countries which went through CBAS. Within the Danish context we have classified the different items and compared the results with patterns in girls......’ and boys’ answers. Twelve items were chosen for focus group interviews with two groups of students – three girls and three boys. The analysis shows that the students need other competencies than in the paper-and-pencil test and another problem solving strategy. In the Danish context this may be one...

  10. Reprocessing semicritical items: Current issues and new technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-05-02

    Semicritical medical devices are defined as items that come into contact with mucous membranes or nonintact skin (eg, gastrointestinal endoscopes, endocavitary probes). Such medical devices minimally require high-level disinfection. Because many of these items are temperature sensitive, low-temperature chemical methods are usually used rather than steam sterilization. Strict adherence to current guidelines is required because more outbreaks have been linked to inadequately cleaned or disinfected endoscopes and other semicritical items undergoing high-level disinfection than any other reusable medical device.

  11. Identifying predictors of physics item difficulty: A linear regression approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanes Mesic

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale assessments of student achievement in physics are often approached with an intention to discriminate students based on the attained level of their physics competencies. Therefore, for purposes of test design, it is important that items display an acceptable discriminatory behavior. To that end, it is recommended to avoid extraordinary difficult and very easy items. Knowing the factors that influence physics item difficulty makes it possible to model the item difficulty even before the first pilot study is conducted. Thus, by identifying predictors of physics item difficulty, we can improve the test-design process. Furthermore, we get additional qualitative feedback regarding the basic aspects of student cognitive achievement in physics that are directly responsible for the obtained, quantitative test results. In this study, we conducted a secondary analysis of data that came from two large-scale assessments of student physics achievement at the end of compulsory education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Foremost, we explored the concept of “physics competence” and performed a content analysis of 123 physics items that were included within the above-mentioned assessments. Thereafter, an item database was created. Items were described by variables which reflect some basic cognitive aspects of physics competence. For each of the assessments, Rasch item difficulties were calculated in separate analyses. In order to make the item difficulties from different assessments comparable, a virtual test equating procedure had to be implemented. Finally, a regression model of physics item difficulty was created. It has been shown that 61.2% of item difficulty variance can be explained by factors which reflect the automaticity, complexity, and modality of the knowledge structure that is relevant for generating the most probable correct solution, as well as by the divergence of required thinking and interference effects between intuitive and formal

  12. Quantum Partial Search of a Database with Several Target Items

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, B S; Choi, Byung-Soo; Korepin, Vladimir E

    2006-01-01

    We consider a database separated into blocks. Blocks containing target items are called target blocks. Blocks without target items are called non-target blocks. We consider a case, when each target block has the same number of target items. We present a fast quantum algorithm, which finds one of the target blocks. Our algorithm is based on Grover-Radhakrishnan algorithm of partial search. We minimize the number of queries to the oracle. We prove that for large size of the blocks the proposed algorithm shows universality and also shows how to use the algorithm for finite blocks.

  13. Identifying predictors of physics item difficulty: A linear regression approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesic, Vanes; Muratovic, Hasnija

    2011-06-01

    Large-scale assessments of student achievement in physics are often approached with an intention to discriminate students based on the attained level of their physics competencies. Therefore, for purposes of test design, it is important that items display an acceptable discriminatory behavior. To that end, it is recommended to avoid extraordinary difficult and very easy items. Knowing the factors that influence physics item difficulty makes it possible to model the item difficulty even before the first pilot study is conducted. Thus, by identifying predictors of physics item difficulty, we can improve the test-design process. Furthermore, we get additional qualitative feedback regarding the basic aspects of student cognitive achievement in physics that are directly responsible for the obtained, quantitative test results. In this study, we conducted a secondary analysis of data that came from two large-scale assessments of student physics achievement at the end of compulsory education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Foremost, we explored the concept of “physics competence” and performed a content analysis of 123 physics items that were included within the above-mentioned assessments. Thereafter, an item database was created. Items were described by variables which reflect some basic cognitive aspects of physics competence. For each of the assessments, Rasch item difficulties were calculated in separate analyses. In order to make the item difficulties from different assessments comparable, a virtual test equating procedure had to be implemented. Finally, a regression model of physics item difficulty was created. It has been shown that 61.2% of item difficulty variance can be explained by factors which reflect the automaticity, complexity, and modality of the knowledge structure that is relevant for generating the most probable correct solution, as well as by the divergence of required thinking and interference effects between intuitive and formal physics knowledge

  14. P2-19: The Effect of item Repetition on Item-Context Association Depends on the Prior Exposure of Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmi Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported conflicting findings on whether item repetition has beneficial or detrimental effects on source memory. To reconcile such contradictions, we investigated whether the degree of pre-exposure of items can be a potential modulating factor. The experimental procedures spanned two consecutive days. On Day 1, participants were exposed to a set of unfamiliar faces. On Day 2, the same faces presented on the previous day were used again in half of the participants, whereas novel faces were used for the other half. Day 2 procedures consisted of three successive phases: item repetition, source association, and source memory test. In the item repetition phase, half of the face stimuli were repeatedly presented while participants were making male/female judgments. During the source association phase, both the repeated and the unrepeated faces appeared in one of the four locations on the screen. Finally, participants were tested on the location in which a given face was presented during the previous phase and reported the confidence of their memory. Source memory accuracy was measured as the percentage of correct non-guess trials. As results, we found a significant interaction between prior exposure and repetition. Repetition impaired source memory when the items had been pre-exposed on Day 1, while it led to greater accuracy in novel ones. These results show that pre-experimental exposure can modulate the effects of repetition on associative binding between an item and its contextual information, suggesting that pre-existing representation and novelty signal interact to form new episodic memory.

  15. Application of multidimensional item response theory models to longitudinal data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marvelde, te Janneke M.; Glas, Cees A.W.; Van Landeghem, Georges; Van Damme, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The application of multidimensional item response theory (IRT) models to longitudinal educational surveys where students are repeatedly measured is discussed and exemplified. A marginal maximum likelihood (MML) method to estimate the parameters of a multidimensional generalized partial credit model

  16. Inconsistent Student Responses in TIMSS Questionnaire Items on Mathematics Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Yıldırım

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated consistency among Turkish students’ responses to TIMSS 2007 questionnaire items on frequency of certain activities in mathematics classrooms. In Turkey, 4476 students from 143 schools participated in the study. Analyses have revealed the existence of inconsistencies in student responses as indicated by high proportion of within-class variance components. That is, students in same class specified fluctuating frequencies to certain classroom activities, showing that some factors had an affect on perception of individuals. Further analyses showed that students at different levels of mathematics achievement reported differently on frequency of classroom activities, and precise items were answered more consistently compared to items containing vague terms. Using factor scores instead of individual item responses contributed consistency of responses within classes but only to a small extent. Based on the findings, this study also provided implications for questionnaire design.

  17. An Item Factor Analysis of the Mooney Problem Check List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David W.; Deiker, Thomas

    1976-01-01

    Explores the factor structure of the Mooney Problem Check List (MPCL) at the junior and senior high school level by undertaking a large obverse factor analysis of item responses in three adolescent criterion groups. (Author/DEP)

  18. MODERATING ABILITY OF ITEM RESPONSE THEORY THROUGH PRIOR GUESSING PARAMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siow Hoo Leong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A psycho-technology approach to discouraging guessing in multiple-choice formatted item can be done through reducing the a priori guessing probability of an item. This study proposes a psychometrics framework of Item Response Theory (IRT to model the effect of having various priori guessing probabilities across different items. A prior guessing parameter is proposed to serves as a moderator of the ability parameter in the two parameter logistic IRT. The results show that the proposed prior guessing parameter successfully moderates the ability parameters of the subjects with different degrees of guessing. However, the prior guessing parameter is insensitive when the performance pattern is mixed within the testlet but similar across testlet with different priori guessing probabilities.

  19. Etendatakse 10-aastase kirjamehe näitemäng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Tartu katoliku kooli 3. klassi poisi Mario Raitari näitemäng "Kristoph Silvester von Tenderi lugu", mis on esimene lugu sarjast "Mario Raitari kroonika". Näidendit etendab Linnupuu Lastepereteatri trupp

  20. Item response theory modeling with nonignorable missing data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pimentel, Jonald L.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis discusses methods to detect nonignorable missing data and methods to adjust for the bias caused by nonignorable missing data, both by introducing a model for the missing data indicator using item response theory (IRT) models.

  1. Etendatakse 10-aastase kirjamehe näitemäng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Tartu katoliku kooli 3. klassi poisi Mario Raitari näitemäng "Kristoph Silvester von Tenderi lugu", mis on esimene lugu sarjast "Mario Raitari kroonika". Näidendit etendab Linnupuu Lastepereteatri trupp

  2. Solving Verbal Analogies: Some Cognitive Components of Intelligence Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitely, Susan E.

    1976-01-01

    The results indicate that although relational concepts influence the cognitive aptitudes which are reflected in analogy item performance, success in solving analogies does not depend on individual differences in some major aspects of processing relationships. (Author/DEP)

  3. Separation index and fit items of creative thinking skills assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Ulfa Tenri Pada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the evaluation results of the separation index and fit item of creative thinking skills assessment that supports the conation aspect of prospective biology teachers in Aceh. This assessment consists of 37 items of divergent tasks, which is the application of human physiology courses that support the conation aspects. The participants were selected from the Biology Education Program, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Syiah Kuala University. The data were analyzed using the Quest software including the separation index and fit item. The results indicate that the creative thinking skills assessment instrument that supports the conation aspect of prospective biology teachers has a good separation index and all the items fit PCM-1PL.

  4. Basic Stand Alone Medicare DME Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Durable Medical Equipment (DME) Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare DME claims. The...

  5. Separation index and fit items of creative thinking skills assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Ulfa Tenri Pada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the evaluation results of the separation index and fit item of creative thinking skills assessment that supports the conation aspect of prospective biology teachers in Aceh. This assessment consists of 37 items of divergent tasks, which is the application of human physiology courses that support the conation aspects. The participants were selected from the Biology Education Program, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Syiah Kuala University. The data were analyzed using the Quest software including the separation index and fit item. The results indicate that the creative thinking skills assessment instrument that supports the conation aspect of prospective biology teachers has a good separation index and all the items fit PCM-1PL.

  6. Development of six PROMIS pediatrics proxy-report item banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Debra E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pediatric self-report should be considered the standard for measuring patient reported outcomes (PRO among children. However, circumstances exist when the child is too young, cognitively impaired, or too ill to complete a PRO instrument and a proxy-report is needed. This paper describes the development process including the proxy cognitive interviews and large-field-test survey methods and sample characteristics employed to produce item parameters for the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS pediatric proxy-report item banks. Methods The PROMIS pediatric self-report items were converted into proxy-report items before undergoing cognitive interviews. These items covered six domains (physical function, emotional distress, social peer relationships, fatigue, pain interference, and asthma impact. Caregivers (n = 25 of children ages of 5 and 17 years provided qualitative feedback on proxy-report items to assess any major issues with these items. From May 2008 to March 2009, the large-scale survey enrolled children ages 8-17 years to complete the self-report version and caregivers to complete the proxy-report version of the survey (n = 1548 dyads. Caregivers of children ages 5 to 7 years completed the proxy report survey (n = 432. In addition, caregivers completed other proxy instruments, PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales Parent Proxy-Report version, PedsQL™ Asthma Module Parent Proxy-Report version, and KIDSCREEN Parent-Proxy-52. Results Item content was well understood by proxies and did not require item revisions but some proxies clearly noted that determining an answer on behalf of their child was difficult for some items. Dyads and caregivers of children ages 5-17 years old were enrolled in the large-scale testing. The majority were female (85%, married (70%, Caucasian (64% and had at least a high school education (94%. Approximately 50% had children with a chronic health condition, primarily

  7. Screening assays for carcinogenic agents and mixtures: an appraisal based on data in the IARC Monograph series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, H; Malaveille, C

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens contribute similarly to the cancer burden in humans and which types of short-term test are more relevant for predicting human hazards, an analysis was performed on agents that were evaluated in IARC Monographs Supplements 6 and 7 for their carcinogenic effects in humans and animals and for activity in short-term genotoxicity tests. The prevalence of genotoxicity among four groups of agents, consisting of established human carcinogens (group 1, n = 30), probable human carcinogens (group 2A, n = 37), possible human carcinogens (group 2B, n = 113) and agents with limited evidence of carcinogenicity in animals (a subset of group 3, n = 66) was determined. Each of the groups 1, 2A and 2B contained a high proportion (80-90%) of genotoxic carcinogens, which were also multi-species or multi-tissue carcinogens. The distribution of carcinogenic potency in rodents did not reveal any specific characteristic of the human carcinogens in group 1 that would differentiate them from agents in groups 2A, 2B and many in group 3. Although limited by the data-base available through the Monographs series, this analysis implies that genotoxic carcinogens add more to the human cancer burden than non-genotoxic carcinogens. Thus, the continued use of in vitro/in vivo short-term tests, involving as endpoints DNA chromosomal or mutational damage, to identify genotoxic carcinogens or in the isolation of carcinogenic components in complex mixtures is fully justified. It is concluded that (a) an agent or complex mixture with unknown carcinogenic potential showing sufficient evidence of activity in genotoxicity assays in vitro or in vivo is likely to represent a hazard to humans and (b) an agent or complex mixture showing lack of activity in this spectrum of genotoxicity assays should undergo evaluation for carcinogenicity for rodent bioassay, in view of the present lack of validated short-term tests for non-genotoxic carcinogens.

  8. Comparative Racial Analysis of Enlisted Advancement Exams: Item Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1963. Henryssen, S. Gathering, analyzing, and using data on test items. In R. L. Thorndike (Ed.), Educational ...validation of test items. Journal of Educational Psychology , 1939, 30, 674-680. (See Appendix) Lawshe, C. H., Jr. A nomograph for estimating the...N. Planning the objective test. In R. L. Thorndike (Ed.), Educational measurement (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education , 1971

  9. Magnetometer Response of Commonly Found Munitions Items and Munitions Surrogates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    Predicted minimum magnetometer anomaly strength for a variety of munitions and surrogate items at a burial depth corresponding to 11x their respective...Response Live Site Demonstrations. The authors would like to thank Craig Murray of Parsons and Stephen Billings of Sky Research for their...variety of munitions and surrogate items at a burial depth corresponding to 11x their respective diameter. The sensor is assumed to be deployed as part

  10. Metadata Embeddings for User and Item Cold-start Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Kula, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    I present a hybrid matrix factorisation model representing users and items as linear combinations of their content features' latent factors. The model outperforms both collaborative and content-based models in cold-start or sparse interaction data scenarios (using both user and item metadata), and performs at least as well as a pure collaborative matrix factorisation model where interaction data is abundant. Additionally, feature embeddings produced by the model encode semantic information in...

  11. Differential Weighting of Items to Improve University Admission Test Validity

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Backhoff Escudero; Felipe Tirado Segura; Norma Larrazolo Reyna

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives an evaluation of different ways to increase university admission test criterion-related validity, by differentially weighting test items. We compared four methods of weighting multiple-choice items of the Basic Skills and Knowledge Examination (EXHCOBA): (1) punishing incorrect responses by a constant factor, (2) weighting incorrect responses, considering the levels of error, (3) weighting correct responses, considering the item’s difficulty, based on the Classic Measur...

  12. Electron spin interactions in chemistry and biology fundamentals, methods, reactions mechanisms, magnetic phenomena, structure investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the versatile and pivotal role of electron spin interactions in nature. It provides the background, methodologies and tools for basic areas related to spin interactions, such as spin chemistry and biology, electron transfer, light energy conversion, photochemistry, radical reactions, magneto-chemistry and magneto-biology. The book also includes an overview of designing advanced magnetic materials, optical and spintronic devices and photo catalysts. This monograph appeals to scientists and graduate students working in the areas related to spin interactions physics, biophysics, chemistry and chemical engineering.

  13. A Case Study on an Item Writing Process: Use of Test Specifications, Nature of Group Dynamics, and Individual Item Writers' Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Chi, Youngshin; Huensch, Amanda; Jun, Heesung; Li, Hongli; Roullion, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses a case study on an item writing process that reflects on our practical experience in an item development project. The purpose of the article is to share our lessons from the experience aiming to demystify item writing process. The study investigated three issues that naturally emerged during the project: how item writers use…

  14. MMPI-2 Item Endorsements in Dissociative Identity Disorder vs. Simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; Chasson, Gregory S; Palermo, Cori A; Donato, Frank M; Rhodes, Kyle P; Voorhees, Emily F

    2016-03-01

    Elevated scores on some MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory-2) validity scales are common among patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID), which raises questions about the validity of their responses. Such patients show elevated scores on atypical answers (F), F-psychopathology (Fp), atypical answers in the second half of the test (FB), schizophrenia (Sc), and depression (D) scales, with Fp showing the greatest utility in distinguishing them from coached and uncoached DID simulators. In the current study, we investigated the items on the MMPI-2 F, Fp, FB, Sc, and D scales that were most and least commonly endorsed by participants with DID in our 2014 study and compared these responses with those of coached and uncoached DID simulators. The comparisons revealed that patients with DID most frequently endorsed items related to dissociation, trauma, depression, fearfulness, conflict within family, and self-destructiveness. The coached group more successfully imitated item endorsements of the DID group than did the uncoached group. However, both simulating groups, especially the uncoached group, frequently endorsed items that were uncommonly endorsed by the DID group. The uncoached group endorsed items consistent with popular media portrayals of people with DID being violent, delusional, and unlawful. These results suggest that item endorsement patterns can provide useful information to clinicians making determinations about whether an individual is presenting with DID or feigning. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  15. Promoting cold-start items in recommender systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Yang, Zimo; Liu, Chuang; Li, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    As one of the major challenges, cold-start problem plagues nearly all recommender systems. In particular, new items will be overlooked, impeding the development of new products online. Given limited resources, how to utilize the knowledge of recommender systems and design efficient marketing strategy for new items is extremely important. In this paper, we convert this ticklish issue into a clear mathematical problem based on a bipartite network representation. Under the most widely used algorithm in real e-commerce recommender systems, the so-called item-based collaborative filtering, we show that to simply push new items to active users is not a good strategy. Interestingly, experiments on real recommender systems indicate that to connect new items with some less active users will statistically yield better performance, namely, these new items will have more chance to appear in other users' recommendation lists. Further analysis suggests that the disassortative nature of recommender systems contributes to such observation. In a word, getting in-depth understanding on recommender systems could pave the way for the owners to popularize their cold-start products with low costs.

  16. Optimal Bayesian Adaptive Design for Test-Item Calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Wim J; Ren, Hao

    2015-06-01

    An optimal adaptive design for test-item calibration based on Bayesian optimality criteria is presented. The design adapts the choice of field-test items to the examinees taking an operational adaptive test using both the information in the posterior distributions of their ability parameters and the current posterior distributions of the field-test parameters. Different criteria of optimality based on the two types of posterior distributions are possible. The design can be implemented using an MCMC scheme with alternating stages of sampling from the posterior distributions of the test takers' ability parameters and the parameters of the field-test items while reusing samples from earlier posterior distributions of the other parameters. Results from a simulation study demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed MCMC implementation for operational item calibration. A comparison of performances for different optimality criteria showed faster calibration of substantial numbers of items for the criterion of D-optimality relative to A-optimality, a special case of c-optimality, and random assignment of items to the test takers.

  17. Promoting Cold-Start Items in Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Yang, Zimo; Liu, Chuang; Li, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    As one of the major challenges, cold-start problem plagues nearly all recommender systems. In particular, new items will be overlooked, impeding the development of new products online. Given limited resources, how to utilize the knowledge of recommender systems and design efficient marketing strategy for new items is extremely important. In this paper, we convert this ticklish issue into a clear mathematical problem based on a bipartite network representation. Under the most widely used algorithm in real e-commerce recommender systems, the so-called item-based collaborative filtering, we show that to simply push new items to active users is not a good strategy. Interestingly, experiments on real recommender systems indicate that to connect new items with some less active users will statistically yield better performance, namely, these new items will have more chance to appear in other users' recommendation lists. Further analysis suggests that the disassortative nature of recommender systems contributes to such observation. In a word, getting in-depth understanding on recommender systems could pave the way for the owners to popularize their cold-start products with low costs. PMID:25479013

  18. Item Pool Design for an Operational Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Reckase, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    For computerized adaptive tests (CATs) to work well, they must have an item pool with sufficient numbers of good quality items. Many researchers have pointed out that, in developing item pools for CATs, not only is the item pool size important but also the distribution of item parameters and practical considerations such as content distribution…

  19. Unidimensional IRT Item Parameter Estimates across Equivalent Test Forms with Confounding Specifications within Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlock, Ki Lynn; Turner, Ronna

    2016-01-01

    When constructing multiple test forms, the number of items and the total test difficulty are often equivalent. Not all test developers match the number of items and/or average item difficulty within subcontent areas. In this simulation study, six test forms were constructed having an equal number of items and average item difficulty overall.…

  20. Using a Linear Regression Method to Detect Outliers in IRT Common Item Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Cui, Zhongmin; Fang, Yu; Chen, Hanwei

    2013-01-01

    Common test items play an important role in equating alternate test forms under the common item nonequivalent groups design. When the item response theory (IRT) method is applied in equating, inconsistent item parameter estimates among common items can lead to large bias in equated scores. It is prudent to evaluate inconsistency in parameter…